Page 1 October 2015


MOTION CONTROL: 5 myths about safety in machinery PAGE 72

COUPLINGS: IoT and couplings: fairytale or the future? PAGE 106


Hall-effect sensors excel APR15-A&C Snipe_Snipe 3/13/15 2:39 PM Page 1

ROBOTICS: Three robotics trends you need to watch PAGE 122


l r o r fo nt d Co e i l & l A n k n tio i Th ma to u A Cover_DW_October 2015_FINAL Vs4.indd 1

10/9/15 8:36 PM

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Insights The craziness of our future energy prospects I’ve had the privilege of seeing analyst Peter Zeihan speak several times, and his discussion, “Geopolitical Analysis of Global Economics and Energy,” at the recent Industry and Economic Outlook Conference held by the National Fluid Power Association in Chicago was truly fascinating. Zeihan feels that the U.S. is a country uniquely positioned in the coming decades—and there will be a lot of prosperity here for manufacturers. Probably our biggest challenge is the digesting of the large boomer generation into retirement, but in 15 years, we’ll have accomplished that. At that point, Generation Y (which is larger than the small Generation X) will be in their prime working years and thus propelling us forward. Even more importantly, the continual technological advances in fracking are bringing about some interesting changes. The costs are dropping and will continue to do so. Currently, prices are approaching the levels of Middle Eastern oil production. Zeihan said that the U.S. can expect 30 years of cheap natural gas, and realistically, it’s probably much closer to 60 years, simply with the technology we have currently. But add on to that the fact that people drive less as they age and retire—and the bubble of the boomer generation means we’re looking at a minimum of 20 years of year-on-year decline in energy needs. He said that by 2017, we will be energy independent as a country. Think about the ramifications. We’re entering an era where we don’t see energy as a concern anymore. Now it can be a tool in our future international relations … what a strange turnaround from the 1970s. What does this all mean for you, in your company? (And for where you invest your individual retirement funds, for that matter?) Zeihan said that there are some bright spots in various industry sectors, due to this continued lowering of domestic energy prices. Ones related to natural gas are midstream/ downstream production, petrochemicals, fertilizers, desiccants, plastics and moldings, paper, tires, glass, insulation, antifreeze, detergents, cosmetics, paint, diesel, adhesives, fire extinguishers, water treatment and distribution. And ones related more directly to electricity are retail consumption, chemicals and plastics, petroleum refini g, paper and paperboard, metals manufacturing, food processing, plastics and rubber, and aluminum. DW

Do you think we’re entering a new era of energy independence?

Pa ul J. Heney - Edi tor i al D i re ctor pheney@wtwhme di

Comment on Paul’s blog on Pneumatic Tips,


Insights 10-15_Vs3.PH.MD.indd 4


October 2015

On Twitter @ DW—Editor

10/1/15 3:57 PM

The Truth About Compressed Air! If you think compressed air is too expensive and noisy - read this. The facts will surprise you!

Compare these Blowoffs

There are a variety of ways to blow the water from the bottles shown in the photo below, but which method is best? To decide, we ran a comparison test on the same application using four different blowoff methods: drilled pipe, flat air nozzles, Super Air Knife (each using compressed air as a power source), and a blower supplied air knife (using an electric motor as a power source). Each system consisted of two twelve inch long air knives. The following comparison proves that the EXAIR Super Air Knife is the best choice for your blowoff, cooling or drying application. The goal for each of the blowoff choices was to use the least amount of air possible to get the job done (lowest energy and noise level). The compressed air pressure required was 60 PSIG which provided adequate velocity to blow the water off. The blower used had a ten horsepower motor and was a centrifugal type blower at 18,000 RPM. The table at the bottom of the page summarizes the overall performance. Since your actual part may have an odd configuration, holes or sharp edges, we took sound level measurements in free air (no impinging surface).

Drilled Pipe

Blower Air Knife

This common blowoff is very inexpensive and easy to make. For this test, we used (2) drilled pipes, each with (25) 1/16" diameter holes on 1/2" centers. As shown in the test results below, the drilled pipe performed poorly. The initial cost of the drilled pipe is overshadowed by its high energy use. The holes are easily blocked and the noise level is excessive - both of which violate OSHA requirements. Velocity across the entire length was very inconsistent with spikes of air and numerous dead spots.

The blower proved to be an expensive, noisy option. As noted below, the purchase price is high. Operating cost was considerably lower than the drilled pipe and fl at air nozzle, but was comparable to EXAIR’s Super Air Knife. The large blower with its two 3" (8cm) diameter hoses requires significant mounting space compared to the others. Noise level was high at 90 dBA. There was no option for cycling it on and off to conserve energy like the other blowoffs. Costly bearing and filter maintenance along with downtime were also negative factors.

Flat Air Nozzles

EXAIR Super Air Knife

As shown below, this inexpensive air nozzle was the worst performer. It is available in plastic, aluminum and stainless steel from several manufacturers. The flat air nozzle provides some entrainment, but suff ers from many of the same problems as the drilled pipe. Operating cost and noise level are both high. Some manufacturers off er fl at air nozzles where the holes can be blocked - an OSHA violation. Velocity was inconsistent with spikes of air.

The Super Air Knife did an exceptional job of removing the moisture on one pass due to the uniformity of the laminar airflow. The sound level was extremely low. For this application, energy use was slightly higher than the blower but can be less than the blower if cycling on and off is possible. Safe operation is not an issue since the Super Air Knife can not be dead-ended. Maintenance costs are low since there are no moving parts to wear out.

Facts about Blowers

Energy conscious plants might think a blower to be a better choice due to its slightly lower electrical consumption compared to a compressor. In reality, a blower is an expensive capital expenditure that requires frequent downtime and costly maintenance of filters, belts and bearings. Here are some important facts: Filters must be replaced every one to three months. Belts must be replaced every three to six months. Typical bearing replacement is at least once a year at a cost near $1000. •

Blower bearings wear out quickly due to the high speeds (17-20,000 RPM) required to generate effective airflows.

Poorly designed seals that allow dirt and moisture infi ltration and environments above 125°F decrease the one year bearing life.

Many bearings can not be replaced in the field, resulting in downtime to send the assembly back to the manufacturer.

Blowers take up a lot of space and often produce sound levels that exceed OSHA noise level exposure requirements. Air volume and velocity are often difficult to control since mechanical adjustments are required. To discuss an application, contact: EXAIR Corporation 11510 Goldcoast Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45249-1621 (800) 903-9247 Fax: (513) 671-3363 email: See the Super Air Knife in action.

The Super Air Knife is the low cost way to blowoff, dry, clean and cool.

Blowoff Comparison Type of blowoff



Horsepower Required

Sound Annual Purchase Approx. Annual First Year Level Electrical Price Maintenance Cost Cost dBA Cost*

Drilled Pipes



174 4,924







Flat Air Nozzles



257 7,273







Blower Air Knife











Super Air Knife











*Based on national average electricity cost of 8.3 cents per kWh. Annual cost reflects 40 hours per week, 52 weeks per year.

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Te s c h l e r o n To p i c

Why consumers should own the software on the products they buy Volkswagen made headlines recently There’s a tradeoff etween reducing NOx levels when the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) claimed VW had doctored the engine control software on almost 500,000 of its diesel-powered vehicles to get around government emissions tests. Specifically, the Agency thinks Volkswagen wrote software so that full emission controls only kick in during tests; during actual driving, the cars can emit NOx at up to 40 times the allowable standard.

and gas mileage. A portion of NOx emissions get taken care of with catalysts in the exhaust system. Gasoline engines also cut NOx by reducing compression ratios and adjusting ignition and valve timing. On diesels, the ability to control compression ratios and timing in the interest of NOx emissions are limited. Reports are that VW doctored the selective catalytic reduction scheme used to clean up emissions. The scrubbing system sprays a 30% urea/70% water mixture into the diesel exhaust to breakdown NOx. According to Wired Magazine, computer sensors monitored the steering column to look for the vibrations that arise under normal driving. During emissions testing, the wheels of the car move, but the steering wheel doesn’t. Wired reports these conditions were used as a signal to turn the catalytic scrubber up to full power so the car could pass the test. There’s irony in the idea that a foreign car maker may have been reduced to such mischievous high jinks to get better gas mileage. For many years, there was a myth that European vehicles surpassed those in the U.S. in mpg. The myth was fed by apples-to-oranges comparisons on several levels. For example, sometimes European mpg ratings are based on Imperial gallons and thus look about 20% better than if calculated with U.S. gallons. European NOx emissions regulations historically also have been less stringent than those in the U.S., so the NOx/mpg tradeoffs in urope have been less onerous. And the 85-hp vehicles common in Europe may be able to sip gas frugally, but so what. They can’t deliver what U.S. customers

typically want: A means of transportation that can accelerate smoothly from on-ramps into 65-mph freeway traffic. The evidence is that European automakers have their share of troubles coaxing out mpg when they try to sell anything but small cars. In 2012, for example, Volvo paid over $5 million in fi es for not meeting U.S. CAFE regulations. Jaguar Land Rover chipped in about $10 million that year. Notably, VW has paid no CAFE fi es lately. It now looks as though fi es in connection with VW’s software could run into the billions. The VW controversy should also prompt another look at claims by vehicle makers that owners shouldn’t be able to access the software running their own vehicles. The argument involves the 1998 Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DCMA), which makes it illegal for someone to circumvent “technological protection measures” that limit access to copyrighted works—in this case, engine control software. The Library of Congress oversees copyrights and has been entertaining the idea of issuing exemptions to the DCMA so, for example, researchers could examine code for security vulnerabilities. But vehicle makers don’t even want researchers to examine engine codes, let alone vehicle owners. An industry group called the Alliance of Automobile Manufacturers, which represents several major automakers, including Volkswagen, argues that any DCMA exemptions would create “serious threats to safety and security.” Reports are that the EPA also opposed making engine code transparent for research purposes. But the VW engine code debacle illustrates that sometimes the “serious threats to safety and security” can arise from the original programmers rather than from hackers. DW

Le la n d Te sc h le r - Exec u t i ve Edi to r ltesc h ler@wtwh m edi a .co m

On Twitter @ DW—LeeTeschler 6


Lee Teschler Column 10-15_Vs4.LL.MD.indd 6

October 2015

10/5/15 10:20 AM


The HELI-CAL Machined SpringÂŽ can be designed and manufactured to address a large variety of spring load cases for virtually any application. Helical's innovations, including integrating attachment features into a single-piece machined spring and multiple-start coil configurations, give way to an endless array of design solutions.

For more information on Machined Springs, including custom applications, go to or call (877) 435-4225 Š 2014 Helical Products Company, Inc. |

Helical 10-15.indd 7

10/1/15 3:59 PM

Follow the whole team on twitter @DesignWorld EDITORIAL


Editorial Director Paul J. Heney @dw_editor

Director, Creative Services Mark Rook @wtwh_graphics

Managing Editor Leslie Langnau @dw_3DPrinting

Visual Design Manager Matthew Claney @wtwh_designer

Executive Editor Leland Teschler @dw_LeeTeschler

Graphic Designer/Production Coordinator Margaret Schneider @wtwh_Meg

Senior Editor Miles Budimir @dw_Motion Senior Editor Mary Gannon @dw_marygannon Senior Editor Lisa Eitel @dw_LisaEitel Associate Editor Mike Santora @wtwh_Michael

With state­of­the­art equipment, in­house R&D and our very own spring calculator app, Newcomb Spring offers the capabilities and manufacturing expertise required by today’s engineer. We offer a network of locations and are ready to put more than a century of experience to work for you. Our custom parts meet the strictest order requirements, with manufacturing capabilities that include:

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Assistant Editor Michelle DiFrangia @wtwh_Michelle

Business Development Manager Patrick Curran @wtwhseopatrick Online Coordinator Jennifer Calhoon @wtwh_jennifer MARKETING Marketing Team Leader Stacy Combest @wtwh_Stacy

Traffic Ma ger Mary Heideloff

Marketing Coordinator Carli Evilsizer @wtwh_Carli


Marketing and Events Coordinator Nicole Loepp @wtwh_Nicole

BUSINESS DEVELOPMENT Web Development Manager B. David Miyares @wtwh_webdave Web Development Specialist Patrick Amigo @amigo_patrick Video Manager John Hansel @wtwh_jhansel Video Coordinator Joshua Jones @wtwh_josh

Marketing and Events Coordinator Jen Kolasky @wtwh_jen Marketing Coordinator Lexi Korsok @medtech_lexi

Director, Audience Development Bruce Sprague

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Crain’s Cleveland Business Fast 50 2014

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Staff page 10-15_Vs1.indd 8


October 2015

10/7/15 2:12 PM


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HOW DO I KNOW IF I’M TALKING TO AN ENGINEER OR A SALESMAN? Ask Smalley. We have nothing against sales people. But when it comes to differentiating Inconel from Elgiloy or overcoming dimensional variations within a complex assembly, wouldn’t you rather work with an engineer? Our customers would. That’s why they collaborate directly with our world-class team of Smalley engineers—experienced professionals whose only focus is helping you specify or design the ideal wave spring, Spirolox® retaining ring or constant section ring for your precision application.

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9/1/15 3:43 10/1/15 4:02 PM PM

l Contributors Spotlight

GWENN GMEINDER Autodesk Fusion 360 uses the cloud to facilitate collaboration, add upgrades


N.A. Business Development Manager Sensor Products Electronics Business Unit Littelfuse


Contributing Editor


Using linear and rotary Halleffect and reed sensors

For more than 30 years, Gwenn Gmeinder has worked with sensor technologies at several companies. Gwenn joined Hamlin in 1978 as a product design engineer and began managing its global business development in 2007. He has held his current position within the company (now part of Littelfuse) since June 2013. Gwenn earned his Bachelor of Science in Industrial As an editor for business-to-business publications for more than 20 years, Diane has experienced the evolution of publishing firsthand. “Editors today must reach readers in print and online,” she said. “Finding the most appealing and appropriate digital options for an audience can pose a challenge. The technology is still evolving, so the possibilities are endless.” Throughout her career, Diane has covered a variety of technical industries, and currently concentrates on creating and managing digital content. “Writing for a magazine and its related websites and newsletters allows me to provide readers with information that will help them in some way,” she said about what first attracted her to a career in media. “Providing tips on how to work smarter and faster or revealing new technologies and methodologies is extremely satisfying.” When asked which historical period would she choose to live in, Diane said the one we’re in now. “These are exciting times, with equal rights for so many who have never had them, instantaneous access to information about anything you can imagine, and medical advances that have improved the quality of life for those who would be suffering.”

Technology from the University of WisconsinStout.

Winding technique improves induction motor performance


Dan Jones received his BSEE degree from Hofstra University in 1965 and M.S. in Mathematics from Adelphi in 1969. He has more than 50 years of experience in the design of all types of electric motors and generators from 10 W to 500 kW, and has held engineering design and management and marketing management positions at a number of companies. He is a past member of the Board of Directors of SMMA and EMERF. Currently, Dan is a member of the Board of Directors of the Motion Control Association and a lifetime member of IEEE. In 2014, he received the EMERF Award for Outstanding Contributions to the Electric Machines Industry.

Key design tips for working with adhesives

KEVIN BALBEN Product Specialist DELO Industrial Adhesives   

Contributor Page 10-15_Vs3.MD.indd 11


Owner and President Incremotion Associates



Boston native Kevin Balben graduated from St. Lawrence University in 2010. He holds a B.A. in Economics and Environmental Studies. October 2015


July 2015




10/14/15 2:36 PM

l Contributors Spotlight

Hydraulic controls bring precision and flexibility to force testing


RICK MEYERHOEFER Regional Application Specialist Delta Computer Systems

Richard Meyerhoefer has been with Delta Computer Systems since 1999. He is a native of Long Island, grew up in Ohio and transferred to the Pacific NW in 1994. The Wright State University alum loves to travel and meet with distributors and their customers. He now covers Western Canada and North Central U.S. after years of developing a strong NE and South Central U.S. presence for Delta. Rick holds the distinction at Delta for delivering the most entertaining trip reports, especially around the end of the year when he churns and turns reports with fun, lighthearted verse.  

Depiction of Frequency Waves

Stressing cables to their limits to ensure quality




Commercial Plant Manager, Windsbach, and Automation and Drives Product Manager HELUKABEL

Thomas Pikkemaat has been active in the cable industry for almost 15 years. He joined HELUKABEL as Automation and Drives Product Manager in 2010. Since then, he has developed new product lines and boosted the development of the company’s single-cable solution. In 2013, Thomas became Commercial Plant Manager of the HELUKABEL production site in Windsbach, Germany, where he currently oversees the third expansion of the factory.


Contributor Page 10-15_Vs3.MD.indd 12



October 2015

10/14/15 3:15 PM

Applied Motion Products 9-15.indd 13

10/1/15 4:24 PM

Te c h n o lo gy Fo r wa rd

Details will make or break the Internet of Things There’s nothing like CEO enthusiasm. Throw a smart sensor on any electro-mechanical, As we see with the Internet of Things pneumatic or hydraulic device, connect it to the Internet, and voila! … you can turn your operations (IoT), it can drive markets, at least into money making machines. for a time. The devil, however, is in the details, which engineers are supposed to figure out. For example, it helps to know exactly what problem you are trying to solve. Based on recent reports, the IoT is the answer to nearly any problem, consumer or industrial. Here are a few of the potential industrial problems the IoT might tackle. The IoT could: • turn manufacturing into a mesh system • turn manufacturing into “an intelligent organism able to detect and react to its own environment” • turn manufacturing into a flexible operation that can cost efficiently build lot sizes of 1 • turn manufacturing into a downtime free operation • and, of course, into the latest hot revenue stream for many companies. (Some of these scenarios sound a lot like artificial intelligence.) Adding smart sensors to industrial devices, though, does not magically endow devices with value. Smart sensors can collect and deliver loads of data, multiple terabytes worth. But, as every engineer knows, raw data are less than useless. Data must be put into context to deliver any value. Thus, the next challenge will be to develop analytic software, which, as my colleague Lee Teschler has discovered, will involve rocket-science calculations. (Design World,

September 2015, My “big data” nightmare.) One of the fir t rules of any design for an application is for the customer to thoroughly understand their application so that they can tell you what they want. (Yeah, that will be easy.) But the issue of thoroughly knowing your operations is exactly what will be needed if the IoT is to really help manufacturing move to the next level of nearly autonomous operation. Copious amounts of data may be useful in understanding exactly what a manufacturing operation is doing. But data won’t tell you why—yet. That’s where algorithms come in, once the initial raw data are analyzed. A great example is the use of data to determine why a high-speed cylinder slowed during production runs. Engineers used a smart sensor to monitor the cylinder’s performance. They identified that other linked components were the problem: mufflers on an exhaust port were limiting cylinder speed. They also saw that an oscillation in the actuator’s stroke generated excess heat, causing premature wear. Modifications to the cylinder design helped reduce the impact of this oscillation and increase cylinder life. This example shows what can be done with the IoT, but it will take years to develop this understanding with everything that operates in a plant. The reality is the IoT is not going to deliver on CEO expectations without a lot of eff rt and time spent on these and other as yet unknown details. DW

Le sli e La n gn a u - M a n ag i n g Edi to r lla n g n a u r@wtwh m edi a .co m

On Twitter @ DW—3Dprinting



Leslie's Column 10-15 Vs3.LL.MD.indd 14

October 2015

10/1/15 4:26 PM



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10/1/15 10:27 4:27 AM PM 9/14/15

Co nten t s |

October 2015 • vol 10 no 10


F E AT U R E S CONTROL 66 MOTION Winding technique improves


induction motor performance This new technique promises to deliver both higher efficiency and better power factor for induction motors.

3D CAD Using the cloud to facilitate collaboration Your photos, music and movies are stored on the cloud, so why not your CAD designs, too?



5 myths about safety in machinery Here’s what machine builders need to know about safety directives—and the five most

COUPLINGS IoT and couplings: fairytale or the future? Industry experts give their take on connectivity, the Internet of Things and its potential impact on the couplings industry.

common myths about them.

MOTION 80 LINEAR Using linear and rotary Halleffect and reed sensors

How to choose these sensors for industrial automation and motion-control applications.

114 CABLING Stressing cables to

88 Using hydraulic controls in force testing


A Supplement to Design World - October 2015

their limits

Test centers with chain conveyor and torsion test systems for cables and wires are critical in preventing cable failure and downtime.


Inside: 3 robotics trends you need to watch • 122

The Future of Automation & Robotics 132

Robotics Cover_Final 10-15.indd 121

9/29/15 3:28 PM



Dead-weight testing is finally replaced by something decidedly more 21st century.

3 key trends in robotics - 122

94 MATERIALS Key design tips for working

The future of robotics in the food industry - 132

with adhesives

For the latest materials, adhesive bonding is a better way to join. Here are key tips that will ensure a solid, reliable bond.

ON THE COVER Analog and digital Hall-effect and reed sensors are reliable over the long term. Several parameters dictate which are most suitable.



2015 O N LIN E

Image courtesy Littelfuse revenue over $3 million



CONTENTS OCTOBER 2015_first page_Vs3.MD.indd 16


10/9/15 9:40 PM


Whatever keeps you up at night, we’ve got a solution—the largest selection of motors, pumps and air-moving devices available. Plus, one-of-a-kind solutions ready to be custom-engineered for your precision industrial, commercial, combustion or transportation application. If you can dream it, you’ll find it at Solution City.

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Con te n ts

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D E PA R T M E N T S 4 Insights 6 11 14 20

Teschler on Topic Contributors Technology Forward Green Engineering

22 Engineering Exchange

Complete library of CAD drawings and 3D models available at:

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24 Design For Industry


34 Design Notes


46 CAE Solutions 52 Internet of Things 62 Robotic Trends

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146 Product World

• Available in various styles, mountings and materials

148 Ad Index

• Modifications available Call us at 888.794.8687 or visit us online for ordering, specs and CAD files.


18 FXW-099 4x4.75.indd 1 Contents OCTOBER_second page_Vs1.indd 18


October 2015

8/20/15 4:33 PM 10/5/15 12:14 PM

WHEN SPEED MATTERS THE MOST. And More than 1,000 motion solutions to choose from, most with same-day shipping option. Design your own, today!

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» Gree n E n g i n e e ri n g n Paul J. Heney • Editorial Director

New rubber material is based on bio-renewable polymer With the ever-increasing emissions standards and many companies pushing for sustainability solutions, Freudenberg-NOK Sealing Technologies developed an ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) rubber compound from a polymer produced from sugarcane-based feedstock. The bio-renewable rubber, which has been in development since 2012, is made from a polymer that is made with a process that begins with the sugarcane plant. A sugarcaneproduced ethanol is converted into ethylene, which forms a substantial portion of the base polymer. “We had been working with polymer suppliers for ways to reduce our carbon footprint, but the polymer offerings lacked the specific characteristics we needed for our advanced manufacturing processes,” said Joe Walker, global director, Advanced Materials Development. “So we initiated a project to research the area, and we were able to develop a material that can be used in our next generation injection molding process.” The company has focused much of their next generation manufacturing technology on a single cavity, net shape injection molding process, which has resulted in reduced waste and energy demand and overall improved manufacturing control, yielding improved quality. This new concept is becoming a staple there. The advent of the new, more eco-friendly EPDM rubber is a natural fit for the machines. Applications for the rubber include seals for coolants, steam, synthetic hydraulic flu ds, brake flu ds and aerospace hydraulic flu ds (phosphate esters). The newly developed material is capable of withstanding temperatures up to 150° C, and the material has outstanding compressive stress force retention. In addition to these properties, the sugarcane base allows the material to be 45% bio-renewable, which ultimately reduces the manufacturing carbon footprint. Walker said that the new material has greater than 20% retained compressive sealing force after 1,000 hours at 150° C, and the durability/longevity is essentially the same as conventional, hydrocarbon based polymers. It is, as is true for any rubber article, a function of the environment and the design of the article. “The material can be substituted for conventional EPDM applications. Initial indications are that the bio-renewable rubber may have an edge on upper temperature limits,” he said. DW

Freudenberg-NOK 20


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October 2015

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Your Catalyst to Innovative Motion Control Solutions A single resource for integrated mechanical, electronics, drives and software, with experienced customer support for the development of simple-to-sophisticated automation systems.









At Catalyst Motion Group We are able to accomplish this through coordinated utilization of our extensive engineering resources and vertically integrated manufacturing resources. We put it all together – customized motion systems that include stepper motors, brush and brushless DC motors, linear mechanics, drives, electronics and an extensive array of peripheral system components. Our considerable and wide-ranging in-house manufacturing capabilities allow us full control of the entire process, from development of prototypes to delivery of fully tested production units. And, with our engineering capability, if we don't have it ...we can develop it! We have successfully developed and taken to production fully customized motion solutions for a wide variety of advanced technologies including: • Medical devices for diagnostics, surgical procedures, therapeutics and pharmaceuticals • Laboratory and analytical instrumentation and equipment • Industrial automation including robotics and production line processing operations



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10/1/15 4:35 PM


with Design World DIGITAL ISSUE Visit for our latest issue!

FACEBOOK October 2015


INSIDE: MOTION CONTROL: 5 myths about safety in machinery PAGE 72

COUPLINGS: IoT and couplings: fairytale or the future? PAGE 106

Firmware bugs. They’re the infamous ghosts in the machine that loom large in every developer’s mind. Firmware bugs can have catastrophic consequences for IoT devices, especially safety-critical systems such as automobiles and medical equipment, and they can be incredibly difficult to find and kill.

Hall-effect sensors excel 80

r ol fo tr ed Con Alli & k n in atio om


Aut Cover_DW_October 2015_FINAL Vs4.indd 1

5 causes of nasty firmware bugs­—and how to prevent them

Next-generation APR15-A&C Snipe_Snipe 3/13/15 2:39 PM Page 1

ROBOTICS: Three robotics trends you need to watch PAGE 122

Intelligent Compressed Air: Simple Steps for Savings & Safety In this exclusive webinar, Application Engineer, Dave Woerner will educate customers about the simplicity and effectiveness of improving efficiencies and safety on end-use compressed air applications. Attendees will learn how simple installation of an engineered compressed air product can benefit you with improved efficiencies, dollar savings and safety.

10/9/15 8:36 PM


Over 13,000 members - global educational engineering community - join today.

Connect with 339,805 engineers at DesignWorldNetwork.


How to select a pallet conveyor for your application There are many factors that can lead a company to consider implementing a conveyor system into a new or existing process—a need for better or more consistent product quality, higher throughput requirements, and safety concerns, are just a few.


Design World is the leading engineering resource serving design engineers, machine builders and OEMs.


Find meaningful links and tweet along with us @DesignWorld.

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Grow your network. Join the Design World group on LinkedIn. Hot products and topics are streaming at



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Work with stronger joints and lighter materials

Hang out and track what's new at +DesignWorldOnline.

Enable consistent, strong and more efficient structures with friction stir welding. See shared slides at DesignWorldOnline.

10/14/15 3:13 PM

What’s 15 years to one of our blowers? A warm-up. Nothing moves air with more rock-solid reliability than AMETEK® Rotron regenerative blowers. Fifteen years’ service life is not unusual. These low-pressure, high-volume blowers feature rugged, compact construction and quiet operation. Their proven design makes them ideal in applications from chemicals, wastewater and furnaces to vapor recovery and more. Plus, they’re backed by the industry’s most knowledgeable engineering experts. AMETEK can customize your blower for harsh environments, high voltage and specialized applications, too. So make your next air-moving challenge a breeze. Call us at +1 330-673-3452 or visit our website to get started.

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6/1/15 5:03 10/1/15 4:36 PM PM




» Design for Industry


Keep electronics cool

Developers continue to work on ways to cool sensitive electronic hardware. The latest example is the custom, self-contained Intelligent Thermal Management System (iTMS). This system is based on liquid cooling system technology developed by Thermacore for military applications, such as embedded military computing, radar and image processing applications, laser diodes and power converters. It extends the capabilities of the Ruggedized Liquid Cooling System (rLCS) technology, which is a closedloop liquid cooling system that includes a liquid-to-air heat exchanger(s), cold plate(s), pump(s), coolant, flu d reservoir, fan(s) and hydraulic interconnects. The rLCS pumps coolant through cold plate(s) mounted to heat generating components. Heat is efficiently transferred into the flu d before flowing through the heat exchanger, where the thermal load is rejected. The rLCS technology is the foundation for iTMS, which adds control features to the existing rLCS platform. These additional features include integrated controls and sensors, data logging and plug-and-play intelligent “life support” systems. The systems are custom engineered for each application to optimize size, weight, power consumption and cooling (SWaP-C). COTS or MIL-COTS components are used where practical to decrease cost and lead time. By precisely controlling temperature, the iTMS can extend the life and improve the reliability of electronic hardware. The device’s energy consumption is reduced because the iTMS only adjusts pump speed, fan speed and other operating components, when signaled by integrated programmable logic control technology. Live switching between redundant pumps provides rapid, automatic recovery if a single pump malfunction occurs, further increasing reliability. 24


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Integration onto electronics platforms is made easier because the control system lets you eliminate or reduce electronics in the next level of overall assembly. DW


10/2/15 3:48 PM

Why settle for “standard” ? The PITTMAN Difference ®

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1.7-in (43 mm) diameter custom stainless steel motor

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10/1/15 4:37 PM




» Design for Industry

Better medical devices through femtosecond precision machining Steven Hypsh • Jenoptik & Geoff S annon • Miyachi America

Microsecond fiber asers have been used successfully for medical device applications, like hypo tube and stent cutting, for years. While precise and fast, the down side is that the parts require a number of post processing operations after they are cut, which adds to part cost and can also damage mechanically delicate parts. Ultra-short femtosecond (fsec) laser technology, however, produces pulses that leave no thermal fi gerprint on the part. These disk-based femtosecond lasers offer sub-400 fsec pulses, plus best-in-class beam quality and peak power well-suited for a cold ablation cutting process rather than a melt ejection process. The resulting cut requires minimal post processing and the smaller beam size allows machining of minute details. The process works especially well for production of such medical devices as

catheters, heart valves, and stents, for medical and glass cutting and marking applications, as well as for 3D-structuring of ceramic material for dental implants. But perhaps the most interesting potential use is on a whole new class of bioabsorbable materials—polymers that safely remain in the body for controlled lengths of time before absorbing, which are being developed as an alternative to traditional polymers or metal components. In the past, femtosecond lasers were considered too slow for commercially viable operations. But recent studies evaluated cutting time per part and post processing steps and demonstrated that the return on investment for a disk femtosecond laser can be less than 12 months, especially for high value components. A key aspect of realizing the laser’s potential is the system platform,

and to this end, Jenoptik and Miyachi America are jointly developing both stage and scan head platforms that can fully unlock the promise of reaching this new level of quality and precision for micro treatment.

Femtosecond basics Femtosecond light pulses are ultra-short pulses (USPs). One fsec equals 10 to 15 sec. As a calibration point, a 300-fsec pulse equates to a physical pulse length of 90 µm. Since there is no thermal processing as there would be in nanosecond pulses, USPs have several advantages, including: • no heat impact—no thermal tension in the material and no change of material characteristics • no shock waves—no structural changes • no micro cracks—smooth processed surfaces

This image illustrates the effects of using a long pulse laser (for example, µsec) compared to that of an ultra-short pulse laser like a femtosecond laser.



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A comparison of a nanosecond 355-nm source and a 1,030-nm femtosecond disk laser source processing polypropylene. The appearance of the disk fs hole shows little taper, no melting or heat effect distortion around the hole.

• • • • •

no melting effects—no structural changes no surface damage—no rework or after-processing no debris—no cleaning necessary no ejected material—clean surfaces no recast layer—smooth edges

Commercial-ready femtosecond technology that can last in an industrial environment with a 24/7 qualification has been around for about the past seven years. The femtosecond disk laser can create unique features that were previously not possible due to quality concerns, particularly with polymer processing. The edge quality possible with a femtosecond laser for metals and plastics makes it excellent for machining of heart, brain and eye stents (both Nitinol and cobaltchrome), catheters, heart valves and polymer tubing. The nearly cold cutting process means minute feature sizes can be cut into the thinnest material, while still maintaining mechanical and material integrity. No internal water-cooling is needed for even the smallest Nitinol diameter tube. Jenoptik developed an ROI tool to illustrate the true cost of post-processing. The calculations demonstrate

that femtosecond lasers are actually faster because they alleviate several time consuming post processing steps. Take the example of a coronary stent, one of the fir t devices to be manufactured with a fi er laser. First the part has to be machined, then honed, or cleaned out inside with a mechanical tool, and fi ally deburred. Then a chemical etch process must be performed to clean up around the edges, followed by an electro polishing step. Not only are these steps time consuming, they can also cause the part to become brittle, deformed and can have micro cracks. Yields tend to be in the 70% range, meaning a significant amount of end product is lost. By contrast, the femtosecond laser is a dry format— no water or heat is introduced in the part. The number of steps is reduced; the part is machined then undergoes an electro chemical process to round the edges. The integrity of the part is improved, several time consuming steps are eliminated, and yields can be closer to 95%. The femtosecond laser is also the only current technology appropriate for machining medical products out of new bioabsorbable polymers, which can be safely implanted in the body for controlled lengths of time, without causing harm or adverse interactions. Next

This image shows the high cutting quality of the femtosecond laser for cutting of Nitinol stent material. The use of the laser prevents burr, and the slight roughness of the cutting edge gives a good precondition for the electro-polishing-process. Removal rate in this example was 0.25 to 5 mm/ sec and material thickness up to 400 µm is possible.  

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10/2/15 3:53 PM




Âť Design for Industry

generation advanced bioabsorbables (also called aspirants) offer an alternative to traditional polymers or metal components and are designed to meet precise degradation rates and other specifications. The bioabsorbable material can be machined into any profi e that can be used for stents. However, it must be machined correctly and without inducing heat. Failure to do so might lead to crystallization in the material, which would degrade its structure and affect its lifespan and ability to dispense medicine at the correct rate. Also, because bioabsorbables dissolve, they cannot be cleaned like most plastics, nor can they be touched with any liquid solutions, another reason the femtosecond laser is a better choice for the material.

An example of a femtosecond laser cut of a bioabsorbable stent.

Bioabsorbables are already being used for coronary stents in the EU, although they have not yet received FDA approval for use in the U.S. Mostly composed of polyesters, primarily homopolymers and copolymers of polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid,

FPJ-HPAD-HPPCValves-OCT2015.indd 1



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bioabsorbables show promise for a variety of uses, including cardio stents for patients who may have been stented numerous times and can no longer tolerate a traditional fi ed stent. The material is also used to deliver medicines into organs of the body—for

8/11/15 1:52 PM

October 2015


10/2/15 4:03 PM

medical To gain the system integration capabilities needed to move the femtosecond laser capability into the marketplace, Jenoptik teamed with Miyachi America. The fir t developed platform was based around Miyachi’s Sigma Tube cutter.


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The femtosecond laser cannot currently be fi er-delivered and therefore is directed and delivered to the focusing optics by fi ed mirrors. Thus, designing a beam delivery system for a 4-axis tube cutter that can make off-axis uts while maintaining alignment can be a challenge. The optical path design must ensure that such key optical tools as the beam expander and fi e-tuning attenuator are easily accessible as needed for process development. The system design requires full mechanical isolation, and in some cases, ambient temperature stability, to provide a system foundation for process repeatability. To gain the system integration capabilities needed to move the femtosecond laser capability into the marketplace, Jenoptik teamed with Miyachi America. The fir t developed platform was based around Miyachi’s Sigma Tube cutter, as shown in Figure 5. DW


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October 2015
















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example, a plastic material like a sponge is doped with medicine and inserted into the liver, dispensing medicine at a consistent rate and lasting from 6 months to 3 years before dissolving.

Integrating the femtosecond laser into a micromachining tool





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10/2/15 4:03 PM




» Design for Industry

Sensor key to noninvasive medical measurement Traditionally, newborns are screened for high bilirubin levels to assess the risk of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia (neonatal jaundice) by taking blood samples through heel sticks. A new medical device, Gerium Medical’s BiliCare Noninvasive Bilirubin Meter, can accurately calculate bilirubin levels in a newborn without puncturing the skin, reducing the risk for infection. The Noninvasive Bilirubin Meter makes use of miniature LVDT linear position sensors for accurate measurement. Based on spectroscopy, the patented BiliCare technology measures the level of transcutaneous bilirubin in newborns (regardless of skin color) born at the gestational age of 24 weeks and above, by transmitting light at different wavelengths through the outer ear. The amount of light absorbed by the bilirubin is calculated by comparing the intensity of the light before it enters the tissue

with its intensity after it leaves. The transcutaneous bilirubin of the newborn is then calculated according to a custom algorithm. The CD Series Miniature AC LVDT linear position sensors measure the thickness of the neonates tissue through which the transmitted light passes. At 3⁄8 in. in diameter, these lightweight ac-operated LVDTs suit medical devices with tight space restrictions and high accuracy requirements. The sensor can achieve an accuracy of ±30 µm in tissue thickness measurement. DW

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» Design for Industry

Power supply for medical devices When you need to power a medical device, one option is the OFM225. It has a 3-x-5-in. footprint and 1.5-in. height and will deliver continuous output power of 225 W at natural convection and 40º C ambient temperature, increasing to 325 W continuous at 12 CFM forced air cooling. Several units can also be operated in parallel with load sharing. Intended for type BF applications, the unit can withstand 4,000 Vac from input to both output and ground, has a leakage current of less than100 µA, and meets class B EMC requirements. Using Powerbox one step conversion topology, where power factor correction, isolation and regulation are combined in one conversion step, the component count stays below 120. This contributes to an efficiency of 93%, zero-load

power of less than 0.3 W and an MTBF of more than 500,000 h. Over-voltage, overcurrent and short-circuit protection with auto recovery add to operational reliability, which is enhanced by intelligent overtemperature protection regulating output power in the case of over temperature. In addition to increased life expectancy, this functionality increases the sustainability to short-term overload and reduces the risk of over-temperature shut down. With a nominal input voltage of 100 to 240 V 50/60 Hz and available output voltages of 12, 15 and 24 Vdc (12 and 15 Vdc to be released later this year), the new power supplies fit nicely into a large number of medical applications worldwide.

Medline 225 OFM225 series meets, among others, safety standards IEC 60601-1 and 60950-1, EMC IEC60601-1-2, IEC61204-3, and EN55011 Class B, including corresponding North American versions. It is also RoHS, REACH and WEEE compliant. DW


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Anchor Fluid Power offers a complete line of Code 61 & 62 flanged elbow & tee junction blocks. These blocks provide a leak-free alternative to threaded and welded connections and greatly simplify the installation process. With full material traceability in carbon and stainless steel, all sizes and configurations are available….from stock! Contact AFP customer service for additional details

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10/2/15 4:07 PM




When Size and Performance Matters

Motor options for semiconductor applications

Medical-Industrial Actual Micro-Coax cable bundle diameter compared to a penny.

To help machine designers in the semiconductor and electronics industries easily increase the power of linear motors, the LMG and LMS line of ironcore motors is pin-to-pin compatible so that upgrading from one to the other requires minimal eff rt. The key difference between the two motors is the LMS’ extra height, which allows for approximately 30% more continuous force if the application requires it. Until now, the LMG’s smaller sizes were not available as an LMS equivalent. Both models share the same footprint, peak force, mounting interface, cable outputs and magnetic track making an exchange between the two as simple as replacing the carriage if necessary. Each motor uses ETEL’s patented design, which minimizes the amount of force ripple typical of ironcore motors while maintaining the high-force density that other anti-cogging designs sacrific . These linear motors only require one magnetic track and are compliant to 600 V. They can reach speeds up to 10 m/sec, an acceleration of 20 g, and reach a peak force up to 3,650 N. Both models come in a variety of sizes that differ in length and width to meet the application requirement.

The LMG/LMS linear motor series are for direct drive applications. Advantages over transmission-based devices include: • fewer parts requiring lower overall costs • stable performance all along machine lifetime due to zero maintenance required on the motors • no backlash, allowing for better accuracy and repeatability • smooth, precise, and efficient motions • compact design DW



Bundle of 128 Micro-Coax Cables (42AWG/85 ohms)

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10/2/15 4:08 PM

» D e s i g n N o te s

Mike Santora • Associate Editor

PolyIC prints el ectro

nics made from ultr a-thin metal la yers on plastic films

Image courtesy

of PolyIC

Transparent, conductive film helps put electronics in print A film hat prevents car windows from steaming up in winter. A screen that reacts to commands at the touch of a fi ger. Products manufactured by Germany-based PolyIC might be found in any of these applications; the company specializes in printed electronics. Its transparent, conductive film alled PolyTC is in many displays and other applications. Using a roll-to-roll process, the company prints electronics with ultra-thin metal coatings. The printing material, or substrate, is a transparent polyester fil . Several different materials, or “ink,” are deposited on the substrate in a dissolved state. These inks include semi-conductive, conductive and insulating plastics as well as various metal compounds. Continuous roll-to-roll processes like these are inexpensive and apply the required structure directly, during the manufacturing process. 34


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Modern printing processes deposit extremely thin metal coatings at a resolution of just 10 µm—one quarter the width of a human hair. Standard printing processes have resolutions in a range of more than 100 µm. In electronics however, printing resolutions of under 20 µm are being sought because the resolution in the printing process actively infl ences the electrical performance of the fi al product. This is how the machine prints optically transparent fil s that are, at the same time, electrically conductive. Indium tin oxide (ITO) is frequently used for applications like these. Yet, the technology behind ITO does have drawbacks. ITO coatings are quite brittle and relatively expensive. That’s why the design team at PolyIC had to come up with a flexible and inexpensive alternative. To create PolyTC, designers had to overcome several hurdles, especially in manufacturing and processing technology.

10/5/15 11:37 AM

The conductiv e

on the printing

Image courtesy



of PolyIC

The tensile stress on the substrate roll had visible, a significant infl ence on the precision of the is.almost in PolyTC fil uctive. manufacturing process. A specific pattern in highly cond yet it is still transportation behavior emerged, depending on sy of PolyIC Image courte the substrate’s thickness and material. To achieve a high-precision, stable web, PolyIC installed Rexroth’s IndraMotion system, combining the Motion Control and PLC in a single control unit. Integrated functions, like tensile stress and winding controls, helped speed up customization to match individual requirements. Precise registration was vital to ensuring the electric structures really worked. This determined how accurately the individual ink colors were positioned in relationship to each other. Areas of different sheet tensions were linked to each other by the sheet itself and had to be controlled simultaneously. Necessary and precise controls demand complex decoupling of several cascaded tension control units. Engineers combined the process control unit with the machine controls to solve this problem.  

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October 2015



10/5/15 12:21 PM


0 90


ISO 13485





Âť De sign Note s

Tube bending

perfection in stainless Eagle has the expertise and the specialized machinery for bending tubing exactly to spec. Call us for a quote !

Eagle Stainless

Here, the film

is di ecte

d to an accumulat or, bringing the sheet to a stands till without interrupting the ongoing process. Exact implementation of a complex rule was achieved by real-time integration of process controls and regulating sheet movement with the IndraMotion system solution. Maintaining sheet tension was improved threefold. That improvement represented an immense advance in process stability. The film s eet had to be stopped during production so that high-precision testing equipment could monitor electrical functions. To this end, IndraMotion combined the rolling movement of the web feed with the linear movement of a sled. The sled in the so-called web accumulator travels at the same speed as the sheet, but in the opposite direction, and effectively stops the web. This means that a part of the web stands still for a moment for electrical testing, without having to bring the entire production line to a halt and without sacrificing productivity. DW Bosch Rexroth


Connect and discuss this and other design engineering issues with thousands of professionals online

Tube & Fabrication, Inc. Franklin, Massachusetts

Phone (800) 528-8650 Design Notes 10-15_Vs6.MD.LL.indd 36



October 2015

10/2/15 2:40 PM

» D e s ig n N o te s

Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor



0 90


ISO 13485




Smart drive finds its true “Voice”

Laser machining

perfection in stainless The chair n

When the team at California-based The Scenic Route was tasked with designing the rotating chairs on the TV show The Voice, they knew the contestants weren’t the only ones that would be in the spotlight. Although it was a simple application, the chairs required a degree of motion control that an older style shaft turner could not provide. The chair needed to rotate 180° based on a button input. A simple motor drive could run the motor with no problem, but they needed a drive that could sense two end-of travel limit switches set 180° apart. Most older drives are analog based and simply work as voltage amplifiers. An analog command signal is sent, perhaps a 0-to-5 or 0-to-10 Vdc, and it produces a larger voltage to run a motor. Those drives are also limited in the amount of logic  

Design Notes 10-15_Vs6.MD.LL.indd 37

eeded to ro tate 180° b on a butto ased n input. A s im p le motor driv could run th e e motor wit h no proble but the cha m, ir required a drive tha sense two t could end-of trav e l limit swit set 180° a ches part.

Image cou rtesy

of Big Kahu na Imaginee ring

functions they can perform, because once they are designed, their functionality is set and cannot be changed. The drive used in this chair application is considered a “smart” drive because of its microprocessor. This processor can be reprogrammed to perform various different operations based on inputs. The micro based drives have the same programmable functionality as a stand-alone PLC, but also run a motor. Smart drives can now perform positioning moves, run routines, accept sensors and October 2015



Eagle has the skills and the technology required to produce all of your custom exotic metal parts. Let us help !

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Phone (800) 528-8650 10/2/15 2:40 PM


» De sign Note s

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communicate with other smart drives. Designing with an integrated motor has a number of benefits, including helping to reduce size, cost and complexity. This type of drive can also eliminate external controllers, like PLCs, and can reduce the amount of space required for a machine by consolidating components and eliminating cabling and possibly the need for entire enclosures. For these reasons, The Scenic Routes’ design team chose American Control Electronics’ RG501A smart drive—a full featured regenerative control with the built in brains of a PLC. The motor drive requires two separate inputs, one to initiate clockwise rotation and the other to initiate counter clockwise rotation. Only one large button is displayed on The Voice chairs because that is the most important button in the whole application. It initiates travel when all of the judges are facing away from the artist. The “rotate clockwise” button is connected to the input of the drive. That input is actually called “run forward,” but in this case, it determines what direction the chairs will turn. When that input is brought from high (5 V) to low (0 V), the logic card acknowledges the change of state and sends a signal to the drive. The limit switches connect to the microprocessor input on the drive. When 38

Design Notes 10-15_Vs6.MD.LL.indd 38


October 2015

triggered, the end-of-travel limit switches cause a change of state on their respective input on the logic card. Resetting the chairs to the previous position would be accomplished by pressing a reserve pushbutton. The speed range of the motor drive is 60:1. This means that a typical 1,800rpm motor can be ran as slow as 30 rpm. With additional gearing on the motor, the output shaft rpm can be much lower than that. This application might be simple, but it comprises many of the facets of motion control that would have previously required several components to accomplish. DW American Control Electronics


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10/2/15 2:42 PM

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Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor

Intelligent Motion Control

Motor and drive updates help French wines sparkle

The Centre Vin icole-Champa gne Nicolas Feuilla tte (CV-CNF) fa cility in the Marne re gion of France, is one of the most auto mated plants of its type. Output re aches 23 mil bo tt le s a year, making it one of the wor ld’s leading Champa gne producers.

Integrated Speed and/or Motion Control Intuitive Software Interface for Plug and Play Startup Compact Size

Some things, like a prestige cuvée Champagne, only get better with age. Conveyor drive systems are not one of those things. The Centre VinicoleChampagne Nicolas Feuillatte (CV-CNF) knows this all too well. This Champagne producers’ union consists of 80 cooperatives and represents more than 5,000 wine-growers. Its facility in the Marne region of France is one of the most automated plants of its type. Output reaches 23 mil bottles a year, making it one of the world’s leading Champagne producers. As such, completely halting production to replace old equipment wasn’t an option. “We needed to replace a series of drive systems in a gradual process. We considered using the original supplier of the equipment as well as other leading fir s in this sector. They were all able to supply equipment that would have met our expectations, but we also wanted to establish a partnership with a company able to deliver the level of service we needed,” said Frédéric Lopez, automation manager at CV-CNF. Lopez and his team chose to go with Emerson.  

Design Notes 10-15_Vs6.MD.LL.indd 39

Easy Installation Easy Selection of 64,000 Proportional Positions for any Application

The fir t step was to replace just one conveyor drive system. It sits at the start of the line to position the empty bottles with extreme accuracy before cleaning and filli g. The bottles are loaded onto the conveyor from pallets, and then lifted in rows of 4 to 12 (depending on size) onto a perpendicular conveyor. “This line runs at a rate of 4,000 to 6,000 bottles an hour and has to offer maximum availability in operation. Emerson designed October 2015


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To reduce over all system complexity, the new solution included a Unidrive M700 variable speed drive, conn ected to the automatic controller.

the most appropriate solution for us and programed the variablespeed drives,” said Lopez. The existing drive system consisted of an automatic controller, an alignment controller, a variable speed drive and a motor. The solution from Emerson removed the need for the alignment controller, reducing the overall complexity of the system. It consisted of a Control Techniques Unidrive M700 variable speed drive connected to the automatic controller and combined with a Leroy-Somer DYNABLOC Pjn1102 low-backlash servo-gear. The MCi200 machine control option module had been added to Unidrive M to manage positioning. The Unidrive M700 drive was especially suited to this type of application, with a cycle time of 250 µsec, synchronized communications through realtime Ethernet and an integrated PLC for controlling movement sequences. The system uses Unidrive M’s embedded Advanced Motion Controller. In the fi al configuration, 15 different configurations

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10/2/15 2:44 PM

Better prevent than cure.

“This line runs at a rate of 4,000 to 6,000 bottles an hour and has to offer maximum availability in operation,” said Frédéric Lopez, automation manager at CV-CNF.

GAM900S – Acceleration precisely measured and safely monitored.

have been defi ed to suit the various bottle shapes. Each cycle has a coarse pitch with a specific movement profi e (position, speed, acceleration and deceleration); a fi e pitch with a second movement profi e (position, speed, acceleration and deceleration); and the number of short pitches to be carried out. The required configuration is selected using logic inputs, which automatically start the chosen cycle. The coarse pitch is performed, then the fi e pitches are chained together while the path is free. Signals for “end of long movement” and “cycle completed” are sent by the drive’s logic outputs to the client system. DW Emerson

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Design Notes 10-15_Vs6.MD.LL.indd 41



More preventive information available at:

10/2/15 2:44 PM

» D e s i g n N o tes

Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor

In the Siemen s plant in Karlsruhe, em ployees receive detailed work in structions on a screen—by virtue of a 2D code on each product.

RFID streamlines production of switching devices In many areas of its plants, Siemens relies on the automatic capture of parts and components with two-dimensional barcodes (2D codes), paired with continuous process upgrades in manufacturing areas. For both methods, Siemens had to develope the inhouse system it calls SIMATIC Ident. An example is the production of automation components by the plant in Amberg, Germany. If approached conventionally, the varying demand for each type of Sirius switching device would require a large 42


Design Notes 10-15_Vs6.MD.LL.indd 42

October 2015

number of each to be kept in stock. The approach in this plant, however, was demanddriven production that processes incoming orders—down to a lot size of 1—within a short period of time. To this end, flexible machines were employed to perform specific production steps for each variation—such as inserting a coil core or attaching a cover plate. By means of an RFID transponder in the work piece carrier, the machine detects the type of the product. Without any changeover time, the production program can be set to another

product type. The RFID system SIMATIC RF300 is capable of especially large memory sizes with high reading speeds so that cycle times are reduced as well. At the latest production line, it became evident that many machines were underutilized. Increasing the flexibility of the machines was too complicated though. For this reason, the degree of automation was slightly reduced and a total of three manual assembly stations were inserted into the production line. At these stations, well-trained

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employees performed the individual work steps with much more flexibility. Moreover, the company gained a better control of their resources. Now, depending on circumstances, not all manual assembly stations are manned. RFID still plays an important role: Thanks to the radio chips, the employees get all work instructions for the specific product displayed on a screen. The optical codes play an important role too. For instance, in the plant in Karlsruhe, Germany, all components are equipped with 2D codes, which are individually captured during installation. This makes complete tracking and tracing of the products and all components possible. For example, if a component delivery turns out to be faulty, it can easily be determined into which end products these components were installed. Similar to the Amberg plant, the Karlsruhe plant also uses the 2D codes to support the employees during the assembly of the products. Because every item comes with a 2D code on the type label, work instructions can be displayed on a screen even during packing so that the correct accessories for the type can be enclosed. These parts are also individually scanned—the system only closes the work step once all required parts have been captured. The capture occurs either with handheld scanners or stationary devices from the SIMATIC MV line. DW Siemens








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» CA E Solu t i o n s

Will ALM and PLM play nicely together? Jean Thilmany • Contributing Editor

In this age of mechatronics and control systems,

With the announcement that two companies are integrating their ALM and PLM

software, software and design engineers won’t spend much longer working on their pieces of the product puzzle separately. Photo credit: Flickr



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design, electric, software and system engineers need to coordinate eff rts and work together much more regularly than in the past. In the future, expect to see more homogeneous teams made up of software and mechanical engineers as well as the system engineers that oversee their eff rts. Those types of teams, along with the embedded systems they create, are already regularly seen in the aerospace, medical device and automotive industries. In other industries, engineering work is still separated by type. Design engineers work on their part of a device, software engineers another and electrical engineers yet another. The engineers provide their own, separate solutions that are integrated into the overall design. But that’s changing. “One of the fir t things our customers ask for is tools that let people collaborate and exchange ideas across the whole engineering department: mechanical, systems, electrical, software. Everyone,” said Stefano Rizzo, SVP of strategy and business development at Polarion Software, developers of the application lifecycle management software used by software engineers. In response, a few vendors have investigated integrating ALM, used to track software engineering projects, with the product lifecycle management system that mechanical and design engineers use for product management. According to a December 2013 VDC Research report, the rise of software-driven products make this type of integration a priority. “Over the past 10 to 15 years, software has become a part of almost every manufactured product,” Rizzo said. “You can’t really say that piece of code is a part, but it has it’s own complex lifecycle not addressed by PLM.” This spring, Polarion and Siemens announced an integrated Polarion ALM and Siemens Teamcenter, used for PLM, product.


10/2/15 4:41 PM


» CAE Solu t i ons

Features include combined requirements management and traceability functions. But blended product management products like these won’t likely be embraced overnight. That’s because merged systems mean mixing engineering cultures, said Rizzo. “People form a way of seeing their work. Software engineers see their work as functional. They need to implement a function. But product engineers built a part, a piece, not a function of the part,” he said. These are early days and it’s unsure yet how these two cultures will fare, working together within the same management system and merging identities. It’s safe to say companies

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Simulation helps builds a controller that improves rehabilitation robots Movement disorders in the upper extremities are common among post-stroke patients. Some medical practices are turning to rehabilitation robots to help these patients. While rehabilitation robots are used clinically, much can be done to improve the designs and control algorithms of these robots. For example, one of the neglected aspects in the design and development of rehabilitation devices is the modeling of human interaction with the robot. An emerging area of research is the use of musculoskeletal models to study human movement, making them an appropriate tool to interact with rehabilitation devices in simulations. In this project, Borna Ghannadi and Dr. John McPhee, researchers at the University of Waterloo, used MapleSim from Maplesoft to develop a musculoskeletal model of the human arm that provides the human action for an upper limb rehabilitation robot, to develop new model-based controllers for it. The controlled robot was tested in partnership with the Toronto Rehabilitation Institute (TRI) and Quanser. The TRI/Quanser robot is an end-effector based planar robot that performs reaching movements in the horizontal plane for therapy of the shoulder and elbow. The team decided that a fitting starting point was to develop a simplified planar 2D musculoskeletal arm model that consists of two hinged links and six muscles and assumes no tendon compliance. After evaluating tools from multiple vendors, the team selected MapleSim for their model development work. Said Dr. McPhee, “Taking into account simulation times and quality of results, MapleSim, because of its symbolic computation technology together with optimized code generation, performed 48


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better than the other software platforms.” The team then developed an impedance controller, which can automatically adjust itself in a variable admittance environment, representing the variable levels of movement disorders affecting rehab patients. The controller was simulated running on the 2D model, in four different modes. The fir t two modes, simulating a healthy arm, were used to calibrate and tune the controller, while the second two modes, which simulated a poststroke patient’s arm, were used to evaluate its performance. Hand position error and muscle activation levels were measured and compared during simulation runs in the different operating modes. The results were positive, and in line with expectations, demonstrating that it is possible to use musculoskeletal arm models to evaluate the planar robot. During the next phase of the project, the team will develop an advanced 3D musculoskeletal arm model with integrated muscle wrapping. As musculoskeletal models become more detailed and life-like, engineers are able to enhance the design of control algorithms for upper limb rehabilitation robots, which ultimately improves the rehabilitation process for post-stroke patients. DW

To develop a model-based controller for a rehabilitation robot, researchers at the University of Waterloo, Borna Ghannadi and Dr. John McPhee, used MapleSim from Maplesoft to develop a musculoskeletal model of the human arm that provides the action for an upper limb rehabilitation robot.

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feature of GT STRUDL helps users easily create simple to highly complex structural models for analysis and design purposes and to display analysis and design results using the same CAD interface that most engineers already use. Intergraph CADWorx and Analysis Solutions allow designers and engineers to share relevant information seamlessly, thereby maintaining accuracy and improving efficiency. These include CADWorx Plant Design Suite, for AutoCAD-based intelligent plant design modeling, process schematics and automatic production of plant design

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Elesa The Original handwheel relationship with EY will improve our ability to develop and test adaptive cybersecurity technologies across both industry and government networks. Defensive cybersecurity is an area that requires strong public-private partnerships to shift the balance.” The alliance comes at a watershed moment when increasingly sophisticated cyberattacks are infl cting significant economic, social and even political damage to U.S. organizations. The tools developed by Los Alamos and delivered to the private sector exclusively by EY can help counter these threats by detecting them before they do deep and lasting damage. The fir t product to be introduced through the alliance will be PathScan, a network anomaly detection tool that searches for deviations from normal patterns of communication that might be indicative of an intrusion. Until now, PathScan has been exclusively used in the government sector, but will be available to private companies for the fir t time. By virtue of its introduction to the marketplace, PathScan immediately becomes one of the most advanced cybersecurity tools available based on its behavioral analysis approach to detecting threats. The tool is designed to detect threat actors once they have breached an organization’s perimeter, before they can infl ct serious damage. PathScan’s shift to the commercial marketplace was aided by the Transition to Practice (TTP) program, an initiative of the Department of Homeland Security Science and Technology Directorate. While many companies are investing heavily on prevention tactics, not enough are focused on detecting the inevitable breach. According to the most recent EY Global Information Security Survey, more than half (56%) of executives said their company

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would be unlikely to detect a sophisticated cyberattack. “Organizations must accept that no defense will keep out a determined hacker. This shift in understanding—that a cyberattack is not a matter of if, but when—means companies must detect threats as soon as their perimeter has been breached and take appropriate action,” said Siobhan MacDermott, principal, Cybersecurity, Ernst & Young. “The stakes have never been higher as breaches can impact everything from revenue and stock price to intellectual property and reputation. The seriousness of the cybersecurity threat facing corporate America requires the use of such security-sensitive tools developed by Los Alamos.” The alliance with Los Alamos follows the launch of the EY Managed Security Operations Center (SOC), which uses advanced analytics to predict and prevent future cyber threats world wide. Announced this past June, the global EY organization plans to invest more than $20 mil in its Managed SOC and increase the number of EY cybersecurity professionals six-fold by 2020 as part of its mission to protect clients against cyberattacks. DW

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......................................... ............................... ....................... .................. ............. .......... Stopper module for ....... ..... ... . IoT applications Âť I n te rn e t of Th i n gs

The OPAK research project, subsidized in Germany by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Energy, brings together public and private organizations to develop Industry 4.0 enabling technologies. The term Industry 4.0 refers to the idea that manufacturing is undergoing a fourth industrial revolution characterized by the individualization of products under the conditions of highly flexible production. Tasks that are currently still performed by a central master computer will be



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taken over by components. Components will network with one another in an intelligent way, carry out their own configuration with minimal eff rt, and independently meet the varying requirements of production. The fir t outcome of the research activities in the OPAK project is a prototype of an integrated stopper module: the CPS-Gate. Prototypes like the CPS-Gate are proof of the kinds of flexible plug-and-play components that will be vital to implementing

10/2/15 12:28 PM

Industry 4.0. The CPS-Gate prototype incorporates, in one component, all the functionality required for stopping work piece carriers on a conveyor belt—functionality that currently resides in individual components and systems, including PLCs, sensors, actuators, RFID/NFC technology and communication functions within an MES/ERP application. The CPS-Gate prototype will be incorporated within Festo Didactic Learning Systems facilities for training on Industry 4.0 concepts. Festo and Siemens have collaborated on an Industry 4.0 product, the Multi-Carrier System. This machine transport system enables high flexibility in work piece transfer. The system moves work pieces freely and synchronously to the process at hand and can be integrated within the existing material flow—including seamless loading and unloading of carriages. The system also allows for quick conversion of the machine to various formats to accommodate a range of product types. It supports overall integration of transport movements, motion control functionality and coordination of additional machine modules. Industry 4.0 will create an environment where plant engineering will be carried out faster, more intuitively and more efficiently than presently possible. Under Industry 4.0, individual automation components will be more intelligent and production facilities will be more flexible. To make the engineering process more intuitive and efficient, a virtual emulation of the production plant is generated within an OPAK framework. This allows all processes and functions within the plant to be simulated and tested by means of engineering software before a plant is built.


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As a requirement for generating a virtual emulation of a production plant, the automation components must incorporate all the information needed for operation within an integrated and networked controller environment. These components must have adaptable interfaces that minimize assembly time and create as close as possible plugand-play operation. The work that is being carried out by Festo and other OPAK program partners is focused on small-scale systems that will be transferable to the factory of the future. The CPS-Gate embodies all these principles. DW Festo


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CAT5 cable, thus eliminating the need for an external power supply. Alternately, choose modules powered by a 9-to-30-Vdc source. Input power on dc modules is through a removable spring-clamp terminal block, requiring no tools and simplifying field installation. Communicate with eI/O modules using industry standard Modbus TCP protocol or SeaMAX software. This software suite supports the eI/O family and is designed to work with third-party applications with the SeaMAX API. SeaMAX software drivers and utilities make installation and operation easy using Microsoft Windows operating systems. Standard operating temperature range of eI/O OEM modules is 0 to 70° C and extended temperature range (-40 to 85° C) is optional. DW

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October 2015



10/5/15 10:09 AM


»R o b o t i c

T r e n d s

Graphical system design platform moves exoskeleton Mike Santora Associate Editor

Right now, your eyes are moving in short bursts and quick stops to read this line of text. Your lungs are expanding and contracting, and your muscles are subtly twitching— you’re in motion. Human movement is so constant and ubiquitous, if we think of it at all, we tend to think of it as simple. But it isn’t. Designing a robotic system that replicates even the most basic human movement is still only an emerging technology.

The Central Advanced Research and Engineering Institute at Hyundai Motor Company

In the fie d of wearable robotics, physical interfacing between the human body and a robot causes various engineering issues with mechanical design, control architecture construction and actuation algorithm design.



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develops future mobility technologies. As our society ages, there is a greater need for systems that can aid mobility. That’s why the institute began developing wearable exoskeleton robots with NI embedded controllers. The problem was developing a system that could handle the complex control algorithms needed to capture data from sensors while performing real-time control of multiple actuators. The solution for the institute’s team was using the LabVIEW RIO platform with a CompactRIO embedded system and a real-time controller. The FPGA control architecture provided by Single-Board RIO collected data from sensors and control peripheral units, conducts real-time analysis and reduces development time. In the field of wearable robotics, physical interfacing between the human body and a robot causes engineering issues with mechanical design, control architecture construction and actuation algorithm design. The space and weight for electrical devices is extremely limited because a wearable robot is worn like a suit. Additionally, the overall control sampling rate of the robot must be fast enough that

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» Robotic Tre nds Life-Caring Exoskeleton—This is a modular robot that combines the hip and knee parts to provide walking assistance to the elderly or people with difficulties moving the lower half of their bodies. it does not impede motion and can properly react to external forces. Also, many questions remain regarding human augmentation and assistance with control algorithms for wearable robots. Therefore, the institute focused on the following requirements for selecting a main controller for our wearable robots: • high-speed processing of data obtained from various types of sensors • size and weight • real-time data visualization for developing control algorithms • connectivity to other smart devices to offer more convenient functions The real-time control and FPGA hardware environment provided I/O that was compatible with various robotic control devices. For instance, in the process of building the wearable robots, the overall control architecture drastically changed several times due to the replacement of sensors or changes in the control communication method. However, the onboard combination of the real-time controller and FPGA features let the institute’s team manage these changes promptly, which helped reduce the development period. In addition, adopting the compact sbRIO-9651 System on Module (SOM) device let the design team reduce the robot’s weight to less than 10 kg while maximizing battery efficiency through a low-power base system configuration. As the number of sensors and actuators increases for more complex tasks, the complexity of the control algorithms increases exponentially. Therefore, simultaneously processing all data from multiple sensors and sending instructions to multiple actuators becomes one of the most important challenges to address in robotics. LabVIEW supports concurrent visualization for intuitive signal processing for installed sensors on robots and further control algorithm design in the experimental stages. 64

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October 2015

When someone wears this robot, it is possible to identify intention and walking status by collecting data from an area between the ground and the sole of the foot. Technology that transmits this data through wireless ZigBee communication is already in place. This technology can be further expanded now using Internet of Things (IoT) technology. In other words, you can send information acquired wirelessly to a robot to make it assist with the walker’s movements. In addition, gathering relevant data can help users identify a personal range of activities and conditions based on location, and that information can be integrated into the robot and lead to more comprehensive service. If a patient wears this robot for rehabilitation purposes, doctors can monitor patient and robot conditions during rehabilitation and deliver real-time training or adjustments to enhance efficiency and effectiveness of treatment, a good example of implementing data information-based technology. DW Hyundai


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10/2/15 11:45 AM

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Dan Jones • President • Incremotion Associates

Winding technique

improves induction motor performance This new technique promises to deliver both higher efficiency an better power factor for induction motors.

Various reference induction motor torque-speed curves 280



Percent full-load torque

240 C

200 B

160 120 100 80

Full-Load Torque

40 0



40 60 Percent full-load speed



>> Fig. 1: These design performance curves represent the majority of

1 to 500 hp general-purpose ac induction motor torque-versus-speed performance curves.



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Induction motors are the workhorse of industry. They drive everything from industrial manufacturing processes to consumer equipment like washers and dryers, among others. And they’ve been around since Nikola Tesla issued patents for the motors in the late 1880s. One company, Revolution Motor Industries (RMI), has developed a new way to improve integral induction motor efficiency without adding m e copper and magnetic iron or switching to permanent magnet rotors. They have developed a new winding technique to simultaneously raise motor efficienc and increase the power factor. Today’s premium efficie y motor The ac induction motor dominates the constant speed and variable speed markets. The premium efficiency t ee-phase induction motor has been undergoing improved efficienc ratings dictated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). (One of the key factors in the drive toward better motor efficienc has been government mandates, specifically DOE di ectives for better efficiency rom electric motors. [See sidebar.]) The recent regulations cover a number of diffe ent general purpose 2, 4, 6 and 8-pole induction motors. In Figure 1, Design A, B and C performance curves represent the majority of 1 to 500 hp general purpose ac induction motor torque-versus-speed performance curves. For example, the 5-hp, 4-pole induction motor efficiencie at 100% load started at 83% in the 1980s, rose to 87.5% in the 1990s and is now at its current level of 89.5% for the 5-hp premium efficiency ac induction mot . A total of 1,262.8 kWh

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Power Factor Diagram

Power usage in ac circuits P

P = real (input) power (kW)


Q = reactive power (kvar)



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October 2015

of power factor, showing the two components, real power and apparent or reactive power.

P/S = power factor = cos (φ)

have been saved over a year’s time. If the power utility rate is $0.15/kWh, a savings of $189 is realized for the 5-hp induction motor. The dollar savings significantly increases for larger hp motors. A significant inc ease in power efficiency with a 50-hp induction moto was also identified. he original 3-phase, 4-pole induction motor efficiency for 50-hp motor started at 91.3% in the 1980s, remained at 91% in the 1990s and as a premium efficiency mot , is now set by the DOE at 93%. That is an increase of just 2% in efficiency leve . Once again, using 6,000 hours operating time in 1 year, the power savings increases to almost 2,500 kWh annually for an annual savings of about $400. While improvements in motor efficiency appear to be small, the vings in energy costs accumulate over time. In Europe, the equivalent motor efficienc levels are designated IE3. A number of motor manufacturers in the U.S., Europe, Brazil and Asia have developed motor products for the next higher level, the super premium or IE4 motor efficienc level.


S = apparent power (kVA)

>> Fig. 2: An illustration

Solving power factor without reducing efficie y Power factor is a more complicated parameter. It is divided into two components: real power and apparent or reactive power (Figure 2). A perfect power factor is one or unity. Unfortunately, almost all electric motors have winding inductance, including induction motors. Each electricity user pays for power factor buried in their power utility bills. Induction motors possess lower power factors, usually above 0.94 at 100% rated load conditions. The power factor dives down in standard induction motors to lower power factor values as the motor load decreases to 25 and 50% load conditions. The modified RMI induction motors maintain a higher power factor over all load conditions. The current induction motor requires an expensive variable speed drive (VSD) to improve the lighter load performance. The RMI upgrade motor can readily operate directly from electric grid power. The RMI modified induction mo or RMI focuses on the induction motor’s threephase stator winding. It covers the integral horsepower induction motors from 1 to 500 hp. It uses a dual winding concept with capacitors

placed in series in the auxiliary winding that provides the high power factor values. Historically, other dual winding approaches have always maximized the induction motor’s power factor, but at the expense of the motor’s efficiency leve . The RMI patent supplies a number of major improvements in both power factor and motor efficien . The RMI engineers used transient FEA analysis tools to establish the many attributes of the motor. The unique winding distribution and careful sizing of capacitor values are key elements in the successful RMI design and implementation. Testing the RMI motor While modern FEA tools are quite accurate, the RMI design must be tested to prove and verify desired performance. RMI engineering went about proving their simulation performance by purchasing standard induction motors from authorized motor distributors. Over about 24 months, the 50- and 300-hp motors were obtained from a major motor supplier and were tested by an independent company, Advanced Energy (AE) Test Labs, located in Raleigh, N.C. They were on the AE Labs list (certified test labs) used by the DOE to establish the

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Retrofitness current motor efficiency stand ds. Motor performance characteristics were measured and recorded. The various motors were returned to RMI who replaced the original windings with a motor stator without a winding. Then they reinserted the new RMI dual winding stator with a capacitor per phase in the RMI auxiliary winding. The DOE mandated test procedure requires full performance data points at 25, 50, 75, 100, 115, 125 and 150% of the rated torque and speed. These test points are specified by the IEEE 112-2004 standa d for induction motors. The modified RMI motor test results were compared to the original motor test results. The power factor measurement displays a major improvement when compared with the original standard motor power factor. Only the stator winding was changed. RMI used all the other motor parts, just changing the stator winding. The 300-hp induction motor was tested by AE Test Labs at various load conditions. At 100% load, the RMI outperforms the original 300-hp by 95.8% versus 95.3% motor efficiency igure 3). There is a much larger diffe ence in power factor at 100% load

conditions (0.98 versus 0.86) with RMI’s updated stator winding possessing the higher value. At 25% load, the RMI winding update has a 0.99 power factor when compared with the standard 300-hp value of 0.72 power factor. The 2-hp induction motor was tested at Magtrol in Buffalo and again at a major motor supplier. Figure 4 summarizes the improved performance verified by using the RMI dual winding technology to simultaneously improve overall motor efficien . Evaluating costs to upgrade motor performance Schultz Associates reviewed the various component costs of a representative 50 and 300 hp ac induction motor as purchased. It compared this standard motor cost with the updated costs of the same size ac induction motor employing the RMI dual winding technology plus capacitors installed in each of the three auxiliary windings. All other motor parts were equivalent. The fully burdened added costs for using the RMI technology in the standard general purpose 50 and 300 hp induction motors were determined to add

Test results at Advanced Energy Labs Load %

50 hp


25 50 75 100

STD 88.4 92.3 92.9 92.2

Motor Power Factor

25 50 75 100

0.51 0.72 0.81 0.85

300 hp

RMI 89.6 93.3 94.1 94.0

STD ------95.3

RMI 91.1 94.7 95.7 95.8

0.72 0.89 0.93 0.94

0.65 0.79 0.86 0.88

0.99 1.00 0.99 0.98

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>> Fig. 3: Test results comparing efficiency and power factor of a standard

300-hp motor and RMI’s induction motor.


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Test results for 2-hp induction motor LOAD %

A brief history of motor efficiency standards The most common type of electric motor in terms of energy consumed is the integral horsepower (IHP) three-phase induction motor. Their popularity made

Motor Efficiency

25 50 75 100

2 HP STD RMI 67.7 72.9 75.2 82.0 79.8 84.1 81.9 83.3

Motor Power Factor

25 50 75 100

0.32 0.52 0.65 0.74

0.72 0.87 0.91 0.93

>> Fig. 4: Test results comparing efficie

this motor family a major target for the

DOE’s mandate from Congress starting in

y and power factor of a standard 2-hp motor and RMI’s induction motor.

1992. After all, electric motors consume about 8% to the 50-hp induction motor’s sale price and approximately 10% to the 300hp induction motor’s sale price. The report included industry cost mark ups and margins to evaluate current industry prices and establish RMI’s adjusted prices. Currently the DOE mandated premium efficiency level (IE3) covers gen al-purpose three-phase induction motors from 1 to 500 hp. The RMI technology can provide a costeffective ay to reach the super premium efficiency (IE4) level without using a expensive copper rotor. The Schultz research report also computed the payback time cycle. Using a power utility rate of $0.14/kWh, the payback time period is six months for the RMI modified 50-hp induction motor and only three months for the RMI modified 300-hp induction motor. Testing of a 2-hp induction motor was undertaken to cover the entire range of EPact (Energy Policy Act) or premium efficiency induction motors rom 1 to 500 hp. In establishing the premium efficienc levels, the DOE extensively tested and simulated motor performance for 5, 30 and 75 hp general-purpose induction motors to cover the performance range from 1 to 500 hp. RMI chose a wider set of test motors at

almost 50% of the electricity generated in the U.S.

The DOE went about establishing higher motor efficiency levels. The first et of DOE regulations were implemented in 1997 and a second increase in motor efficiency levels were implemented in 2007. A third DOE evaluation in 2015 expanded the regulations to encompass a broader group of three-phase induction motors. Later this year, a new set of DOE regulations will establish minimum motor efficiency levels for many single-phase and three- phase fractional HP induction motors.



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2, 50 and 300 hp to evaluate the viability of their performance improvements in motor efficiency and p er factor over a wide range of motor loads. A more cost-effective method is now available to increase both motor efficiency and p er factor and at a lower cost. DW

Incremotion Associates Revolution Motor Industries

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about safety in machinery

Motion Controls and Drives Team • Kollmorgen

Safety has been a hot topic in automation and motion control—and the publication of EU Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC has focused more attention on the subject. Here’s what machine builders need to know about this and other safety directives—and the five most common myths about them.



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Also known as the EC machinery safety directive, EU Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC covers aspects of nearly all machines— including lifting hoists, mobile equipment, machine tools, and medical and packaging equipment. The standard seeks to harmonize machine safety requirements across this entire machine range. In fact, the EU as a whole ratifies di ectives. Then each member country is expected to implement its own local laws, regulations, and standards to enforce directived. So all are subject to interpretation by lawmakers, regulatory authorities, standards organizations and companies that design and use machinery. There are two alternative European standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and the

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>> Controlling sway can speed up

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) in compliance with EU Machinery Directive 2006/42/EC. These are EN ISO 13849-1 and EN 62061. ISO 13849-1 provides safety requirements and guidance on the principles for the design and integration of safetyrelated parts into controls. EN 62061 is a machine-specific standard within the IEC 61508 framework for designing electrical safety systems. With many diffe ent organizations and individuals involved in interpreting and implementing the directive, it’s not surprising that confusion and erroneous interpretations have arisen. This article will address five specific yths about the EU directive and explain the related impact on builders and users of machinery.

Background on safety Machine builders and operators need to understand current safety standards, but that’s a frustrating task because new standards have instilled fear in the industrial-machinery market. Navigating the requirements is complicated, partly because myths about the standards abound. So, some organizations now take conservative approaches to integrating safety—or worse yet, completely avoid it. In fact, machine safety is the responsibility of OEMs, end users and technology vendors as a whole. No single standard or law guides anyone completely through the process. Because so much  

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positioning when handling suspended loads.

October 2015



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of the machine safety is left up to those involved in the design, integration, and use of a machine, it is important to take an empowered role in getting it right.


Myth: ISO 13849 and IEC 61508 are laws ISO 13849 and IEC 61508 are standards rather than laws. Only the EC machinery safety directive itself can be considered a law. In most cases, countries enforce the machinery directive and other directives through regulatory authorities that perform a similar function to the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA) in the U.S. The machinery directive does not apply to U.S. end users directly, but could apply if an OEM is building and exporting to an EU country. The ISO 13849 standard provides guidelines for machine builders to comply with the EU machine directive, so it is a valuable standard to observe. ISO 13849 is intended to empower machine builders to use creative design practices to improve machine safety, but in many cases it has encouraged rigidity due to fear of making mistakes. Standards are intended to keep industry professionals aligned with requirements and to eliminate uncertainty. They are not supposed to encourage strict adherence to specific design p actices. OEMs have the power and responsibility to make decisions about machine suitability within the standards. Risk assessment is the core tenant of all machine safety standards. It’s important to follow a process, produce a rating system and base the design on it. Standards don’t explicitly clarify how to rank each hazard or how to rank various mitigation options. The important part is to define and adhe e to an acceptable product development process.



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Myth: U.S. and EU standards are different ANSI/PMMI 155 and ANSI B11.0 are the main U.S. standards addressing machinery safety; they both follow the same core principles as EU standards, such as ISO 13849. Furthermore, other standards can be used to comply with the machinery directive without contradicting ISO 13849. Organizations such as the Packaging Machinery Manufacturers Institute (PMMI), American National Standards Institute (ANSI), and Robotics Institute of America (RIA) have drafted standards that allow builders to comply with the machinery directive. ANSI/PMMI B155.1-2011 (B155.1) was actually drafted more recently than the current ISO 13849, and it was written specifically to harmonize with modification expected in the next revision of ISO 13849. The bottom line is that machinery builders have flexibili y in how they design machines. Existing machine designs are, in many cases, adequate to meet modern safety guidelines. The design of many safety components has not changed significantly with these new standards. They have simply

been validated and categorized in accordance with the new standards. Many vendors can offer mean-tim -to-fail dangerously (MTTF d) measurements for standard components. Builders can use this data to calculate the overall effectiveness of a machine safe y system concurrent with any modern standard they desire. It is smart for designers to follow current standards because these are considered state of the art, but it does not automatically presume that a traditional safety method is not proper. Core principles like risk assessment are common to all current and former standards. The risk assessment sets the performance levels of the safety systems. The builder should evaluate the current system architecture, analyze the safety chain and determine if the current design meets the newly determined performance levels. A good design can meet multiple standards and machine manufacturers can use one risk assessment to demonstrate compliance with multiple standards. Requirements such as safety labelling can be diffe ent for diffe ent standards, but these conflicts a e usually relatively minor.

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Myth: Category levels for safety are no longer applicable Machinery manufacturers are accustomed to designing control systems based on EN954-1 categories. When the EU machinery directive was updated in 2006, it designated EN954-1 as no longer valid and not to be used by machinery builders. This incorrectly led many builders and control systems providers to believe that the safety category levels are no longer applicable or appropriate. However, ISO 13849 still places significant impo tance on category levels in determining the performance level of safety systems. The category levels have not changed in the new EU machinery directive. Categories ratings are still the core principle of a safety function. The new requirements demand additional calculations to define performance or safe y integration levels. These factors include diagnostic coverage, common cause failures




and reliability of the hardware determined by the parameter MTTFd. The new approach to both ISO 13849 and IEC 62061 centers on component reliability and system coverage calculations rather than purely architectural determinations of overall machine safety. Safety vendors are providing data to help with these system calculations. Current architectures based on adherence to the EN954-1 standard can easily be brought into compliance with the new directive. It will most likely not change the core architecture of your safety system. Note the new standards are still based on the safety architecture described in the well-known categories and in addition, the probability of a failure has to be considered to determine the safety level.


Myth: The emergency stop is a safety feature From IEC60204-1 (section Safety of Machinery – Electrical equipment of machines: “Emergency stop and emergency switching off a e complementary protective measures that are not primary means of risk reduction for hazards (for example trapping, entanglement, electric shock or burn) at a machine (see ISO 12100) …” Many standards, including NFPA 79 of the U.S. National Electrical Code, reference the need for an emergency stop. IEC602041 and NFPA 79 are generally aligned in the area of emergency-stop requirements. But all machines pose risks, and an emergency stop doesn’t make a machine safe. Functional safety aims to reduce the operational risks associated with machines. Emergency stops are designed for unplanned occurrences. Modern safety standards spur safety systems

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that respond properly without the need for emergency intervention. So, OEMs and integrators often ask: What is the required safety level of the emergency-stop function? The answer depends on the residual hazard left in the machine. Evaluation starts with a risk assessment. Severity and exposure are determined during the risk assessment and directly relate to the safety integration level (IEC 61508) or performance level (ISO 13984). A key consideration is that severity and exposure is based on the residual hazard. This is the hazard left after other risk mitigation steps have been taken. This could require design changes, hard guarding, or control reliability based interlocks applied to eliminate or reduce the hazard. The takeaway is that the emergency stop may be in the Safety Integration Level 2 (SIL2) or PLd realm of required safety level. For example, since a redundant control reliable safety interlock eliminates personnel from exposure to a hazard, the emergency stop only has to guard against residual risk. Since the exposure is low, an SIL2 or PLd safety level is appropriate. An emergency stop requires human intervention so it is not a reliable way of reducing risk or eliminating a hazard. The primary effo t should go into reducing hazards without the intervention of personnel.


Myth: OSHA recognizes and

enforces the EU machinery directive or ISO or IEC standards OSHA has its own standards, so the EU machinery directive and ISO and IEC standards are not applicable to machines sold for use in the U.S. OSHA 29CFR1910 contains both general requirements and specific machine level requirements. These requirements have changed minimally in comparison with international standards. It is entirely possible for machine builders to design machines that comply with both OSHA requirements and the EC machinery directive. The most controversial diffe ence in OSHA standard is for the Control of Hazardous Energy Lockout/Tagout (LOTO) 29 CFR 1910.147. LOTO, as it is defined in the OHSA standa d, is a mandatory requirement and one that can seem to limit some of the freedoms affo ded by designers using functional safety standards.

October 2015


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A key section highlighting a potential conflict between standards is as follows: 1910.147(a)(2)(ii)(B): An employee is required to place any part of his or her body into an area on a machine or piece of equipment where work is actually performed upon the material being processed (point of operation) or where an associated danger zone exists during a machine operating cycle. Note that there’s an exception to paragraph (a)(2)(ii). This standard does not cover minor tool changes and adjustments and other minor servicing activities that take place during normal production operations if they are routine, repetitive and integral to the use of the equipment for production … provided that there are measures that provide effective p otection. (See Subpart O of this Part.) Many builders and operators are currently wrestling with the interpretation of “minor changes and adjustments.” Modern safety systems and standards make for environments where personnel can be kept safe using active controls rather than traditional LOTO. Control systems using safe-limited-speed (SLS) functions let operators perform tasks without the removal of energy. Determining if a task is minor or routine is beyond the scope of this article, but an example of a potential source of conflict is changing a die out of a machine. If the die must be swapped frequently, an operator may consider this routine fairly minor from their business perspective … but OSHA may feel diffe ently. In fact, OSHA offers 10 diff ent interpretations here, so there’s no definitive guide on LOTO or how modern systems using reliable safety solutions should address LOTO requirements. For such situations, U.S. machine operators and those providing machines to U.S. operators hope to get more guidance soon. DW




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linear and rotary Hall-effect and reed sensors

Gwenn Gmeinder N.A. Busines Development Manager Sensor Products Littelfuse

This is a close-up of a Hall-effect sensor for linear conveyor applications.



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Analog and digital sensors are accurate and reliable over the long term. Here we explain how to choose them for industrial automation and motioncontrol applications. We define and describe the benefits of digital and analog sensors and give industrial examples. Then we apply design principles and best practices to detail a custom magnetic-sensing solution for an industrial application

Industrial automation and motion designs, such as conveyors, elevators and pick-and-place machinery, must function within factories subject to dust and dirt. These designs often exhibit high vibration and spikes in shock force as well. Such conditions can threaten the stability of sensor circuits. Fortunately, some custom magnetic sensors sport features to ensure long-term accuracy and reliability. Consider an application that must verify when an object such as an elevator door is closed. Here, digital versions of reed and Hall-effect sensors deliver outstanding reliability.

Basics of digital reed switches This electrical switch requires no power to operate. A glass tube with precious metal hermetically seals its contacts.


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Benefits Reed switches are reliable for millions of operating cycles because they are immune to moisture and other environmental conditions. Applications: Reed switches are common in microprocessor-controlled, logic-level electric loads. Because reed sensors can switch ac or dc loads, they are suitable for digital on/off applications such as closure or position-detection systems in industrial or motion-control machines. As mentioned, freight and passenger elevators often use reed switches for doorclosure detection. A magnet mounts to the door, and the reed sensor attaches to a fixed frame hidden behind the elevator wall. When the door is open, the reed sensor is left with its contacts open, so cannot sense the magnetic field. Its output value feeds into a microprocessor control to indicate an open door. When the door closes, the sensor detects the proper magnetic field and the reed contacts close, sending a new signal to the controller. In modern industrial systems, a microcontroller is usually part of the control circuit. This lets the reed or Halleffect sensor switch with low logic-level dc voltage and current values.



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Basics of digital Hall-effect sensors These sensors combine a Hall-effect sensing element with circuitry to output a digital on/off signal that corresponds to a change in the magnetic field without using moving parts. The Hall effect device’s active circuitry draws a small amount of current at all times. Benefits Digital Hall-effect sensors offer high reliability and users can program them to activate at a given magnetic field tolerance for precise sensing requirements. Applications: Hall-effect sensors only work in industrial and motion-control applications with low dc voltage and current values. These sensors are common in high-speed applications such as rotary speed tracking on linear conveyors. For example, a Hall-effect speed sensor might detect a rotating 16-pole ring magnet. Here, the Hall-effect sensor activates with each passing north-pole segment and deactivates with each passing south-pole segment. Then the sensor sends these signals to the control unit.

High-precision analog sensors: Rotary and linear Hall effect Analog sensors let end users get instantaneous feedback on a magnet’s position in an industrial system. Analog Hall-effect sensors of the past measured the flux density of the magnets and are greatly influenced by the temperature value of the application. Now, thanks to advances in analog Hall-effect technology, newer Hall-effect chips measure the angle of the flux field instead of the traditional amplitude, making them much less sensitive to temperature changes. So, the sensors deliver more stable analog output across a large temperature range. There are a couple Hall-effect sensor variations that are suitable for custom analog sensing.

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Basics of rotary Hall-effect sensors Without using any moving parts, this semiconductor-based sensor combines a Hall-effect sensing element with circuitry to provide an analog output signal that corresponds to changes in a rotating magnetic field. This sensor offers two output options—analog or pulse-width modulation (PWM). The device is programmable so engineers can associate a specific output voltage or PWM to a precise degree of rotation. Multiple programming points are available up to

360° of rotation. Each programming point represents a voltage or PWM output value that corresponds to a given angle of the magnetic field. This results in a highaccuracy, high-resolution ratiometric output signal relative to the degree of rotation.

rotary device, rotary Hall-effect sensors do not experience changing resistance values or mechanical wear. They offer exceptional stability over normal

Benefits: Unlike a mechanical rotary or resistive film

Shown here is a conveyor that uses Hall-effect sensors for direct axis measurements. The sensors mount on the roller axes to synchronize their linear advance of discrete products.  

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n operating temperatures up to 105° C. Units are accurate from 0 to 360° rotation with 0.5 V to 4.5 Vdc output or 10 to 90% duty cycle for PWM.

Applications: Rotary Hall-effect sensors are becoming increasingly popular for replacing resistive film and potentiometers—mechanical devices subject to wear and oxidation that degrade signals in the control unit. So, Halleffect sensors work in myriad motion designs. For example, they can help measure the angle of a flapper valve in a fluid-flow system to precisely adjust the flow rate; in control circuits, they work to detect dial position.

Reed sensors work well on elevator-door applications.

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Basics of linear Hall-effect sensors Linear Hall-effect sensors measure linear movement of a magnetic field rather than rotation. Such sensors are programmable for a set output voltage that is ratiometric for a given travel distance. (Their output options are the same as those for rotary Hall-effect sensors.) The sensors measure linear movement and relative flux angle of magnetic

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actuators to 30 mm of travel with a single Hall-effect chip. This outputs a ratiometric signal to track the precise movement of the sensor.

Benefits: The sensor and actuator work in all sorts of final mounting areas, even where they’re subject to magnetic influences from surrounding equipment. This makes for an optimal output signal because programming can account for any shunting, mechanical tolerances or stack-up tolerances of the magnetic field (so the output signal corresponds to just the magnetic-flux direction as the magnet rotates). Applications: Linear Hall-effect sensors often work as level sensors for monitoring fluid levels. Here, the sensor detects the location of a moving float sporting a





magnet. Linear sensors can also be useful when seeking a precise position tolerance for automatic pick-and-place systems.

Expertise applied: Custom sensing for a conveyor When selecting high-performance magnetic sensing, first the design engineer should conduct a thorough review of the application’s environmental, mechanical, electrical and magnetic parameters. Then the engineer should analyze the industrial application’s full magnetic circuit— including the sensor and magnetic actuator. Then the engineer can identify customsensor setups robust enough to meet the design requirements. Employing the design guidelines and best practices we review here, consider the following case study in which a custom

magnetic sensor improves an industrialconveyor application.

The problem: Initially, the machine builder wanted a Hall-effect speed sensor mounted to an industrial belt-drive system on a conveyor. Extensive communication between the end user and designengineering teams made it clear that a standard Hall-effect sensor wouldn’t meet the requirements for electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), electromagnetic interference (EMI) or electrostatic discharge (ESD), because the electric motor running the conveyor was too close to the sensor’s location. Other requirements: The end user needed a custom sensor setup with 24AWG insulated lead wires connected to

Encoder solutions that just make sense. Contact us today and find out how EPC’s advanced optics, sensors, and robust housing designs are the sensible solution for your motion control feedback challenge.

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the standard Hall-effect sensor through an uncontrolled environment. The lead wires had to withstand potential hazards within the factory such as dust, chemicals, oils and vibrations. They also had to continuously send speed signals to a microprocessor control unit. The Hall-effect speed tracking had to be upgraded to handle the speed and relative magnetic circuit of the sensor’s actuator. The sensor had to bridge the required 2-mm gap between the sensor and the magnet.

The solution: The engineering team developed a robust custom design with additional capacitive and resistor circuitry on a printed circuit board. That gave the sensor extra EMI, EMC and ESD protection. The sensor’s injection-molded capsule was made larger than the standard capsule to accomodate the new circuitry. In addition, the lead wires were upgraded to 20 AWG with Teflon insulation. The manufcturer designed a true speedsensing Hall-effect chip to replace the digital Hall-effect chip and get more accurate speed signals. The design team also used computer simulation to identify the optimum magnet design for the 2-mm sensing gap. They determined that a 16-pole toroid magnet (with eight pole pairs) would maximize magnetic-circuit reliability. So now, the new injection-molded capsules work for other designs without forcing the end user to pay for tooling. DW Li elfuse li

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Hydraulic controls

bring precision and flexibility to force testing Dead-weight testing is finally replaced by something decidedly more 21st century.

Rick Meyerhoefer â&#x20AC;˘ Delta Computer Systems

Traditionally, repair facilities test hoists in a pretty straightforward wayâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;they lift heavy loads after the repairs have been completed, to make sure that they operate correctly and to their rated capacities. John Henry Foster Co. (JHF) of St. Louis is a distributor and service provider for Ingersoll Rand, which includes their Tool Division. JHF company managers were dissatisfied with the lack of p ecision that resulted from this simple dead-weight test lifting, so they called for the design of a flexible test stand. hey wanted something that could apply precise amounts of downward force to exercise electric, pneumatic or manual hoists with a broad range in capacities.



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Figure 1: The JHF hoist tester uses a hydraulic cylinder pulling on a chain to apply a precise amount of downward force on the hoist.

The requirements for verifying correct hoist operation are to put a specified load on the hoist and operate the hoist over a particular travel distance for a set number of cycles to ensure that the motor and gears are working correctly. “We test the hoists against a database of hoist specs, which includes the expected values,” said Mike Parr, technician at JHF. Since the new test stand would be used to test hoists with capacities from 500 to 22,000 lb, flexibili y was an important requirement for the design, and so was the need to apply a constant force through the whole test stroke of the hoist. As JHF is also a hydraulics distributor, the engineers there knew that this problem could be addressed by using an electrohydraulic motion controller to perform closed-loop control of the downward force on the hoists under test. The force was applied by a hydraulic cylinder pushing against a chain that goes through a set of pulleys in to align the force point right under the hoist (Figure 1).

The hydraulic system operates totally independently of the hoist, simply reacting to the movement of the hoist’s chain. The motion controller monitors the force that is pulling against the hydraulic cylinder, and as it sees the force begin to change, the controller acts to maintain the target force regardless of the chain’s direction of motion. “If we didn’t use closed-loop control, there would be no way we could keep the force under precise control,” said Ken Strain, hydraulic engineer at JHF.

Choosing the motion controller To control the hydraulic cylinder applying the force, JHF engineers chose Delta Computer’s RMC75 dual-axis electro-hydraulic controller (Figure 2). A PLC controls the hydraulic power unit, and a PC provides test  

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Figure 2: The RMC75 can control two motion axes simultaneously and interfaces directly to sensors and a proportional valve.

October 2015



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Flu i d Powe r

Figure 3: The HMI of the test system runs on a PC and can be used to set all parameters for the hoist test and monitor test progress and results.

parameters with an HMI (Figure 3) and log the testing results. All of these key system elements were connected through Ethernet/IP. Force measurements come from a load pin that serves as the rotational axis for the lower chain pulley. The load pin is a unique strain gauge transducer that measures the deflection in the rotational pulleyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s center hub caused by chain force (Figure 4). The load pin supplies a linear millivolt signal proportional to the encountered force, which is converted to a voltage signal using a 1-kHz amplifie . JHF engineers initially tested having the motion controller measure the diffe ential hydraulic pressure across the cylinder piston, but determined that running the chain around the other pulleys caused a negative impact on accuracy and precision. The pressure transducers were left in the cylinders to provide the option for future programming changes to implement feedback switching, a new capability supported by Delta motion controllers under the general heading of custom feedback, which allows selection of the most effective fo ce sensors for a particular testing application. Although the pressure transducers proved to be less accurate on this application than the load pin, they are much less susceptible to damage since they are mounted away from any moving components. In the event of a load pin failure, the force calculation can be switched on-the-fly to diffe ential pressure using these transducers, which will allow testing to continue until the load pin can be repaired or replaced. The position information relating to the extension of the load chain was obtained by the motion controller through a direct connection to a magnetostrictive linear displacement 90


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transducer (LMDT) attached to the hydraulic cylinder. The cylinder itself is operated by a proportional servo valve controlled by the RMC75.

Automating the test sequence One of the most useful features of the RMC75 is the ability to switch smoothly from controlling the position of the chain tensioning cylinder to controlling the force that it applies. In the JHF hoist tester, a testing protocol starts with the hydraulic cylinder fully retracted, achieved by a position command given to the motion controller by the PC. Then the operator is instructed to connect the chain to the hoist being tested. Following this, another position command is issued to extend the chain, along with the instruction for the controller to monitor the force that the cylinder is applying. When the chain is fully extended (such that the hoist is beginning to encounter a load), the motion controller sees the force begin to build, and then it switches to performing force control. Once the controller is in force control, it informs the operator to proceed with the test. A Visual Basic program running on the PC goes through the test sequence. The RMC75 then

Figure 4: Load force diagram for the JHF hoist tester.

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Fl uid Power simply responds to any motion of the chain by extending or retracting the cylinder to maintain the target force. Position information continues to be monitored during the hoist operation and is used to verify that the velocity of the hoist operation meets specified values. When the test is done, the motion controller ramps the force down and then switches back into position control, retracting the cylinder to provide slack to the chain to allow the operator to disconnect the hoist. Tuning the motion was an issue for the JHF team because of the wide range of operation that must be supported. “We needed to use multiple tuning points,” said Strain. “To simplify the task, we used the auto tuning feature of Delta’s RMCTools software for position tuning. It worked perfectly to get us really close to the optimal motion profile, and then we made tweaks to the force feedforward term in the closed-loop control algorithm to speed up the response.” The test platform meets JHF’s needs for a facility that can test all the hoists that the company maintains. “Without the new test platform we would need a warehouse full of weights to test all of the hoists,” said Parr. “And if we did, to meet ISO standards, we would need to calibrate all the weights. Now we just have one sensor that needs to be calibrated every year. There’s a lot less potential for errors and less opportunity for people to be hurt since heavy weights aren’t being carried around, and automated testing ensures the repeatability of test results.” The new system also operates much more smoothly than manually-operated hoist testing procedures. “Operators of manual test systems typically switch full force,” said Strain. “There would be no way to respond smoothly without the [controller], and we expect that we’ll have less maintenance problems over time due to that smooth operation.” DW Delta Computer Systems

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M a t e r i a l s Kevin Balben

Product Specialist DELO Industrial Adhesives

Key design tips for working with For the latest materials, adhesive bonding is a better way to join. Here are key tips that will ensure a solid, reliable bond.

Structural bonding has many advantages over conventional joining technologies. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s best to consider adhesives early on in the design phase to take full advantage of their potential. A design suited

Figure 1: Enlargement of the bonding area.

to adhesives increases the performance of a bond, accelerates the production process and saves money. New materials and designs often require the use of adhesives. Current material trends that foster adhesive bonding are composite materials like carbon fiber einforced polymers (CFRP), glass reinforced plastic (GRP) and various multi-material designs.



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M a t e r i a l s

Figure 2: Tongue and groove join—important remedy of peel stress.

Welding, screwing and riveting are still a good joining method. However, depending on the application, the connection made may not always be reliable or durable. For example, they are dependable for steel-tosteel or aluminum-to-aluminum joining, but less reliable for polymers and multi-metal mixes like steel to aluminum. A complication, made time and time again, is intending to bond a component that has already been screwed or welded without adapting its geometry accordingly. This can cause problems in many areas, including adhesive dispensing, joining of materials and bond strength. Despite the advances in bonding technology to increase adhesion success, this science still remains on the back burner of many engineering studies.

The right bond makes all the differenc When choosing between an adhesive or a bond with a screw or weld, the one main diffe ence to remember is that the forces applied from an adhesive affect the enti e bonded laminar area, not just isolated (punctual or linear) areas, as is the case when securing with a screw or weld. That’s why it is important to note that you cannot interchange screwing and welding with bonding adhesive on the same project. It won’t work. It won’t produce the strength needed to hold the bond. Take for instance two metal sheets measuring 1 x 1 ft that need to be joined. When welding or screwing them together, only a small area of the metal sheets needs to overlap. In contrast, that same small area

would not be sufficient for adhesive bondi . To achieve a strong adhesive bond, the parts would need to overlap more. The larger bonding surface results in a stronger bond with tension spread more evenly throughout the components (Figure 1). Enlarging the bonding area depends on the forces that arise in the actual application. Often, eccentric force transmission can be expected. This force does not act on one axis, it rotates to get balanced on the next axis, causing a torque that results in peel stress. Should this occur, an alternate to an overlap joint is tongue and groove. Similar to the dovetail design long used in woodworking, tongue and groove joins and locks two components together, making it more difficult for them to bend or com apart (Figure 2). As noted previously, a design should be modified if the decision to join changes rom welding to bonding. Although the adhesive will deliver proper tensile and compression

Figure 3: If a welded joint is replaced by bonding, the design should be adapted.



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Quick tips on how to achieve adhesive-friendly designs

M a t e r i a l s

Advantages of bonding: • Different materials can be joined • Tension is evenly distributed • Components are not weakened, for example, with boreholes • High resistance to dynamic forces • Laminar joining of thin components • Components are not or are only slightly subjected to heat • Simultaneous bonding and sealing is possible • The adhesive layer balances tolerances • Electrically or thermally conductive adhesives are available

Figure 4: Bending is a design alternative to tongue and groove. strength values, the occurrence of a slight peel stress will lead to instability in the structure (Figure 3). To overcome the design challenge in this example, designers can use a larger cylindrical base along with a pre-engineered borehole in the baseplate. This will create a round tongue and groove joint. While tongue and groove is a reliable and widely used method to ensure solid structural bonding, it is not feasible when bonding thin metal sheets. However, there are several other options available. If the materials are formable, bending the components and placing them one on top of the other will improve the bond strength, as this will significantly inc ease the bonding

area. Although more complex, as it involves additional process steps, this is an excellent option where higher strength is required (Figure 4). The strength of a pipe joint is less than ideal if the two components are bonded at their ends (Figure 5). Adding an additional interior or exterior ring enlarges the bonding area tremendously and decreases the risk of peel stress. The two components can also be overlapped by adapting the diameter of one. Because of the adhesive’s sealing properties, liquids can easily flow through these pipe joints without leaking.

8 design rules • Provide sufficiently large bonding areas and gaps • Achieve evenly distributed tensions • Limit stress to compression, tension and shear stress if possible • Avoid peel and bending stress • Avoid eccentric force transmission • Prevent plastic component deformation • Provide adhesive-friendly surfaces • Comply with the curing conditions required by the adhesive

Figure 5: The bonding area of a pipe joint should be increased, while edge-to-edge joins should be avoided. 98


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Simple steps for adhesion success A correctly dimensioned bonding gap is critical with an adhesive-friendly design. It ensures a consistent adhesive layer thickness, which enables the adhesive to fully develop its adhesion forces. A correct bonding gap can be provided by a defined contact a ea with spacers integrated into the bonded components, or by a tongue and groove joint. If the gap is too narrow, the components press the adhesive out and the bond will not hold. Two basic design principles help create an adhesive-friendly design: work with sufficiently l ge bonding areas and eliminate the potential of peel and bending stress. By following these steps, the end result will be a strong, sturdy and powerful joint. DW DELO Industrial Adhesives


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Autodesk Fusion 360

uses the cloud to facilitate collaboration, add upgrades Your photos, music and movies are stored on the cloud, so why not your CAD designs, too? Diane Sofranec â&#x20AC;˘ Contributing Editor



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Autodesk’s Fusion 360 is a cloud-based mechanical CAD solution. Officially eleased at Autodesk University in 2012, Fusion 360 was launched in 2009 through Autodesk Labs as Inventor Fusion. But it’s not software you install on your computer. A $300 yearly subscription gets you a mechanical, industrial and conceptual design tool, plus frequent updates.

Using a cloud-based design tool means every

change you make on your design is saved on the cloud and becomes part of a version history. You have the ability to access each version of your design, so every time you open your design, you will see which version you are getting.

Keeping the application on the cloud allows

Autodesk to provide quick fi es and add new capabilities. Updates typically occur every eight weeks; some are minor, whereas others are significant. As a esult, Fusion 360 has evolved into a highly collaborative design tool that takes you from concept to prototype, providing you have a decent Internet connection.

Since its initial release, Autodesk has added

considerable functionality. Several of the latest updates are worth noting.

Fusion 360 is a highly collaborative design tool that can take designers from concept to prototype.


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Fusion 360 includes 2.5- and 3-axis CAM capabilities for turning designs into parts.

Collaboration The ability to access data and share designs no matter where you are, regardless of the device you are using is what Fusion 360 is all about. Because your data is housed on the cloud, you can look at it whether you’re on a Mac, PC, tablet or smartphone and work with your design team from anywhere as long as you’re online. A Fusion 360 mobile app that works on iOS and Android devices lets you view, mark up and comment on your CAD models. You can easily collaborate by adding others to your project so they can see your progress anytime. The app includes support for more than 100 file format , and allows you to store and view just as many data formats. To make viewing easier, you can isolate and hide the model’s components and use your touchscreen to zoom, rotate and pan. It also gives you access to design properties and parts lists, and tracks project activities and updates. You can share project information by posting messages, photos and comments. You can also take and share screenshots of any markups made to your design. 102


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If you’re an Apple aficionad , Fusion 360 employs Handoff, which lets you resume what you were doing exactly where you left off as you switch devices. So as long as you’re signed in to the same iCloud account, you can look at your design on your iPhone and then, when you open your MacBook Pro and launch your browser, a simple click will take you to that same design so you can continue working.

Drawings The Fusion 360 creators leveraged the AutoCAD Mechanical 2D design tool. In addition, the past few upgrades added mechanical annotations and 2D symbols, making it easier to create patent drawings or communicate with the manufacturing team.

Animations Sometimes you need to show all the components of a product, or how it goes together and comes apart. That’s what makes animations, or exploded views, indispensible. You can add notes, too. This capability works on all iOS devices, so you can share this aspect of your design with clients, manufacturers and the design team.

Standard parts libraries Looking for parts to put in your model? Look no further than the parts library that is built into Fusion 360. Simply find the pa t you need; one click brings it directly into your design. Autodesk has been working with such companies as McMaster-Carr and Cavenas to create standard parts libraries. The McMaster-Carr parts library is the default and already included; however, you can choose from many others to add.

Distributed design Fusion 360’s Distributed Design capabilities allow you to create a couple of diffe ent designs and insert one of them into another design. It’s a convenient way for multiple users to work on a design together.

Application programming interface Late last year, Autodesk introduced application programming interface (API) support for Fusion 360, and continues to open it up to more and more third party companies. For instance, although CAM

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capabilities are built in, you can now easily integrate the CAM tools of your choosing.

CAM Speaking of CAM, 2.5- and 3-axis capabilities make it possible for you to turn your designs into parts. HSMWorks, a company Autodesk acquired three years ago, is fully integrated into Fusion 360 (as well as its Inventor software). This CAM functionality makes it possible for designers to take their products to market, whether they are seasoned professionals working for major corporations or hobbyists launching their dream inventions.

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3D Printing 3D printing capabilities are integrated through Spark, an open software platform just for that. Spark can generate supports for designs that need them. Plus, it lets you control the printer you’re using as well as the outcome. A layer-bylayer preview shows exactly what you can expect. Training For a product that’s updated every eight weeks, training is definitely necessa y. Autodesk constantly updates its help section with new tutorials to ensure ease of use. Built-in tutorial videos and links are designed to help you get up to speed quickly. For those who need to learn the basics, there’s Fusion 101, detailed instructions on nine diffe ent capabilities. You can learn how to sketch, sculpt, model, manage and collaborate, render, and get the basics on assemblies, drawings, CAM and animations. Each training module takes an hour to two to explore and includes videos for those who learn by watching and printable documents for those who prefer written instructions. In addition, if you were a SolidWorks user, you can check out videos with more advanced content designed to help make the switch to Fusion 360 go smoothly. Because you already understand 3D design concepts, these videos simply show how the tools and workflows diffe in an effo t to make the transition easier. October 2015

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Education Autodesk worked with the Apple Education team to offer the utodesk Design Academy iTunes U course. Students and others new to CAD can check out iTunes U for a course in Fusion 360. Autodesk is one of the few businesses with educational content in this space. But because it’s a cloud-based design tool natively written for the Mac, a partnership with Apple seems natural. Longtime professional CAD users, inexperienced hobbyists and students just launching their careers can easily learn how to use Fusion 360 to create and collaborate. The road ahead Collaboration isn’t limited to the members of your design team. To learn what’s next for

Animations, or exploded views, let designer show how products go together and come apart.

Fusion 360, its developers include a roadmap in the Autodesk Community section of the application’s website that details the upgrades you can expect to see soon. Such transparency also provides an opportunity to weigh in on what you would like to see in future versions. Sometimes, proposed features include links with more detailed

The 3D printing capabilities in Fusion 360 let designers generate supports when needed.

information. Simulation is coming soon, for instance, and Fusion 360 developers have shared what it will encompass and why. They also put out a call for feedback. It’s not everyday you can collaborate with the developers of your CAD application just as you would with the members of your design team. DW Autodesk

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IoT e l a t y fair and couplings:

or the future?

Couplings connect driving elements to driven elements. But is there a connection beyond the mechanical? We asked four industry experts to give us their take on Mike Santora Associate Editor

connectivity, the Internet of Things and its potential impact on the couplings industry. To hear its supporters speak of it, the fully realized Industry 4.0 factory will be a dazzling ecosystem of interconnectivity. Machines and components upon subcomponents will all sing in a chorus of efficien . For the faithful, thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s the expectation that the next 20 years will usher in the dawn of a new industrial revolutionâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;many machines and components are already connected in self-contained units.



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This high speed, high torque safety coupling from R +W was the direct result of recent advances in materials technologies.Â

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Couplings If the last few decades of digital technology have taught us anything, it’s that the complexity of data transmission is growing exponentially. Mix that reality with the rascally allure of the possible, and it’s easy to see how the IoT has some people dreaming big. But the question of where reality collides with hype is the real heart of the conversation on IoT. Within the couplings industry, there is a mixed response on what we can expect in the next few years. To clarify the situation we spoke with Ross Rivard, president of Ringfeder Power Transmission; Andy Lechner, product manager for R + W America; Steven Elliott, Plant 1 manager at OEP Couplings; and Candace Olivier, sales manager for System Components Inc. IoT evolution not revolution One opinion is that we are not as far along with IoT in couplings as some would have us believe. Our panel weighs in.

How is the IoT impacting the couplings industry right now? Rivard: As is happening across a lot of industries, information availability is running rampant right now. The question we have to ask ourselves is, “Is that information availability taking the place of product or engineering or application expertise?” Once somebody gets the taste of “press this button and I can download this information,” and views themselves suddenly as an expert, it really becomes problematic when you’re trying to find the right solution for your customer. Sensors and couplings have been talked about for years and years and years, and I’ve really not seen a great deal of that activity in the traditional sense of disc couplings or anything of that nature. Where we are starting to see an uptick in activity is where you have a coupling attached to another device such as a safety coupling or a torque limiter. In these configu ations, confirmation of a device’s activation can be sent across either a great distance or a number of other

Ringfeder’s Gerwah GWE 5106 servo-insert coupling can be mounted laterally at the aligned shaft extensions.

pieces of equipment. This communication ensures corrective action has taken place to get the equipment back up and running. Elliott: I think that it’s a fad. Some

manufacturers are apparently adding these remote sensors to couplings. We have massive couplings and high value equipment. We do make some couplings for extractive industries—oil extraction and fracking equipment—but we make smaller couplings that aren’t going to have anything like that in them. I can understand the utility of this for some large couplings, but at the same time, I’m reminded of about 10 years ago ... They started having a lot of advances in touch screens and in the fabrication of touch screens. Suddenly we saw touch screens on everything. We saw them on machine tools, and home washing machines and dishwashers and absurd things. It was because designers thought, “We can get these touchscreens for $8 from China, so let’s just stick them on this dishwasher.” After a few years, people realized that there’s no advantage to it … so now you don’t see as many. Now you see a dishwasher with a touchscreen on it and go, “Oh that’s from 2003.” It dates it. I have an impression that we’re going to have lots of couplings that can transmit all this data, large amounts of data that will never be observed or used by a human in any way. If a coupling transmits its workload and nobody hears it, does it make a sound? Maybe the only sound it makes is when it fails mechanically, and then it goes “clunk” after a couple million cycles because the designers were more focused on this momentary trend, this fad, than they were on producing something that’s mechanically sound. So at OEP, we’re just going to focus on dumb couplings. We’re going to make sure that they’re well-made and that they perform the tasks that are typically required of shaft couplings. Olivier: I really don’t think I have seen

much demand for that in the markets that we service at least.



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The common sense of sensors Some are more optimistic about IoT potential. The presence of sensor technology is still spreading within the industry.

How are sensors affecting IoT and the couplings industry? Lechner: I think, just like a lot of other components and systems manufacturers in our industry, they’re opening up their minds and thinking about how customers might benefit rom the incorporation of advanced sensing technology in their products. From a conditioned monitoring perspective, R + W is no exception here. We do not officially h ve any standard products that incorporate sensing technology, but we have delivered that in special solutions, especially torque measurement. There should be quite a bit more coming from us in the future.

If the last few decades of digital technology have taught us anything, it’s that the complexity of data transmission is growing exponentially. So there is a demand for advancing sensor technology in couplings? Lechner: Yeah, I think it’s definitely on the ay. I recently read some

quotes from a prominent representative of the bearing industry who predicted that in the future, just about every bearing would have a wire coming out of it. If that’s the case, I think couplings are going to be right there along with them, especially because they can be engineered to be a sort of weak link when a machine is starting to get old or in need of lubrication maintenance. With couplings, I think it’s increasingly common for users to have an interest in torque measurement at the coupling. The technology is at the point where a signal can be sent wirelessly from inside the coupling to a remote base station, so it packages more nicely than it would have in years past.

Do you have any thoughts on why some are trying to push this IoT idea more than others when the reality seems to be a few years behind? Lechner: Yes. I think it’s just that there’s a lot of inertia in our industry. It takes a long time for everyone to change their ways and adopt a new technology along the supply chain. If it’s going to be a reality

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The Ringfeder GERWAH multiple-disc coupling is specifi ally designed for applications where positioning accuracy in both directions is critical. This coupling is also designed for use in environments where temperatures can reach up to 460° F.

in three years, it’s really time to start getting serious about it now in terms of product development. I think a lot of companies are pouring a lot of resources into determining the best and most reasonable ways to incorporate sensing technology into simple mechanical devices, but we’re really just getting started at this point. Certainly for special projects we can layer strain gauges into a coupling and make it a torque measurement device, but as of today that’s a small fraction of what’s demanded of our product on a regular basis. Where we should be looking

If IoT is not where engineers need to be focusing their attention, where then? What can they be doing better with couplings? Rivard: It goes back to your question earlier about the IoT. Engineers focus on an item. In the sense of couplings, you tend to focus on one of the misalignment capabilities. Whether it’s an axial misalignment or radial misalignment or whatever, what we really have to be cognizant of is the interplay between the misalignments. Equipment ages, products shift, they settle, a lot of diffe ent conditions can change. Where you thought you had your axial misalignment taken care of, well, now if it interacts with an angular misalignment, then the way the whole product is operating changes. You need to really look at all the misalignment capabilities, and the interplay between those, to make sure that you’re specifying the right piece of equipment.

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Couplings OEP’s current focus is on couplings that focus on performing the basic functions that are typically required of shaft couplings, not IoT applications.

Elliott: The same thing that I’ve always

noticed is that engineers tend to default to a particular type of coupling with which they’re familiar. There are a lot of engineers that when they think shaft coupling, they think jaw coupling. Maybe they’ve used a helical coupling in the past, and so they’re comfortable with that. They’re familiar with it. They never go looking for what other types are out there. If you just separate couplings into the basic types, there are at least a dozen. You’ve got disc couplings and oldham couplings and all these other variations. There are mechanical engineers that aren’t even aware of some of these types of couplings. They just go to their comfort zone. Lechner: What I think happens a lot is

they rely too heavily on the monitoring and perimeter programming in a machine’s drive system. For example, limiting the current that can be provided to a motor, which is easily calculated and converted into torque, does not actually mean that you are limiting the torque that will exist in that drive access or that machine access. Basically, once you have a machine moving, you have masses moving; there’s energy there that needs to be released, say in the event of a jam up or a collision. That energy is independent of being supplied through the drive amp, so I think a lot of people forget that there can be quite greater forces at play in their machine than what they’ve programmed it to produce. Just something to keep in mind. Of course that can reflect back onto couplings and gears and shafts and put them through quite a bit more stress I think than a lot of users realize.

overlay it, or lay it on the fact that more companies are trying to do more with less people, people are looking at a simple solution or the quickest solution. The engineering community really needs to continue to reach out to the manufacturers and use the expertise that they can bring to bear given the applications. The end-users, the OEMs, they need to come back to the manufacturers and use that expertise and make sure they are getting the right product that’s going to solve whatever the problem is versus just a band-aid or stop-gap. DW OEP Couplings Ringfeder Power Transmission R+W System Components Inc.

Rivard: Again, I keep cycling back to the IoT; the availability of information is both a blessing and a curse. You take that, and you



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Test centers with chain conveyor and torsion test systems for cables and wires are critical in preventing cable failure and downtime.

Stressing cables to their limits to ensure quality Thomas Pikkemaat HELUKABEL Commercial Plant Manager Windsbach and Product Manager, Drive Technology

“They’re only cables” is unfortunately what many developers still think. Even worse is when they don’t even consider the electrical lines, which will be installed when designing their machines. But the fact is that such a defective component can put a machine out of operation. After all, the requirements placed on these C-parts are continuously increasing, so they should never be underestimated. The true test of a cable’s quality is in the rigorous testing that happens before cables are placed into mass production. But that doesn’t happen overnight. Changing conditions require tougher designs Cables deserve more attention. In the past, many machine constructors have ignored the necessity of testing electrical wires when they are placed in demanding applications and have paid



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the price for their ignorance. After all, they’re not “merely cables,” but a critical component when they are a part of highly dynamic applications such as manufacturing, for example, machine tools, handling equipment, robots, and so on. As technology improves, machines are becoming smaller, the masses being moved are lighter and their movements along multiple axes are faster. These technological enhancements have residual effects on the individua components including the cables. When the installation space becomes tighter, the bending radii of the wires must also become smaller. On top of that, the continuously increasing dynamics of the machine must also be taken into account. Previously,

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Testing a jacket compound’s resistance to abrasion in the scrape-off test.


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This is a length of a 16-ft (5 m) cable track test machine. It can accelerate cables up to 164 ft/sec² (50 m/sec²) or 5 g with speeds up to 22 mph (10 m/sec) and can complete 35,000 cycles per day. It tests

Flame tests provide

four different bending radii ranging

insight into how well jacket

between 3 and 5.5 in. (75 and 140 mm).

compounds resist burning or what effects happen in the event that they do catch fire. axial movements accelerated no faster than 0.5 m/sec². Nowadays, acceleration rates in high-end machines reach up to 50 m/sec². All these factors lead to higher mechanical stress on the wires. As early as possible—the best time being the development phase—cables should be tested to see if they can withstand the everyday conditions of the application in which they will be installed. The reason for such rigorous testing at the beginning stages of cable development is quite simple. If a machine from the exporting country, such as the U.S. or Germany, breaks down in India, the repair costs are much higher than if that happens domestically. It is in these high-end machines where cables functioning as C-parts aren’t paid the amount of attention that they deserve. But when a $500,000 machine located in an automobile manufacturing facility comes to a standstill due to an improper cable being installed, the downtime costs quickly add up. 116


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Causes of failure are many The cables and wires installed in cable tracks are exposed to especially high stress factors. Due to the constant bending and extending during the movement of the track, they must be able to meet demanding mechanical requirements. The stress on track cable depends on the traveling distance, bend radius, speed and acceleration. When customers make inquiries, these four pieces of technical data are critical. The better the customer can specify these variables, the more detailed a cable can be designed for his/her needs, or suggesting a cable from stock can be more narrowly defined. Unfortunately, when these critical pieces of data aren’t known, such as in the case of a newly designed piece of equipment, the values of traveling distance, bend radius, speed and acceleration have to be determined empirically. Naturally, manufacturers that specialize in continuous-flex cables should have extensive

databases with comprehensive, empirical and established figures to which they initially refer. However, if they don’t find what they need there, tests must be run. Because there is a difference between a plant in a threeshift operation that runs continuously and a plant running a single-shift operation with regular downtimes, the guarantee is given on the number of cycles. For track cables, that is five million cycles. Furthermore, such a test also needs time—for example in a 16-ft (5-m) test track that is continuously run with high accelerations, it takes about 3⁄4 of a year. If a cable in the track fails, there are three possible sources of the failure—cable fault, abrasion or the corkscrew effect. If during the design a strand is used, for instance, that is not intended for the application, the result is a cable fault. It makes itself known in advance through an increase in the wire resistance. If a cable routed in the track has too much or too little play, the relatively sharp-edged

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Case in point: Cable track test systems from 3 to 130 ft (1 to 40 m) Consider how at Helukabel’s Windsbach Test Center in Germany, electric cables and wires in chain conveyors are shot back and forth at up to 5 g. Operators need hearing protection, as equipment rigorously tests all cable for months. Only when the cables and wires withstand customer specifications in the test equipment does the manufacturer approve the cables for their intended application use. The Windsbach test center recently acquired a new 16-ft (5-m) chain-pulled conveyor testing machine that runs to 32 ft/sec (10 m/sec) and accelerates to 164 ft/sec² (50 m/sec²). At the center, operators with seven machines having 3, 10, 16, 60 and 130 ft (1, 3, 5, 18 and 40 m) traversing distances are used. Cables are routinely tested with speeds up to 7 m/sec. Chains with conventional bending radii work on all the machines.

plastic or metallic parts of the track links rub against the flexibly outed track cables. The jacket abrades over time before a maximum number of five million c cles is reached. This action exposes the conductors to the elements and can lead to improper machine function or failure. Finally, the corkscrew effect is caused by the inner conductor blocking each other during flexing or bendin cycles. This effect occurs for ma y diffe ent reasons, including improper installation in the drag chain or poor cable construction. The worst possible case is production mistakes during the construction of the correct cable. Additionally, other design errors are associated with cables and wires. If, for instance, the design was made with an incorrect bend radius, the cable will probably break before its service life comes to an end. This is extremely frustrating to engineers and maintenance technicians because the cable works properly at the beginning and takes time before the weak points start to reveal themselves, which leads to

Helukabel’s 27-ft (8-m) tall girder mast reproduces a wind turbine’s cable loop 1:1 and can test up to 20 cables simultaneously with the greatest possible torsion of ±150°/m.  

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unexpected downtime and unforeseen costs to replace the faulty cable. The right testing equipment To prevent such damage during use, many cable manufacturers operate numerous cable track testing machines at their manufacturing or R&D facilities, as well as torsion test rigs among the many other types of testing equipment to ensure cable quality. The following is a summary of the most common equipment used to test cable and wire. Cable track testing—Rigorously tests track

cables that move short, medium and long distances at slow and fast speeds, as well as various acceleration rates and different bending radii. Torsion apparatus—Tests a cable’s ability to be continually twisted and un-twisted in such applications as robots. Torsion levels up to ± 720° are applied to the cables being tested.

and 180° C in substances such air, oil and other fluids to speed up aging to determine if a jacket compound can withstand being exposed to these substances over extended periods of time. This equipment also simulates how jacket compounds will react in environments where extreme cold or hot temperatures are present. Tensile strength and elongation—Tests

how far compounds can be stretched before failing, as well as their ability to return to form after being stretched. Materials are tested directly after production with the tests being repeated after the material is put into the oven for artificial aging. The delta of the results before and after the aging process must stay within a certain range. Scrape-off apparatus—Tests the outer

jacket durability and resistance to abrasion. Fire test apparatus—Flame resistance and

to resist being bent to its intended bending radius in flexible applications before damage to the cable occurs both in the conductor materials and insulation/jacket compounds.

flame retardant tests are in accordance with different standards, such as DIN EN 603321/2/3, UL 2556 and CSA FT4. These tests simulate how cable materials react when fire is present, such outgassing, extinguishing flame, and so on.

Oven and cooling equipment—Ovens are

Voltage testing—The defined maximum

mainly used to simulate artificial aging. Cables are subjected to temperatures between -70

voltage is put on the cable to test its maximum voltage resistance.

Bending apparatus—Tests the cable’s ability

Torsion test for large sizes too Some manufacturers also test cable-torsion characteristics. The latest piece of testing equipment is a torsion test device for robot applications. Increased requirements, especially in machine tool manufacturing and in robotics, are prompting more demand for greater torsion resistance, but unfortunately still too few users test their electrical wires for their torsional stability. The new testing apparatus provides a rotation angle of ±720° at a length of restraint of 7 ft (2 m) and a rotational speed of 360°/sec. More unique is a test tower for torsion testing cables and wires used in wind turbines. Machines stress cables and wires with torsion to ±150°/m. This test condition pushes cables to greater extremes than they would ever experience in real applications. In the 27-ft (8-m) tall girder mast, a wind turbine’s cable loop is reproduced 1:1 and can test up to 20 cables simultaneously. DW


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A view of the 130-ft (40-m) cable track test apparatus. It can

A view of the 3-ft (1-m) cable track test apparatus. It can accelerate cables up

accelerate cables up to 23 ft/sec² (7 m/sec²) or 0.7 g with speeds up

to 164 ft/sec² (50 m/sec²) or 5 g with speeds up to 16 mph (7 m/sec) and can

to 11 mph (5 m/sec). It tests bending radii ranging between 2.75 and

complete 28,000 cycles per day. It tests two different bending radii ranging

8 in. (70 and 200 mm).

between 2 and 3 in. (52 and 75 mm).  

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Inside: 3 robotics trends you need to watch â&#x20AC;˘ 122


A Supplement to Design World - October 2015

The Future of Automation & Robotics 132

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robotics trends

you need to watch

Paul J. Heney • Editorial Director

Robotics is a fast changing field, and it’s hard even for the most tuned-in engineer to keep up to date with the latest technology, trends, design ideas and industry pressures. Earlier this year, the International Federation of Robotics held a high-level panel on how robots and humans will interact together in the future. Members of the panel included: • Phil Crowther, Global Product Manager, Small Robots, ABB, China • Professor Henrik Christensen, Executive Director, Institute for Robotics and Intelligent Machines, Georgia Tech • Rodney Brooks, Chairman and CTO, Rethink Robotics • Enrico Krog Iversen, CEO, Universal Robots, Denmark • Masahiro Ogawa, Chairman and CEO, Yaskawa America • Stuart Shepherd, Vice President Sales, Americas, KUKA US Holding Following are areas discussed that will affect the nature of robots, from specialized industrial models to consumer-oriented devices. Watch for these trends in the coming months and years.



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More collaboration with humans Brooks discussed how much more consumer robots have proliferated than industrial models have. “A previous company, iRobot, builds military robots and robots for the home, sells 2 million per year, which is 10 times as many as industrial robots; they’re much cheaper, but 2 million per year. People are seeing robots in their lives. They’re cleaning ... they’re also seeing that their cars are becoming robots. They get inside a robot and it has autonomous systems.” Brooks said that in the industrial sphere, historically, the robots were separated, dangerous, didn’t have much processing, and didn’t have enough sensors. “Now the processing senses are available. Why can’t those robots, the industrial robots, be more like the vast majority of robots in the world, which are things that people can interact with?” 124


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“I think there’s another thing that’s starting to happen. To use an analogy, you buy this industrial robot, and you can get somebody to program it to make phone calls for you, if you want; but instead, we’re going to the model that is here, that is a software stack with a sensor, with sensor algorithms, with planning algorithms, with all those algorithms on there. Once you have that built in, then the robot becomes something that you can safely interact with from day one, from when you get it out of the box. That’s a change of thinking.” “There are a lot of benefits [to a software stack],” Iversen agreed. “If you see it from the customers’ point of view, which is really important, they have a much faster deployment of the robot. They have a much smaller investment; there’s a lot of equipment they don’t need to buy; safety equipment, they don’t need to put around the robot. They need a lot less space. Basically, they are out there, achieving their savings a lot faster than they would with traditional robots.”

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“By allowing us to have collaborative robots, a lot of the auxiliary hardware goes away, and at the same time, the programming goes down tremendously,” Christen said. “It implies that we deploy products that are much cheaper, we can do it faster, and we really get out there. At the end of the day, if it didn’t make economic sense, people wouldn’t use it.” Brooks said that collaborative robots can be a lot more than the way many people see them now. “I think we’ve seen a little of it— here’s an industrial robot, we’ll call it collaborative because we’ll get rid of the cage, maybe … collaborative robots, to me, are getting away from the idea that you build the environment for the robot, and for the people who are sort of peripheral around it.” “Imagine if you want to put robots in McDonald’s, and you said first you completely rebuild the way McDonald’s is set up, then you put the robot in ... that’s going to be a long production. I see it as more robots and people being close together, and

“Why can’t ... the industrial robots be more like the vast majority of robots in the world, which are things that people can interact with?” if there are people around, it means it’s an unstructured environment; these things move around. … Now, with the processing and sensors, robots can sense how environments change. It doesn’t need to be down to some millimeter of accuracy because robots can adapt; and that, to me, is a big part of collaborative robots, that it’s not the clean, pristine workspace, but it’s the workspace where people are, and once you have people and robots in the same workspace, the robot doesn’t have to be 100% perfect because people can do some of the harder tasks.” Shepherd said he sees the drive toward collaboration as being the best of both worlds.

“You get the best of what human beings do, and that’s think and act and adapt to the marketplace, and adapt to the application. A robot can do all the other things, be precise, be repeatable, be active, which is incredibly difficult for a human being to do.”


Robots will replace people in some manufacturing With a new breed of interactive robots, certain manufacturing tasks will benefit the most, and that will mean a lot of changes for manufacturers and how they’ll use robots in the future. Shepherd said that when you have a person and a machine together, you focus on the adaptability of the human being and the precision of the robot. “Sometimes just in sheer speed, any place where you can teach something once, or do some adaptive training, the robot can perform faster than a human being can, and also be able to record that it has, in fact, done the task correctly. This is extremely important because one of the challenges for the human being is—how do you know if they did the job right? Whereas if we’ve trained a robot and validate the process, then you know the robot will do it right, time and time again.” Ogawa agreed, and mentioned that when 100% precision is required all of the time, such as in some automotive applications, that’s an impossible situation for a human being over longer time periods. Iversen wondered which manufacturing tasks would not benefit from collaborative robots. October 2015

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Vickers Engineering, a Troy, Mich.-based manufacturer, has been growing at 20 to 30% annually with the help of robots and automation.

“The more we move collaborative robots away from being machines, and move them over to becoming tools ... the more applications it will make sense to automate.”



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“Even if you say that [a task] could be done also with traditional robots or with people … from a financial point of view, this is really where our customers are focused. It makes sense to do the automation with collaborative robots, and the more we move collaborative robots away from being dangerous machines and move them over to becoming safe tools—I think that is part of the transition that we are seeing today— the more applications it will make sense to automate. The way I look at it is that anything I can get my hands on, that will make sense to automate with a collaborative robot,” he said. Christen gave the example of an automotive manufacturer, where robots have taken over for people in the plate shop, the welding shop, the paint shop, and they haven’t really penetrated the remaining part of the automotive line. “It’s primarily because we are difficult customers,” he said. “We

all want custom products. If you take a simple car, like a Jaguar, it’s available in one million different configurations. So as soon as you get away from the standard model of product and into the latter, [we can] have humans and robots work together on this. There are things like putting in wire harnesses and things like that, it’s difficult to do for a robot. That’s where humans add a lot of value.” “We’re going away from the robots in the cages, so even in an area like automotive, we can see massive penetration,” Christen said. “We can see it in electronics, we can see it in aerospace … it’s going to be harder to see the places where we’ll not come this far.” And Brooks said that in the 90% of manufacturing places where there are no robots, that’s where he sees putting in collaborative robots. Why there? “Because that’s where there’s lots of people, and they’re doing some task which is repetitive, and it puts stress on them, or it’s just unpleasant,” he said.

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“But you’re not going to convince anyone of return on investment or just throwing out all the people, bringing in all the robots, set the thing up, and then have it happen. It’s got to be robots, incrementally, a little bit at a time.”


There’s potential for small- to medium-sized manufacturers Iversen explained that smaller manufacturers should look at robotic integration from a strategic point of view. They should ask,“What can I do to make my company stay competitive?” and then go through the manufacturing to see where do they have people sitting today, and where it would make sense to put in robots. “I think this is something that you would do like any other kind of automation task, or anything else that you would do to optimize your company,” he said. “You are being responsible for optimizing your company, and that means you are looking at new technology, and collaborative robots is one of the new types of technology that you need to look at. It’s no different than getting a new IT system or anything else that will basically make you more competitive, and more profitable. I don’t think that there’s a specific recipe here, but I think what we do see in the SMEs is that some … management is extremely focused on the daily operations. Probably the first step is to sort of step back, and then get away from daily operations and actually have a view on a more strategic development of the company.” Shepherd thinks there are two pieces to integrating robots. 128


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“Many [robots] can be rebuilt or have life extensions added to them … as the small to midsize company’s business changes, the robot can still be used and adapt to those changes.” “One is the technical knowledge required to go through ... A lot of small- to medium-sized companies don’t have the people internally who have been exposed to how to make those kinds of decisions. The first thing I would recommend is ask for help because the help is out there, and what may seem like a difficult application may in fact not be that bad,” he said. “The other thing, frankly, is the financing. I think the thing that slows down the vast majority of small to midsize companies is they don’t know how to approach their lending institution to talk about robotic automation. They don’t understand, that much, how to get the value out of it themselves, so it’s tough for them to write that into the business plan and present that to the banker. Robots actually have a much longer life than

what other capital equipment has because they’re flexible and can be reused. Many can be rebuilt or even have life extensions added to them, and they’ll go through three or four applications and last much longer than ELCs or PCs … as the small to midsize company’s business changes, the robot can be still used and still adapt to those changes.” Christen thinks a major factor is how manufacturers get educated. “A lot of them are still thinking about old-style robotics. It’s difficult, it takes a long time before anything starts moving. As an industry, we need to be much better at telling people, ‘Those are the old days, we can get you much faster.’ … It’s not such a big investment, but right now their expectation is this is going to be a big investment … we can’t afford to do this.” Iversen thinks SMEs are open to the new robotic technology—and they’re buying. “We probably have 3,000-plus collaborative robots installed in SMEs today, on a global scale, and this is just scratching the surface of what is about to happen in this industry; so it’s definitely out there,” he said. Crowther agreed. “The smaller companies are the fastest sales cycle because the product review board is the owner of the company. With the larger companies, we’ve gone to a safety meeting, and 20 safety people are on the other side of the table … smaller companies can make the decision much more quickly,” he said.

Summing it all up Christen sees a lot of areas where we see a mix of what is traditional manufacturing and service, such as in the supply chain area, where robotics

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Ro b o ti c s

are used for picking up materials and handling totes. “I think we’re seeing that the new collaborative robots in many cases have a relatively small footprint, in comparison, and that implies that they’re relatively easy to put on a mobile platform. You see a mobile network’s market growing for a lot of new applications, both in terms of some doing office collaborations to the traditional material handling, to healthcare-type of applications,” he said. Iversen described an application where industrial robots are used in a large bar in Holland. “There are three stories, and they put in rails on the walls. They basically have the robot [run around] whenever you order a drink. It can carry three glasses at a time; it will go and get the drink, and serve it, and basically then the bartender is really down to just doing all the chit chatting and taking the payment,” he said. “I was in San Francisco a few months ago, and a guy came up to me and said, ‘I’m opening a new restaurant, and I need to [incorporate robots],’” said Crowther. He was serious about that, so he came up with the total design of how he wanted them to handle the eggs and meat.” Shepherd noted that more and more robots are programmed offline—especially large robots, because you can’t physically reach them or it’s not safe to go in and do the programming. “The more that our simulation program can be what [people are] used to in the gaming world, the easier our life will become; so from a training point of view, yes, it’s the language of the user, whichever they prefer, but it’s also the accuracy and precision of the controls that we’re providing today that again brings a mid-grade-user ability into the environment.” DW


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“For our high performance robots, we need high speed, light weight, high torque actuators. The only solution is maxon.”

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What drives Dr. Dennis Hong is his quest to create truly humanoid robots that can do useful work. What drives his robots are maxon motors and controllers. Where precision, consistency, and easy integration are critical, maxon provides the intelligent drive systems to bring tomorrow’s designs to life. Learn how we can help you keep your projects moving. Visit us at Scan code to see video of Dr. Hong discuss working with maxon motors.

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The future of Automation & Robotics in the food industry The growing sophistication of robots has sparked debates among experts over what the food industry will look like in the next decade. The pace of robotic encroachment is a new development in this industry—and we’re just beginning to gain insight into how effectively robotics solve pain points at each stage of production—from processing to palletizing. A decade ago, 9 out of 10 robots manufactured were used in the automotive industry. While the automotive industry continues to be the largest consumer of industrial robots, we are seeing substantial growth in other industries. The proliferation of robotics has diluted the automotive industry’s share to 50%, with 46% being used in other industrial environments and 4% operating in the food industry. IFR is predicting this number to grow by another 4% by 2016. The food industry is the most immune to economic uncertainty, as food will always be required. Many robot manufacturers are targeting food manufacturers because of their need for automation—to handle labor intensive and repetitive tasks, increase throughput, regulate line changeovers and accommodate shorter production runs. 132


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Laura Studwell Food, Beverage, and Packaging Industry Marketing Manager

Dan Dibbern Robotics Product Manager


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Figure 1: The NJ Robotics controller can operate up to eight robots by providing independent or synchronized movements with the other motion devices in the machine, such as single servo axis or group of axes.

Flexibility to stay effici t Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s driving the market? When consumers demand variety, machine builders gravitate toward smart modularization, or designing different parts of a machine for flexibility, creating easier changeover and shorter production runs. Machine builders see value in centralized control architecture, meaning the controls would be

housed within part of the system. The central controller would handle several disciplines of automation, such as I/O, motion and safety. As the system expands to include robots, for example, there would be no additional controller required. Each time a module is added within the system, such as a robotic cell, the central controller sees it and all of its components as extra network October 2015

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Figure 2: The NJ Robotics controller uses the EtherCAT bus to provide high-performance motion control for demanding applications.

nodes, maintaining real-time and deterministic coordination across all technologies contained within the node. This automates changeover, verifies the presence or absence of modules, such as servo motors, vision systems and safety components, and adjusts all coordination automatically. Centralized control architecture brings the system with all of its modules under one software for configuration, programming and commissioning logic, motion, vision, safety and robotics. For revision handling, this is a key concept because the entire system, not only the individual module, is saved in one project with roll-back/rollforward capabilities throughout the development cycle. To accommodate variations in packaging, a new revision can be configured within the same project, where it will be backed-up with other revisions. 134

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Personalization through e-commerce Classic examples of differentiation through personalization are popping up on the Internet at a fast pace. One e-commerce site has dominated this concept by allowing visitors to input their preferences and receive a personalized box customized with samples that meet their unique desires. Samples in one box will differ from those in another box. So how does this rapidly growing company accommodate on-demand changes? They break the mold and make customization through personalization a mass trend in manufacturing. Mass customization requires understanding the trade-off between process complexity versus process variability. This goes into the fundamentals on how a manufacturing line is set up and

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how the process flow is oriented. There is no more local view—it now becomes a system’s view controlled by automation and communications throughout the line and from the plant floor to the store door (or in this case, the consumer’s door). Mass personalization that necessitates on-demand changes all comes together through communications and automation, and in this case, with the use of robotics and vision systems. This company doesn’t go out and buy another machine specifically to assemble each differentiated box; they accommodate small production runs that are madeto-order and customized through highly flexible machinery.

The robotic movement Technology is already available to meet the challenges companies face on a daily basis, from flexibility to customization. But what does this mean for the workforce? Rising efficiency in robots is shaping how developing economies can compete with emerging economies. Developing countries need to do more with fewer people as viable populations rise in emerging nations. Today, production lines are designed to be an effective collaboration between man and machine. But will robots eventually cause redundant positions, eliminating part of the workforce? Economists widely believe businesses will evolve to stay ahead of technological advances and automation will create demand for more skilled workers. Blue-collar workers can be re-deployed to other areas of the business to keep up with the automated throughput generated by robots. Industry experts will argue that even though some blue-collar jobs may be re-deployed, more efficient 136


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manufacturing will create skilled jobs, from servicing to designing. Many companies are dedicated to training for skilled positions and will create opportunities in other areas to accommodate the shift to a more skilled labor force. A 2014 study by CareerBuilder notes that 68% of companies created new jobs after automating others.   Many people—from factory workers to governing bodies and economists—are wondering if robots are on the cusp of completely changing the face of the food processing and packaging supply chain. While most agree that it will not be immediate, the integration of robots will ultimately have a big impact on the food industry. DW Omron

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Aerotech Delta Robot with Scalable, Open-Architecture Robot Control Aerotech’s RCP-DELTA is available in four models that support payloads up to 3 kg, with X/Y operating ranges of 500/800/1100/1300 mm, and an optional continuous rotation about the Z axis. Extensive use of carbon fiber and light-weight aluminum results in 200 pick-and-place operations per minute with peak acceleration to 15g. With absolute encoders on each motor the robot never has to be referenced, even after power loss. The RCP-DELTA control system is based on Aerotech’s A3200 Machine Controller. The A3200’s networked, distributed architecture provides a scalable platform upon which additional robots, I/O, and positioning devices can be integrated easily. Multiple programming interfaces provide deployment flexibility by allowing developers to work in the environment that matches their skill sets or application requirements. External sensors are supported with industry standard fieldbuses (EtherCAT, Modbus TCP, Ethernet/IP™, and others) or applications operating in the RCP-DELTA’s realtime enabled Windows® operating system.

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DieQua Corporation Robotic Joints Need High Rigidity and Torque Density Robots and robotic positioners are required to provide precise movements to achieve their task. With cantilevered loads and quick movements, mechanical play and material torsion are enemies of accuracy. To maximize load capacity and increase cycle times you need a reduction unit with high torque density, zero backlash, and high rigidity for it’s size. The Spinea Twinspin is the solution. This revolutionary design has zero backlash along with high transmittable torque and the best rigidity for their size. 3 models are the smallest cycloidal reducers in the world, down to 50 mm diameter, which provides 3 times the end of arm performance over flex spline alternatives. 7 larger models, up to 300 mm diameter, are ideal for controlling axis motion in the other joints of robots with multiple degrees of freedom.


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Harmonic Drive Ultra-fl t, Zero-Backlash Gear Units The CSF-2UP gear unit is the newest model in the CSF mini-series product line. These new zerobacklash gear units have an ultra-flat configuration and feature a large cross-roller bearing with highmoment stiffness. Harmonic Drive速 gear units are comprised of a zero-backlash gear integrated with a housing and precision output bearing. These new models are very lightweight and extremely flat. Utilizing a large cross-roller bearing at the output flange allows direct mounting of the load without the need for any additional support, enabling compact robot designs. These bearings have excellent axial and radial run-out characteristics and provide high load capacity as well as high-moment stiffness to achieve precise, repeatable positioning of the robot arm. The CSF-2UP mini gearheads are ideally suited for robotic joints, wheel drives or manipulators requiring an ultra-compact solution.

Helukabel USA HELUKABEL offers complete cable protection systems and cable routing systems for robotics. The systems are developed and manufactured as individual and special solutions, depending on the type of application the customer requires. The product range includes dress package systems and associated systems for automation, handling, and spot welding, as well as gas-shielded welding and laser welding. HELUKABEL also offers robotic cables that are extremely resistant to mechanical stress, incl. BUS cables, control- and motor supply cables, and pre-assembled special cables. Contact Helukabel USA for more information.


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maxon precision motors, inc. Service Robots Use Flat Motors Service robots being designed for the disabled must be reliable, safe, and easy to use. Having the right motion system components is essential for these highly specific applications. Kinova Robotics (Quebec, Canada) turned to maxon motor to bring their engineering expertise when designing the Jaco2 Robotic Arm. The arm was designed using six joints from a shoulder-type joint through to a functional wrist joint. It moves around six degrees of freedom through the use of six lightweight and efficient flat maxon motors. Quiet operation of the motors only added to their overall appeal for the application, especially because of the human-robot interaction. All the motors in the arm are daisy-chained using a single cable that runs through the system. The tight form factor dictated the size and type of motor the company could use, and they were able to match their needs to maxon devices. For more details, visit

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NB Corporation Ball Splines Eliminate Backlash. NB Ball Splines are designed for applications that may require both linear motion and superior torque transmission - from robotics to transport equipment. They have recirculating steel balls that are on the side of the outer race and eliminate backlash even in high speed rotation applications. Available in 16 standard and customizable shaft sizes with diameters from 4mm to 100mm. There are 6 different nut (the outer cylinder that retains the ball elements) styles. The large surface area of ball contact with grooved shaft results in high load capacity.


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Omron Automation and Safety Omron Washdown Delta Robots Machine designers adding pick-and-place capability to increase throughput from packaging and assembly lines now have washdown capable delta robot options from Omron to meet IP67 and IP69K requirements. The IP67 rated robots withstand regular water washdown. The IP69K models withstand high pressurehigh temperature steam jet cleaning and designed for clean in place. Omron’s Sysmac Robot solution integrates robot control, motion and vision control, as well as logic and safety control in the NJ5 Robotic controller. A full line of IP69K rated sensors support machine coordination. Let Omron solve your tough throughput challenge.

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Visumatic Advanced Robotic Fastening & Joining Assembly Technology When most engineers think about flexible assembly, they imagine robots. Robots can perform a wide variety of repeatable tasks during their long life. Which is great, since manufacturers are faced with assembling an expanding mix of products in a shrinking number of plants. Visumatic’s Viper MBC screw driving robot was developed to meet these challenges. It is an engineered feed and install system for projects that require quick and accurate fastening. The lean, flexible design allows placement in a variety of assembly processes. This robot package is modular and extremely durable for rapid assembly line deployment. Engineered for your parts and your business, every system is backed by the strongest guarantee in the business. Visumatic’s breadth of robotic expertise means you can rely on them to handle every fastening challenge your company faces – today and forever.

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SCHUNK SCHUNK is the worldwide leader for clamping technology and gripping systems, designing and manufacturing an unmatched selection such as grippers, linear modules, mobile gripping systems, and robot accessories. With over 2,300 employees located in more than 50 countries, SCHUNK offers global customer service and technical support. SCHUNK is a family owned operation with over 60 years of experience, living the mission that “with a pioneering spirit and perfection, we are setting worldwide standards”. SCHUNK has recently developed the SCHUNK PGN-plus-E. It is the world’s first digitally controlled mechatronic gripper with patented multi-tooth guidance and boasts all of the same trusted features of its pneumatic do-it-all counterpart, the PGN-plus-P, in electrical handling. The SCHUNK PGN-plus-E has modified multi-tooth guidance for higher moment, continuous lubrication in the guide contour, and proven diagonal-pull kinematics with a high surface coverage in all stroke positions.

SCHUNK 211 Kitty Hawk Drive Morrisville, NC 27560 USA Tel: 919 572 2705 Fax: 919 572 2818 E-mail:

Schneider Electric Motion USA High torque motors deliver up to 50% more torque Premium motor option available in NEMA 23 Lexium MDrive integrated products Marlborough/CT, September 10, 2015 — Lexium MDrive NEMA size 23 are now available with premium high torque stepper motors as an alternative to standard motors. This new motor option delivers up to 50% more torque, boosting the performance of Lexium MDrive integrated products to an even higher performance level while maintaining compact size and format. More at: “Increasing torque performance without increasing Lexium MDrive product size represents a real advantage for applications where space is a premium — such as medical and life science. These products are also great for industrial applications, especially the IP65 rated version with circular M12 connectors. We are winning business daily, replacing servos, and even some gearboxes, by delivering the required torque in a lower cost, space saving package,” according to Paul Kling, VP Sales, SEM USA. True closed loop performance of Lexium MDrive products, while eliminating possible motor stalling, also delivers continuous torque at low speeds; eliminates tuning; reduces heat and energy usage with variable current control. Wiring is reduced by up to 40%, and installation time cut 25% by replacing multiple individual components. Choose from industry standard communication protocols including: EtherNet/IP, ModbusTCP, Profinet, CANopen, and serial RS-422/485 with programmable motion control and pulse/direction input. Lexium MDrive products are well-suited for both new and existing applications. For details: MDrive is the world’s most complete family of integrated motor products, both rotary and linear. In motion today in a wide range of applications from medical, laboratory and pharmaceutical to assembly, robotics and packaging. For details, please go to 370 N. Main Street Marlborough, CT 06447 Phone: 860-295-6102 Fax: 860-295-6107


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Universal Robots Reinventing Industrial Robotics Universal Robots has reinvented industrial robotics with flexible, collaborative robot arms. Innovative force-sensing technology makes the robot stops operating when encountering an employee, eliminating the need for safety guarding in most scenarios. Unlike traditional industrial robots that stay hardwired in a cage, the lightweight UR Robots can be moved around, automating high mix low volume production runs. Programming is intuitive; simply grab the robot arm to teach the desired movement, or use the touch screen. The Polyscope GUI runs on a Linux OS platform for easy customization of specific tasks and tools. Product portfolio includes the UR3, UR5 and UR10 robot arms named after their payloads in kilos, they all feature 0.1 mm repeatability and span in reach from 19.7â&#x20AC;? in to 51.2â&#x20AC;?. Sold in more than 50 countries worldwide, the average payback period for a Universal Robots is only 195 days, the fastest in the industry. Universal Robots USA, Inc. 11 Technology Drive East Setauket, New York 11733, USA Tel. +1 631 610-9664

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Pro duc t World Dampers and struts QA1 Shock absorber catalog displays a variety of dampers and struts for the commercial and industrial OE markets. Applications include commercial utility vehicles and various industrial applications. The company manufactures many styles of shock absorbers, including twin-tube and monotube, in a variety of sizes, mounting configurations and

Coordinate measuring machine Keyence The XM Series handheld probe coordinate measuring machine performs highprecision 3D measurements using an onscreen interactive visual guide and touch probe. Operation does not require any foundation or ancillary equipment, and the system’s temperature and humidity operating ranges are 50 to 95° F and 20 to 80% RH, respectively.

compression rates. The company also supplies test sample kits that are field tunable and provide for the adjustment of both compression and rebound rates simply by turning knobs.

Enclosure vortex coolers AutomationDirect Stratus enclosure vortex coolers provide

A simpler programming solution B&R Automation

compressed air cooling where conventional enclosure cooling by

Modular application (mapp) technology from B&R

air conditioners or heat

maintains familiar, IEC compliant ladder and function

exchangers is not possible.

block programming—except with mapp components,

The all-stainless-steel

more time is spent on configuring rather than

vortex coolers have

programming. mapp technology also offers a fast, easy

cooling capacities from 500 to 2,500 BTUH. Mountable in a ¾-in. electrical conduit knockout, the vortex coolers’ compact physical size contains no moving parts, requiring virtually no maintenance.

way to implement OMAC PackML, the ISA TR88.00.02 standard for defining machine states, modes and tag naming conventions. With mapp technology, machine control can be accessed and diagnosed down to the function block level without requiring dedicated software, special training or access to the source code.



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For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @

Widescreen multi-touch computer Advantech

Proximity sensors and cordsets Carlo Gavazzi

Users can operate the 18.5-in. TPC-1881WP touch

ICS Inductive Proximity Sensors comply with,

panel PC with all ten fingers

or are certified to, IP69K, ECOLAB and FDA

simultaneously to control

standards, and easily accommodate both hot

all aspects of an application.

and cold temperature extremes. They have an

The TPC-1881WP has an

operating range of 40 to 80° C ( 40 to 176°

integrated 7H hardness anti-scratch glass screen, meaning it can be touched by workers carrying tools without fear of damage. It features an Intel 4th Generation Core i3 or i7 1.7-GHz processor with 4 GB DDR3 RAM. Included is a mini-PCIe iDoor slot to enable greater flexibility by adding a wide range of functionality, such as isolated digital I/O, fieldbus protocol, 3G/GPS/GPRS/WiFi communication and MRAM.

F). The sensors are available in M12, M18 and M30 316L stainless steel housings, with single or double sensing distance, flush or non-flush mounting, and normally-open or normallyclosed outputs with 200 mA PNP or NPN transistor output. IP69K CONB Series Cordsets are ECOLAB

Encoder for offshore motion applications

certified, and have one of the highest temperature ratings in the market. The cordsets are rated from 40 to 105° C ( 40 to 221° F). They are available in 2 or 5 m lengths, with a straight or 90° connector, and come in

Leine & Linde

non-illuminated or LED versions.

IXA 648 absolute rotary encoders are certified according to ATEX and IECEx for use in hazardous applications where extreme conditions are common. The encoder avoids magnets and glass to provide a measurement technology that can withstand high temperatures, shock and vibrations. Its inductive scanning system also makes it insensitive to contamination. Available with up to 31-bit multi-turn resolution, this encoder can communicate with a control using PROFIBUS, PROFINET, CANopen, DeviceNet, SSI or an EnDat interface. It is rated for operation up to 6,000 rpm and 70° C.  

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Ad In dex Accu-Mold LLC . ...............................................65 ACE Controls . ..................................................64 Aggressive Hydraulics, Inc. ..........................31 Allied Electronics, Inc. . ....................Cover,3,75 AllMotion . ..........................................................4 American Control Electronics . ......................47 AMETEK Catalyst Motion Group ....................21 AMETEK PMC ...................................................17 AMETEK PMC/Dynamic Fluid Solutions........23 Anchor Fluid Power . .......................................32 Applied Motion Products, Inc. .......................13 Aurora Bearing Co. . ........................................18 AutomationDirect .......................................... IFC AutomationDirect .....................................insert Banner Engineering Corp. .............................15 Baumer ............................................................41 BEI Sensors .....................................................71 Bimba Manufacturing Co. ................................9 Bison Gear & Engineering Corp. . .................IBC Bodine Electric Company ..............................78 Brogan & Patrick Manufacturing Corp. . ......54 CADENAS PARTsolutions ..............................110 CGI, Inc. ............................................................49 Chieftek Precision Co., LTD ................. 55,57,59 Clippard Instrument Laboratory, Inc. . .........BC Crouzet Motors .........................................38,39 Del-Tron Precision, Inc. . .................................77 Delta Computer Systems, Inc. ......................69 Design2Parts . ..............................................113 DSM Somos .................................................. 105 Dunkermotor, part of AMETEK ......................19 Eagle Stainless Tube & Fabrication, Inc. ...................................36,37 Elesa U.S.A Corp. ......................................52,53 Encoder Products Co. . .................................. 86 Epson America, Inc. . .......................................1 EXAIR Corp. ........................................................5 Firestone Industrial Products Co., LLC ........ 92 Fixtureworks . .................................................18 Helical Products Company ..............................7 Hitachi Cable America, Inc .............................33 Humphrey Products Corp. ........................... 28 IDEC Corp. ........................................................63 Interpower Corp. ............................................ 56 ITT Enidine Inc. ............................................ 118 J.W. Winco, Inc. .............................................. 84 Lee Spring Co. .............................................. 103 Maple Systems, Inc. .......................................87

Master Bond, Inc. . ......................................... 84 Minnesota Rubber & Plastics . ......................43 National Instruments Corp. .......................... 60 Newcomb Spring Corp. ....................................8 ODU-USA Inc. ...................................................67 OPTO 22 ...........................................................51 PBC Linear .......................................................85 PHD Inc. .......................................................... 44 Phoenix Contact GmbH & Co. . ......................97 PITTMAN . .........................................................25 Proto Labs, Inc. .........................................40,45 Red Lion Controls Inc. ....................................76 Rotor Clip Co., Inc. . ...............................109,111 SAPA Extrusions North America . ................. 95 Schroeder Industries .....................................91 Setco Inc. ....................................................... 99 Smalley Steel Ring Co. ...................................10 Sorbothane, Inc. .............................................12 SUCO Technologies, Inc. . ...............................12 Taylor Devices Inc. . ........................................79 Tompkins Industries, Inc. ............................. 93 Trim-Lok, Inc. ................................................. 30 US Digital, Inc. ................................................ 50 Whittet-Higgins Co. . .......................................29 Zero-Max, Inc. . ..................................................2

Regional Sales Manager Neel Gleason 312.882.9867 @wtwh_ngleason

VP of EE Product Development Mike Caruso 469.855.7344

Regional Sales Manager Jessica East 330.319.1253 @wtwh_MsMedia

VP, Business Development Michael Ference 408.769.1188 @mrference General Manager Todd Christenson 440.381.9048 @wtwh_todd VP, Business Development David Geltman 516.510.6514 @wtwh_david Key Account Manager Jim Powers 312.925.7793 @jpowers_media Regional Sales Manager Tom Lazar 408.701.7944 @wtwh_Tom

Rob ot i cs Su p p lem en t

Regional Sales Manager Courtney Seel 440.523.1685 @wtwh_CSeel


VP Sales Todd Tidmore 512.626.8263 @wtwh_ttidmore

A Supplement to Design World - October 2015


Regional Sales Manager Megan Hollis 440.821.2941 @wtwh_Megan Business Development Michelle Flando 440.670.4772 @mflando

LEADERSHIP TEAM Publisher Mike Emich 508.446.1823 @wtwh_memich Managing Director Scott McCafferty 310.279.3844 @SMMcCafferty EVP Marshall Matheson 805.895.3609 @mmatheson

3 robotics trends you need to watch â&#x20AC;˘ 122

The Future of Automation & Robotics 132

Aerotech, Inc. ................................................120 DieQua Corp. . ............................................... 130 Harmonic Drive LLC . ....................................127 HELUKABEL USA .......................................... 134 maxon precision motor, inc.........................131 NB Corp. .........................................................129 Omron ............................................................139 Schneider Electric ........................................135 SCHUNK, INTEC .............................................141 Universal Robots ..........................................137 Visumatic Industrial Products ....................145


Follow the whole team on twitter @DesignWorld

DESIGN WORLD does not pass judgment on subjects of controversy nor enter into dispute with or between any individuals or organizations. DESIGN WORLD is also an independent forum for the expression of opinions relevant to industry issues. Letters to the editor and by-lined articles express the views of the author and not necessarily of the publisher or the publication. Every effort is made to provide accurate information; however, publisher assumes no responsibility for accuracy of submitted advertising and editorial information. Non-commissioned articles and news releases cannot be acknowledged. Unsolicited materials cannot be returned nor will this organization assume responsibility for their care. DESIGN WORLD does not endorse any products, programs or services of advertisers or editorial contributors. CopyrightŠ 2015 by WTWH Media, LLC. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, or by recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher. Subscription Rates: Free and controlled circulation to qualified subscribers. Non-qualified persons may subscribe at the following rates: U.S. and possessions: 1 year: $125; 2 years: $200; 3 years: $275; Canadian and foreign, 1 year: $195; only US funds are accepted. Single copies $15 each. Subscriptions are prepaid, and check or money orders only. Subscriber Services: To order a subscription or change your address, please email:, or visit our web site at DESIGN WORLD (ISSN 1941-7217) is published monthly by: WTWH Media, LLC; 6555 Carnegie Ave., Suite 300, Cleveland, OH 44103. Periodicals postage paid at Cleveland, OH & additional mailing offices. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to: Design World, 6555 Carnegie Ave., Suite 300, Cleveland, OH 44103



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AC Runs Cooler & Longer Lasting than Traditional Right Angle Gearmotors AC and DC options available now 1/15 - 1/2 HP; 35-1780 in-lbs • AC MOTOR OPTIONS: 115V 1PH, 115/230V 1PH 230V 3PH Inverter Duty, 230/400-460 50/60HZ 3PH • DC MOTOR OPTIONS 720 frame size: 12V, 24V, 90V, 130V and 180V 725 frame size: 12V, 24V, 90V, 130V and 180V 730 frame size: 24V, 90V and 130V • Maximum power density means a compact profile without compromising performance • Ground gearing provides whisper quiet operation, low backlash precision • Latest hypoid gear technology ensures less friction/heat and extends product life • Versatile mounting interchangeability to easily upgrade your installed drives • Exclusive PowerSTAR® EP lubricant for extended life To learn more about PowerSTAR® right-angle gearmotors, please visit Bison’s NEW WEBSITE at or call 1-800-AT-BISON.

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Design World October 2015  

Next generation Hall-effect sensors excel; PLUS - MOTION CONTROL: 5 myths about safety in machinery; COUPLINGS: IoT and couplings: fairytale...

Design World October 2015  

Next generation Hall-effect sensors excel; PLUS - MOTION CONTROL: 5 myths about safety in machinery; COUPLINGS: IoT and couplings: fairytale...

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