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June 2016

Six oscilloscope features I wish I knew before graduation Page 23

Flexible power for critical missions systems Page 48

Test & Measurement H A N D B O O K

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Unlocking The Insights That Inspire Your Next “Eureka!” Moment—Sooner

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For more than 75 years we have been helping you unlock measurement insights, first as the electronic-measurement businesses of Hewlett-Packard and Agilent Technologies, and now, as Keysight Technologies. From Day 1, there have been two sides to the story. One is the work we do, creating leading-edge instrumentation and software. The other is the work you do: designing, developing, debugging, troubleshooting, manufacturing, testing, installing and maintaining components, devices and systems. Those seemingly unrelated activities are actually connected by something profound: the “A-ha!” that comes with a moment of insight. When those happen for us, the results are innovations that help you reach new breakthroughs. Enabling the right idea at the right time This is our legacy. Keysight is a company built on a history of firsts, dating back to the days when Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard worked in the garage at 367 Addison Avenue in Palo Alto, California. Our firsts began with U.S. patent number 2,268,872 for a “variable-frequency oscillation generator.” Appropriately, the heart of Bill’s design was a light bulb, which is often used to symbolize a new idea. Our future depends on your success, and our vision is simple: by helping engineers find the right idea at the right time, we enable them to bring next-generation technologies to their customers—faster.

Offering expertise you can leverage This is happening in aerospace and defense applications where increasingly realistic signal simulations are accelerating the development of advanced systems that protect those who go in harm’s way. It’s happening in research labs where our tools help turn scientific discovery into the discovery of new sciences. It’s taking place with 400G Ethernet and the enabling PAM-4 technology, where our end-to-end solution ranges from simulation of new designs to characterization of hardware inputs, outputs and connectors. And in wireless communications we’re providing leading-edge measurement tools and sophisticated, future-friendly software that cover all phases of the 5G development cycle. Within these application areas, there are often more standards than a single engineer can keep up with. That’s why so many of our people are involved in standards bodies around the world. We’re helping shape those standards while creating the tools needed to meet the toughest performance goals. Through our global presence, we also have measurement experts near you: our application engineers have the skills and experience to help you unite the hardware and software solutions that meet your unique requirements. Helping inspire your next breakthrough To help Keysight customers continue to open new doors, we’re concentrating our effort and experience on what comes next in test and measurement. Our unique combination of hardware, software and people will help enable your next “A-ha!” moment, whether you’re working on mobile devices, cloud computing, semiconductors, renewable energy, or the latest glimmer in your imagination. Keysight is here to help you see what others can’t, and then make it reality—sooner.

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Test & Measurement

LELAND TESCHLER EXECUTIVE EDITOR

Old Scopes aren’t just for Old Codgers YOU’D

have to say there are a lot of used oscilloscopes floating around. A quick search on eBay recently turned up 16,355 listings for used scopes. A Craigslist search for scopes near me in Cleveland, Ohio found 16 instruments on offer, interesting in that Cleveland is not exactly a capital of high-tech. One wonders if the equipment in this sea of used instrumentation is worth buying. It is perhaps surprising that major scope makers, who have an incentive for selling new stuff, are willing to weigh in on this question. Mark Briscoe, a product planner at Tektronix, admits that used scopes are a double-edged sword for instrument makers. But he says most people don’t trade in a scope because it wears out. “Everybody can build a 1-GHz scope. So manufacturers don’t necessarily differentiate

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6 • 2016

themselves on banner specs such as record length. Instead, they come out with new productivity features such as the automated decoding of serial buses, or they build several benchtop instruments into the scope to make the measurement process easier. That kind of measurement automation is the reason for most replacements these days. It’s why you can resell a tenyear-old scope and get quite a bit of value,” he says. Briscoe also says that looking for a used scope is not unlike looking for used cars. “The primary stuff that fails is customer-interface components like probes, knobs, and buttons. The flat-panel LCDs have half-lives of about 20,000 hours or so, after which they lose half their brightness. But most people don’t get to the point where they notice the dimming,” he says. Long-time scope users might be surprised to learn about how one user-interface item is handled these days: Front-panel knobs on digital scopes long ago abandoned

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Test & Measurement

the use of resistive potentiometers in favor of encoders. However, encoders can degrade – typically, their outputs grow noisy. But these problems are often fixable via adjustments in firmware, Briscoe says. Adjustments often take the form of new values read into NAND flash chips. But herein lies a potential problem: “There’s only so many times you can write to NAND flash,” points out Briscoe. “Sometimes those chips fail. They can be difficult to replace if they are surface-mounted. Similarly, some Windows-based instruments use DIMMs, and those can come unseated. We recommend power-cycling the instrument a few times to make sure it turns on every time. A glitch here can indicate a memory component that isn’t fully functional,” he says.

Memory chips on scopes come into play during calibration. In the days of analog scopes, instrument calibration involved turning pots and making other physical adjustments. Today, it consists of changing coefficients in asic registers. Consequently, there isn’t much inside a scope that can wear out because of numerous calibration cycles. And anyway, most instruments don’t need adjustments when they go to calibration, Briscoe says. But if a digital scope really does have problems, it’s tough to repair. “Unless the issue is something like a bad electrolytic cap in the power supply, you probably wouldn’t try to repair a digital scope, says Dan Bogdanoff, product planner at Keysight Technolgies. Nevertheless, relatively few digital scopes seem to wind up in the scrap heap, judging by what’s available on sites like eBay. “If it’s working, a scope is almost a timeless instrument,” says Bogdanoff. “People often say if you can see an accurate signal on the display, then it’s a fine instrument. It might be obsolete for an engineer at a company like Intel, but it’s still useful for somebody like a ham radio operator.”

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Contents 17

Old Scopes aren’t just for Old Codgers

12

One hidden oscilloscope spec that really matters

Bandwidth isn’t necessarily the primary spec for evaluating how well a scope can display signals of interest.

17

How to avoid errors in low-voltage measurements

Subtle difficulties can plague tests involving low voltages. Here are the biggest culprits and surefire ways to avoid them.

23

Six oscilloscope features I wish I knew before graduation

User interfaces have become more advanced and measurements more automated – and less tolerant of improper measurement setups.

27

How to test DC-to-DC converters

Functional and safety tests can show whether dc/dc converters perform the way their manufacturers claim they do.

TESTANDMEASUREMENTTIPS.COM

35

27

04

Test & Measurement

35

Testing RF power amps with scopes

43

Managing interfaces in power supplies for test equipment

48

Modern transceivers often incorporate several parallel RF front ends whose control signaling can be sorted out with advanced instrumentation.

An awareness of standards for conducted and radiated emissions helps in fielding power supplies that don’t cause havoc in attached electronics.

48

Flexible power for critical mission systems

50

Oscilloscope Buyers’ Guide

Commercial-off-the-shelf power equipment can be an option for situations that normally demand specialized designs optimized for harsh conditions.

Our annual guide to test equipment from major oscilloscope manufacturers gives major specifications in a format that lets engineers compare and evaluate brands that provide similar functions. We’ve also created an online version that can be found at www. testandmeasurementtips.com and is interactive. The interactive version includes categories for instrument integration, triggering modes, and measurement automation features.

C OV E R P H OT OG RAP H Y BY MI LE S BUD I MI R

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Test & Measurement

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Test & Measurement

One hidden oscilloscope spec that really matters Bandwidth isn’t necessarily the primary spec for evaluating how well a scope

BEN ROBINSON

NATIONAL INSTRUMENTS CORP.

can display signals of interest.

OSCILLOSCOPE

vendors, National Instruments included, like putting big numbers on the front panels of their instruments to tell you how much better they are than competitors. Bandwidth, sample rate, and sometimes bits-of-resolution are numbers vendors use to position themselves. Are the numbers on those front panels actually getting you better measurements with more insight as to the entity you are testing? Not every measurement needs many gigahertz of bandwidth or gigasamples of data. As opposed to shopping for more bandwidth, often you can benefit more from oscilloscopes with better measurement accuracy and repeatability. Bandwidth is usually the number-one specification you scan when looking at the list of available oscilloscopes. Generally, it is understood that the more bandwidth you can get on your scope the better. In many cases, however, the extra bandwidth doesn’t add significant value. For instance, a signal with rise time of one nanosecond requires about 350 MHz of bandwidth, according to the rule of 0.35 divided by bandwidth. Measuring that rise time with 5 GHz of bandwidth does not add a significant value. The bandwidth specification also does not tell you how good an oscilloscope is at rejecting high-frequency signals. The bandwidth spec on your scope doesn’t mean that signals above the instrument bandwidth disappear. It tells you only the frequency at which 70% of the signal amplitude is still included in the measurement. Signals outside the frequencies that the scope can accurately depict may have enough power to affect the measurements. The biggest discrepancy in most oscilloscopes is the difference between the number of bits in the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) resolution versus the number of actual measurement bits of resolution. Make sure to do the research on specifications that actually matter for getting good measurements before spending budget dollars on your next oscilloscope.

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OSCILLOSCOPE SPECS

EFFECTIVE NUMBER OF BITS Most scopes sold throughout the history of the instrument have used 8-bit ADCs, meaning they have 28 voltage divisions in which to measure a signal’s amplitude. Recently, more and more engineers are realizing there is value in having higher measurement resolution in their oscilloscopes. Imagine you are validating the performance of a board trace that is carrying a 3.1-V square wave, or digital, signal. What you don’t know is that there is a short between this trace and another trace on the board that is carrying a low-voltage, 10-mV square wave. This kind of signal might also be a product of crosstalk between traces. In many cases, you won’t know the exact resolution you’ll need for the measurement beforehand. If you knew there was a 10-mV signal imposed on the line, the measurement would be unnecessary. A way to approach making the right decision for your instrument is to consider the highest and lowest amplitude signals in your system. What will be the resolution of the smallest signal in your system when you measure it using the largest necessary voltage range? The following basic relationship can help you determine the resolution necessary to see these small signals in the system: Radc = log10((Fmr/(Rr × Fsi))/2) Where Radc = ADC resolution, bits; Fmr = full scale of measurement voltage range, V; Rr = required measurement resolution, V; Fsi = full scale of signal of interest, V. For the example at hand with a 3.1-V square wave, Radc = log10((10/(0.01 × 3.1))/2) = 8.33 bits In this example, the equation shows that the oscilloscope should have an ADC resolution of at least 8.33 bits. Determination of the measurement resolution necessary in the system is just one step in seeing the details. What the equation does not say is that the equivalent number of bits of resolution is important. This number is usually somewhat lower than the physical number of data lines provided by the ADC.

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OSCILLOSCOPES WITH POOR -3 dB roll-off performance permit signals from outside the operating frequency range to erroneously appear in the measurement spectrum.

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Test & Measurement

Effective number of bits (ENOB) is a specification that relates measurement performance of an oscilloscope to a common specification used in data converters: bits of resolution. Instrument vendors have always used the data converter design to define the measurement resolution of their devices. However, no instrument or data converter is ideal, so it takes more characterization and understanding to determine the quality of an oscilloscope’s measurements. ENOB is calculated directly from the signal-to-noise-anddistortion ratio (Sinad), a specification that includes all noise and measurement distortions from the instrument that appear within a measurement. ENOB then compares the performance of an ideal ADC to the ADC in a particular oscilloscope with the SINAD specification: Enob = (Sn – 10log10(3/2))/20log102 = (Sn – 1.76)/6.02 where Enob = ENOB; Sn = Sinad. A device that has an ENOB specification close to the resolution specification of the data converter would be ideal. In this example, the equation for ADC resolution showed a required measurement resolution of 8.33 bits. An eight-bit oscilloscope will not work. The best 10-bit scopes have an ENOB of approximately seven bits. In this example we would likely need to resort to a 12-bit oscilloscope. An

ENOB of nine bits or better is typical of a 12-bit scope. The oscilloscopes used for the measurements in this example are the PXIe-5162 (10-bit oscilloscope), PXIe-5122 (14-bit scope), and PXI5922 (18-bit scope). The PXI-5922 can measure using between 16 and 24-bit resolution depending on sample rate. When the signal in our example with its imposed 10-mV square wave is measured with the 10-bit scope, the signal looks like noise. There is no way an observer would see the 10-mV signal. When measured with a 14-bit scope, it is clear there is a periodic signal superimposed that is likely a square wave. The measurements taken with an 18-bit scope show the signal is a square wave and give accurate measurements of that small signal. However, there are more trade-offs than just measurement clarity with high resolution. The 18-bit scope used to perform the measurements above includes a

WHEN VIEWED AT FULL SCALE, 10bit, 14-bit, and 18-bit measurements look similar. It takes a finer view to see there is a significant difference between measurements made by oscilloscopes with higher resolutions. Engineers should always consider whether they are using the right instrument resolution to see the important details in signals of interest.

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Test & Measurement

high-resolution delta-sigma (Δ∑) or sigmadelta (∑Δ) ADC. A delta-sigma ADC has high linearity and is sensitive to small changes in signal amplitude, but does not accurately measure large, fast changes in amplitude. You can see in the measurement taken with the 18bit oscilloscope that there is significant ringing after the edge of the large (3.1 V) transition. An instrument with higher ENOB provides a number of benefits to testing: •

When a single measurement contains significantly more data about the behavior of the signal, you can spend less time setting up and configuring the test station to record data and more time analyzing your records for the data that matters. When you can get more information while designing the product, you can troubleshoot and redesign faster than your competition. Better measurements mean less time in characterization, validation, and specification-setting and less time to market. Most designs require specifications with a high confidence in performance. The more resolution and accuracy your instrument has when creating these specifications, the more confidence in your design. More accurate measurements mean better test results and more confidence for a test engineer ensuring that the final product works properly.

ENOB is defined, in large part, by the ADC used in the design of the scope. An ADC and architecture that has the right time-domain jitter performance and spectral noise density, along with many other specifications, ultimately determines the measurement quality of the instrument. In this case, hardware is the absolute determining factor of the scope’s specifications. But that is not the case for many specifications of modern scopes. As scopes become increasingly sophisticated, many specifications are based on software-defined components like digital signal processors (DSPs) and FPGAs. An increasing number of scope vendors offer packages that add more options for firmware design. Many of these packages provide different types of filters (like Bessel, Butterworth, or Gaussian) optimized for specific behaviors like faster rise time or limiting overshoot. Some vendors even offer firmware design packages that permit making changes directly to the scope’s filter and trigger designs. For many, you must be familiar with DSP and FPGA programming tools to make the changes. Other scope firmware design environments have graphical programming or flowchart interfaces that are more accessible if you know FPGA programming languages like VHDL and Verilog. Firmware design packages that provide access to filter and trigger designs let users tailor scopes for specific measurements. In some cases, scope makers open unused portions of the FPGA to implement signal processing, new triggering logic, and even data streaming interfaces. Although firmware design cannot change every specification, it can certainly empower you to extend or optimize a scope to get the most accurate and reliable measurements.

REFERENCES National Instruments Corp., www.ni.com

DON’T TRUST THE resolution number on your oscilloscope’s front panel or user manual. Effective number of bits (ENOB) is a measure of oscilloscope resolution that accounts for noise and spurs of the instrument.

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LOW VOLTAGE MEASUREMENTS

How to avoid errors in low-voltage measurements Subtle difficulties can plague tests involving low voltages. Here are the biggest culprits and

EDITED BY

MILES BUDIMIR

surefire ways to avoid them.

SIGNAL

levels in state-ofthe-art electronics have become diminishingly small. For example, ultra-low-voltage digital designs in CMOS now operate with minimum supply voltages in the 200-mV range. This trend has put a new emphasis on accuracy in measurements of nano- and picoamp currents and micro- and nanovolt voltages. Measurements at these extremely low levels are subject to error sources that engineers usually ignore when working with more traditional logic and IC technologies. So it can be useful to review the main difficulties that arise when working with circuitry handling signals that would have been in the noise levels of most electronics fielded just a few decades ago. WHEN MAKING traditional voltage measurements

THERMOELECTRIC EMF Thermoelectric voltages (or thermoelectric EMFs) are the most common sources of errors in lowvoltage measurements. These voltages

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using a digital multimeter (DMM) one didn’t have to consider error or noise sources because the measured voltages were relatively high. However, when measuring low-level voltages in the microand nanovolt range, sources of noise and thus error need to be accounted for and minimized.

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Test & Measurement

Solving Your Board to Board Connector Design Challenges

arise when different parts of a circuit are at different temperatures and when conductors made of dissimilar materials join together. Temperature differentials in the test circuit, caused either by fluctuating temperatures in the lab or by a draft near the test circuit, can generate a few microvolts. How to deal with these EMFs? Several ways. First, construction of circuits using the same material for all conductors minimizes thermoelectric EMF generation. Connections should also be kept clean and free of oxides. Another helpful tip is to minimize temperature gradients within the test circuit. For instance, place corresponding pairs of junctions close to one another and provide good thermal coupling to a common heat sink. Also, allow test equipment to warm up and reach thermal equilibrium in a constant ambient temperature. To keep ambient temperatures constant, keep test equipment away from direct sunlight, exhaust fans, and other sources of heat flow or moving air. INTERNAL OFFSETS Nanovoltmeters will rarely indicate zero when no voltage is applied to the input, because there are unavoidable voltage offsets present in the input of the instrument. A short circuit can be connected across the input terminals and the output can then be set to zero, either by front panel zero controls or by computer control. If the short circuit has extremely low EMF, this zeroing can be used to verify input noise and zero drift with time. Clean, pure copper wire will usually be suitable. However, the zero established in this way is useful for verification purposes and is of no value in the end application of the instrument.

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ZERO DRIFT Zero drift is a change in the meter reading with no input signal (measured with the input shorted) over a period of time. The zero drift of an instrument is almost entirely determined by the input stage. Most nanovoltmeters use some form of chopping or modulation of the input signal to minimize the drift.

A PLOT shows thermal noise voltage as a function of resistance and bandwidth at a temperature of 290 K

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LOW VOLTAGE MEASUREMENTS

THE VOLTAGE NOISE FREQUENCY spectrum shows some of the most common interference sources impacting low-level voltage measurements, from 1/f noise to contact arcing and SCR switching.

The zero reading may also vary as the ambient temperature changes. This effect is usually referred to as the temperature coefficient of the voltage offset. An instrument may also display a transient temperature effect. After a step change in the ambient temperature, the voltage offset may change by a relatively large amount, possibly exceeding the published specifications. The offset will then gradually decrease and eventually settle to a value close to the original value. Again, to minimize voltage offsets due to ambient temperature changes in junctions, make measurements in a temperaturecontrolled environment and/or slow down temperature changes by thermally shielding the circuit. RFI/EMI RFI (radio frequency interference) and EMI (electromagnetic interference) are general terms used

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to describe electromagnetic interference over a wide range of frequencies across the spectrum. RFI or EMI can be caused by sources such as TV or radio broadcast signals or it can be caused by impulse sources, as in the case of high-voltage arcing. In either case, the effects on the measurement can be considerable if enough of the unwanted signal is present. RFI/EMI interference may manifest itself as a steady reading offset or it may result in noise or erratic readings. A reading offset may be caused by input amplifier overload or dc rectification at the input. RFI and EMI can be minimized by taking several precautions when making sensitive measurements. The most obvious precaution is to keep all instruments, cables, and DUTs as far from the interference source as possible. Shielding the test leads and the DUT will often reduce interference effects to an acceptable level. In extreme cases, a specially constructed screen room may be necessary to attenuate the noise signal sufficiently.

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JOHNSON NOISE The ultimate limit of resolution in an electrical measurement is defined by Johnson or thermal noise. This noise is the voltage associated with the motion of electrons due to their thermal energy at temperatures above absolute zero. All voltage sources have internal resistance, so all voltage sources develop Johnson noise. This voltage is related to the temperature, noise bandwidth, and the source resistance. The noise voltage developed by metallic resistance can be calculated from the following equation: V=

4kTBR

where V = rms noise voltage developed in source resistance, in volts; k = Boltzmann’s constant (1.38 x 10-23 joule/K); T = absolute temperature of the source, kelvin; B = noise bandwidth, hertz; R = resistance of the source, ohms

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Test & Measurement

THERMOELECTRIC VOLTAGES of a few microvolts are formed when different parts of a circuit are at different temperatures and when the conductors are made of dissimilar materials.

Johnson noise can be reduced by lowering the temperature of the source resistance and reducing the bandwidth of the measurement. Cooling the sample from room temperature (290K) to liquid nitrogen temperature (77K) cuts the voltage noise by approximately a factor of two. 1/F NOISE In contrast with Johnson noise or white noise, the spectral density of 1/f noise varies inversely with frequency. Although 1/f noise is present in all electronic devices, it’s most often associated with carbon-composition resistors and semiconductor devices. Because 1/f noise is at a maximum at low frequencies, this type of noise may seriously affect low voltage measurements.

To minimize the effects of 50 or 60-Hz line pickup, use line cycle integration. Line-cycle noise will average out when the measuring instrument’s integration time is equal to an integral number of power line cycles. By integrating over one power line cycle, the positive and negative noise contributions cancel each other out, and the ac component of the signal averages to zero leaving only the dc component to be measured. By default, most instruments will use integration of one line cycle (1 PLC). However, this parameter is often user-defined to improve measurement accuracy, if needed.

MAGNETIC FIELDS Magnetic fields generate error voltages in two circumstances: 1) if the field is changing with time and 2) if there is relative motion between the circuit and LINE CYCLE INTERFERENCE the field. Voltages in conductors can be generated AND LINE CYCLE INTEGRATION from the motion of a conductor in a magnetic field, The most common form of external noise is 50 or 60-Hz line cycle noise. This interference is a noise signal that may from local ac currents caused by components in be coupled to the test signal from other instruments in the the test system, or from the deliberate ramping of the magnetic field, such as for magneto-resistance measurement system or other electrical equipment. This noise, superimposed on the dc signal being measured, can measurements. Even the earth’s relatively weak magnetic field can generate nanovolt levels in result in highly inaccurate and fluctuating measurements. dangling leads, so leads should be kept short and For instance, millivolts of noise can be a common rigidly tied down. occurrence near fluorescent lights.

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Test & Measurement

Magnetic equations of basic physics show that the amount of voltage a magnetic field induces in a circuit is proportional to the area the circuit leads enclose and the rate of change in magnetic flux density. The induced voltage is calculated using the equation:

dΦ d(BA) dA dB +A = =B dt dt dt dt where V = induced voltage; A = loop area; B = magnetic flux density; Φ = magnetic flux. Because the induced voltage is proportional both to the magnitude of A and B as well as to the rate of change, the best way to minimize induced voltage is to keep both A and B to a minimum by reducing loop area. Also consider that when leads are twisted together, induced voltage is considerably reduced. Conductors that carry large currents should also be shielded or run as twisted pairs to avoid generating magnetic fields that can effect nearby circuits. GROUND LOOPS One of the most notorious sources of noise and error voltage is the ground loop. When there are two connections to earth, such as when the source and measuring instruments both connect to a common ground bus, a loop forms. A voltage (Vg) between the source and instrument grounds will cause a current (I) to flow around the loop. This current will create an unwanted voltage in series with the source voltage. From Ohm’s Law:

Vg = I x R where Vg = ground loop interfering voltage; R = the resistance (ohms) in the signal path through which the ground loop current flows; I = the ground loop current, A.

REFERENCES: Information courtesy of Keithley Instruments, a Tektronix company. www.tek.com/keithley

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A typical example of a ground loop is when a number of instruments are plugged into power strips on different instrument racks. Frequently, there is a small difference in potential between the ground points. This potential difference can cause large currents to circulate and create unexpected voltage drops. The cure for such ground loops is to ground all equipment at a single point. The easiest way of doing this is to use isolated power sources and instruments, then find a single, good earth-ground point for the entire system. Avoid connecting sensitive instruments to the same ground systems used by other instruments, machinery, or other high-power equipment. Finally, accuracy in measurements of low-level signals involves common sense. Start by eliminating the noise source. Removing the source of noise eliminates the need for dealing with the noise in the first place. Also, don’t forget shielding. Suffice to say that observing proper shielding techniques will greatly cut noise levels. Lastly, incorporate filters. Use filters either on their own or in combination with other noise-reducing methods.

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SIX OSCILLOSCOPE FEATURES

Six oscilloscope features I wish I knew before graduation User interfaces have become more advanced and measurements more automated – and less tolerant of improper measurement setups.

BARRETT POE

KEYSIGHT TECHNOLOGIES, INC.

LONG

before every oscilloscope carried an autoscale button, and before touch-screen triggering was a gleam in someone’s eye, aspiring engineers would need to manually adjust settings for the time base and voltage sensitivity. And they would have to do so before even considering the way they would hook the probes to their projects. After all, how would other students react if they found out who fried the only oscilloscope in the department? Now, more affordable equipment is becoming available to universities. There’s a trend toward multiple wellstocked labs fitted with the newest mixed-signal digital oscilloscopes. Measurement automation is gaining traction, but at a cost: Some students may miss out on learning how their lab equipment can bring faster, more efficient lab hours and streamlined report writing. Here is a list of the basics that can help newly minted engineers excel, and help engineering students stand out among their classmates. TAKE ADVANTAGE OF OPEN LAB HOURS This isn’t technically a function of an oscilloscope, but it will enable you to try

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out features without being pressed for time or fighting over bench space. With the advent of cheap and accessible microcontrollers, the maker revolution, and the ever increasing popularity of the Internet of Things (IoT), there are many reasons to make use of open lab time. Lab equipment is a resource that can promote learning, not sit on a shelf to collect dust. In school, most of the time all it takes to get an after-hours lab key is a desire to learn and a professor’s signature. At work, after-hours access to equipment is often even easier. AVOID THE “AUTO” TEMPTATION While the autoscale button has useful function in some situations, you will gain more insight into your measurement by avoiding it. Additionally, the autoscale button will not always function as you intend. For example, trying to probe the envelope of an amplitude-modulated waveform can lead to misleading measurements and confusion. If you refrain from using this feature, you will have a better understanding of your measurement and how the scope is being configured. This also leads to the need for knowledge about the basics of triggering… TRIGGER SETUP To master your measurement setup, you’ll need to know how to set up the triggering basics — the channel on which you are triggering, the voltage at which you are triggering, and settings for rising/falling edges. These are mostly straightforward. They’re covered in the first or second term of introductory EE classes. Besides these basics, a few more advanced features can help out when triggering on digital signals, especially when they have periodic packets of information. If you see your signal overlap with itself, as in the accompanying figure, you may need to adjust the Trigger Holdoff Time. Trigger Holdoff Time, or just Holdoff, is the minimum amount of time between a trigger event and when the trigger resets for the next trigger event. In general, you want to set

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Test & Measurement

this period to a value just shorter than the period of the incoming packets. In this way, you can trigger on the first transition of one packet and then “hold-off” on the next trigger until just before the next packet arrives. ROLL & XY DEFLECTION Two more useful modes on most modern scopes are Roll and XY Deflection. Roll mode removes the triggering and displays the channel outputs as a steady stream of data. Similar to how you would read a stock ticker, the newest data comes in on the right and the old data leaves on the left. In this way, one can get a real-

time glance at what is on the probe, without having to wait for the trigger to activate. This feature is especially useful for measuring slow-moving signals where you would like to know the data you capture before the trigger threshold voltage is met. Two application examples include voltage discharging from a large capacitor, or a pulse monitor that senses a heartbeat every second. The timebase can still be modified to set the time for data to display before leaving the screen. XY Deflection mode removes the timebase and allows the user to control the x and y axes with two channels of the scope. Back in the days of cathode-ray oscilloscopes, the scope could be configured to deflect the electron beam based on the voltage of the two channels — one for the x-axis, one for the y-axis. This feature is useful for displaying hysteresis on Schmitt triggers. In more advanced signal processing, this mode has practical applications in audio devices for measuring the phase between left and right channels, where phase information will produce a Lissajous curve. SAVING Report writing is a tedious aspect of engineering that will dominate your entire college and professional career. Getting in good habits early will save you time and stress in the long run. You may be tempted to save under the equipment’s default naming/numbering scheme and sort out the data later. This can be a dangerous game to play. Instead, save acquired data with descriptive names. Don’t forget to add a name label on each channel to provide further documentation for the test setup.

A 1-KHZ TRAIN of sync pulses with the default hold-off settings (top); hold-off set to just below the period of the incoming trains, 992 µs (bottom).

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Test & Measurement

Another feature of modern lab equipment is the ability to save and recall test setups. Taking a few minutes to store the timebase, channel sensitivity settings, channel names, and trigger settings into a test setup file will help you pick up where you left off at the next lab session. Adding a setup file for power supplies and signal generators will also cut setup time and prevent missteps the next time you turn on the instrument. MATH FUNCTIONS Math functions on an oscilloscope are the powerhouse of report writing. Math measurements not only help calculate data, they can also display these results on the screen, a feature helpful for documenting results. With a little

creativity, it’s easy to acquire more than just your system’s time data. To capture the bandwidth of a filter, for example, use a frequency sweeping sine wave and the FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) function, then turn on the scope’s persistence display feature. After sweeping a few times you can measure the corner frequencies easily. In addition to the internal math functions supplied with the scope, you can define your own math functions to really push the limits of your measurement equipment. Just be careful not to rely on automated measurements too much. When in doubt, the cursors are handy as well. Even after mastering the above techniques, there is always more to learn. Active probing, segmented memory,

Non Return to Zero (NRZ) protocols, and Mixed Signal Oscilloscopes (MSOs) are just a few of the additional features and capabilities found in modern oscilloscopes. As data rates skyrocket in the fifthgeneration (5G) wireless space and oscilloscope bandwidths rise beyond 100 GHz, knowledge of how to use your equipment will grant insight that will give your measurements the competitive edge.

REFERENCES Keysight Technologies Inc. www.keysight.com

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TESTING DC-TO-DC CONVERTERS

How to test DC-to-DC converters LARRY SHARP

CHROMA SYSTEMS SOLUTIONS, INC.

Functional and safety tests can show whether dc/dc converters perform the way their manufacturers claim they do.

DC-TO-DC

converters (DC/DC) are devices used to convert one dc voltage to another. Users and manufacturers may characterize DC/DC converters by running a variety of tests. We’ll describe several here, but the list is not intended to be all inclusive. These tests can run manually or via an automated test system (ATS) with custom or dedicated software. These tests are intended to confirm that the DC/DC converters operate within their specified limits. They can be used for engineering product design verification tests, manufacturing production tests, incoming or receiving inspection tests, or qualification tests. Here are some of the most common tests for DC/DC converters. Input turn-on, input turn-off voltage levels and timing test: DC/ DC converters have a specified input voltage operating range. To confirm the DC/DC converter works properly over the entire range of input voltages, they are tested using an adjustable or programmable dc source to provide the input voltage. A dc electronic load is used on the output of the DC/DC converter to set the output load current and simulate the device that the DC/DC converter would power. To test the minimum input voltage turn-on level, the DC/DC converter is turned on using the nominal input voltage while using the electronic load to apply the maximum rated output current or power. The input voltage is then reduced until the unit output begins to drop or the minimum input voltage setting is met.

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A TYPICAL RACK-MOUNTED automated test system for checking dc/dc converters. This one contains a Chroma electronic dc load. Chroma test equipment is specifically designed for functional, safety and reliability testing.

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Test & Measurement

Typical set up for DC/DC converter tests

Turn-on and turn-off times

The remote-sense terminals on a dc load and dc power supply can ensure input and output voltage settings are accurate during tests of input turn-on and turn-off voltage levels and timing. Turn-on time is the period from the point the minimum input voltage is reached to the top time the output voltage is within the output regulation limits. Turn-off time starts when the input voltage drops below the specified minimum and ends the output turns off or drops to zero volts.

Hold-up timing test

THE HOLD-UP TIMING TEST indicates the time elapsing from when the input drops below the minimum input voltage to when the output voltage drops below its minimum regulated output

To confirm the DC/DC converter would turn on with a maximum load on the output, the input voltage would be set to the minimum and toggled off and back on while measuring the output voltage and current. The output voltage and ripple and noise may also be measured to see if the lower input voltage setting has any effect on the output stability or ripple. It’s important to use the remote sense leads from the dc power supply to insure the voltage at the DC/DC converter is set to the proper voltage. It’s also important to use the remote-sense on the dc load to insure the output voltage from the DC/DC converter is measured accurately. Additionally, this setup can be used to test and measure the turnon time, turn-off time, and hold-up times. An oscilloscope is used for the ripple and for periodic and random deviation (PARD) measurements. Alternatively, a Chroma 63600 dc load can measure waveforms and display them for the applied voltage and current for as small as a 2 µsec sample rate, using a digitizing measurement feature. Turn-on time indicates the period from the time at which the minimum input voltage is applied to the time the output voltage is within the output regulation limits. Turn-off time indicates when the input voltage drops below the specified minimum and the output turns off or drops to zero volts. The hold-up timing test can use the same setup as the input turn-on and turn-off test. Hold-up timing indicates the time from when the input drops below the minimum input voltage and the output voltage drops below its minimum regulated output tolerance.

tolerance.

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Test & Measurement

This test also indicates how well the output of the DC/DC converter can continue to operate despite short interrupts and drops in the input voltage. Some DC/DC converters have an input fault detection signal. If so, this signal can be used to trigger the test. The Chroma 63600 load can use that trigger to capture and measure the hold-up timing without the need for an oscilloscope. Output line regulation: This test confirms that the output voltage stays within specified regulation limits when the input voltage varies from minimum to maximum operating voltage, as defined in the DC/DC converter specification. During this test the output load is usually set to nominal or maximum current as specified. The output line regulation test involves monitoring the output voltage and recording the total voltage deviation while varying the input voltage from its minimum to maximum specified limits. Some specifications show the output tolerance as a voltage (i.e. 3.3 Vdc ± 0.02 V) or as a percentage (i.e. 3.3 V ± 0.5%). If the measurement accuracies of the output load and input dc source are adequate, then there’s no need for an external measurement device such as a DMM to measure the voltage, current and power. For example, the Chroma 63600 loads and 62000P dc power supplies have accurate measurements for voltage, current and power and need no external DMM. Some test systems include an oscilloscope to confirm the output voltage is stable during this test. Output regulation Ro is calculated as a percentage and given by the equation

Ro =

Vomax - Vomin

× 100

Vonom

Output load regulation: The output load regulation test insures the DC/DC converter output voltage stays within the specified regulation tolerance. Here, the change in output voltage is recorded while load is varied from minimum to maximum current. This delta voltage is used to calculate the percentage of deviation which is compared to the specified load regulation limits. Load regulation Lr is calculated as a percentage from the equation:

LR =

Voio - Voim

× 100

Vonom where Voio = Vout at Iout max; Voim = Vout at Iout min; and Vonom = Vout nominal. Output transient response deviation and time: This test determines how well the output voltage responds to a sudden change in output current. The measurement includes the maximum output voltage deviation and the time it takes for the voltage to recover to its regulated output nominal voltage tolerance. For this test, a dc electronic load is set for a minimum and maximum current and then set for the slew rate for the rising and falling edge of the current transition. The frequency and duty cycle can also be set for the pulsed current. The Chroma

Transient response and slow rate

where Vomax = Vout at Vin max; Vomin = Vout at Vin min; and Vonom = Vout nominal.

A TEST OF OUTPUT transient response deviation and time determines the ability of the output voltage to respond to a sudden change in current. The measurement includes the maximum output voltage deviation and the time it takes for the voltage to recover to its regulated output nominal voltage tolerance.

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TESTING DC-TO-DC CONVERTERS

63600 and 63200A loads can be programmed for all the settings required for a dynamic load and up to 50 Khz frequency with a duty cycle programmable from 1 to 99%. Output ripple and noise voltage: The output ripple and PARD reflects the output voltage of the DC/DC converter and its ability to filter out ripple and noise. Various topologies used in DC/DC converters have different internal switching frequencies which are reflected in the output ripple frequency. For example, internal chopper circuit transients can generate higher frequency noise. The output noise and ripple are measured using an oscilloscope, or with a dc electronic load (such as the Chroma 63600 where the output ripple can be displayed using the digitizing measurement function). To avoid erroneous noise, it is

important to minimize the length of the ground wire on the voltage probe. Output over-current protection: The output over-current protection is intended to protect the DC/DC converter and the device it powers when the load exceeds the converter’s maximum rated current. There are different methods used in overcurrent protection. But the typical approaches are fold-back current limit and pulsing current-limit. The latter is generally referred to as hiccup-mode current limit. Here are the differences between the two methods: In fold-back current limiting, the output voltage begins to drop and limits the output current supplied to the load as the load current rises above the current-limit set point. In hiccup current limiting, the output turns off when the output current exceeds the rated current limit point. It eventually turns back on. If the load continues to exceed the current-limit set-point, the output will continue turning on and off, hence the hiccup-mode name. Output over-voltage protection: Most DC/ DC converters have a built-in protection circuit

that will shut off the output of the device when the output voltage is detected to be over the maximum limit. This facility is referred to as over-voltage protection (OVP). This protects the DC/ DC converter from external excessive voltage applied to the converter output. If the DC/DC converter has an adjustable output (trimmed or programmable output voltage), it may be possible to increase the output voltage until the OVP point is exceeded and the protection circuit activates. If the DC/DC converter does not have an adjustable output, an external voltage source can be applied across the output terminal, increased to the OVP trip point, then

A SCREEN SHOT of a display generated by a Chroma 63200A high power dc electronic load as it generates a specialized waveform for dc/dc converter testing. An electronic load can replicate actual load waveforms to test the converter under real-world conditions.

A SCOPE-SCREEN SHOT of a DC/DC converter output ripple voltage. The output ripple and noise reflects the output voltage of the converter and its ability to filter out ripple and noise.

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Test & Measurement

IN FOLD-BACK CURRENT LIMITING, as the load current rises above the current-limit set point, the output voltage begins to drop and limits the current to the load. In hiccup current limiting, the output turns off when the output current exceeds the rated currentlimit point. It then turns back on. If the Load continues to be over the current limit-set point, the output will keep turning on and off.

removed to see if the output has triggered and turned off. DC/DC converters having an OVP fault signal can use it to determine if the output detected the OVP and, if so, shut off the output. The output voltage is monitored to determine when the OVP happened and then compared to the OVP specified limits. Output operating temperature and over-temperature protection: DC/DC converters have an operating temperature range, and many have an over-temperature protection (OTP) circuit that will turn off the output if temperature gets sufficiently high. For this test, a thermal chamber can raise and lower the DC/DC converter temperature to simulate the operating temperature range. Thermocouples and thermal probes or infrared thermal measurement devices can measure the temperatures on the body of the DC/DC converter. During the operating temperature test, the DC/DC converter is loaded to its maximum rating for current and power. Meanwhile, the output voltage is monitored to verify it stays within specified limits. During the test, the device temperature is recorded while monitoring the output voltage until the OTP circuit triggers and the output shuts off. The unit is then allowed to cool and input voltage is toggled off and on to verify the DC/DC converter recovers from the OTP.

Custom load waveform simulation or real-world load simulation: Some DC/DC converters have applications characterized by a load with unusual dynamic changes and waveforms. An electronic load can replicate actual load waveforms to test the DC/DC converter under such conditions. One such family of dc electronic loads has user-defined waveforms up to 50 kHz and slew rates of 10 A/µsec. Waveforms can be stored and recalled manually or from the remote interface via USB, GPIB, or LAN. Efficiency: Efficiency determines the internal power dissipated by the DC/DC converter and how efficiently input power transfers to the converter output. This test usually takes place at the nominal input voltage and with the output load set to nominal or maximum specified ratings. The input voltage, current, and power is measured while the same parameters are measured on the output.

Temperature testing equipment setup

TO CHECK OUTPUT operating temperature and over-temperature protection, a thermal chamber or a TEC platform and controller adjusts the temperature of the converter. During the operating temperature test the converter is loaded to its maximum rating for current and power, and the output voltage is monitored to verify it remains within specified limits.

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Test & Measurement

Typical safety test setups

Efficiency percentage Ep comes from the equation:

Ep =

Vout - Iout

× 100

V in × Iin where Vout and Iout = converter output voltage and current; Vin and Iin = converter input voltage and current.

This test can also capture the efficiency at various power levels. It’s common to plot the data to show efficiency versus output-current. Output Trim Settings: For DC/DC converters that have adjustable outputs or that have trim settings, adjustments can be made manually or can be automated using programmable potentiometers or programmable resistor arrays. The test can be performed to verify the output adjustment range. All the previous tests can be performed to verify the DC/DC converter operates properly at different trim voltages.

AN AC/DC HIPOT TESTER is used when a converter requires insulation

SAFETY TESTING Safety dielectric voltage withstand tests, consider DC/DC converters that can be isolated or non-isolated. Isolated DC/DC converters have an isolation stage between the input and output. So they need functional insulation testing. Typically, if the input voltage exceeds 60 Vdc, the DC/DC converter may need to pass a basic insulation test. Also, if the converter has a connection to safety earth ground, a withstand-voltage test or hipot test will be necessary. This test can be and ac or dc-withstand test. The specific test withstand-voltage is specified by the associated standard. IEC 60950-1 is the standard for information technology equipment and covers a wide variety of devices.

tests through application of a dielectric withstand voltage. The first test configuration shown here would be for determining whether isolation from the input to the output was adequate. The second would be for determining the insulation between the converter input and any metal enclosure or metal surface tied to safety ground.

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REFERENCES Chroma Systems Solutions, www.chromausa.com

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TESTS FOR POWER AMPLIFIERS

Testing RF power amps with scopes MIKE BORSCH, MIKE SCHNECKER ROHDE & SCHWARZ

Modern transceivers often incorporate several parallel RF front ends whose control signaling can be sorted out with advanced instrumentation.

THE RADIO

frequency (RF) frontend configuration in mobile devices continues to evolve and get better. The trend in mobile radio communications is toward complex multi-radio systems perhaps incorporating several parallel transceivers. This makes modern RF front-end design super complex. The Mobile Industry Processor Interface (MIPI) Alliance Specification for RF Front-End Control Interface (RFFE) is widely used within wireless devices to more efficiently control these complicated front ends. The interface boosts performance by supporting multi-mode, multi-band and multiple antennas, all with a minimum number of wires and pins using a single RFFE bus. One key function of the RFFE interface is controlling the power amplifier gain as well as switching the RF signal. It’s critical to understand the reaction time and characteristics of the signal in

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relation to the specific RFFE command. And it’s vital to test RFFE command synchronization for power amplifiers. A measurement system must trigger on an RFFE protocol event, measure the RF power envelope of the signal, and analyze the spectrum. Oscilloscopes use a combination of features --including spectrum analysis and RMS detection, along with real-time serial data trigger and decode -- which make them well suited for this measurement.

HERE’S A SUMMARY of major RFFE characteristics and a signal diagram for a typical RFFE data frame.

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Test & Measurement

RFFE BACKGROUND The RFFE interface is designed to support existing Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) cellular standards such as LTE, E-GPRS, UMTS and HSPA, as well as non-3GPP air interfaces. It is intended to be efficient, flexible, and extensible, accommodating many variations in the overlying system design. Simultaneously, it provides interoperability at the interface level between compliant radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs) and front-end modules (FEMs). There are a variety of FEMs, including power amplifiers (PAs), low-noise amplifiers (LNAs), filters, switches, power management modules, antenna tuners and

sensors. They may reside either in dedicated devices or be integrated into a single device, depending on the application and technology applied. To control RF devices, RFFE has requirements for both the physical and upper protocol layers. It incorporates a compact two-wire interface (SCLK, SDATA) with one master clock that can go up to 26 MHz. Data transfer bidirectionally among up to 15 slave devices per bus master. One specialty of the protocol is that the SDATA receiver may use a glitch rejection filter on the SDATA input. The latest version of MIPI RFFE, v2.0, brings five important technical features to the widely used interface. First, it provides for an extended range of bus operating frequencies that effectively doubles the number of command sequences that can transfer on the bus in a given amount of time. This feature boosts overall data speeds for end users. Second, a synchronous read lets the slave devices propagate more types of data on the bus to expand the range of bus loading and enable the use of extended frequencies. Third, a multi-master configuration

supports carrier aggregation system architectures as well as the use of multiple transceivers and dualSIM designs. Fourth, an interrupt-capable slave function gives the master controller on the bus a quick way to poll the slave devices. Finally, reserved registers improve the efficiency of hardware and software development. A typical RFFE measurement is the settling time for a PA after a gain shift. The controller issues an RFFE command to the PA which, in turn, adjusts its gain accordingly. The key measurement is the

TYPICAL CONNECTIONS FOR MEASURING RFFE parameters in an RF power amp. The oscilloscope contains a protocol trigger capable of decoding the RFFE signal and triggering the acquisition of the RF signal from the power amplifier. The instrument digitizes the signal and detects the power envelope and spectrum.

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Test & Measurement

A SET-UP MENU for the RFFE protocol (above) on the Rohde & Schwarz RTO digital oscilloscope. The bus is probed using two channels of the instrument or alternately, two of the signal lines on the MSO (logic analyzer module) within the instrument. The menu allows the setting of the threshold levels as well as glitch detection. The latter is an important feature of the RFFE interface that prevents erroneous detection of logic levels on noise. The decoded signal is displayed time-aligned with the analog signal. Once defined, the serial bus can be used as a trigger source and for triggerdefined events. In the RFFE trigger setup (right), the trigger is set to capture the data hex value 0x02 on the slave address F.

time from the receipt of the command to where the power settles to within a percentage of its final power level. This is a function of the amount of gain adjustment (larger is more difficult) as well as several other conditions such as the frequency of the signal. Most serial bus architectures rely on the concept of abstraction layers or a protocol stack to transmit information using fewer physical lines. Because an oscilloscope captures the analog information (physical layer), it often contains the root information for viewing protocols as well. RFFE PROTOCOL TRIGGER One benefit of oscilloscopes is their ability to trigger on specific signal qualities to allow capturing and measuring specific portions of a signal. Modern oscilloscopes can trigger on a wide variety of signal events from a simple edge to more complex features such as pulse width and slew rate. Going one step further, some oscilloscopes can interpret a given signal as a serial data stream, detect the bits, and then interpret the protocol using this stream as a trigger event.

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Many digital scopes allow glitch detection. This is an important feature that, in the case of the RFFE interface, prevents erroneous detection of logic levels on noise. The decoded signal is displayed time-aligned with the analog signal. Once defined, the serial bus can be used as a trigger source and trigger defined events. Numerous techniques have been used to measure the power of a signal. Peak power meters are the most accurate way to measure the power level. But these meters do not have an RFFE triggering capability, so they can’t make timing measurements.

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TESTS FOR POWER AMPLIFIERS

A common way of detecting signal power is to use a detector. A detector is basically a diode that converts the RF carrier to a voltage proportional to the square of the signal amplitude. The detector voltage is then displayed on a scope. While the square-law detector is effective, it is also possible to use math on the acquired waveform to realize the square-law detection. High bandwidth oscilloscopes, such as the Rohde & Schwarz RTO, use fast A/D converters to acquire the signal waveform at RF (in the case of the RTO, this sampling rate is 10 Gs/ sec). The power envelope changes at a much lower rate than the carrier. So the sample rate of the A/D can be lowered using a process called decimation which drops samples. The decimation process can also take place using math. By computing the RMS value of the signal over a specific interval, say 100 samples, the sampling rate drops to 100 Ms/ sec and the waveform is equal to the RMS voltage of the RF signal. The power is displayed by scaling the waveform, dividing it by the 50-Ω input impedance of the oscilloscope. SPECTRUM MEASUREMENT It is often useful to know the spectrum of the RF signal during switching. That’s because it is undesirable to generate out-of-band spurious signals that can interfere with other receivers in today’s dense RF environment. Oscilloscopes measure the RF spectrum by running a fast Fourier transform (FFT) algorithm on the acquired signal. Here the spectrum represents a “snapshot” in time of the frequencies present, synchronized with the other

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Test & Measurement

AN EXAMPLE OF A PULSED RF carrier displayed using sample (top, peak-to-peak level) and RMS (bottom, envelope) detection. The peak readout of the RMS trace in this case is 60 mV which is 0.072 µW or -11.4 dBm. The signal source power was set to -10 dBm.

IN THIS EXAMPLE of gating, the pulsed RF carrier is in the upper window while two spectrums display below it, each with a specific gate. On the left, the gate is located on the portion of the RF waveform where the pulse is not present while the spectrum on the right is gated on the RF pulse.

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signals being measured on the oscilloscope, including the RFFE bus. A technique called FFT gating can be used to focus the spectrum measurement on a specific time within the acquisition identified by a gate. Some oscilloscopes, like the R&S RTO, include a fairly subtle but significant FFT capability. Standard oscilloscopes compute the FFT on a portion of the signal waveform determined by the desired frequency resolution. For example, a 100-kHz-resolution bandwidth requires an acquisition time of 10 µsec (actually 20 µsec because of windowing). If the acquisition time necessary for the switching event is, say, one millisecond, only 10% of the waveform is used. In many cases, the oscilloscope will force the FFT to use all of the waveform data, thereby setting the resolution to 1 kHz in this case. This resolution issue causes problems: The computation includes 10x the number of data samples, and it is not possible to gate the time over which the spectrum is computed. More advanced oscilloscopes let users set the resolution independent of the displayed waveform time. If more time is available, then the scope computes multiple FFTs on subsections of the waveform, and the displayed spectrum is the overlay of them all. All in all, the interface of the RTO oscilloscope offers a timeaccurate triggering mechanism that enables precise control of time-critical functions in multiple slave devices. The specification

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Test & Measurement

also controls a variety of command sequences that can be used to determine the amount of data that can be transferred on the bus, and employs slew-rate controls to help mitigate emissions at sensitive radio receivers.

An oscilloscope with RF measurement capabilities and serial trigger and decode can help accurately measure the response time and power spectrum of MIPI RFFE signals and contribute to a better user experience.

REFERENCES Rohde & Schwarz, www.rohde-schwarz.com MIPI Alliance, www.mipi.org

MEAS UREMENT EXAMPLE Suppose the device-under-test is a PA controlled by an RFFE signal, and the power is ramped by switching on the PA. A Rohde & Schwarz RTO1044 oscilloscope is set to probe the RFFE clock and data lines using digital signal lines D0 and D1 respectively on the MSO module. The PA is commanded to switch on and the oscilloscope is set to trigger when the data value 0x02 hex goes to slave address 0xF on the RFFE bus. The RF output connects to channel one of the RTO and the time scale is set to 500 µsec so the complete settling time can be observed. The figure (top) shows the resulting measurement for a CW input signal at -10 dBm. The upper grid shows the decoded RFFE command where the trigger value of 0x02 is visible. Note the trigger point denoted by the triangle at the top of the grid corresponds to the decoded value. The center grid shows the RF carrier and a math trace that computes the power envelope of the carrier. The trigger point also displays on this grid. There are two markers on the math trace showing the power before and after the PA switches on. The readouts to the left of the grid show the values at 130 nW and 516 µW respectively. The bottom grid shows the power spectrum of the carrier at a point 86.5 µsec from the trigger (receipt of the RFFE command). A marker at the peak indicates the power level of -2.87 dBm or 500 µW. A similar configuration is measured in the figure below. In this case, the signal is an LTE carrier applied to the power amplifier. The spectrum in the lower grid is taken at a point 44 µsec from the trigger (also the decoded RFFE command).

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MANAGING INTERFACES

Managing interfaces in power supplies for test equipment LORENZO CIVIDINO PAUL KINGSEPP

SL POWER ELECTRONICS CORP.

An awareness of standards for conducted and radiated emissions helps in fielding power supplies that don’t cause havoc in attached electronics.

INNOVATIONS

such as the Internet of Things (IoT), 5G cellular standards, WiGig, 4K video, and other developments are causing quite a flurry of market activity. In fact, they are driving the creation of myriad new devices and making existing products more functional. But these innovations are also creating formidable challenges for test equipment designers. One of them involves integrating a power supply into a design. Specialized power supplies are now designed with operational parameters most important to test equipment performance. These important parameters include conducted and radiated electromagnetic interference (EMI), electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), differential/common mode noise, thermal performance, regulatory requirements, product life and other more application-specific factors. A power supply that excels at these parameters can be integrated into test equipment with less effort.

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This is particularly true for electromagnetic noise. Equipment designers can spend significant amounts of time alleviating power supply noise effects by adding filters and/ or taking numerous measurements to ensure readings are accurate and not influenced by noise. It is useful to consider the standards that can apply to noise levels in test equipment. EMI limits, for example, are detailed in various industry standards: EN55011 is a European standard that applies to industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) equipment. (CISPR 11, by the International Committee on Radio Frequency Interference, is an international standard that is essentially equivalent to EN55011.) The standard divides these products into two groups, Group 1 and Group 2. EN55011 Group 1 limits are identical to EN 55022 limits. Group 2 pertains to products that use RF as an output. Therefore, switch-mode power supplies are not considered in Group 2. EN55022 (CISPR 22) applies to information technology equipment (ITE). EN55015 (CISPR 15) applies to lighting equipment. Both EN55011 and EN55022 contain two classes: Class A and Class B. EN55015 has only one set of limits: Class A equipment is that used in a domestic environment which may cause radio interference with other

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Test & Measurement

equipment nearby. Class B equipment is designed to be used in a domestic environment and won’t cause radio interference with nearby equipment. For conducted interference, EN 55022 and EN 55011 measure the emissions from equipment in the 150 kHz to 30 MHz range, while EN 55015 measures over the extended range of 9 kHz to 30 MHz using a conducted measurement technique on the ac mains input cable. The conducted emission limits in these standards are intended to protect equipment connected to the same ac mains supply. For radiated interference, EN 55022 and EN 55011 measure equipment emissions in the frequency range from 30 MHz to 1 GHz while EN 55015 measures the emission from equipment in the frequency range 30 MHz to 300 MHz using a receiving antenna and recording the over-the-air signals. The radiated emission limits applied by these standards aim to protect equipment near the device being tested. Power supply manufacturers test their products to these standards, usually powering a resistive load. Of course, once power supplies are integrated into end equipment, the load profiles may change. End equipment can change the EMI profile, perhaps forcing the supply to stray from the EMI limits. It then becomes the job of equipment designers to bring EMI in the end equipment below the applicable limits. This is one reason equipment designers often use power supplies that meet EMI standards with a wide margin of safety: Such supplies are more likely to avoid EMI concerns when built into end equipment.

IEC/EN Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) Immunity Standards Useful for power supplies

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EMC Other operational parameters that testequipment designers are concerned with relate to EMC. In general, EMC standards cover many different parameters that deal with outside influences that can affect the operation of both power supplies and the end equipment they are used in. EMC standards for power supplies are listed under IEC61000 (in Europe, EN61000). Equipment that goes through testing to this standard can have one of four levels of acceptance criteria: •

Criteria A — Normal performance within limits specified by the manufacturer, requestor or purchaser. Criteria B — Temporary loss of function or degradation of performance which ceases after the disturbance is removed and from which the equipment-under-test recovers its normal performance without operator intervention.

Typical

Heavy Industrial

Electrostatic Discharge Test

IEC/EN61000-4-2

Level 3 (6kV Cont., 8kV air)

Level 4 (8kV Cont., 15kV air)

Radiated RFI Immunity

IEC/EN61000-4-3

Level 2, 3V/m

Level 3, 10V/m

Electrical Fast Transients/Burst

IEC/EN61000-4-4

Level 3, +/-2kV

Level 4, +/-4kV

Mains Surges

IEC/EN61000-4-5

Conducted RFI

IEC/EN61000-4-6

Level 2, 3Vrms

Level 3, 10Vrms

Mains Frequency Magnetic Field

IEC/EN61000-4-8

Level 2, 3Arms/m

Level 4, 10Arms/m

Supply Voltage Dips and Interruptions

IEC/EN61000-4-11

Class 3

Class 3

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Class 3, 1kV diff mode, Class 4, 1kV diff mode, 2kV Com mode 4kV Com mode

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Test & Measurement

Criteria C — Temporary loss of function or degradation of performance, and the operator must intervene to correct it. Criteria D — An unrecoverable loss of function or degradation of performance caused by damage to hardware or software, or loss of data.

Not all of the above standards may apply for all test equipment, and the performance levels and criteria of those standards will also vary, depending on the environments in which the end equipment is being designed to operate. Makers of power supplies should specify not just the IEC/EN61000 standard the supply follows, but also the level and operational criteria with which the supply complies. Stating that the power supply complies to a given standard without specifying the test level at which it complies and the performance criteria during the

test, does not give the system designer enough details to evaluate the supply. Power supplies that meet tougher standards can give equipment designers confidence that their system-level EMC tests won’t cause problems without adding filters or other protections. An equally important source of noise is CMN. CMN on the output of a power supply is often overlooked and rarely specified. This oversight may be because the designer doesn’t know how it can impact product performance, but also because it may not be an issue. Power supply outputs are often referenced to earth or chassis ground in end applications. In this case, CMN will likely not be an issue. However, it can be instructive to understand the commonmode currents that flow while making their way to ground. The EN 55103-1 EMC standard (for audio, video, audio-visual and entertainment lighting control apparatus), EN55022, and associated standards (CISPR 22) give limits and measurement methods for common-mode disturbances on telecommunications and network ports. However, it is common practice to reference the output of the power supply to ground in this type of equipment. Refer to these standards for the measurement method and limit.

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MANAGING INTERFACES

For applications where these standards do not apply, loads can see adverse effects from commonmode voltages. If the output of the power supply connects to chassis/ earth ground somewhere on the load board (electronics circuitry), there can be common mode currents flowing through the board. Also, if the printed circuit board layout is subpar, current can flow through sensitive parts of the circuitry and cause malfunctions. In the case of test equipment, the current may cause erroneous measurement readings unless the common-mode noise (CMN) is filtered or potential errors filtered out by data sampling. CMN can be specified in Volts rms or peak-to-peak, or in units of current (mA). Designers concerned with CMN tend to analyze it based upon its effects on their design.

Power supply datasheets typically do not specify CMN. It may be impractical to eliminate CMN, but a power supply that can specify a CMN value, both high frequency noise and low frequency noise, will give system designers some idea of the components needed to integrate the power supply into their equipment. All in all, many power supplies specify performance to a few parameters, leaving designers to tackle others during development. A power supply that can performs well for most, if not all of these important parameters, will ensure an easier integration effort for design engineers. Review those datasheets carefully, as what you don’t see may cause extra work later.

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Test & Measurement

Flexible power for critical mission systems Commercial-off-the-shelf power equipment can be an option for situations that normally

GERALD HOVDESTAD BEHLMAN ELECTRONICS

demand specialized designs optimized for harsh conditions.

BEHLM AN DCR2U Critical Mission Power Supply

A LOT

of DOD and industrial equipment is so specialized that it must be custom-developed – it just can’t be bought off-the-shelf. Ironically, there is a large array of commercial products that would be candidates for such uses but for one thing: They aren’t compatible with the power available. That goes even for relatively common devices such as displays, servers, printers, memory, and sensors. Power compatibility becomes a serious issue because there are a wide array of power specifications such as MIL-STD-1399, MIL-STD-704, MILSTD-1275, DO160, and numerous others. These specifications continually undergo revisions, making the compatibility problem exponentially more challenging. When a manufacturer claims compatibility with a specification such as MIL-STD-704, a knowledgeable prospective customer typically asks, “Which version?”

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Consider, also, that there are a number of voltage levels and configurations used for distributing both dc and ac power. Common dc power voltages include 12, 28, 48, and 270 V. AC lines can be 50, 60, or 400 Hz and distributed in single and multiple phases, using wye and delta arrangements, with voltages ranging from 115 to 440 V. One way of managing this diversity is to use flexible power conditioning equipment to permit the use of high-reliability COTS (commercial off-the-shelf) components. The use of commercial ofthe-shelf components is a possibility if input power can be stabilized, removing voltage and frequency fluctuations, as well as momentary transients and dropouts. For example, COTS power supplies are an option to condition the “dirty power” to produce clean, regulated 115 Vac 60 Hz or 400 Hz, without 180 Vac transients or 50-msec or 200-msec dropouts or a stable 28 Vdc. For the most critical requirements, power supplies can be configured in a redundant N+1 configuration so a single failure won’t affect the mission. The redundancy might take the form of individual plug-in units or redundant components housed in a single supply. COTS power supplies have steadily grown physically smaller with better reliability. COTS power modules can now be had in the 2 to 4-kW range with MTBF as high as 300,000 hours, both calculated and demonstrated. Power devices such as Behlman’s DCR2U Critical Mission Power Supply are now configurable to accept dc inputs (28 V,

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COTS POWER FOR CRITICAL MISSIONS

48 V or 270 V) or ac inputs (single or three phase, 47-440 Hz or wide frequency), and provide up to 4 kW out of up to four dc voltages, from 3.3 to 48 V, all in a 2U, 30-lb package. Where even smaller size is required, 6U or 3U VPXtra power supplies are available that weigh 2 to 4 lb and produce up to 1,500 W of dc from an ac source. These can be paralleled where there is a need for higher power. A flexible input power source can drastically reduce system development time. For example, a major prime contractor came to Behlman with a COTS solution for an important development program, but had a major power problem. The U.S. Navy needed a dipping sonar for a shipboard application. It had been under development for several years with no clear end point. The prime

manufacturer noted that its existing product was already qualified and would meet all the specifications without any further work, but for one thing: This sonar was designed to work on aircraft and wasn’t compatible with shipboard power. Available power was MIL-STD-1399 115-V single-phase or 300 Vdc. The existing sonar required three-phase 400-Hz 200-V power per MIL-STD-704. To solve the problem, Behlman was able to combine three standard COTS frequency converters producing approximately 5 kW and package both the Behlman power supplies and the dipping sonar in a water-cooled enclosure. The Behlman supplies were conduction-cooled and mounted to a water-cooled plate. The dipping sonar required air-cooling, so the plate had a heat exchanger which cooled the air, allowing the sonar to work as designed. The net result was that the Navy had a working radar in less than six months using this COTS approach. It would have taken two years of effort for a completely new R&D program using non-COTS equipment. Whether the power is for a T&M bench in a lab, support of production on a manufacturing floor, or for the most sophisticated electronics on military vehicles, some COTS power supplies are versatile enough to provide rapid, costeffective solutions.

REFERENCES Behlman Electronics, Behlman.com

Programmable Switching Systems for Automated Test, Data Acquisition and Communications. We have solutions for any signal. LAN, GPIB, RS232 or USB Controlled. Five year warranty and lifetime tech support. Software support for any platform.

cytec-ate.com sales@cytec-ate.com 585.381.4740

Quality Products, Excellent Service, Reasonable Prices. Still Made in the USA!

testandmeasurementtips.com | designworldonline.com

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2016

Waveform Update Rate/ Max Trigger Rate

Display size/Touch or nontouch screen

Vertical Resolition

2 GS/sec

2 and 4 analog

24 kpts

Not Specified

7-in. non touch

8 bit

Hand Held

60-100 MHz

1 GS/sec

2 analog

2 Mpts

Not Specified

5.7-in. non-touch

Bandwidth

Channels

70-300 MHz

Max Sample Rate

Bench

Form Factor

Max Memory Depth

(bench, portable, modular, scientific, PC-based, USB-based, mixed signal)

Oscilloscope Buyers’ Guide

B&K Precision — Yorba Linda, CA, +1.800.462.9832, bkprecision.com 2550 Series

2510 Series 8 bit

Fluke Corp. — Everett, WA, +1.425.347.6100, en-us.fluke.com ScopeMeter 120B series Portable

20, 40 MHz

up to 4.0 GS/sec

2

2,400 pts/ input

Not Specified

3.5 x 4.56 in. (640 x 480 pixels)

Portable

60, 100, 200 & 500 MHz

up to 5 GS/sec

2 or 4

10 kpts

Not Specified

4.99 x 3.48 in. (320 x 240 pixels)

8 bits

ScopeMeter 190 series 

8 bits

Teledyne LeCroy — Chestnut Ridge, NY, USA, +1.800.553. 2769, teledynelecroy.com LabMaster 10 Zi-A (SDA Models) Benchtop

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20 GHz to 100 GHz

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Up to 240 GS/sec

6 • 2016

Up to 80

Up to 1,536 Mpts/Ch

Up to 1 M waveforms/sec

15.3-in. WXGA Color Touch Screen

8-bit ADC resolution, 11-bit with enhanced resolution

testandmeasurementtips.com

6/14/16 11:43 AM


Test & Measurement

Buyer’s Guide

TESTANDMEASUREMENTTIPS.COM

the table. It can be found at www.testandmeasurementtips. com. That version is interactive and includes data about triggering and automated measurement capabilities. It is updated continually to make it an even more useful scope selection tool.

Time Scale Accuracy

1 nsec/div ~ 50 sec/div or 2.5 nsec/div ~ 50 sec/div or 5 nsec/div ~ 50 sec/div

100 ppm

2 mV/div ~100 V/div or 5 mV/div ~100 V/div

2.5 nsec/div ~ 50 sec/div or 5 nsec/div ~ 50 sec/div

50 ppm

163.2 (W) × 259.5(H) × 53.3 (D) mm

Embedded OS

5 mV to 500 V/Div

20 nsec to 60 sec/div

±(0.1% +0.04 time/div)

10.2 × 5.2 × 2.15 in

Embedded OS

$1,499 to $1,899

2mv to 1,000 V/Div

1 nsec to 2 min/Div

±(100 ppm + 0.04 div)

10.5 × 7.5 × 2.8 in

Embedded OS

$3,299 to $5,199

Between 5 mV and 10 mV/div

10 psec/div. - 256 sec./div.

< 0.1 ppm+ aging of 0.05 ppm/ yr from last calib.

18.2(W) × 10.9(H) × 15.6(D) in.

Windows

Starting price $111,000

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Buyers Guide 3.indd 51

358(W) × 118(H) × 156(D) mm

6 • 2016

Embedded OS

Price Range

Time Base Range

2 mV/div 10 V/div

Footprint

Vertical Sensitivity

annual oscilloscope buyers’ guide gives instrument users a handy way to compare scope offerings and make side-by-side comparisons.We polled major scope manufacturers to get the latest prices, specifications, and offerings that let scope users make intelligent evaluations of instrument brands. We’ve also created an online version of

OS (Windows or embedded)

OUR

$1,015 ~ $2,495

$935 ~ $2,395

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Max Sample Rate

Channels

Max Memory Depth

Waveform Update Rate/ Max Trigger Rate

Display size/Touch or nontouch screen

Vertical Resolition

Benchtop

13 GHz to 30 GHz

Up to 80 GS/sec

Up to 80

Up to 512 Mpts/Ch

Up to 1 M waveforms/sec

15.3-in. WXGA Color Touch Screen

8-bit ADC resolution, 11-bit with enhanced resolution

Benchtop

4 GHz to 30 GHz

Up to 80 GS/sec

4

Up to 512 Mpts/Ch

Up to 1 M waveforms/sec

15.3-in. WXGA Color Touch Screen

8-bit ADC resolution, 11-bit with enhanced resolution

Benchtop

1.5 GHz to 6 GHz

Up to 40 GS/sec

4

Up to 256 Mpts/Ch

1 M waveforms/ sec. (in Sequence mode, up to 4 chan.)

15.3-in. WXGA Color Touch Screen

8-bit ADC resolution, 11-bit with enhanced resolution

12.1-in. Wide Color TFTLCD Touch Screen with UHD External Monitor Support

12.1-in. Color WXGA Rotating Touch Screen

Form Factor

Bandwidth

(bench, portable, modular, scientific, PC-based, USB-based, mixed signal)

Teledyne LeCroy cont. LabMaster 9 Zi-A (SDA/ DDA Models)

WaveMaster 8 Zi-B (SDA/DDA 8 Zi-B)

WavePro 7 Zi-A (SDA/ DDA 7 Zi-A)

HDO8000 Benchtop

350 MHz to 1 GHz

2.5 GS/sec

8

Up to 250 Mpts/Ch

1 M waveforms/ sec. (in Sequence mode, up to 8 chan.)

Benchtop

400 MHz to 4 GHz

Up to 40 GS/sec

4

Up to 128 Mpts/Ch

1 M waveforms/ sec. (in Sequence mode, up to 4 chan.)

Benchtop

350 MHz to 1 GHz

2.5 GS/sec

4, 4 + 16

Up to 250 Mpts/Ch

2.5 GS/sec

2, 4, 2 + 16, 4 + 16

Up to 25 Mpts/ Ch 50 Mpts Interleaved

4, 4 + 18

10 Mpts/ 20 Mpts, 16 Mpts/ 32 Mpts with ADT

12-bit ADC resolution, 15-bit with enhanced resolution

WaveRunner 8000

HDO6000/ HDO6000-MS

HDO4000/ HDO4000-MS Benchtop

200 MHz to 1 GHz

WaveSurfer 10 Benchtop

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1 GHz

10 GS/sec

6 • 2016

12.1-in. Color WXGA Rotating Touch Screen

8-bit ADC resolution, 11-bit with enhanced resolution

12-bit ADC resolution, 15-bit with enhanced resolution

12.1-in. Color WXGA Rotating Touch Screen

12-bit ADC resolution, 15-bit with enhanced resolution

10.4-in. Color SVGA Touch Screen

8-bit ADC resolution, 11-bit with enhanced resolution

testandmeasurementtips.com

6/14/16 11:44 AM


Test & Measurement

Buyer’s Guide Vertical Sensitivity

Time Base Range

Time Scale Accuracy

Footprint

OS (Windows or embedded)

Price Range

10 mV/div.

20 psec/div – 64 sec/div

< 0.1 ppm+ aging of 0.5 ppm/ yr from last calib.

18.2(W) × 10.9(H) × 15.6 (D) in.

Windows

Starting price $146,000

10 mV/div.

20 psec/div – 128 sec/div.

< 0.1 ppm+ aging of 0.5 ppm/ yr from last calib.

18.4(W) × 14(H) × 16 (D) in.

Windows

Starting price $75,600

2 mV/div.

2 psec./div – 3,200 sec./div.

< 0.1 ppm+ aging of 0.5 ppm/ yr from last calib.

18.4(W) × 14(H) × 11.4 (D) in.

Windows

Starting price $29,300

1 mV/div.

20 psec/div. - 25 ksec./div.

± 2.5 ppm + 1.0 ppm/yr from calib.

16.41(W) ×14.72(H) × 11 (D) in.

Windows

Starting price $24,900

1 mV/div.

20 psec./div. - 6.4 ksec/div

± 1.5 ppm + 1.0 ppm/yr from calib.

16.42(W) × 12.44(H) × 9.37(D) in.

Windows

15.72(W) × 11.48(H) × 5.17 (D) in.

Windows

15.72(W) × 11.48(H) × 5.17 (D) in.

Windows

Starting price $9,000

13.4(W) × 10.25(H) × 6 (D) in.

Windows

Starting price $10,000

50 Ω: 1 mV-1 V/div, fully variable; 1 MΩ: 1 mV-10 V/div, fully variable 50 Ω: 1 mV/div - 1 V/div

testandmeasurementtips.com

Buyers Guide 3.indd 53

TESTANDMEASUREMENTTIPS.COM

200 ps/div - 1.25 ks/div with standard memory (up to 2.5 ks/div with -L memory); RIS available at <= 10 ns/div; Roll Mode available at >= 100 ms/div and <= 5 MS/s

±2.5ppm for 5 to 40C + 1.0ppm/year from calibration

6 • 2016

Starting price $14,000

Starting price $15,200

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Channels

Max Memory Depth

Display size/Touch or nontouch screen

Vertical Resolition

WaveSurfer MSO MXs-B/ MXs-B

200 MHz to 1 GHz

2.5 GS/sec to 10 GS/sec

4, 4 + 18

16 Mpts/Ch 32 Mpts Interleaved

10.4-in color SVGA Touch Screen

8-bit ADC resolution, 11-bit with enhanced resolution

Benchtop

200 MHz to 750 MHz

2 GS/sec to 4 GS/sec

2, 4, 2 + 16, 4 + 16

10 Mpts/Ch

10.1-in. Color WSVGA Touch Screen

4 + 16

2.5 Mpts/Ch 5 Mpts interleaved

WaveSurfer 3000

WaveJet Touch Benchtop

350 MHz / 500 MHz

up to 2 GS/sec

Waveform Update Rate/ Max Trigger Rate

Max Sample Rate

Benchtop

Form Factor

Bandwidth

(bench, portable, modular, scientific, PC-based, USB-based, mixed signal)

Teledyne LeCroy cont.

7.5-in. Color VGA Touch Screen

8-bit ADC resolution

8-bit ADC resolution, 12-bit with enhanced resolution

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Test & Measurement

Buyers Guide 3.indd 55

Price Range

Time Scale Accuracy 10 ppm > 1 ms interval

OS (Windows or embedded)

2 ns/div - 50 s/div

Footprint

1 MΩ: 1 mV/div - 10 V/div 50 Ω: 1 mV/div - 1 V/div

TESTANDMEASUREMENTTIPS.COM

Time Base Range

Vertical Sensitivity

Buyer’s Guide

13.4(W) × 10.25(H) × 6 (D) in.

Windows

Starting price $11,400

14.96(W) ×10.63(H) × 4.92 (D) in.

Windows

Starting price $3,200

13(W) × 7.5(H) × 4.9 (D) in.

Windows

Starting price $4,200

6/14/16 11:45 AM


70 MHz to 300 MHz

1 GS/sec to 2 GS/ sec

2,4

12 kpts/Ch 24 kpts Interleaved

7-in. Color WQVGA

8-bit ADC resolution

Benchtop

40 MHz to 100 MHz

500 MS/sec to 1 GS/sec

2

1 Mpts/Ch 2 Mpts Interleaved

7-in. Color WQVGA

8-bit ADC resolution

WaveAce 2000

WaveAce 1000

Vertical Resolition

Max Memory Depth

Display size/Touch or nontouch screen

Channels

Waveform Update Rate/ Max Trigger Rate

Max Sample Rate

Benchtop

Form Factor

Bandwidth

(bench, portable, modular, scientific, PC-based, USB-based, mixed signal)

Teledyne LeCroy cont.

Keysight Technologies — Englewood, CO, USA, +1.800.829.4444, keysight.com Infiniium scopes Z-Series  Benchtop

20 ~ 63 GHz

160 GS/sec

2~4

2 Gpts

> 400,000 wfms/ sec

15.4-in. capacitive multi-touch

8 bit (12 bit in high res mode)

Benchtop

8 ~ 33 GHz

80 GS/sec

4 + 16

2 Gpts

> 400,000 wfms/ sec

12.1-in. capacitive multi-touch

8 bit (12 bit in high res mode)

Benchtop

500 MHz ~ 8 GHz

20 GS/sec

4 + 16

800 Mpts

> 250,000 wfms/ sec

15-in. capacitive multitouch

10 bit (12 bit in high res mode)

Benchtop

2.5 ~ 13 GHz

40 GS/sec

4

1 Gpts

> 400,000 wfms/ sec

12.1-in. resistive touch

8 bit (12 bit in high res mode)

Benchtop

600 MHz ~ 4 GHz

10 GS/sec

4 + 16

1 Gpts

> 250,000 wfms/ sec

15-in. resistive touch

8 bit (12 bit in high res mode)

Portable

1.0 ~ 6.0 GHz

20 GS/sec

2 or 4 + 16

4 Mpts

> 450,000 wfms/ sec

12.1-in. capacitive multi-touch

8 bit (12 bit in high res mode)

Portable

200 MHz ~ 1.5 GHz

5 GS/sec

2 or 4 + 16

4 Mpts

> 1,000,000 wfms/sec

12.1-in. capacitive touch

8 bit (12 bit in high res mode)

V-Series

S-Series

90000A Series

9000A Series

InfiniiVision scopes 6000 X-Series

4000 X-Series

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Test & Measurement

Footprint

OS (Windows or embedded)

Price Range

Time Scale Accuracy

TESTANDMEASUREMENTTIPS.COM

Time Base Range

Vertical Sensitivity

Buyer’s Guide

14.17(W) × 6.42(H) × 4.89 (D) in.

Windows

Starting price $930

12.32(W) × 6.42(H) × 4.6 (D) in.

Windows

Starting price $635

1 mV/div ~ 1 V/div

2 psec/div ~ 20 sec/div

0.1 ppm

508 (W) × 338 (H) × 493(D) mm

Windows 7 64-bit

$221,761 ~ $448,272

1 mV/div ~ 1 V/div

2 psec/div ~ 20 sec/div

0.1 ppm

436 (W) × 266 (H) × 492(D) mm

Windows 7 64-bit

$100,253 ~ $315,504

1 mV/div ~ 5 V/div

5 psec/div ~ 20 sec/div

0.012 ppm

430 (W) × 330 (H) × 230 (D) mm

Windows 7 64-bit

$17,534 ~ $73,142

1 mV/div ~ 1 V/div

2 psec/div ~ 20 sec/div

0.4 ppm

432 (W) × 283 (H) × 506 (D) mm

Windows 7 64-bit

$41,588 ~ $130,715

1 mV/div ~ 5 V/div

5 psec/div ~ 20 sec/div

0.4 ppm

430 (W) × 330 (H) × 230 (D) mm

Windows 7 64-bit

$16,416 ~ $41,500

1 mV ~ 5 V/div

100 psec to 50 sec/div

1.6 ppm

425 (W) × 288 (H) × 148 (D) mm

Embedded OS

$14,930 ~ $22,043

1 mV ~ 5 V/div

500 psec to 50 sec/div

10 ppm

Embedded OS

$7,810 ~ $24,829

testandmeasurementtips.com

Buyers Guide 3.indd 57

454 (W) × 275 (H) × 156 (D) mm

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Max Sample Rate

Channels

Max Memory Depth

Waveform Update Rate/ Max Trigger Rate

Display size/Touch or nontouch screen

Vertical Resolition

Portable

100 MHz ~ 1.0 GHz

5 GS/sec

2 or 4 + 16

4 Mpts

> 1,000,000 wfms/sec

8.5-in. capacitive touch

8 bits (12 bit in high res mode)

Portable

70 ~ 200 MHz

2 GS/sec

2 or 4 + 8

1 Mpts

> 50,000 wfms/ sec

8.5-in. non-touch

8 bits (12 bit in high res mode

1U high rackmount

100 MHz ~ 1.0 GHz

4 GS/sec

4

8 Mpts

> 100,000 wfms/ sec

N/A

8 bits (12 bit in high res mode)

Portable

60 ~ 200 MHz

2 GS/sec

2 or 4

20 kpts

> 1,000 wfms/ sec

5.7-in. non-touch

8 bits

Portable

50 ~ 150 MHz

1 GS/sec

2

16 kpts

> 1,000 wfms/ sec

5.7in. non-touch

8 bits

No display (Uses the Measurement Manager, AMM to display waveforms.)

8 bits

5.7-in. non-touch

8 bits

Form Factor

Bandwidth

(bench, portable, modular, scientific, PC-based, USB-based, mixed signal)

Keysight Technologies cont. 3000T X-Series

2000 X-Series

6000L Series

Basic scopes DSO1000A

B Series

USB and Handheld scopes  U2700A Series

Portable, paperbooksized

100 MHz ~ 200 MHz

1 GS/sec

2

32 Mpts

Depends on the operating system since it uses AMM software to display waveforms

Handheld

20 ~ 200 MHz

2 GS/sec

2

2 Mpts

100

U1600A Series

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Test & Measurement

Buyer’s Guide Time Base Range

Time Scale Accuracy

Footprint

OS (Windows or embedded)

500 psec to 50 sec/div

1.6 ppm

381 (W) × 204 (H) × 142 (D) mm

Embedded OS

1 mV ~ 5 V/div

2 nsec to 50 sec/div

15 ppm

381 (W) × 204 (H) × 142 (D) mm

Embedded OS

$1,311 ~ $3,591

1 mV ~ 5 V/div

500 ps to 50 sec/div

15 ppm

435 (W)× 420 (H) × 270 (D) mm

Embedded OS

$8,400 ~ $21,273

2 mV ~ 10 V/div

1 nsec to 50 sec/div

50 ppm

325 (W) × 158 (H) × 129 (D) mm

Embedded OS

$1,106 ~ $2,335

2 mV ~ 10 V/div

2 nsec to 50 sec/div

50 ppm

303 (W) × 154 (H) × 133 (D) mm

Embedded OS

$520 ~ $1,553

Windows

Starting from $1,500~$1,888

Embedded/ Windows CE

$1,418 ~ $3,551

Min 2 mV/div

1 nsec/div to 50 sec/div

2 mV/div ~ 50 V/div

2 nsec/div to 50sec/div

117 × 180 × 41mm (with bumpers)

20 ppm

105 × 175 × 25 mm (without bumpers)

183 (W) × 270 (H) × 65 (D) mm

25 ppm

6 • 2016

Price Range

Vertical Sensitivity 1 mV ~ 5 V/div

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TESTANDMEASUREMENTTIPS.COM

$3,500 ~ $16,025

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Display size/Touch or nontouch screen

Vertical Resolition

>1M wfms/sec

10.4-in. XGA, Touch, DVI output

Up to 16bits

Bench

200 MHz to 2 GHz

5 GS/sec

2 or 4 analog, 16 digital

Up to 200 Mpts

>1M wfms/sec

10.4-in. XGA, Touch, DVI output

Up to 16bits

Max Memory Depth Up to 800 Mpts

Channels 2 or 4 analog, 16 digital

Max Sample Rate 20 GS/sec

Bandwidth 600 MHz to 4 GHz

Form Factor

Waveform Update Rate/ Max Trigger Rate

(bench, portable, modular, scientific, PC-based, USB-based, mixed signal)

Bench

Rohde & Schwarz — Columbia, MD, USA, +1.888.837.8772, rohde-schwarz.us RTO1000

RTE1000

STAY COOL& GET CONNECTED SARCON® Thermal Interface Materials and ZEBRA® Elastomeric Connectors. Setting the Benchmark for Performance and Value.

For Technical Data, Samples, Fast Quotes and Engineering Support Visit www.fujipoly.com or Call 732-969-0100

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Test & Measurement

Buyer’s Guide Vertical Sensitivity

Time Base Range

Time Scale Accuracy

Footprint

OS (Windows or embedded)

Price Range

TESTANDMEASUREMENTTIPS.COM

500 μV/div to 10 V/div Full bandwidth and hardware implemented on 1 mV/div to 10 V/div

25 psec/div to 10,000 sec/div

Down to ±0.02 ppm

16.81(W) × 9.8 (H) × 8.03 (D) in.

Windows 7

Starts at $14,640

500 μV/div to 10 V/div. Full bandwidth and hardware implemented on all settings.

25 psec/div to 5,000 sec/div

Down to ±2 ppm

16.81(W)_9.8 (H)_8.03 (D) in.

Windows 7

Starts at $5,910

8 Channel 12-Bit High Definition Oscilloscopes

Who’s doin’ that!

teledynelecroy.com/hd4096 testandmeasurementtips.com

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Max Sample Rate

Channels

Max Memory Depth

Waveform Update Rate/ Max Trigger Rate

Display size/Touch or nontouch screen

Vertical Resolition

Bench

200 MHz to 1 GHz

5 GS/sec

2 or 4 analog, 16 digital

Up to 460 Mpts

12.5K wfms/sec

8.4-in. XGA, DVI output

Up to 16 bits

Bench

300 MHz to 500 MHz

4 GS/sec

2 or 4 analog, 16 digital

Up to 8 Mpts

5K wfms/sec

6.5-in. VGA, DVI output

Up to 10 bits

Bench

70 MHz to 200 MHz

2 GS/sec

2 or 4 analog, 8 digital

Up to 2 Mpts

2.5K wfms/sec

6.5-in. VGA, DVI output

Up to 10 bits

Bench

50 MHz to 100 MHz

1 GS/sec

2 analog, 8 digital

Up to 1 Mpts

10K wfms/sec

6.5-in. VGA

Up to 16 bits

Form Factor

Bandwidth

(bench, portable, modular, scientific, PC-based, USB-based, mixed signal)

Rohde & Schwarz cont. RTM2000

HMO3000

HMO Compact

HMO1002

National Instruments — Austin, TX, USA, 1(800) 531-5066, ni.com VirtualBench 8012

VirtualBench 8034

NI PXIe-5160 and 5162

NI PXIe-5170R and 5171R

NI PXI(e)-5105

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Buyers Guide 3.indd 62

Bench, Portable, PC-based, Mixed Signal

100 MHz

1 GS/sec

2

1 Mpts

N/A

Uses PC display

8-bit

Bench, Portable, PC-based, Mixed Signal

350 MHz

1.5GS/sec

4

1 Mpts

N/A

Uses PC display

8-bit

Modular (PXIExpress)

Up to 1.5 GHz

Up to 5 GS/sec

2-4

2 GB or 1,000 Mpts

710 nsec trigger rearm time

Uses PC display

10-bit

Modular (PXIExpress)

Up to 250 MHz

250 MS/sec

4-8

1.5 GB or 750 Mpts

N/A*

Uses PC display

14-bit

Modular (PXI and PXIExpress)

60 MHz

60 MS/sec

8

512 MB or 256 Mpts

2.4 μsec trigger rearm time

Uses PC display

12-bit

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Test & Measurement

Buyer’s Guide Vertical Sensitivity

Time Base Range

Time Scale Accuracy

Footprint

OS (Windows or embedded)

Price Range

TESTANDMEASUREMENTTIPS.COM

1 mV/div to 10 V/div. Full bandwidth and hardware implemented on all settings.

From 0.5 nsec/div to 500 sec/div

Down to ±2.5 ppm

15.87(W) × 7.44 (H) × 5.59 (D) in.

Embedded

Starts at $4,270

1 mV/div to 5 V/div.

From 1 nsec/div to 50 sec/div

Down to ± 15 ppm

11.22(W) × 6.89 (H) × 8.66 (D) in.

Embedded

Starts at $4,238

1 mV/div to 10 V/div.

From 2 nsec/div to 50 sec/div

Down to ± 50 ppm

11.22(W) × 6.89 (H) × 5.51 (D) in.

Embedded

Starts at $1,666

1 mV/div to 10 V/div.

From 2 nsec/div to 50 sec/div

Down to ± 50 ppm

11.22(W) × 6.89 (H) × 5.51 (D) in.

Embedded

Starts at $1,110

40 Vpp – 100 mVpp

1 GS/sec

± 50 ppm accuracy

25.40 × 19.05 × 7.77 cm

Windows/iOS

$1,999

40 Vpp – 40 mVpp

1.5 GS/sec

± 50 ppm accuracy

30.48 × 20.32 cm × 9.40 cm

Windows/iOS

$5,999

50 Vpp – 50 mVpp

76.299 kS/sec to 5 GS/sec

±10 ppm

3U, One slot, PXIe/ cPCIe Module

Windows/RTOS

$8,674 - $20,191

5 Vpp – 200 mVpp

250 MHz

±25 ppm

3U, One slot, PXIe/ cPCIe Module

Windows

$6,999 - $11,999

30 Vpp – 50 mVpp

915.5 S/sec to 60 MS/sec

±25 ppm

3U, One slot, PXI(e)/ cPCI(e) Module

Windows/RTOS

$4,999 - $7,499

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Bandwidth

Max Sample Rate

Channels

Max Memory Depth

Waveform Update Rate/ Max Trigger Rate

Display size/Touch or nontouch screen

Vertical Resolition

Form Factor

(bench, portable, modular, scientific, PC-based, USB-based, mixed signal)

National Instruments cont.

6 MHz

15 MS/sec

2

256 MB or 85 Mpts

144 × Sample Clock period

Uses PC display

Up to 24-bit

NI PXI-5922 Modular (PXI)

*The PXIe-5170R and PXIe-5171R process data through a digital signal chain that includes a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). The FPGA is continuously monitoring the data stream for triggering conditions; therefore, the dead time between trigger events

Owon — Beijing, CN, +1.86.596.213.0430, owon.com.hk SDS5032EV Benchtop

30 MHz

250 MS/sec

2 + ext. trigger input

10 kpts

40 wfms/sec

8-in. Non touch

8-bit

Benchtop

60 MHz

500 MS/sec

2 + ext. trigger input

10 Mpts

40 wfms/sec

8-in. Non touch

8-bit

Benchtop

100 MHz

1 GS/sec

2 + ext. trigger input

10 Mpts

40 wfms/sec

8-in. Non touch

8-bit

Benchtop

200 MHz

2 GS/sec

2 + ext. trigger input

10 Mpts

40 wfms/sec

8-in. Non touch

8-bit

Benchtop

300 MHz

3.2 GS/sec

2 + ext. trigger input

10 Mpts

40 wfms/sec

8-in. Non touch

8-bit

Benchtop

100 MHz

1 GS/sec

2 + ext. trigger input

40 Mpts

200 wfms/sec

8-in. touch

12-bit

SDS6062V

SDS7102V

SDS8202V

SDS9302V

XDS3102A

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Test & Measurement

Buyer’s Guide Vertical Sensitivity

Time Base Range

Time Scale Accuracy

Footprint

OS (Windows or embedded)

Price Range

TESTANDMEASUREMENTTIPS.COM

10 Vpp – 2 Vpp

50 kS/sec to 15 MS/sec

±50 ppm, typical

3U, One slot, PXI/cPCI Module

Windows/RTOS

$9,334 - $13,967

2 mV/div~10 V/div

5 nsec/div~100 sec/div

±(1 interval time + 100 ppm × reading+0.6 nsec)

13.4 × 6.6 × 3.0 in.

Embedded (ext. Windows control)

$289

2 mV/div~10 V/div

2 nsec/div~100 sec/div

±(1 interval time + 100 ppm × reading+0.6 nsec)

13.4 × 6.6 × 3.0 in.

Embedded (ext. Windows control)

$349

2 mV/div~10 V/div

2 nsec/div~100 sec/div

±(1 interval time + 100 ppm × reading+0.6 nsec)

13.4 × 6.6 × 3.0 in.

Embedded (ext. Windows control)

$399

2 mV/div~10 V/div

1 nsec/div~100 sec/div

±(1 interval time + 100 ppm × reading+0.6 nsec)

13.4 × 6.6 × 3.0 in.

Embedded (ext. Windows control)

$779

2 mV/div~10 V/div

1 nsec/div~100 sec/div

±(1 interval time + 100 ppm × reading+0.6 nsec)

13.4 × 6.6 × 3.0 in.

Embedded (ext. Windows control)

$1,499

1 mV/div-10 V/div

2 nsec/div~100 sec/div

±1 ppm

13.4 × 7.5 × 3.8 in.

Embedded (ext. Windows control)

$595

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Max Sample Rate

Channels

Max Memory Depth

Waveform Update Rate/ Max Trigger Rate

Display size/Touch or nontouch screen

Vertical Resolition

Benchtop

200 MHz

2 GS/sec

2 + ext. trigger input

40 Mpts

200 wfms/sec

8-in. touch

12-bit

Benchtop

300 MHz

3.2 GS/sec

2 + ext. trigger input

40 Mpts

200 wfms/sec

8-in. touch

12-bit

Form Factor

Bandwidth

(bench, portable, modular, scientific, PC-based, USB-based, mixed signal)

Owon cont. XDS3202A

XDS3302A

Cleverscope — Auckland, New Zealand +64.9.5247456, cleverscope.com CS320A PC adapter

100 MHz

100 MS/sec

2 + ext. trigger input

4/8 Mpts

500k wfms/sec

PC hosted

10/12 /14-bit

PC adapter

100 MHz

100 MS/sec

2 + ext. trigger input

4/8 Mpts

500k wfms/sec

PC hosted

10/12 /14-bit

PC adapter

100 MHz

100 MS/sec

2 + 8 dig + ext. trigger input

4/8 Mpts

500k wfms/sec

PC hosted

10/12 /14-bit

PC adapter

100 MHz

100 MS/sec

2 + 8 dig +ext. trigger input

4/8 Mpts

500k wfms/sec

PC hosted

10/12 /14-bit

100 MS/sec

2 + 8 dig + ext. trigger input

8 Mpts

500k wfms/sec

PC hosted

14-bit

CS320AE

CS328A

CS328AE

CS328-XSE PC adapter

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Test & Measurement

Buyer’s Guide Vertical Sensitivity

Time Base Range

Time Scale Accuracy

Footprint

OS (Windows or embedded)

Price Range

TESTANDMEASUREMENTTIPS.COM

1 mV/div-10 V/div

1 nsec/div~100 sec/div

±1 ppm

13.4 × 7.5 × 3.8 in.

Embedded (ext. Windows control)

$895

1 mV/div-10 V/div

1 nsec/div~100 sec/div

±1 ppm

13.4 × 7.5 × 3.8 in.

Embedded (ext. Windows control)

$1,495

0.02 mV for 20 mV Full Scale.

1 nsec/div to 5 sec/div

±50 ppm over any >1 msec interval

6 × 7.9 × 1.7 in.

Windows

$1,199

0.02 mV for 20 mV Full Scale.

1 nsec/div to 5 sec/div

±50 ppm over any >1 msec interval

6 × 7.9 × 1.7 in.

Windows

$1,348

0.02 mV for 20 mV Full Scale.

1 nsec/div to 5 sec/div

±50 ppm over any >1 msec interval

6 × 7.9 × 1.7 in.

Windows

$1,359

0.02 mV for 20 mV Full Scale.

1 nsec/div to 5 sec/div

±50 ppm over any >1 msec interval

6 × 7.9 × 1.7 in.

Windows

$1,508

0.02 mV for 20 mV Full Scale.

1 nsec/div to 5 sec/div

±50 ppm over any >1 msec interval

6 × 7.9 × 1.7 in.

Windows

$2,341

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Max Sample Rate

Channels

Max Memory Depth

Waveform Update Rate/ Max Trigger Rate

Display size/Touch or nontouch screen

Vertical Resolition

Bandwidth

Form Factor

(bench, portable, modular, scientific, PC-based, USB-based, mixed signal)

Cleverscope cont.

100 MS/sec

2 + 8 dig + ext. trigger input

8 Mpts

500k wfms/sec

PC hosted

10/12 /14-bit

500 MS/sec

4 analog + 8 digital

256 Mpts

500k wfms/sec

PC hosted

14 bits

CS328A-FRA PC adapter

100 MHz

PC adapter

200 MHz

CS448

Rigol — Beaverton, OR, USA, +1.877-4-RIGOL-1, rigolscope.com 1000Z Series Benchtop

50-100 MHz

1 GS/sec

4 analog; 16 digital (MSO models)

12 Mpts std; 24 Mpts option

Not Specified

7-in. WVGA non-touch

8 bit (>10 in high res mode)

2 GS/sec

2 analog + 16 digital (MSO models)

14 Mpts std; 56 Mpts option

Not Specified

8-in. WVGA non-touch

8 bit (>10 in high res mode)

140 Mpts

Not Specified

9-in. WVGA non-touch

8 bit (>10 in high res mode)

140 Mpts

Not Specified

10.1-in. WVGA nontouch

8 bit (>10 in high res mode)

2000A Series Benchtop

70-300 MHz

4000 Series Benchtop

100-500 MHz

4 GS/sec

2 or 4 analog + 16 digital (MSO models)

Benchtop

600 MHz - 1 GHz

5 GS/sec

2 or 4 analog

6000 Series

Siglent — Solon, OH, USA, +1-877-515-5551, siglentamerica.com SHS1000 - Series Portable

60-100 MHz

1 GS/sec

2

2 MPts

Not Specified

5.7-in. Non-Touch Screen

8 bit

Portable

60-100 MHz

1 GS/sec

2

2 MPts

Not Specified

5.7-in. Non-Touch Screen

8 bit

SHS800 - Series

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Test & Measurement

Buyer’s Guide Vertical Sensitivity

Time Base Range

Time Scale Accuracy

Footprint

OS (Windows or embedded)

Price Range

TESTANDMEASUREMENTTIPS.COM

0.02 mV for 20 mV Full Scale.

1 nsec/div to 5 sec/div

±50 ppm over any >1 msec interval

6 × 7.9 × 1.7 in.

Windows

$1,758

100 μV

1 nsec/div to 5 sec/div

± 25 ppm

8.6 × 6.3 × 1.4 in.

Windows (Linux, Mac at end of year)

$5,500

1 mV/div to 10 V/div

5 nsec/div to 50 sec/div

25 ppm

313.1 (W) × 160.8 (H) × 122.4 (D) mm

Custom Embedded

$399- $1,229

500 μV/div to 10 V/div

1 nsec/div – 1,000 sec/div

25 ppm

361.6 (W) × 179.6 (H) ×130.8 (D) mm

Custom Embedded

$839-$2,971

1 mV/div to 5 V/div

1 nsec/div – 1,000 sec/div (500 MHz models)

4 ppm

440 (W) × 218 (H) × 130 (D) mm

Custom Embedded

$1,999 - $9,250

2 mV/div to 5 V/div

500 psec/div to 1,000 sec/div (1 GHz models)

4 ppm

399.0 (W) x 255.3 (H) x 123.8 (D) mm

Custom Embedded

$5,880 - $9,660

5 mV/div – 100 V/div

5 nsec/div – 50 sec/div

50 ppm

163.2 (W) x 53.3 (H) x 259.5 (L) mm

Embedded OS

$1,259-$1,526

5 mV/div – 100 V/div

5 nsec/div – 50 sec/div

50 ppm

163.2 (W) x 53.3 (H) x 259.5 (L) mm

Embedded OS

$465-$648

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Max Sample Rate

Channels

Max Memory Depth

Waveform Update Rate/ Max Trigger Rate

Display size/Touch or nontouch screen

Vertical Resolition

Benchtop

70/100/ 200/300 MHz

2 GS/sec

2/4

140 MPts

500,000 Maximum (Sequence Mode)

8-in. Non-Touch Screen

8 bit

Benchtop

70/100/ 200/300 MHz

2 GS/sec

2/4

24 kpts

Not specified

7-in. Non-Touch Screen

8 bit

Benchtop

70/100/ 150 MHz

1 GS/sec

2

2 Mpts

Not Specified

7-in. Non-Touch Screen

8 bit

Benchtop

70/100/200 MHz

2 GS/sec and 1 GS/sec

2

18 kpts / 40kpts

Not Specified

7-in. Non-Touch Screen

8 bit

Benchtop

25/50/ 100/200 MHz

500 MS/sec

2

32 kpts

Not Specified

7-in. Non-Touch Screen

8 bit

Benchtop

100/200 MHz

1 GS/sec

2

14 MPts

60,000 Maximum

8-in Non-Touch Screen

8-bit

Form Factor

Bandwidth

(bench, portable, modular, scientific, PC-based, USB-based, mixed signal)

Siglent cont. SDS2000X - Series

SDS1000CFL - Series

SDS1000CML - Series

SDS1000CNL - Series

SDS1000DL - Series

SDS1000X - Series

Tektronix — Beaverton, OR, +1.800.833.9200, tek.com DPO70000SX Series

Benchtop

33, 70 GHz

200 GS/sec

1@70 GHz; 2@ 33GHz

1 Gpts

300,000 wfms/ sec

6.5 in. LCD 1024x768; Display Port, VGA, DVI-D

8 bit (11 bit with averaging)

Benchtop

4-33 GHz

100 GS/sec

4 analog; 16 digital

1 Gpts

300,000 wfms/ sec

12.1 in. LCD 1024x768; Display Port, VGA, DVI-D

8 bit (11 bit with averaging)

MSO/DPO70000 Series

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Test & Measurement

Buyer’s Guide Vertical Sensitivity

Time Base Range

Time Scale Accuracy

Footprint

OS (Windows or embedded)

Price Range

TESTANDMEASUREMENTTIPS.COM

1 mV/div – 10 V/div

1 nsec/div – 50 sec/div

25 ppm

112 (W) × 224 (H) × 352 (L) mm

Embedded OS

$885 - $2,815

2 mV/div – 5 V/div

1 nsec/div – 50 sec/div

100 ppm

156 (W) × 118 (H) × 358 (L) mm

Embedded OS

$502-$1,339

2 mV/div – 10 V/div

2.5/5 nsec/div - 50 sec-div

100 ppm

135.6 (W) x 157 (H) x 323.1 (L) mm

Embedded OS

$319-$465

2 mV/div – 10 V/div

2.5/5 nsec/div - 50 sec-div

100 ppm

135.6 (W) x 157 (H) x 323.1 (L) mm

Embedded OS

$309-$546

2 mV/div – 10 V/div

1/2.5/5/25 msec/div – 50 sec/div

100 ppm

135.6 (W) x 157 (H) x 323.1 (L) mm

Embedded OS

$279-$405

500 uV/div - 10 V/div

2 nsec/div - 50 sec/div

25 ppm

123 (W) x 184 (H) x 340 (L) mm

Embedded OS

$499 - $899

TekConnect channels 62.5 mVFS to 6 VFS; ATI channel 100 mVFS to 300 mVFS

–5.0 ks to 1.0 ks (Time base delay time range)

± 1.0 ppm initial accuracy. Aging < 0.5 ppm per year. Applies only when using the internal reference.

17.8 (W) x 6 (H) x 21.8 (D) in.

Windows 7 Ultimate 64 bit

$285,000

6.25 mV/div to 600 mV/div

–5.0 ks to 1.0 ks (Time base delay time range)

± 1.5 ppm initial accuracy. Aging < 1 ppm per year

18.9 (W) x 12.25 (H) x 21.5 (D) in.

Windows 7 Ultimate 64 bit

$39,900-$307,000

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Waveform Update Rate/ Max Trigger Rate

Display size/Touch or nontouch screen

Vertical Resolition

12.1 in. XGA color, touchscreen display; DVI-I and VGA

8 bits (>11 bits with Hi Res)

16K Samples

300 wfms/sec

Touch Screen Display 264 mm / 10.4-in. diagonal, color, LCD

16 bits over the sampling modules’ dynamic range electrical resolution:

4 analog; 16 digital

125 M

250,000 wfms/ sec

10.4 in. XGA color, touchscreen display; DB-15

8 bits (>11 bits with Hi Res)

5 GS/sec

4 analog; 16 digital; 1 RF

20 M

340,000 wfms/ sec

10.4 in. XGA color display; DB-15

8 bits (11 bits with Hi Res)

100 MHz -1 GHz

5 GS/sec

4 analog; 16 digital; 1 RF

10M

280,000 wfms/ sec

Portable

70-200 MHz

1 GS/sec

4 analog; 16 digital

1M

5,000 wfms/sec

7 in. WQVGA color display; DB-15

8 bits

Portable

60-150 MHz

1 GS/sec

4 analog

2.5K

Not Specified

5.7 in. Active TFT color display

8 bits

Portable

30-200 MHz

2 GS/sec

2 analog

2.5K

Not Specified

7 in. WVGA color display

8 bits

Portable

50-200 MHz

2 GS/sec

2 analog

2.5K

Not Specified

7 in. WVGA color display

8 bits

Benchtop

500 MHz 3.5 GHz

40 GS/sec

4 analog

Benchtop

Optical bandwidths to >80 GHz Electrical bandwidths to >70 GHz

Module dependent, up to 100 Gb/sec data rates supported

8 - Mix of Electrical or Optical Module slots.

Portable

350 MHz - 2 GHz

10 GS/sec

Portable

200 MHz -1 GHz

Portable

Form Factor

Channels

250,000 wfms/ sec

Max Sample Rate

500M Points

Bandwidth

Max Memory Depth

(bench, portable, modular, scientific, PC-based, USB-based, mixed signal)

Tektronix cont. DPO7000C Series

DSA8300

MSO/DPO5000

MDO4000C

MDO3000

9 in. WVGA color display; DB-15

8 bits (11 bits with Hi Res)

MSO/DPO2000B

TBS1000

TBS1000B

TBS1000B-EDU

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Test & Measurement

Buyer’s Guide Vertical Sensitivity

Time Base Range

Time Scale Accuracy

Footprint

OS (Windows or embedded)

Price Range

TESTANDMEASUREMENTTIPS.COM

1 M Ω: 1 mV/div to 10 V/div 50 Ω: 1 mV/div to 1 V/div

1.25 ps/div to 1000 s/div

±2.5 ppm + aging <1 ppm per year

11.48 (H) x 17.75 (W) x 10.44 (D)

Windows 7 Ultimate 64 bit

$18,800-$40,500

Determined by the sampling modules used

100 fs/div to 1 ms/div, in 1-2-5 sequence or 100 fs increments

>20 psec/div, right-most point of measurement interval

18 (w) x 13.5 (h) x 16.5 (d)

Microsoft Windows 7 Ultimate (32-bit)

1 M Ω: 1 mV/div to 10 V/div 50 Ω: 1 mV/div to 1 V/div

–10 divisions to 1000 sec

±5 ppm over any ≥1 ms interval

5U; 9.16 (h) x 17.29 (w) x 8.12 (d)

Windows 7 Ultimate 64 bit

$12,300-$24,800

1 MΩ 1 mV/div to 10 V/div; 50 Ω 1 mV/div to 1 V/div

1 GHz models 400 psec to 1000 s; ≤ 500 MHz models 1 nsec to 1000 sec

±5 ppm over any ≥1 ms interval

9.0 (h) x 17.3 (w) x 5.8 (d)

Embedded

$6,900 - $17,400

1 MΩ 1 mV/div to 10 V/div; 50 Ω, 75 Ω 1 mV/div to 1 V/div

1 GHz models 400 psec/div to 1000 sec/div; ≤ 500 MHz models 1 nsec/div to 1000 sec/div

±10 ppm over any ≥1 ms interval

8 (h) x 16.4 (w) x 5.8 (d)

Embedded

$3,450 - $14,300

2 mV/div to 5 V/div

200 MHz models: 2nsec to 100sec; 70, 100 MHz models: 4nsec to 100sec

±25 ppm over any ≥1 ms interval

4U, 14.9 (W) x 7.1 (H) x 5.3 (D) in.

Embedded

$1,140 - $3,610

2 mV to 5 V/div on all models with calibrated fine adjustment

5 nsec to 50 sec/div

50ppm

12.85 (W) × 6.22 (H) × 4.89 (D) in.

Embedded

$1,030 - $1,860

2 mV to 5 V/div on all models with calibrated fine adjustment

50 MHz and 70 MHz models 5 nsec to 50 sec/div; 100MHz, 150MHz and 200MHz Models 2.5 nsec to 50 sec/div

50 ppm

12.85 (W) × 6.22 (H) × 4.89 (D) in.

Embedded

$450 - $1,850

2 mV to 5 V/div on all models with calibrated fine adjustment

50 MHz and 70 MHz models 5 nsec to 50 sec/div; 100MHz, 150MHz and 200MHz Models 2.5 nsec to 50 sec/div

50 ppm

12.85 (W)× 6.22 (H) × 4.89 (D) in.

Embedded

$520 - $1,750

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Max Sample Rate

Channels

Max Memory Depth

Waveform Update Rate/ Max Trigger Rate

Display size/Touch or nontouch screen

Vertical Resolition

Hand-held

100-200 MHz

5 GS/sec

4 analog

10K

Not Specified

6 in. QVGA color display

8 bits

Benchtop

100-200 MHz

2 GS/sec

4 analog

2.5K

Not Specified

5.7 in. QVGA color display

8 bits

Portable

100-500 MHz

5 GS/sec

4 analog

10K

3,600 wfms/sec

6.5 in. VGA color display; DB-15

9 bits

Portable

50-200 MHz

2 GS/sec

4 analong

2.5K

Not Specified

5.7 in. QVGA color display

8 bits

Form Factor

Bandwidth

(bench, portable, modular, scientific, PC-based, USB-based, mixed signal)

Tektronix cont. THS3000

TPS2000B

TDS3000C

TDS2000C

Yokogawa — Newnan, GA, USA, 1(800) 888-6400, yokogawa.com/us DLM4000 Benchtop

350 MHz, 500 MHz

2.5 GS/sec

8

250 Mpts

20,000 320,000 waveform/sec

12.1-in. non-touch, XGA 1024 x 768

8 bit (12 bit in high res mode)

Portrait, compact

200 MHz, 350 MHz, 500 MHz

2.5 GS/sec

2 or 4

250 Mpts

20,000 320,000 waveform/sec

8.4-in. Non-touch, XGA 1024 x 768

8 bit (12 bit in high res mode)

DLM2000

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Test & Measurement

Vertical Sensitivity

Time Base Range

Time Scale Accuracy

Footprint

OS (Windows or embedded)

Price Range

TESTANDMEASUREMENTTIPS.COM

2 mV/div to 100 v/div

1 nsec to 4 sec

±100 ppm + 0.04 div

7.5 (W) × 10.5 (H) × 2.8 (D) in.

Embedded

$4,400 - $5,500

2 mV to 5 V/div on all models with calibrated fine adjustment

2.5 nsec to 50 sec/div

50 ppm

13.24 (W) × 6.33 (H) × 5.10 (D) in.

Embedded

$3,280 - $4,890

1 MΩ 1 mV/div to 10 V/div; 50 Ω 1 mV/div to 1 V/div

1 nsec to 10 sec

±20 ppm over any 1 ms time interval

14.8 (W) × 6.9 (H) × 5.9 (D) in.

Embedded

$5,590 - $14,100

2 mV to 5 V/div on all models with calibrated fine adjustment

5 nsec to 50 sec/div

12.8 (W) × 6.2 (H) × 4.9 (D) in.

Embedded

$1,030 - $2,590

2 mV/div to 10 V/div

2 mV/div to 10 V/div

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50 ppm

1 nsec to 500 sec/div

20 ppm

426 (W) x 266 (H) x 178 (D) mm

Embedded OS

$15,655 - $19,695

1 nsec to 500 sec/div

20 ppm

293(W) x 226 (H) x 193 (D) mm

Embedded OS

$4,925-$10,960

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Test & Measurement

Ad Index Acopian Technical Co.. . ........................................................39

IXYS/Zilog . . .........................................................................26

Advnaced Interconnections..................................................18

Keysight Technology, Inc. ..................................................2, 9

Allied Electronics ................................................................25

Keystone Electronics Corp. .................................................11

Anritsu Company ................................................................33

Memory Protection Devices, Inc. ...........................................5

Behlman Electronics . . ............................................................1

Pioneer Magnetics ........................................................ 46, 47

Chroma Systems Solutions ................................................. BC

Renco Electronics Inc. ................................................... 3, IBC

Cytec Corporation ..............................................................49

RIGOL Technologies, Inc. .............................................. 54, 55

Digi-Key Corp. ........................................................Cover, IFC

SIGLENT Technologies America, Inc. .....................................6

Equipto .. .............................................................................49

Stanford Research Systems . . ................................................45

Fujipoly ..............................................................................60

TDK Epcos ..........................................................................21

HBM, Inc. . . ..........................................................................29

Teledyne LeCroy ........................................................... 15, 61

Hirose Electric USA .............................................................41

Virginia Panel Corp. ..............................................................7

SALES

LEADERSHIP TEAM

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Test & Measurement Handbook 2016