Training Of Trainers and Organisers
CONTENT INTRO ABOUT YEU ABOUT THE PROJECT CONCEPT OF THE TEAM IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NFE ACTIVITY TIPS FOR ORGANISERS AND TRAINERS ON HOW TO SUCCESSFULLY WORK TOGETHER ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF TRAINERS AND ORGANIZERS SUPPORTING MATERIALS AND TOOLS I.
ART OF QUESTIONING
DEVELOPING TRAINING PROGRAMME
PLANNING, MONITORING AND EVALUATION
INTRO Dear reader, Welcome to our ToTO publication! You are about to embark on the short journey with us, participants and the team who implemented the training course ToTO â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Empowering Trainers and Organisers from 06th to 14th of December 2019 in Brussels, Belgium. In this journey, we will share with you our learning adventure on the way to become trainers and organisers, tips and tricks on good cooperation we compiled after some interesting experiences we had while trying to form a team, useful theories, models and tools that helped us to understand and build our capacities to do our best to make a training a quality and meaningful experience for young people. We believe that only the synergy of educational and organisational skills of both trainers and organisers (working in a TEAM with common values and understanding) can achieve and bring real improvements and innovation. TEAM: co-working, team working, sharing responsibilities and tasks, cooperation and collaboration in youth projects, sharing and understanding each other role, building up meaningful synergies, addressing challenges/issues/overlaps, understanding participantsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; needs and addressing them (both on the educational level and on the organisational level), etc. We aim at empowering young trainers and young organisers in order to team up and to work together towards quality and successful events that could respond to the needs of young people in the best possible way.
ABOUT YEU Youth for Exchange and Understanding (YEU) is an international Non-Governmental Youth Organisation established in 1986. It is a member of the EuropeanYouth Forum (YFJ) in Brussels and considered as a European level non-governmental youth organisation by the European Union and the Council of Europe. The aims of YEU are: To realize youth activities to foster closer cooperation and better understanding among the young people of the world, both between and within continents, particularly by encouraging the exchange of information, ideas and opinions; To promote cooperation and mutual aid in the developed and the developing countries for cultural, educational and social purposes; To work towards resolving conflicts and promotion of peaceful societies through recognition and respect for others; To improve the relationships and promote tolerance among young people of different cultural or political realities; To work together on issues related to the protection of the environment and sustainability; To support and promote the health and well-being of young people in order to improve quality of life; To encourage the active involvement of all young people in society without distinction because of race, social status, educational levels or any other disadvantage. YEU’s mission is to promote peace and to increase tolerance and awareness between different countries, cultures and traditions, and to promote a greater level of comprehension. The mission of the organisation is achieved through the development of youth exchanges, seminars, conventions, meetings, study visits and training courses based on the principles of non-formal education, experiential learning and self-directed learning. In addition to that, YEU constantly analyses the needs of young people all over Europe and aims to address them through the projects which organizes. YEU also pays a lot of attention in creating youth policies, participating in important youth events on European level and producing educational manuals. At the moment the network includes 36 different youth organisations from 28 European and neighbouring countries.
ABOUTH YEU PET (YEU People for Education and Training) YEU aims to deliver and organize always quality education programs. YEU has a long tradition of educating trainers and organizers (since 1986). In 2011, we have developed and established YEU PET - People for Education and Training. YEU PET is a platform of TRAINERS and ORGANISERS who have worked or who have shown interest in working for YEU International educational activities â&#x20AC;&#x201C; training courses, youth exchanges, seminars, conventions and similar events. The main role of the PET is to empower, motivate and coach YEU members and Member Organisations. PET contributes to the capacity building of the network and by that increases the visibility of YEU International as quality educational activities providing organisation. Furthermore, the platform provides a space for exchange of experience, educates and develops the competences of its members.
ABOUT THE PROJECT
ABOUT THE PROJECT The main objective of youth work defined by Peter Lauritzen (2006), Head of the Youth Unit of the Council of Europe’s Directorate of Youth and Sport, is providing opportunities for young people to shape their own futures. Many countries worldwide are now reforming their education system as it doesn’t correspond to the needs and the issues of a constantly changing global society. Sir Ken Robinson, an education expert, defines the education system that is mainstreamed nowadays as modelled on the interests of industrialisation and the image of it. It is clear that the key problem is that industrialisation era ended, but global education principles did not follow the change and remained without any amendments for few hundred years. It is mostly youth workers, youth trainers and organisers of youth events and non-formal education programs and activities who constantly stretch and try to respond to the new challenges and needs of the young people they work with and to offer them opportunities for personal, socio-educational and professional development. Their role is essential for enhancing the opportunities in the development of young people’s identities and personalities. Therefore, having competent youth workers, youth trainers and youth organisers is essential, above all in such a “fast changing reality” as the one we’re living in today. YEU International and its member organisations, feels the need to provide youth workers, trainers and organisers with the tools and competencies to deal with this challenging reality and to increase the quality and the impact of non- formal education activities. We believe that only the synergy of educational and organisational skills of both trainers and organisers (working in a TEAM with common values and understanding) can achieve and bring real improvements and innovation. In order to sustain the change and provide innovative solutions to new challenges arising in youth work, YEU has implemented a training course called T.o.T.O. - ToTO – Empowering Trainers and Organisers. This has been a project for the development of skills and tools for trainers, educators and organisers, since we believe that better trainers/organisers in the youth field means better training of youth workers and volunteers, better skills development, better youth work and better education. As well as increased impacts at all levels.
The main goal of the project has been to develop capacities of partners and of their trainers and organisers, in order to equip them with innovative and useful tools and competencies to work in youth events and programs at the local and European levels.
Specific objectives: o To explore and develop training and organising competencies for new trainers/organisers and to improve skills for already experienced ones; o To review, improve and strengthen knowledge and competencies in working as trainers and organisers in non-formal educational settings and in the youth field in general; o To foster understanding and facilitating of individual and group learning processes; o To develop the concept of â&#x20AC;&#x153;Teamâ&#x20AC;? in youth events/projects (responsibilities, co-working, quality standards, etc.); o To prepare and propose intercultural collaboration-based projects/youth events; o To increase the quality of events and programs in the youth field. The project is supported by European Union, Belgian National Agency through Erasmus+ project, Key Action 1 and it happened in 2019 in Brussels, Belgium.
CONCEPT OF THE TEAM IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NFE ACTIVITY
CONCEPT OF THE TEAM IN THE DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NFE ACTIVITY Behind every successful project/activity in NFE there is a team of organizers and trainers who are working together towards the same goal. Since all of us are equal in our rights as human beings but different in our own way, working in a team can be very challenging. Of course, working in a team can sometimes be complicated and seems too hard, but when it comes to successful planning and implementation of NFE activity the ‘team spirit’ plays a huge role and has its benefits. Two heads are better than one, don’t you think so? But how do we work successfully in a team? You are in all likelihood not carrying out the project all on your own – you have a team in place around you that can help you carry out the intended activities and look after the participants both at home and abroad. Whether you know each other or not, or have worked together before, we will still refer to all those involved in organising and carrying out the activities as “the team”. The team is a key factor in the set-up, as they will be facilitating learning processes of participants either by being directly involved or by providing the necessary framework conditions, and therefore their knowledge, skills and competences have a direct influence on their outcomes, and hence the quality of your project.1 What is most important is the COMMUNICATION between everyone in the team. Communication on a daily basis, about each step of the project. Clear and compatible DIVISION OF ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES. Everyone knows what is expected from them, but also knows and follows what the others are doing. Although sometimes the trainers and the organizers are working on completely different things, both need to be informed about the work of the others. SUPPORT is also among the core values of a team. Always remember that you are not competing who is better. You all have the same goal, and if you want to reach it and to have a successful project, you have to work together, you need to support each other. If someone makes a mistake, help them overcome it. When someone is improving, it means that the whole team is doing better and better. Help each other, support and give feedback. Team work makes the dream work.
TIPS FOR ORGANISERS AND TRAINERS ON HOW TO SUCCESSFULLY WORK TOGETHER
TIPS FOR ORGANISERS AND TRAINERS ON HOW TO SUCCESSFULLY WORK TOGETHER Firstly, it is very important to choose the right people to work with; the ones whose interests and expertise are aligned with the goals of the project. It is then vital to maintain this ‘good enough’ team to work together towards the successful development and implementation of the organisation’s projects. Some of our tips on how to do so are listed further down. Engage in open communication and avoid miscommunication by: ○ Making the goals of the project clear, ensuring that everyone understands them and can receive the necessary guidance ○ Clearly defining the human resource needs ○ Having clear roles and division of tasks and responsibilities and ensuring everyone knows their specific roles and responsibilities ○ Identifying the project’s aims and objectives - the vision - but also be adaptable ○ Being consistent in your working style; if you change something communicate it with your colleagues ○ Having regular meetings, where all parties attend prepared, organised and ask the right questions ○ Having team building sessions and/or days, outings, weekends, where possible ○ Being transparent and accountable
○ Engaging in active listening between all involved parties ○ Being open minded and showing empathy ○ Creating a safe space where everyone can share in a working environment of trust and deliver to their maximum capacities ○ Having a platform (online or other), where everyone can express and share their concerns, thoughts, etc. ○ Regularly engaging in group reflection sessions and exchanging constructive and supportive feedback • Use the right incentives (different in each case/team) to keep the team motivated: o It is advisable, especially for the leader/manager of the team - if there is one, to be aware of the group development stages their team is going through till it reaches maximum effectiveness (Forming - Storming - Norming - Performing), and take the relevant/ necessary steps and actions to help it progress towards the performance stage, as soon as possible/necessary. o Make sure everyone is included in the process (creating, adapting and evaluating it). o Be flexible (within limits) during the implementation of the activity (adapt your plans/sessions/etc. based on participants needs and/or unexpected circumstances). o Be supportive to each other when needed. o Take responsibility and complete your tasks on time; especially those tasks on which other team members’ work and the successful implementation of an activity depends on. o Furthermore, to move towards an even more efficient and effective collaboration, it would be useful to equip team members with the basic skills in problem solving, as well as, conflict management.
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF TRAINERS AND ORGANIZERS
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF TRAINERS AND ORGANIZERS During the different stages of the project both trainers and organizers have roles and responsibilities. The success of the project depends on how good they fulfil them. Some of them are mutual (or overlapping), but some of them are not. Even if all aspects of planning and organisation are covered, it may still all come to nothing if the responsibilities for ensuring that everything happens (and at the right time) are not clearly indicated, and that those in charge have the proper competences and resources to carry out their tasks. It may seem a fairly simple thing to do but lapses often happen because everybody thinks someone else is doing the job. It is therefore necessary to approach the various aspects of this issue in a systematic manner, and to ensure that not only the person in charge, but also all others involved know who is doing what, and when.2 Here are some recommendations gathered by participants and the team of our training course, based on their experience and knowledge:
I. Preparation phase (before the activity will be implemented) First of all, during the preparation phase the team needs to get to know each other (trainers and organizers, who are involved in the project). This usually happens through various online platforms (Skype, Zoom, etc.).
2 BaÄ?lija Knoch S., Dupouey V., Lafraya S., EU-CoEÂ Youth Partnership, (April 2019) Handbook On Quality In Learning Mobility (pg.70) https://pjp-eu.coe.int/documents/42128013/47261953/Handbook+LM/3a5c103c-0367-4eba-1aca-ee544826f557
Roles and responsibilities of organizers:
○ Choosing the venue (if possible visit the venue, check the facilities and equipment – make yourself familiar with the equipment provided by the venue); ○ Regularly communicating with the trainers regarding program plans, the facilities and the venue possibilities; ○ Preparing the infopack/handbook, preparing the application form for the participants, making a public call for the participants; ○ Identifying the needs of the participants (about the facilities and the diet); ○ Scheduling the time plans regarding the work for the project (meetings, deadlines for different tasks); ○ Arranging/mobilizing resources (agreed with the trainers); ○ Conducting risk assessment for an educational event based on the selected participants, their needs and planned activities and approaches; ○ Making sure the costs for the materials are within the budget (in order not to have financial issues in the future); ○ Roles and responsibilities of trainers: ○ Identifying the learning needs and background of the participants (from the application forms); ○ Preparing the agenda, working out the related content and methods, materials and exercise and preparing session outlines in accordance with the aims and objectives of the project; ○ Meeting and informing the organizers about the planned activities and approaches particularly regarding needed working space, educational materials, accessibility for people with special needs, etc.
○ Preparing and selecting the learning materials, publications and other resources; ○ Sending all requests for printing and purchasing materials on time; ○ Mutual responsibilities: ○ Be present and active during the meetings between trainers and organizers; ○ Listen to each other, support and contribute to the common needs; ○ Be supportive to each other and be focused on the aims and objectives of the activity; ○ Maintain a clear structure (hierarchical or collaborative) within the team of organizers and trainers. Clarify roles & responsibilities (to avoid overlaps and gaps);
II. Implementation phase 2. Roles and responsibilities of organizers: ○ Managing time and space throughout the whole event; ○ Solving potential problems related to food, lodging (after the feedbacks from the participants and the trainers regarding accommodation, logistics, food, and training room(s); ○ Organising breaks and supporting free time organisation (giving suggestions for participants what to do in their free time); ○ Organising reservations, arrivals & departures, travel reimbursement (collecting receipts/proof documents);
2. Roles and responsibilities of trainers: ○ Planning the flow of the day and make changes if needed; ○ Delivering planned content to participants based on the event’s aims and objectives and the participants’ learning needs; ○ Supporting the participants and reinforce them about their competences by focusing participants’ attention on their potentials; ○ Observing the flow of the content and process - keeping schedule of the training program (to cover the topics, goals of the training and respect the timetable);
○ Encourage the participants and being sure that their motivation is on high level (because non-formal education is based on participants’ contribution as well); ○ Monitor and evaluate the process through defined mechanism - taking daily feedbacks/reflections, mid-term evaluation, final evaluation from the participants about their experience and learning. Share findings with other trainers and organizers on daily meetings (to be sure that we are all still on the same track); ○ Keep key notes on a daily basis (which also helps with the reporting later); 1. Mutual responsibilities:
○ Communicating about the process during daily meetings together and updating each other (because communication is the basic principal of co-working); ○ ”Keep the show going” (despite all of the undesirable and unplanned experiences the team needs to follow through with the project); ○ Making daily reports and adaption to the new conditions (because flexibility and adaption is really important in NFE); ○ Taking into account the general safety of all (because nobody wants anyone to be harmed); ○ Being inclusive and respectful to all (to avoid offending and loosing anyone);
III. Evaluation phase. 3. Roles and responsibilities of organizers: ○ Reflecting (the organisers reflect between themselves, share materials, feedbacks and allocate next tasks (who does what for the reporting, logistics etc.); ○ Manage logistics (to ensure that the venue and accommodation is left in the same condition as found); ○ Summarizing budget (to make proper documentation, to ensure that all financial obligations are met: e.g. payment of venue, restaurants, services, trainers etc.); ○ Providing the certificates (if applicable): prepare and send the certificates to the participants; ○ Reporting (organising the relevant information for the narrative report, which includes financial, educational, dissemination and evaluation parts with the input of the trainers, along with all the necessary annexes); ○ Sending report to donor/sending organisation and be in correspondence with them; ○ Sharing the results and lessons learned with the trainers; ○ Providing feedback to reimbursement procedure for the participants; ○ Communicating (contact service providers, stakeholders and beneficiaries for their contribution to the project, contact the trainers to make sure that the communication channels are still open. In addition, the organizer prepares an evaluation survey and contacts the participants to ensure a long-term evaluation);
3. Roles and responsibilities of trainers: ○ Reflecting and lessons learned sharing (the trainers reflect between themselves: seniors give the feedback to the juniors, share materials, feedbacks of participants, and allocate next tasks (who does what for the reporting etc.); ○ Organising the relevant information for the educational part of the report; ○ Providing all necessary documents to the organisers (invoices, travelling documents etc.); ○ Providing a list of used training materials and other sources organizers who will send them to participants;
2. Mutual responsibilities:
○ Reflecting between the team, share lessons learned and feedbacks; ○ Discuss and assign responsibilities and deadline for the reporting; ○ Sharing learning materials and information with the participants after the event; ○ Preparing final learning outcomes/ outputs (if applicable): e.g. manual, publication, policy paper, dissemination material; ○ Dissemination of training materials that were used during the event through social media accounts and other appropriate channels;
SUPPORTING MATERIALS AND TOOLS
SUPPORTING MATERIALS AND TOOLS CO-WORKING Co-Working ModelsÂŠ Created and Developed by Nik Paddison 2009/20113 The Model below is written in the context of a pair of co-workers in the context of conducting training, and we in ToTO presented 7 out of 11 styles that can be applied to co-working between trainers and organisers in an activity: Working in Parallel
This is where the co-workers are aiming in the same direction doing all the right things but there is a lack of open and honest communication between them. They have a surface level working relationship. The level and quality of their training is based on head knowledge but there is little or no emotional connection in this relationship. It can also be a sign of poor preparation, neither is completely sure of where the other is going because the training programme has not been developed enough between them or talked through in enough detail.
3 The Art of Co-Working https://pjp-eu.coe.int/documents/42128013/47261491/Art.pdf/5d19b325-f500-4a85-9520-8c95d40d4840
Working in Conflict
Here there is a conflict between the co-workers; there is a relationship breakdown and therefore a communication breakdown. Neither has confidence or trust in the other. Each trainer is focussing on the work of the other; what mistakes are they making? What are they doing wrong? ‘I could do that better...’ It is difficult to hide any conflict between co-workers from a group however subtle the conflict. It directly affects the quality of the training and if not quickly resolved will influence the nature and ability of the group to develop and learn.
Working at Cross Purposes
Working at cross purposes means “to misunderstand or to act counter to one another without intending it” (Webster’s Dictionary). There is a lack of communication between co-workers. The trainers have witnessed a situation or incident and each tries to resolve it in their own way but without understanding what the other is trying to do. Both trainers know where they want to go but assume the other will just follow or is thinking in the same way.
Working with a Wanderer
In this scenario the trainer is alone and unsupported by their co-worker. One of the trainers is delivering a theory or instructions for an exercise and their co-worker has disappeared. Sometimes this means the co-workers concentration is somewhere else, staring out of the window or thinking about dinner. Sometimes this means the co-worker physically removes themselves and is off somewhere, for example; preparing materials for another exercise but still within the training space. In either case the majority of group becomes attracted to the distraction created by the co-worker rather than what the primary trainer is doing at that moment.
In this situation the two co-workers are being extremely nice to each other, they are overly polite towards one another. In everything they do they are being careful not to hurt the other co-workers feelings or get in their way. They are extra careful that both of them have an equal share of time and visibility in the group. This could be for any number of reasons, perhaps they donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t know each other very well, or they have previously been through a conflict and are being careful around each other. It could be that they actually donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t like each other and are doing their best to ensure the group does not notice, maybe they fear conflict so they want to avoid any possibility of tension, or it could simply be that they respect each other a lot and so are more focussed on giving respect to each other than dealing with the subject of the training and the group.
Working with a Detailer
This is where one trainer criticises all the work of the other trainer. The feeling is that everything is going in the right direction, that the team is working well, that the quality of the work is good… and then the detailer criticises everything you have prepared as not being good enough and needs redoing. You do each session outline at least twice because it is not good enough for this colleague. During the training experience team meetings last for hours because everything you did in the day is analysed and criticised. In reality this is not about the quality of the work it is about a perceived power struggle, it is the one trainer having no trust that what you do is ok because it is not the way that person would do it.
Working together is a constructive and positive working relationship that will include small conflict and it will include a little co-worker competition – but on healthy levels and even – sometimes – the rescuer. This relationship is about working together with strong communication, verbal and non-verbal, and a willingness to understand the other. It is about respect for the work of the other, a desire to see the other develop, an openness to ask for help and offer support, analysing the session together, problem solving together, willingness to give and receive open and honest feedback, developing the programme and activities in close cooperation and so on...
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT STYLES According to the Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument 4(TKI), used by human resource (HR) professionals around the world, there are five major styles of conflict managementâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;collaborating, competing, avoiding, accommodating, and compromising.
4 Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI) https://kilmanndiagnostics.com/overview-thomas-kilmann-conflict-mode-instrument-tki/
ABOUT LEARNING LEARNING STYLES 1. The Seven Learning Styles : ○ Visual (spatial):You prefer using pictures, images, and spatial understanding. ○ Aural (auditory-musical): You prefer using sound and music. ○ Verbal (linguistic): You prefer using words, both in speech and writing. ○ Physical (kinesthetic): You prefer using your body, hands and sense of touch. ○ Logical (mathematical): You prefer using logic, reasoning and systems. ○ Social (interpersonal): You prefer to learn in groups or with other people. ○ Solitary (intrapersonal): You prefer to work alone and use self-study.
2. The way we learn5
3. Kolb’s Experiential Learning Cycle6 Kolb’s experiential learning style theory is typically represented by a four-stage learning cycle in which the learner ‘touches all the bases’: 5 Klocker, Sabine, Council of Europe (October 2009), Manual for facilitators in non-formal education (pg. 26) https://rm.coe.int/16807023d1 6
Kolb’s Learning Styles and Experiential Learning Cycle https://www.simplypsychology.org/learning-kolb.html
Effective learning is seen when a person progresses through a cycle of four stages: of (1) having a concrete experience followed by (2) observation of and reflection on that experience which leads to (3) the formation of abstract concepts (analysis) and generalizations (conclusions) which are then (4) used to test hypothesis in future situations, resulting in new experiences. ○ Concrete Experience - a new experience or situation is encountered, or a reinterpretation of existing experience. ○ Reflective Observation of the New Experience - of particular importance are any inconsistencies between experience and understanding. ○ Abstract Conceptualization reflection gives rise to a new idea, or a modification of an existing abstract concept (the person has learned from their experience). ○ Active Experimentation - the learner applies their idea(s) to the world around them to see what happens.
4. Learning Outcomes7 “If you don’t know where you’re going, don’t be surprised to find yourself somewhere you never intended.” Are you familiar with this saying, or some version of it? Those involved in training for long time will probably groan at the sight of it, not just because it is a cliché, but because it is so often proved to be true. Carefully defining the starting points and end goals that participants will progress through is of crucial importance, and these following sections emphasise a range of factors which need to be considered during a preparation phase (and any subsequent reworkings of the program during its implementation). The first step is defining the learning outcomes of the training, and then conceptualising them as objectives.
7 Buldioski G., Grimaldi C., Mitter S., Titley G., Wagner G. Council of Europe (October, 2002), T-Kit on Training Essentials (pg. 45) https://pjp-eu.coe.int/documents/42128013/47261287/tkit6.pdf/459e262b-11f9-4af8-834f-c10c4cf4d30a
ART OF QUESTIONING
ART OF QUESTIONING Closed vs. open questions Closed questions •
Did you like the session? Did you learn something?
Open questions •
How was this session for you? What did you learn?
Summarizing vs. paraphrasing •
What did you do yesterday in the session for co-working? Can you please explain me the process?
Reflection on feelings •
What are your overall impressions for this training?
Back tracking •
What are you going to do after this training? Will you apply somehow what you have learnt here?
As a facilitator we need the 100% factor ○ 100% focus on the questions we are asking (logic) ○ 100% focus on formulating the next question (logic) ○ 100% focus on the answers we are receiving (logic and emotion) ○ 100% focus on the atmosphere and mood in the group (emotion) ○ 100% focus on the non-verbal communication from the group as a group (mimics and emotion) ○ 100% focus on the non-verbal communication of each individual (mimics and emotion) ○ 100% focus on your own non-verbal communication (mimic) ○ 100% focus on your co-worker (mimic) ○ And at the same time trying to listen to or ignore the voices in your head (conscience good and bad)
TRAINING PROGRAMME DESIGN
TRAINING PROGRAMME DESIGN “Programme” is what you plan to do with the participants during the activity. It involves issues that require reflection, research and concrete planning, and key questions are: What types of activities are most conducive to achieving the learning objectives? What is actually feasible to do? And does your partner abroad have the resources in terms of facilities and competences of staff to implement these?8
8 Bačlija Knoch S., Dupouey V., Lafraya S., EU-CoE Youth Partnership, (April 2019) Handbook On Quality In Learning Mobility (pg.65) https://pjp-eu.coe.int/documents/42128013/47261953/Handbook+LM/3a5c103c-0367-4eba-1aca-ee544826f557
Learning Zones9 In the comfort zone, no specific challenges are encountered. It may be a new experience, and new knowledge may be received, but personal values, convictions and perceptions remain relatively untouched. Learning is comfortable. A participant enters the stretching zone when she will reflect about othersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and her own perceptions, attitudes or behaviour. In the stretching zone, questions are raised and changes of perception, attitude or behaviour are possible. In this stage, participants can become uncertain and vulnerable. If the stretching goes too far, then participants might get into the crisis zone. It is possible that particularly sensitive points have been touched, convictions and perceptions have been weakened and a high tolerance of ambiguity is called for. In the crisis zone, participants are very vulnerable. But we also learn from anxiety, and crisis can be a valuable learning experience when its energy is channelled constructively. However, from crisis to the panic zone is only a small slip. When people panic they block, fall back on comforting certainties, and learning becomes impossible. At this stage, participants might undergo emotional processes that cannot be contained and dealt with in a training course. This model suggests that our program will be most effective if participants reach the stretching zone, and possibly even the crisis zone, at certain moments during the training. But we need to keep in mind that while experiential learning should stretch and challenge participants, crises should remain an exception and participants should not be made panic. Teams need to be able to support participants during moments of personal challenge, donâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t open something you canâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t close!
9 Buldioski G., Grimaldi C., Mitter S., Titley G., Wagner G. Council of Europe (October, 2002), T-Kit on Training Essentials (pg. 68) https://pjp-eu.coe.int/documents/42128013/47261287/tkit6.pdf/459e262b-11f9-4af8-834f-c10c4cf4d30a
TRAINING ALGORITHM10 SELECTING THE RIGHT METHOD (METHOD FISHBONE MODEL)11 The bubbles the fish breathes represent the methods, these have been generated by passing through the entire body. By looking along the ribs, we can check the factors which have influenced this.
10 Buldioski G., Grimaldi C., Mitter S., Titley G., Wagner G. Council of Europe (October, 2002), T-Kit on Training Essentials (pg. 65) https://pjp-eu.coe.int/documents/42128013/47261287/tkit6.pdf/459e262b-11f9-4af8-834f-c10c4cf4d30a 11 Buldioski G., Grimaldi C., Mitter S., Titley G., Wagner G. Council of Europe (October, 2002), T-Kit on Training Essentials (pg. 53) https://pjp-eu.coe.int/documents/42128013/47261287/tkit6.pdf/459e262b-11f9-4af8-834f-c10c4cf4d30a
TRAINING PROGRAMME FLOW12 12 Buldioski G., Grimaldi C., Mitter S., Titley G., Wagner G. Council of Europe (October, 2002), T-Kit on Training Essentials (pg. 70) https://pjp-eu.coe.int/documents/42128013/47261287/tkit6.pdf/459e262b-11f9-4af8-834f-c10c4cf4d30a
PLANNING, MONITORING AND EVALUATION
PLANNING, MONITORING AND EVALUATION (Taken from Planning, Evaluating and Reviewing Youth Work Engagement) NAOMIE 13– the good practice framework for planning, monitoring and evaluation The NAOMIE loop training model is just one of a number that may be used when undertaking any form of planned activity. The is a type of training model should be regarded as an aid to programming and not be regarded as a constraint to planning an activity. This method of programme planning may be used for various types of activities and participation such as pool matches, inter- club events, residential training or outdoor pursuits. NAOMIE is a good practice model for planning, monitoring and evaluating youth work. It incorporates every stage a project needs to go through and breaks down the planning phase into smaller chunks: This planning guide (NAOMIE) will help you become more effective as a youth worker. It will help you question activities before you begin. It will make planning easier and more logical. It makes you think about being more time effective and help improve on past performances. What follows is a representation of NAOMIE as a systematic planning cycle. The model shows how one stage follows from the other with Needs taken as a starting point. In reality, whilst you will have all elements of such a cycle represented in the way that you work, they may not follow this idealised pattern. Some parts of the cycle may be given more attention than others, and evaluation (including monitoring and review) may be left out altogether. From the very last point you will see that new needs can be identified so the planning process begins again. 1. What is the NEED? There is a need to improve the involvement of young people in this group. 2. What do I AIM to do about this? Establish an effective way of engaging young people consistently to ensure they are involved in all developments. 13 CWVYS (the Council for Wales of Voluntary Youth Services), Planning, Evaluating and Reviewing Youth Work Engagement https://www.cwvys.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/HB-Planning-Evaluation.pdf
3. What specific OBJECTIVES can I set? 4. What is the best METHOD to achieve the desired results? 5. How do I IMPLEMENT the plan? 6. How do I EVALUATE the plan? Have I met my objectives? Ask the members to review the activities after they have taken part. What went well? What difficulties occurred? What should we do in the future? List linking activities and check the frequency and type of activity. Discuss with members their perception, knowledge, and understanding of the plan. List the success of the involvement of young people.
GOOD PLANNING CHECKLIST o o o o o o o
Have we Identified and prioritised the important activities and milestones? Have we assessed risk and thought about alternatives and contingency plans if circumstances change? Have we defined, clarified and assigned roles and responsibilities? Does everyone involved know what their task or responsibility involves, and can carry it out? Does everyone have a workload that is manageable and fair, as well as being challenging? Have we agreed a budget and costed all activities and will we achieve results within the budget? Have we also planned how we are going to monitor and evaluate?
1. What is the NEED of members? of the group? of the leaders? Why? 2. What do I AIM to do about this? What do I want to do? Why? Where do I want to go? Why? 3. What specific OBJECTIVES can be set? What will others be able to do as a result? How will effectiveness be measured? What exactly will be the end result? When must the plan be completed? What will be the criteria for success? 4. What is the best METHOD to achieve the desired results? What activity should I use? How shall I group the members or Leaders: groups, pairs, individually? What resources do I need? What is my time plan? 5. How do I IMPLEMENT the plan? Do it! 6. How do I EVALUATE the plan? Did I meet my objectives? What went well? What difficulties occurred? What could be learned for the future? What new needs exist?
RESOURCES Resources are one of the key elements of organising a successful activity. They can be of different types, as human resources, financial, material, space, time, knowledge, tools… Knowing that, as an organiser and a trainer, you should work closely together to plan necessary resources in time , considering participants’ needs, organisational capacities, environment you are working in and other relevant conditions, while respecting each other’s responsibilities and duties, as well as strengths of the team members. Do you have enough money to do what needs to be done? Are all requirements concerning physical space, accommodation and transportation met? Does your team have the necessary competences to support the learning process of participants and ensure their well-being?14 In organising activities you should take close at the resources you need, resources you already have and the ways on how to provide the ones you don’t. The Handbook On Quality In Learning Mobility can help you plan your resources and logistics by answering the key questions and assess your situation. Here are the concrete steps on how to make a resource plan: Step 1: List the resource required You should start by listing the resources required to complete the project. • Human. Identify all the roles involved in performing the project, including their profiles (what are they bringing to the project) • Equipment. Identify all of the equipment involved in performing the project. For instance, this may include office equipment (e.g. PCs, photocopiers, and mobile phones), equipment (flipchart stand, cables, speakers…) and materials (papers, markers, post-its…) • Materials. Identify all of the non-consumable materials to complete project activities such as materials required to implement workshops 14 Bačlija Knoch S., Dupouey V., Lafraya S., EU-CoE Youth Partnership, (April 2019) Handbook On Quality In Learning Mobility (pg.101) https://pjp-eu.coe.int/documents/42128013/47261953/Handbook+LM/3a5c103c-0367-4eba-1aca-ee544826f557
Hardware/software. Identify if applicable More…
Step 2: Estimate the number of resources required The next step is to estimate the number of each resource • Labor, estimate how many hours you need per role • Equipment, estimate how many pieces of equipment needed • Materials, estimate how much material, in terms such as number of units, etc. Step 3: Construct a resource plan You have now gathered all the information required to build a detailed Resource Plan. Create a resource plan which specifies the: • List of all the resources required to complete the project • Quantity of each resource required • Where and how to find resources identified • Who is responsible to acquire each resource • Checklist if the resource is provided or not