Page 1 September 2016

INSIDE: MOTION CONTROL: Motor manufacturers design motors for food and beverage applications that dramatically improve safety.


LINEAR MOTION: Linear motors compete with technologies that output high forces.



in the sky:

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FASTENING & JOINING: Surface mount spacers simplify installation.

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Mapping disasters 26

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I n s i g ht s Will shifting job roles make manufacturers better or worse? People older than a certain age like to talk about how their parents (well, in most cases, their fathers) worked their entire career at the same company. There’s something nostalgic about that vision of yesteryear, and there’s an implication that it was better than the current world of business, where many people seem to come and go and flit from job to job. (Not to mention all the others who are downsized through no choice of their own.) Earlier this year, Mark Thompson, Decision Processes International, spoke to the attendees of the National Fluid Power Association’s Annual Conference about the next generation of leaders. He talked about the challenge we face in working with Millennials, because they operate in a circle. Their lives and their career paths will not be linear like earlier generations who went to school, got married, had kids, worked at one job, retired. They’re most comfortable with making stops at various jobs; it’s simply a point on a journey. And given that turnover costs are estimated at $20,000 to $40,000 per employee for many companies, this is not small change—it’s of major consequence to how businesses are run. What does this mean for American manufacturers? In some industries, there has already been somewhat of a brain drain, as employees with 40+ years of service retire, taking with them an incalculable amount of specific engineering process knowledge. I know of places where handwritten manuals from former workers are guarded like diamonds, as engineers try to keep that practical design and troubleshooting knowledge from being lost. There’s no easy answer, but I think the newer Millennial workers can help—and must be engaged—on a couple of levels. First, more established workers must be open to the new ideas and creative energy that Millennials bring. So many processes are done in a certain way because they’ve always been done that way. Younger engineers, who’ve never known anything but the wonders of the Internet, 3D printing, and small ubiquitous sensors, may be able to help rethink manufacturing steps that could surely use a refresh. And second, why not bring Millennials into the task of archiving each company’s most important processes? According to Thompson, they crave being given opportunities in new companies and helping to participate, to develop strategy. Explain to them why keeping this consolidated knowledge alive is so critical for maintenance and to troubleshoot existing equipment and systems. Ask for their help in finding a way to keep it alive. Maybe it’s as simple as conducting interviews with the most senior level engineers and having them transcribed. Put the documents on a searchable system in the company Intranet. Every manufacturing operation will have different needs and solutions, but complaining about how different the newest generation is will get us nowhere. Engaging the youngest professionals to work with the most experienced ones has to be the way that we go forward and stay competitive. DW

Pa ul J. Heney - Editor ial D i re ctor pheney@wtw hme di

On Twitter @ DW—Editor 4

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September 2016

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Te s c h l e r o n To p i c

Unable to grasp the meaning of numbers Much has been written about the innumeracy of the general populace. An inability to grasp the meaning of numbers leads to a variety of bad outcomes that include a predilection to be hoodwinked by junk science and financial scams. An even more pernicious outcome of an inability to understand simple math concerns evaluating every day risks. The case of an IKEA furniture recall may be a case in point. Under pressure from the Consumer Product Safety Commission, IKEA recently recalled 36 million dressers because in the space of two years, three children were killed when the furniture tipped over on top of them. Apparently the dressers were not anchored to the wall as per instructions from the company.

The dressers in question have been sold for 14 years and in that span of time have caused five deaths. Thus it is easy to figure what it will cost to prevent five deaths over the next 14 years: If the cost of recalling a single unit is $25 (a ballpark estimate), that means it would take $900 million to fix the 36 million dressers already sold, about $180 million per death. Commentators have pointed out that though the deaths were tragic, they were also anomalies. Their point: treating all products like IKEA’s dressers puts society in the position of spending infinite sums to spare a diminishingly small number of lives. By logical extension, it is not rational to spend huge sums in an effort to make any product or activity 100% safe. Numerically literate people should be able to understand this. Another example of people who can’t grasp the meaning of numbers arises in the debate about mandating sprinkler systems in homes. The International Code Council, which develops safety codes and standards, in 2009 came out with a code requiring new one- and two-family homes be equipped with sprinklers for fire suppression. States can choose to follow the ICC code or not, and seven of them have elected not to. It is easy to see why. The journalism site, writing about the sprinkler debate, recently said it reviewed real estate records and found two deaths and 37 fires that caused injuries in homes built since

2009 in the seven states where the sprinkler mandate has been blocked. The estimated cost of a residential sprinkler system is about $1,500. That statistic gives a way to estimate what it would cost states not mandating sprinkler systems to prevent the two deaths and 37 fires you’d expect to see if the next seven years are like the last seven. The total number of single-unit building permits for the seven states in question from 2009 to 2014 is 893,782, according to the U.S. Census. The total cost of putting $1,500 sprinkler systems in those houses would have been $1.34 billion. Assuming a similar number of houses get built in the coming seven years, the bill for preventing an expected 37 fires would run $36 million per fire. The ProPublica piece on sprinklers had an extremely pro-sprinkler tone. It quotes the president of the National Fire Sprinkler Association as saying, “As the (former) fire chief I had to drive past those houses (lacking sprinklers),….and I knew that some day there could be an event there that could cost somebody their life.” Consider this comment in the light of traffic fatality statistics. There were 32,675 U.S. traffic fatalities just in 2014. Thus the NFSA president was in far more danger driving past homes lacking sprinklers than were the inhabitants who dwelled there. Evidently this irony was completely lost on the ProPublica reporter. DW

Le la n d Te sc h le r - Exec u t i ve Edi to r ltesc h ler@wtwh m edi a .co m

On Twitter @ DW—LeeTeschler



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September 2016

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© 2016 Helical Products Company |

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Te c h n o lo gy Fo r wa rd

More technologies emerge to build parts layer by layer Until recently, there were about seven technologies that built parts in a layer-by-layer fashion. Today, that number has expanded, thanks in large part to all the money invested into 3D printing / additive manufacturing during the recent hype cycle.

One of the latest new ways to built parts layer by layer is based on Magneto Hydro Dynamics (MHD) or the manipulation of liquid metal through magnetism, and Liquid Metal Jet Printing (LMJP). Startup Vader Systems developed this method, and a machine to use it, to work with metal materials. The company’s MagnetoJet machine is the Mk 1. Aluminum wire is deposited into an 800°C ceramic chamber, where it is heated to a molten state. The molten version is then electromagnetically pulsed to cause a precisely sized droplet to form. The droplets are ejected from a custom ceramic nozzle that is similar to inkjet nozzles in that it deposits large quantities of material quickly. The Mk 1 will deliver 1000 droplets per second with micron level accuracy. It can deposit aluminum at a rate of 1 lb/hr. This capability would make the build speed about twice as fast as that of conventional 3D powder bed metal printers. Plus, this metal 3D printer builds 100% dense parts. Another example comes from Roland DG Corp., a leading manufacturer of desktop fabrication devices. Roland has entered into a joint research relationship with GPI, the Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries located in Hamamatsu, Japan, to study the application of femtosecond laser technology to the fields of 3D fabrication. The ultra short pulse of light from a femtosecond (one quadrillionth of a second) laser reduces thermal damage to the irradiated

area due to the laser’s ablation effect, where the strength of the laser beam induces a plasma state to the affected material. This method does not create bumps or distortion around the fabricated area and the effect of the heat is limited, so it is possible to achieve a high quality finish. Thus, femtosecond lasers could be effective for precision fabrication with extremely hard materials. Challenges remain, including downsizing and cost reduction of the oscillator, which is required to create a femtosecond laser, and conducting further research on how materials change during fabrication. Hisashi Bito, Executive Officer and division vice president of Easy Shape business development at Roland DG, said, “We are exploring the possibility of applying femtosecond laser technology to our 3D digital fabrication areas with the objective of producing the first desk-top femtosecond laser fabrication machine.” Two other examples are the NanoParticle jetting technology from XJet, which jets stochastic metal nanoparticles engulfed in a proprietary liquid to build parts; and EnvisionTec’s new lamination process that uses custom made thermoplastic reinforced unidirectional or multidirectional woven fibers to build objects a layer at a time. Of course these are only a few of the latest new methods to build parts layer-by-layer. We’ve covered other recent introductions on Make Parts Fast, DW

Le sli e La n gn a u - M a n ag i n g Edi to r lla n g n a u r@wtwh m edi a .co m

On Twitter @ DW—3Dprinting 8


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HOW DO I KNOW IF I’M TALKING TO AN ENGINEER OR A SALESMAN? Ask Smalley. We have nothing against sales people. But when it comes to differentiating Inconel from Elgiloy or overcoming dimensional variations within a complex assembly, wouldn’t you rather work with an engineer? Our customers would. That’s why they collaborate directly with our world-class team of Smalley engineers—experienced professionals whose only focus is helping you specify or design the ideal wave spring, Spirolox® retaining ring or constant section ring for your precision application.

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» Gre e n Engi neeri ng

Looking back at the Earth from space n Paul J. Heney • Editorial Director

One critical role for space science today is looking back on our home planet, and using highly sensitive satellites to observe conditions and changes on the Earth—truly taking the idea of stepping back for a better view to new heights. When NASA launched its environmental research satellite last year, it carried sensitive Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) instrumentation that used missioncritical cooling components from k Technology, a division of Thermacore. The SMAP mission is designed to help scientists understand the links between Earth’s water, energy and carbon cycles. Functioning as an Earth observatory in space, the satellite improves the ability of weather forecasters and climate scientists to monitor and predict natural hazards, such as floods, landslides and droughts. SMAP soil moisture data are used by agricultural and water resource managers to develop water and climate models. The SMAP project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with participation by the Goddard Space Flight Center. Throughout the SMAP mission, internal heat generated by the satellite’s electronics must continually be rejected into the cold and vacuum of outer space. To meet this difficult thermal challenge while maintaining strict weight and size limits, NASA called upon Thermacore’s thermal management and engineering expertise to develop a unique heat spreader—also known as a doubler—to cool a critical electronics bus panel. Instead of using typical aluminum heat-spreader material, the doubler uses k-Core Annealed Pyrolytic Graphite (APG) encapsulated within aluminum to form a composite panel. The six-millimeter thick panel is a sandwich comprised of an aluminum exterior shell that is 1 mm thick on each side wrapped around a 4-mm thick APG core. The advanced APG material enabled the large 0.7-m long and 0.7-m-wide panel to achieve a significant weight reduction of approximately 15 kg without sacrificing thermal performance.

The hard anodized plate was finished to support an array of thermal attachment points, thermally and electrically conductive areas, plus grounding areas. According to Mark Montesano, VP of Engineering, Thermacore k Technology Div., “The complex finishing requirements presented a challenging design. This project involved a detailed mechanical design as well as a finite element thermal analysis to determine component locations and specific geometry of the APG insert within the structure.” The thermal/mechanical analysis identified such variables as graphiteedge distances and thru-hole features. The team undertook a predictiveperformance analysis using an iterative process with JPL to determine optimum locations and component configuration. From that point, engineering drawings were generated for all the components, which were then released to the company’s fabrication facility for graphite machining, composite assembly and machining, plating and inspection. The panel was then shipped to JPL for bench testing, preflight evaluation and then installation on the spacecraft for the January 2015 launch. In addition to the advanced thermal solution for the SMAP mission, the company will provide a k-Core thermal strap for the thermal clock on the JPL GRACE Follow-on Mission. Scheduled for launch in 2017, this mission will measure the change in water stored on land from precipitation that has been stored as snow, that infiltrated into the ground or evaporated, or that left the basin as stream flow. DW


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September 2016



9/2/16 10:08 AM

Elesa The Original handwheel VD. Original Design

1963 The new innovative machine handwheel VD. made in Italy by Elesa, an original design in Duroplast, was introduced for the first time on the market.


The first successful exhibition at the Chicago Design Show.

1977 The Industrial Design Award

from the

IF-Hannover (Germany) VDN. Original Design

Follow the whole team on twitter @DesignWorld EDITORIAL


Editorial Director Paul J. Heney @dw_editor

VP, Creative Services Mark Rook @wtwh_graphics

Videographer Manager John Hansel @wtwh_jhansel

Managing Editor Leslie Langnau @dw_3dprinting

Art Director Matthew Claney @wtwh_designer

Videographer Alex Barni

Executive Editor Leland Teschler @dw_leeteschler

Graphic Designer Allison Washko @wtwh_allison


Senior Editor Miles Budimir @dw_motion

Traffic Manager Mary Heideloff

Senior Editor Lisa Eitel @dw_lisaeitel Senior Editor Mary Gannon @dw_marygannon

Associate Editor Mike Santora @dw_mikesantora

Reg. U.S. Pat. & Tm. Off.

Director, Audience Development Bruce Sprague

2013 (fifty years later)

The new up-to-date and restyled machine handwheel VDN. Elesa Original Design always with the traditional, unmistakable feature:

Production Associate Tracy Powers NEW MEDIA/WEB/ BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT Web Development Manager B. David Miyares @wtwh_webdave Senior Web Developer Patrick Amigo @amigo_patrick

Marketing Manager Stacy Combest @wtwh_stacy Marketing and Events Coordinator Jen Kolasky @wtwh_jen Marketing Coordinator Lexi Korsok @medtech_lexi Digital Marketing Specialist Josh Breuler @wtwh_joshb Digital Marketing Intern Aly Ryan @wtwh_aly

Web Production Associate Skylar Aubuchon @skylar_aubuchon ACCOUNTING Digital Media Manager Patrick Curran @wtwhseopatrick

the matte Aluminum ring contrasting with the high glossy black Duroplast surface

Online Coordinator Jennifer Calhoon @wtwh_jennifer

The design that many Civil Courts (IPR sections) and Courts of Appeal in Europe over many years have declared “a unique and distinctive design”

Controller Brian Korsberg Accounts Receivable Specialist Jamila Milton

2011 - 2016 2014 Winner

WTWH Media, LLC 6555 Carnegie Ave., Suite 300, Cleveland, OH 44103 Ph: 888.543.2447 • FAX: 888.543.2447

Elesa USA Corporation Toll-Free 800-374-7686

Medical Design & OUTSOURCING

Since 1941


Staff page 9-16_Vs1.indd 12


September 2016

9/7/16 9:24 AM

Quality SENSORS SENSIBLE prices!

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AutomationDirect 9-16 DW.indd 13


Q/D = quick disconnect *All prices are U.S. published prices. AutomationDirect prices as of 4/27/2016 Allen-Bradley prices are taken from 4/18/2016. Prices may vary by dealer. Many other part numbers are available from all vendors.

Research, price, buy at:


the #1 value in automation

9/2/16 9:50 AM

Co nten t s |

September 2016 • vol 11 no 9


F E AT U R E S CONTROL 60 MOTION Designing motors with

98 ELECTRONICS Teardown: How many IT people does it take

safety in mind

to screw in a smart light bulb?

With scientifically verified hygienic design principles, motor manufacturers are designing motors for food and beverage applications that dramatically improve safety.

Only consumers who are deeply committed to managing a lightbulb on their smart phone are likely to persevere through the lengthy setup we endured while examining the Osram Lightify LED.

68 Precision ground ball screw options LINEAR MOTION

for linear motion applications

Ball screws have an efficiency that makes them suitable for use in actuators that drive industrial and automotive applications, including robotics, machine tool axes, and semiconductor wafer-transport systems. Here we review the different ball screw subtypes and where each one excels.

MOTION 78 LINEAR Where do linear motors make sense?

& JOINING 114 FASTENING Surface mount fasteners go with the flow Switching to surface mount spacers reduces hardware requirements and simplifies installation.

122 SENSORS Using pressure sensors to make other measurements

Many applications use pressure sensor measurements to calculate other key parameters such as flow, altitude, water column height, fluid depth, weight and more. In industrial applications, the most common use of pressure sensors to calculate another parameter is flow.

Linear motors compete with other motion technologies that output high forces. Here are some considerations for deciding between options.

88 The IoT and Cloud security Will a fight break out over who’s responsible for securing data? Maybe. Will companies start taking security seriously? Not sure. Will design engineers need to address security before corporate management? Probably. Here’s a look at the state of IoT and Cloud security today.

CONTENTS SEPTEMBER 2016_first page_Vs2.LL.indd 14

A Supplement to Design World - September 2016

Design devices and

The five camera arrays affixed to Pictometry’s planes are steadied by a gimbal controlled by AllMotion’s EZHR17EN motion controller.

measures—not as well developed as needed







equipment faster, smarter, and under budget with TiPS from leading suppliers


Image courtesy of Pictometry

A | S |B |P|E

A | S |B |P|E

A | S |B |P|E

A | S |B |P|E

American Society of Business Publication Editors

American Society of Business Publication Editors

American Society of Business Publication Editors

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2016 Regional

2016 National

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Fostering B2B editorial excellence

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Award Winner



Award Winner

A | S | B | P| E Fostering B2B editorial excellence

American Society of Business Publication Editors

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ONLINE Award Winner

9/7/16 1:09 PM

160801_DESIGN_DW_US.indd 1 challenges) 9-16.indd 15 Digi-Key (one source for your design

8/3/16 9/2/16 2:14 9:51 PM AM

Con te n ts

G2 Commander Grips

9.20 1 6

Rugged Design D E PA R T M E N T S 04 Insights 06 Teschler on Topic


08 Technology Forward 1 1 Green Engineering 18 Design For Industry 26 Design Notes 38 Coupling Notes

• Cast from aluminum alloy • Standard designs eliminate the need for tooling charges • Can be a fixed grip or mounted on a joystick • Nine standard faceplate configurations • Thousands of custom faceplate configurations available

42 CAE Solutions


48 Internet of Things 1 3 6 Products 1 4 4 Ad Index

For Demanding Applications

42 847-428-7171 16

Contents SEPTEMBER_second page_Vs1.indd 16


September 2016

9/2/16 10:25 AM


Whatever keeps you up at night, we’ve got a solution—the largest selection of motors, pumps and air-moving devices available. Plus, one-of-a-kind solutions ready to be custom-engineered for your precision industrial, commercial, combustion or transportation application. If you can dream it, you’ll find it at Solution City.

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7/29/15 9:14AM AM 9/2/16 9:52




» Design for Industry


Chain material withstands heat tunnel applications Shrink-wrap case packers must often move through high temperature heat tunnels. Not every conveying chain suits such an application. The Rexnord HTX7748 MatTop Chain, however, handles such applications in the beverage and liquid and food industries. This chain resists oxidation, which can increase uptime and reliability. The chain provides: • 42% open area and a smooth surface, which supports heat dissipation through cooling cycles.

• Proprietary and specially engineered heat stable material to withstand heat to cooling cycles of heat tunnels, ensuring uniform cooling while also allowing easy release of materials for less scrap, more uptime, and longer chain life. • Engineered design for performance and reliability. The chain has a heavy-duty plug and retention feature and stainless steel pins. The pins remain in place for a stronger chain and easy link replacement when needed. DW Rexnord |

1.800.933.4915 18


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September 2016

9/7/16 10:24 AM

machine tool/aerospace/military


» Design for Industry



Ensure power to IoT wearables The data collection goals of the Internet of Things is infiltrating everything, especially small wearables like smart watches and fitness bands, as well as automotive dash cams, key fobs, memory backup, security devices and many consumer electronics products. All of these devices need power. The RJD Series batteries are different in design from other lithium ion coin-cell batteries. A new encapsulation technology increases storage capacity by using the space within the cell case. The resulting high power density is a significant benefit in IoT wearable applications. These batteries also have a lower failure rate than older designs. Encapsulation, unlike conventional stacking construction, resolves older manufacturing issues that can affect safety and reliability. These batteries allow manufacturers to offer new levels of performance without product redesign.

Product run time can be increased by 20% or more versus a conventional lithium rechargeable coin cell battery. Alternatively, if product size is critical, performance levels can be maintained with a physically smaller cell. Because of their internal encapsulation construction, UL-Listed RJD cells also offer reliability and safety. They are more resistant to overheating than conventional coin-cell batteries; and their patented technology eliminates risk of internal shorts. RJD Coin Cells are available in eight different capacity levels, leaded or with conventional flat terminals. Each is rated at: 3.7 Vdc (4.2 Vdc to 3.0 Vdc). Operating temperature range is -20°C to +60°C. DW Illinois Capacitor

September 2016

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9/2/16 12:38 PM




» Design for Industry


Clutch/brakes reduce motor shaft and keyway damage in high cycle count applications In high cycle applications, like packaging, each clutch engagement transfers a torque spike to the connection between the motor shaft and the input shaft of the clutch brake. This action can can cause continuous, severe, hammering on the shaft connection of the motor to the clutch brake. Posidyne long coupled C-Face clutch brakes are an option for high cycle (50 to 300 CPM) applications because they eliminate the damage to keyways and motor shafts that commonly occur. With a standard C-Face connection, the motor shaft installs into the hollow bore of the clutch brake input shaft. However, the loose fit required for ease of assembly causes all of the torque to transfer through the key and keyway, resulting is early failure. A coupling that is shrink fitted or clamped to both shafts for a 360° connection transfers the torque through the shaft and not just the key. The long coupled Posidyne clutch brake offers the simplicity of C-Face mounting, and the tight fitting coupling. These clutch brakes use oil shear technology, which allows rapid and precise stopping, starting, reversing, speed change and positioning – all without adjustment and minimal maintenance. These motion control devices allow higher cycle rates (as high as 300 cycles per minute) while reducing downtime.

The low inertia cycling components of these clutch brakes helps make them efficient, requiring less motor horsepower to accelerate the load, and less torque to stop the load. The totally enclosed design is impervious to dust, chips, chemicals, coolants, caustic wash down, and weather, so they suit hostile environments. Posidyne clutch/brakes have a multiple disc design that produces high torque from a small package.  Re-circulating the fluid dissipates the heat of engagement, a common cause of downtime in clutch/brake assemblies. A simple actuation system allows torque in the clutch and brake to be precisely controlled. By reducing the high starting inrush currents and the associated power factor imbalance in the motor these unique clutch/brakes can also reduce energy costs. DW Force Control Industries


Connect and discuss this and other design engineering issues with thousands of professionals online



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September 2016

9/2/16 11:19 AM

Power Review

Altra Industrial Motion Vol. 5 | No. 3 | 2016

The Power Brands in Power Transmission

Featured in this Edition... Boston & Bauer Washdown Gear Drives and Gear Motors Twiflex USA Brake Calipers TB Wood’s Improved Belt Drive Online Selection Tool TB Wood’s & Ameridrives 24-Hour Break Down Assistance Line

Boston & Bauer

Washdown Gear Drives and Gear Motors

Marland Clutch Certified Rebuild Services

For the Food & Beverage Industry

Genuine Wichita Replacement Parts Bauer Introduces New HiflexDRIVE

Find Altra Industrial Motion on:

Altra Industrial Motion Ameridrives Couplings Ameridrives Power Transmission Bauer Gear Motor Bibby Turboflex Boston Gear

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The Power Of Experience

Delroyd Worm Gear Formsprag Clutch Guardian Couplings Huco Dynatork Industrial Clutch Inertia Dynamics

Kilian Manufacturing Lamiflex Couplings Marland Clutch Matrix International Nuttall Gear Stieber Clutch

Svendborg Brakes TB Wood’s Twiflex Limited Warner Electric Warner Linear Wichita Clutch

For more information contact us at: or visit

Scan to download the interactive version of the Power Review

9/2/16 2:40 PM

Boston & Bauer Washdown Gear Drives & Gear Motors for the Food & Beverage Industry As the leading innovators in gearing and gear motor technology, Boston Gear and Bauer Gear Motor present a full line of Stainless Steel and Aseptic products that provide sanitary protection and optimal performance in the toughest caustic environments. Distinct Advantages of the Boston Gear and Bauer Gear Motor offering: 1. Wide Breadth of Products • Worm / Helical-Worm / Helical-Bevel or Helical / Parallel Shaft • Gear Drives (Speed Reducers) / Gear Motors / Shaft Accessories • Reductions of 3:1 thru 10,000:1 • Output Torque from 100 lbf-in thru 7,500 lbf-in 2. Critical Product Features for Washdown Suitability and Sustainability • NSF International Certified (Worm Gear Drives) • UL/ULc Certified (Gear Motors) • IP67 / IP69K Compliance • The Original Domed CrownTM Technology Scan to watch Boston & Bauer • 316SS Cast Housings

3. Performance Competitive Advantages • Proven: Longer Product Life • Proven: Higher Motor Efficiency • Proven: Higher Gearing Operating Efficiency • Proven: Lower Gearing Operating Temperature • Proven: Reduced Installation Time & Maintenance Cost

Washdown video

For more information download P-8026-BBG from

Twiflex USA Brake Calipers Twiflex offers the largest range of industrial disc brake calipers in the world. Spring applied units may be retracted pneumatically, hydraulically or electrically (depending on caliper design) while most direct acting brakes have some form of positive retraction device. Pneumatically Applied Brakes are best suited for light to medium stopping duties and for tensioning applications where a high degree of control is required. Hydraulically Applied Brakes address higher torque requirements, while spring applied calipers are essential where braking must be maintained in the event of supply system failure Mechanically Applied Units are suitable for light tensioning duties or where no external power is available; they may also be specified when designers wish to use their own means of actuation. For more information download P-1648-TF from

Call Twiflex Toll-Free: 844.723.3483

TB Wood’s Introduces Improved Belted Drive Online Selection Tool TB Wood’s has recently introduced more enhancements to their popular online Belted Drive Selection Program at The improved online program now checks the arm/web strength of a sheave/sprocket along with the bushing torque rating for suitability of the application. TB Wood’s is the only manufacturer that currently offers an online selection tool that checks for both criteria. The new features provide peace of mind to users as it helps to prevent the design of drives where the metal components are not properly sized. This issue has become increasingly important as belt manufacturers frequently increase belt capacity, but new metal products are not being designed to accommodate those larger torque capacities. The enhanced web-based tool works on PC, tablet or Mac platforms. Users can display Relative, Discount and Quote pricing. Favorite belted solutions can be more easily marked, shared and recalled. TB Wood’s comprehensive Selector Program includes Classic, Narrow, Light-Duty and Premium V-Belt drives and Synchronous Plus, QT Power Chain, Power Chain II Carbon and Timing Synchronous Belts. Visit

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TB Wood’s & Ameridrives Couplings 24-Hour Break Down Assistance Line Available for: TB Wood’s Form-Flex® and Torsiflex-i Ameridrives Amerigear Coupling Products Breakdowns and machining problems don’t always occur during the 9-5 workday. That’s why TB Wood’s Form-Flex® and Torsiflex-i couplings and Ameridrives Amerigear coupling products have 24-hour support.

Hour Break Down Assistance Line

Call anytime and someone is available to help. Opening fee does apply. An additional fee also applies for any machining to be done if the parts/materials are available. Customer is responsible for arranging the delivery. For more information, download P-8051-CG from www. After Hours & Weekend Support: 512-353-4000

Marland Clutch Certified Rebuild Services Your old, worn Marland clutches can be refurbished for substantially less than the cost of a new replacement clutch. Our economical rebuild service applies to all Marland Clutch BCMA, CECON and CEBMAG models. The local Marland Rebuild Service team will perform the following to restore your clutch to like-new condition: • Inspect and replace seals, energizing springs, alloy steel rollers, aluminum cages, bearings and fasteners as required • Inspect and precision grind the outer race and cam if required • Assemble and test to meet Marland original design and performance specifications • Paint and prepare for shipment Read more about the service available to help you with your rebuild requirements by downloading Service Profile, P-8093-MC | Cement Kiln CEBMAG Backstop & CECON Clutch – Rapid Response Delivery from For more details on our cost saving certified Marland Rebuild Program, call 1-888-216-3515

Genuine Wichita Replacement Parts Wichita has years of experience in building value into every Genuine Wichita Replacement Part. Competitively-priced Wichita parts, made with quality materials and leading-edge technology, not only outlast the competition, resulting in lower life cycle costs, they also fit precisely to give customers the assurance of trouble-free performance. That’s why Wichita can confidently offer the very best warranty in the business.

For more information download P-8031-WC & P-8032-WC from

Bauer Introduces New HiflexDRIVE The latest HiflexDRIVE range is available in a standard, painted configuration for conventional applications, or in aseptic and stainless steel versions that are specifically designed to operate in hygienic environments. Ideally suited to conveyor applications, the HiflexDRIVE solution offers many advantages in terms of performance, reliability and flexibility. However, the special hygiene demands of industries such as pharmaceuticals and food & beverage, require specialized components that typically have to be specified to withstand the regular cleaning regimes and provide clean operation without risk of contamination. For more information download P-8083-BGM from

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TB Wood's Introduces Improved Belted Drive Online Selection Tool TB Wood’s has recently introduced more enhancements to their popular online Belted Drive Selection Program at beltdriveselector.tbwoods. com. The improved online program now checks the arm/web strength of a sheave/sprocket along with the bushing torque rating for suitability of the application.

TB Wood’s is the only manufacturer that currently offers an online selection tool that checks for both criteria. The new features provide peace of mind to users as it helps to prevent the design of drives where the metal components are not properly sized. This issue has become increasingly important as belt manufacturers frequently increase belt capacity, but new metal products are not being designed to accommodate those larger torque capacities.

The enhanced web-based tool works on PC, tablet or Mac platforms. Users can display Relative, Discount and Quote pricing. Favorite belted solutions can be more easily marked, shared and recalled.

TB Wood’s comprehensive Selector Program includes Classic, Narrow, Light-Duty and Premium V-Belt drives and Synchronous Plus, QT Power Chain, Power Chain II Carbon and Timing Synchronous Belts.

For more information, visit & Altra Industrial_#4_9-16.indd 24

Scan to visit the TB Wood's Belt Drive Online Selection Tool

9/2/16 1:01 PM





RETAINING DEVICES & maintenance & assembly tools

Solvent resistant adhesive withstands methylene chloride, alcohols and fuels The rigors of aerospace applications require rugged materials, especially when adhering parts. Formulated for bonding, sealing, coating and encapsulation applications, EP41S-5 is a room temperature curing epoxy that combines a high strength profile, high electrical insulation values and chemical resistance. Well suited for coating tanks, storage vessels and piping, this adhesive delivers long-term protection against an array of chemicals including acids, bases, alcohols, fuels and many solvents. Most noteworthy is its resistance to methylene chloride, a common stripping agent. This makes EP41S-5 suitable for tamper proofing applications in the electronic industry. This adhesive offers convenient handling with a 100 to 25 mix ratio by weight. The mixed epoxy has good flow properties with a moderate viscosity of 25,000-30,000 cps. It bonds well to a variety of substrates including metals, composites, glass, ceramics, as well as many rubbers and plastics. EP41S-5 will cure at room temperature or more rapidly at elevated temperatures. Upon curing, this system is rigid, with a hardness of 85-95 Shore D. It has a tensile strength of 10,000-12,000 psi at room temperature. Additionally, it features reliable electrical insulation characteristics with a dielectric constant of 3.5 at 60 Hz and a volume resistivity greater than 1014 ohm-cm. Plus, this adhesive is serviceable over the temperature range of -80°F to +300°F [-62°C to +149°C]. Its natural color is black, but can be formulated in additional colors. This solvent free system is available for use in ½ pint, pint, quart, gallon and 5 gallon container kits as well as double barrel cartridges that can be dispensed in gun applicators. It is a moderate viscosity, high strength, two-part epoxy. DW Master Bond



BEARLOK Shrink Disc






















WHITTET-HIGGINS manufactures quality oriented, stocks abundantly and delivers quickly the best quality and largest array of adjustable, heavy thrust bearing, and torque load carrying retaining devices for bearing, power transmission and other industrial assemblies; and specialized tools for their careful assembly. Visit our website––to peruse the many possibilities to improve your assemblies. Much technical detail delineated as well as 2D and 3D CAD models for engineering assistance. Call your local                  or a good distributor. 33 Higginson Avenue, Central Falls, Rhode Island 02863 Telephone: (401) 728-0700 • FAX: (401) 728-0703 E-mail: Web:

September 2016

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» D e s i g n N o te s

Motion controllers help planes take precision aerial photos of disasters Terry Persun • Technology Journalist

Five cameras use 50 to 350 -mm lenses to take photographs to ge ther. LiDAR mapping lets Pictometry pl anes rapidly collect da tasets for full-te rrain maps. Otherwis e, Pictometry pl anes can use IR and other bands of imaging.

Quick response to catastrophes such as floods and fires is critical, but disaster sites are often inaccessible and unsafe for inspectors and adjusters who come after first responders. Now Pictometry, an EagleView company, collects and supplies ultra-clear aerial photography to let insurance carriers, restoration companies, utilities, and contractors identify safe-access points, areas of total loss, and places where support can provide the most help. Nonemergency applications include property assessments and infrastructure planning, as well as authoritative mapping with Pictometry’s AccuPLUS system — fully qualified by the United States Geological Survey (USGS).



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9/7/16 10:22 AM

...Ok guys...

WE GOT THIS! mp d dev ices ca n be fou n d in nu merous G O D Z I L L A D E T E R R E N T S A N D M I L I TA R Y A P P L I c at i o n s


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t e r y h o l d e r s . c o m

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With Reverse Seal Option

4:14 PM

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You have so many choices within each guide class – the NB standards, unique guides. • 2 lubricant systems with lubricant options. • Reverse Seal and Fiber Sheet Option provide maintenance free environments. • Quick delivery from US inventory. • Remarkable interchangeability. • Myriad mix and match styles. • 15mm to 69mm rail widths • Extended block options. • Choice of coating.

Fiber sheet lubricant delivery makes guides easier to maintain.* Four ball circuits for more load and accuracy. Precision ground raceways provide smoother ball movement. Guide shown is from the SGL family within the NB Slide Guide product line.

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*Optional fiber sheet shown installed.

9/2/16 9:57 AM

When Size and Performance Matters Medical-Industrial This CAD draw ing shows how AllMotion EZSV 10 controllers m ount inside Pictomet ry imaging asse mblies. The contro ller allows fully programmable motion ramps an d speeds, encode r-based feedba ck , 4-MHz maximum encoder freque ncy, and PWM or On/ Off output.

Actual Micro-Coax cable bundle diameter compared to a penny.



Bundle of 128 Micro-Coax Cables (42AWG/85 ohms)

A fleet of 100 Pictometry planes sporting USGS-certified camera systems mounted on plane sides, fore, aft, and straight down, capture what the company calls Intelligent Images. These images go through processing and then online. Advanced photography methods and motion control are part of the design. Pictometry planes fly year-round to continually take images from low altitudes (and avoid atmospheric degradation). The planes’ camera arrays take shots at oblique angles — never parallel or at a right angle to implied lines, but slanting, acute, and obtuse. Those perspectives yield ground images that are more natural (to make objects easier to recognize).

Then proprietary processing combines the images into ultra-precise virtual landscapes. For motion control, Pictometry’s aerial image-capture gear — and fixtures that focus various lenses — use motion controllers from AllMotion. Each airplane has five or more cameras, and run off an AllMotion EZSV10.

Actual catheter cable diameter compared to a penny.

Orthogonal im agery provides topdown views rect ified to align to m ap grids. It also inte grates into GIS da ta for a comprehensive understanding of buildings and local to pography. A web -based CONNECT platfo rm (loaded with tools for evaluation, analysis, and m ea surement) makes it easy for users to view and analyze inform ation.


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» D e si g n N o tes

The Price Alternative omotor EZSV10 serv from controllers

e onboard AllMotion hav storing user EEPROM for d can operate programs an e devices. as standalon

Optimized for OEM requirements at a lower price. PHD, Inc. is setting a new standard in pneumatic actuators. PHD Optimax® products are designed and tested to meet the demands of the industrial market for optimum price savings. These economical, efficient and reliable actuators complement PHD’s option-rich product lines. Series OCG Pneumatic Cylinder - 6 Sizes, 10 Strokes - Imperial & Metric Models

Series OSH Compact Pneumatic Slide Table - 4 Sizes, Incremental Travels

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Design Notes 9-16_Vs5.LL.MS.indd 30

More than 600 such cameras are currently in operation. To capture a scene, all of a plane’s cameras must take their shots in less than a second, even while the plane flies at 100 knots — conditions that make details and available light change swiftly. The EZSV10s control the cameras’ aperture for metering light. More specifically, the controllers couple to motors that move the gear for an iris mechanism, which makes constant adjustments during flight. The AllMotion EZSV10 is an intelligent controller that’s only 0.95 x 1.4-in. and needs little to no tuning when used with most motors 1.5-in. in diameter or smaller. On the image-capture gear, a single fourwire bus (two power and two communications wires) connects the controller to 16 dc motors in a daisychain to issue commands. Setup is easy through any serial terminal program or from AllMotion’s EZServo/Stepper Windows application. The 1.5-A continuous dc brush-motor driver runs off 12 to 40 V. The EZSV10 also has onboard EEPROM for storing user programs and can operate as standalone devices. In addition to the servocontroller, a single AllMotion EZHR17EN controls a gimbal for all five cameras. 30


September 2016

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EZHR17EN AllMotion’s r controller stepper moto bal to steady controls a gim ray on the camera ar es. an Pictometry pl The gimbal compensates for up to 30° of yaw for each side (or 60° total) and moves whenever the plane is crabbing — moving sideways due to wind. This also helps the cameras stay stable during plane maneuvering. The AllMotion EZHR17EN is a combination stepper control and driver that (just like the servo controllers) features a four-wire bus and can daisychain up to 16 motors to provide an intuitive command structure. The controllers also have a selectable step resolution from 1/2 to 1/256 step and the ability to command up to 20 million microsteps per second; they’re also prewired for OptoSwitch inputs. DW All Motion

» D esi gn Notes


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AH1215A-PMG-Cartesian-Robots-9x5_25.indd 1 Design Notes 9-16_Vs5.LL.MS.indd 31

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8/3/2016 9:19:04 AM 9/2/16 11:31 AM

Âť D e s i g n N o tes

Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor

linders g, hydraulic cy In die castin hanical nder high mec u rk o w en ft o treme exposed to ex re a d n a ss stre aces, e confined sp conditions lik loads. and thermal and high dirt stom nctionally cu Robust and fu n ders can be a hydraulic cylin . b ice for the jo excellent cho

Hydraulic power stroke cylinders for core pullers Die casting is a beneficial process for the manufacturing of complex, thin-walled lightweight components. For example, one-third of the aluminum consumption for engine and transmission components that are produced in a die casting process can be saved. But mass production of castings is not possible without machines with hydraulic drive technology. Ritter Leichtmetallguss, near Stuttgart, Germany, uses hydraulic cylinders made by Hydropneu GmbH, Germany. In die casting, hydraulic cylinders work under high mechanical stress and are exposed to extreme conditions like confined spaces, and high dirt and thermal loads. Therefore, only robust and functionally custom hydraulic cylinders can handle the job.



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» De si gn Notes

The advantages of function-specific hydraulic cylinders are particularly evident in the area of multi-casting molds. That’s why the Hydropneu team designs and manufactures power stroke cylinders in accordance with custom specifications. Ritter’s machine cylinders press the 670 °C hot aluminum melt in an eightfold-die-casting mold. After cooling, the parts are often stuck in the cores of the molds. Additional cylinders pull two cores at a time, but the force of the existing cylinders in the machine is not sufficient. It was not possible to use larger sized cylinders because of machine space. It was decided to use four Hydropneu power stroke cylinders for the core pull. The cylinders built for this purpose can exert high forces over a short distance, which are required for detaching the core. No large forces are needed after the core has been detached. The majority of the piston stroke is for speed and for the conservation of energy. Unlike larger cylinders that exert the same force over a short distance, this design expends lots of energy but only for a short time and not over the entire length of the piston. This cylinder design helps save energy and shortens cycle time during molding. DW

Same TechnologyDiverse Applications Self-clinching microPEM® Tackpin® Fastener

Self-clinching M10 stud


Since 1942 PennEngineering fasteners with proven clinch technology have adapted to include assorted types and sizes to meet the demands of a wide range of industries. Today, this same basic PEM® design is used in critical assembly applications from sub compact electronics to automotive and large scale industrial.


Our mission today remains the same. To provide improved, dependable, cost effective, fastening solutions for thin sheet/panel applications in customer’s current and next generation product designs.

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For immediate design assistance contact us

To install, simply: 1. Punch Hole 2. Insert Fastener 3. Press Into Place

467 ©2016

September 2016

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9/7/16 10:21 AM


» De s i g n N o te s » D e s i g n N o tes

New bearings add precision for soft materials industries The bearings used in spindles for machine

SKF’s S70 .. W series -sealed supe r-precision h ybrid angular con tact ball bea rings for woodwo rking applic ations was designe d with an 18 ° contact ang le and has a cc urate preload, prio r to mountin g, equal to zero and is availa ble in a range fr om 25 to 55 mm shaft diame ter.

tooling applications require both speed and precision. High-speed capability and accuracy are critical for woodworking and other ‘soft material’ industries. Add the increasing pressures of a globalized market – productivity, efficiency, competition – and the buyers of bearings for electrospindles are eager for ways to improve quality without increasing costs. SKF supplies bearings for High Speed Development (HSD), a producer of electrospindles for woodworking applications. Engineers from both companies collaborated to develop bearings that would meet their needs as well as the industry as a whole. The result was what is now the S70 .. W series—sealed super-precision hybrid angular contact ball bearings for woodworking applications. “We found that an18° contact angle was the optimized solution,” notes Massimo Sandri, SKF Account Manager Machine tools Italy. The bearing was also designed to deliver preload, prior to mounting, equal to zero and is available in a range from 25 to 55 mm shaft diameter. Furthermore, the bearing has an optimized PEEK cage with patented design that reduces noise and vibration, especially at low to medium speeds. It combines high stability at low/medium speeds with the ability to accommodate high speeds (speed factor A = 1.6 million n dm). The rolling elements are made of bearing grade silicon nitride Si3N4 and rings of bearing steel. These hybrid bearings offer higher speed capability, more rigidity, less energy consumption, reduced frictional heat, reduced centrifugal and inertial forces within the bearing. They are also less prone to damage in situations of rapid starts and stops. The bearings have non-contact seals fitted on both sides and are filled with premium grease. These sealed bearings have been filled with the appropriate amount of grease at the factory. The seals hold the lubricant inside so engineers can use the bearings directly without having to lubricate, decreasing mounting time. “Our challenge was to develop a standardized product that would satisfy the requirements of different clients. We realized it was a demanding task,” says Mario Mattia, SKF Sales Manager Machine tools Italy. 34


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The SKF team also talked with the technical offices of other clients to define the main requirements of spindles dedicated to this application. The next six months were devoted to internal development and testing. DW SKF


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9/2/16 11:32 AM

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» D e s i g n N o tes

Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor

OSAI’S CNC co ntrol power ha s a top speed of 45 0 mm/s with precision contro l, and where necessary, can ov erride the speed and jog co rners producing detailed edges.

CNC control for 5-Axis machining centers Willis Marine, a custom yacht-builder in Stuart, Florida, designs and crafts vessels using stainless steel, aluminum, matching veneers and hardwoods. To create these watercrafts, Willis Marine uses a Multiax Model T machining center powered by OSAI’s CNC control to machine and sculpt structural components including decks, ribs and panels. “We draw these components using our CAD system and download the program into the Multiax OSAI controller, stated Mark Willis, founder and president of Willis Marine. “We cut all kinds of large and small components including small molds, parts, pieces, tooling, everything. We cut many fixtures eliminating time-consuming manual processes. This work is done quickly on the Multiax owing to the speed of the OSAI controller.” OSAI’S CNC control power has a top speed of 450 mm/s with precision control, and where necessary, can override the speed and jog corners producing detailed edges. “The OSAI CNC control was chosen for the Multiax Model because it allows for a more focused management of the 5-axis machining in terms of cost and performance,” says Ivica Simunic, national sales manager for OSAI USA.



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ltiax Model T Willis Marine uses a Mu by OSAI’s CNC machining center powered lpt structural control to machine and scu cks, ribs and components including de like the one panels for custom yachts shown here. The Multiax comes in different work cube sizes and also has a high frequency liquid-cooled spindle designed for versatility and capable of articulating under and around the 3D forms, needed for the specialty yacht designs. The Multiax modular architecture also allows different configurations, each addressed to changing production needs. The OSAI CNC control simplified installation and commissioning in the Multiax machining system, enabling faster time-to-market. This CNC control is scalable and with a computing power easily adaptable to custom requirements. It requires no modification to the software or the application and with block processing speeds of up to 7,000 blocks per second. The CNC control can also use compact or modular drives, servomotors, and spindle motors to meet application needs. Another important feature is the real-time SoftPLC. When integrated in the CNC, the versatility allows interface of the control with most machine systems. These include simple 3-axis milling machines to multi-axes and multi-spindle machining centers including the Multiax Model T 5-axis machining center. DW OSAI USA

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Design Notes 9-16_Vs5.LL.MS.indd 37

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9/7/16 10:27 AM


» Co u p li n g N o tes

This is a typical bellows coupling failure. It’s broken at that very first rib on the bellows right at the hub connection. This is a very typical location for a bellows coupling failure due to misalignment at installation.

Straight talk: preventing coupling misalignment at installation Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor

Design World and Coupling caught up with Ruland Manufacturing VP of Sales, Bobby Watkins for a webinar on some of the finer points of coupling installation. Specifically, Watkins touched on bearing support, the causes of misalignment, and common misalignment errors. Below, are some key excerpts from Bobby’s presentation. Causes of misalignment First, you may have parts from different manufacturers with different tolerances. There also may be inaccuracies in systems assembly. Mounts may introduce misalignment into the system as well. Some actuators, which have an integral motor mount on them, are sometimes not as precise as everyone would like. We’ve had cases where the motor mounts themselves, which were supposed to help, 38


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have actually turned into an issue because of the precision of the mount. The next consideration I want to talk about is system and motor movement during operation. This is a big one. Here are a couple of instances where you’re going to see this. First: shipping a machine. Let’s say a machine was in perfect alignment when it left the factory. It gets shipped to a location... things move. Floors are uneven, things move around. It happens. We’ve also seen poor system design. Not only can you have machinery where things have shifted around during shipping, but the base of the machine and the framework of the machine is not robust enough from the get-go. Example: we’ve had applications where people were having failures on couplings

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» Co u p li n g N o tes

and have then come to find out their precision system couplings can’t tolerate the misalignment; the framework of the machine was made out of extruded aluminum with very little bracing along the way. You’ve got a system that, under operation, is moving all over the place. That would be a poor system design example. Which brings me to my next point, bearing support.

Bearing support Here’s an example of a typical rigid coupling failure due to insufficient support on both sides. If your bearing is too far away on one side or, in some cases, no bearing at all on one side, the coupling is going to be flexed and it will break in half. An extremely common failure on a rigid coupling.

Flexible couplings need to be supported on both sides of the coupling, and the support needs to be close by. I talk to customers and ask, “Do you have bearings on both sides?” Don’t just go with the answer, “Yes.” Ask further, “How close are they?” It’s amazing the answers we get sometimes, because everything’s relative with the industry that the machine is in and what people think is close varies greatly. For example, in a typical motor gearbox application, the bearings are going to be close. The shaft extensions out of motors and gearboxes isn’t tremendous, but occasionally you’ll get an answer:

Linear Components through

See the full line of PBC Linear Components at Coupling Notes 9-16_Vs3.MS.LL.indd 40

9/2/16 11:46 AM


“Oh, yeah. I have a bearing on both sides.” “How far apart are they?” “One’s four feet down the line this way and the other one’s six feet down the line the other way...” That is not close enough to be considered full bearing support because of the run-out at that extended distance from the bearing to the end of the shaft. Again, ask the right questions.

Common selection errors First is minimum shaft penetration. This is not getting enough engagement of the shaft into the coupling to get an effective clamping action, and this is a problem that pops up from time to time. Also, you might have shaft ends touching. In most cases, you want your shaft ends to be relatively close together but

you certainly don’t want them to touch. It causes some very bad things to happen inside that coupling when your shaft ends are touching and there’s misalignment present, as you can imagine. The vibration in the middle is not a good thing, so you don’t want your shaft ends to touch. Lastly, just a few words on flexible couplings in general: they’re not springs! They’re not meant to be pulled apart, if you will, or axially pulled. Again, that goes back to full bearing support on both sides, and if you have full bearing support on both sides that axial pull isn’t even possible. The flexible couplings were not designed to take a push-pull action. You can do that with rigid couplings, but you cannot do that with the flexible couplings. All good things to keep in mind the next

time you are selecting, and subsequently installing, the coupling in your motion system. DW Ruland


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Optimize 3D printing techniques with simulation apps Valerio Marra • Marketing Director • COMSOL Inc.

Taking a new technology concept from research in its infancy to a qualified solution ready for industrial use requires rigorous testing and validation. Additive manufacturing (3D printing), for example, first appeared in the early 1980s with a Technology Readiness Level (a method of measuring a technology’s maturity for industry use that was proposed by NASA in the 1970s) of TRL 1, and it took decades before it exploded on the industrial markets as a hot new manufacturing technique set to change the world.

Simulating shaped metal deposition Organizations such as the Manufacturing Technology Centre (MTC) in Coventry, UK help to bridge the gap between concept and industry by providing the resources necessary to bring a design from fundamental research (TRL 1–TRL 3) to commercial use (TRL 7–TRL 9). One current endeavor at the MTC is research into the additive manufacturing technique known as shaped metal deposition (SMD). “SMD has multiple advantages over powder-based additive manufacturing technologies,” says Borja Lazaro Toralles, Research Engineer in the MTC’s Manufacturing Simulation theme, who has used COMSOL Multiphysics software to design a model and simulation app

of the SMD process (see Figure 1). “Among them are higher deposition rates, the possibility of building new features upon preexisting components, or even the use of multiple materials on the same part.” Unlike other additive manufacturing techniques that use lasers to melt a thin layer of powder, SMD deposits a sheet of molten metal—which in some cases can be as expensive as titanium—that is built up layer-by-layer on a surface in a process that is similar to welding. “One of the challenges of this is that thermal expansion of the molten metal can deform the cladding as it cools, resulting in a final product that is different than what was anticipated,” says Lazaro Toralles. “In order to predict the outcome of a proposed design, we need either to minimize the deformations or alter the design to account for them.” Figure 2 shows an example of a part manufactured using SMD, where deformation occurs after six layers of deposited molten metal have been added. A model of the part, also shown, is used to predict the part’s deflection during manufacturing, allowing the designer to update the design accordingly.

Communicating complexity with simulation apps

Figure 1. Shaped metal deposition (SMD) simulation app created using the Application Builder available in COMSOL Multiphysics. The app computes the residual stresses generated during the manufacturing process and predicts the final deflection of the part. 42


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The MTC has leveraged the Application Builder in Multiphysics to efficiently communicate complex design ideas across multiple simulation and process departments, and to allow app users to easily explore the outcome of proposed designs (see Figure 1). Were it not for the simulation app, the testing and validation of a design would be significantly more time consuming and costly using physical testing alone, due to the materials used in SMD. Simulating SMD involves solving a time-dependent coupled thermomechanical analysis that predicts residual thermal stresses and deformation, which arise from SMD thermal cycles. “We built an app using the Application Builder that allows

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Figure 2. During the SMD process, thermal cycling induces residual stresses on the manufactured parts. Top: Simulation of the SMD part. Middle: The part after just one deposited layer, with no noticeable deformation. Bottom: After six deposited layers, deformation is visible to the naked eye. the user to predict whether the deposition process will produce parts that fall within their established tolerances,” says Lazaro Toralles. “If not, then the app provides a user-friendly and cost-efficient way to simulate multiple variations to the input until the results achieve an acceptable final deformation.” With this app, users can easily experiment with various geometries, heat sources, deposition paths, and materials without concern for the underlying model complexities. Two predefined parametric geometries are included in the app, and a custom geometry can also be imported. Currently, the app is used by members of the team at the MTC who do not have the simulation experience to independently explore different parts and projects for their customers.

“Were it not for the app, our simulation experts would have to test out each project we wanted to explore, something that would have decreased the availability of skilled resources,” says Lazaro Toralles. “Using the Application Builder, we can now provide userfriendly app interfaces to other MTC teams.” “The use of simulation apps will help us deploy technologies at higher TRLs for their practical use in an industrial environment,” Lazaro Toralles concludes. “The Application Builder provides us with a powerful development platform through which we can package complex multiphysics models and make them accessible to the wider public.” DW


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Easier shift from CAD to CAM The hyperMILL CAM/CAD software was certified by Autodesk Inc. Users will experience an integrated and autonomous workflow when converting files from Inventor 2017 software to hyperMILL. The transition from Inventor through the hyperMILL CAM system and on to the CNC machine tool will be seamless. The necessary data association was confirmed following a rigorous test procedure for the latest edition of hyperMILL, version 2016.2. This authentication ensures that errors are avoided and the workload for the end users is reduced overall. The big advantage for users is the changes in the CAD data that leads to an automatic update of the CAM operation. This is particularly convenient for Inventor users as it allows them to invoke the entire CAM functionality of hyperMILL within this familiar CAD interface. DW OPEN MIND Technologies USA, Inc

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Simulation software helps researchers understand robot movement behavior Most robots are controlled through the use of encoders that measure joint rotation. But even with accurate encoders, robot motion to an absolute XYZ position and ABC orientation is limited by deflection, thermal expansion and manufacturing variation. Some applications, such as placement of a disk drive read head, require higher levels of positioning accuracy that can only be achieved with an expensive, special purpose robot. This challenge is being addressed with servo technology that uses a vision system to acquire an image that determines the relative positions of the robot end-effector and the target. Known as “visual servoing,” such a system can achieve placement accuracies of microns without requiring an expensive robot. Complications arise when the vision system cannot acquire an image of the endeffector. The alternate approach is to acquire an image of the legs of the robot and use them to control the end-effector position. The visual servoing based on the leg observation makes use of a concept referred to as the hidden robot. The hidden robot is a virtual robot whose kinematics represents the mapping between the leg direction space and the end-effector position and orientation space. The Research Institute in Communications and Cybernetic of Nantes (IRCCyN), a scientific institution linked to the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS), is using Adams-Simulink CoSimulation multibody dynamics simulation software to validate theoretical work on a  

CAE Solutions_Simulations 9-16_Vs3.LL.indd 45

visual servoing system to control a parallel robot based on observation of the legs. “Adams simulations have played an important role in validating our theoretical work on hidden robot models,” said Sébastien Briot, Researcher at IRCCyN. “The integration of Adams with Simulink through Adams/ Controls eliminated the need for us to write complex equations for predicting the dynamics of parallel robots. It also provided graphical results that gave us a better understanding of robot behavior.” DW

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Easy analysis of PCB designs Sherlock Automated Design Analysis software helps users analyze, grade, and certify the expected reliability of products at the circuit card assembly level. Version 5.0 incorporates enhancements that enable users to manage increasingly complex analyses faster and more efficiently. Advanced features include Modeling Regions, Attached Heat Sinks, NX Nastran support, and an IMEC Plated Through-Hole Fatigue Model. In addition to the new features, Sherlock includes upgrades and improvements to more than ten existing features. For Modeling Regions, version 5.0 includes added support for user-defined PCB modeling regions for FEA analysis or model export. Areas of interest can be viewed with greater detail, while other areas of the design remain less detailed, saving on computational resources. This feature lets users specify different meshing properties for different PCB areas, increasing model accuracy in certain areas without significantly increasing the overall FEA model complexity. This approach is useful when users want to create custom meshes for key areas of the PCB, but want the convenience of using mesh elements generated by Sherlock for everything else. Modeling regions can also be used to export just a subset of the PCB or to exclude one or more regions from the PCB model. This feature lets users easily integrate generated models into larger custom created models. For Attached Heat Sinks, Sherlock can model various types of heat sinks in addition to the PCB, components, and mount points for Finite Element Analysis (FEA) purposes. Users can create attachment points for heat sinks from mount points and modify the Heat Sink Editor to allow properties for multiple heat sinks to be modified at the same time. For NX Nastran Support, users can perform FEA analysis tasks using the NX Nastran engine and export mesh models to that engine using the NX Nastran Bulk Data File (BDF) format. This addition benefits aerospace engineers. Complementing the IPC-TR-579 model, Sherlock version 5.0 incorporates the IMEC Plated Through-hole Fatigue model. This model can be used to predict failures of layered vias, eliminating the possibility of false positive results. DW

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I nter net of Things

.......................................... ................................ ........................ ................... .............. ........... ........ ...... .... .. Optimize industrial wirelss networks Most U.S. companies are at various levels of implementation with the Internet of Things (IoT) and The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) technology. Many are not yet realizing the full potential and benefits of industrial wireless networks. These tips from Moxa will help you design for such situations and help customers with their implementation.

1. Overcome channel saturation by using 5-GHz channels In standard Wi-Fi communication, all Wi-Fi radios configured with the same channel setting and operating in the same Wi-Fi area share the same transmission medium. So, you need to take into account all radio devices in that area when evaluating the use of a channel. For example, while checking the 2.4-GHz channel 6 for frequency saturation, you need to consider all access points in the area that use this channel as well as other devices that use non-802.11 communication, such as microwaves, ZigBee, and Bluetooth, on the same channel. Another challenge is that 2.4 GHz only has 3 non-overlapping channels 1, 6, and 11. If the channel is saturated, switch to a channel that is less crowded. The 2.4-GHz frequency can easily be crowded, and is generally not recommend for industrial applications On the other hand, 5-GHz frequency offers a range of channels and usually has more non-overlapping channels available. However, 5-GHz channels are also used by radar systems. Most countries require wireless devices to support the dynamic frequency selection (DFS) function to legally operate in the 5-GHz frequency. Therefore, in an industrial environment, deploying devices with a 5-GHz radio along with the DFS function lets users choose the cleanest communication medium for the best overall communication quality.

2. Achieve maximum signal reach in a long-distance

connection through Scientific Distance Calculation

A high 802.11 wireless transmission rate requires a strong radio signal. Insufficient radio signal strength results in low throughput or disconnection. There are several

The Moxa AWK-1131A industrial wireless AP/client meets the growing need for faster data transmission speeds by supporting IEEE 802.11n technology with a net data rate of up to 300 Mbps. 48


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I nter net of Things

.......................................... ................................ ........................ ................... .............. ........... ........ ...... .... .. ways to improve the signal reach; for example, installing high-gain antennas or switching to a lower frequency, such as 900 MHz, to reduce the effects of free space path loss. Use a wireless distance calculator to estimate the communication distance and the bandwidth requirement for the area. A wireless distance calculator can provide a theoretical model of the area in question, which users can confirm by performing a physical site survey. Plan the long distance communication parameters for the network using a distance calculator and verify the results through an actual site survey to gain more control over the wireless bandwidth and capacity of your network.

3. Maximize link uptime using Wireless

Redundancy Technology

Even if you have a clean communication environment and sufficient signal reach, there are still other factors that could cause instability in a wireless network. Setup-related issues such as Hidden Nodes can



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lead to connection problems even in a well-designed network. In addition, if the deployment location is not under user control, unexpected wireless interference from unknown sources might also affect a well-setup network. You can use wireless redundancy technologies such as dual RF redundancy, RSTP, or Moxa’s Aerolink to recover from any unexpected failures, especially in the case of critical applications, to ensure maximum connection uptime.

4. Achieve sufficient AP coverage for mobile

equipment in the network

Wireless APs have limited coverage. To allow wireless clients to roam smoothly between APs, you need coverage overlap. Site planning software, such as Ekahau or AirMagnet, can simulate a wireless coverage heat map to visualize the AP distribution in the network and then plan the number and location of the APs. Wireless coverage can also be extended by altering the antennas, but users often overlook an antenna’s vertical

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I nter net of Things

.......................................... ................................ ........................ ................... .............. ........... ........ ...... .... .. coverage. Most 802.11-based antennas are passive components that do not amplify the signal strength. The only way to extend the signal reach is by compressing the radiation pattern generated by the antenna signal. For example, an omni-directional antenna has a 360-degree horizontal radiation angle. To improve its horizontal coverage you need to sacrifice the vertical angle. Therefore, after you install or switch to a high-gain antenna, don’t place the antenna high up; if the antenna is too high up, the signal strength will not be sufficient to reach devices on the ground unless the antenna has a down-tilt.

5. Enhance mobile operation using

MIMO Client Antennas

Both 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz based wireless communication require a clear Line of Sight (LoS) between the AP and its client(s). You can maintain a wireless connection using signal-penetration and obstacle-reflection techniques, but signal strength reduction can still affect the stability and overall throughput of the network. One way to avoid connection sheltering by obstacles is to increase the distribution of APs, which can be quite expensive. Extending the client radio’s antenna installation to achieve proper line-of-sight between the APs and client can also provide tangible benefits. By using the 802.11n 2x2 MIMO technology you can install two antennas, one on the front and one on the back of a mobile device, to increase the device’s wireless coverage.

6. Optimize roaming performance for

mobile operations

You need to deploy an advanced wireless roaming technology to achieve millisecondlevel roaming break time. Even though there are standards such as 802.11r that 52


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can optimize roaming performance, most wireless M2M vendors still tend to rely on their own roaming technologies. Advanced roaming technologies enable a wireless client to automatically search for a new AP when the current AP connection is weak. Configuring the correct roaming threshold parameter is critical in this setup to avoid downtime. Adopting a roaming technology that allows operators to tweak roaming parameters based on different environment and application scenarios will help optimize network performance and eliminate downtime. For example, Moxa’s Turbo Roaming supports adjustable roaming parameters to provide the flexibility required to optimize roaming performance in a variety of industrial applications.

7. Overcome issues related to

protocol compatibility

8. Handheld device interoperability

ensured by the Wi-Fi Alliance Logo

Smart handheld devices such as smart phones and tablet PCs are widely used in industrial operations. Many different smart device vendors, including Apple, HTC, Samsung, and Sony, sell smart devices with different operating systems (iOS, Android, and Windows, for example). One thing that all of these handheld devices have in common is that they can all communicate well with factory APs with the 802.11 standard. Only devices that conform to certain standards of interoperability can carry the Wi-Fi logo. The Wi-Fi logo is issued by the Wi-Fi Alliance, which is a nonprofit organization that promotes Wi-Fi technology and certifies Wi-Fi products. Not every IEEE 802.11-compliant device is submitted for certification to the Wi-Fi Alliance because of costs associated with the certification process. However, the lack of the Wi-Fi logo does not necessarily imply a device is incompatible with Wi-Fi devices, but having the Wi-Fi logo provides a certain level of confidence regarding the device’s level of Wi-Fi interoperability. DW

Certain characteristics of the standard 802.11 protocol prevent transparent communication between a wired Ethernet and a wireless link. Even though most of the TCP/IP-based automation protocols can transmit data without problems, there are cases where the 802.11 function needs to be tweaked to make it compatible with the industrialMoxa automation protocols. The 802.11 AP/Client communication address protocol was designed with the assumption that wireless clients, such as smart phones, are the endpoints of the network. This is why only a limited number WHAT DO of addresses are reserved in a wireless YOU THINK? packet for this purpose. When the wireless client is not the actual endpoint, but a device used to connect to additional Ethernet-based endpoints (for example, a PLC and the field Connect and discuss this and other devices connected to it), the standard 802.11 design engineering issues with thousands of professionals online protocol will not be able to forward data packets correctly using just the MAC address of the endpoint device.

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Open standard for IoT software WISE-PaaS/RMM version 3.1 is IoT device management software. This open standard platform applies MQTT, a standard and popular IoT M2M protocol for device and server communication. It comes with more than 100 RESTful APIs including, account management, device management, device control, event management, system management, and database management. RESTful APIs create new web services and help integrate functions and data with their management tools. Furthermore, WISE-PaaS/RMM 3.1 will release WISE-Agent source code as open source. WISE-Agent software works on the device side, helping customers develop their own applications. Version 3.1 of this software includes centralized management and a dashboard builder for data visualization. It is also integrated with Node-Red which is a “drag and drop” logic editor tool for users to access data and features in WISE-PaaS/RMM 3.1 for device flow and action control management. Users can collect data from devices, equipment, sensors and software, shorten development time and reduce development resources. It helps customers develop new IoT application models and it integrates with Advantech’s IoT Gateway Starter Kit, a ready-to-run package with pre-configured hardware, platform services (WISEPaaS) and Microsoft’s Azure service certification. DW

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I nter net of Things

.......................................... ................................ ........................ ................... .............. ........... IoT testbed ........ ...... .... .. The Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) has approved a factory automation platform as

a service (FA PaaS) testbed, developed by Mitsubishi Electric, Hitachi, Ltd. and Intel Corporation. The testbed is expected to facilitate the integration of Internet of Things (IoT) systems to connect manufacturing sites and head offices for strengthened operations. With the testbed, Mitsubishi Electric, Hitachi, and Intel will establish an open interface platform that integrates factory automation (FA) and information systems (IT) seamlessly by June of 2017. Mitsubishi Electric will develop FA edge devices, applications and other FA-related products such as programmable controllers and drive units to leverage its e-F@ctory IoT concept. Hitachi and Intel will handle IT-related products, such as IoT gateways and cloud systems. After verifying the security of FA-IT interface platform connections and the flow of operational data, the testbed platform will be offered to IIC member companies and potential users to help facilitate their development of FA applications. DW

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Version 2.0 of EtherCAT Conformance test tool released

 Food & beverage  Metal & steel  Mobile automation The EtherCAT Conformance Test Tool, or CTT, is the official reference tool for specifying compliant implementation of EtherCAT technology into EtherCAT slaves. It helps ensure reliable interoperability in the field. With the updates in version 2.0, central extensions are available. Over and above the main job of the tool, which is to conduct device tests and detect possible errors, CCT 2.0 extends functionalities that support and simplify EtherCAT development. This includes the ESI editor which can be used to edit the device description file, SII control to generate the EEPROM content, as well as additional functions such as the possibility to upload the object dictionary from the device and save it for the ESI. In parallel to the extensions of the new version, test coverage has been increased systematically, leading to a higher number of possible test cases. Furthermore, CTT 2.0 supports the operation of devices in the highly accurate synchronization mode (Distributed Clocks), which can be tested in an automated process. Additionally, you can create any number  

Internet of Things 9-16_Vs3.LL.indd 57

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world is slowing the adoption and rollout of the IIoT. Industrial assets exist in the physical world and use physical electrical signals like current and voltage levels to communicate. Digital systems of the Internet do not understand or communicate with these types of signals. To cope with this disconnect, current Industrial Internet of Things applications involve layers of gateways and middleware to translate between the physical and digital worlds. As a result of this complexity, businesses have been slow to reap the rewards of IIoT applications and technologies. The RESTful API for industrial programmable automation controllers (PACs) closes this IT/OT gap, facilitating rapid development of Industrial Internet of Things applications. REST architecture and technology are intrinsic to the Internet of Things and to web and mobile-based application development. The RESTful implementation of REST is a commercially available, off-the-shelf (COTS) industrial programmable automation controller. Available through an updated firmware release for Opto 22 SNAP PAC controllers, the RESTful API includes an HTTP/S server accessible from any HTTP/S-compatible client. “The industrial automation and control industry is in transition right now,” says Benson Hougland, Vice President of Marketing and Product Strategy. “Vendors who have relied on a product development strategy based on proprietary and closed technologies have become outdated. The future of the industrial automation and process control industries lies in the rising API and data economies made possible through open standards-based technologies.” The RESTful API combined with HTTP/HTTPS access, provides IIoT developers with secure access to the billions of legacy physical assets in industrial system infrastructure today. These features reduce integration time and cost of IIoT applications by eliminating complex protocol converters, gateways, and middleware. DW Opto 22

 Distance measurement  Motor feedback  Quality & error-proofing  Heavy duty & harsh environments


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Motor H does not have any metal to metal joints. Instead, all joints are mated with gaskets. The gaskets are bright blue in color to contrast against food products.



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Designing motors

with safety in mind With scientifically verified hygienic design principles, motor manufacturers are designing motors for food and beverage applications that dramatically improve safety.

Hilary Whiting • Manufacturing Engineer • Advanced Manufacturing • Kollmorgen

The food and beverage industry is one where safety is paramount. That’s why food and beverage companies and their machine suppliers are battling constantly to keep their products safe. These microscopic battles are fought with large quantities of water and chemical sanitation processes. Hygienic machine design is critical even down to the sub-component level in order to allow these processes to be effective in removing product residues as well as pathogens, and destroying bacterial intruders. Both the North American Meat Institute (NAMI) and the European Hygienic Engineering Design Group (EHEDG) have published lists of Hygienic Machine guidelines (See Table 1). One of the challenges in meeting these guidelines is the design of components such as motors, gearboxes, and sensors.


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 Machine Sanitary Design Principles Principle #1:

Cleanable to a microbiological level

Principle #2:

Made of compatible materials

Principle #3:

Accessible for inspection, maintenance & cleaning/sanitation

Principle #4:

No liquid collection

Principle #5:

Hollow areas hermetically sealed

Principle #6:

No niches

Principle #7:

Sanitary operational performance

Principle #8:

Hygienic design of maintenance enclosures

Principle #9:

Hygienic compatibility with other systems

Principle #10: Validated cleaning & sanitizing protocols

Table 1: NAMI guidelines table of continence * referenced from Fact Sheet, Sanitary Equipment Design, American Meat Institute, 2012

Kollmorgen set out to verify the benefits of hygienic machine design by partnering with the Virginia Tech Department of Food Science and Technology (VT FST). These hygienic design principles could then be applied to the design of servomotors used in the food and beverage industry. Scientific testing A series of tests were conducted to determine the sanitizability of three servomotor designs. The three motors tested were an industry standard IP67 wash down

Fig. 1: Motor W has an etched label covered with paint. The etching process creates a rough uneven surface that can create niches where bacteria and food product may be harbored.

servomotor designated as Motor W, a stainless steel motor used in the food and beverage industry designated Motor C, and a stainless steel servomotor designed to comply with the NAMI hygienic design checklist and EHEDG design parameters designated Motor H. These motors represent the most common types used in food and beverage equipment. Each motor was inoculated with ATCC 25922 strain of E. coli. The study focused on determining the sanitizability at areas of concern on the motor’s surfaces including labels and surface finish, seals and fasteners, and cabling. The team focused on these areas to see how design features affected the ability of the servomotor to be sanitized of E. coli. These areas were marked and isolated, then put in contact with 10 μl of E. coli for one hour. During this time, the motors were run at amperage that kept their surface temperatures between 33 °C and 38 °C, non-lethal temperatures for E. coli. Sites were inoculated with E. coli and sampled prior to the cleaning and sanitation procedure (pre-wash) to determine a baseline. A typical industry cleaning and sanitation procedure supplied by a leading food production company was used to clean and sanitize each of the motors. The marked sites were sampled again post-wash to determine if the area was successfully sanitized. The test included three repetitions of this process to provide an appropriate data sample size.

Fig. 3: Motor H features an annealed label with a 32 μ- inch surface finish. Unlike etching, the annealed label preserves the metal’s surface finish. This smooth label was designed to avoid trapping bacteria or food.



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Motors Tested 

Motor W: Kollmorgen Wash Down Motor

Motor C: Competitor Motor

Motor H: Kollmorgen AKMH Motor


Table 2: Test motors were a representation of commonly used motors on food and beverage equipment. The reported study findings can be seen compiled in Table 3. This data could then be used to draw conclusions about the impact of design features on the sanitizability of the three motors. Label and surface finish testing results The first sets of locations to be evaluated are those pertaining directly to labeling and surface finish on the motors. Motor W has labels etched onto the surface of the aluminum housing (Figure 1) and the surface is covered with food grade paint. The rough finish of the etched label was identified as high risk to harbor bacteria. Motor C has stamped labeling with a brushed surface finish on its housing (Figure 2). The brushed surface finish of Motor C was identified as an area of concern due to the textured surface finish, so was targeted as a sampling location by the test team. Motor H has a smooth stainless steel housing that holds a 32 μ-in. surface finish or better, even across the annealed label face

(Figure 3). In the NAMI guidelines Principal 6.1 states; “It is recommended product contact surfaces textures shall not exceed 32 μ-inches...” The housings and labeling methods of Motor W and Motor C do not comply with this guideline, but Motor H is compliant. Both Motor W and Motor C were found to have E. coli present on their surfaces post-wash, whereas Motor H was not found to have any. So the lack of bacterial recovery post-wash from Motor H supports the NAMI design guidelines regarding surface finish and external materials as verified through the scientific testing. Seal and fastener testing results Seals and fasteners were the second group of test locations investigated. The NAMI guidelines caution against the use of fasteners above product areas in Principle 7 as well as stating that seals and O-rings must be designed to minimize product contact, Principle 2.9. Most standard fasteners create niches or spaces where microorganisms and

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Fig. 2: Motor C has a high-risk texture surface for product trapping and bacteria harboring. The uneven surface finish creates niches where microorganisms can hide.

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Table 3: Pre-wash and post-wash E.coli sampling. Site Sampled 

Pre-wash1 (CFU/cm2)  


Motor Surface  



Motor Surface  



Inner Juncture of Shaft Housing



Outer Juncture of Shaft Housing



Front Juncture (no visible gasket)



Back Juncture (at screws)



Utility Cord Housing Juncture (hex nut)



Utility Cord Entrance into Housing (internal gasket)



Utility Cord  



Motor Surface    



Motor Surface



Inner Juncture of Shaft Housing



Outer Juncture of Shaft Housing



Front Juncture (no visible gasket)



Six Screws on the back of the motor



Utility Cord Housing Juncture (soldered/hex nut)



Utility Cord Entrance into Housing (internal seal)



Utility Cord  



Motor Surface     



Motor Surface



Inner Juncture of Shaft Housing      



Outer Juncture of Shaft Housing



Front Gasket Juncture   



Back Gasket Juncture     



Utility Cord Entrance into Housing (visible gasket)



Utility Cord Housing Juncture to Motor (visible gasket)



Utility Cord  


Motor W

Motor C

 Motor H




Populations of E. Coli in Log Colony Forming units (CFU/cm )


E. coli ATCC 25922 Not Detected


E.Coli ATCC 25922 Detected on each of the three repetitions



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product can be harbored. Principle 6 of the NAMI guidelines explicitly outlines the need for elimination of niches. Both Motor W and Motor C have external screws, a shaft seal, and several metal-to-metal joints (Figures 4 and 5) while Motor H has hygienically designed gasket joints instead of metal-to-metal joints, as well as a shaft seal, and does not use any external screws or fasteners. Motor W was found to have bacteria present post-wash on all of its junctures except the seal surface where the shaft was spinning. Motor C was found to have E. coli present on the outer juncture of the shaft seal. However, on the surface of Motor H, E. coli bacteria were not found to be present on any external sealing surface after sanitation. So here again, the lack of E. coli recovery supports the NAMI design guidelines regarding fasteners and junctures. Cable and hardware testing results The third area examined on the test motors was the cables and hardware. The NAMI guidelines do not explicitly address cables, but the general material guidelines can be applied in addition to Principle 6, the elimination of niches. Both Motor W and Motor C were found to have bacterial colonies on the cable and both cable fitting interfaces. The VT FST test team was not able to recover any E. coli on the cable or the cable junctures for Motor H, post-wash. The cable of Motor H was specifically designed to not harbor bacteria and withstand harsh wash down procedures. The cable connection to the motor is also sealed using a bushing interface instead of a metal to metal interface like Motor W and Motor C. Here, too, the lack of post-wash bacterial recovery on Motor H supports the NAMI guidelines regarding material specifications and niche elimination. In summary, the hygienically designed Motor H outperformed Motor W and Motor C with regards to hygienic design. The VT FST team could not detect E. coli colonies on the exterior surfaces of Motor H post-wash while Motor W and C both had multiple positive sites after the sanitation procedure. The problem sites can be directly correlated to areas where hygienic design criteria were not strictly

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Fig. 5: Motor C has metal to metal joints at both ends of the motor body. The end cover joint is secured with six screws as seen in Figure 2.

Fig. 4: Motor W has metal to metal joints that are covered by a layer of paint. The motor has eight screws in total.

followed. Each bacterium that survives a wash down procedure may be a risk to food safety or quality, not only to food and beverage companies, but most importantly to the end consumers. The data collected through this study points to the importance of system-wide hygienic design including purchased components. The importance of careful design on the servomotor component level can only be magnified when applied to entire machines and production lines.

The data also show that deviating from hygienic design standards corresponds to decreased motor sanitizability leading to increased contamination risk and the need for additional costly and timeconsuming interventions. These risks translate to real world costs, whether it’s added sanitation time, increased numbers of cleaning interventions, reduced production time or increased risk of consumer harm when safeguards fail. DW 



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Ball screws have a mechanical efficiency thatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s only made better with precision finishes of the ball tracks within the nut. The ballscrews shown here are from NSK, a manufacturer of precision-ground ballscrews specializing in linear-motion components with high accuracy and durability.



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ground ball screw options for linear motion applications Ball screws have an efficiency that makes them suitable for use in actuators that drive industrial and automotive applications, including robotics, machine tool axes, and semiconductor wafer-transport systems. Here we review the different ball screw subtypes and where each one excels. John Feitl

Senior Application Engineer

Larie Butler

Marketing Communications Specialist NSK Americas

Ball screws are rotary-to-linear devices that convert movement with little friction. They have a nut that rides on a screw spindle. Within the nut are tracks that let a set of balls engage the screw spindle and a ball-return mechanism that takes the form of a return cap or tube. All of these components are key to continuous ball screw movement. Precision-ground ball screws, sometimes called recirculating ball-bearing screws, are particularly common in machine-tool and electronic-assembly machines where precision OEM designs excel. Within CNC machinery, ball screws work on axes for wire-cutting setups, lathes, machine centers, grinding, EDM machines, and milling and planer machines. In other industrial machinery, ball screws improve the designs of textile and printing machines, packaging setups, and injection-molding designs. The exacting designs of electronic-manufacturing machinery (such as Cartesian-robot axes, test-and-measurement equipment, and semiconductor-transport machinery) also benefit from the precision of ball screws. Still other designs that use ball screws include aerospace and aircraft actuators, thrust axes, large precision valves, and other medical and general linear-positioning applications.   

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Ballscrews with P-type preloading use oversized balls and a single nut

Pneumatic actuators versus ball screws: Ball screws can withstand higher loads than pneumatically driven axes with greater precision. That’s because pneumatic actuators use compressed gas flow into the pressure chamber to cause piston strokes. As a result, the piston’s seals are subject to stick-slip, and its motion is subject to the imprecision of force applied through compressible fluid.

Ball nut Lead

Lead Ball nut

Screw shaft

Ball screws with P-type preloading are cost-effective and use oversized balls with a single nut. Oversized balls can preload the assembly up to 3% of dynamic capacity. P-type preload is recommended for shorter nut lengths and lower torque.

Z-type preload uses single-nut design with offset to center lead

Ball nut Lead

Lead +


Ball nut

Screw shaft

Shown here is an illustration of a Z-type ball screw preload, a single-nut design with an offset to the center lead in the ball nut. It is less expensive than D-type assemblies, offering excellent rigidity for medium nut lengths.

Ball screw actuators compared to other options Ball screws result in efficiencies of 90% or better thanks to rolling contact between the nut and screw, offering consistent contact and low friction. So ball screws conserve about a third more overall torque capacity than lead screws. However, engineers often choose other types of linearmotion technology for motion designs, including pneumatics, hydraulics, rackand-pinion sets, or linear motors. But in comparison to these linear-motion alternatives, ball screws offer distinct benefits. 70


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Hydraulic actuators versus ball screws: Hydraulic actuators benefit from the near-incompressible nature of hydraulic fluid, which imparts higher precision than other options. Even so, ballscrews deliver greater precision without the need for a tank, fluid, filter, piping and the maintenance required for hydraulic designs. Rack-and-pinion sets versus ball screws: Rack-and-pinions sets come with many roller and pinion forms. They’re also one of the least expensive technologies to deliver rotary-to-linear conversion of motion for precision machine axes. What’s more, racks come in lengths and versions that combine into very long strokes. That said, rack-and-pinion sets require a gearbox and provide none of the mechanical advantages of screw-based mechanisms. Without special subcomponents, most will exhibit significant backlash. In contrast, ball screws can have zero backlash as well as higher accuracy and precision. Linear motors versus ball screw actuators: Ball screw actuators can move heavier loads than standard linear motors of a comparable size and are generally less expensive compared to linear-motor options. Ball screw basics Ball screw performance is measured by accuracy grade, screw shaft diameter, lead and stroke. Accuracy grade is usually specific to a given application, ranging from C0 to C5 in ground-series ball screws.

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L i n e a r

Ball screws used in food and beverage, factory automation, industrial equipment, machine tool, medical and semiconductor industries benefit from the performance of precision-ground ball screws. The NSK ball screw shown here has a BSS end deflector-type nut assembly.

Another parameter to help identify ball screw performance is screw shaft diameter — a geometry that ultimately depends on an application’s allowable space and the application’s force requirements. Lead is the distance the nut travels linearly for a 360° rotation of the shaft. Stroke is the final parameter of measurement, and it is defined as the allowable distance traveled D-type preload is the most expensive choice because of its double-nut design. It also uses a precision spacer to get the required preload as shown here. The doublenut-and-spacer design accepts more circuits than with Z-type options (which can boost load-carrying capabilities).

along the length of the screw shaft. These four factors are calculated and measured against the designer’s application requirements, including load, speed, stroke, accuracy and performance life expectations. For example, if an application is operating under a heavy load, the manufacturer may recommend a preload. Preload is the fitting of a ball screw’s rolling elements

M ot i o n

(balls) to create axial load. The amount type and amount of preload effects the rigidity of the ball screw and ultimately the assembly’s life. In fact, there are several ways to preload a ball screw. P-type preloading is the most cost-effective option that uses oversized balls and a single nut to boost performance. For example, a ball screw using P-type preloads the assembly up to 3% of dynamic capacity. A P-type works well for shorter nut lengths; note that it also has lower torque characteristics than other preload options. Ball screw applications requiring higher rigidity often benefit from a Z-type preload or D-type preload. Both of these preload types can use up to 10% of dynamic capacity. Z-type preload features a single nut design with an offset to the center lead in the ball nut. In short, Z-type uses the nut to shift the lead creating the preload between ball circuits. It is a less expensive option compared to D-type, offering excellent rigidity for medium nut lengths. D-type preload is the most expensive choice because of its double-nut design. It uses a precision spacer to get the required preload. In this case, the manufacturer uses a key to keep the nuts together for rigidity. More circuits can be added to double-nutand-spacer design than with the Z-type to get higher load-carrying capabilities.

D-type ballscrew preload uses a double-nut design and precision spacer Ball nut A Spacer Ball nut B

Tension Ball nut A



Ball nut B

Screw shaft



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This is an NSK ball screw with an End-cap type ball return. End caps are placed at both ends of the ball nut, and balls are picked up and recirculated through a hole in the ball nut.

Tube-type ball screw options and where they work Once design engineers determine which ball screw preload will work best, the next step is to select the recirculation type within the ball screw nut. There are four different options from which to choose, including tube, deflector, endcap, and end deflector ball-recirculation designs. The standard and most economically priced option is tube-type recirculation. Balls are re-circulated through a ball return tube. With this type of ball screw nut design, it’s possible to reach speeds up to 100,000 dN. Note that the dN rating is an expression of the ball screw’s maximum speed capacity — as nominal shaft diameter (in mm) multiplied by maximum speed in rpm. Tube-type recirculation is very versatile and can work on many diameter and lead combinations.

Ballscrew nut using tube-type recirculation versus deflector-type ballscrew nut Return tube

Screw shaft

The standard and most economically priced option is a Tube type recirculation. Balls recirculate through a ball-return tube as shown on the left here. On the right, a deflector type uses a horseshoe-shaped tube to bridge adjacent ball thread grooves. This allows for a more compact nut design.

Ballscrews with endcap-type nuts ... and with end-deflector (BSS) recirculation Ball recirculation hole Ball nut End cap

Deflector-type nuts in ball screws and where they excel Deflector-type ball screw nuts use a horseshoe-shaped tube to bridge adjacent shaft thread grooves. This allows for a compact nut design for all ball screw subtypes. Ball screws with this a deflector-type nut design can help applications reach speeds of up to 150,000 dN, though aren’t available for high lead requirements. 74


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Ball nut

Bridge-type deflector

Screw shaft

End deflector

End cap

Ball nut Ball recirculation hole

Screw shaft

Screw shaft

Shown here are two final examples of how the designs within the ballscrew nut can differ. On the left there is a ball screw with an End-cap type nut. On the right is an illustration of End Deflector (NSK’s BSS) recirculation type.

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Del-Tron’s Non-Magnetic Ball Slides. Del-Tron’s new product line of Non-Magnetic ball slides provides the ideal solution for applications where magnetic interference cannot be tolerated. These lightweight Non-Magnetic ball slides are the perfect solution for medical, semiconductor, military and laser applications, just to name a few. Manufactured in the USA, these Ball Slides are constructed using silicon nitride ceramic ball bearings, titanium shafts, aluminum carriages, bases, and end caps, along with brass fasteners, making them the perfect solution for your Non-Magnetic linear motion slide requirement.

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Ball screws with End-cap type nuts and how they work For large leads, the End-cap type of nut is recommended. In this nut design, end caps are installed at both ends of the ball nut. Balls are then picked up and recirculated through a hole in the ball nut. This ball screw nut design allows of up speeds to 100,000 dN, but it is the most expensive option due to having two shaft thread starts and two circuits in the ball nut. Therefore, End-cap type recirculation is best for large lead ball screws in applications needing high linear speeds. An explanation of End-Deflector ball screws To achieve the industry’s highest speed, quietest sound and most compact design, the End-Deflector type recirculation is the choice. This recirculation method reaches speeds of up to 180,000 dN and in some cases are six decibels quieter than other recirculation methods. The nut shape and size are 30% smaller compared to Tube type recirculation. To get all of these benefits, balls are picked up in the tangential direction at the end of the ball nut and re-circulated by a hole inside ball nut. This allows for smooth transition of a ball bearings preloaded condition to its recirculation portion of the circuit.

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Ball screw selection and storage Once design engineers determine that a ball screw is the suitable linear-motion technology for a given application, they should contact the ball screw manufacturer’s engineering department. This team will review application factors to ensure the ball screw design selected exceeds performance, accuracy and life expectations (while adhering to quality standards). Designed & built in the U.S.A.


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This Tube type ball screw from NSK is a standard and economical ball screw recirculation type option.

Tip: When an engineer selects a ball screw, there is consideration for all the requirements of the application, including speed, environment, and life. Some suppliers manufacture both standard and custom ball screws to meet general and specific requirements and parameters. Before installation, store ball screws in their original package (on a flat surface) and in a clean environment to prevent potential entry of contaminants. Ball screws should come installed with lubricant, but confirm they are properly lubricated before use. Insufficient lubrication can lead to premature failure. Don’t apply any other lubrication then what was originally applied to the ball screw. The mixing of different greases is not recommended. If there is contamination or dirt, wipe the surface down with clean white kerosene and immediately reapply the same grease type.

necessitate special lubrication. In addition to these suggestions, check grease every two to three months of operation and replenish as needed. One final tip: Never attempt to disassemble a ball screw. If needed, send it to the manufacturer for repair or reassembly. DW NSK Americas


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Deflector type ball screws use a horseshoe-shaped tube to bridge adjacent ball thread grooves. This geometry makes for a compact nut.

Warning: During use, avoid overrunning the ball nut, as this can damage recirculation components. Remember that the maximum operating temperature for typical ball screws is 80° C. Consult the manufacturer if an environment will be subject to hotter temperatures or

September 2016

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Linear motors compete with other motion technologies that output high forces. Here are some considerations for deciding between options.

Where do

linear motors make sense? Linear motors deliver superior output, so excel in medical

Tony Chou

General Manager Chieftek Precision USA

equipment, industrial automation, packaging, and semiconductor manufacturing. Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more, new linear motors address the cost, heat, and integration complexity of early versions. To review, linear motors include a coil (primary part or forcer) and stationary platform sometimes called a platen or secondary. Subtypes abound, but the two most common for automation are brushless ironcore and ironless linear motors. Linear motors generally outperform mechanical drives. They have unlimited lengths. Without the elasticity and backlash of mechanical setups, accuracy and repeatability are high and stay that way over the life of the machine. In fact, only the guide bearings of a linear motor need maintenance; all other sub-components are wear-free.

Where ironcore linear motors excel Ironcore linear motors have primary coils around an iron core. The secondary is usually a stationary magnet track. Ironcore linear motors work well in injection molding, machine tool, and press machines because they output high continuous force. One caveat is that 78


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Shown here are ironcore linear-motor options.

ironcore linear motors can cog, because the magnetic pull of the secondary on the primary varies as it traverses the magnet track. Detent force is to blame here. Manufacturers address cogging in several ways, but it’s problematic where smooth strokes are the main objective. Even so, ironcore linear-motor advantages abound. Stronger magnetic coupling (between iron core and stator magnets) makes for high force density. So, ironcore linear motors have higher force output than comparable ironless linear motors. In addition, these motors dissipate a lot of

heat because the iron core sheds coil-generated heat during operation — reducing coil-to-ambient thermal resistance better than ironless motors. Finally, these motors are easy to integrate because the forcer and stator directly face each other.

Ironless linear motors for quick strokes Ironless linear motors have no iron in their primary, so are lighter to output more dynamic motion. The coils are embedded in an epoxy plate. Most ironless linear motors have U-shaped tracks lined on the

inner surfaces with magnets. Heat buildup can limit thrust forces to less than those of comparable ironcore motors, but some manufacturers address this issue with innovative channel and primary geometry. Short settling times further boost the dynamics of ironless linear motors to make quick and accurate moves. No inherent attractive forces between the primary and secondary means ironless linear motors are also easier to assemble than ironcore motors. Plus their support bearings aren’t subject to magnetic forces, so usually last longer. Note that linear motors have trouble on vertical axes and in harsh environments. That’s because without some braking or counterweight, linear motors (which are inherently non-contact) let loads fall during power-off situations. In addition, some harsh environments can generate dust and shavings that stick to linear motors, especially in operations machining metal parts. Here, ironcore linear motors (and their magnet-filled track) are most vulnerable. Some actuators incorporate ironcore or ironless linear motors and a dustproof design to work in such environments. The latter eliminates the problems associated with bellows that traditionally protect linear axes.

Ironcore linear-motor features for performance Winding assembly

Iron core

Ironcore motor capabilities are defined by a force constant (force from an ampere of current) or motor constant (force from one Watt). The latter accounts for motor efficiency, so some manufacturers prefer it. In fact, simulation software demonstrates how some motors have a higher motor constant for a given dimension than other offerings. Notice how skewed magnets minimize cogging force from the magnetic pull on the iron core during transitions across magnetic poles on the stator.

Forcer U







Permanent Magnet




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Backing plate


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L i n e a r

M ot i o n Current versus force

Peak force Peak force (Linear range) Continuous force

Linear Continuous current

When an ironcore motor operates in its linear region, the force constant is fixed and thrust output is directly proportional to input current. When operating in the saturation region, output thrust depends on magnetic saturation, so there’s less thrust increase for a given current increase.


Peak current (Linear range)

Peak current

When to pick integrated linearmotor actuators The direct-drive nature of linear-motor actuators boosts productivity and system dynamics for myriad industrial applications. Some linear-motor based actuators also include encoders for position feedback ... to make linear motors easy to use, even compared to belt and ballscrewbased systems. Some of these actuators tightly integrate the linear motor, guide, and optical (or magnetic) encoder to further boost power density. The encoder in some actuators installs horizontally so its position is unaffected by external impact. Some such arrangements can run to 6 m/sec with acceleration to 60 m/sec2 using a 230-Vac input.

Linear-motor-based actuators outperform ballscrew-based setups F

C CLS High-speed high-frequency work area Same stroke capacity raises three to five times

V More than five times ...

Chieftek CLS series actuators outperform those that pair a rotary electric motor with a ballscrew. They come in versions with various thrust outputs.

Chieftek ironless motors have Y-beam geometry to dissipate waste heat from the forcer coils more easily. Overlapping forcer coils further boost power density. Chieftek also supplies values for continuous current, force, and thermal resistance for setups with and without heat sinks. Shown here is a test setup that Chieftek uses to get its values. Evenly cycled three-phase current is injected into the coils and increased until the coils reach 110° C. Chieftek also makes dynamic system measurements to account for the effect of airflow.

Chieftek ironless linear-motor geometry addresses heat 1 atmosphere 25

Heat Insulating Material

“Without Heat Sink” Measurement Setup



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Dustproof enclosures on some linear-motor actuators (such as the Chieftek CLMS actuators shown here) resist challenging environments.

“Linear motors deliver superior output, so excel in medical equipment, industrial automation, packaging, and semiconductor manufacturing.”

Modules with travel exceeding two meters are possible. Standard offerings usually include a magnetic encoder for position feedback, though optical encoders are available for higher precision. Other options include multi-slider setups as well as complete X-Y and gantry systems. Compared to traditional ballscrew modules, linear-motor-based actuators offer better precision and velocity — even under many thrust output conditions — thanks to direct driving. Tighter integration also boosts productivity and reliability. Some such actuators include the linear motor itself, a base, and wide

Compact-linear-actuator (CLS) setups are precise and fast because they directly drive loads.



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M ot i o n

linear guide supporting an aluminum slider and optical scale for position feedback. Where the linear motor is ironless, it can pair with an aluminum slider to form a lightweight design that quickly accelerates. Some compact linear-motor actuators also include sliders with built-in lubrication pads for environmentally friendly lubrication. Here, the runner-block ends sport hermetically sealed grease injectors to deliver raceway lubrication via steel ball circulation. In some cases, optional lubrication pads add lubrication for long-term operation with less maintenance, especially on axes that make short strokes. Ironless linear motors inside some actuators also exhibit no cogging, so the axis can make stable moves when moving slowly or quickly. With some designs, repeatability with an optical linear encoder is 2 mm. Some actuators are even available in strokes from 152 to 1,490 mm with straightness from 6 to 30 mm.

Actuators that use linear motors have high dynamic motion for demanding industrial applications.

9/7/16 1:56 PM

L i n e a r

M ot i o n

Special example: Cleanroom applications One last option particularly suitable for applications with short strokes and high cycle rates are linear-motor actuators in which the moving parts are the magnets and rail. Here, there aren’t issues with moving cables causing disconnections. Nor are there problems with dusty environments. In fact, the actuators work well in vacuum environments and cleanrooms. That’s because the coils are fixed, so heat easily dissipates to mounting structures. Some such linear-motor actuators output continuous force to 94.2 or 188.3 N and peak force to 242.1 or 484.2 N — accepting continuous current of 3.5, 7, or 14 A depending on the version. Strokes reach 430 mm.

Linear motors outperform mechanical drives because they don’t exhibit elasticity and backlash. Accuracy and repeatability stay high for the whole design life.

September 2016


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L i n e a r

M ot i o n

Parameters to specify linear-motor stages When specifying actuators or stages based on linear motors, consider the following criteria for each portion of the design’s motion profile: • What is the known motion condition?

• What are the application’s requirements for motion precision and positioning accuracy? • Will the linear-motor actuator or stage move loads horizontally, vertically, or at an angle? Will the setup mount to a wall? Is it subject to space constraints? Answering these questions will help design engineers identify the most appropriate linear-motor iteration for a given piece of machinery. DW

• What is the load’s mass, system mass, effective stroke, moving time, and dwell time? • What’s the drive condition, maximum output voltage, continuous and peak current? • What kind of encoder resolution does the setup need? Should it be analog or digital?

Chieftek Precision

• Into what kind of working environment will the actuator or stage work? What will be the room temperature? Will the machine be subject to vacuum or clean room conditions?


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The IoT

and Cloud security measures—

not as well developed as needed

Will a fight break out over who’s responsible for securing data? Maybe. Will companies start taking security seriously? Not sure. Will design engineers need to address security before corporate management? Probably. Here’s a look at the state of IoT and Cloud security today.



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I n d u s t r i a l

E t h e r n e t

Staff Report

A key component of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) is the cloud; that group of services residing nearly anywhere that will house all the data collected. Despite all the buzz about the IoT and its variations, most actual implementations are in the very beginning stages of development. Now is a good time for users and designers of equipment that will link to the cloud to look into just how they will secure all of the data. Recent surveys and studies indicate, though, that companies are not as focused on data security as they should be. For example, according to findings from “The 2016 Global Cloud Data Security Study” study from Ponemon Institute, organizations and companies are not adopting appropriate control and security measures to protect sensitive data they store in the cloud. The study surveyed more than 3,400 IT and IT security practitioners worldwide to gain a better understanding of trends in data collection and security practices for cloud-based services. They found that: • Half of all cloud services and corporate data stored in cloud are not controlled by IT departments. • Only a third of sensitive data stored in cloud-based applications are encrypted. • More than half of companies do not have a proactive approach for compliance with privacy and security regulations for data in cloud environments. “Cloud security continues to be a challenge for companies, especially in dealing with the complexity of privacy and data protection regulations,” said Dr. Larry Ponemon, chairman and founder, Ponemon Institute. “To ensure compliance, it is important for companies to consider deploying such technologies as encryption, tokenization or other cryptographic solutions to secure sensitive data transferred and stored in the cloud.” Agreed Jason Hart, Vice President and Chief Technology Officer for Data Protection at Gemalto, a leader in digital security, “It’s quite obvious security measures are not keeping pace because the cloud challenges traditional approaches of protecting data when it was just stored on the network. It is an issue that can

The UNO-1251G DIN-rail mountable IoT Gateway supports over 450 PLCs, controllers, and I/O device protocols with WebAccess/HMI software. From Advantech’s IIoT Automation Group, it comes with a programmable OLED display, a wireless communication slot, and built in CANbus protocol.   

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I nd ust r ia l E t h e r n e t

The C-more Micro line of operator interfaces, from AutomationDirect, adds an Ethernet (RJ45) port for programming and PLC communications at 10/100 Mbps.

identities. This puts more data at risk because 58% of respondents say their organizations have third-party users accessing their data and information in the cloud.

only be solved with a data-centric approach in which IT organizations can uniformly protect customer and corporate information across the dozens of cloud-based services their employees and internal departments rely every day.â&#x20AC;? The state of IoT security today Thus, working with IT departments will be key to securing cloud data. But, the study found that nearly half (49%) of cloud services are deployed by departments other than corporate IT, and an average of 47% of corporate data stored in cloud environments are not managed or controlled by the IT department. Until such time as individual companies come up with a policy, engineers may have to take a proactive approach and initiate conversations with customer IT departments early in the design phase. Just what kind of security measures are needed? 54% of survey respondents felt it was more difficult to protect confidential or sensitive information when using cloud services. 53% of respondents report difficulty in controlling or restricting enduser access. The other major challenges include the inability to apply conventional information security in cloud environments (70% of respondents) and the inability to directly inspect cloud providers for security compliance (69% of respondents). Customer information stored in the 90


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cloud is most at risk. According to the survey, customer information, emails, consumer data, employee records and payment information are the types of data most often stored in the cloud. Since 2014, cloud storage of this information has increased from 53% in 2014 to 62% today. 53% considered customer information data to be the most at risk in the cloud. The majority of respondents (64%) said their organizations do not have a policy that requires use of security safeguards, such as encryption, as a condition to using certain cloud computing applications. This situation challenges designers during product design. 72% of respondents said the ability to encrypt or tokenize sensitive or confidential data is important, with 86% saying it will become more important over the next two years, up from 79% in 2014. Yet, passwords and similar conventional security measures are no longer adequate. 67% of respondents said the management of user identities is more difficult in the cloud than on-premises. However, organizations are not adopting measures that are easy to implement and could increase cloud security. About half (45%) of companies are not using multi-factor authentication to secure employee and third-party access to applications and data in the cloud, which means many companies are still relying on just user names and passwords to validate

Easier security solutions on the way In some cases, communication developers are adding features that are easy for design engineers to incorporate into their designs, helping improve security. One example is the PAC Project 9.5, which provides updated firmware for Opto 22 SNAP PAC S-series and R-series controllers that enable a secure HTTPS server on PAC controllers. Combined with a RESTful open and documented API, it allows developers to write applications that access data on the PAC using the developerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s programming language of choice with the JSON data format. This new capability allows software and IoT application developers to eliminate layers of middleware for secure Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications. Firmware version 9.5 for SNAP PAC R-series and S-series controllers enables REST endpoints for analog and digital I/O points as well as control program variables including strings, floats, timers, integers, and tables. REST endpoints are securely accessed using the RESTful API for SNAP PACs. Client data requests are returned in JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) format. PAC controllers and I/O can be used with almost any software development language with JSON support, including C, C++, C#, Java, JavaScript, node.js, Python, PHP, Ruby, and many more. They can use the development environment and language of their choosing to write new software, create web services, and build Internet of Things applications.


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I nd ust r ia l E t h e r n e t The addition of a secure RESTful server and an open, documented API to a programmable automation controller (PAC) is a significant industry innovation, because REST architecture and associated technology are intrinsic to the Internet of Things and paramount to web and mobile-based application development. Opto 22’s implementation of REST directly into a commercially available, off-the-shelf industrial PAC places the company as one of the first industrial automation and controls manufacturer to offer this industry-changing technology.

EtherCAT P, from Beckhoff Automation, offers advantages for connecting small remote I/O stations in terminal boxes and for decentralized I/O components located throughout the process.

More IoT solutions The UNO-1251G is a DIN-rail mountable IoT Gateway from Advantech’s IIoT Automation Group. It’s about the size of a micro PLC. For accessibility, the industrial computer comes with a programmable OLED display, a wireless communication slot, and built in CANbus protocol. It supports over 450 PLCs, controllers, and I/O device protocols with WebAccess/HMI software. This gateway is suitable for networking intelligent I/O devices such as sensors and actuators. To aid development of CANbus applications, the UNO-1251G includes the Advantech CANopen protocol library, which provides a C application programming interface (API) for configuring, starting, and monitoring CANopen devices.

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I nd ust r ia l E t h e r n e t To aid internet connection in areas where using wires is impractical, the gateway includes an accessible side mounted expansion slot that can be used for installing an optional wireless card without having to open up the entire unit. The UNO-1251G can be operated remotely from any computer or table with a VNC (Virtual Network Computer) client installed. Users can remotely access the UNO-1251G for diagnosis and control from wherever they are located. Through WebAccess, it helps move from proprietary systems to an open architecture and eases the integration of different devices. The gateway includes the RISC 32 bit ARM Cortex A8 processor, externally accessible micro SIM for 3G access and a micro SD card slot for additional storage, USB port, two 10/100 LAN ports, LED indicators, integrated 1G micro SD card with OS installed, and three COM ports.

The C-more Micro line of operator interfaces, from AutomationDirect, includes the EA-ECOM communication expansion module. For EA3-series C-more Micro panels, it adds an Ethernet (RJ45) port for programming and PLC communications at 10/100 Mbps. The module attaches to the rear of all EA3-series panels and requires no external power. It has fast firmware update speeds and supports multiple connections to multiple PLCs and protocols; C-more Micro programming software and firmware version 4.0 are required. EtherCAT P combines EtherCAT communication and a power supply in a standard 4-wire Ethernet cable. This approach from Beckhoff Automation powers connected sensors and actuators, eliminating separate power lines and simplifying cabling. Thus, it offers advantages for connecting small remote I/O stations in terminal boxes and for

decentralized I/O components located throughout the process. A full range of EtherCAT P system and I/O components in protection class IP 67 and 4-wire Ethernet cables is available for the 24 V I/O level. The power supply from EtherCAT P is rated at 2x 24 Vdc/3A. DW Advantech IIoT Automation Group AutomationDirect Beckhoff Automation Emerson Opto 22

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Experience is the Best Part

Case History IoT connectivity is action Athader, based near San Sebastian in northern Spain, manufactures coil processing lines, mainly slitting lines and leveling and cut-to-length lines for steel, stainless steel and aluminum material. Equipment manufactured by the company, which is part of the Bradbury Group, is for steel coil processors, rolling mills and profile and tube manufacturers, 80% of which are located outside of Spain. Until recently, to match customer specifications, Athader used several different brands for its drive requirements. However, their reliability was becoming a frustration point with factory personnel. When a coil processing line breaks down, customers lose production, and sometimes, there is damage to mechanical parts. Thus, Athader switched to drives, motors and global solutions supplied by Emerson. Several of Athader’s machines are custom, so it helped that Emerson’s motion controls could be easily adapted to fit. Athader makes steel winders/unwinders, stacking machines, rolling machines, longitudinal and transversal shears, packaging machines and cutting systems. With regard to the latter, a rotary shear device for high thickness coil is expected to work at 100 m/min, while a flying shear system for very high yield stress material (with a high pressure rating of 1100 Mpa) works at 50 m/ min. Despite these elevated speeds, precision must be to within ±0.2 mm. The Unidrive M variable speed drives speed and response allow high dynamic application control with repeatable precision. The intelligent modules used with the drives let operators manage motion in several axes and synchronized profiles, which minimizes the number of rejected items and maximizes production uptime, all without inducing stress on the mechanical parts. Integration of these drives into the machines was straightforward thanks to a complete set of communication modules that support most traditional field buses and the latest Ethernet-based technologies. Among the recent applications at Athader was the development of a transversal cutting line for steel bands up to 25 mm thick and 1800 mm wide. The Emerson solution includes a control cabinet (8 x 800 x 2200 mm

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In these custom machines from Athader, Profinet connects the PLC with Emerson Unidrive M variable speed drives, encoders and remote I/O, while Ethernet allows the checking and changing of system parameters with a remote PC, including the parameters of the Emerson drives. 9966

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Integration of Emerson Unidrive M variable speed drives into Athader machines was straightforward thanks to a complete set of communication modules that support most traditional field buses and the latest Ethernet-based technologies.

modules) and three control desks (entry, main and exit). The cabinet includes a total of 19 ac drives in a dc bus configuration. Moving through the cutting line in sequence, the uncoiler is served by a single Unidrive M701 (45 kW) featuring a Si-Application option module and dedicated unwinder software. From here, the unwound coil moves into two levellers, each of which relies on two Undrive M700 units in parallel (180 and 160 kW respectively) with accompanying software. In addition, four Unidrive M200 drives (from 5.5 to 7.5 kW) are deployed for auxiliary elements. The next station, a flying shear, features one Unidrive M700 (110 kW) with Emerson’s dedicated software, along with a single Unidrive M200 (5.5 kW) for the conveyor. In addition, a total of 10 Unidrive M200 drives (from 0.55 to 5.5 kW) control further parts of the system, such as inspection and evacuation conveyors, stackers and stores. The cabinet also features two Emerson SPMC2402 dc rectifiers working in parallel. The complete line is controlled by a Siemens PLC, while adjustment and supervision is made with a 15 in. color touchscreen.  

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Two networking configurations are featured: Profinet connects the PLC with drives, encoders and remote I/O, while Ethernet allows the checking and changing of system parameters with a remote PC, including the parameters of the Emerson drives. Production speeds have increased by more than 300%, from 200 to 600 m/min for longitudinal systems. In addition, the machines can now process a wider range of materials, from 12 mm band thickness (500 MPa) in the past, to the current 25 mm thick (1100 MPa). Machine commissioning time has been reduced from 6 weeks to 3-4 weeks, while machine-side and remote control are better facilitated through user-friendly software and Ethernet technologies.


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Only consumers who are deeply committed to managing a lightbulb on their smart phone are likely to persevere through the lengthy setup we endured while examining the Osram Lightify LED.

Lee Teschler â&#x20AC;˘ Executive Editor



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Internet of Things


How many IT people does it take to screw in a smart light bulb? The Internet of Things has arrived and it looks like an LED bulb with Wi-Fi slapped on. In an effort to see how household items such as light bulbs might become part of the IoT, we recently dissected a Lightify smart-connected LED bulb and gateway made by Osram Sylvania Inc. Surprisingly, we found the most difficult part of the analysis was the setup procedure required to put the bulb on a Wi-Fi network. We also discovered that the way Osram approached adding wireless capabilities to this lightbulb seemed to be a little like grafting an F-35a fighter onto the airframe of a Nieuport 11 from WWI. We pity the naïve consumer who buys one of these bulbs expecting to have it up and running in a few minutes. The installation process has the feel of something that requires an IT staff. It is lengthy. It begins with downloading a smartphone app, setting up a password-enabled account (Who knew you would have to do this for lightbulbs?), scanning in a barcode from the gateway, responding to a message sent to your email account, entering an enabling code, giving the Lightify gateway the password to your household Wi-Fi, and waiting for protracted downloads of firmware updates for the light itself


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In te r n et o f Th i n gs

Zigbee stub antenna

Indicator LEDs Wi-Fi antenna Wi-Fi circuit shield Zigbee, Wi-Fi antenna tuning elements

Zigbee antenna

Zigbee circuit shield

Marvell Avastar 88W8782

Marvell 88MZ100 Marvell 88MC200

The Lightify gateway with metal shields removed. Visible on the board are the Zigbee and Wi-Fi radio chips, the LEDs that serve as indicator lights, antennas, and antenna tuning elements. and for the gateway. (Done while having to endure entreaties from the app to “sit back and relax.”) To make matters slightly worse, the smartphone app is buggy and not intuitive to operate. The only way we could get it back on track after the firmware downloads was to power-down the phone and restart. This tedious procedure can occupy most of an hour. Consumers willing to persevere through the whole thing get a 60-W-equivalent LED bulb they can dim and put on a time schedule from their smart phone, and whose color temperature they can adjust to provide a range of white light. But we think a significant portion of those who buy this LED bulb will lose their enthusiasm for IoT appliances before they ever get the bulb to turn on. We also suspect it will come as a shock for many consumers to find that smart LED bulbs need a special gateway device to connect with household Wi-Fi. Thus the first purchase of a smart LED bulb must

The base of the LED bulb with the metal screw threads removed and plastic heat-sink cover partly chipped away. The potting compound encasing the driver and wireless boards provides structural integrity for the mounting base as well.



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include the separate gateway, which looks a little like an external power supply that plugs into a wall socket. The gateway is necessary because LED bulbs are actually on their own wireless network. The gateway provides the link from the bulb network to Wi-Fi. The combination LED bulb-and-gateway will set consumers back a little less than $50. A smart LED bulb alone goes for half that, pricey compared to an ordinary dimmable LED bulb. It should be said that up to 50 Lightify devices can work with a single gateway. But we think the prospect of going through a subset of the configuration procedure 49 more times is not likely to be appetizing to most consumers. On a positive note, the wireless network run by the Lightify gateway seems to be relatively secure. We tried unsuccessfully to break in using a few wellknown hacking techniques. The fact that the device runs a protocol that isn’t widely known is a plus from a security standpoint;

9/2/16 2:56 PM

Winbond W25Q32FV flash memory

The back side of the Lightify gateway board. Visible here are the flash memory chip, the switch for resetting the gateway, and the plug through which the board connects to the gateway power supply circuit.

Plug to gateway power supply

Reset switch

Lightify networks are probably resistant to fiddling from most enterprising 15-year-olds. Inside the LED bulb The LED bulb itself looks as though the designers started with an existing LED bulb and driver circuit, then just slapped on a PCB

to add a wireless capability. The mechanical design approach is one we’ve seen in several brands of LED bulbs. It incorporates a 1.2-oz. metal heat sink to which mounts a metal plate holding the LEDs. The PCB holding the driver electronics is potted into the bulb base, and the potting material provides some structural

Plastic shell from heat sink

Components of the Osram Lightify bulb. The bulb employed a cast metal heat sink. We had to cut it into two pieces to get at the LED driver board. In this view, the potting compound that encased the LED board has been removed.

Metal screw threads Plastic base Driver and wireless boards

Plastic enclosure for LED driver board

Polycarbonate bulb LED plate

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rigidity for the connection to the metal screw-in sleeve and electrical contact. The PCB sits in a plastic sleeve that extends from the base and over the metal heat sink. The driver circuit is based around an SSL21082AT dimmable LED driver IC from NXP. This switching power supply IC operates as a buck (step-down) converter in boundary conduction mode (BCM). BCM refers to an operation mode where the output inductor current is zero for a small period of time during each cycle, allowing the circuit to use smaller magnet components and inexpensive switching diodes. Though the IC in the bulb allows dimming of the LED, its built-in dimming function clearly won’t play a part in the actual dimming of the bulb via wireless commands. That’s because dimmable LED drivers examine the ac waveform to decide how much to dim the LED. Thus they assume there is a triac dimmer at











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The block diagram for the NXP SSL2108AT driver chip. Though the NTC pin is normally for LED thermal protection, it can be used as an input to disable/enable light output using a digital signal (PWM dimming). Thus it is likely the bulb’s Zigbee radio uses it to dim the bulb. The bulb’s on time can be adjusted through connections to the TONMOD pin, so it’s likely the Zigbee radio manipulates this input as well for dimming or adjustments of bulb color temperature. 102

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In te r n et o f Th i n gs

Marvell Zigbee 88MZ100

Zigbee board

The LED driver board with Zigbee wireless board in place. The Zigbee radio chip is visible on the wireless board. the light switch, which is notching out part of the ac waveform. They examine the incoming ac wave to determine the phase angle of the notching, then adjust the current to the LED accordingly. But that’s not what happens when the dimming is commanded by a smartphone app. The ac waveform at the bulb is unaffected – it remains a full sine wave. Instead, the wireless interface adjusts the pulse-width modulation of the switching IC to deliver the amount of light that the app commands. LED light output mostly has a direct proportionality to diode current, so dimming amounts to an adjustment of the LED current. Dimming seems to take place by means of a connection to a pin labeled NTC on the SSL21082AT chip. Though the NTC pin is normally for LED thermal protection, it can be used as an input to disable/enable light output using a digital signal (PWM dimming). Thus it is likely the bulb’s Zigbee radio uses it

The main chip driving the 14 LEDs on the Osram Lightify bulb is the NXP SSL21082AT. This boundary conduction mode switching IC has two inputs, Tonmod and NTC can be used to implement PWM dimming. It seems likely that the Zigbee radio connects to these pins as a means of dimming the bulb and adjusting its color temperature.



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Stub Zigbee antenna

Wi-Fi antenna

Zigbee receive antenna

to dim the bulb. The bulb’s on time can be adjusted through connections to another pin on the SSL21082AT called TONMOD. It’s likely the Zigbee radio manipulates this input as well for dimming or adjustments of bulb color temperature. The bulb can be adjusted from a warm 2700 K color temperature up to a 6500 K cool white color level at any dimness level. How it manages this is a bit of a mystery, at least to us. Other LED bulbs that boast of color-changing abilities adopt strategies such as using two kinds of LEDs with differing color temperatures, or incorporating filters that mechanically rotate over top of the LEDs to change the color output. The Osram bulb doesn’t do any of this.

Metal shield covering Wi-Fi circuitry

Metal shield Zigbee circuitry

Reset button Antenna matching network tuning elements

The Lightify gateway with its front cover removed, revealing the wireless board. The metal shields are still in place over the Zigbee and Wi-Fi circuits. Visible in this view are the three antennas and the two variable capacitors that are part of the antenna matching network.

NXP SSL21082AT Diode bridge

Loop antenna on Zigbee board

The reverse side of the LED driver board holds the main NXP driver IC as well as the diode bridge at the input of the bulb from the ac line. The loop antenna on the Zigbee wireless board can be seen as well. A point to note is the rough-looking nature of some solder work on the board. It contrasts with the much finer features visible on the wireless board attached to the other side of this one. 106


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A quick look at the 14 LEDs on the Osram bulb reveals they are all wired in series. So they all energize when the bulb is on, regardless of the desired color temperature. And they all appear to be the same type. These facts seem to eliminate the more usual methods of varying LED bulb color temperature. So we really can’t definitively pinpoint Osram’s approach to delivering a settable color temperature. However, a key point to note is that the color of LED light is sensitive to heat. And heating in LEDs is sensitive to the width of the pulse-widthmodulated currents driving the LED. So we might speculate that one possible way of adjusting LED color temperature might involve the judicious modification of current pulse times. A final point on the adjustable color temperature is that Osram makes its own LEDs, not just the bulb the LEDs sit in. So it’s possible the company has devised special devices able to change color temperature in response to some electrical parameter that

The Marvell ZigBee 88MZ100 system-on-chip (SoC) can be found on both the Lightify gateway and on the LED bulb wireless board.

isn’t widely known. If so, this would be a noteworthy development. Making connections The network connections for the Osram bulb are made via circuitry on a separate circuit board. This PCB has the look of something retrofitted onto an existing bulb design. It evidently was assembled separately and perhaps at a different vendor than that of the bulb itself. We say this because the main bulb PCB looks as though it may contain components that were hand-soldered to the board. And some of the solder joints don’t look particularly good. In contrast, the network PCB contains super-fine traces that are impossible to hand solder; the board material itself seems to be of a higher quality than that of the bulb. The higher quality may be necessitated by the fact that the PCB incorporates a printed antenna. The network board protrudes out of a hole cut in the metal plate holding the LEDs. The portion of the PCB that sticks out of the hole

Zigbee antenna

The LED bulb with its plastic dome removed (left) reveals the metal plate holding the 14 LEDs along with the wireless board protruding through a hole cut in the plate. There are only two connections from the LEDs to the driver board, indicating that the LEDs are wired in one series string. Removing the LED plate (right) shows the driver board potted into the base of the bulb.



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contains a printed loop antenna. The main chip on this network board is a Marvell ZigBee 88MZ100 system-on-chip. The Zigbee networks the chip handles work in the 2.4GHz ISM band. The 88MZ100 basically combines four separate chips: a ZigBee IEEE802.15.42003/2006 transceiver, a 32-bit ARM Cortex M3 microcontroller, a dc-dc converter designed to take inputs from batteries ranging 2 to 3.6 V, and a 512KB serial flash. The gateway device with which the bulb communicates contains four ICs. One is the Marvell Avastar 88W8782 SoC, which is basically a WLAN on-a-chip. It is the device through which the gateway connects to your household Wi-Fi. This Marvell chip provides the combined functions of Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS) and Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) baseband modulation, Medium Access Controller (MAC), host interfaces, and direct-conversion WLAN RF radio. For security, the chip implements widely used encryption methods that include Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)/Counter Mode CBC-MAC Protocol (CCMP), Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) with Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP), and others.

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In te r n et o f Th i n gs The WLAN chip sits on the PCB inside the same metal shield as a Marvell 88MC200 microcontroller. This is another SoC incorporating 512KB SRAM memory, 8MB of on-chip serial flash memory, a DAC module with 10-bit resolution, and I/O interfaces.  It includes eight channels of Direct Memory Access (DMA) as well as a watchdog timer that can generate a reset or an interrupt when it times out. Four UART devices integrated in the chip. In a second separate shielded area of the PCB sits a Marvell 88MZ100 ZigBee microcontroller system-on-chip (SoC). This, of course, is the controller handling the Zigbee network containing the LED lightbulb and whatever else is networked in. The fourth chip on the board is a W25Q32FV (32M-bit) Serial Flash memory from Winbond Electronics Corp. It sits by itself on the reverse side of the board.

There are a couple points to note on the gateway board. It seems to contain three antennas. One is printed on the circuit board and looks to be a stub antenna. Its length is about that of a quarter-wave for the 915 MHz Zigbee band. Our guess is that it handles RF transmissions to the Zigbee devices on the network. The other two antennas are oddly shaped considering they are meant to detect electromagnetic energy in the ISM band. They are rectangular metal clip-like shapes that are soldered to the PCB. One seems to connect to the Zigbee transceiver, the other to the Wi-Fi circuit. Both are in series with devices that seem to be variable capacitors, likely put there to match antenna impedance to the input impedance of the Wi-Fi and Zigbee radios. The fact that Osram was compelled to add a variable tuning element to the antenna circuit may indicate the two metal clips don’t make particularly good ISM-band antennas.

All in all, the Osram Lightify bulb is interesting IoT technology. Too bad it involves a tedious set-up for anyone who isn’t a one-percenter able to hire personalized IT help. DW References Marvell Technology Group Ltd. NXP Semiconductors Osram Sylvania Inc. WHAT DO YOU THINK?

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Surface mount fasteners go with the flow Switching to surface mount spacers reduces hardware requirements and simplifies installation.

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Application challenge: One of Penn Engineeringâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s manufacturing customers was constantly experiencing production delays for an application where printed circuit boards were mounted to daughter boards in a line card for optical fiber telecom equipment. Line cards are modular electronic circuits designed to fit on a separate printed circuit board and interface with a telecommunications access network. Board mounting was performed using four standard hexagonal pillars and eight sets of screws and washers to secure both boards. But high parts counts and related issues persistently slowed production, due to the tedious process of manually handling and installing the fasteners. There had to be a better way. Application solution: Designers specified four surface

mount spacers to replace the pillars, screws and washers. The surface mount fasteners install onto printed circuit boards in the same way as other surface mount components and require no handling. As a result of the switch to surface mount hardware, the customer reduced total parts count by half and increased the production process by more than 50% thanks to the newfound installation expediency.



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Various types and styles of surface mount fasteners as well as the tape and reel on which fasteners are supplied  

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Fastening & Joining



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Surface mount fastening technology has come a long way with more fastener types and functions. Regardless of type, surface mount fasteners will install permanently onto a printed circuit board using existing production infrastructure. By surface mounting a fastener to a board, designers can achieve significant cost savings without compromising the performance of a design. Fasteners fed on a tape and reel, assembled with pick-and-place equipment, and reflowed alongside other electronic components ultimately offer the potential to save handling time and money and reduce the possibility of board quality failures, which sometimes can occur as an offshoot of working with other kinds of hardware.

Risky business When specifying hardware for printed circuit board applications, many designers may still find themselves turning either to loose fasteners or broaching fasteners. While both fastening families can provide the necessary functions, each carries potential risks that may impact the production process, the integrity of boards, and even whether disassembly can be performed should it be required. Loose hardware typically specified for boards includes spacers (plastic or metal columns to offset two boards), nuts and screws, which will usually require secondary installation-related operations performed manually. These secondary operations can consume considerable time, due to the painstaking work necessary to align all parts, often on both sides of a board. Then, with installation completed, another step must be taken to safeguard that no loose parts have gone missing in the assembly, since the errant parts could rattle or—even worse—cause shorts or end-product failures. Disassembly can also be an issue, since the loose hardware needs to be contained. Broaching fasteners, such as spacers and nuts, remove the issues associated with handling loose hardware, but improper installation can place boards in jeopardy. These types are designed to broach— installing permanently—by pressing the fastener’s knurled section into a slightly smaller mounting hole in the board, which forces the knurls to cut into the board. Installation usually will be performed after boards have been populated with electronic components. Unfortunately, if the broaching fastener installation process is performed improperly on a populated board, the board can be subjected to significant stress and likely ruin. Micro-cracks may form to sever traces in any of the board’s multiple layers and boards ultimately may have to be scrapped, 116


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along with the pre-existing and pricey onboard components. Board damage can further develop if a broaching fastener is misaligned while being pressed into the mounting hole during installation. This can cause large-scale cracking or breaking of the board. Surface mount fastening technology removes all the risks and delivers production and quality rewards. The hardware— supplied on tape and reel consistent with SMT automated installation equipment—is positioned where designed while the board is processed and then permanently installed with pick-andplace robotics in the same manner and at the same time as other surface mount components prior to the automated reflow solder process. The fasteners simply become another non-intrusive component on a board. And since the parts are packaged on a tape and reel (neither loose nor dumped into bowls), any chance of mixing the parts with other hardware disappears.

When specifying hardware for printed circuit board applications, many designers may still find themselves turning either to loose fasteners or broaching fasteners.”

Functionality by design The portfolio of surface mount fasteners is growing and many types and styles have been engineered, each serving one or multiple purposes. Depending on type, surface mount fasteners can be specified to mount, stack or space boards; attach components to boards; or create right-angle attachment points on boards. Some integrate captive screws—eliminating loose screws and all the related hassles—ideally suiting applications where removal and reinstallation of boards is anticipated. • Surface mount spacers, nuts and standoffs. These threaded or unthreaded types offer the capabilities to stack, space and attach and can be installed in boards as thin as 0.020 in. (0.5 mm). Reels carry up to 3,500 parts, depending on fastener size. A polyimide patch is supplied to allow reliable vacuum pickup. Fasteners are available either in brass or steel. •

Surface mount captive panel screw assemblies. These fastener assemblies, available in several styles, can be installed in boards as thin as 0.063 in. (1.6 mm) and permit easy removal and reinstallation of boards. They can be provided as a two-piece September 2016

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Fastening & Joining

assembly with a plastic cap or as a spring- loaded, all-metal fastener that is installed preassembled in one piece. The screws can be finger or tool actuated after installation.

• Surface mount right-angle fasteners These provide an efficient and reliable method to create permanent right-angle attachment points on printed circuit boards as thin as 0.040 in. (1 mm). They provide reusable threads parallel to a board to accommodate a component for mounting 90º to the board. They can serve as viable alternatives to conventional angle brackets or threaded right-angle blocks for attaching board to chassis, chassis to board, or component to board.

Installed surface mount right-angle fastener on a board is used to create permanent right-angle attachment points on boards. Images courtesy of Penn Engineering

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Personal CNC Prototyping - Product Design - R&D - Engineering Eisertech, a medical device company in San Diego, CA, designs and manufactures spinal implants and surgical instruments with the help of their Tormach PCNC 1100. What started out as garage shop prototypes has grown into a successful medical device product line.

As fasteners are “downsized,” issues relating to tight tolerances

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The shape of right-angle types readily allows the part to be picked up by a pick-and-place machine without requiring a patch. The fastener is presented in the tape and reel with two small pins downward and the flat portion of the fastener’s head exposed to the pneumatic finger. The two pins at the bottom act as two very small pilots, providing stability and locational accuracy during placement. In addition, a “step” along the bottom allows the solder fillet to be formed along this edge, even while the face of the fastener is flush against an edge of the board. The fastener’s rectangular hole reduces the mass and promotes quicker heating to minimize heat draw away from surrounding components on the board.

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Micro solutions The rapid rise in attachment applications for compact consumer electronic assemblies has led to extremely small “micro” versions of surface mount fasteners for these jobs. It should be noted that micro fasteners are not simply scaled-down versions of their larger counterparts. Special engineering comes into play. As fasteners are “downsized,” issues relating to tight tolerances and performance values, among others, become magnified and special features engineered into the fastener often become both critical and essential. As an example of a special feature, micro versions of spacers, nuts and standoffs integrate 120

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Fastening & Joining

a unique hex-shaped barrel by design to create a larger solder area for enhanced reliability in service. Variations have added even more function: Tin-plated brass versions offer superior electrical and mechanical attachment points for a board, in addition to fulfilling requirements for spacing, stacking, mounting and attaching components. Across the board, surface mount fastening technology can help to streamline production and promote reliable attachment of components, equipping designers with more options than ever before and benefiting applications immediately and down the line.



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Many applications use pressure sensor measurements to calculate other key parameters such as flow, altitude, water column height, fluid depth, weight and more. In industrial applications, the most common use of pressure sensors to calculate another parameter is flow.

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In a bypass channel configured to measure air flow in air duct systems, Sensirion’s SDP3x differential pressure sensor provides a wide dynamic range (±500 Pa) that enables detection of very small pressure changes (±0.5% of reading) over time.

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Sensors Other flow sensing measurements use pressure sensors but have a rather different approach. For example, blower door testing checks the integrity of the room seal for energy usage efficiency to avoid heating or cooling losses. This application uses the pressure sensor as a flow/leak detection measurement device—in conjunction with a variable-speed fan mounted to an opening such as a door or window. An industrial application of the process is in clean rooms, where efficient operation of the integrated ventilation system is required. In fact, a standardized Blower-Door-Test is provided in ISO 9972:1996 and in the Deutsche International Norm DIN EN 13829:2001-02. According to ASTM Standard E779-87, Test Method for Determining Air Leakage by Fan Pressurization from the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), the effective leakage area (ELA) is calculated by: ELA = CBuilding * √(ρ/2)*ΔPRef* exp(nBuilding-0.5) Where: ELA = Effective Leakage Area (m2 or in2) CBuilding= Building air leakage coefficient ρ= Air density (kg/m3 or lb/in3), typically a standard density is used ΔPRef = Reference Pressure (Pa or lbForce/in2), typically 4 Pa in US and 10 Pa in Canada nBuilding= Building pressure exponent In clean rooms, leakage can cause major problems. For this type of application for one customer, All Sensors uses a derivative of its DLVR-L04G-E1BD-C-NI3L. “The customer requires the best possible noise-free resolution to accomplish their measurements,” said Tim Shotter, Director of New Product Planning at All Sensors. “In order to satisfy their requirements, we used a 2-inch H2O assembly and ranged it to ±4-inches H2O. This provides the highest signal to noise ratio available for their application.”

Determining temperature from ΔP Air cooling systems provide another example of pressure used to determine another system parameter. Superheat refers to the number of degrees a vapor is above its saturation temperature (boiling point) at a particular pressure. “Superheat is determined by taking the low side pressure gauge reading, converting that pressure to temperature using a pressure temperature (PT) chart, and then subtracting that temperature from the actual temperature measured (using an accurate thermometer or thermocouple) at the same point the pressure was taken,” said Gary Winzeler, Director, Sales & Marketing, DunAn Sensing. With a superheat value, users can increase or decrease the superheat and reduce the time and energy to achieve a desired 124


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Se nso rs In a superheat measurement, the change in pressure is used to determine the superheat value.

system temperature. For this application, DunAn Sensing developed a specific pressure transducer that would meet all the requirements of the HVAC/R marketplace.

“Refrigeration for product storage in a food processing plant is a typical industrial application for superheat pressure measurements,” said Tom Ngyen, CEO, DunAn Sensing.

Measuring dynamic phenomenon with pressure sensors Ken Watkins, Technical Sales Specialist of PCB Piezotronics, Industrial Div., IMI Sensors provides another alternative approach for sensing pressure in flow applications. His company’s piezoelectric pressure sensors are specifically designed to measure dynamic phenomenon. These events occur in a relatively short period of time. In fluid transmission applications in a factory or other environment, an intrinsically safe pressure sensor such as the 121A44 provides an interesting measurement. “It’s a pressure sensor but what it’s measuring is frequency content,” said Watkins. With the bandwidth of the piezoelectric pressure sensor, noise from

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Sens o r s Managing superheat with DunAn Sensing’s DURAsense LP and HP Series pressure transducers maximizes system efficiency and comfort.

fluid moving in a pipe can be measured. For example, the frequency spectrum of the flow could have most of the noise around 5 kHz. With a valve in the line, changing the position of the valve produces a different acoustic signature because of the gap or constriction added to the flow. “There are eddy currents on the back side of the valve, for example, that would cause different frequency content or multiple frequency points,” said Watkins. “You might have the basic flow at 5 kHz, but then you might have smaller higher frequency signals that could tell you something about the valve position or if you have a leak. If the valve is closed and you still have an acoustic signature, there is a leak.” Similar to monitoring a bearing in a rotating structure, during normal operation there is a desired spectral pattern. When a failure such as a crack in the bearing occurs, there is a totally different signature. With

a thorough failure mode effects analysis (FMEA), specific types of signatures can be identified and detected by a digital signal processor (DSP) or other computing device. “All they are looking at is a relative measurement in dB or log/log. You’re not looking at pressure,” said Watkins. “You’re looking at where that frequency is and did it move relative to where it was before— did it change from the norm. It’s more like frequency trending.”

Managing quality with pressure readings While they are not related to flow, pressure sensors can also be used for inferred measurements. Pete Smith, Senior Manager of Product Knowledge & Training for TE Connectivity, recalled a production line situation that he was intimately involved in during his career and prior to working for TE Connectivity. “They had these pneumatic screw drivers,” said Smith. “In other places, they had presses that would push parts together where they could use ultrasonic welding or put rivets into things. They were all pneumaticallypowered pieces of equipment.”

TE Connectivity’s 100-psi M5200 series can be used to control production consistency and provide quality control for compressed air powered processes. 126


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September 2016

PCB Piezotronics’ 121A44, a 50 psi pressure sensor, has a sensitivity of 100 mV/psi and a maximum resolution of 0.003 kPa.

With a pneumatic screw driver, an accurate torque setting typically is a function of the pressure applied to the screwdriver. “We would monitor the pressure for all of our air supplies to all of these production work stations and it became a quality control tool,” he said. “By monitoring the air pressure, we were able to determine if the tool was operating properly.” Because an air production line is typically between 50 to 100 psi, TE Connectivity’s model M5200 industrial pressure sensor with a pressure range of 0-100 psi can be used for this application. “If factories aren’t monitoring the air pressure in their systems, they’re missing out. They’re not doing something right,” said Smith. “It’s one of the parts of a factory infrastructure that people should be looking at.” As the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) and smart factories get implemented, Smith sees a vital role for these types of pressure measurements.

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Sens o r s “It turns out that creating the smart factory is not that easy,” he said. “It’s actually very hard because you not only have to marry all the equipment in your factory to your factory infrastructure, the water electricity, compressed air, and environment including lighting, but you have to get all these thing talking to each other. You have to get the factory floor to talk to your air compressor that’s part of the building infrastructure.” Sensors are an integral part of the solution. “The ultimate objective of the smart factory is to incorporate all the data that all these machines produce and all that the factory infrastructure produces into an analytics program capability,” said Smith. “The analytics are going to manage the factory from front to back.” Smith concluded, “The sensors that we’re talking about here are going to be some of the nodes that provide data for that analytical capability.” Based on the data from pressure and other sensors and measurements later in production or quality control, manufacturers have even better capability to correlate process changes to acceptable and unacceptable results. DW All Sensors

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September 2016

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Machine www.designworldonlinecom

A Supplement to Design World - September 2016

Design devices and equipment faster, smarter, and under budget with TiPS from leading suppliers

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Machine Vision

Machine vision evolving with embedded technology and networking

Image courtesy Robotiq



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Of all sensing technologies for motion designs, none collect more information than machine-vision systems. Visual feedback tracks environment and part features with highbandwidth data to boost application safety, speed, and quality. What’s more, vision technologies are more advanced all the time. Artificial vision has evolved from research-level computer vision to working machine vision in manufacturing plants to the embedded vision in today’s defense, consumer, automotive, and medical products — with plenty of technology cross-pollination between subtypes. Just consider emerging machine-vision technologies of unifying software environments, GigE cameras and networks, multiple PLC vision triggers, and distributed multi-core processors for vision as proof.

Machine vision improves robotic applications Machine vision is common on robots — especially those that tend conveyors — and vision-guided robots (VGRs) take many forms. Just consider the Matrox Iris GTR smart camera from Matrox Imaging for integrators, machine builders, and OEMs of factory automation solutions. The 75 x 75 x 54 mm Iris GTR uses Semiconductor-brand PYTHON CMOS image sensors for high readout rates. An Intel Celeron dual-core embedded processor September 2016

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Machine Vision

» One machine-vision setup

from Skye Automation monitors passing stamped parts for defects. Machinevision setups work best when they’re customized to the application at hand. Here, diffused white LED light combined with a light-red bandpass filter gets the highest contrast regardless of the metal color variations.

lets it inspect on faster moving lines or perform more inspections in a given time. An IP67-rated housing and M12 connectors also make the camera dustproof and immersion resistant. Robotiq’s new machine-vision camera for Universal Robots is another new VGR system. It’s for pick-andplace tasks executed by Universal Robots, and can be setup on a shop floor in five minutes. The system needs no external PC for setup or programming the camera. Everything is done right from the robot user interface. Early adopters say Robotiq’s Camera opens new automation possibilities. “The Robotiq Camera breaks integration barriers of vision systems in manufacturing automation,” said Victor Canton, manufacturing

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engineer at Continental Automotive. His team saw many pick-and-place robot tasks that could benefit from quick programming. “We’ll need this for upcoming projects incorporating Universal Robots cells,” added Canton. The camera fits on Universal Robots wrists and integrates with the controller. The camera software embeds into Universal Robot’s graphical user interface. “We kept seeing projects that would work much better with machine vision, but manufacturers stayed away because of the complexity and cost of existing solutions,” said Samuel Bouchard, CEO of Robotiq. “So we creates a camera and vision software that anyone can setup and use.” A key area of VGR advancement is machine vision that goes beyond parts scanning in a 2D plane (lying flat) for 3D applications. Chief among these jobs is bin picking. Here, it’s common for 80% of a bin clearing to go smoothly and then the last 20% or so to exceed the tending robot’s capabilities. Parts left in bin corners or at strange angles prove too hard for traditional machine vision to detect. But now, manufacturers are starting to use smarter machine-vision setups to get closer-to-perfect performance. Better bin picking sometimes necessitates changes in upstream processes — with a switch to prearranging parts or using concave bins, for example. VGRs for bin picking must also have grippers that can fit into corners and get parts without hitting walls, with successful grasps even if workpieces have curved surfaces. That’s why end-of-arm tooling models must be part of upfront bin-picking simulations. In fact, robotic and machinevision manufacturers have aimed to address many of the motion task’s unique challenges with programming and 3D modeling tools. Dedicated VGRs setup with applicationcustomized algorithms improve bin picking most.


September 2016

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» Matrox Imaging Iris GTR cameras come with

monochrome and color-image sensors having resolutions from VGA to 5 Mpixels. Dedicated interfaces for LED intensity and Varioptic Caspian auto-focus lens control facilitate setup. Eight real-time GPIOs with rotary-encoder support let the camera follow and interact with fast-moving equipment; a Gigabit-Ethernet interface lets the smart camera efficiently output data (including images) over factory networks.

Case in point: Drop-in robotic workcells from Universal Robotics now blend the simplicity of collaborative systems with the speed and capacity of industrial robots. They work for order fulfillment, machine tending, line loading, or even bin picking. The Neocortex Goods to Robot Cell is built on Universal’s Neocortex and Spatial Vision 3D software platform for collaborative interaction at industrial speeds — handling 800 to 1,600 mixed objects (from machined parts to consumer products) per hour. Or reconsider the Matrox Iris GTR smart camera. It comes preinstalled with Microsoft Windows Embedded Standard 7 or Linux, so developers can pick between two common environments for running visionapplication software.

Another machine-vision application: Machine vision checks stamped parts Stamping presses continue to be an integral part of manufacturing. Although associated processes have undergone continuous improvement, the basic nature of press operations have remained unchanged for decades ... despite rising expectations for quality components from stamping machines. In fact, penalties imposed for sending bad parts can easily reach $50,000, not to mention wasted man-hours to sort through parts returned to the manufacturer. But defects in stamped metal components are often difficult to detect. Consider slug marks, which often only appear for only a few parts, or even just one, and then disappear after the slug embeds itself into another part and gets carried away.

» Robotiq cameras go into Universal

Robots wrists and directly connect vision connectivity.  

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Machine Vision Another situation is when broken die pins create an abundance of wasted material, time, and missed defects during sorting. In these and similar situations, machine vision can automatically inspect metal components as they are coming off of the press, which in turn can save money and reduce scrap — ensuring 100% qualitycomponent delivery rate for the end user. But there are challenges to consider when applying machine vision to this task. That’s because one press can run many different parts with frequent changeovers, various sizes, inconsistent environments, and various speeds. It’s important to understand what vision can and cannot do for a given process within the confines of a design budget — before starting a project. Challenges are met through careful selection of camera, lighting, lens and filter. Defect size and the precision with which the machinevision system must detect them dictate what camera resolution is suitable. For example, in some stamping applications, a two-megapixel monochrome camera can work well. However, other applications may require higher resolution to accommodate the FOV or to adequately determine the inspection requirements within the ROI. In most machines using a monochrome camera, the setup pairs with a red LED light with a wavelength of 625 nm or so. However, in machine-vision applications, exceptions and situational anomalies are often the norm. In one real-world application, testing showed that a white LED light with a monochrome camera made for better contrast. In fact, due to the complex nature of imaging, only testing can confirm that a particular setup is optimized — even with nontraditional lighting and camera arrangements — for the environment and parts being inspected.



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Reconsider the nontraditional setup for stamped-part inspection. Here, a diffused white LED light combined with a light red bandpass filter maximizes transmission of light in the specific spectrum between bad and good parts. High-intensity light also lets the setup inspect the parts while in motion, because camera shutter speed can be set fast enough to eliminate motion blur. Assume vision software orients parts to within 0.001° based on a reference point as they are placed randomly on the conveyor. Once oriented, controls trigger the rest of the quality checks to determine if there are any problems with the

It’s important to understand what vision can and cannot do for a given process within the confines of a design budget — before starting a project. ”

part. If defects are found, the system can immediately stop the press or reject the parts. Or the integrator can program the machine-vision system to log details of the inspection and provide trending data. Note that as quality requirements become more stringent, so do the requirements for automatic visual inspection — but advances in hardware and software are taking vision-system capabilities to new heights.

WHAT DO YOU THINK? Connect and discuss this and other engineering design issues with thousands of professionals online

Thank you to Skye Gorter, President of Skye Automation, for information on machine vision in stamped-part inspection.

9/7/16 2:46 PM

MASTER BOND Flame Retardant Epoxies Pass Horizontal and Vertical Burn Test


Master Bond EP90FR-H and EP90FR-HFL have both successfully passed the FAR 25.853(a) horizontal burn test. These flame resistant, non-halogenated epoxies are ROHS compliant and do not contain any SAVC’s per REACH standards. They feature convenient handling with good flow characteristics, excellent dielectric properties and high bond strength. Common Aircraft Applications: • Acrylic windows • Seat belts

Common Aircraft Applications:

• Structural window panes

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• Galley structures

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• Door frame linings

Master Bond EP90FR-V passes the vertical burn test. It also passes Boeing specifications BSS 7238, Revision C for smoke density and BSS 7239, Revision A for toxicity. This is a two part system that features superior electrical insulation which makes it a great choice for electronic potting and sealing applications. Other product advantages are its convenient processing with a one to one mix ratio, excellent mechanical strength and long working life.

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For more information:

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Prod uc t World Develop application software faster B&R Automation Modular software blocks can be configured with a few clicks of the mouse. These mapp components simplify development of application software for all types of machinery and equipment. These blocks aid in the development of IoT and 14.0 products through uniform communication standards. They are based on OPC UA.

Servo Worm Gearheads Other Output Options:

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Custom Designs Standard Design

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September 2016


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For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @

Stainless steel photoelectric sensors Ballscrews & Rollerscrews

Gavazzi The PD30ET is a series of stainless steel photoelectric sensors with AISI316L

Industrial Robots

stainless steel housings. The sensors have an IP69K environmental rating and ECOLAB certification and are resistant to high-pressure wash-down, cleaning agents, disinfectants and the high temperatures found in the food and beverage industry.

Linear Motors

Main features of the PD30ET Series include: a housing of 11 x 21 x 31.5 mm; mounting of 25.4 mm spacing, (2) M3 holes; NO and NC outputs, NPN or PNP versions; 10–30 Vdc power supply, and IP67, IP68 and IP69K ratings.

Linear Actuators

Multi-axis electro-hydraulic motion controller Linear Guideways

Delta The RMC200 is a closed-loop electrohydraulic motion controller with the

Linear Encoders / Positioning Measurement Systems

capacity to handle closed-loop control of up to 32 motion axes. The RMC200 can synchronize the motion of multiple axes, enabling machine construction AC Servo Motors

with scalable performance and quick production changeovers. It also has built-in support for controlling pressure/ force as well as position/velocity/ acceleration. Other features include a display screen on the CPU, I/O modules with push-in

Hiwin D1 and D2 Servo Drives

wire connectors, and fully encased, user-installable modules that “rock-in” for powersequencing capability.

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Prod uc t World Sealing rings and balls Minnesota Rubber and Plastics This large inventory of standard size molded Quad Brand family of products includes Quad O-Rings, Quad-Ring, and Quad Rubber Balls for optimum sealing is available for a wide range of industry applications. These high quality sealing products are available in select sizes in small to large quantities for 48-hour lead time global delivery.

High-torque tooth clutches Nexen Size 80 and 100 hightorque tooth clutches consist of more than 45 clutches in multiple bore sizes and are configured to drive/hold large loads. The nickel-plated enclosed clutches are suitable for use in wet or dirty environments. When equipped with rotary seals, they provide IP55-equivalent protection against contact with dirt and infiltration of water. Key features of tooth clutches include their torque values: Model 5H80P â&#x20AC;&#x201C; up to 65,500 in.-lb at 80 psi and Model 5H100P â&#x20AC;&#x201C; up to 90,000 in.-lbs at 80 psi. They are enclosed and nickel plated for use in wet/dirty environments. 138

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For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @

Cable shield terminals Wieland Electric Designed to accommodate cable diameters from 8 to 32 mm, the fasis WST terminals provide vibration-proof grounding of shielded cables. The cable shield terminals are

WE Series Linear Guideway Wide Series Ball Type.

constructed from hardened steel and are available in configurations for mounting on busbars, TS35 DIN rail, C-profile rails, or direct screw mounting on flat surfaces.

The fasis WST Series shielding terminals are suitable for industrial machinery and

power equipment that requires grounded cable shields.

PG Series Linear Guideway Integrated Magnetic Encoder.

Miniature metric ball nut styles MGN / MGW Series Linear Guideway Stainless Steel Miniature Linear Guideway Size 5 Now Available.

Thomson This expanded line of metric ball screws delivers smooth, quiet operation and increased load capacities and lifecycles. Joining the family’s threaded style (TSI) mounting interface are flanged (FSI) and rounded (RSI) styles with a multi-liner ball return system.

HG / EG / RG Series Linear Guideways Ball and Roller Type.

Suitable for laboratory, medical and mechatronics components, the miniature metric ball screws come in a range of standardized diameters (Ø6 – Ø14 mm).   

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Prod uc t World UL 489 listed circuit breakers Phoenix Contact The TMC 8 series line of UL 489 Listed circuit


breakers have a trip-free design to increase safety against closing during an overcurrent event. These breakers are available in 1-, 2-, and 3-pole options, with B-, C-, and D-trip curves. The breakers also include visual trip status indication and accessories, including auxiliary contact, alarm contact, shunt trip, and cuttable busbars.

The circuit breakers can handle an

interrupt capacity of 10 kA IC at up to 277/480 Vac and 125 Vdc, the 17-mm DIN rail-mounted breakers are suitable for many applications. Let Us Help You 1-800-543-0470 140

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For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @

Top load gage system for real time monitoring Kurt

LM Linear Actuator / SAR Linear motor driven high acceleration and accuracy, unlimited travel.

This Top Load Gage System measures the downward axial forces exerted on a container during a sealing operation and during transit. The system measures forces at the source in real time and transmits KA Type Linear Actuator / SAR Ballscrew or belt driven, exible design.

the data with Bluetooth. The gage is user configurable and allows setting parameters to specific pound thresholds. The gage can record downward forces to cans or bottles from 500 to 1,000 pounds depending on model. Data collection speed capabilities are up to 500 readings per second and capacity of 20,000 samples.

KK Type Linear Actuator / SAR Ballscrew driven, high accuracy and reliability.

KS Type Linear Actuator / SAR Ballscrew driven for clean room applications.

Profinet interface for explosion-proof rotary sensors Posital

AC Servo Motors.

This Profinet communications interface connects to a range of explosion-proof IXARC rotary encoders. These devices comply with ATEX/IECEx directives for Category 3 electrical products and are suitable for Zone 1 and Zone 21 conditions (potential exposure to hazardous levels of explosive gases and dust concentrations). Areas of application for these encoders include oil and gas facilities,

Hiwin D1 and D2 Servo Drives for Servo Motors, Torque Motors and Linear Stages.

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Prod uc t World Laser welder for large-format plastic parts Branson Ultrasonics New GLX-3 Laser Welders brings laser welding of large-format plastic parts with more complex geometries to automotive, appliance, medical, filtration, and other applications that require particulate-free welds.

The GLX-3 welder offers a 1333 mm x 600 mm, servo-driven lift

table with overhead clearance capable of accommodating single- or multi-cavity tooling with combined weights (upper and lower) of up to 500 kg. The GLX-3 offers four levels of laser power (1250 W, 1500 W, 1750 W, and a maximum 2000 W) a wider range of clamping force (1-25 kN), plus closed-loop, clamp-force control.

Servo motor cables TPC Rugged servo motor cables come in orange color and four sizes. The cables are compatible with Rockwell/Allen-Bradley, Bosch Rexroth, Indramat, Kollmorgen, Siemens, Lenze, and Mistubishi drive systems.

Trex-Onics Servo Motor Cables have

a tinned copper braid as a shield against radiated and conducted EM and RF interference. The conductors are also color coded for easy identification. In addition, a specially compounded jacket and insulation creates a line of defense against oil, chemicals, ozone, UV exposure, and extreme weather.


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For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @

All-in-one digital incremental encoders

Brushless slotless motor Portescap


The 22ECT brushless motor offers high torque in a compact size. The motor handles continuous torque at low to medium speeds, maximizing power between 10 K and 20 K rpm. The 22ECT has a

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Sub-Divisional Error (SDE) of <±30 nm, a range of resolutions from 5 µm to 20 nm, and speeds beyond 12 m/s. There is also the VIONiCplus with SDE to <±10 nm, low jitter to 1.6 nm RMS and resolutions from 100 nm down to 2.5 nm.

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Ad I n dex


Aerotech ..........................................................31 All Motion ...........................................................4 Allied Electronics ............................. Cover,3,95 Altech Corporation ..........................................39 Altra Industrial Motion ..................21,22,23,24 AMETEK PMC ...................................................17 AMETEK/DFS ...................................................35 Anchor Machine Technologies ..................... 94 Anderson Metals Corp ................................. 138 Aurora Bearing Co. ......................................... 86 AutomationDirect ...........................................13 Baldor Electric Co. ..........................................54 Balluff ............................................................. 50 Baumer LTD .......................................... 55,57,59 Bird Precision ................................................. 44 Bishop Wisecarver .........................................81 Bison Gear & Engineering Corp. ...................IBC C-Flex Bearing Co, Inc. .................................125 Canfield Connectors .....................................112 COMSOL .......................................................... 46 CS Hyde ...........................................................97 DATA IMAGE Corp. .........................................112 Del-Tron Precision, Inc. ...................................76 Delta Tau ....................................................... 109 Deublin ......................................................... 118 DieQua ....................................................121,136 Digi-Key Electronics .......................................15 Dunkermotoren, part of Ametek ..................67 Elesa USA .........................................................12 Elmo Motion Control .......................................73 EXAIR Corporation ............................................5 ............................................1 Fabco-Air ....................................................... 105 Fixtureworks .................................................. 86 Groschopp, Inc. ...............................................75 HEIDENHAIN ....................................................83 Helical Products Company ..............................7 Helukabel, USA ................................................19 Hitachi Cable America ....................................29 HIWIN ...............................................137,139,141 IDEC ..................................................................91 igus, Inc. ....................................................... 107 IKO International, Inc. ................................... 93 J.W. Winco, Inc. .............................................125 Keystone Electronics Corp. ...........................53 Machine www.designworldonlinecom

A Supplement to Design World - September 2016

Master Bond ................................................... 44 Memory Protection Devices...........................27 Miki Pulley US .................................................37 Moog Components Group ..............................51 Murrelektronic, Inc. ........................................47 Nason .............................................................. 66 NB Corporation .............................................. 28 NBK America LLC ............................................85 Neugart .........................................................119 Newcomb Spring Corp. ................................. 96 NTE Electronics, Inc. ................................... 102 Ondrives. US Corp. ..........................................87 OPTO 22 ...........................................................49 Otto Engineering ............................................16 PBC Linear .................................................40,41 Penn Engineering ...........................................33 PHD Inc. .......................................................... 30 Pittman, part of Ametek ................................71 Posital Fraba ..................................................63 Primatics, Inc. ...............................................124 Proto Labs .........................................................9 QA1 ................................................................ 142 R+W America .................................................116 Ringfeder Corp. .............................................. 92 Rotor Clip .......................................................117 Rutronik .........................................................110 SAB North America .........................................65 Setco ............................................................. 140 SEW-EURODRIVE .............................................BC SIKO Products, Inc. .......................................143 Smalley Steel Ring Company ........................10 Smart Products ........................................... 103 Sunstone Circuits .........................................127 The Lee Company ........................................ 118 THK America, Inc. .......................................... IFC Tompkins Industries ................................... 111 Tormach .........................................................120 TRIM-LOK, Inc. .................................................18 Turck ..........................................................43,45 US Tsubaki .....................................................128 Whittet-Higgins Co. .........................................25 Zero-Max, Inc. ....................................................2 Zilog ................................................................ 58 Zeus ...............................................................113

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Design World September 2016  
Design World September 2016  

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