Page 1

Lubrication issues in industrial hydraulics p. 38

Telematics offers high-value mobile solutions p. 46

Air prep for plant compressed air p. 54

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October 2018

Hassle-free path to clean-running hydraulics

PAGE 62

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Pneumatics and automation must go hand-in-hand to survive Although some manufacturers are moving away from pneumatics in their

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machine designs, the industry can continue to grow if done smartly. That is, seamless integration of automation and pneumatics will rely heavily on the continued adoption of smart technologies, data collection and use, and more compact, efficient machines. This, said Donna Ritson of DDR Communications in her presentation, “Pneumatics in Automation 2018: The Evolution of Advanced Automation” at the NFPA’s IEOC in August, is how pneumatic technologies can advance over the next decade. Ritson, who conducted the report for the PMMI and NFPA, said that the main drivers of this growth will be the need for good data collection, preventive maintenance, less downtime, remote servicing, more efficient machines and more. “We looked at this from the standpoint of a greater level of automation — what are they looking for? They need intuitive and interactive HMIs that go hand-in-hand with the fact that they have less skilled labor; they want simpler machines. They want it to be intuitive so that when someone comes up to a machine there’s now going to be alerts and alarms that help them with their preventive maintenance,” Ritson said. “They want smarter sensors that are going to tell them when a component is reaching its end of life. Everything needs to be more intuitive.” Automation, said survey respondents, is being driven by technologies that allow the IoT to accomplish productivity gains — which means pneumatics and vacuum components must have predictive analytics, wireless connectivity, and remote monitoring. And, she added, manufacturers need smaller footprints. “Adding more equipment is not necessarily easy,” she said. “They’ve got to think of creative ways of how do we bring more into a space that’s already congested, with robust feedback.” Ritson noted that 90% said compressed air is one of the most important things in their manufacturing facilities. It’s definitely not going away, but manufacturers say they need help with air leaks, repeatability, and consistent performance. Pneumatic vacuum components must continue to be more durable, robust, energy efficient, and must be easily available with on time delivery. Pneumatics must continue to offer better precision, be smoother and easier to use, increase motion and speed, and it needs to be more compact, easier to maintain, and above all else, repetitive. “Continuous position sensing is something the latest sensors are designed with now, to mount on cylinders and linear slides and support fast and easy maintenance and replacement,” she said. What’s interesting, Ritson added, is that all the technologies that mentioned are already developed. “It’s really that whole education process — the technologies’ suppliers say one of their biggest challenges is to educate the industry that that technology is available for them. Embracing automation and having smarter machines on the plant floor is where it’s going.”

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From the Field

4 takeaways on the economy from the IEOC

Dr. Alan Beaulieu of ITR Economics gave his usual entertaining and fact-filled talk at the National Fluid Power Association’s annual International Economic Outlook Conference in Wheeling, Ill. In August. Beaulieu stressed that despite all the fervor, the economy unfolded in a predictable manner — and the economy is bigger than Washington, D.C. He pointed out that the average rate of growth in the U.S. economy since World War II has not shown any benefit to having one party in the White House over the other.

Here are some interesting takeaways from his presentation.

1 Next year will be an “off year” but not too scary. He said we’re going to see some softness in the second half of this year for industrial numbers. “GDP has essentially been flat now,” he said. “People are wondering what’s going on. As industrial production goes negative, some of your markets are going to go negative with it. In general, this industrial production is telling you to be careful of 2019. Make sure your marketing plans, your messaging, your focus, and your cash are addressing the fact that next year 2019 is an off year, if you will. We’re avoiding the use of the word recession because of the connotation of that … but think ‘off year’ as we go forward.” 2 Tariffs are bad, especially in the long run, and they have consequences. Beaulieu noted that he’s against the concept of dumping. “I’m a free market, fair market guy. I believe in free markets and fair markets, and they both have to be present. So, dumping is against treaties. It’s in violation of good business practice. It’s not a good neighbor policy,” he said. But Beaulieu also warned that there is a Law of Unintended Consequences. “You can think of the economy as a gigantic bush,” he said. “As you grab a lower branch and shake it, you’ll notice that there is movement throughout the bush; that whenever you shake it here, there are all these tremors felt over there. You only meant to move one branch, but you can’t help but move the whole thing. So that’s what’s going on now with these tariffs.” Beaulieu said one premise behind the tariffs is that it will encourage the steel industry to invest in itself, to open up new facilities or new plants. “But really, would you do that?” he asked. “I mean, if you had an opportunity to spend $5 million or $50 million to buy a new piece of equipment to update the equipment to open up a second and a third shift, would you spend the millions of dollars to do that under the auspice of a tariff protection that could go away in a

PEOPLE, PASSION & SOLUTIONS

(continued on page 6) 4

From The Field 10-18 FPW_Vs2 MG.indd 4

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From the Field (continued from page 4)

4 Don’t hate too much on the Millennials. Our workforce is close to 67% millennials. Beaulieu said they are planners and budgeters much more than generations before them were at that age. “The fact that they’re saving is really important for the future. They’re buying homes. The theory was they’re all going to live in the city, and they’re not going to be buying homes in suburbia. They’re leaving cities as they started having children because they want to raise children with fences and backyards,” he 3 Defense is a good bet. Beaulieu said said. that when you look at defense spending, “We were told they’re not going to you’re going to see opportunity. have children. They’re having children. “If you’re aligned with people in the We were told they’re not going to buy defense sector, you are likely to find that cars. They’re going to be using nothing you’re going to see an increased market potential as we go through the rest of this but Uber and Lyft and Zip cars. They’re actually the largest single auto leasing year into 2019. It is on the way up. I also group in America, and they’re leasing want to dispel a myth that is it has much to do with presidential politics. You can see SUVs to hold all their stuff as they move to suburbia.” that it’s irrelevant whether somebody’s a Democrat or a Republican that the defense Beaulieu noted that there are six million more of them than there are of his spending goes up or down,” he said. “It generation. started to go up under President Obama. “My generation is dying every day, It’s continuing to go up under President 10,000 of us retiring every day, and if Trump. It went down under President you’re a millennial, you’re going to see all Reagan. He was certainly not a Democrat, kinds of blue sky because as we old trees and it went up under Bill Clinton. He was fall away, there is plenty of room for new certainly not a Republican.” growth,” he said. “All of that keeps the Beaulieu said the reality is that the economy going, which keeps the NFPA world is such an unstable place. We’ve going. If it wasn’t for the millennials, there spent a lot of our hardware around would be no NFPA in another generation, the world and we’re often rebuilding, because there wouldn’t be people to buy modernizing, and competing. the stuff that goes into making the stuff “It’s a fascinating place as we go forward. There are some really interesting that they buy. Every millennial in this room is the key to our economic success capabilities going on in China, so we’re as we go forward.” rushing to combat that,” he said. “The Russians have developed a missile that they claim can shoot down our Cruise Missiles. As they’re coming in, they can knock them all out of the sky. We have successfully combated that, but obviously taken millions and millions of dollars to do so. Remember the Cold War, the Arms Paul J. Heney Race? It’s got that kind of feeling to it, so VP, Editorial Director that means that some of you in this room pheney@wtwhmedia.com are going to benefit from that.” On Twitter @DW_Editor

month? It could go away in six months. It could go away in three years. Would you do that? What we find when I talk to the people in the industry is that they’re not doing that.” “All of the stuff that’s going on in the steel industry was planned before the tariffs. Nothing new has been planned because of the tariffs that I’ve been able to find. So, the reason for this is certainly suspect.”

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October 2018 C ontents |

vol 5 no 6

|

fluidpowerworld.com

10

2018

F E AT U R E S

INDUSTRIAL HYDRAULICS

Lubrication issues in industrial hydraulics Without adequate lubrication, hydraulic components will fail, falling victim to excessive friction, heat, particle contamination and more.

MOBILE HYDRAULICS

Telematics offers high-value solutions for industry Telematics facilitates the exchange of rich data to and from mobile or remote machinery, helping to streamline maintenance and costs.

PNEUMATICS

What type of air prep is required for plant compressed air? Here are some best practices to supply safe, clean and dry air to a machine or piece of equipment.

HYDRAULIC FLUIDS

Hassle-free path to clean-running hydraulics A fluid treatment that eliminates varnish improves system response and extends equipment life.

38 46 54

54 D E PA R T M E N T S

02 FluidLines 04 From The Field

62

12 Korane’s Outlook 14 Association Watch 18 Design Notes 27 Maintenance 33 Distributor Update 34 Energy Efficiency 36 Fundamentals 68 Products 70 Component Focus 72 Ad Index

A | S | B | P| E Fostering B2B editorial excellence

ON THE COVER

A new generation of hydraulic fluid additives and treatments from Lubrizol eliminates varnish, helping to improve system response and extend equipment life.

8

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FLUID POWER WORLD

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10 • 2018

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OCTOBER 2018 • vol 5 no 6 • www.fluidpowerworld.com

SS316L Digital Pressure Switch for General Fluids.

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EDITORIAL

VIDEO SERVICES

VP, Editorial Director Paul J. Heney pheney@wtwhmedia.com @dw_editor

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units on display

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2011- 2018

FLUID POWER WORLD does not pass judgment on subjects of controversy nor enter into dispute with or between any individuals or organizations. FLUID POWER WORLD is also an independent forum for the expression of opinions relevant to industry issues. Letters to the editor and by-lined articles express the views of the author and not necessarily of the publisher or the publication. Every effort is made to provide accurate information; however, publisher assumes no responsibility for accuracy of submitted advertising and editorial information. Non-commissioned articles and news releases cannot be acknowledged. Unsolicited materials cannot be returned nor will this organization assume responsibility for their care.

Bring the heat...or cold, or water, salt, acid, chemicals—you name it, Tompkins beats it. These fittings are made of 316 grade stainless steel that resist corrosion and stands up to the most extreme environments imaginable.

FLUID POWER WORLD does not endorse any products, programs or services of advertisers or editorial contributors. Copyright© 2018 by WTWH Media, LLC. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, or by recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher.

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10

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Ko ra n e ’s O u t L o o k Ken Korane • Contributing Editor

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China 2025 has fluid power in the crosshairs

The U.S. and China are at loggerheads over most everything today: tariffs, intellectual property theft, industrial espionage, hacked elections, territorial disputes, trade imbalance, currency manipulation… the list seems to grow by the day. Out of the spotlight but equally concerning is the Made in China 2025 initiative, which may directly impact the long-term health of America’s fluid power industry. In a report, “Made in China 2025: Should the Global Hydraulics Industry Be Concerned?” researchers from Frost & Sullivan explained that while China has been the world’s factory for several decades, its competitive advantage in manufacturing is eroding as Chinese labor costs have risen substantially. That’s causing many manufacturers to consider moving their production elsewhere. And despite the higher costs, Chinese products are still viewed as lower quality compared to those made in Europe, North America, and Japan. Goods from these regions carry a higher price-tag but are generally considered higher quality and worth the investment. To address this challenge, the Chinese government initiated Made in China 2025 to ensure that the country’s manufacturing sector does not get sandwiched between low- and high-end manufacturing countries, with China losing out on both ends. The aim is to transition from volume-based to high-tech and high-value production, and turn China into a powerhouse that influences global standards and drives innovation—much like Germany’s Industry 4.0 strategy. Goals include encouraging digitalization and innovation, and tackling pressing issues like quality, safety, and environmental protection. Ten priority sectors for the manufacturing industry’s digital transformation include aerospace equipment, agricultural machinery, marine, rail, renewable energy and robotics—all markets of keen interest to hydraulic-equipment producers.

12

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A key concern for the Chinese government is that in the high-end manufacturing segment most core components, including hydraulics, come from other countries. This initiative aims to improve manufacturing competitiveness and product quality. If successful, it will increase the domestic content of Chinese-made products to 70% by 2025 and facilitate higher sales outside China. Government investments in technology and automation could, in particular, pay off for small and medium-sized manufacturers that use a lot of manual labor. Such domestic suppliers would benefit by tapping the technical expertise and system-design capabilities of foreign hydraulic equipment manufacturers, said the report. Supposedly, the initiative offers opportunities for companies based in industrialized countries to profit, by helping China implement the changes. The government claims it would establish a “level playing field” and permit foreign hydraulic-equipment suppliers to generate new revenue streams and thrive alongside Chinese companies. Foreign companies will likely remain skeptical, especially with regards to poor intellectual property protection, the authors admit. U.S. hydraulic suppliers should watch these developments carefully. In the near term, it may mean more revenue for the bottom line. But the initiative could improve the manufacturing capabilities and product quality of Chinese hydraulic suppliers. That, in turn, would let them gain greater market share among Chinese OEMs, be more competitive in foreign markets, establish a foothold in North America and Europe, and exert greater price pressure in those regions. Made in China 2025 could potentially upset the status quo for hydraulics manufacturers and consumers in industrialized markets around the globe. \FPW

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ASSOCIATION WATCH

Edited by Mike Santora • Associate Editor

NFPA and AGMA team up to create Motion + Power Technology Expo The National Fluid Power Association and the American Gear Manufacturers Association (AGMA) have teamed up to revamp Gear Expo, recreating that event to be the new Motion + Power Technology Expo (MPT Expo). The inaugural event will take place at the Cobo Center in Detroit, October 15-17, 2019. This trade show and conference will bring together a wide range of professionals within the mechanical power transmission, fluid power, and electrical drive industries for three days of educational sessions, networking and a full exhibit hall featuring industry-leading companies.  “MPT Expo will be a great addition to the schedule of must-exhibit trade shows for NFPA members,” said Eric Lanke, President/CEO of NFPA. “Given the multi-technology focus of the show, the attendee base is sure to include a broad diversity of both mobile and industrial customers.” Exhibitors will span the 80,000 sq. ft. of floor space with more than 4,000 attendees visiting their booths. Education classes and the annual AGMA Fall Technical Meeting will be held in conjunction with the Expo. MPT Expo will be co-located with the ASM Heat Treating Society Conference and Exposition. Both associations are dedicated to keeping a technically focused education program. Those in attendance will be offered a wide-ranging series of informative seminars taught by industry leaders and insiders. MPT Expo will be a convenient and affordable destination to advance one’s knowledge of the industry, hone technical skills, and dive into the latest research and technical developments. Additional information about MPT Expo and new association partnerships will be released over the next few months. Hundreds of companies have already signed up for exhibit space on the show floor, including industry leaders EMAG LLC, Gleason Corp., Klingelnberg, Kapp Group, Mitsubishi Heavy Industry America, and others. For additional information about exhibiting or details regarding the new show, email Erica Halmstad at ehalmstad@nfpa.com. For more information, visit www.motionpowerexpo.com.

FPW

NFPA | nfpa.com

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10 • 2018

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ASSOCIATION WATCH

IFPE 2020 announces call for presentations The fluid power and hydraulics industry has seen much disruption, and users are becoming increasingly more sophisticated. According to the NFPA Annual Report, the six things fluid power users want are:

• Increased productivity • Enhanced performance • More uptime • Lower total equipment costs • Easier, more predictable maintenance • Quieter, safer machines

Tomorrow’s fluid power technology has the capacity to meet these wants. From advances in automation, electrification, digitization, and the integration of the Internet of Things (IoT), there will be no such thing as unsatisfied demands. The real secret is information sharing. Some of these innovations exist already, but the knowledge has not been shared. Education is key. Enter the International Fluid Power Exposition (IFPE). FPE features targeted education events that provide crucial information on new fluid power, power transmission, and motion control technologies to engineers and others involved in the design and manufacturing process. It is at the forefront of innovation. (continued on page

• Variable speed drive technology of fluid power • Digital displacement pumps • Predictive/preventative maintenance • IoT • And more…

This is an opportunity to get in front of users and share best practices, updates and case studies. The deadline to submit abstracts is November 15. To submit your proposal, please go to the call for sessions. Questions can be directed to Helen Horner at HHorner@aem.org. FPW

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IFPE has opened its call for presentations. Topics of interest for 2020 include both a mobile and industrial focus in (but not limited to): 16

IFPE | ifpe.com

• Cleanliness requirements for hydraulics – contamination control • Hydraulic transmission control methods control clutches, shifting • Electric systems in controls and components • Integration of site management • Machine control automation of functions on the machine

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ASSOCIATION WATCH

Become a Fluid Power Vehicle Challenge mentor NFPA consistently works to increase the number of technical college and university students educated in fluid power and connect them to careers in the industry. In the university arena, its Vehicle Challenge has college students redesign a traditional bicycle using hydraulics. The program, which runs from September through April, culminates in a final competition where teams compete in three races (sprint, efficiency and endurance) and present to industry judges about their project. The 2019 final competition will be hosted by Bimba Manufacturing Co., which is a part of IMI Precision Engineering, on April 11-12, 2019, in Littleton, Colo. This year, The NFPA will be matching members directly to a university engineering team for mentoring. These teams will check-in with their mentor throughout the program to discuss things like vehicle design, component selection, assembly questions, and final adjustments

before the final competition. Not only will this help the teams to learn more about fluid power from industry experts and be successful in the final competition, but it will provide a great connection and recruitment opportunity for members. Contact Lynn Beyer at lbeyer@nfpa.com or (414) 7783364 to learn more about becoming a mentor or judge for the Vehicle Challenge. FPW

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DESIGN NOTES

Edited by Mary C. Gannon • Editor

Flat Face Plus quick disconnects stand up to demanding environments ZSi-Foster, Canton, Mich., now offers its Foster Flat Face Plus Quick Disconnects (QD), which has been tested for 1,200 hours of protection from white and red rust, and is available in nickel-plated steel or 316 stainless steel in multiple thread sizes and connection types. The first ZSi-Foster Flat Face Quick Disconnect was launched in 1999, a value-oriented offering under the Breco brand. The new Foster Flat Face Plus is a more durable, robust alternative for demanding environments such as mobile hydraulic equipment, pharmaceutical, medical, and electronic cooling applications. “We’ve spent a lot of time making sure this product is just what our customers need, and we’ve already received great feedback,” said David Sack, VP of Fluid Power Systems at ZSi-Foster. “It’s part of our initiative to offer continuous innovation with new hydraulic and pneumatic products. We work hard to maintain our reputation for excellent quality, and our customers are telling us that they are seeing that quality in our new products.” Early feedback from customers indicates that the design is simpler to use than other designs, with it being “easy and smooth, requiring minimal force to connect and disconnect.” Others said the zinc nickel plating and 316 stainless steel are key innovations. Agricultural equipment hydraulic attachThese materials are critical when hydraulic equipments can benefit from the Foster Flat Face ment may sit idle for a night, through a storm, or through couplers as they save space and time for a change in seasons. With ordinary quick connects, fluid making attachments. can seep into the openings and cause rust. Rust will then provide a pathway for contaminants to enter, and contamination is the number one cause of failure and downtime in hydraulic systems. Adaptors and fittings can also create leak points that lead to fluid contamination. With multiple thread sizes and 18

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DESIGN NOTES

Foster Flat Face Plus Series Group

connection types, the Flat Face Plus eliminates the need for adaptors or fittings. • NPT and ORB thread types • Nickel-plated steel body sizes from ¼ to 11⁄2 in. (ISO 06 – 40) • 316 stainless steel body sizes from ¼ to 1 in. (ISO 06 – 25) Additionally, the design allows for safe connection under pressure, and its flat face style reduces leaks and spillage. For example, hydraulic line attachments, such as those used in compactors, grapples, and mobile hydraulic hammers can build up residual pressure sitting in the sun or in a heated enclosure. With an ordinary QD, pressure must be bled out of the attachment before connecting it. This wastes time, puts the operator in an unsafe working condition, and creates environmental hazards. The connect-under-pressure plug option gives the ability to connect attachments without having to bleed out pressure beforehand. Operators can safely connect and go. Connect Under Pressure plugs are available in three different body sizes: ISO 10, 12, and 19.

When an operator is in a hoist lift bucket repairing utility lines, they’re typically using hydraulic power tools. When they change tools, there must be no spillage because it would prevent them from completing their work as well as cause a slippery, unsafe work area. The Flat Face Plus prevents spillage because two flat surfaces meet to connect without any gaps or pockets that would allow a path for fluids to escape. The Foster Flat Face Plus helps streamline machinery, making for more compact designs. Agricultural and forestry vehicle hydraulic attachments such as land rollers, air seeders, and planters can be a challenge to connect due to limited pockets of space. There’s no room to add adaptors or fittings for a proper connection. The Foster Flat Face Plus’s multiple thread sizes and types offered within a body size prevent the need for conversion fittings that take up space and could create a leak point. Additional product features include: • Minimizes air inclusion upon connection • Sleeve-lock helps prevent accidental disconnection • Bi-directional flow • Two-way shutoff, easily wiped clean • Valve configuration prevents fluid loss on disconnection • Many thread jump sizes within each body size • Viton seals are available • Custom versions can be developed The Foster Flat Face Plus in 316 stainless steel is the right choice for any environment where thermal expansion can trap oil, such as: • Construction equipment • Agricultural vehicles and equipment • Mining equipment • Nuclear power plants • Utility companies • Railway maintenance • Food processing equipment • Pharmaceutical production • Chemical plants The nickel-plated steel version of the Flat Face Plus is perfect for corrosive fluid environments such as: • Oil and gas • Fracking • Ship building and other salt water environments

Foster Flat Face Plus Series

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DESIGN NOTES

Edited by Mary C. Gannon • Editor

Customization enhances pressure switch functionality

Pressure switches are often considered commodity items. But for many mission-critical or

Pressure switches from Sigma-Netics

demanding applications, including high-pressure hydraulics, aerospace, pharmaceuticals and more, a switch may require a custom mechanical design or electrical features that go beyond what commercial off-the-shelf switches can offer. In fact, with a little extra engineering, users can boost a switch’s performance and, in many instances, overcome challenges a pressure system may be experiencing as a result of its operating environment. Recent applications demonstrate how custom-engineering Sigma-Netics pressure switches has improved the functionality of the switch — as well as the reliability of the overall system. These additional features include incorporating signal delay, thermal lockout and dual-switch capabilities, as well as outfitting switches with a flushmount design to better-fit tubular structures in processing machines.

A custom pressure switch with a time delay from Sigma-Netics eliminated false signals.

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If a hydraulic system suffers from pressure spikes, its pressure switches may not work as expected. The spikes can trigger the switch prematurely even though continuous pressures remain below the set point. The result is a hard-to-control hydraulic system plagued by false switching signals. Fortunately, a simple solution exists to prevent these spike-induced switching errors: just add a time delay to the switch. In an off-road vehicle, a pressure switch was used as part of a hydraulic monitoring system, which was designed to trigger a warning light in the cabin if it experienced sustained excess pressure. But driving over rough terrain was causing unintended pressure spikes, causing the annunciator light in the crew compartment to constantly switch on and off. Sigma-Netics

engineers incorporated a PC board into the pressure switch that was programmed to delay signal output based on certain adjustable parameters, including the amount of time — down to the millisecond — and whether the signal occurred on the rising or falling pressure. In this case, engineers set the time delay at 3.2 seconds. As a result, the warning light remained off unless a pressure change lasted longer than that. In addition to integrating time delay capabilities, the pressure switch used in the off-road vehicle had to be ruggedized for use in demanding environments. Sigma-Netics designs all of its pressure switches to withstand pressure spikes, leaks, temperature extremes, moisture, chemical exposure, vibration and shock loads.

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10/10/18 10:16 AM


Hydraulic system reservoir components

A thermal lockout mechanism incorporated into an aircraft hydraulic system prevents false high pressure signals.

Elesa is your single source for a wide range of high-reliability and high-performance components for use in hydraulics systems. • Plugs – available with graphic symbols or customizable laser engraving • Magnetic Plugs – to attract debris for system cleanliness

Other ruggedized features of this custom design included: • Proof pressures up to 12,000 psig 
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• Breather Plugs – with splash guards, dipsticks, pressure relief valves or combination • Column Level Indicators and Flow Indicators

In aircraft hydraulic applications, cold start-ups often cause pressure-switching errors that disappear once the system reaches its normal operating temperature. The culprit behind these false high-pressure signals is increased fluid viscosity, which temporarily increases the differential pressure across the diaphragm or pressure-sensing device. A thermal lockout mechanism based on a snap-acting, temperature-sensitive bimetallic disc can prevent this problem. Finally, some applications may benefit from using a single pressure switch with two distinct switching elements. This Double Pole Double Throw (DPDT) configuration saves on installation real estate and provides greater design flexibility. With this arrangement, one pressurized system can output to two different electrical circuits, increasing control options and doubling available amperage. Users can also integrate different circuits and contact material into the switching element, including gold contacts for low-level dry circuits, as well as silver contacts for circuits requiring higher amperages. For critical applications, this kind of design also provides redundancy in the event a switching element fails. And finally, this design saves space — allowing users to run two systems using the package size of one pressure switch. FPW

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DESIGN NOTES

Ken Korane • Contributing Editor

DESIGN NOTES

Key components in the Linde Hydraulics Shift in Motion traction drive include a gearshift control valve, HMV variable displacement motor, HPV variable displacement pump and associated controls.

Innovative propulsion system for mobile machines Manufacturers and operators of today’s mobile equipment often want a machine that does double duty: provides high tractive effort in the working mode and high maximum velocities when operating in the transport mode. These drivetrain requirements can be met through a wide array of traditional technological concepts, ranging from simple manual transmissions (shifted at standstill) to powershift or highly sophisticated power-split CVT transmissions. Each of these designs brings specific advantages, but also some inherent system disadvantages in terms of cost and complexity. 24

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Linde Hydraulics, based in Aschaffenburg, Germany and with U.S. headquarters in Canfield, Ohio, offers mobile-equipment OEMs and users another option with its Shift in Motion traction drive system.Key components in the Linde Hydraulics Shift in Motion traction drive include a gear-shift control valve, HMV variable displacement motor, HPV variable displacement pump and associated controls. Shift in Motion (SIM) combines a stepless hydrostatic drive with a standstill manual transmission. The basic configuration includes a continuously variable hydrostatic rotating drive consisting of a Linde HPV-02 variable displacement pump and MV-02 variable motor mounted on a standard manual transmission. The system is also equipped with an electrohydraulic shift actuator and is controlled with a Linde electronic control unit.

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SIM synchronizes the drivetrain and permits comfortable gear changes while a machine is in motion. The actual switching operation in the standstill manual transmission is initiated via the electrohydraulically controlled actuator. The pump and motor bring the drivetrain to a no-load condition and the transmission is disengaged into the neutral position. The hydraulic transmission is then adjusted to the new ratio of the selected gear, the required gear engaged, and normal drive operations continue. The unit’s electronic control logic handles synchronization and continuously monitors actions. The gears shift quietly and jerk-free in about half a second, thanks to electrohydraulic synchronization and the ability to adjust the drive component’s speed and torque. Thus, there is no need for multi-disc clutches and mechanical synchronizer rings, which increases the transmission’s efficiency. Shifting can be initiated by the driver or automatically, based on the vehicle and application. And with a CAN bus connection, the Linde ECU can also be used in tandem with the customer’s higher-level machine controller. To minimize vehicle manufacturers’ implementation efforts, SIM was designed as a propulsion system that can be installed on conventional standstill manual transmissions without design changes: While the machine manufacturers select a gearbox of their choice, Linde Hydraulics supplies the essential SIM components and aligns them with application specifics and customer preferences. In addition to the high-pressure pumps and motors, it includes a SIM control valve for the transmission actuator as well as the electronic drive control. With SIM, Linde Hydraulics provides mobilemachine manufacturers more freedom for their machine layout at low costs. The simple and straightforward gear changes mean that it is worth configuring the transport gear to a higher top speed. This lets the vehicle reach maximum speed using a lower drive and engine speed, which reduces both fuel consumption and noise emissions. SIM is particularly suitable for vehicles that often change between transport and operation, such as equipment that requires both high tractive effort and a high top speed above 25 km/hr (15 mph). Typical examples

include harvesting, municipal and forestry machinery designed for a power range of 40 to 300 kW (54 to 408 hp). This traction drive system applies electrohydraulic control logic to a multistage drivetrain that can shift gears similar to a traditional powershift transmission. It offers both the comfort of CVT drives and the compact dimensions of machines with manual transmissions, at prices below those of powershift transmissions. Thus, SIM helps address the market trend towards higher performance while reducing energy consumption, emissions, installation space and costs.

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Ken Korane • Contributing Editor

MAINTENANCE

Predictive maintenance brings real value to hydraulic drives Much has been made of connectivity, the Internet of Things and Industry 4.0. For many businesses, condition monitoring offers the greatest potential for this rapidly expanding technology. But the real value comes when condition monitoring evolves into predictive maintenance, according to engineers at Bosch Rexroth. In simple condition monitoring, sensors track equipment performance and alert the user to any changes in operating parameters, such as the speed, temperature and pressure in a hydraulic motor running a conveyor or winch. Systems can be built with relatively few sensors and a minimal amount of standalone hardware, at a cost far less than that of an unplanned halt in production. Sensor data, however, can be used for much more than alerts. Analyzed properly, it can help determine when a machine is at risk of breaking down — so that corrective maintenance can be planned in advance. Predictive maintenance has many advantages: reduced need for on-site spare parts, fewer demands on service personnel, lower energy consumption and far more reliable production. So why aren’t we seeing more of it? For many customers, the main obstacle on the path to these benefits is the security of the data and the manner in which it will be used. Customers worry that sensitive information might be lost or find its way into the wrong hands. These are valid and serious concerns, noted Bosch Rexroth officials. The customer and supplier must agree on how to regulate, share and use the data, and sufficient technical safeguards must be in place to protect the customer. While security issues can be resolved by teaming with responsible suppliers, another complex task is to actually bring value to the customer. Sensors are inexpensive and simple to install. The difficulty lies in turning the gathered data into useful information. www.fluidpowerworld.com  

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MAINTENANCE

In itself, condition monitoring does little more than supply customers with data, which is often difficult to interpret. This is not a solution, but rather an additional headache. For customers to get the reliability and predictability they seek, data must first be filtered and analyzed by experts. Instead of data, customers want regular reports and clear insights that help them take the service actions needed.

Machine health index Successful predictive maintenance requires an integration of technology and human expertise, where algorithms supply the basis for smarter decisions. Case in point is Bosch Rexroth’s predictive maintenance solution for Hägglunds direct-drive systems, Hägglunds CMp, which supports a rapidly expanding group of customers worldwide.

Hägglunds CMp establishes a secure link to the customer’s drive system, where sensors are installed throughout. Bosch Rexroth’s internal firewalls protect all information that connects transmitted data with the customer, who has access via a gated cloud interface. During transmission, the data itself is meaningless, because the raw numbers cannot be paired with a sensor’s location. Evaluation is performed by an analysis tool called ODiN, which Hägglunds CMp uses to interpret the sensor readings. During an initial machine learning phase, ODiN creates a health index that provides an accurate picture of the drive system’s normal state. It is this health index – not the individual sensor signals – that makes the difference for customers when combined with Bosch Rexroth expertise.

The health index is used to assess and regularly report on the condition of the customer’s drive system. Should drive operations deviate from the health index, Bosch Rexroth experts interpret the cause and determine what service actions might be needed to keep the system running. Instead of simply receiving an alarm, the customer gets a concrete recommendation for actions to be taken. The information provided is not abstract data, but rather clear information that the customer can put into use. “It’s the combination of health index and expert analysis that makes our solution work for the customer,” said Mattias Ljungdahl, application manager, Hägglunds Inside Intelligence at Bosch Rexroth. “With the health index, our analysts can not only see the trends, but also understand and

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A D V E RTO R I A L

The IoT at Sea: Improving Crane Safety and Availability It’s no secret that the Internet of Things (IoT) has

made its mark on the mobile and off-highway industry. Connected machines — and the data that comes with them — can make a significant impact on operational efficiencies by reducing downtime with predictive maintenance capabilities. The same is true for the marine sector. With data-gathering sensors, mobile networks, cloud-based computing and analytics software, companies like Danfoss Power Solutions are developing ways to predict maintenance needs in real time. This is especially useful for crane applications onboard a vessel. Predictive maintenance capabilities would allow customers to identify problems with their crane in a timely manner. If an issue is spotted ahead of time, it allows the operator to make service arrangements before the vessel gets to port. Considering that a vessel is docked for around 12 hours at a time, having a technician on hand with the right equipment right away can streamline the entire maintenance process and save valuable time. Identifying operational issues on a crane before it becomes a problem has serious safety benefits. Vessel operators can avoid equipment malfunctions when they’re miles away from shore. Plus, operational monitoring helps ensure Danfoss is developing solutions to help the crane works when and where it needs to — customers identify potential crane issues avoiding even more downtime. before they become a problem to minimize These capabilities are already in motion. downtime and support safe operating Danfoss Power Solutions and PALFINGER environments. recently announced a partnership regarding telematics and connected end-to-end solutions for its cranes. Connected solutions will give customers the data they need to make informed business decisions using a global, state-of-the-art, secure communications infrastructure to transmit data to the cloud. Solutions like these will allow fleet managers to easily identify what information they need and how to use it, minimizing downtime and increasing overall safety.

Sensors, mobile networks, and cloud-based computing and analytics software contribute to the development of real-time maintenance prediction systems to reduce costly downtime. 30

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MAINTENANCE

predict the drive behavior for the customer. And because our algorithm is constantly learning, the solution gets better the more it works with an application.” A clear advantage of Hägglunds CMp is its integration with Bosch Rexroth’s total service offering, said Wolfram Ulrich, vice president sales & service, Hägglunds Products at Bosch Rexroth, because customers buy not just knowledge, but also the ability to act. “The connectivity Bosch Rexroth offers is paired with fast, professional reaction by technicians with deep knowledge.” Ljungdahl expanded on this idea, pointing out that service becomes faster, simpler and more effective when the supplier has detailed knowledge of the customer’s drive system. It is not only the alarms that make a difference, but also the regular reports that form a long-term basis for understanding. “The solution increases the efficiency of our own service organization,” Ljungdahl explained. “When our service technicians go to a customer with Hägglunds CMp, it’s not just the problem they know before they get there. They’re familiar with the machine and how the application works normally, which makes it easier for them to get things working properly.”

Striving for optimization Higher efficiency is also the goal of many customers who increasingly focus on lifecycle costs and productivity. Being able to plan and take corrective actions prior to failure is one aspect, because it means that maintenance can be budgeted more effectively. But another is achieving more with the existing drive equipment. “Besides helping customers predict and avoid unplanned operating stops, we can use Hägglunds CMp to help them optimize their systems for better efficiency,” said Ljungdahl. In other words, Bosch Rexroth experts can use the health index to see not only potential failures, but also potential improvements. As Ljungdahl noted, “The high flexibility within Hägglunds hydraulic drive systems lets us adjust the motors and pumps to better match their actual use, or even reconfigure the drive for new power, torque or speed characteristics.” Such optimization is a clear focus as the service moves forward. “The Hägglunds CMp technology gives us an opportunity to go beyond predictive maintenance, to actually optimize the operation of the installed system within its application,” said Ulrich. “The more we can understand how a system is operated, the more we

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can suggest in terms of energy-saving and productivity improvements, for example.” In a more distant future, Ulrich sees the possibility of an entirely different business model for Hägglunds drive systems. “Today we use Hägglunds CMp mainly to secure reliability and lower the operating costs of our drives,” he explained. “But as our connectivity and analyses become more refined, we may be able to shift our focus further. Instead of hardware, our customers might buy performance in terms of torque and speed.” Nonetheless, the success of Hägglunds CMp will remain rooted in its integration of technical and human components. “The value is not the data, but in the ability to interpret the data and use it to act,” said Ljungdahl. “Predictive maintenance is not about sensors or even algorithms. It’s about boosting the customer’s reliability and profitability through insights and expertise.” FPW

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Paul J. Heney • VP, Editorial Director

DISTRIBUTOR UPDATE

A chat with the AICD’s Kasey Gould

T

The Association of Independent

Compressor Distributors met in June in San Antonio for its 33rd annual convention. We took the opportunity to catch up with the group’s Administrator, Kasey Gould, about her role in the organization and what the future holds for the AICD. Gould first became involved with the AICD through what she calls “pure happenstance.” Her husband was a pilot for a pump and compressor company based out of Texas, and the VP of that company was a past president of the AICD. “His wife—who became a good friend of mine—also happened to be the administrator for the association,” Gould said. “She was looking to retire, and when my sales job became too demanding once I had children, it was a perfect transition. I have been the administrator since 2015. My first show I helped plan was in 2014.” Gould explained that the association used to be for Quincy compressor distributors only. The group decided to change that several years ago and become a truly independent association. “The first trade show that was open to everyone was in 2013. Since then, the association has grown year after year. This year in San Antonio was the highest attendance from members we have ever had! We have members from all across

the country, as well as a few in Australia, Canada, and Mexico,” she said. In a time when some industrial distributors worry about their roles changing or being threatened, Gould said that the AICD is aware that the compressor industry is constantly changing and evolving. “As an association, we are trying to ensure that our members stay abreast of important industry changes and standards,” she said. This year’s conference, she said, was the group’s best yet, noting that the feedback she received from both vendors and members was overwhelmingly positive. There were 60 member companies in attendance, compared to last year, where there was 43. This year, the total number of attendees (both vendor and

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member) was more than 350. Next year’s event is being planned for the Renaissance SeaWorld in Orlando, from May 19-21, 2019. Over the next few years, Gould sees the association’s mission as increasing ties within the industry. “The main mission of the AICD is to be the vehicle to provide a place for members to share ideas and develop solutions to industry problems,” she said. “In the evolving compressor industry, we hope to be an invaluable resource for our distributors. We are working hard to do this by facilitating strong relationships between our members, as well as developing relationships between vendors in the compressed air industry and our distributors. We are also developing an AICD-exclusive training program for our members. The association is striving to be not only fun, but extremely beneficial for every person involved.” FPW

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ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Ron Marshall • Contributing Editor

| istockphoto.com

Use utility incentives to buy new equipment

The purchase of air compressors can be expensive. Sometimes, the untimely death of your equipment can stretch the maintenance budget — and repairing it can leave you with the same old tired and inefficient equipment. If and when problems happen, you should consider looking for assistance through various available energy incentives.

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For example, a small metal products fabricator needed a new 25-hp compressor due to ongoing maintenance issues with their old unit. The new variable speed drive unit was to cost $22,000, about 30% more than a fixed speed unit. However, the variable compressor qualified for a $6,500 incentive and saved about $3,400 per year in electricity costs. Payback on the purchase was 1.3 years. The old unit remained for an emergency back-up. As another example, a cabinet maker needed to replace their old worn-out compressor, due to advanced age and an expensive upcoming rebuild. Their power utility had financial incentives available to pay for someone to come in and measure their system to recommend improvements. The auditor found that their system was extremely inefficient and was wasting $9,400 per year in electricity costs.

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A new variable speed compressor, upgraded energy efficient cycling dryer, and system storage receivers were recommended that were to cost about $45,000. The energy savings generated a financial incentive of $20,300 to help pay for the replacement. The new project also eliminated a costly $15,000 rebuild of the old compressor. The simple payback for the project was a little more than one year. There is an online database of energy programs accessible through the USDOE (https://bit.ly/2mhq4bE). Have a look for programs in your area. If you can’t find anything in your area be sure to check with your power utility or compressor service provider to see if you can qualify for some support. In Canada, there are energy incentive in most provinces. These can quickly be found with an online search. Why pay for it all yourself? Take advantage of the energy rebates to renew your system and save energy for years to come.

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FUNDAMENTALS

Ken Korane • Contributing Editor

What is Class 0 air?

Atlas Copco LF-MED oil-free piston compressor is Class 0 certified for medical applications.

The international standard ISO 8573-1 (2010), “Compressed air — Contaminants and purity classes,” provides a classification system for the main contaminants in compressed air systems. The standard specifies a number of purity classes for compressed air with respect to particulates, water and oil, independent of the location in the compressed air system at which the air is measured. In addition, it identifies gaseous and microbiological contaminants in a system. The standard delineates eight purity classes for solids contamination that range from 0 (least contaminated) to 7, plus a Class X for air samples that exceed a particulate mass concentration of 10 mg/m3. Likewise, it specifies purity classes with respect to water and oil. Other parts of ISO 8573 detail methods for actually measuring these contaminants. Class 1 is the second most-stringent (“cleanest”) section. It specifies the maximum number of particulates per cubic meter as: • ≤20,000 particles from 0.1 to 0.5 µm in size. • ≤400 particles from 0.5 to 1.0 µm in size. • ≤10 particles from 1.0 to 5.0 µm in size. It also specifies: • Pressure dewpoint of ≤-70° C, and no liquid water allowed. • Concentration of total oil (liquid, aerosol and vapor) as ≤0.01 mg/m3. 36

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Class 0, in contrast to the other classes’ empirical data, is simply classified “As specified by the equipment user or supplier and more stringent than Class 1.” Thus, Class 0 requires that the user and equipment manufacture agree to contamination levels as part of a written specification, and the spec should adhere to the guidelines and measurement capabilities of the test equipment and the test methods defined in ISO 8573 parts 2 through 9. However, Class 0 does not mean zero contamination. A number of compressor manufacturers say that air delivered from their oil-free compressors complies with Class 0 standards. But users should be aware that a Class 0 compressor still requires air filtration and treatment upstream and, possibly, downstream of the compressor, depending on the operating conditions and the state of the incoming air. For instance, a system installed in a contaminated industrial location laden with airborne oil aerosols and vapor could pass right through the compressor and invalidate the Class 0 rating. Thus, it is always good practice to install particulate filters, coalescing filters, coolers, and desiccant or refrigerant dryers as needed. Suppliers offer a wide range of oil-free compressors, including piston, rotary screw and scroll types that let users meet Class 0 conditions. The purchase price of an oil-free unit can be up to 40 to 50% higher than that of an equivalent oil-

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lubricated compressor, and the devices may need more-frequent maintenance to replace components like Teflon seals. And in terms of life, they may not last as long as a lubricated unit, as internal lubricating coatings degrade and wear away over time. Makers of oil-free compressors counter that when it comes to overall cost of ownership, in the long run oil-free technology actually costs less because it eliminates expensive filter replacements, less energy is consumed overcoming the pressure drops in filters, and there is no cost to treat oily condensate. Perhaps the overriding benefit when it comes to costs is that ISO 8573-1 (2010) Class 0 systems eliminate risks. Used in the proper settings, they help minimize the prospect of compromised or damaged products, expensive operational downtime, and damage to a company’s reputation — all of which could be worth much more than the price tag of a compressor. That’s why in pharmaceutical, food and beverage, electronics, textiles and other critical industries, where even trace

amounts of oil could damage products and potentially harm consumers, users often opt for Class 0 systems. For example, in food and beverage operations, ultra-clean compressed air is routinely used for sorting, ejecting, mixing, inflating and packing products. It is used to transport powdered milk or cocoa powder through pipes. And pressurized air is needed for cleaning bottles, packaging and molds prior to filling. In fermentation processes, compressed air is pumped into liquids to make food ingredients like citric acid and products like yogurt. And compressed air cools baked goods after they emerge from ovens. In all these instances, even minute oil percentages could alter the flavor and odor of food items or spoil the end product, and lead to substandard quality, rejects and production losses. Likewise, the medical community requires safe and oil-free air and vacuum in hospitals, dental practices and veterinary labs for uses ranging from surgical air to breathing. Textile applications demand

oil-free air to avoid contaminating products in applications like weaving, spinning, texturizing, winding and dyeing. And automotive lines demand the highest quality compressed air in spray paint applications to ensure defect-free finishes. Class 0 compressors in these applications deliver high-purity air that helps prevent costly production downtime and compromised products. Oil-free systems also help protect the environment and ensure users comply with various industrial standards and international regulations. FPW

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Lubrication

issues in

industrial hydraulics Without adequate lubrication, hydraulic components will fail, falling victim to excessive friction, heat, particle contamination and more.

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Hydraulic fluid is a multi-talented medium bringing more to the plate than just the transfer of force. Hydraulic fluid also helps with cooling, contamination removal and sealing. However, those three are tertiary, with lubrication taking secondary importance in purpose. Without adequately lubricated components, those friction-producing components won’t last minutes, making the primary purpose moot.

The basics on lubrication Most of you reading this are not tribologists, so let me prime you on the principles of lubrication. The essentials of lubrication are based on preventing or reducing friction and wear caused by two components in relative motion. The control of friction and wear also reduces the potential for damaging heat and particles, which as I mentioned earlier, are two

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Josh Cosford • Contributing Editor

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Figure 1. In this piston assembly of an axial pump, the piston itself is pressed into the ball seat of the slipper, and the gap between the surfaces of those two components requires lubrication to enable the ball to move around freely.

Figure 2. The counterbore in the slipper of a piston pump provides an area of pressure to balance the force against the piston side, limiting the force bias between the slipper and swashplate.

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forms of contamination hydraulic fluid helps to control even with healthy lubrication. There exist three primary forms of lubrication; boundary, full film, and mixed. Boundary lubrication is when there is just enough fluid present on the moving surfaces to transfer additives to the metal surfaces, of which these additives will take the brunt of the friction and wear, saving the metal below. Boundary lubrication allows the most friction and wear, but is often engineered as a function of the components, especially where replaceable plates or bushings exist. Full film lubrication is the physical support and separation of both surfaces by a hydrodynamic layer of fluid; essentially a fluid bearing. In fluid power applications, the pressure present from hydraulics helps increase the potential for full film lubrication, as the fluid itself can support a higher load. When possible, full film lubrication is best, since little or none of the asperities will hit each other, preventing excess wear, heat and contamination. Mixed lubrication is a combination of boundary and full film lubrication, where the two components are primarily supported with liquid, but there is still some contact between the asperities on each surface. Mixed lubrication requires a quality additive package to help when near-boundary conditions occur, especially as the fluid viscosity lowers. Each form of lubrication exists in hydraulic systems, from pumps and motors to valves and cylinders. However, in most cases, full film lubrication is desired and most effective at preventing friction and wear. Because of the high pressure in hydraulic systems, forces against pistons, valve plates and bushings, for example, can be extraordinarily high. These forces can be used for or against a hydraulic component, which is why design must be intelligent. Lubricating the complexity of piston pumps The most demanding components to keep lubricated are piston pumps and motors, and not just because of the high potential for force and subsequent friction and wear. Piston pumps and motors have myriad moving and sliding components, especially compared to a gear pump. There are control and bias pistons to control swashplate angle, reciprocating pistons inside of a rotating block where the pistons slide around and across a swashplate, and then there are the bearings or bushings supporting the whole assembly. Each of these components and surfaces requires full film lubrication, where possible. To shed some light on just how tricky lubricating a piston pump can be, for example, I’ll discuss with you the piston assembly of an axial pump (figure 1). The piston itself is pressed into the ball seat of the slipper, and the gap between the surfaces of those two components requires lubrication to enable the ball to move around freely. Drilled through the piston and

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the slipper is an orifice which transmits fluid under pressure from the displacement side of the piston down through to the counterbore under the slipper. The slipper has a counterbore in the center, leaving an annular area of contact against the swashplate, of which the slipper will orbit. The counterbore in the slipper (Figure 2) provides an area of pressure to balance the force against the piston side, limiting the force bias between the slipper and swashplate. In this case, it’s a form of hydrostatic bearing, which also provides fluid for full film lubrication between the swashplate and slipper. Without the balanced forces across the contact area of the slipper, there can be heavy scoring from contamination or mushrooming of the entire slipper surface area, especially as it spins at 3,600 rpm or above and at over 5,000 psi. Most piston pumps require a minimum pressure to operate at, say 300-500 psi, which provides energy to the control and bias pistons, but also ensures full film lubrication occurs everywhere it is needed. Hydraulic components can lend their inherent pressure potential to more than balanced pistons or other components,

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such as spools. Between the pistons and cylinder block is a precisely machined clearance to allow for perfect full film lubrication, assisted by hydraulic pressure. The pressure on the outlet side of the piston forces fluid between the piston/ block clearance, which may not be normally possible under atmospheric pressure. Lubrication and sealing In a hydraulic system, more than just pumps require lubrication. Most hydraulic spool valves use no seals between themselves and the ports of the body, instead counting on the surface tension of the fluid itself to act as the sealing agent. The clearance between the body and spool is so tight it generally prevents excessive leakage between ports, although some leakage is natural for spool valves. Because of the tight clearances preventing free flowing fluid between the two moving surfaces, circumferential grooves are machined in the OD of the spool, providing a cavity of sorts for the fluid to rest within. The cavity of fluid acts to lubricate the spool as it slides, preventing excessive friction. Not exempt from requiring lubrication are hydraulic actuators. Hydraulic motors require lubrication like what is required by a pump, but linear actuators in the form of cylinders use lubrication in a whole other way. Cylinders with seals designed to limit bypass or leakage often do so at the expense of free motion; that is, the same energy used to prevent leakage also comes with a by-product of high friction. Cylinders using a seal such as an O-ring with a backup washer are excellent for sealing, especially because they’re interference fit. However, depending on conditions, they result in high breakaway pressure and can sometimes chatter if the finish of the barrel is not ideal. To make things worse, the O-ring seal can wipe away oil, which is why it’s almost never used as a rod seal, where some residual oil provides effective lubrication. Lips seals are often used where low friction, high velocity applications demand it. Energized lips seals are used to compensate for low-pressure applications, where little pressure is available to force the lips outwards toward the barrel, an effect that increases sealing. However, an energized lip seal can have the same effect as O-rings, and result in higher friction. Thinner 44

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lip seals are used when high velocity is a requirement, but these seals require higher pressure to seal as well as an interference fit seal. Because a “loose” lip seal provides more leakage, it’s better lubricated and better suited to high-speed applications, including quick acceleration. For the highest possible velocity, no piston seals are used at all, but rather cast iron or composite guide rings only. Although sealing is inferior, the piston assembly essentially acts as a giant spool, holding fluid for lubrication and allowing the cylinder to move quickly with little friction. It should be noted that a cylinder using only guide rings is not suitable for load-holding applications, since fluid can move easily between the piston and rod side of the cylinder.

The challenges to lubricate such demanding componentry is offset by the inherent advantages of hydraulic components. Lubrication issues in hydraulics are exacerbated by the forces generated under pressure, making the lack of respect for lubrication a catastrophic mistake. Where a poorly lubricated gearbox will last a while, a poorly lubricated piston pump will destroy itself in minutes. Understanding how lubrication (or lack thereof) affects your hydraulic components is important to ensure the long life of your high-performance machine. FPW

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Telematics

offers high-value solutions for industry Telematics facilitates the exchange of rich data to and from mobile

or remote machinery, helping to

streamline maintenance and costs. Carl Dyke • CD Industrial Group, Inc.

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M O B I L E

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How can the owner of a fleet of cranes avoid the daily

worries about whether the machines are being operated and maintained for safe performance? Is there any way a mine manager can track production levels and operator driving habits within a large fleet of $6M haul trucks? Telematics could be the answer. My first project in telematics was back in 2002. I was tasked to find a way to report the cycles and operating parameters of a hydraulic garbage compactor. The idea was that instead of having a truck scheduled to pick up this giant roll-off unit from the hotel where it was in use, and haul it to the local landfill every Thursday, it might be possible to detect remotely when the compactor is actually full, and therefore optimize the hauling schedule. The main monitoring and reporting unit was fairly straightforward and plain-looking with its flexible rubber-duck style cellular phone antenna sticking out of the top. Inside the shoebox-sized device was a number of connections called inputs. The device, as I recall, only had four digital inputs to detect on-off types of events such as power outages or the push of the start button, and two analog inputs to read variable values such as temperature and pressure. The installation of the unit was fairly straightforward after getting past the smell of the less-than-new garbage unit. The only invasive task was the installation of a hydraulic pressure transducer to read the compaction cylinder. The company that offered the cellular monitoring and reporting unit featured a website where alarms could be created and where the raw machine usage data could be viewed and analyzed. That’s where the project became interesting. After only a few months we knew exactly what times of day and which days of the week saw the most usage

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for this machine. We soon learned from counting compaction cycles, starting with an empty unit and monitoring hydraulic pressure, just how full the compactor was at any one time. Soon after, we found a way to forward the data directly to a business database for a fleet of compactors. The potential power of this business data was apparent. Consumer-driven advances With most current telematics applications featuring global position systems (GPS) and with advanced telematics engineering degrees offered by universities, my example is clearly a very simplistic one. However the industry and the technology moved very quickly from the early 2000s and the capabilities of telematics has mushroomed. In fact, telematics was under way before the turn of the millenia. The OnStar system featured in GM products was first released for Cadillac vehicles in late 1996 with only a few simple and important features. This system and ones like it by Ford and Hyundai and others are now thought of as telematic systems. Many readers will identify best with the heavily advertised features such as immediate accident assistance. The accelerometers and other sensors alert the service over a cellular link and an assistant then contacts you by voice to ask if you’ve had an accident and need help. Those same systems now also monitor many parameters of the engine and drivetrain and can contribute to overall vehicle reliability and longevity. While accident assistance is a feature that readily appeals to human emotions, the more common utility and need for control of operating costs through proper maintenance and through good driving habits appeals to one’s wallet. Several insurance companies now offer lower driving insurance rates to drivers who are found to be driving safely within posted speed limits on a consistent basis. Some insurance companies also use data from telematic systems to penalize drivers who do not drive safely. Insurance companies also like the geolocation and asset recovery features that counter problems with theft. 48

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A cellular-networkbased, data reporting device (upper panel) easily integrated to existing machine controls (lower panel).

Mobile equipment management Moving to the arena of industrial mobile equipment where the discipline of asset management is in a continuous state of discussion and learning, we see that companies with a large fleet of trucks or a large collection of mining or construction machines stand to save millions if they have the right data and learn to use it well. So many articles on industrial fleet telematics focus on the giant and obvious wins of fuel savings and warranty period consumption. Both of these issues are about detecting excessive idling periods and then educating operators on how it wastes fuel and about how running hours — which is the common measurement of a warranty period for offroad equipment — uses up the equipment manufacturer’s warranty period early on. There is no reason not to assume that basic on-board automation will deal with most of this issue and that idled machines will simply be shut down automatically without

If contamination levels suddenly spike upward or even move away from baseline levels, a conscientious maintenance team would presumably investigate immediately.

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having to inform management first via telematics. The option for this automation is already available for machine models from a number of manufacturers. Large fleet operators with telematic systems report that the idling time problem is largely conquered as a one-time benefit soon after system installation. Looking ahead So what’s coming next then? Let’s think about hydraulic cranes for a moment. I have been asked to work on analysis teams on a few occasions where a hydraulics failure led to the dropping of the boom or a runaway of the main winch. Insanely scary to think about. The companies wished to take whatever steps were possible to prevent a recurrence. In one case I was only helping from a distance and in another I was able to get hands-on, but only long after the failure had occurred. I was not the immediate investigator of these failures. Those who did the initial investigation did not leave the crane owners with any confidence that such a disastrous event could be easily detected or warded off in the future. This is an example where telematics has a lot to offer. In both cases it appeared that a critical valve had become stuck open. Information was brought forward in both cases that the level of particle contaminants in the hydraulic fluid had not been actively monitored and that in fact some system components were

known to be wearing internally. Those of us who work with hydraulic systems and their maintenance know how much trouble can start with solid contaminant particles within the fluid. These particles can prevent a valve from closing properly. Water contamination is also a serious issue as rust can form internally, then producing extremely hard oxide particles. Hydraulic fluid is the lifeblood of the cranes I am writing about. If that blood is not healthy, the whole body, by which I mean the whole machine, will soon be ill. It’s not difficult to maintain the quality of the fluid within the systems of a hydraulic crane, but like human health, internal components are sometimes neglected until it’s too late. The pumps and valves have a factory specified value for how clean and free of contaminants the system fluid must be in order for them to function reliably. The specified value is typically referenced to a standard that is maintained and published by the International Standards Organization (ISO). That standard speaks to how the contaminant particles are detected, counted and grouped by size categories. Many factories and fleet operators who operate hydraulic machinery are in the habit of sampling the system fluid several times per year and then sending those samples out to a lab for analysis.

Telematics facilitates the exchange of rich data to and from mobile or remote machinery.

Safety and machine reliablilty objectives easily justify the use of telematics.

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The report that is returned usually indicates the level of particle contamination with the fluid, referenced to the ISO standard. In the past, it was only a lab with large, expensive equipment that could analyze and report on the condition of hydraulic fluid. Today a number of compact, affordable devices exist from a variety of manufacturers that allow the level of particle contamination including solids and water to be monitored on a continuous basis. Some of these devices can be integrated into telematic systems with the data viewed and monitored from operations and maintenance offices. Gone are any excuses for neglected hydraulic fluid. If contamination levels suddenly spike upward or even move away from baseline levels, a conscientious maintenance team would presumably investigate immediately. If insurance companies offer discounts to drivers who are found to be driving safely via telematics, perhaps insurance discounts may also be offered to crane owners who are actively found maintaining hydraulic fluid at a high standard of cleanliness. The use of telematics for heavy equipment manufacturers has also become apparent as hybrid and electric versions have become available for excavators and similar machines. The use of batteries as a power source for propulsion and motion is common to both designs. Battery technology and designs are not yet fully mature for these applications. Telematics can easily transmit the voltage trends and charge state on a cell-by-cell basis to the manufacturers of the machines and the batteries. In this manner telematics is being used for quality assurance and control. Production monitoring in large open pit mines has made use of telematics for well over a decade. Current systems use load cells to transmit payload weights from the haul truck to the shovel operator to enable optimal loading of the truck. The business goals are to make sure that truck is fully loaded before it makes its way to the unloading station, and also to make sure that machine-damaging overloads do not occur. Mine production offices use the load data to track overall production.

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Until all aspects of surface mining become fully automated, telematics will guide and assist human activities that impact business results.

Failure to effectively trend hydraulic fluid contamination is easily solved through telematics.

Mining haul trucks utilize tires that cost over $50,000 each. Getting maximum service life from these consumption items depends on carefully monitoring tire pressure and temperature. While an alert message can easily be displayed to the operator in the cab with only minimal use of telematic technologies, trending and monitoring these parameters from a central point helps management to make decisions on which mine haul roads need grading work to smooth out the pot holes that can contribute to tire temperature problems. Centrally monitored data on tires can also remove the decision making responsibility from the individual operator leaving the matter to management policy for best average cost results. Until all aspects of surface mining become fully automated, telematics will guide and assist human activities that impact business results.

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The technology of telematics involving sensors, the transmission of data from multiple machines to and from a central point, and programmed automation are not new technologies. The mobile devices we carry on our persons demonstrate these capabilities to us every day as we move about. The use of telematics for industrial machinery clearly shows off its capabilities in the analysis of data from fleets of machines and the use of that data to change the way the equipment is operated, managed and maintained. It is the thoughtful use of the data for nuanced decision making that shows up as a reduction in safety incidents such as the crane example, and optimal production and the saving of unnecessary expenditures. As telematics make more and more data available, it is up to us humans in the equation to see the potential of that data and use it intelligently to achieve our safety, savings and efficiency goals. Telematics are already all around us, but it’s up to each purchaser to decide the value of investment. Consumerdriven advancements focus on emotional appeals to safety, while production-level technology tends to push efficiency and process goals. Both fields coalesce around an interest in saving money. Telematics are already beginning to shift maintenance routines from scheduled to “as-needed,” without sacrificing safety, to conserve production time and parts. When data is used thoughtfully, it allows for a finer level of control, but without the pitfalls of micromanaging each and every piece of equipment. This new superpower will help us continue to make technological leaps while reducing waste and cost. FPW

CD Industrial Group carldyke.com LunchBoxSessions.com

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What type of air prep is required for plant compressed air? Here are some best practices to supply safe, clean and dry air to a machine or piece of equipment. Pat Phillips • Product Manager, Fluid Power & Mechanical Products at AutomationDirect

Plant-supplied compressed air often travels a long and varying path from the air

compressor to where it is connected to a machine or piece of equipment. Along this path there are many opportunities for contamination via dirt, dust, oil, water, and other impurities. Therefore, compressed air must be filtered at the supply point, and it must also be safely controlled, filtered, regulated, and sometimes lubricated—all in the proper order—at the machine level. This article will discuss what an air preparation assembly should include and why, and will also show how to calculate required flow rates.

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| Courtesy of AutomationDirect

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Air prep required A steady flow of clean and dry air is a common requirement to operate and protect pneumatic components in machines, processes and equipment. Any pneumatic-actuated motion—such as clamping, gripping, lifting, positioning, and pushing—requires clean and dry air supplied at sufficient flow and pressure. To supply this clean and dry air, an air prep unit provides filtering, regulating and sometimes lubricating (FRL) of the compressed air. Understanding some of the signs of an air prep problem can enforce the need for an FRL at the machine level. The presence of dirt, particulates and moisture can cause valves to stick and not switch position when energized or turned off. A similar problem is a valve leaking when turned off, with the same issues causing seal wear and damage. Contaminates can clogup valves, spools, small pilot ports, mufflers and flow controls. Just as dirt, debris and moisture can affect external and seal surfaces of cylinders and actuators, they can also cause internal wear due to material build-up, scratches and other friction-related issues. In some cases, especially in humid regions or with improper filtering and drying at the compressor, the cylinders can fill with water. This can damage the internal surfaces of the cylinder, and it can change the stroke because the water will not compress. All of these potential problems can cause a host of productivity and maintenance issues. Valve switching speed and cylinder movement may slow, reducing equipment cycle times. The resulting excess friction, wear and/or fluid build-up can lock cylinders, often requiring repair and replacement. Using an air prep system on a machine eliminates most problems caused by dirt, particulates and moisture. The filter removes the particles created by the plant compressed air distribution system. Filters local to the machine also often filter the air to a finer level than the overall plant filters. Air prep also provides a means to regulate pressure to a known level, and to monitor it to ensure proper machine operation. The air prep also provides a manual and electrical shutoff for safety and maintenance requirements.

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This NITRA air prep unit provides filtering, regulating and sometimes lubricating (FRL) of compressed air at the machine level. | Courtesy of AutomationDirect

Pneumatic safety Compressed air, like electrical and hydraulic energy sources, can be hazardous, causing severe or fatal injuries, so it must be properly installed and used, with proper training for personnel. Typical hazards include flying debris and chips causing eye injuries, or a broken hose whipping around causing the same or worse injuries. At less than 15 psi, compressed air can even dislodge an eye. At high pressures it can be injected into the body and bloodstream and rupture ear drums and organs, or cause an air embolism and possibly a heart attack. Even the loud noise created by escaping air can damage hearing. Compressed air supplied to a machine is normally between 80 and 120 psi. Most pneumatic cylinders, actuators and hand tools such as air guns require such pressures

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to operate effectively. However, OSHA limits compressed air’s use for cleaning purposes by regulating the air pressure to 30 psi or less, and also requires chip guarding. Users should also strictly limit the use of compressed air for cleaning a work area, and never use it to dust off clothing. Improper installation, such as using PVC pipes for compressed air distribution, is also a hazard. PVC can shatter due to pressure, impacts or exposure to UV light. Air hoses and pipes can also cause injuries, for example if someone tries to grab a whipping hose or trips over an air line. Air can also remain in a pipe as stored energy, which can cause unexpected machine operation, so it is necessary to bleed or dump air from all air lines before maintenance is performed. For machines, a means of disconnecting the air and depressurizing the air lines by

isolating the main air supply must be provided. When it comes to pneumatic power presses or any cylinder that can produce tens, hundreds or thousands of pounds of force—there are many safety requirements beyond the use of air preparation. Two-hand control, redundant circuits, lockout/tagout of power sources and other requirements are of utmost importance in these types of applications but are beyond the scope of this article. Air preparation components Operator, maintenance and machine safety is an important part of an air prep system design. The following devices in the Table below should be included in the order listed from upstream to downstream air flow.

Total Air Prep Units: This NITRA TAP high-flow unit combines multiple air-prep functions in a single easy-to-install device, saving time and money as compared to purchasing and installing multiple components.

Air perpetration devices • Manual shutoff relief valve with lock-out • Filter • Regulator • Pressure switch • Electrically operated soft start valve and air dump • Lubricator, if needed; best practice is to install it as close as practical to components that need oil Air preparation devices can be purchased separately or as an assembly. Total air prep units are also available, providing all the items in the Table connected and ready for integration onto the machine which can save time, money and provide a cleaner look for modern machinery. Air preparation starts with a manual shutoff relief valve with lock-out. This safety-related lockout and tagout device is used to depressurize air lines before beginning service or maintenance. All machines should have one. Moving downstream, the next device required is a filter, or a combined filterregulator. Multiple configurations are available, but some key features include filtration, drains and traps. A filtration level of 20 microns works for most machines, with 5 microns providing better protection. However, finer filtration will require more filter maintenance. The moisture drains and traps are a must and should include a manual or automatic drain to remove the liquid. The regulator should include a local pressure gauge. A best practice is to use a digital pressure switch installed downstream of the regulator to provide a local, visual pressure reading — and also a discrete “pressure okay” input to the automation system. Most machines have an emergency stop function, so an electrically-operated soft start and air dump valve activated by this function should be installed. An emergency stop activation will then dump pneu-

| Courtesy of AutomationDirect

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matic energy. This valve can also slowly increase supplied air pressure, providing a soft start when energy is reapplied. A final component in an air preparation unit (that is not often used) is a lubricator. It provides an oil mist to pneumatic devices that may need it such as an air motor. Most cylinders and actuators should be supplied with compressed air upstream of the lubricator, with the lubricator mounted as close to the device needing oil as practical. Ensuring sufficient air flow While the availability of a compressed air source in a large facility is rarely a concern, the air pressure at a machine can sag without adequate air flow. This is especially true if supply pipes or hoses are not the proper diameter, and during times of high demand. While pressurizing a single 2-in. diameter cylinder doesn’t require high flow, pressurizing five of the same size cylinders at the same time might. Other high demand times may be intermittent such as when blowing off chips or debris from a machine. If improper and unsafe blow-off pressures are used, and they often are, compressed air demand will rise dramatically. For these and other reasons, oversizing the air supply system, including supply lines and air prep, is a good idea. Sizing the compressor for peak demand or future growth is also a good investment. A small storage tank, mounted at the machine, is another option to help mitigate compressed air pressure sags. When it comes to air preparation, calculating machine compressed air usage and ensuring the assembled air prep unit exceeds these requirements is a simple design exercise. The calculations can be done manually or with one of the many online air-consumption calculators. Air consumption is a function of the volume of a cylinder, the cycle time and the inlet air pressure. It is typically expressed in standard cubic feet per minute (scfm) of free air, where “standard” means at a temperature of 70 °F and at sea level 60

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(standard atmosphere). Depending on the size of the cylinders and their cycle times, air consumption can vary widely. Calculate the air consumption of each cylinder as follows: SCFM =

2(Area x Stroke) x Cycles x Cf Ratio in3 1728 3 ft

For example, to determine the air consumption of a 2-in. bore cylinder with a 4-in. stroke operating at 30 complete cycles (extend and retract) per minute at 80 psi inlet pressure:

1 Find the cross-sectional area of the piston based on bore diameter ()

3.1416 x (2-in. bore/2)² = 3.14 in.2

2 Determine air consumption per single stroke

3.14 in.2 x 4-in. stroke = 12.56 in.3

3 Determine air consumption per complete cycle, disregarding displacement of piston rod

12.56 in.3 x 2 = 25.12 in.3 per cycle

4 Determine the volume of compressed air consumed per minute

25.12 in.3 x 30 cycles/min = 753.6 in.3/min (of 80 psi air)

7 Apply ratio to determine cubic feet of free air used per minute

0.436 ft3/min x 6.44 compression ratio = 2.81 cu. ft. of free air used per minute (scfm) The air consumption of the tubing between the valve and cylinder should also be considered, especially with longer tubing lengths. The same equation used for a cylinder’s air consumption applies, with the substitution of tubing length in inches for stroke, and assuming the tubes are connected to a double-acting cylinder with the same length tubing on both the extension and retraction ports. While there is some consumption of air when tubes are pressurized due to compression, the major impact of long tubing runs is pressure loss due to friction. This loss causes the effective pressure at the actuators to be lower than the system pressure. Design consideration must balance the lower pressure loss when using larger tubing with the extra air consumption and slightly slower operation due to the lag caused during pressure buildup in the tubing. Air preparation should be used to protect machines, assembled in the proper order and with sufficient flow, and oversizing the air preparation system can be a smart design choice. Care taken in the design, installation and maintenance of the air prep system will result in years of reliable and safe service. FPW

5 Convert cubic inches to cubic feet (1 ft³ = 1728 in.³) 753.6 (in.3)/min = 0.436 (f t3)/min (of 80 psi air) 1728 (in.3)/(ft3)

AutomationDirect automationdirect.com

6 Determine ratio of compressed air at 80 psi to “free,” uncompressed air at standard atmospheric pressure (CfRatio). It may be necessary to adjust the 14.7 psi constant if not operating at sea level or 70° F.

80 psi + 14.7 psi = 6.44 (times air is compressed 14.7 psi when at 80 psi)

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H Y D R A U L I C

F L U I D S

Hassle-free path to clean-running

hydraulics A fluid treatment that eliminates varnish improves system response and extends equipment life.

Betsy Butke • Technology Manager, Industrial Products • The Lubrizol Corporation

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It’s a tough world for today’s hydraulic oils. Systems are getting smaller, and oil reservoirs are often built to fit the available space and not optimized in size or shape, or to promote heat dissipation. Fluid residence times in reservoirs have gotten shorter, too, thanks to flow rates that are higher relative to oil volumes. That leaves little time for degassing and foam dissipation. In addition, hydraulic systems are being designed with higher power densities. Pressures have generally increased and oil temperatures have crept higher—in some cases with transients above 130° C. All of these factors can strain the fluid and negatively impact equipment performance. Fluid-related issues Manufacturers of both off-road and stationary machinery recognize that these factors are contributing to more frequent hydraulic-related problems. Lubrizol surveyed a diverse range of OEM engineers, maintenance supervisors and users of in-plant and mobile equipment about concerns regarding their hydraulic fluids and the impact on productivity. Key issues, said many respondents, involve valve-related problems that compromise performance, including delayed system response, pressure losses that hurt efficiency and slower cycle times that decrease throughput. | stockphoto.com

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H Y D R A U L I C

F L U I D S

before

after

A before-and-after comparison of the internal surfaces in an injection molding machine shows the dramatic effects of varnish removal technology. A consensus agreed the market would benefit from hydraulic fluids that last longer, improve system response, reduce downtime, increase productivity, minimize the need for valve replacement and extend equipment life—all which positively affect the bottom line. The good news: the right hydraulic fluid paired with a new generation of fluid additives and treatments can do just that. Attacking varnish Oil-related problems in hydraulic machinery are often caused by water and dirt in the fluid that lead to wear and corrosion. But many of the above-mentioned performance problems are due to another cause: varnish that accumulates on control valves, restricts filters, and fouls reservoirs and other internal parts. Varnish appears not only in older machines that see poor maintenance, it

can plague even well-maintained machines using relatively new oil. And in hydraulic systems, few failure modes disrupt operations as quickly as a varnish-coated control valve that suddenly seizes. Varnish results from oxidation of the oil as well as degradation of additives—sacrificial compounds designed to protect the base oil. The reaction products are generally insoluble in oil and tend to precipitate onto cooler surfaces, like reservoir walls, and onto valves and other working parts, especially when equipment shuts down overnight or on weekends. When the system restarts, varnish doesn’t resolubilize to any great extent. Highly aerated oils and those contaminated with water are more susceptible to oxidation, as are those used in high-pressure, high-duty equipment such as injection-molding machines, machine tools, and excavators.

Varnish deposits on hydraulic system components can lead to serious problems, such as: • Sluggish operation, as increased friction and stiction in spools and sleeves cause valves to stick or seize. • Restricted oil flow and clogging of small orifices, valves, strainers, and filters. • Reduced bearing clearances that limit lubrication. • The ability to capture hard, abrasive contaminants that accelerate wear. • Acting as an insulator, restricting heat transfer from reservoirs and heat exchangers and raising operating temperatures.

Fluid Additives Clean and Protect

Fluids containing varnish-mitigating additives offer good wear protection. The Eaton pump test permits no more than 90 milligrams of weight loss for the cam ring and vanes after 50 hours of vane-pump operation. The Lubrizol chemistry after 1,000 hours of testing showed only about 43 milligrams weight loss, markedly exceeding OEM requirements.

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Real-world results Lab validations are great, but how well does the varnish cleaning/mitigating system actually work in the field? To answer that question, we conducted a number of demonstrations at various manufacturing locations to confirm effectiveness under real-world conditions. One test site involved a high-volume manufacturer of plastic parts, where we compared Lubrizol’s technology against conventional hydraulic fluid side-by-side in 700-ton Cincinnati Milacron co-injection machines that had been running nearly non-stop for several years. As a baseline, we tracked operating data, including the time required to make a part. We removed selected valves and plugs, rated them on the CRC scale, and then reinstalled them. We visually inspected the reservoir, strainers, and other readily accessible components, and periodically collected oil samples for analysis. In the cleaning trial, we replaced a portion of the working fluid with a like volume of cleaning fluid, and then restarted the machine and continued to make parts. No manual scrubbing was involved. At the end of the cleaning cycle—about two days—we re-examined the same areas. One valve spool, for example, had a CRC rating of 3.08 before being subjected to the cleaning technology and 9.1 after, a dramatic improvement that indicates a significant cleanup of the entire system. The change in the tank was equally dramatic, from severely coated to nearly as-new. Next, we drained and flushed the system, replaced the filters, and added new oil to two machines. The first used a standard, zinc-based ISO VG 46 hydraulic fluid containing a conventional additive package; the second machine was filled with Lubrizol’s varnish-mitigating fluid technology, blended in the same base oil. We operated for one day, pulled initial oil samples, and then afterwards sampled the oil about twice a year. Fluid conditions were monitored for several years. Among the various tests run, kinematic viscosity (ASTM D445), change in acid number (ASTM D974) and pentane insolubles (ASTM D893) remained within acceptable limits.

One field test compared conventional hydraulic fluid and varnish cleaning/mitigating system side-by-side in 700-ton co-injection machines. However, Varnish Potential Rating of the traditional fluid reached warning levels in less than two years and exceeded the limit afterward. This particular test, performed by Analysts Inc., filtered a controlled fluid sample through a patch to measure deposits. It rates varnish potential on a 0 (no varnish) to 100 scale. The VPR of the standard fluid initially dropped, then climbed to 65 (the warning level) at 600 days of operation and reached 100 at 800 days. This indicated a significant quantity of insolubles had been generated throughout the system. The traditional fluid was badly spent and needed replacement after 1,200 days. The new technology, in contrast, remained well below this critical level, approaching a VPR of 40 when the test was halted at 1,600 days. Actual operations confirmed the analytical data. Varnish coatings cause valves to stick and slow, and that was reflected in production rates. The machines in this plant operate 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Before the trial, cycle time to make a part was 117 seconds. After the cleanup and with the new varnish-mitigating fluid, cycle time fell to 115 seconds. Two seconds doesn’t seem like a huge difference, but it quickly adds up. At 115 seconds the machine produces 751 parts a day; at 117 seconds it’s 738, or 13 fewer parts per day. Over the course of a year, the machine with the varnish mitigation technology will make about 4,700 more parts, in this case at $3.00 per part profit. For one machine, that is over $14,000/year. In a typical plant running 50 machines, that amounts to $700,000 additional profit just for cleaning and running on a better fluid.

Condition monitoring results in the plastic injection molding application showed Varnish Potential Rating of the traditional fluid reached warning levels in less than two years, while fluid using the varnish-mitigating technology remained well below the critical level when the test was halted at 1,600 days.

  

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H Y D R A U L I C

F L U I D S

All of these issues can affect performance and efficiency. The cycle time to manufacture a part or move an implement increases, lowering productivity. Valves and filters must be replaced more often. Maintenance costs rise and equipment life suffers. Cleaner and mitigator Maintenance technicians are generally aware of the inherent problems of varnish build-up. At the same time, plant and fleet managers are reluctant to remove equipment from service for costly and intensive manual cleaning that can take days. Lubrizol has developed a two-part fluid technology that addresses just these concerns. First is a system cleaner that quickly and simply removes varnish with minimal disruption to production operations, doesn’t require manual scrubbing or hazardous solvents, and restores existing hydraulic systems to near-new conditions. And second, is a hydraulic fluid additive package that prevents varnish from depositing on valves and reservoir walls, and thus maintains a high level of system cleanliness in new and existing machines. System cleaner. The system cleaner is suitable for mineral-oil-based systems. It works in concentrations of 20% or less by volume and cleans a circuit while the equipment operates, with minimal interruption to production. In essence, one simply shuts down a machine, removes a portion of the hydraulic fluid, replaces it with an equal volume of the liquid cleaner, and then returns the machine to normal service. The cleaner is a surfactant-like agent designed to attack varnish coatings. It resolubilizes varnish deposits throughout a system, and holds the contaminants in suspension where they are captured in filters. The cleaner doesn’t affect underlying metals, plastics and elastomers that make up a typical hydraulic system, and is compatible with common seal materials. The cleaning cycle takes 48 hours or less. Then the machine is again shut down, all the fluid is drained, the system flushed, and filters replaced. The goal was to develop a cleaner that works while equipment runs normally, without affecting operations. It significantly reduces downtime versus manual disassembly and

Valve spools removed from a plastic injection molder had a CRC rating of 3.08 before being subjected to the varnish cleaning technology and 9.1 after, indicating a dramatic improvement in system cleanliness.

A varnish-coated pencil filter (left) was soaked in a bath of varnish cleaning fluid, with obvious results after 5 days.

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scrubbing of components and reservoirs. And the process eliminates hazardous solvent cleaners that pose health and safety concerns. The product can also be used as a static bath cleaner. Submerged parts, like valve spools, will appear varnish-free within one or two days. Varnish mitigator. After the circuit is clean, the system is refilled with hydraulic oil that contains Lubrizol’s varnish-mitigating additive package. While all reputable hydraulic fluids commonly contain oxidation inhibitors, the Lubrizol product differs in that it keeps varnish precursors suspended and prevents them from forming deposits on system surfaces. Oxidation reactions in hydraulic fluid form polar molecules that have poor solubility in the non-polar oil and thus are attracted to one another. They combine to form larger particles that ultimately fall out of solution and deposit on hard surfaces. The Lubrizol additive, in contrast, keeps those tiny particles suspended without plugging filters or affecting operations. The varnish-preventing action lasts for years and typically outlasts the life of the base oil. In addition, the balanced formulation also provides excellent wear protection to extend component life, outstanding filtration performance in the presence of water, and excellent rust and corrosion protection. Lab validation Laboratory validation of the varnish-mitigating fluid confirms that the chemistry is suitable for API Group I and Group II hydrocarbon base oils. It has high oxidation resistance to protect components, and excellent thermal stability, which helps minimize the formation of varnish and decrease downtime. In ASTM D943 (TOST) tests, which measure a fluid’s resistance to oxidation, ratings for Group I fluids ranged from 3,000 to 5,440 hr, and for Group II 6,200 to 7,700 hr. We performed extended-duration Eaton 35VQ-25 vane pump tests to produce varnishing conditions, and to confirm

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the benefits of the cleaner and mitigator technology. Tests were run under relatively severe conditions: fluid temperature at 93° C (200° F) and pressure at 207 bar (3,000 psi) with an oil volume of 197 l (52 gal) and flow rate of 144 l/min (38 gal/min). These are the same operating conditions as are used in the standard Eaton 35VQ-25 vane pump test. We tested many conventional hydraulic oils (without varnish-mitigating additives) and, with both zinc-based and ashless fluids, varnish deposits began to form at about 500 hr and were significant and hard to remove after 1,000 hr. In contrast, tests of fluids containing the mitigating system maintained completely clean, varnish-free components and reservoirs after 1,000 hr of testing. Fluids containing the varnish-mitigating additive also offer good wear protection. The Eaton standard permits no more than 90 milligrams of weight loss for the cam ring and vanes after 50 hr of vane-pump operation. The Lubrizol chemistry, after 1,000 hr of testing—20 times longer— showed only about 43 milligrams weight loss, markedly exceeding OEM requirements. It provides sustained antiwear protection, and has Parker Hannifin, Eaton and Cincinnati Machine approvals, as well as meeting numerous other specifications. For the cleaner, in one of many tests, we first circulated a standard zinc-based hydraulic fluid for 1,000 hr in the vane pump test and then removed and examined a valve spool prior to cleaning. Deposits were gaged based on the Coordinated Research Council (CRC) carbon varnish rating scale, where 10 denotes a clean part and 0 indicates a part completely covered with heavy deposits. The spool had a carbon varnish rating of 5.5; not terrible, but certainly showing significant deposits. We then installed the valve in a T fixture with one inlet and two outlets, and circulated the varnish-cleaning fluid across the spool. After just 1 hour of circulation, it was nearly varnish-free except for one small area. After 3 hours, the small deposit had dissolved and at 7 hours, the test ended. The spool was again checked on the

CRC scale and was rated 9.5 and appeared almost completely clean. Proven benefits Lubrizol’s clean technology offers proven benefits for hydraulic-equipment users. It removes varnish build-up and sludge that decrease productivity, helps eliminate valve sticking due to the presence of varnish, minimizes the need to replace valves, reduces the frequency of filter changes, and extends fluid life. The two-part cleaner/additive system is not sold as an off-the-shelf product, but is blended in partnership with major oil refiners and independent lubricant manufacturers and is available from numerous suppliers.

FPW

Lubrizol | www.lubrizol.com

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manufacturing products, inc

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The system lets equipment users maintain clean performance that increases productivity, thanks to shorter cycle times and less downtime. It is suitable for most any machine’s hydraulic system, where a little investment can pay off quite a lot.

www.MAINmfg.com/flg Phone: 800.521.7918 info@MAINmfg.com Grand Blanc, MI USA

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PRODUCT WORLD

Solution Strengthened Ductile Iron (SSDI)

Hydraulic safety valve systems Ross Controls rosscontrols.com

Dura-Bar dura-bar.com

New Hydraulic Block & Bleed valve system is designed for external monitoring, up to Category-4, PL e for

A new ductile iron grade — Solution

safety applications. It features a manifold base

Strengthened Ductile Iron (SSDI) has

mounted design available in three body sizes

improved strength and ductility. SSDI is an

D03, D05, and D07, port sizes SAE-8, SAE-12,

alternative to 1045 steel used in a wide

and 11⁄4 Code 61 Flange. The HBB series valve

variety of oil and gas and fluid power

system is enhanced with a tamper-resistant

applications. One of the key features of

design that prevents unauthorized personnel

SSDI is the enhanced machinability due

from altering the valve.

to the addition of silicon. Machining

trials have yielded minimum productivity

supply pressure and to bleed downstream pressure back to tank.

increases of approximately 30% with no

negative impact in tool wear.

spool type design, direct solenoid or solenoid pilot operated. This new system is designed for

external monitoring for safe redundant operation, and is equipped with position sensors for

Solution Strengthened Ductile Iron

is a metallurgical term that has been

The safety function of the Hydraulic Block & Bleed series valve system is to block hydraulic The HBB series safety system is a redundant 3/2 normally closed function valve system,

external monitoring by an electrical safety control system.

adopted by the producers of ductile iron and is gaining increased interest from

Modular load-sensing sectional mobile valve

numerous customers for a variety of applications. SSDI has a minimum tensile strength of 75,000 psi, a minimum yield strength of 55,000 psi and a minimum

Eaton eaton.com/CLS

elongation of 15%. SSDI also has a tightened Brinell Hardness (BHN) for consistency throughout the material

CLS 180 load-sensing sectional mobile

compared to other similar ductile iron

valves feature a highly modular design

alloys.

to improve machine performance in

SSDI is a suitable choice for rotors

construction, refuse, agriculture and

used in air and natural gas compressors as

marine machinery. The post-compensated

well as hydraulic manifolds and cylinders used in fluid power applications. It can also be used in oil and gas applications such as

options, mid-inlets, custom inlet manifolds and transition plates. With this

initially available in 1 to 9-in. rounds, 3.25-

flexibility, designers can build the valve to meet the specific requirements

in. and 3.75-in. squares as well as 6.25-in.

of machines ranging from various sizes of excavators to refuse trucks, truck

by 7.25-in. rectangles.

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the availability of valve banks with up to 10 sections, a number of spool types and actuation

plug valve inserts and crossheads. SSDI is

68

valve’s modularity is demonstrated through

mounted cranes and more.

10 • 2018

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For further information about products on these pages visit the Fluid Power World website @ www.fluidpowerworld.com

Electro-pneumatic pressure regulating valve Aventics aventics.com/us Sub-base mounted EV03 electropneumatic (E/P) pressure regulating valve features extremely low energy consumption and can guarantee pressure control during a power loss. Depending on the version, maximum power generation is between 160 to 220 mA. The EV03 also offers precision, with hysteresis as low as 0.7 psi, and flow up to 0.88 CV (880 lpm) at 10 bar of pressure. The EV03 is available in models with an LCD display, or only LED indication. Configurable with the LCD display are: pressure range, regulator behavior, actual value output, or switch output control.

The externally piloted valves operate via a poppet valve design for fast, reliable response

and have pressure ranges from 0 to 145 psi (1 to 10 bar). The electrical connection is an M12, 5-pin A-coded connector, and electrical protection is IP65. Operating voltage is 24 Vdc. Standard output values are 0 to 10 V or 4 to 20 mA. The compact design has a sub-base with G1⁄4 connections for input and output, and G1⁄8 for exhaust.

Wireless controls for industrial material handling Magnetek magnetekmh.com Magnetek’s Flex EX2 wireless controls are rugged wireless controls for use in material handling, overhead crane, and industrial applications. Transmitters are available in four, six, eight, and 12-button style options, while receivers will be available in 4/6 and 8/12 styles. It offers advanced software capabilities, including expanded frequency ranges, channel scanning schemes for anti-interference, drop detection, and remote pairing. An improved ergonomic design with a single thumbscrew allows for easy access to batteries and dipswitches, while retaining its IP66 rating for protection in the harshest indoor or outdoor environments. Available accessories, such as rubber transmitter boots, retractable belt clip, and charging cradle provide additional protection and flexibility.

10 • 2018

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COMPONENT FOCUS

Josh Cosford • Contributing Editor

How do I specify standard hydraulic manifolds? The three most common ways to control hydraulic actuators are with lever valves, cartridge valves or sandwich valves. Lever valves are available as monoblock or stacked valves, and are primarily for directional control. Cartridge valves have nearly infinite possible combinations, but must be used with bodies or custom manifolds. Sandwich valves — also known as ISO, CETOP, sub-plate mounted or stack valves — are a way of creating hydraulic circuits by stacking valves atop each

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-Ba Dura urte sy o f | Co

The bar manifolds used with sandwich valves are usually an afterthought compared to the circuit upon which they provide a home. However, you must smartly choose and apply the correct manifold for your application, or the entire circuit will perform poorly or not at all. As well, useful options are available to ease mounting and installation, so awareness of these options keeps you on your shop technicians’ Christmas shopping list. Knowing the difference between a parallel and series circuit is the first, and most important, step. A parallel manifold is used on pressure compensated (variable displacement) pumps with closed P-port valves. All pressure ports are joined in parallel, and while the valves remain unshifted, the pump is on stand-by. With series circuits, flow from fixed pumps travels into the pressure port of the first valve and straight back into the tank port of the manifold. That tank port is also the pressure port for the second valve, whose tank line feeds the third valve’s pressure port. The series continues until the last valve, where its tank port exits the manifold to the reservoir. A parallel manifold is almost never used with a fixed flow pump. Because the pump must flow somewhere, if it’s not being wasted as pure heat over the relief valve, it’ll blast out the weakest seal along its path. On the other hand, a variable displacement pump can be used with a series manifold, however, it doesn’t make sense. A variable displacement pressure compensated pump doesn’t like being unloaded at low pressure, so it will experience a severely reduced service life and cause a raucous in the meantime.

r

other and fixing them with bolts.

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10/10/18 4:56 PM


“More than just a block with holes in it, the bar manifold is the foundation for countless hydraulic valve circuits.” Bar manifolds are available with integrated relief valve cavities which provide a convenient location with no added plumbing. For the series manifold, it makes absolute sense to always include the relief cavity and then add a relief valve cartridge best suited to your application. A cartridge relief valve is literally one of the least expensive hydraulic components in existence, and it saves you the hassle of extra plumbing. Parallel manifolds may or may not include a relief cavity. Pressure compensated pumps do their own pressure protection, although some like the added security of a relief valve. If you don’t choose the relief valve cavity for your manifold, you can still protect the entire manifold by installing a single P to T relief sandwich valve. Because the circuit is in parallel, it cares not about the directional valve under which the relief valve lives. The major decisions of circuit type and relief option aside, other features are required to properly install and plumb the circuit. It goes without saying your manifold should suit your plumbing requirements, especially those geographically related. Your manifold can be had with SAE ports, BSPP ports, metric ports or even NPT ports, which will often be dictated by what’s common in your region. You can choose to add a gauge port to your manifold, as well, which allows for permanent fixing of a pressure gauge or test point. Most manifolds (especially with parallel circuits) have P & T ports on either end of the manifold for flexibility of installation. If your valves are tightly packed or with lateral protrusions, the extra-wide spacing option will put a gap between each section of valves. This not only gives the extra space

atop the manifold for stacked valves increased clearance, but also provides added space between the work ports. You’ll enjoy extra freedom of plumbing, especially if angle fittings are used directly off the manifold. If your hydraulic system pumps at the higher end of the flow rating for your chosen valves, select the high-flow option for your manifold. The P, T and work ports are larger diameter to allow installation of larger fittings, and the cross-drillings internal to the block are larger for decreased pressure drop. Your pump and system also dictate the material of the manifold, which can be manufactured in aluminum for pressures up to 3,000 psi, or in steel or ductile iron for systems running up to 5,000 psi. Finally, be sure you consider how the manifold is to be mounted. There will be tapped holes on the bottom or sides, allowing brackets and bolts to be attached. Often, the manifold is mounted with some clearance below, raising the manifold up and providing extra space for plumbing, which could be difficult should the manifold be mounted directly to a flat surface. At the very least, the manifold will have vertical through holes to accept long bolts to attach it to tapped holes on the mounting surface. More than just a block with holes in it, the bar manifold is the foundation for countless hydraulic valve circuits. Many machine manufacturers only use stacked valves because of their ease of installation, flexibility in applications and ability to change and upgrade on the fly. If you decide to start using these useful blocks of metal, ensure you option it exactly as required by your application.

online.

FPW

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d. Nonrequested (2) Distribution (By Mail d. and NonreOutside quested (2) the Mail) Distribution (3) (By Mail and Outside the Mail) (4) (3) e. f.

12,610

11,384

11,298

0

0

0

0

0

0

11,384

11,298

603

687

Outside County Nonrequested Copies Stated on PS Form 3541 (include Sample copies, Requests Over 3 years old, Requests induced by a In-County Stated on PSAssociation Form 3541 Requests, (include Premium, Nonrequested Bulk Sales andCopies Requests including Sample copies, Requests Over 3Directories, years old, Requests by a Names obtained from Business Lists, and induced other sources) Premium, Bulk Sales and Requests including Association Requests, Names obtained from Business Directories, Lists, and other sources) In-County Nonrequested Copies Stated on PS Form 3541 (include Sample copies, Requests Over 3 years old, Requests induced by a Nonrequested Distributed Through theAssociation USPS by Other Classes of Premium, BulkCopies Sales and Requests including Requests, Mail (e.g. First-Class Nonrequestor Copies in excess of 10% Names obtained fromMail, Business Directories, Lists,mailed and other sources) Limit mailed at Standard Mail® or Package Services Rates) Nonrequested (Include Pickup Stands, Nonrequested Copies Copies Distributed Distributed Outside Throughthe theMail USPS by Other Classes of Trade Shows, Showrooms Other Sources) Mail (e.g. First-Class Mail, and Nonrequestor Copies mailed in excess of 10% Limit mailed at Standard Mail® or Package Services Rates)

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0

0

0

0

224

913

12,211

12,211

389

WITH US!

399

12,600

12,610

93.2%

92.5%

Lillbacka USA, Inc. ...................... 11 Main Manufacturing .................. 67 MP Filtri USA Inc. ......................... 9 Nitro Steel .................................. 28 NOSHOK, Inc. ............................. 35 O+P SrL ......................................... 4 OEM Controls ............................. 52 Parker Hannifin Corporation Pneumatic Division ................ 45 PHD Inc. ...................................... 56 Polyconn ..................................... 51 Prince Manufacturing Co. .......... 17 ROSS Controls ............................ 57 RYCO Hydraulics ......................... 42 Servo Kinetics ............................ IBC SFC Koenig .................................... 6 Super Swivels ............................... 2 Taimi Hydraulics ......................... 44 Tompkins Industries ............. IFC,10 Veljan Hydrair ............................. 41 Yates Industries .......................... 43 Zero-Max, Inc. .............................. 5

CONNECT

226

827

Adsens Tech Inc .......................... 10 Aggressive Hydraulics ................ 15 AMETEK DFS ............................... 25 AMETEK STC ............................... 37 AutomationDirect ..............1,Insert Brennan Industries ..................... 21 Clippard ...................................... BC Danfoss Power Solutions ........... 30 DMIC .......................................... 61 Doering Co. ................................ 29 Elesa U.S.A. Corp. ....................... 23 Fluid Line Products ..................... 69 FluiDyne Fluid Power ................. 49 Gefran ........................................ 31 HAWE Hydraulic ........................... 3 Holmbury, Inc. ............................ 13 Hy-Pro Filtration ......................... 53 Hyde Tools, Inc. .......................... 35 Hydraulex Global .......................... 7 Intertraco ................................... 26 Kraft Fluid Systems ..................... 58 Kurt Hydraulics ........................... 32

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Hydraulic Servo &

Proportional Valve Repair

Servo Kinetics (SKI) has been in business for 40 years, before many of the competitor’s even existed. Our capacity for servo and proportional valve repair far exceeds any of our competition. SKI serviced the NASA Houston Shuttle Simulator for 25 years, through three major upgrades of the Electro-Hydraulic, closed loop motion system.

The shuttle used 12 servo valves on “closed Loop” precision actuators. We suggest you visit our website for further details on our complete services, there are reference letters there you can read from FedEx, L3, Cedar Point, Fidelity and Delta Airlines. If you want/need a vendor that can meet any hydraulic challenges you have, SKI can do that for you. We know how to meet your needs.

INITIAL RUN-IN PERFORMANCE/FAILURE ANALYSIS THAT IS DOCUMENTED AND INCLUDED ON FINAL TEST REPORT SENT BACK WITH YOUR VALVE.

VALVE IS CLEANED ULTRA-SONICALLY, ALL INDIVIDUAL PARTS ARE INSPECTED FOR WEAR OR CRACKS. DYE CHECKING IS USED IF PART DANAGE IS SUSPECT.

FINAL PERFORMANCE TESTING INCLUDES TOTAL INTEROGATION OF ALL THE VALVES ORIGINAL PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS.

DYNAMIC PLOT OF INPUT VOLTAGE VERSUS OUTPUT FLOW SENT BACK ALONG WITH COMPUTER GENERATED FINAL TEST REPORT.

DATA OF ALL PLOTS AND TEST REPORTS ARE RECORDED AND RETAINED FOR FUTURE REFERENCE IN OUR TESTING DATA BASE.

www.servokinetics.com

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Quality Cylinders Ready to Ship Today! • Providing a level of credibility above the competition • Durable, economical construction • Exceptionally long cycle life • Interchangeable design • Many stroke and bore sizes • On-Line Interchange Guide • Proudly made in the USA

For over 50 years, Clippard has been providing quality cylinders for thousands of applications around the world. Cylinders that are responsible for millions of production cycles. Cylinders that provide outstanding performance and payback. Cylinders that quickly became the PREFERRED BRAND!

CINCINNATI • BRUSSELS • SHANGHAI 877-245-6247 • www.clippard.com

Providing innovative solutions for today’s engineering challenges.

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FLUID POWER WORLD OCTOBER 2018  

Hassle-free path to clean-running hydraulics. Lubrication issues in industrial hydraulics. Telematics offers high-value mobile solutions. Ai...

FLUID POWER WORLD OCTOBER 2018  

Hassle-free path to clean-running hydraulics. Lubrication issues in industrial hydraulics. Telematics offers high-value mobile solutions. Ai...