Variety is the Spice of Life Youth for Exchange and Understanding 2019
2. Youth for Exchange and Understanding (YEU)
6. NFE based Activities for Youth workers, trainers and educators 29 7. Toolkit
1. Foreword This publication is the outcome of the project ‘Variety is spice of life’ which was implemented by Youth for Exchange and Understanding and funded by Erasmus Plus through BIJ - Le Bureau International Jeunesse, French Speaking National Agency of Belgium. This publication is for youth workers, young people and youth organisations The publication was written and produced by: participants and the trainers’ team of the Variety is the spice of Life training course held in November 2019 in Brussels, Belgium and short term mobility held in December 2019-January 2020. Edited by: Panagiotis Chatzimichail
Youth for Exchange and Understanding (YEU)
2. Youth for Exchange and Understanding (YEU) YEU is an International Non-Governmental Youth Organization, founded in 1986 by a group of young people from 11 different countries. Today YEU represents 36 youth organisations from 27 countries, therefore representing hundreds of young people across the continent of Europe and parts of Africa, providing them opportunities to be involved in youth exchanges, meetings, conferences, and training courses in different countries. YEU is a member of the European Youth Forum. YEU has an administrative office in Brussel and is run by a Board made up of young people who are working on a voluntary basis. The mission of YEU is to inspire young people and to encourage them to think outside of the box. Through YEU young people can have opportunities to cooperate, and to increase tolerance and awareness between different countries, cultures and traditions. The work of YEU promotes a greater level of comprehension among young people through the development of youth activities, such as youth exchanges, seminars, conventions, meetings, study visits, training courses, and the development of educational manuals. The main aim of YEU is to promote peace, understanding and cooperation between the young people of the world, in a spirit of respect for human rights.
3. Introduction The vision behind “Variety is the spice of life” is an open-minded and tolerant society providing equal opportunities to all no matter of the background or personal characteristics. This project was directly inspired by the results and the outputs of a previous YEU year long process, focused on the development of innovative NFE tools and methodologies to address the topic of intercultural dialogue from a gender perspective. Through this process, 6 new and innovative tools and approaches have been developed and tested by young people that took part. Through the process called “Variety is the spice of life”, we wanted to further promote the importance of building an open-minded society which can learn how to live together in all its differences. The process built capacities of youth workers on how to input the gender perspective into intercultural and intergenerational dialogue as a transversal issue in their everyday work and activities, especially when working with migrant communities. As stated in White paper on intercultural dialogue of Council of Europe1: “Freedom to choose one’s own culture is fundamental; it is a central aspect of human rights. Intercultural dialogue is therefore important in managing multiple cultural affiliations in a multicultural environment. It is a mechanism to constantly achieve a new identity balance, responding to new openings and experiences and adding new layers to identity without relinquishing one’s roots. Intercultural dialogue helps us to avoid the pitfalls of identity policies and to remain open to the challenges of modern societies.” Freedom to choose our own gender practices is equally important in order to develop ourselves and our personality, which is not suppressed by the surrounding environment and justified with nature or tradition.
Council of Europe Ministers of Foreign Affairs, https://www.coe.int/t/dg4/intercultural/ source/white%20paper_final_revised_en.pdf 1
The process focused on the following topics: – Testing new approaches, methodologies and activities in intercultural / intergenerational dialogue and gender diversity practices: if we want to contribute to process of better understanding and importance of personal freedoms we need to understand cultural and gender norms in different societies around Europe – Promoting intercultural, intergenerational and gender perspective in youth work as a crosscutting / transversal issue: YEU believes youth work should be inclusive and open for all, no matter of background or walks of life. Intercultural dialogue and understanding of gender diversity should be “standards” of youth work – Supporting acceptance and increasing visibility of others: if one can’t understand the position of those different to oneself, it is difficult to promote tolerance and coexistence in local communities as small micro-cosmoses of human relations. The project directly engaged 22 youth workers active in youth organisations and/or local multicultural/migrant communities across Europe together with 420 young people of different backgrounds from those local communities. As part of the process, Variety had an impact on schools, parents, local media, authorities and other young people from local communities participating.
The Publication YEU International has been actively engaged in gender mainstreaming initiatives the past few years, by providing both resources and learning opportunities, steadily building expertise on the topic. Some of the outcomes include policy recommendations, publications, identifying good practices and further developing and adjusting non-formal education activities to better fit the needs of both young people and youth organisations. Looking back, spoil alert, it does take a lot of effort and investment. The necessity to address gender, LGBTQI+ rights and other interconnected issues appeared when members and participants started highlighting more and more these issues in each of our activities. Understanding the intersectionality of these topics led to an internal process to find a way to use the informal settings better and foster a structured process which can have more impact. That could empower our organisation and help to better provide tools which can be impactful to both our network and if possible beyond. The first step was to meaningfully engage our members and educators, along several stages and through different channels, helping us to better define the direction of our work. Day by day it becomes more clear how each and one of us can impact our society, and it is our responsibility to educate both ourselves and young people. This publication, as one of our many actions to address that responsibility, focuses on mainstreaming intercultural/intergenerational dialogue and gender perspective to support the process of social cohesion. The main sources for developing the publication is the TC Variety which took place in 2019. Building on our organisational development, this publication wishes to incorporate that experience while including all project objectives reached, namely:
• examining how culture and gender norms and attitudes affect the development of personal identities in different societies, provision of equal opportunities and obtaining personal freedoms • testing new tools and methodologies aimed at deconstructing current practices regarding cultural norms and gender boxes by tackling them through “cycle of life” events (birth, adulthood, death); • collecting practices to better prepare youth workers, young people and youth organisations to mainstream intercultural/ intergenerational dialogue and gender perspective in their work in order and support the process of social cohesion; • developing competences and encouraging youth organisations to use creative and innovative approaches for the promotion of pluralism and active democratic participation of youth while acknowledging different cultural backgrounds and gender diversity on the local and international level. Overall, this publication aims to be a resource which can encourage youth workers, educators, trainers, young people and youth organisations to question current practices and promote new ones, by (re)thinking and (de)constructing cultural and gender norms in local communities. The participants worked in groups of up to 8 people. None of the participants or team would describe themselves as experts in the overall theme of gender or in the sub-topics. Discussions were based on the exchanging of personal knowledge between the participants about the respective life period they were exploring, from the inputs in the sessions run by the core team and any research they were able to conduct on the spot.
1. Agender: a person who don’t feel any gender identity, although some define this more as having a gender identity that is neutral. 2. Androgynous: having both male and female characteristics appearance that it becomes a challenge for one to decipher what sex that person is. 3. Asexual: the lack of sexual attraction to others, or low or absent interest in or desire for sexual. 4. Binary gender: means that you do not identify as male or female. You fall in the LGBT community if you are binary. While using pronouns in reference to them, you call them, “Them”, or as “that person”. NOT “That” or “It”. Regardless of their gender, they may still be attracted to the opposite gender. 5. Cisgender: (often abbreviated to simply cis) is a term for people whose experiences of their own gender agree with the sex they were assigned at birth. Cisgender may also be defined as those who have “a gender identity or perform a gender role society considers appropriate for one’s sex.” 6. Cross-sectoral cooperation: Building cooperation and partnerships which relate to or affect more than one group, area, or section.
7. Freedom of speech: the right to express oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ideas and opinions freely through speech, writing, and other forms of communication but without deliberately causing harm to othersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; character and/or reputation by false or misleading statements. 8. Gender awareness: understanding that there are socially determined differences between women & men based on learned behaviour, which affect their ability to access and control resources. 9. Gender based Violence: is the general term used to capture violence that occurs as a result of the normative role expectations associated with each gender, along with the unequal power relationships between the two genders, within the context of a specific society. 10. Gender equity: requires equal enjoyment of socially valued goods, opportunities, resources and rewards. Gender equity does not mean that women, men and third gender become the same, but that their opportunities and life chances are equal. 11. Gender fluid: It is a gender identity which refers to a gender that varies over time. A gender fluid person may at any time identify as male, female, neutral, or any other non-binary identity, or some combination of identities. Their gender can also vary at random or vary in response to different circumstances. 12. Gender gap: the differences between women and men, especially as reflected in social, political, intellectual, cultural, or economic attainments or attitudes.
13. Genderqueer: most commonly used to describe a person who feels that his/her gender identity does not fit into the socially constructed norms associated with his/her biological sex. Genderqueer is an identity that falls anywhere between man/boy/male and woman/girl/female on the spectrum of gender identities. 14. Gender mainstreaming: gender mainstreaming is a strategy towards realizing gender equality. It involves the integration of a gender perspective into the preparation, design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of policies, regulatory measures and spending programs, with a view to promoting equality between women and men, and combating discrimination 15. Gender sensitivity: the act of being aware of the ways people think about gender, so that individuals rely less on assumptions about traditional and outdated views on the roles of men and women. 16. Gender: refers to the socially constructed characteristics of women and men – such as norms, roles and relationships of and between groups of women and men. It varies from society to society and can be changed. When individuals or groups do not “fit” established gender norms they often face stigma, discriminatory practices or social exclusion. 17. Hate speech: it’s speech that attacks a person or group on the basis of attributes such as gender, ethnic origin, religion, race, disability, or sexual orientation.
18. Homophobia: the irrational fear and intolerance of people who are homosexual or of homosexual feelings within one’s self. This assumes that heterosexuality is superior. 19. Homosexuality: sexual, emotional, and/or romantic attraction to the same sex. 20. Intersectionality: the interconnected nature of social categorizations such as race, class, and gender as they apply to a given individual or group, regarded as creating overlapping and interdependent systems of discrimination or disadvantage. LGBTQI+*: – Lesbian: woman attracted to a woman – Gay: men attracted to men – Bisexual: a person who is attracted to two sexes or two genders, but not necessarily simultaneously or equally – Transgender: those whose gender identity differs from the social expectations for the physical sex they were born with. Transgender is not a sexual orientation; transgender people may have any sexual orientation. It is important to acknowledge that while some people may fit under this definition of transgender, they may not identify as such – Queer: a person who redefines or plays with gender, or who refuses gender altogether. A label for people who bend/break the rules of gender and blur the boundaries – Intersex: intersexuality is a set of medical conditions that feature congenital anomaly of the Reproductive and sexual system. Intersex people are born with “sex chromosomes,” external genitalia, or internal reproductive systems that are not considered “standard” for either male or female.
* The symbol + covers new identities which will identify as part of the LGBTQI community. 21. Non-binary gender: refers to any gender that is not exclusively male or female. A similar term is genderqueer. It is usually considered to be under the transgender umbrella, and some non-binary people will also identify as trans. 22. Pansexual: one who can love sexuality in many forms. Like bisexuality, but even more fluid, a pansexual person can love not only the traditional male and female genders, but also trans, androgynous, and gender fluid people. 23. Sexuality: capacity for sexual feelings, the way people experience and express themselves as sexual beings. 24. Sexual identity: it is how one thinks of oneself in terms of to whom one is romantically or sexually attracted. 25. Sexual orientation: it is an enduring pattern of romantic or sexual attraction (or a combination of these) to persons of the opposite sex or gender, the same sex or gender, or to both sexes or more than one gender. These attractions are generally subsumed under heterosexuality, homosexuality, and bisexuality, while asexuality is sometimes identified as the fourth category. 26. Social inclusion: social inclusion is a process by which efforts are made to ensure equal opportunities for all. The multi-dimensional process aimed at creating conditions which enable full and active participation of every member of the society in all aspects of life, including civic, social, economic, and
political activities, as well as participation in decision making processes. Disadvantaged youth: Disadvantaged young people are people with fewer opportunities compared to their peers because they might be facing one or more of these problems: Social obstacles, economic obstacles, disability, educational difficulties, cultural differences, health problems, geographical obstacles. In certain contexts, these situations or obstacles prevent young people from having effective access to formal and non-formal education, transnational mobility and participation, active citizenship, empowerment and inclusion in society at large. 27. Trans: people who experience a gender identity that is inconsistent with, or not culturally associated with, their assigned sex, and desire to permanently transition to the gender with which they identify, usually seeking medical assistance to help them align their body with their identified sex or gender. Other terms that relate to the transâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; community are Transgender and Transvestite. 28. Transition: a complicated, multi-step process that can take years as trans align their anatomy with their sex identity; this process may ultimately include sex reassignment surgery.
5. Recommendations Good practices for young people and youth organisations towards main streaming intercultural/intergenerational dialogue and gender perspective. In order to initiate or further develop organisational and personal development, a) Identify where do you currently stand and what change is needed. Without ignoring the local realities, it is always important to link your needs, practices and work to the change you wish to achieve on the matter. A first step, organisations should know where you are, by checking as a first step: • The existing diversity in decision making positions, on the basis of equal access and equal treatment; • The perspectives, perceptions and treatment, regarding equality and respect of equality within organisation. That means staff, structures, membership, partnerships, activities (numbers of registrations, background of pax etc.); • The organisation’s usage of language, on the basis of combating stereotypes or reaching out to mixed groups. b) Acknowledge that you are not the only person or organisation that wishes to achieve change. Youth NGOs could achieve that both within and beyond the organisation. If you lack the power to selfasses, then find people or organisations specialised on the topic and ask for guidance and help. As we empower others, we should be open to others helping us as well. c) Invest in development of knowledge and competencies that can help you achieve change and impact. Review existing policies and practices, while engaging in partnerships which can help you redefine the scope of work which better integrates intercultural/ intergenerational dialogue and gender perspective. That can help 25
both organisations and audiences engaged, to become more inclusive, recognising the diversity of people, characteristics and needs. d) Systematically monitor your practices and/or the results of your activities. Evidence-based research can help you determine your success and to define better what future training or actions are needed. Monitoring and collecting data, while evaluating these results, can ensure that the measures you take are properly implemented in line with your initial aims and objectives. e) Support experts or more relevant organisations in reaching out to more people, therefore investing in fields that you lack competencies. That can help you develop a more inclusive environment, while indirectly developing your organisation and structures. f ) Sharing your experiences and common challenges can help find better solutions. That can be done internally through teams, sub programmes and projects or externally by empowering synergies under specific issues/topics. g) Acknowledge that as each topic needs different methods and approaches, so do audiences and groups. For example advancing expertise on women empowerment, requires investment and engagement of both men and women. However, it is vital that you develop your actions targeting and engaging each group separately and when appropriate combined. h) Invest more in cross sectoral cooperation, while becoming more aware of the concept of intersectionality. That can help you incorporate your priorities better, while building partnerships which address different levels of discrimination based on several personal characteristics. i) Overall, youth organisations have the power to create or develop attitudes of people from early stages. Thus, it is important that you: â&#x20AC;˘ Promote the incorporation of the gender dimension in relevant chapters of your policies and structures, as appropriate; â&#x20AC;˘ Integrate a gender approach in the long-term strategy, including separate groups like women and girls, lgbtqi+ etc. separately or mixed within your different future activities;
â&#x20AC;˘ Promote and raise awareness, while taking into account the gender perspective in different activities and events; â&#x20AC;˘ Mainstream a gender perspective in your relevant activities, with a particular focus on capacity building activities; â&#x20AC;˘ Adjust your educational approach and develop gender mainstreaming actions, building on specific needs, challenges and opportunities in different sectors you are engaged in (i.e. education, mobility etc.
NFE based Activities for Youth workers, trainers and educators
6. NFE based Activities for Youth workers, trainers and educators As part of the project â&#x20AC;&#x153;Variety is a spice of lifeâ&#x20AC;?, participants dedicated to experimenting with a series of activities based on tackling cultural and gender norms also in relation to the life cycle. Participants in pairs conducted these activities with the other participants to explore how effective and or appropriate they were in tackling gender issues. The group of participants examined the aims of the activity, was the target group appropriate, did the activity flow, did it meet the required impact potential, etc. Main objective of the process also aimed to familiarise the participants with these activities and games so they could use them in their own organisations and with the young people they work with. While some of the activities held less relevance for many of the group, most of the activities were received with enthusiasm and most of the group stated that they could and would use the activities. Cultural adaptation was a big part of this subject area, several of the participants are coming from countries with far less tolerance to gender related to subjects. All the participants realised and recognised the need for these activities and subjects to be explored but were aware of the potential dangers to themselves, their young people and or their organisations if they were not sensitive to the situations of their respective countries. The results of the process resulted in the activities presented in the table below. These activities can be used by other educators, while being easily adapted to their needs and audiences. A detailed version of each activity is included in the next chapter, together with other helpful activities.
Life stage covered
Time in min
A) Gender Lottery
Birth Stage Activity
This activity is based on the game â&#x20AC;&#x153;Take a step forwardâ&#x20AC;? and focuses on the exploration of the roles that are given from the birth in relation to gender, religion, types of the family and place of living, revealing the gender inequality in societies.
B) Story Making
Birth Stage Activity
Participants are asked to fill the blank spaces in a text describing the daily life of a child, whose gender is not specified. This activity focuses on the exploration of gender stereotypes according to the norms and roles established in the society.
C) I See Through Your Eyes
Adulthood Stage Activity
Participants are given a gender-based identity and based on the reaction of other participants they have to understand whether they are accepted or not. This way they have a chance to develop empathy towards other and realise the personal beliefs about different genders and how they are connected with societyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s common perception.
D) Offline Theatre
Adulthood Stage Activity
Participants are working on Forum Theatre (Theatre of the Oppressed, Augusto Boal) exploring situations of gender-based discrimination and what influence it has on young peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s personalities.
E) Aging Today
Third Age Activity
This activity is designed as a game to explore the different ways society behaves towards old people and their gender. Participants are put in the shoes of third age generations in order to experience their real-life situations and the challenges they are facing.
F) When I Was Old
Third Age Activity
Through a series of short theatrical plays and discussions, participants explore the lives of elderly people and the difficulties they face, while tackling gender differences and stereotypes at this stage of life.
1) Activities addressing cultural and gender norms in relation to the life cycle A) Gender Lottery (Birth Stage Activity) This activity is based on the game â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Take a step forwardâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; and focuses on the exploration of the roles that are given from birth in relation to gender, religion, types of the family and place of living, revealing the gender inequality in societies. (based on the game Take a Step Forward, pp.281, Compass: manual for Human Rights Education with young people)
Level of activity: Medium
Aim: To explore the roles that are given from the birth (in relation to gender, religion, type of the family, place, etc.) To explore an individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s life opportunities and challenges through life according to their identity To promote empathy and acceptance towards social diversity To raise awareness about the inequality and inequity in societies
To encourage an understanding of possible personal consequences of belonging to certain social minorities or cultural groups To get in the shoes of other people and to think over the possibilities they have, coming from a different religion\gender\family\country
Target Group: Young people aged 14+
Group Size: 10 to 30 people
Time Needed for Activity: 1 hour to 1 hour 30 minutes
Step by Step Description: 1. Step 1 • Prepare a line across the floor of the room at one end of the room • Mark between 10 and 15 steps from the line 2. Step 2 (5min) • • • • •
Each participant chooses one card from each of 4 decks of cards Religion Gender Family Background Country / Nationality
3. Step 3 (5-10 min) • The facilitator gives the participants 5-10 min to read their cards and imagine who this person is. • The facilitator can guide participants with following questions: • What is your childhood like? Where do You live?
• What is your everyday life like? What do you do in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening? • What kind of games do you play? What do you do in your free time? • What sort of work your parents do? What excites you and what are you afraid of? 4. Step 4 (2 min) • Place the participants on the line standing in a row 5. Step 5 (15min) • The facilitator reads out a series of statements • The participants move a step forward if they believe their character can agree with the statement and can react affirmatively to the statement. • The participants remain in place if they believe their character cannot agree with the statement and cannot react affirmatively to the statement. 6. Step 6 (5 min) The group remains in their final positions for a short discussion: • How does it feel to be in this position? • How do you feel about where the others are? 7. Step 7 (10 min) The facilitator asks participants to stand into a circle and starts discussion about the characters’ participants have represented: • • • •
Who are you? What was difficult about being this character? How did it feel to step forward when others were not? Did you notice others during the game?
8. Step 8 (3 min) • De-role • Ensure that every member of the group steps out of their character and affirms themselves as the individual they really are
9. Step 9 (20 min) • Plenary discussion • Does the exercise mirror society in some way? How? • What first steps could be taken to address the inequalities in society? • How much is identity influenced by society and culture and how much does society and culture influence identity? • How do you feel after the activity? • How did you feel when stepping forward (or not)? Why? • When did you realize that you are moving forward faster than the others? • How did you feel about staying behind from the others? • Did anyone at some point feel disappointed about your character’s gender? Why? • Which factors affected your decisions? Why? • How easy or difficult was it to play the different roles? • How did you imagine what the person you were playing was like? • Does the exercise mirror society in some way? How? • What first steps could be taken to address the gender inequalities in society
Tips: • There are 21 questions in this example, questions can be added and changed, it is most important that the questions reflect the aims of the workshop or training course • Religion should not be linked to the traditions and customs of the certain country, but to the personal beliefs and feelings of participants. • The activity could be a stand-alone activity but would probably fit better into a larger workshop or training course exploring gender issue • Times are approximate • The activity should be implemented in open space (corridor, large room, outdoor)
Materials and Resources: Statements: 1. My family celebrated my birth before I was born (baby shower) 2. For a carnival/Halloween/birthday I can dress in a costume of the opposite sex 3. My family celebrated when I was born 4. I can attend extracurricular activities of my choice (leisure time/ hobbies) 5. I am allowed to play with children of both sexes 6. I celebrate Father’s Day 7. I am allowed to play with dolls 8. Both my parents are present during all important days/events in my life 9. I can play football with my friends in the school 10. I can walk alone in the street in the evening hours 11. I’m not teased from the friends in the school because of who I am 12. I will study and follow the profession of my choice 13. I am allowed to play with tracks/cars 14. I can choose whether to be circumcised 15. I’m not obliged to go to place of worship 16. I can choose my toys 17. I don’t feel discriminated by teachers because of my gender 18. I can follow the educational direction of my choice 19. I am obliged to help my family in housework 20. I feel comfortable with my gender 21. I don’t wish to have been another gender (Beyoncé “If I were a boy” 2011)
4 decks of cards: Religion
Country / Nationality
Mother & father
Same sex parents
Living with relatives
Living with step family
Great Britain Ukraine Bosnia & Herzegovina Indonesia Saudi Arabia Azerbaijan France Mexico
B) Story Making (Birth Stage Activity) This activity asks for participants to fill the blank spaces in a text describing the daily life of a child, whose gender is not specified. This activity focuses on the exploration of gender stereotypes according to the norms and roles established in the society.
Level of difficulty: Low
Target Group: Young people aged 14-16 years
Group Size: Maximum 25 people
Time Needed for the Activity: 1 hour
Aim: • To explore what gender stereotypes are according to the norms and roles as established in society and culture • To raise awareness on how society influences individual perception about gender characteristics • To urge participants to realize their own perception of gender differences • To trigger a discussion on gender issues
Step by Step Description: 1. Step 1 (5min) • Divide the group into small groups of between 3 and maximum 5 people per group • There should not be more than 5 groups 2. Step 2 (15min) • Each participant in the sub group will receive a copy of the same story • Each group should read the story and fill in the gaps in the story, so there is only one version from the group • There is 10min to complete the task 3. Step 3 (5min) • Bring the subgroups back to the plenary • Each subgroup reads their version of the story to the rest of the group 4. Step 4 (10min) • Plenary discussion • Guiding questions – How was the task for you? – Which gender is your child and why? – Why did you decide to ascribe this set of words (features/ characteristics) to the character of your story? – How did the name influence the gender of the character? – Were you surprised by any of the other stories? – What do you think if the child in your story had opposite gender? Would you change something? What? Why? 5. Step 5 (15min) • Small groups – combine 2 groups • Discuss the different aspects that led each member of the group to assume the gender of the child? 42
• Consider own background • Link to culture • Link to society and existing stereotypes 6. Step 6 (10 min) • Plenary share • Each group provides a short input on the different aspects highlighted in their group • Facilitator makes a note on a flip chart of the key points • With the highlighted notes participants should make a final conclusion.
Tips: The name of the child used in the story must be a gender-neutral depending on the working group or the country of implementation, meaning it could be a boy or a girl. Or if there is no a gender-neutral name in your language you can also use nicknames, for example: French male - Raphael French female - Raphaelle So, if you write “Rapha”, it will be up to the participants to decide whether it is a male or a female character. • The activity could be a stand-alone activity but would probably fit better into a larger workshop or training course exploring gender issues • You can also make it an individual activity, asking each of the participants to fill in the gaps on their own (5-10 min). Later you can bring them into small groups (for 10-15 min) so that they can discuss their stories having some leading questions written on the flipchart as stated in the plenary questions example. Bring different subgroups together to discuss the link to the culture and society as a final part of the activity • Times are approximate
Materials / Resources: One copy of the story for each participant One pen for each participant. Andrea’s Day There is a child named Andrea who is a pupil of an elementary school. Every Monday Andrea wakes up at ______ am. The first thing Andrea does in the morning is ____________________________________ . Andrea likes to wear ____________________________. On the way to school, Andrea also likes to ____________________________. In school Andrea has to ___________________. During lunch break Andrea likes to eat _________________. When Andrea comes home Andrea’s friends ask Andrea to go to _____________________________ with them. With Andrea’s friends, Andrea likes to play ____________________________. At the end of the day Andrea goes to bed with ______________, which is Andrea’s favourite toy for sleeping.
C) I See Through Your Eyes (Adulthood Stage Activity) In this activity, participants are given a gender based identity and based on the reaction of other participants they have to understand whether they are accepted or not. This way they have a chance to develop empathy towards other and realise the personal beliefs about different genders and how they are connected with society’s common perception.
Level of difficulty: Medium
Target Group: Young people aged 16+
Group Size: 10 to 20 people
Time Needed for Activity: 1 hour 30 minutes
Aim: • To develop empathy towards excluded groups by experiencing the reactions of society to different gender identities and minorities in different situations • To encourage discussion and self-reflection on the social stigma of different minority identities
Step by Step Description: 1. Step 1 (10min) • Each participant receives a post it on their forehead without seeing it • Each post it has the description of a person on it (see list of examples below) 2. Step 2 (10min) • Participants must walk around the room and react to the characters they meet • Participants should react as society (with all the stereotypes) • Participants should react to all the people descriptions they meet • Participants cannot talk but can interact in any other way (any non-verbal communication) • (Small noises, hugs, greetings, handshakes, avoidance, eye contact…) 3. Step 3 (5min) • The facilitator calls stop • All participants freeze where they are
• The facilitator places 3 papers (islands) on the floor of the room spread out in a large triangle formation 4. Step 4 (5min) • Participants need to position themselves on one of the papers (islands) according to how they felt during the activity – Paper 1: I am accepted – Paper 2: I am not accepted – Paper 3: I don’t know • Participants observe for a moment who is at which island 5. Step 5 (30min) NOTE: Participants cannot read their own character before question 4 • Small group discussions • Participants are asked to start moving around the room again until a number is called out (between 2 and 5) • Participants should then form up into random groups of that number • The groups then receive a question to discuss 1. Which island did you choose and why? • After a few minutes, participants move again and another number is called out • Participants form new random groups and discuss the 2nd question 2. How did other people react to you and how did this make you feel? • After a few minutes, participants move again and another number is called out • Participants form new random groups and discuss the 3rd question 3. How did you react to other the people descriptions; representing the attitude of society or your own? Why? • After a few minutes, participants move again and another number is called out • Participants form new random groups and discuss the 4th question
4. What do you think your people description could be? Guess and check your paper. • From question 4 the groups stay the same to answer the final questions 5. Can you identify with this person description? What is your usual attitude towards people of this community? 6. What difficulties / stereotypes / advantages / privileges do you think these people encounter in their daily life in your local community? 7. Step 6 (30 min) • Plenary discussion • Participants are asked to share how they feel as a result of the activity • Suggested questions: – What do you think the aim of the activity is? – How does the activity relate to your community and the stereotypes, prejudice and discrimination you witness or know about? – How is the current situation in our local community? – Is there an option society to act differently towards these characters? How and why? – What can be changed? – Do you change your mind on this issues now at the end of the activity? – How could we change those stereotypes in the society?
Tips: • This simulation activity should not be played with new groups • Ensure a safe environment for sharing • Ensure that all emotions felt during the simulation are constructively dealt with in the final debrief • For 10 participants, give 5 minutes for acting out the reactions, for 20 participants give 10 min. The facilitator can change these times as they see fit, depending on group dynamics
• According to the local reality and the level participants experience facilitator can choose among list and/or create characters • According to the level of English of the participants, the facilitator can simplify characters, so everyone can understand them easily
Materials and Resources: • The facilitator needs to prepare roles on sticky notes in advance • Choose from the following options and make sure to have enough for all participants 1. Transgender Female → Male 2. Transgender Male → Female 3. Lesbian 4. Gay 5. Patriarchal leader 6. Female sex-worker 7. Male sex-worker 8. Bisexual 9. Crossdressing man 10. HIV positive man 11. 13-year-old girl who lost her virginity 12. 13-year-old boy who lost his virginity 13. 30-year-old virgin male 14. 30-year-old female virgin 15. Teen mom 16. Divorced women 17. Single father 18. Unmarried pregnant woman 19. Female victim of rape
20. Widow 21. Widower 22. Women with children from 2 different men 23. Feminist 24. Male feminist 25. Meninist 26. Gay parent with an adopted child 27. Cheating husband 28. Cheating wife 29. Man that has many sexual partners 30. Woman that has many sexual partners 31. Woman that is artificially pregnant 32. Woman with much younger boyfriend 33. Man with girlfriend of 20 years younger 34. Girl with a man of 20 years older 35. Refugee from a country at war 36. Migrant because of economic conditions 37. Girl teenager on wheelchair 38. Male homosexual Muslim 39. Female homosexual Muslim
D) Alternative Version (Adulthood Stage Activity) In order to make an easier version of the activity the facilitator can ask participants to place themselves on the three different papers immediately after receiving a post it with the character that they can see. Offline Theatre: Participants are working on Forum Theatre (Theatre of the Oppressed, Augusto Boal) exploring situations of gender based discrimination and what influence it has on young peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s personalities.
Level of difficulty: High
Target Group: Young people aged 16-20 years
Group Size: Maximum 15 people
Time Needed for the Activity: Maximum 2.5 hours
Aim: To explore the period of adolescence from the perspective of gender-based stereotypical situations which influence young people’s personalities
Step by Step Description: 1. Step 1 (5 min) • Divide the participants into groups of 3 (max 5 participants in one group) • Provide each group with scenario cards which also have roles written on them • Important: If possible, males receive female characters and vice-versa 2. Step 2 (15 min) • Participants have 15min to divide the roles between themselves and individually reflect on them 3. Step 3 (20 min) • Each group has 20min to prepare a play of maximum 5 minutes • It should be clearly stated that the play has to show an act of discrimination based on prejudice or stereotype and one of the 50
participants has to be an oppressor, meaning that this person is the reason of a conflict 4. Step 4 (10min) • First group performs their play all the way through • Other groups are the audience 5. Step 5 (15min) • First group then proceeds to perform their play again • During this second round, members of the other groups can shout ‘STOP’ at any moment • The members of the audience shout stop if they want to change something in the play • This is done by the person who shouted stop taking the place of one of the actors and becoming that character in the play in order to try to create a different more constructive outcome • It should be noted that oppressor characters cannot be replaced and acts of ‘magic’ (sudden change of personality or change of circumstances to make everything work out) are not allowed 6. Step 6 (15 min) • Plenary discussion after the second round to discuss the issues raised and what happened Suggested questions: – What issues did the performance raise? – How did you feel about the play? – If you replaced someone, why did you choose that character to replace? – How did you plan to influence the scenario differently? – How much could you relate to the story and why? – (You can share your personal stories, if you feel comfortable) – Did you understand something new after this activity? – How much do you believe people’s opinions influence you and your self-awareness and self-esteem? – How did you feel playing the roles in these stories? – What was your reaction after playing these roles? 51
– How hard it was playing the role of opposite sex? – What conclusions can we state after seeing this performance? 7. Step 7 (40min per group) • Repeat the same with the second group and then the third
Tips: • This activity should be part of a larger workshop / training experience exploring gender stereotypes • The number of groups should not exceed three, more than three would probably mean the activity taking too long and individuals losing interest • Facilitator can always adapt scenario and role cards depending on the group • Times are approximate
Materials / Resources: Scenario Cards A. School break – conversation while checking Facebook Example: Some of the students saw Mia’s pictures attending a last week LGBTQI+ parade in their town and start talking about it Roles: 1. Anja: Girl, 15 years old, brown hair with pink highlights, shy, has a boyfriend 2. Mia: Girl, 13 years old, growing up in open minded family, flexible in communication, lesbian 3. Marco: Boy, 15 years old, lives in the conservative family, shorttempered, stubborn 4. Dino: Boy, 16 years old, likes to learn new things, his best friend is older gay boy 5. Murat: Boy, 15 years old, Anja’s boyfriend, neutral towards LGBTIQ+ community 52
B. Going back from gym Example: Young people start talking about a boy from their class who wants to be a hairdresser Roles: 1. Sam: Boy, 17 years old, conservative parents, wants to be hairdresser, rejected by school colleagues 2. Lucas: Boy, 18 years old, smokes, acts like a ‘street’ boy, persistent, enjoys mocking others 3. Tom: Boy, 17 years old, failed the year in school, is never at home because he’s always in the park with his friends, open-minded 4. Ana: Girl, 16 years old, has only male friends, plays football, lesbian, calm 5. Iva: Girl, 17 years old, stubborn, likes to argue about everything, likes masculine boys C. Birthday party of a friend from school – by the pool, where everyone is going in the water Example: Somebody starts a conversation about other young people at the party (e.g. gossiping about their bodies or swimming suits/bikini) and proceeds with teasing them Roles: 1. Filip: Boy, 16 years old, likes to be a leader of a group, keeps fit going to gym 2. John: Boy, 17 years old, shy, feminine, has a lot of hair in the body and face, asexual 3. Diana: Girl, 15 years old, lives in strict family, suffers from anorexia, obsessed with fashion 4. Sabrina: Girl, 16 years old, overweight, doesn’t have friends, lacks self-confidence especially in front of classmates 5. Lara: Girl, 16 years old, short hair, plays soccer, strong character, sometimes a little bit aggressive
E) Aging Today (Third Age Activity) This activity is design through game to explore different ways of ours and society behaviour towards older people and their gender. Participants are put in the shoes of third age generations in order to experience their real life situations and the challenges they are facing.
Level of difficulty: Medium
Target Group: Young people aged 11+
Group Size: 10 to 25 people
Time Needed for Activity: 1 - 1.5 hour
Aim: To put young people into the shoes of older people to experience everyday situations To foster critical thinking and empathy towards third age generations and to delete barriers between old men and old womenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s activities To create an open space and playful ground for the exchange of experiences and individual attitudes towards third age generations from the gender perspective
Step by Step Description: 1. Step 1 (10 min) â&#x20AC;˘ Read the game description to the participants (see below) 54
2. Step 2 (5 min) • Divide the participants into groups of 4 or 5 people 3. Step 3 (30-40 min) • Each group sets up their board and pieces and starts to play. The game is over when the first person reaches the centre of the board – the last number on the board 4. Step 4 (20-30 min) • Plenary discussion with all the groups together – How did you feel during this game? – Was it difficult to imagine the situations that were written and shown in the pictures? – Was it difficult to step into the shoes of an older person? Why yes / why not? – Did something surprise you from one of your own answers or the answer of another person? What was it? – Have you thought about any of these questions and situations before doing this game? – Some of the questions and pictures were related to the gender perspective, how did you feel about them? – Did it change your perspective about gender issues concerning elderly people? – How young people can help elderly people to get better understanding about gender issues and LGBTQI+ communities? – Did this game change some of your attitudes towards older people?
Tips: • Game packages: 1 package for each group of 4-5 participants • The activity could be a stand-alone activity but would probably fit better into a larger workshop or training course exploring gender issues • Times are approximate
• As an example, 13 questions and 5 pictures are listed below, but the facilitator should adapt the content of the game and the number of questions/pictures according to his/her local reality • According to the local reality and legislation, the last plenary discussion (step 5) can be more focused on the gender perspective
Materials and Resources: Game Description: “This is a game that is called ‘Aging Today’ which is designed to explore our understanding of how we and society see old people and their gender. For this game, you will be divided into groups of 4 or 5 people. Each group will receive a Game Package that includes: a dice and a game board, a set of numbered cards with questions or pictures. In turn, each person in the group will throw the dice. Player 1 throws the dice and moves to the place on the board of that number. Player 1 then answers the question or responds to the picture of that same number (answering the question must take more than 60 seconds but less than 2 minutes). Please note that there are no wrong or right answers the best answer is your own opinion. The game is not competitive; it finishes when the first player reaches the centre of the board.” 1 Package for 1 group of 4-5 players (the number of packages depends on the number of participants): 1 Dice (with points from 1 to 6) 1 Game board (see the picture below) 5 pawns (1 for each player) 1 Small bag (to put the questions and pictures inside) 1 Set of questions 1 Set of pictures
Set of Questions [numbers on the game board]: 1. What do you think is the biggest difficulty in being an old person? 2. What do you think is the best thing about being an old person? 3. Picture 1 [description below] 4. How do you imagine yourself in your elderly life? Let’s act it! 5. Do you think that young people should support old people in home activities? Why yes / why not? 6. Do you think that old people should take care of their grandchildren or be more concentrated on realization of their personal needs? Why yes / why not? 7. If you were a 66 years old woman/man would you like to do physical activities? Why yes / why not? 8. Picture 2 [description below] 9. What would be, according to you, the main differences between old men and old women’s activities? Why? 10. If you were a 70 years old person would you want to travel? Why yes / why not? 11. Picture 3 [description below] 12. If you were a 78 years old person would you like to live in the same place as you live now? Why yes/ why not? 13. What would be your dream lifestyle after retirement? Answer from both gender perspectives: as a man and as a woman. Why is it similar/different? 14. Picture 4 [description below] 15. Do you think it is ok for old people to show their personal feelings in the streets, parks… ? What if they belong to the LGBT+ community? 16. Picture 5 [description below] 17. Who is more responsible of the family (children, grandchildren…), an old man or an old woman? 18. Do you think old men and old women face the same difficulties? Think of some specificities and why it is different. 57
19. FINISH Set of Pictures – (descriptions): 3. Picture 1 – old lady crossing the street Questions to ask related to this picture: • What do you see in the picture? • How do you think the person on the picture is feeling? • What would you do in this situation? 8. Picture 2 – old hand with the smartphone Questions to ask related to this picture: • What do you see in the picture? • How do you think the person on the picture is feeling? • Do you think it is a usual situation? Why yes/not? 11. Picture 3 – old man standing in the bus, when all of the seats are occupied Questions to ask related to this picture: • What do you see in the picture? • How do you think the person on the picture is feeling? Why? • What would you do in this situation? 14. Picture 4 – old man/woman alone in a park Questions to ask related to this picture: • • • • •
Tell the story of the person in the picture Who is he/she? What is he/she doing in his/her daily life? What does he/she like? How does he/she spend his/her free time, etc.?
16. Picture 5 - Old men holding hands and walking together Questions to ask related to this picture: • • • • •
Tell the story of the people in the picture Who are they and what kind of relationship do they have? Can they be in a love relationship at this age? What is the attitude of their family towards them? What are they doing in their daily life?
*Note for designer: Prepare: - the game board for this game with 19 fields - 5 pawns - cards with 13 questions - cards with 5 pictures All elements will be copied, cut into pieces and use in the game. Images of an example of board and playing pieces.
F) When I was old (Third Age Activity) Through a series of short theatrical plays and discussions, participants explore the lives of elderly people and the difficulties they face, while tackling with gender differences and stereotypes on this stage of life.
Level of difficulty: Medium
Target Group: Young people aged 14 to 25 years
Group Size: 5 to 10 people
Time Needed for Activity: 1.5 - 2 hours
Aim: • To explore how older people, live and face difficult situations. • To tackle gender stereotypes during this life stage by showing young people that we all have pre-constructed ideas about the activities that old men and women do.
Step by Step Description: 1. Step 1 (5 min) • Introducing each other • Ask the participants to introduce themselves (telling their name and an object starting with the same letter as the name) 2. Step 2 (15min) • Theatre based energizer to warm up • Participants are asked to make a small play of approximately 1 minute after a 5 minute-preparation, about the question: “Describe what would be your perfect life at the age of 80…” If the participants do not know what to talk about, the facilitator can guide them with questions such as: – – – –
How do you spend your days? Where do you live? What does your social life look like? Do you work / volunteer, have hobbies etc.…
3. Step 3 (20min) • Plenary discussion in order to collect different situations/ difficulties elderly people face
• The facilitator asks the participants to share about issues/ difficulties that the elderly people encounter and writes them down on the flipchart • The facilitator should encourage participants to share experiences and stories from their local realities and also include positive aspects of elderly people’s lives [attitude of society, family, mental and physical deterioration, unconventional families…] Some of the following scenarios could be explored: – – – – – – – – – – – – –
Going blind Going deaf Losing a partner Having dementia Living far away from family and friends Your friends visit you often You have a lot of money You have little contact with your children You have no next of kin / relatives You are addicted to alcohol You never married and don’t have kids You found a new partner recently Wheelchair bound
4. Step 4 (40 min) Theatre Play • 1st part – Participants are asked to imagine a day in an old person’s life. They need to choose if they will perform a man or a woman – Participants are asked to perform a 2min play that includes some of the scenarios previously discussed. Also, during the play, the facilitator can show some of the scenarios from the flipchart and the participants should adapt their role play according to it Example of scenarios: see list discussed during step 3 • 2nd part 61
– The participants have to perform the same role play (with the same questions/scenarios) but the second time they need to change the gender of the role they played before (from male to female or transgender and from female to male or transgender). 5. Step 5 (20/30min) • Final plenary discussion • Sharing of own experiences and examples • The facilitator invites the participants to start the final plenary discussion. During the discussion, the participants can share their own experiences and examples. The facilitator guides them with the following questions: – – – – – – – – –
How did you feel performing your play? How did you feel observing the others plays? Do you recognise any of these scenarios from real life? Did you change many things when you changed the gender of your role? Do you think old men and women live very different lives? Does society expect them to have different activities, points of view etc.? Do/Should we treat old men and women on the same way or are there some specificities of treatment? Do you think old people face less/more gender discrimination than young people or other adults? Do the difficulties/scenarios discussed affect old men and women on the same way?
Tips: • Times are approximate • It can be useful to have a prepared flipchart showing a timeline and the following activities in their respective time of the day to help guide participants in how an elderly people day could look like • Important for the facilitators: participants are encouraged to develop empathy while performing step 2, they need to differentiate it with the energizer which is meant to be fun: 62
– Waking up, dressing, showering – Breakfast – Doctor’s visit – Reading/watching TV/News – Calling someone – Lunch – Toilet – Siesta/sleep for a while – Visitors coming – Groceries – Coffee/tea/television – Writing your diary – Going to bed • The facilitator can prepare one flipchart with scenarios in advance (as listed in the step 3).
2) Activities for educators wishing to work more specifically on Gender issue A) Re-Defining Gender Aim: To recognize stereotypes based on gender
Preparation needed: Prepare 6 envelopes with 4 cards, each card describes an activity, hide it around the working space. Prepare a table on flipchart paper with three columns: Things that he likes to do, Things that she likes to do, Things that they like to do.
List of Cards: Activity cards: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Likes to play football Likes to go shopping Likes to do martial arts Likes to read books Likes to go to the beach Likes to go bowling Likes to wear make-up Likes to ride bike Likes to listen to heavy-metal music Likes to watch soap operas Likes to roller-skate Likes to play with dolls Likes to dance Likes to do their hair Likes sunbathing Likes to play computer games Likes to climb trees Likes to cook Likes to sing Likes to do woodwork Likes to read fashion magazines Likes to skateboard Likes to do science experiments Likes to go hiking Likes to dress up
Introduction to the activity
Treasure hunt Divide the participants into two teams and ask them to decide on their team name Participants will take part in a treasure hunt race and they have to find six envelopes that are hidden around the working space as quickly as possible. They must stay together as a team during the whole race. When they find an envelope, they should take two cards from it. When they have found all envelopes, they should place their cards into the columns of the table. The first team to finish should jump up together and shout their team name.
Individual exercise Participants come back together and on a piece of paper to write down the activities from the flipchart which they personally like to do (they can also add other ones)
Trios In groups of three, participants will be then asked to discuss the activity and their “list of things I like to do”
Plenary – Who sets the rules on how we should behave? – What defines gender? – Does gender influence what we can or cannot do in life? – How can we ensure activities more accessible for all genders? – How does youth work take all this into consideration?
B) Gender, Culture and Intergenerational Dialogue Aim: To define what we mean by culture, gender and intergenerational dialogue To explore the cultural norms regarding gender from an intergenerational perspective in the different countries represented
List of material: Flipcharts; Markers Time: 10min
Activity Description: Defining – Gender - 1 pair – Culture - 2 pairs – Dialogue - 2 pairs – Intergenerational - 2 pairs – Intergenerational Dialogue -2 pairs Give them A4, then put on board Participants form pairs (2 pairs to one word) Each pair gets one word and searches to find a definition.
2 pairs with the same word come together and have to agree on a shared definition Each group now presents their definition and places it on the wall
9 flip charts around the room Each flip chart represents one of the countries present (name of country is written on the flip chart) In pairs participants go to each of the flip charts (countries) represented in their pair (It is really important that participants are honest about their country and do not paint a bright but false picture) Participants are asked to list and ‘decode’ current cultural practices in their own countries/cultures that have a gender perspective The info below ---- on flipchart! Participants discuss as a group and list the cultural norms and practices connected to – pre-birth/childhood – youth/adulthood – 3rd age/death Participants have guiding questions: – Where does such a practice come from? – How does it influence identities? – How’s it seen in today’s society? – How does it affect your daily life and your identity? Results or conclusions are written on the flip chart
Plenary Participants share the differences and similarities they discovered during the exercise
C) Exploring gender and sexuality Aim: • To better understand the concept of gender and what it actually means • To differentiate between sexuality and gender • To define and understand numerous words related to either sexuality or gender
Preparation needed: • Colour paper cut out and each word written on one paper • Words to be stuck on the walls all around the room • Words broken down in Gender and Sexuality, followed by their etymology (also included in the glossary of the publication)
Etymologies: A) Gender • Agender Not having a gender or identifying with a gender. They may describe themselves as being gender-neutral or genderless. • Bigender A person who fluctuates between traditionally “male” and “female” gender-based behaviours and identities. • Cisgender A person whose gender identity and biological sex assigned at birth are the same. For example, they were born biologically as a male, and express their gender as male.
• Gender Expression The external display of one’s gender, through a combination of how they dress, how they act and other factors, generally measured on scales of masculinity and femininity. • Gender Fluid A mix of boy and girl. A person who is gender fluid may always feel like a mix of the two traditional genders, but may feel more man some days, and more woman other days. • Genderqueer A gender identity label often used by people who do not identify with being a man or a woman, or as an umbrella term for many gender non-conforming or non-binary identities. • Intersex A person born with a reproductive or sexual anatomy that doesn’t seem to fit the typical definitions of female or male. For example, a person might be born appearing to be female on the outside, but having mostly male-typical anatomy on the inside. • Gender Variant Someone who either by nature or by choice does not conform to gender-based expectations of society • Mx. Is a title (e.g. Mr., Ms., etc.) that is gender neutral. Pronounced /miks/, (similar to Ms) it is often the option of choice for folks who do not identify as cisgender. • Third Gender A term for a person who does not identify with either man or woman, but identifies with another gender. This gender category is used by societies that recognise three or more genders, both contemporary and historic, and is also a conceptual term meaning different things to different people who use it.
• Transgender A person who lives as a member of a gender other than that expected based on sex assigned at birth. • Two-Spirit It is an umbrella term traditionally used by Native American people to recognise individuals who possess qualities of both genders • Ze / Hir Alternate pronouns that are gender neutral. Pronounced /zee/ and /here/ they replace “he” and “she” and “his” and “hers” respectively. Alternatively, some people who are not comfortable/do not embrace he/she use the plural pronoun “they/their” as a gender neutral singular pronoun.
B) Sexuality Sexual Orientation/Sexuality Describes a person’s enduring physical, romantic, and/or emotional attraction to another person. Gender identity and sexual orientation are not the same. Transgender people may be straight, lesbian, gay, bisexual, or queer. For example, a transgender woman who is attracted solely to men would typically identify as a straight woman. • Gay The adjective used romantic, and/ or same gender (e.g., the preferred term “homosexuals,” an offensive to
to describe people whose enduring physical, emotional attractions are to people of the gay man, gay people). Sometimes lesbian is for women. Avoid identifying gay people as outdated term considered derogatory and
• Lesbian A woman whose enduring physical, romantic, and/or emotional attraction is to other women. Some lesbians may prefer to identify as gay or as gay women. Avoid identifying lesbians as “homosexuals,” a derogatory term. many lesbian and gay people. 70
• Bisexual, Bi A person who has the capacity to form enduring physical, romantic, and/ or emotional attractions to those of the same gender or to those of another gender. People may experience this attraction in differing ways and degrees over their lifetime. Bisexual people need not have had specific sexual experiences to be bisexual; in fact, they need not have had any sexual experience at all to identify as bisexual. • Pansexual, Pan A person who has the capacity to form enduring physical, romantic, or emotional attractions to any person, regardless of gender identity. Pansexual people need not have had specific sexual experiences to be pansexual; in fact, they need not have had any sexual experience at all to identify as pansexual. • Queer An adjective used by some people, particularly younger people, whose sexual orientation is not exclusively heterosexual (e.g. queer person, queer woman). Sometimes, for those who only identify as queer, the terms lesbian, gay, and bisexual are perceived to be too limiting and/or fraught with cultural connotations they feel don’t apply to them. But many people identify as both queer and another sexual orientation (e.g. queer and a lesbian). Once considered a pejorative term, queer has been reclaimed by some LGBTQ+ people to describe themselves; however, it is not a universally accepted term, even within the LGBTQ+ community. • LGBTQ+ Acronym for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer, as well as others who do not identify as straight. Sometimes, when the Q is seen at the end of LGBT, it can also mean questioning. LGBT and/ or GLBT are also often used, as are LGBTI and LGBTQIA (with the I standing for intersex and the A for asexual). • Asexual An adjective used to describe people who do not experience sexual attraction (e.g., asexual person). 71
• Allosexual An adjective used to describe people who do experience sexual attraction and are not asexual (e.g., allosexual person). • Aromantic An adjective used to describe people who do not experience romantic attraction (e.g., aromantic person). • Heterosexual An adjective used to describe people whose enduring physical, romantic, and/ or emotional attraction is to people of the opposite gender. Also straight. • Homosexual An outdated clinical term considered derogatory and offensive. • Coming out A lifelong process of self-acceptance. People forge an LGBTQ+ identity first to themselves, and then they may reveal it to others. Publicly sharing one’s identity may or may not be part of coming out. • Out A person who self-identifies as LGBTQ+ in their personal, public, and/or professional lives. Preferred to openly gay. • Closeted Describes a person who is not open about their sexual orientation or gender identity. It’s better to simply refer to someone as “not out” about being LGBTQ+. Some individuals may be out to some people in their life, but not out to others due to fear of rejection, harassment, violence, losing one’s job, or other concerns. • Androsexual/Androphilic Being primarily sexually, aesthetically, and/or romantically attracted to masculinity.
• Bicurious Similar to questioning, people might say they’re bicurious if they’re exploring whether or not they’re attracted to people of the same gender as well as people of another gender. • Demiromantic People who do not experience romantic attraction until a strong emotional or sexual connection is formed with a partner. • Demisexual People on the asexual spectrum who do experience some sexual attraction, but only in certain situations, like after they’ve formed a strong emotional or romantic connection with a partner. • Dyke Formerly and sometimes still considered a derogatory word to describe queer women. Some women have taken back the word, however, and use it for themselves. Do not call someone a dyke unless you know that they have reclaimed the word. • Faggot Formerly and sometimes still considered a derogatory word to describe queer men. Some men have reclaimed the word, but it should never be used to describe someone unless you know they’ve taken it back for themselves. • Gynesexual/gynephilic Being primarily sexually, aesthetically, and/or romantically attracted to femininity. • Skoliosexual Being primarily sexually, romantically, and/or aesthetically attracted to genderqueer, transgender, and/or non-binary people. More information: https://www.refinery29.com/en-us/ sexual-orientation-types-of-sexualities#slide-24
Activity Description: Small group discussions - 4-5 people 1) Alexander + Nelly 2) Dani + Orkhan 3) Mariana + Gulen 4) Alex + Pepa 5) Rui + Simona 6) Dajana L. + Fatma + Diana S. 7) Afrodita + Diana B. 8) Erhan + Stefan + Teodora What is our understanding of gender? – Share your collective knowledge – Encourage people who are less knowledge to ask questions – Share any stories you know from the news and other sources (crimes, courts, hospitals, clubs, community, etc.)
Sexuality vs gender All the words below are placed around the room In pairs Defining the words Each pair was given a tool to use to define the words – YouTube – Wikipedia – Google – Dictionary – CoE Website – EU Website Researching - find the definition, write it and then we put it on the wall under the word. Multiple pairs could find definitions for each word
Gender: Agender Bigender Cisgender Gender Expression Gender Fluid Genderqueer Intersex Gender Variant Mx. Third Gender Transgender Two-Spirit Ze / Hir
Sexuality: Heterosexual Homosexual Gay Lesbian Bisexual Pansexual Asexual Homophobia Queer LGBTQ+ Allosexual Aromantic Coming out Out Closeted Androsexual Gynesexual Bi curious Demiromantic Demisexual Dyke Faggot Skoliosexual 20min.
Finalising the definition Each pair received â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;xâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; number of words and respective definitions Each pair had to decide on only one definition that could be one of the researched or a combination of the researched.
Ask the group to arrange the words and definitions under gender and sexuality Plenary discussion if everyone agrees or not with the lists and with the definitions
D) Identity and gender identity Aim: Better understanding of identity and gender identity
Preparation needed: Publication Understanding Youth https://www.salto-youth.net/downloads/4-17-2311/ UnderstandingYouth_OnlineVersion.pdf? Time: 20min.
Activity Description: Identity - Onion Explanation of different aspects and layers of the identity: The aspects that can be seen and touched 1. Language and symbols 2. The rituals and actions often repeated 3. Heroes and role models 4. Principals, standards, values, agreements and rules
Going through publication Understanding Youth chapter 2 (from 22 to 49) divided into pairs (every pair receive one chapter), participants have to discuss about the chapter and to come up with at least 3 questions regarding the text they received
Participants are going to receive the questions their peers wrote in previous part, they are going back to the publication searching for answers
Present answers in the plenary only the answers/questions that was not clear (stuck, unsatisfactory â&#x20AC;Ś.)
8. References 1. Council of Europe Ministers of Foreign Affairs. https://www.coe.int/t/ dg4/intercultural/source/white%20paper_final_revised_en.pdf 2. Incorporating Gender into your NGO. Edited and published by https://www.networklearning.org/ 3. Egalité, mixité & associations: guide pour l’égalité des femmes et des hommes dans les asbl. https://eige.europa.eu/library/resource/ AMZ_NET7536 4. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions. Mapping youth transitions in Europe. https://www. eurofound.europa.eu/sites/default/files/ef_publication/field_ef_ document/ef1392en_0.pdf 5. United Nations (2008). The role of men and boys in achieving gender equality. https://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/public/w2000/ W2000%20Men%20and%20Boys%20E%20web.pdf 6. UNECE. Policy for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women. http://www.unece.org/fileadmin/DAM/Gender/publications_and_ papers/UNECE_Policy_on_GEEW_Final.pdf 7. European Commission. Striving for a Union of Equality. The Gender Equality Strategy 2020-2025. https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/ info/files/aid_development_cooperation_fundamental_rights/ gender_equality_strategy_factsheet_en.pdf