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January 2017

Leadership in Engineering 2017

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I n s i g ht s Leading the way to Mars There was a time, during the heady race into space and to the Moon, when working at NASA was perhaps the ultimate dream for an engineer. And there was also a time a few decades later, when the space shuttle program felt stagnant, and working for NASA sounded more like a punishment to a graduating engineer. I sense that we’re returning to the former days at NASA, and I had the privilege of interviewing Dr. Dava Newman, NASA’s Deputy Administrator, last month for our annual Leadership in Engineering issue (see the feature beginning on page 184). The agency was recently awarded the “Best Place to Work in the Federal Government” award for the fifth consecutive year. When we sat down in Newman’s office at NASA’s Washington, D.C. headquarters, I knew that she would talk about her passions for exploration, for teamwork, and for promoting STEM careers. But I was a little surprised by how she excited me about the journey to Mars that we’re undertaking. The project is a huge one, and Newman’s leadership skills have been needed to break it down into doable parts. She explained that NASA’s space launch system, the Orion capsule, will launch in 2018 with no astronauts aboard—that’s deemed Exploration Mission One. Exploration Mission Two, with astronauts aboard, will launch in the early 2020s. “All the entire decade of the 2020s, we’ll just keep going back—Earth, Moon and deep space,” she told me. NASA will be busy proving the technologies that we’ll need for serious Mars exploration: space propulsion, solar electric propulsion, life support systems, deep space habitats. And after that is actually putting people in Mars orbit and then eventually on the surface. People always ask her: will that be a round trip to Mars? “It’s a round trip, yes, many round trips—hopefully we get to keep going,” she said enthusiastically. “Those astronauts are going to be someone who is in school today—probably in high school or maybe in college. Those students are going to be the first Mars astronauts. I will do everything I can to empower that, to help lead and inspire the next generation. I call them the Mars generation.” For a decades-long plan like getting to Mars, Newman and her team have had to look at not only the innovation of the technology, but in the innovation of the organization—figuring out how can engineers work better together with both technical and non-technical people. And although we engineers tend to focus on the physical problems of a particular design or system, this serves as a nice reminder that we have to communicate with the other members of our company effectively and clearly. Dava offers interesting insights into communication and the new tools engineers will need, especially visual communication skills. It’s great to see that NASA is once again leading—and having its engineers play a major part. DW

Pa ul J. He n ey - Edi tor i al D i re ctor phe ney@wtwhme di

On Twitter @ DW—Editor


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January 2017

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The Truth About Compressed Air! If you think compressed air is too expensive and noisy - read this. The facts will surprise you!

Compare these Blowoffs

There are a variety of ways to blow the water from the bottles shown in the photo below, but which method is best? To decide, we ran a comparison test on the same application using four different blowoff methods: drilled pipe, flat air nozzles, Super Air Knife (each using compressed air as a power source), and a blower supplied air knife (using an electric motor as a power source). Each system consisted of two twelve inch long air knives. The following comparison proves that the EXAIR Super Air Knife is the best choice for your blowoff, cooling or drying application. The goal for each of the blowoff choices was to use the least amount of air possible to get the job done (lowest energy and noise level). The compressed air pressure required was 60 PSIG which provided adequate velocity to blow the water off. The blower used had a ten horsepower motor and was a centrifugal type blower at 18,000 RPM. The table at the bottom of the page summarizes the overall performance. Since your actual part may have an odd configuration, holes or sharp edges, we took sound level measurements in free air (no impinging surface).

Drilled Pipe

Blower Air Knife

This common blowoff is very inexpensive and easy to make. For this test, we used (2) drilled pipes, each with (25) 1/16" diameter holes on 1/2" centers. As shown in the test results below, the drilled pipe performed poorly. The initial cost of the drilled pipe is overshadowed by its high energy use. The holes are easily blocked and the noise level is excessive - both of which violate OSHA requirements. Velocity across the entire length was very inconsistent with spikes of air and numerous dead spots.

The blower proved to be an expensive, noisy option. As noted below, the purchase price is high. Operating cost was considerably lower than the drilled pipe and fl at air nozzle, but was comparable to EXAIR’s Super Air Knife. The large blower with its two 3" (8cm) diameter hoses requires significant mounting space compared to the others. Noise level was high at 90 dBA. There was no option for cycling it on and off to conserve energy like the other blowoffs. Costly bearing and filter maintenance along with downtime were also negative factors.

Flat Air Nozzles

EXAIR Super Air Knife

As shown below, this inexpensive air nozzle was the worst performer. It is available in plastic, aluminum and stainless steel from several manufacturers. The flat air nozzle provides some entrainment, but suff ers from many of the same problems as the drilled pipe. Operating cost and noise level are both high. Some manufacturers off er fl at air nozzles where the holes can be blocked - an OSHA violation. Velocity was inconsistent with spikes of air.

The Super Air Knife did an exceptional job of removing the moisture on one pass due to the uniformity of the laminar airflow. The sound level was extremely low. For this application, energy use was slightly higher than the blower but can be less than the blower if cycling on and off is possible. Safe operation is not an issue since the Super Air Knife can not be dead-ended. Maintenance costs are low since there are no moving parts to wear out.

Facts about Blowers

Energy conscious plants might think a blower to be a better choice due to its slightly lower electrical consumption compared to a compressor. In reality, a blower is an expensive capital expenditure that requires frequent downtime and costly maintenance of filters, belts and bearings. Here are some important facts: Filters must be replaced every one to three months. Belts must be replaced every three to six months. Typical bearing replacement is at least once a year at a cost near $1000. •

Blower bearings wear out quickly due to the high speeds (17-20,000 RPM) required to generate effective airflows.

Poorly designed seals that allow dirt and moisture infi ltration and environments above 125°F decrease the one year bearing life.

Many bearings can not be replaced in the field, resulting in downtime to send the assembly back to the manufacturer.

Blowers take up a lot of space and often produce sound levels that exceed OSHA noise level exposure requirements. Air volume and velocity are often difficult to control since mechanical adjustments are required. To discuss an application, contact: EXAIR Corporation 11510 Goldcoast Drive Cincinnati, Ohio 45249-1621 (800) 903-9247 Fax: (513) 671-3363 email: See the Super Air Knife in action.

The Super Air Knife is the low cost way to blowoff, dry, clean and cool.

Blowoff Comparison Type of blowoff


Comp. Air

Horsepower SCFM SLPM Required

Sound Annual Purchase Approx. Annual First Year Level Electrical Price Maintenance Cost Cost dBA Cost*

Drilled Pipes



174 4,924







Flat Air Nozzles



257 7,273







Blower Air Knife











Super Air Knife











*Based on national average electricity cost of 8.3 cents per kWh. Annual cost reflects 40 hours per week, 52 weeks per year.

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Te s c h l e r o n To p i c

Autonomous vehicle lineage: From one of the “worst cars of all time” The governor of Michigan recently signed legislation allowing autonomous vehicles to operate on the state’s highways. The signing was at a ceremony wherein the legislator was flanked by a self-driving Ford Fusion and a Model T. For those who follow the auto industry, there was an irony in the presence of that car manufactured over 100 years ago: Time Magazine once put the Model T on its list of the “50 worst cars of all time.” Time’s reasoning was that the Model T deserved this sad distinction because it was the first car produced on an assembly line and thus unleashed the “consequences of putting every living soul on gas-powered wheels.” You might guess from this verbiage that Time viewed those “consequences” as being overwhelmingly negative. It is surprising that we’ve come to a point where journalists view as unfavorable the outcomes stemming from mass production, and particularly the mass production of vehicles. So perhaps it’s time to review why mass-produced vehicles have vastly benefited humankind. For a good summary, we can turn to the public policy analyst Randal O’Toole. He points out that the rise in the speed of urban travel made possible by mass-produced autos has dramatically boosted productivity and thereby improved the living standards of working people. Specifically, autos

eliminated the need for workers to live near their jobs. Consequently, by making suburbs practical, there has been a 50% rise in the rate of homeownership since 1940 that stems partly from the availability of auto travel. Blue-blood critics generally view the suburbs in which most of those homes reside as urban sprawl. But O’Toole points out that mass-produced vehicles have made it possible to preserve far more productive farm land than urban areas have consumed. His reasoning is that before trucks and tractors replaced teams of horses, about a third of all farm land had to be devoted to pasture. Since 1913, he says, close to 200 million acres of American pasture has been converted to productive crops or forests. In contrast, suburbs occupy well under 100 million acres. Getting back to the autonomous vehicles soon to be tooling around Michigan roads, I would add another benefit to O’Toole’s list. It looks as though Uber-style robotic cars could finally bring an end to plans for ill-conceived light rail lines. This would be a good thing. Statistics show that most light rail lines are less energy efficient than private cars. One analysis done by Brad Templeton, internet pioneer and Chair Emeritus of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, reveals the problem. He employed figures from the U.S. Dept. of Energy to compare the energy efficiency of

various modes of transportation in terms of BTUs per passenger-mile. The average light rail line, Templeton found, expends about 7,600 btu/passengermile while the average private car carrying one person expends only 5,500 btu/ passenger-mile. The reason for light rail’s poor showing is that a lot of light rail lines run almost empty much of the time. Many light rail lines go in because of political agendas and wishful thinking rather than because of compelling ridership projections. Fleets of Uber-style robotic cars could make much more sense than rail lines in terms of energy and resource use. The energy efficiency of such vehicles could look a lot like that of a Tesla, which consumes a little under 2,000 btu/passenger-mile. But you don’t arrive at a mass-produced robotic version of a Tesla unless you start with the mass-produced Model T. That reality seems to be lost on journalists at Time. DW

Le la n d Te sc h le r - Exec u t i ve Edi to r ltesc h ler@wtwh m edi a .co m

On Twitter @ DW—LeeTeschler



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January 2017

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Te c h n o lo gy Fo r wa rd

Additive manufacturing’s bright future 2016 was an extraordinary year for additive manufacturing. Most vendors introduced truly manufacturing capable machines thanks to all the research and investment they could do when 3D printing was overhyped. But perhaps the more interesting development in 2016 was the number of big-name companies entering into this industry, with their own investment capital that will help advance this technology further. For example:

Arconic, a company formed from a split of Alcoa in 2016, opened a state-of-the-art 3D printing metal powder production facility. Located at the Arconic Technology Center, the company will produce proprietary titanium, nickel and aluminum powders optimized for 3D printed aerospace parts. Dow Corning, a global leader in silicones and silicon-based technology, entered this market when it announced a 3D printable silicone rubber. GE made a lot of moves in additive manufacturing. It is looking to expand its core competencies, which is why it is busy forming partnerships or buying established additive vendors. GE formed a relationship with Local Motors to create Fuse, a business model that will accelerate small batch additive manufacturing. The company recently bought Concept Laser and, as of this writing, tendered an offer for Arcam. GE plans to grow its additive manufacturing business to $1 billion by 2020, which would be impressive. Henkel Adhesive Technologies, a leader in light cure acrylic, silicone, epoxy, and polyurethane adhesives announced it will develop materials for this industry.

The Michelin Group has been developing its expertise in metal additive manufacturing to produce molded parts too difficult to make using traditional means of production, such as machining and welding. It went into a joint venture with Fives to form the Fives Michelin Additive Solutions, a partnership aimed at developing and marketing industrial machines and production shops through “metal additive manufacturing” technology. SAP, a developer of enterprise software for managing business operations, is getting into this industry. It is working with Stratasys to establish a global network of 3D printing co-innovation labs. The purpose is to spread the adoption of 3D printing/additive manufacturing. Siemens has several relationships and partnerships in the additive market. It is working with Stratasys, HP, and Local Motors. Siemens is developing software that will smooth the transition from prototyping to production. Plus, the company recently opened a production facility for metal 3D printed components in Finspång, Sweden. Siemens is also working with laser system manufacturer Trumpf in a partnership to help industrialize laser metal fusion technology and make the additive manufacturing process for metal parts an integral part of the production process. Even 30 years in, some think additive manufacturing still has something to prove. Clearly, though, these major vendors in the manufacturing industry think additive has a great deal to offer. DW

Le sli e La n gn a u - M a n ag i n g Edi to r lla n g n a u r@wtwh m edi a .co m

On Twitter @ DW—3Dprinting 8


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January 2017

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January 2017

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Co ntent s |

January 2017 • vol 12 no 1





MOTION CONTROL Step Motors expand performance capabilities

Step motors continue to march toward parity with servomotors, with new motor-control combos boosting torque while reducing losses.




Onboard electronics make linear actuators safer and smarter

MOTION CONTROL New ways of controlling indexers for precision motion



Simulation is becoming democratized—at last (Part 3)

Why does simultaneous sourcing/ measurement matter?

MECHANICAL Fake bearings, real danger: How to fight back in 2017

Global initiatives have helped slow the bleeding, but experts say there is still much to be done. Here is what fighting counterfeit bearings will look like in 2017.


PNEUMATICS A primer on vacuum systems When a machine needs to pick up or move fragile or oddly shaped objects, vacuum might be the answer.


LEADERSHIP Dr. Dava Newman leads engineers toward teamwork

NASA’s Deputy Administrator Dava Newman has a vision for the future of humankind on Mars and on earth. She advocates for an inclusive approach to garner top talent for math, science, art and design fields encompassed in STEAMD programs—and thinks that understanding engineering as an integrated field for problem solving will ultimately serve the industry best.s.

INDUSTRIAL ETHERNET How HMIs can solve the industrial Ethernet communication problem

Connecting the many different industrial Ethernet protocols found in a typical plant or facility can be a headache, but an HMI can relieve the pain.

Engineers whose test bench already comes equipped with power supplies, meters, and electronic loads might wonder what good a source measure unit might be. Here’s the rationale for this type of instrument.



A revolutionary new generation of fitfor-purpose, product-specific simulation “apps” By placing advanced simulation and analysis are making unprecedented powers of automated design exploration, optimization, synthesis and validation accessible.

There are key differences between fixedposition indexers and closed-loop position indexers. Here we review them and how to control for maximum accuracy.


Hip to be square: New Ujoint “square ball” design is smoother than it sounds


A new U-joint design features a “square ball” and only six parts. This is how they made it happen.

Built-in actuator support for the SAE J1939 CAN bus standard gives engineers new options for integrating electromechanical actuators.



Lea d e r s

On the cover:



2 69 - 5 17


Simulation is becoming democratized—at last (Part 2)

Photo: istockphoto

Two decades after the first efforts to put simulation and analysis capabilities in the hands of non-analyst engineers and designers, new technologies finally make this a practical reality.


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CONTENTS JANUARY 2017_first page_Vs3.LL.indd 16

January 2017

1/23/17 7:59 AM

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12/1/16 1/18/17 2:29 1:05 PM PM

1. 2 017

Con te n Motor Feedback - ts Systems for linear and rotative drives



4 Insights 6 Teschler on Topic Absolute and incremental magnetic measurement ■ ■ ■ ■ ■

Contactless and completely wear-free and maintenance-free Extremely precise, even if the scale is covered with dirt Flexible dimensioning of measurement lengths and diameters Easy handling, high accuracy of position for highly dynamic processes Safety SIL2 certified (optional)

8 Technology Forward 20 Design For Industry 42 Design Notes 63 CAE Solutions

SIKO Products Inc., Phone +1 (734) 426-3476,

73 Robotic Trends 76 Internet of Things

Aluminum Conveyors

Pallet Conveyor Systems

197 Products 519 Ad Index

Stainless Steel Conveyors


Aluminum Framing


Contents JANUARY 2017_second page_Vs1.indd 18


January 2017

1/18/17 1:51 PM


Whatever keeps you up at night, we’ve got a solution—the largest selection of motors, pumps and air-moving devices available. Plus, one-of-a-kind solutions ready to be custom-engineered for your precision industrial, commercial, combustion or transportation application. If you can dream it, you’ll find it at Solution City.

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Design for Industry | a u g m e n t e d r e a l i t y

Remote service with augmented reality decreases maintenance downtime A unique virtual reality tool from Bosch Rexroth provides hydraulics maintenance and service professionals with immediate advice from product and application experts. The company’s Hägglunds Insight Live service uses augmented reality to give customers access to a Bosch Rexroth service expert easily, without waiting, travel or high costs. Using either a smart phone or a headmounted camera and headphones, a Bosch Rexroth expert can directly connect to the on-site maintenance team, troubleshoot, adjust settings, and help personnel perform emergency tasks. Using a simple app on a smartphone, tablet or laptop — or a pair of video goggles for a handsfree experience — the engineer works directly with service experts. Viewing through the device’s camera, the expert sees exactly what the engineer sees. In addition, Rexroth’s expert can interact visually through the app, using virtual reality to overlay images on the user’s screen, such as his hands, tools, documents,



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January 2017

diagrams, and so on. In this way, Hägglunds experts can not only give audio instructions, but also point out the actions that need to be taken on the equipment. Insight Live is part of Hägglunds’ Inside Intelligence, a suite of condition-based tools and services designed to help increase performance of its Hägglunds hydraulic motors and drives. The tool works with Android, Windows and iOS. It is for low bandwidth data connections of just 2 G, so it suits most remote locations. Rather than waiting up to three days for a service expert to arrive at the location, users can directly connect with Hägglunds’ experts and solve the problem, increasing uptime and maximizing productivity. DW

Bosch Rexroth Corp.

1/18/17 2:11 PM

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Altra Electric Clutches & Brakes brands offer the largest selection of clutches, brakes and linear actuators available from a single source...worldwide.

A wide array of electromechanical clutch, brake, actuator and control technologies are offered by Altra Industrial Motion to meet the needs of the most challenging industrial applications. As recognized worldwide leaders in the industry, Warner Electric, Matrix International, Inertia Dynamics and Warner Linear design and manufacture the most innovative, cost-effective braking and positioning systems available. Altra clutch, brake and actuator solutions are utilized in diverse global markets including material handling, packaging machinery, food & beverage, elevator & escalator, medical, turf & garden, off-highway, forklift, marine and agriculture.

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Bauer Gear Motor Boston Gear Delroyd Worm Gear Kilian Manufacturing Nuttall Gear

Altra’s Gearing brands are industry leaders of the design and manufacture of quality gearing solutions.

The Altra Gearing group brings decades of combined expertise and advanced engineering capabilities that allow Altra to provide unique, cost-effective solutions that meet specific customer needs. Boston Gear, Nuttall Gear, Delroyd Worm Gear, Bauer Gear Motor, and Kilian Manufacturing are recognized leaders for innovative, energy-efficient gearing and bearing solutions designed for demanding industrial applications. State-of-the-art, cost-effective Altra power transmission components are hard at work in many key markets including metals, food & beverage, energy, wastewater, turf & garden, pulp & paper, textile, concrete, oil & gas, material handling and aerospace.

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Power Transmission and Motion Control Solutions for Industrial Applications

The Power Brands in Power Transmission Ameridrives Couplings

Delroyd Worm Gear

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Formsprag Clutch

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Marland Clutch

Twiflex Limited

Bauer Gear Motor

Huco Dynatork

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Warner Electric

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Industrial Clutch

Nuttall Gear

Warner Linear

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Inertia Dynamics

Stieber Clutch

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Design for Industry | r o b o t i c s

Collaborative robot arm makes visual inspections in the blink of an eye Using a robot arm for lightbox visual inspections has simplified production for one visual inspection systems manufacturer. Highlighted at PackExpo last November, Universal Robots’ collaborative robot—or cobot— is automating parts inspection for one of its preferred system integrators, HNJ Solutions. Its Automated Cosmetic Inspection system integrates automated pick-and-place with quality inspection of high volume production.  In this UR cobot design, the robot has a camera mounted on the end of arm but also presents the component to cameras in a lightbox, which reduces time for an operator who would normally do a manual inspection. According to Greg McEntyre, President of HNJ Solutions, this particular Automated Cosmetic Inspection system provides full sixsided inspection of electronic devices. “Normally, somebody’s having to manipulate this thing through structured lighting, and the instructions are at 18-24 inches, hold it this way at this angle to this light and if you see a problem, there’s a defect,” McEntyre said. “Well, to 10 different people that’s 10 different results, so what we’ve done is we’ve built an entire lightbox around

the robot to homogenize the lighting and the positioning and now everything is handled by the robot. So within 30 seconds we can perform the same inspection with more consistent quality than a person can do in about a minute and a half.” In addition, this design helps with production because a manual inspection requires the operator to assemble a piece, inspect it, then move on to another piece. With this design, an operator can build the next piece while the robot inspects the first one. And because it’s a collaborative robot, it’s safe, McEntyre said. “This is a loading zone and if I get in the way of the robot, I am not going to get damaged by the robot, which is why I chose this particular system,” he said. Having a built-in safety system that enables a robot to stop operating if it comes into contact with an employee has long been the defining feature of collaborative robots. Universal Robots has expanded the term “collaborative” to include user-friendliness, redeployability and simple setup. “In short we bring part of the quality lab to the production floor. Our Automated Cosmetic Inspection systems don’t blink,  

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1/18/17 2:11 PM

247 Lynnfield Street, Peabody, MA 01960 • 800.921.3332 • Harmonic Drive is a registered trademark of Harmonic Drive LLC. Robonaut image courtesy of NASA/JPL-Caltech.

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9/20/16 9:50 AM 1/18/17 1:52 PM



RETAINING DEVICES & maintenance & assembly tools BEARLOK


BEARLOK Shrink Disc





don’t have a sick day, and they provide companies with consistent results,� McEntyre, added. “The Universal Robot arms provide a means to keep the inspection flexible; customers can add new products to the system as needed and the arm can articulate through just about any product orientation requirement. The collaborative nature of the arm itself allows us to reach outside the machine environment and automatically handle components that are located near production line personnel.� Whether it is adjusting to seasonal lines, or to variations in co-packing lines, employees can teach the robot new moves as production schedules change. Using the teach pendant and moving the robotic arm, human coworkers simply change the movements of the UR robot without having to code or reprogram.  “We see a collaborative robot as a tool on demand as needed – one that can quickly be changed between packaging tasks to streamline production planning. Flexibility in manufacturing involves the ability to deal with variation in volumes, design and material handling as well as variations in the process sequences,� said Douglas Peterson, General Manager of Universal Robots’ Americas Division. Unlike investments in traditional robotic cells that are caged, preprogrammed and designed for a single purpose, the multi-purpose UR robot offers a lower threshold for investment and offers more possibilities over the life of the investment. The robot arms can be plugged directly into a wall outlet and are so easy to program and set up that the typical “out of box experience� is less than an hour. DW Universal Robots



















WHITTET-HIGGINS manufactures quality oriented, stocks abundantly and delivers quickly the best quality and largest array of adjustable, heavy thrust bearing, and torque load carrying retaining devices for bearing, power transmission and other industrial assemblies; and specialized tools for their careful assembly. Visit our website––to peruse the many possibilities to improve your assemblies. Much technical detail delineated as well as 2D and 3D CAD models for engineering assistance. Call your local                  or a good distributor.

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33 Higginson Avenue, Central Falls, Rhode Island 02863 Telephone: (401) 728-0700 • FAX: (401) 728-0703 E-mail: Web: January 2017

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3 O

0 90


ISO 13485





D e s i g n f o r I n d u s t r y | military/aerospace

Tube bending

perfection in stainless Eagle has the expertise and the specialized machinery for bending tubing exactly to spec. Call us for a quote !

Eagle Stainless

Tube & Fabrication, Inc. Franklin, Massachusetts

Solder tab nano connectors ensure secure, compact connections

Cicoil is now offering solder tab nano connector assemblies. First developed for targeting systems in military aircraft, the miniature assemblies can be used in any mission-critical application where size and security are a concern. Rich Buchicchio, National Sales and Marketing Manager at Cicoil, said that using solder tabs over crimped connections has many advantages. For example, they are reliable, repeatable and can be visually inspected. Crimped connections, on the other hand, are not visible, and prone to undetectable defects. “We extrude the cable and seal it all the way to the connector, which provides a better connection,” Buchicchio said. This seal-tight connection has proven superior in vibration and shock applications. With crimped connections, potting can infiltrate between the crimp and the wire, weakening the crimped joint. These nano connectors are encapsulated in potting which helps them form extremely strong and rugged electrical connections, making them idea for mission-critical flight applications. Solder tabs are void-free, eliminating issues of oxidation, corrosion and CTE (Coefficient of Thermal Expansion) found with crimped connections. The designs have been tested to meet MIL-DTL-32139. Compact size is another advantage, said Buchicchio. Crimped contacts require relatively thick, stiff insulated wires. These often negate the small package benefits of a nano connector, as the envelope size of the wires exceeds the size of the nano connector. “By soldering, you’re able to use smaller wires, 32 versus 28 gauge wires. This reduces the size and weight of the entire system,” he said. The smaller wires also require thinner insulation. And by encapsulating the wires in a thin, compact Cicoil flat cable, the wires are protected and much more easily managed and routed into small, compact sizes. Buchicchio said that Cicoil will likely be offering something similar with the micro D connector soon.

Phone (800) 528-8650 DFI 1-17_Vs.4.LL.indd 28



January 2017

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ISO 13485





0 90

Laser machining

perfection in stainless Eagle has the skills and the technology required to produce all of your custom exotic metal parts. Let us help !

Although designed for aerospace targeting systems, the market is growing for these lead-free solder tab nano connector assemblies. They can be used in the following: • Aerospace: drones, missiles (optical seeker heads), board to board jumper systems, cockpit computer systems, FLIR sensor-head electronics, and ring laser gyro circuit interconnections. • Ground-based military applications: unmanned robotics, radar, hand-held weapons vision systems, portable communications, robotic heads and index systems • Medical: surgical systems, patient monitoring, medical imaging, prosthetics • Oil/Petroleum: Downhole sensors systems. DW WHAT DO YOU THINK? Cicoil

Eagle Stainless

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Tube & Fabrication, Inc. Franklin, Massachusetts

Phone (800) 528-8650

January 2017

DFI 1-17_Vs.4.LL.indd 29


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D e s i g n f o r I n d u s t r y | military/aerospace

Seal test bench shortens flight control proving time The Primary Flight Control Seal Test Bench from Trelleborg Sealing Solutions offers a rapid multi-million cycle testing capability, considerably shortening the proving time of flight control applications.  The test bench will globally support designers in the evaluation of piston and rod seal designs or entire packages before hardware is available. It can test conditions that are either difficult or expensive to replicate in the real world, improving the quality of the system early in the design stage, reducing the number of errors found later and building customer confidence in seal performance.



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January 2017

According to Gregory Jones, Trelleborg Sealing Solutions General Manager, Aerospace Hub Americas (AHA), “The Primary Flight Control Seal Test Bench is the only system available that tests either rod or piston hydraulic seals under extreme environmental and motion conditions combined with a multi-million cycle capability.” The test bench can simulate a large combination of extreme operating conditions. The test equipment is rated for static or cyclic pressures up to 5,000 psi (345 bar). It

1/18/17 2:10 PM

D e s i g n f o r I n d u s t r y | military/aerospace

is fully capable of dynamic operation across the entire phosphate ester fluid operating temperature range of –80 to 325 °F (–62 to 163 °C), testing a seal’s endurance against all thermal conditions. It creates a controlled environment where seals can be continuously stressed and monitored as necessitated by the customer and corresponding to their specific application challenges. A distinguishing capability of the test equipment is achieving pressure rise rates of up to 360,000 psi/sec (24,800 bar/sec), enabling accelerated high-frequency cycling up to 5 Hz, even under maximum pressure or temperature conditions. This accelerated cycle speed allows for multi-million cycle fatigue testing to occur in just weeks rather than months. Since conditions change over a seal’s life, the Primary Flight Control Test Bench uses nested loop automation to

change and repeat stroke lengths, speeds, pressures, frequencies, and cycle counts within seconds to simulate an entire range of flight or quality conditions, all without operator input or delay. Trelleborg’s Elastomer, PTFE-based and airframe seals products are used in virtually every major aircraft program. The company continues to enhance seal designs and is able to test and validate its newest innovations for a wide variety of systems, including primary and secondary flight control sealing systems, actuation, landing gear, wheels, brakes, fuel controls, engines and airframe. Advanced sealing polymers and seal profiles for flight control sealing applications can undergo vigorous tests using the Flight Control Seal Test Bench to surpass higher pressure, wear and friction challenges and to achieve increased flight hours, speeds and safety. DW Trelleborg 


Connect and discuss this and other design engineering issues with thousands of professionals online


Connect and discuss this and other design engineering issues with thousands of professionals online


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D e s i g n f o r I n d u s t r y | food & beverage

Pillow and flange Blocks are FDA/USDA and 3A-Dairy compliant The newest products to join LM76’s line of FDA compliant bearings, scraper seals, and shafting are new FoodStream electrodeless Nickel-plated pillow and flange blocks, which are FDA/USDA/3A-Dairy compliant. These off-the-shelf pillow and flange blocks are for use in processing and packaging food, producing pharmaceuticals, the BioPharma industry, and in medical devices. Inch size FoodStream pillow blocks are available in single and double length sizes, and as closed or open models in sizes from 0.5 to 1.5 in. Electrodeless Nickel protects the aluminum base from corrosive liquids, harsh caustic wash down chemicals and biological fluids. FoodStream Pillow and Flange Blocks are also available with FDA/USDA/3A-Dairy compliant scraper seals (closed bearings and pillow blocks only) and in custom sizes and designs. System designers can select from a range of FDA/USDA/3A-Dairy compliant linear bearings when developing products or equipment that is going to be subjected to: contamination of a processing plant, caustic chemical wash downs, corrosive fruit juices, biological fluids, and submersion in water or sterilizing chemicals. These options include self-lubricating PTFE composite bearings in 300 series stainless-steel shells or lower cost ceramic coated shells, a thermoplastic Polyester bearing, ceramic, and stainless-steel 440C ball bearing linear bearings. Depending on the bearing type they are available in closed and open configurations, and are drop-in replacements for all inch sized linear ball bearings. Compliant scraper seals are available for closed pillow and flange blocks. Shafting options include: solid and hollow Class L RC60, 300 series stainless steel in lengths to 12 feet. FDA/USDA/3A-Dairy-compliant shafting features excellent corrosion and chemical resistance, custom machining to print, pre-drilling and assembly. DW LM76


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DFI 1-17_Vs.4.LL.indd 32

January 2017

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The shortest distance to linear motion solutions Meet the Tolomatic high-force electric rod actuator family

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Tolomatic makes it easy to take your machine design from premise to production.

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Make your next machine everything you imagine it can be. Optimize cost and performance with our complete single-axis linear motion solutions—actuator, drive, motor and controls. We meet nearly any application requirement, and our online tools simplify specification. With over 60 years of product innovation and integrity, our technical and customer service support is unequaled.

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Design for Industry

Manufacturers of Power Transmission and Motion Control Components

Synchronous Timing Pulleys Featuring Concentric Maxi Torque, CMT’s Patented Keyless Hub to Shaft Connection System Email or call to get the CMT Stock Product Catalog. All stock products ship same day.

Precise. Reliable. Trusted. American Engineering • American Made

Custom Machine & Tool Co., Inc. (800)355-5949 • Stop by to pick up a catalog ATX West 2015 Booth #4547 February 10-12, 2015 © 2015 Custom Machine & Tool Co., Inc.

DFI 1-17_Vs.4.LL.indd 34

| medical

Seal-and-lube design ensures insulin pump lifespan Type 1 diabetics are dependent on the steady flow of insulin. Portable insulin pumps allow an active, mobile life and can increase the quality of life of patients. The Swiss medical technology specialist Ypsomed is introducing a new pump known as the “mylife YpsoPump” into the European market. With a weight of just 83 grams—including the battery—and a thickness of just 16 mm, it is compact and comfortable to carry. The proven “Lube & Seal” concept from Freudenberg Sealing Technologies and lubricant manufacturer Klüber Lubrication, which is part of the Freudenberg Group, ensures the pump’s flawless functioning over its four-year lifespan. It aims at the perfect interaction of seal and lubricant. Portable insulin pumps continually transport vital insulin into the patient. The dosing must be precise down to the microliter to keep the patient’s metabolism in balance. This is guaranteed by the extremely precise functioning of the new pump’s drive, which pushes a punch into the replaceable insulin carpule. The distance covered determines the delivery volume. A separately measured blood sugar level is the basis for controlling the pump. The target-actual comparison employs various parameters, which are measured within the pump itself—especially based on a force measurement within the drive. To facilitate a reliable measurement, as little friction as possible among all the drive’s components is important. This poses a major challenge especially for the feed seal. A rod seal seated on the driveshaft (threaded sleeve) for the punch seals the interior operation of the drive toward the carpule space and protects against the penetration of dirt particles or water. Freudenberg Sealing Technologies was able to resolve the contradiction between minimal friction and high leak tightness with the combination of an innovative seal and a high performance lubricant from Klüber Lubrication. The rod seal also has a smooth, low-friction surface. A nanotechnology process developed by the company reduces roughness and decreases the tendency of the elastomer to adhere more strongly to the threaded sleeve when the device is stopped. This design allows even torque progression. The already low frictional torque—four thousandths of a Newton meter— can even be cut in half with the application of a PFPE lubricant. PFPE stands for perfluorinated polyether oils, whose stability is significantly superior to that of conventional lubricants even under extreme conditions—they are even used in space flight. Freudenberg Sealing Technologies



January 2017

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D e s i g n f o r I n d u s t r y | medical

Elastomers designed for medical and pharmaceutical industries A new portfolio of materials from Quadion LLC, Minnesota Rubber and Plastics (MRP) is formulated for medical and pharmaceutical applications. Using high purity ingredients, these comply with existing and proposed regulations around elastomeric products. These materials have certified compliance to the European Commission framework regulation EC 1935/2004, US FDA Title 21 CFR and NSF Standard 61 and 51 and other certifications are on process. This MRP portfolio includes EPDM and FKM so end users can choose the material best suited for their specific application. These compounds can be used globally, simplifying the supply chain for equipment exports worldwide, and assuring regulatory compliance. The MRP portfolio includes the following materials: Qmonix 558CH is a high-purity, high-performance EPDM product which can be used in the most demanding medical/ pharmaceutical applications. Qmonix 558CH exhibits excellent performance in both hot and cold process applications, and has excellent chemical resistance. It is also resistant to both ozone and UV used in sanitization processes. Standard durometer as formulated is 70 shore A. FKM 51 SCG is a highly fluorinated, carbon backbone polymer recommended for the most demanding applications. It resists 36


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January 2017

harsh chemical and ozone attack with a thermal stability to 500°F (262°C). FKM 515CG also offers low compression set and excellent aging characteristics. The material withstands concentrated alcohols, acids and process chemicals. Standard durometer as formulated is 70 shore A. NBR 536EG was developed to withstand environments that require low compression set, abrasion resistance and low temperature performance. It is inherently resistant to oils. Standard durometer as formulated is 70 shore A. Typical applications for the new material portfolio include seals, catheters, plunger tips, valves, connections, disposables, prosthetics, lab equipment, syringe plugs, diaphragms. All seals used in pumps, valves, heat exchangers and other medical process machine components can use the materials to comply with global regulations. DW Minnesota Rubber and Plastics

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D e s i g n f o r I n d u s t r y | offshore

IoT platforms help energy and production companies improve asset performance A collaborative project between Schneider Electric and Landmark, a Halliburton business provider of integrated E&P (Energy & Production) software, provide transparency to E&P decision makers—from oil field to board room—with a real-time, integrated view of their business’ performance.  To this end, Schneider Electric is coming together with Landmark to connect Schneider Electric’s IoT-enabled open and interoperable system architecture and platform EcoStruxure with Landmark DecisionSpace, allowing companies to build a real-time digital representation of individual assets and the overall portfolio. 

Composite Metal Wire for High Strength • High Conductivity Biocompatible • Radiopaque • Solderability • Flexible • Kink Resistant • Cost Effective Alternative to Solid Precious Metal W ire

Electronic and Medical Devices Combine two or more metals or alloys into a clad metal wire “system” that acts as one. • (508) 842-3069 • 38


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Altech Corp 1-17.indd 39

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D e s i g n f o r I n d u s t r y | offshore “Thanks to the IoT and cloud solutions, we can transform upstream decisionmaking,” says Maurizio Rovaglio, vice president Technology & Alliances at Schneider Electric. “We’re applying these technologies in innovative ways to deliver new functionalities and greater benefits. It’s exciting stuff.” “To undertake these projects, operators require technology and commercial terms that work within their business constraints—no IT system overhauls or huge outlays of capital to occur before value is demonstrated,” says Nagaraj Srinivasan, senior vice president of Landmark and Halliburton Digital Solutions. The joint work extends to various aspects of upstream operations, including operations management, production surveillance, and production automation.

Benefits include: Enhanced reservoir insight - Faster feedback between well production equipment and the reservoir model plus more detailed history matching can lead to more accurate reservoir simulations Improved asset performance - Increased operational reliability and asset insight allows for more informed decisions about secondary and tertiary recovery. Simplified decision-making - Optimized analytics for E&P big data enable management by exception. Improved well integrity - Shared workflows and predictive analytics help manage safety and asset integrity. DW


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January 2017 1.888.546.0524

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When Fluid Power Specialists partner with Aggressive Hydraulics, the results exceed expectations. Our purpose-built philosophy delivers hydraulic cylinder solutions that outperform any other cylinder in any fluid power industry application, allowing you to achieve increased sales growth and superior customer satisfaction. With our design, engineering and manufacturing expertise, we address an application’s specific rigors, environmental challenges and exacting requirements to meet existing customer demands or solve the hydraulic cylinder needs of an untapped customer base. From one unit to full production runs, we can supply you with proprietary products that deliver a better total value, day in and day out. Ready to best the competition? Get Aggressive.

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» D e s i g n N o te s

Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor

from ckaged a p e r a etal ys eese tra d pass through a m h c r e t f A quaine an

A r mach the first the seale fer onto s n ° incline ra t 5 2 y e t th ned a io it s o detector, p t’s packveyor tha or brings y e v n o Pruf con c dling, ng t for han is 4-ft lo h h ig T e . h le r g e n a vent prop se up to elt to pre e b e n h c io t d ic e ag her fr uses a hig and also ping. from slip the trays

Conveyor system helps cheese packer improve ergonomics For employees packaging cheese on a tray line at Alpine Slicing & Cheese Conversion, the repetitive motion of reaching out and grabbing packaged cheese trays has a tremendous impact on their bodies. As for how to fix that, it’s a matter of inches. When it came time to expand its contract packaging services by adding a second tray line, Alpine was looking for new ideas to improve upon this process. They found the solution through an adjustable sanitary conveyor system from Dorner Mfg.

Not measuring up The original tray line was functional as it moved packaged cheese trays to the pack out station for shipping but it could have been designed better. “The height on the tray line wasn’t exactly where we wanted it to be,” said Jim Natzke, manager, Alpine Slicing & Cheese Conversion. “For some of our employees they were 42


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January 2017

hunched over a bit. Just that little bit of extra reaching added up, and people got sore backs. Our goal with the new line was to eliminate that condition and make things more ergonomically correct for our employees.” As the need for a second tray line became clear to leadership, the task of heading up that project fell to Natzke. “Knowing the limitations of our original tray line, we thought for this new one, ‘let’s just approach it differently and see if we can do it better,’” he said. On the original tray line, cheese was sliced, packaged and placed onto a conveyor, which passed product through a metal detection unit. Then, the conveyor deposited the cheese onto a large rotating lazy Susan-type round table, which accumulated cheese as two employees grabbed the packages and loaded them into packing boxes in preparation for shipment. The main issue with this line was the height of the

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» D e s i g n N o te s

conveyor and position of the rotating table, both of which were a few inches lower than Natzke liked. This led the employees packing cheese from the line to constantly be bending over to grab the cheese from either the conveyor or reaching out to get cheese trays from the rotating table. The process was causing them to perform extra motion to package cheese, and that was one thing Natzke wanted eliminated with the new line.  

Collaborating on a new idea Natzke contacted Dorner and posed the application challenge to Marie Wiese. “The packaging of cheese once it comes out of the sealer is a manual process at Alpine Slicing, and it wasn’t very ergonomically sound,” said Wiese, sales manager for Dorner’s Engineered Solutions Group. “We recently had a similar challenge with another cheese manufacturer, and I thought a comparable solution might work.”

This new desi gn, which was installed in fall 2015, offers several advantag es over the original tray line. First, the conveyor system , along with the attached pa ckout table, can be raised or lowered to best complimen t different employees for be tter ergonomics.

That solution involved two Dorner AquaPruf conveyors, along with a packaging table – all of which are adjustable in height to accommodate Alpine Slice’s employees. After cheese trays are packaged from the sealer machine and pass through a metal detector, they transfer onto the first AquaPruf conveyor that’s positioned at 25° incline angle. This 4-ft long conveyor brings packaged cheese up to proper height for handling, and also uses a higher friction belt to prevent the trays from slipping. Then, the trays are transferred to the final seven-foot long AquaPruf conveyor. A stop at the end of the conveyor, fitted with a lowfriction belt, allows trays to slide in place if the line begins to back up. With the new design the conveyor system can be raised or lowered for different employees. Trays also arrive to the pack station properly oriented, making it easier for


Design Notes 1-17_Vs3.LL.indd 44

Dorner Mfg.


Connect and discuss this and other design engineering issues with thousands of professionals online

The conveyor sy stem has a reversing ce nter drive, enabling it to be re-purposed to a different area and fed from the opposit e direction if needed.


employees to handle. The whole process can be handled with one less person as opposed to two employees typically staffed on the original tray line. Adjustable conveyor guiding means the line can be adjusted to accommodate different size trays. Finally, the conveyor system has a reversing center drive, enabling it to be repurposed to a different area and fed from the opposite direction if needed. DW

January 2017

1/18/17 2:22 PM

Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor

» De sign Note s


3D printing benefits cast in iron







500 NAN



HC 50 0


0 50 HC


HC 500 BEL








OFLEX® HC 5 00



E X®







HC 00

of industrial iron castings using a traditional sand casting process. To


0 HC 50 X® FLE NO NA

VHM Fonderie (formerly Heinrich Fonderie) specializes in the production





HC 50 0









50 0








0 50












500 HC





help the company with the production of functional prototypes, master



models for sand casting, manufacturing tools, and the 3D printing of spare


parts, VHM Fonderie turned to Stratasys. The 3D printing and additive




manufacturing company provided VHM with its Connex Multi-material



3D Printer to tackle the job. For complex sand casting applications in particular, VHM is using an advanced simulated polypropylene material, Rigur, to produce 3D printed models that are subsequently used to make sand molds. “To manufacture an object using the sand casting process, we need to first produce a master model of the specific part,” said Laurent Poux, Industrial Director, VHM Group. “This is then used to make a mold, from which the desired object itself is then manufactured. In the context of the end-to-end manufacturing workflow, the level of time-saving enjoyed with 3D printing isn’t merely improvement or progression – it’s transformational.” VHM Fonderie reduced product development time for the castings it manufactures. According to Poux, 3D printed molds are just one application in which the Connex 3D Printer is deployed. Another use is in the production  

Design Notes 1-17_Vs3.LL.indd 45

January 2017




00 HC 5 X® FLE NO A N



3D printed prod uction tools include positioni ng supports (seen here in w hite) for VHM Fonderie’s debu rring robot.

HC 50 0




0 50 HC



1/18/17 2:24 PM


» De sign Note s

VHM Fonderie uses 3D printing to pr oduce ‘master models’ that are then used to create sand molds.

of various tooling items, such as positioning jigs used across the assembly line to increase efficiency. The 3D printer has also helped replace obsolete parts for tooling machines. 3D printing has given VHM a level of self-reliance that has changed the capabilities of its traditional production processes and increased its manufacturing flexibility. The company is now able to extend the benefits of 3D printing to customers through Reali3D, where they expect to produce everything from concept models and fully functional prototypes, to assembly tools for the production line. “VHM Fonderie is just one example of how a growing number of manufacturers are not merely exploring the use of 3D printing in a limited capacity, but are reaping multiple benefits through its widespread integration across all areas of production,” says Andy Middleton, President, Stratasys, EMEA. DW Stratasys


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Design Notes 1-17_Vs3.LL.indd 46


January 2017

1/18/17 2:37 PM

Edited by: Mike Santora • Associate Editor

» De sign Note s

When Size and Performance Matters

Heavy duty bearings help cut to the chase on tunnel boring machine

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A primary chal lenge is keeping bearings wel l sealed. In the closed mode tu nnel boring ther e’s pressure at the excavation face . Therefore, the cu tters themselves are subjected to pressure. Here is an example of a bearing used to help keep contam inates out.

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The city of Akron, OH has never seen a construction project quite like the Ohio Canal Interceptor Tunnel (OCIT). 6,240-ft of heartland lies between the Little Cuyahoga River


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the city’s downtown area. To connect the two locations, a tunnel boring machine (TBM) is set to do the hard work of clearing the underground path for construction. With the clearing of shale, soft rock, hard rock and the occasional boulder, a TBM relies heavily on bearings working in harsh conditions. Robbins called on Timken to provide many of the bearings on this project’s TBM, continuing the two companies’ 60+ year partnership.

Robbins tries to standardize its TBM’s as much as possible but the OCIT project has

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machine specialization. “We’re going to start on soft ground with fairly low cover over the tunnel, so the machine will operate on what we call closed mode, it will be essentially like a submarine. We will keep pressure at the excavation face and the bulk head of the machine will be the barrier. Inside the machine is an atmospheric pressure. At the cutting face, it’s pressurized to whatever pressure we need to counteract ground pressure, hydrostatic pressure or ground water, which we figure a maximum of about 3 bar pressure,” said Robbins’ Chief Engineer Dennis Ofiara.  

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However, Ofiara also explained that once the machine gets into shale and the cover over the tunnel increases, the sturdier rock allows them to operate in open mode. In this scenario, the bulk head of the machine acts as a gate that allows engineers to move the material as fast as they can cut it. Overall, the project is a balance between the machine operating in open and closed mode, having both capabilities without making the machine too complicated. Usually in open mode, the excavated material is removed with a belt conveyor, in closed mode, it’s removed with a screw conveyor. It is a big job to interchange belts on a screw conveyor. For the OCIT project, the plan

for the Timken uses The geometry obbins arings on the R heavy duty be mal ved to be opti TBM have evol wall he T el boring for general tunn and k ic bearing is th section on the has a load and also can carry a high etry nsity. The geom high power de rs on the es of the rolle ac rf te in e th of e large roller end on th races, and the ed to iz r race, is optim rib of the inne neration. minimize dege

is to change modes a couple of times along the line of the tunnel because the depth of the cover varies. The bearings needed to handle this are fairly standard in the industry. They have been refined for years to handle the specifics of TBM applications like this.

“For this application we’re using heavy sectioned bearings. They’re called an HH bearing, which stands for very heavy duty. There’s two different types, a 19-in. cutter and a 17-in. cutter bearing and these are pretty predominant in the industry. The geometry that we use

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on them has evolved to where it is now optimal for general tunnel boring. The wall section on the bearing is quite thick and can carry a high load and has a high power density. Also, the geometry of the interfaces of the rollers on the races, and the roller end on the large rib of the inner race is optimized to minimize degeneration. This is done while still providing full support to the roller end to accommodate the overturning moment that can be seen in this tunnel boring environment,” said Timken Principal Application Engineer Tim Murphy. Generally speaking, on these cutters technicians will change the cutter ring as the ring on the outside of the bearing actually does the cutting into the tunnel face. It is common to see four to five rings changed before a bearing is changed out. Ultimately, chang-

ing the rings out is entirely dependent on the geology. The ground involved in the OCIT project is rather forgiving by industry standards. The ground is mostly soft. The impact loads caused by a stray boulder can be a real problem. And, of course, contamination is always a concern. “We’ll have some mixed space with soft ground and perhaps some boulders. That’s a more demanding part of the job because large boulders can have high impact forces, that can cause some bearing problems. The other challenge is to keep the bearing well sealed. In the closed mode, there’s pressure at the excavation face, the cutters themselves are actually subjected to pressure. We’ve got metal based seals and try to keep contaminates out, but sometimes the seals are breached and that can result in a bearing failure. Not the fault of the bearing of

course, but something to watch for,” said Ofiara. Further complicating things, in soft ground the cutters do not have much traction. Normally, when the cutters are pressed against a rock base, there is enough of a resistant force to cause them to turn as they should. In soft ground, that force may not be present. They won’t turn. They’ll skid. And even though the ground can be soft, it might be an abrasive substance like sand. These types of earth will wear the cutter flat and sometimes even wear through the hub of the cutter and into the bearing. Ofiara says, “All-in-all, through 6,200 feet in that ground in Akron, we will not change the bearings. If we were in hard rock, the bearing life could be down to 100’s of hours and could range in the 1,000’s of hours.” DW Timken |

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The top 5 technology trends for 2017 David W. Cearley • Mike J. Walker • Brian Burke

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Some of the top strategic technology trends for 2017 include three groupings of complementary trends: • The intelligent theme builds on the way in which data science and programming approaches are evolving to include AI and advanced machine learning. This is enabling the creation of intelligent physical and software-based systems that are programmed to learn and adapt, rather than programmed only for a finite set of prescribed actions. AI and machine-learning capabilities are seeping into virtually every technology. • The digital theme focuses on blending the digital and physical worlds to create an immersive, digitally enhanced environment. In the digitally enhanced mesh, the digital world is an increasingly detailed representation of the physical world. • The mesh theme refers to exploiting connections between an expanding set of people and businesses, as well as devices, content and services, to deliver digital business outcomes. Here are some of the top trends expected to drive the future of the intelligent digital mesh.



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1 Artificial Intelligence and Advanced Machine Learning Applied AI and machine learning are composed of many technologies and techniques (such as deep learning, neural networks and naturallanguage processing [NLP]). The more-advanced techniques move beyond traditional rule-based algorithms to create systems that appear to understand, learn, predict, adapt and potentially operate with little or no human input or guidance. This is what makes smart machines appear “intelligent.” Applied AI and machine learning enable a system to not only understand concepts in the environment, but also to learn.

2 Intelligent Apps Organizations are applying AI and machine-learning techniques to create new app categories (such as VPAs) and improve traditional applications (such as worker performance analysis, sales and marketing, and security). Intelligent apps have the potential to transform the nature of work and the structure of the workplace. They could alter career structures and enhance workers’ performance, but they have challenges to overcome as they move from early-stage emerging technologies to more-robust functional products.

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Artificial Intelligence and Advanced Machine Learning

Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality

Internet Apps

Digital Twins

Intelligent Things

Blockchains and Distributed Ledgers

Conversational Systems

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3 Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality Immersive technologies, such as VR and AR, are part of a new wave of computing devices that transform the way individuals interact with one another and with software systems. Head-mounted displays (HMDs) are small displays or projection technology integrated into devices worn on the head, such as glasses and helmets. HMDs derive aspects of visual content from the digital mesh. Contextual information translates the state of the wearer and the wearer’s environment into graphically rich visual cues. Many HMDs have come to market or become available for use in pilot projects in 2016. Now that commercially viable HMDs are available, the device-mesh-based apps and services that power them represent new forms of user interaction that will enable new types of consumer and workplace behaviors.

4 Digital Twins A digital twin is a dynamic software model of a physical thing or system that relies on sensor data to understand the state of the thing or system, respond to changes, improve operations, and add value. Digital twins include a combination of: • Metadata (for example, classification, composition and structure) • Condition or state (for example, location and temperature) • Event data (for example, time series) • Analytics (for example, algorithms and rules) By 2020, we estimate there will be more than 21 billion connected sensors and endpoints, and digital twins will exist for potentially billions of

things. Benefits will include asset optimization and improved user experience in nearly all industries. Initially, businesses will use digital twins for more complex, high-value assets, but eventually, they will use them for lower-value assets based on the use model.

5 Blockchains and Distributed Ledgers A distributed ledger is an expanding list of cryptographically signed, irrevocable transactional records shared by all participants in a network. Each record contains a time stamp and reference links to the previous transactions. With this information, anyone with access rights can trace back a transactional event, at any point in its history, belonging to any participant. A blockchain is a type of distributed ledger in which value-exchange transactions (in bitcoin or another token) are sequentially grouped into blocks. Each block is chained to the previous block and immutably recorded across a peer-to-peer network, using cryptographic trust and assurance mechanisms. Depending on the implementation, transactions can include programmable behavior. The term “blockchain” is also used to refer to a loosely combined set of technologies and processes that span middleware, database, security, analytics/ AI, monetary and identity management concepts. Blockchain is also becoming the common shorthand for a diverse collection of distributed-ledger products, with more than 20 offerings in the market. DW Gartner January 2017

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Compact controllers provide precision to lab technology Contributing Editor: Terry Persun

Tomtec has over forty years of experience in the designing and manufacturing of automated liquid handling equipment. Their Quadra4 is the latest to receive upgraded design components for a liquid handling workstation for life science workflows. The workstation is designed using a fixedhead, air displacement syringe design, which services a six station shuttle. Each of the six stations can support a range of accessories for automating complex workloads such as solid phase extraction (SPE) and an optional plate-stacker can be used to queue up to 50 assays. The latest upgrade of the Quadra4 uses stepper drivers and linear actuators for precision or high-speed movements depending on the specifications for the particular stage. Where the Quadra4 used to have an embedded PC board with older-technology drivers, the company has upgraded through the use of AllMotion motor controls + drivers. By switching to stepper motors, Tomtec was able to increase the overall precision of the workstation. The AllMotion controls allowed the company to use NEMA 11 to NEMA 34 motors without having to switch to a different control system. The Quadra4 is a liquid handling workstation with a built in XY shuttle, an XYZ stage that brings the microplate into position for the dispensing, and a pipetting head with linear actuator that vertically moves 96 pistons on the 96-tip head. The standard unit incorporates 96 dispensing tips used with the standard 96 well microplate, but can also operate with up to 384 standard well microplates through a unique design strategy where the 96 footprint is indexed through four 56


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Quadra4 The Tomtec uid handling automated liq orates six system incorp per AllMotion step controllers.

quadrants. The workstation can also operate with an optional 384 pistons created for a small volume tip head. The indexing portion of the workstation uses three axes, while the shuttle system uses two, and the pipette pistons use only one. This means there are six AllMotion controller drivers used in each Quadra4. Two models of stepper motor controls are used in each workstation. There are four EZHR23 controllers used, three in the XYZ staging system and one in the pipette pistons. Then there are two EZHR23ENHC controllers used in the robotic shuttle operation. Both controllers were specifically designed for simple,

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user-friendly implementation of stepper motor solutions, especially for automation, and have found their way into medical, aerospace, electronics production, consumer products, and other applications. The EZHR23 controller measures 2-in. in diameter and is a fully intelligent controller that can be bolted onto the back of the stepper motor it controls. The EZHR23 uses a single 4-wire bus, which contains two power wires and two communications wires, and can link up to 16 controllers in a daisy chain. Commands are issued from any serial terminal program. The EZHR23ENHC controllers used for the shuttles are 2.25 x 2.25-in. and offer the

e XYZ stage Shown is th rs the microthat maneuve the Quadra4 plates inside em. handling syst

same fully intelligent design that the EZHR23 provides. Commands for the controllers are intuitive and simple. For example, a command of A10000 will move the stepper motor to Absolute position 10000. The controllers

can also be set to execute a preset string of commands upon power up. Commands include nested loops and execution halt pending a switch closure, which is useful in stand-alone applications.

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ut d away cuto This strippe c Quadra4 of the Tomte g systems liquid handlin e important presents all th elp ponents to h internal com peration. illustrate its o

Each EZHR23 and EZHR23ENHC controller is capable of stand-alone operation with no connection to a PC. The devices can easily be set to execute a preset string of commands upon power up. The commands include nested loops and execution halt pending a switch closure, which is useful in stand-alone applications. A key operation for the Quadra4 is the system’s ability to run air through the piston of each dispensing tip. The company calls this operation time dispense/air dispense. Since liquid is hydrophilic when using plastic materials, it leaves a residual amount of up to 3 micro-liters of liquid behind in the syringe. The time dispense/air dispense system uses

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Protocols. Devices. Locations.

air to push that residue into the wells, which improves the overall accuracy of the station. Through simple straightforward programming, following the customer’s manual methods, the system can be programmed to add plates to the shuttle or put them back into the stackers. The customer may automatically move reservoirs of reagents from the stacker to the shuttle and back. With some creative ingenuity customers can easily program complete walk away automation for some very complex protocols. DW

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Materials properties added to Creo 4.0

Sample materials property data will be available to users of Creo 4.0 3D CAD software. This addition provides fast, easy access to property data covering 117 sample materials, including commonly used metals, plastics, composites, and ceramics. Creo users can browse the data and apply it to parts in their Creo model. The data include density, thus supporting weight roll-up calculations, and a set of mechanical and thermal properties, which can enable accurate analysis and smarter design decisions. The data are a sample from Granta Design’s materials data library. At the heart of Granta’s materials data library is MaterialUniverse, covering more than 3,800 types of engineering material. Each record provides a complete, consistent set of 80+ mechanical, thermal, electrical, physical, environmental, and economic properties. MaterialUniverse data suits a user’s exploration of the material landscape, for example, during initial material selection or in early-stage design.

Other data sets in the library include authoritative handbook and design data, supplier data, standards, test data, and simulation input data. The data available within Creo are from a representative sample of MaterialUniverse records. Creo users wishing to access more of the library have two options. They can purchase the CES Selector PC software, from which property data can be exported in Creo format. Or, if their company uses the industry-standard GRANTA MI system to manage its proprietary materials information, they can install and use GRANTA MI:Materials Gateway for Creo. This app runs within Creo and provides direct access to the Granta data library, and any corporate materials data to which the user has access rights. DW Granta Design Ltd

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Web based PLM adds security features

Empower PLM product, version 7.0 was re-designed on a new technology platform offering an enhanced User Experience (UX) with a modern interface, simplified navigation and overall improved ease of use. This platform delivers a central location to electronically manage parts, Bill of Materials (BOMs), Engineering Changes/ECOs, Documents, Projects, Quality/CAPAs, and Training Records. Key updates include: • Improved user experience: it leverages the latest browser technology for an updated look and feel, improved navigation, independent scrolling slide- out panels, and extended User Interface (UI) options. • New Security Features: it offers both on-premises and hosted deployment options. Security features have been added for On-Premises and Hosted/SaaS customers, including an improved password framework with new retrieval options and an extended authentication platform that supports more Single Sign-On (SSO) methods and providers (LDAP, OAuth, SAML, etc.). • New Design Upload Wizard: the Design Upload Wizard guides engineers when uploading design data from third party tools. The upload utility will automatically

recognize any changes and apply the redlines to new or existing Changes/ ECOs. • New Silicon Expert Interface: integration between Silicone Expert and Omnify Empower will supply users with detailed part information when creating new, corporate parts/part numbers and maintain a direct link to Silicon Expert to deliver the latest component information on those parts within Empower 7.0. • New Technology Platform: Empower 7.0 is built on a REST (Representational State Transfer) services platform to enhance the integration framework for third Party systems with additional functions and to simplify future integrations. DW Omnify Software

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New release for VisualCAD VisualCAD/CAM 2017 is the latest version of standalone CNC programming software. Features include: • Feature detection and feature based milling. Machining features such as 3 Axis Pockets, Prismatic Pockets, Slots, Planar Faces, and Bosses can now be detected in Solid models (both surface and meshes) and toolpath methods applied to these features. • 4 axis drive surface operation for true 4 axis milling are introduced. • Slot Milling Operation for single line and trochoidal machining of slots are introduced. • Feed rate slowdown in corners has been implemented in the toolpath editor. • Tooltip help and algebraic operations in all dialogs have been implemented. DW MecSoft Corporation  

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January 2017



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» CA E Solu t i o n s

Easier wire harnessing

EPLAN Harness proD version 2.6 is 3D/2D software that covers requirements for convenient, high quality wiring and wire harness engineering. New features include enhanced automatic wire dimensioning and intuitive routing of wires with predefined lengths. Open interfaces allow collaboration between mechanical and electrical engineering. In addition, version 2.6 delivers improvements in the handoff of design data to manufacturing drawings, such as integrating 2D wire drawings, which are automatically derived from the 2D/3D design environment and specify both dimension points and terminal points. This allows automatic dimensioning, saving time and ensuring accurate results. Stripping lengths and wire coatings also can be defined in the design phase, and professionally depicted in the manufacturing drawings. Calculating wire lengths is easy. For example, users may predefine a fixed length for antenna cables. During the design process, the current and targeted length are shown precisely and users can see at a glance how the wires can be optimally routed. This feature reduces variations, resulting in cost savings in storage and 68


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manufacturing. Additional functions allow elements to be grouped together and for the assignment of component numbers to wiring units. The connection of Harness ProD 2.6 to the EPLAN Platform ensures a continuous workflow between electrical and mechanical engineering. With version 2.6, EPLAN ECAD projects can be transferred directly into wire harness software. The EPLAN Platform’s central parts management supports integrated data storage for all Platform products including Harness ProD, so users need only maintain master data in one system. Other functional enhancements in Harness ProD 2.6 contribute to making wiring design and wire harness projects faster and more efficient. The software supports all industries in which wiring and wire harnesses must be routed, such as special-purpose vehicles, equipment manufacturers, wiring/wire harness prefabrication, machinery manufacturers and company divisions where interdisciplinary cooperation is required. DW EPLAN Software & Service

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Configurable 3D CAD product downloads If you’re looking for Miki couplings, brakes, or clutches, Miki Pulley has CAD downloads available on its website: This 3D model interface delivers an intuitive, faceted search so customers can find a solution quickly. To select the correct product, you enter the product type. The search will provide varying degrees of performance criteria, sizes, bore configurations, voltage, and so on. Each selection made will shorten and narrow the list. Once the exact model, size and configuration is shown, it can be downloaded in most CAD formats for importing into your design drawing. No more modifying a generic one-size-fits-all drawing, Miki-Pulley will give the designer the exact drawing of what is needed for correct system operation.  The Miki Pulley 3D model interface operates with all popular browsers including Internet Explorer, Firefox and Google Chrome. The website interface will facilitate a design engineer’s evaluation and navigation to a product solution. Additional site features include: • PDF catalog downloads • A complete product listing of the Miki Pulley offering • Examples of Industries served by specific equipment DW

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R o b o t i c

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135,000 new robots installed in U.S. over past six years Edited by: Paul J. Heney • Editorial Director

According to the World Robotics Report 2016, published by the International Federation of Robotics (IFR), from 2010–2015, U.S. manufacturers have installed approximately 135,000 new industrial robots. The principal driver in this race to automate is the automotive industry. During this same period, the number of employees in the automotive sector increased by 230,000. Today, the robot density in the automotive sector of the U.S. ranks second only to Japan. Provided the global economy remains stable, IFR estimates that robot shipments to Canada, Mexico and the U.S. will grow at an average annual rate of 5% to 10%.

The industrial sector in the U.S. continues to invest strongly in robotics and automation. At 27,500 units in 2015, the number of newly installed industrial robots has more than tripled since the financial crisis of 20082009. The main driver of this growth is the ongoing trend to automate production, in order to strengthen the competitiveness of American industry globally, to keep manufacturing at home, and, in some cases, to bring back manufacturing that had previously been outsourced to other countries.

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January 2017




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T r e n d s


R o b o t i c

Estimated annual supply of industrial robots at year-end in selected U.S. industries.

The U.S.’s automotive industry is leading the automation charge: between 2010 and 2015, more than 60,000 industrial robots were installed. Only in China were there more industrial robots installed during the same period—almost 90,000 units. Carmakers in the US have successfully restructured their businesses following the economic and financial crisis; General Motors, the top manufacturer of cars and light vehicles in the U.S., further stabilized its market share in 2015, as did Ford Motor Co. Automation has played a critical role in enabling European and Asian car manufacturers and automotive parts suppliers to expand their capacities in the U.S. and to invest in the modernization of their existing facilities. The robot density here increased to 1,218 robots per 10,000 employees in the automotive industry in 2015 (for comparison, Japan = 1,276; Korea = 1,218; Germany = 1,147; France = 940). More new companies specialized in electric or autonomous vehicles are starting up in the United States and are in need of modern and efficient production facilities. This said, after six years of continuously growing industrial robot sales to the U.S. automotive industry, a moderate decrease in the overall sales growth is anticipated for 2016 – 2017; the retooling necessary for new car models will then drive an increase in demand for  

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industrial robots starting in 2018-2019. The electronics industry continues to be the fastest-growing emerging industry for industrial robots in the United States (20142015 = +41%). Increasing numbers of orders can also be expected from the metals and machinery industry, the rubber and plastics industry, the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, and the food and beverage industry. “The rapid rise of robot use in the United States is impressive for several reasons,” said Jeff Burnstein, President of Robotic Industries Association. “First, we’ve seen the industry’s largest user, the automotive industry, accelerate its purchases of robots and at the same time create more jobs in the manufacturing process. Second, we’ve seen strong growth in the use of robots in general industry, as robots further penetrate industries such as life sciences, warehousing, and semiconductor and electronics manufacturing. Finally, the use of robots is rising in small and medium sized companies who see robotics as a key factor in improving productivity and product quality in order to stay globally competitive. We expect these trends to continue well into the future.” DW

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January 2017



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I nter net of Things

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Precise, fast modules for high-end measurement technology The ELM series EtherCAT measurement technology modules directly integrate into the modular EtherCAT I/O system and can be seamlessly combined with more than 500 EtherCAT Terminals. The ELM series has new metal housings for shielding and cooling. The housings enhance flexibility at the interface level. Measurement accuracy of 100 ppm at 23 °C, precise sub-1 μs synchronization, 24 bit resolution and a high sampling rate of up to 50,000 samples per second guarantee high-quality data acquisition. The ELM series includes 11 modules with different interfaces and input circuitry. These can cover, for example, voltage measurement of 20 mV…30 V, current measurement of ±20 mA, IEPE, thermocouples, RTD (PT100/1000), or strain gauge/load cells with full, half or quarter bridge with internal extension or potentiometer. The measuring ranges of the input channels can be flexibly parameterized, both electrically and on the software side. Additional properties include integrated distributed clocks, as well as the “ExtendedRange” feature, for a measuring range up to 107% of the specified nominal measuring range. The EtherCAT measurement technology modules are optionally available with a factory calibration certificate. DW Beckhoff



Internet of Things 1-17_Vs4.LL.indd 76

January 2017


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1/18/17 3:20 PM

The Next Level of Micro PLC! FC6A Delivers the Power of a PAC in a Micro PLC

Providing PAC capabilities with ease of programming

Built-in Analog Input

Removable Power & I/O Blocks

Start/Stop Switch

I/O Status LED

SD Memory Port

Optional Analog & Comm Cartridge

Mini-B USB Port

RJ45 RS232C/RS485 Port RJ45 Ethernet Port

• Modbus TCP and RTU • CAN J1939 CPU

IDEC’s new FC6A MicroSmart PLC provides the power of a PAC in a small form factor, making it an ideal fit for your most demanding applications. The MicroSmart features the industry’s leading price/performance ratio with the capacity to handle 520 I/O including up to 126 analog I/O. 640kB of program memory handles your toughest control applications, and programming is quick and easy with IDEC’s WindLDR PC-based software. Remote access is a snap by creating custom web pages configured for remote monitoring and control using simple drag and drop functionality with no HTML programming required, a feature unique in this class of PLCs. The FC6A MicroSmart provides competitive advantages via simplified programming and web page creation, more cost effective end solutions for your customers, and ease of maintenance via remote access—a set of features unmatched by any other micro PLC. Find out more at:

• Email and Text Messages • Built-in Web Page Editor • 126 Analog I/O • 640kB programming memory


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I nter net of Things

EtherNet/IP and Profinet compatible switches The EKI-5500/5600 PN/PNMA and EI series of industrial switches communicate directly through PROFINET or Ethernet/IP. They meet the PROFIENT RT (Real-Time) standard and support media redundancy protocol as well as ODVA certified to meet the requirements of Common Industrial Protocol (CIP) for added reassurance. These protocol managed switches come with a compact metal housing that is IP30 rated to protect against dust. Their power input (8.4 to 52.8 Vdc) can operate in areas of unstable power and in rugged environments. These 8 ~ 16 port entry-level managed switches include essential functions to seamlessly communicate directly with Siemens by the use of GSDML files and Rockwell PLCs through the integration of Faceplate, a front-end configuration that can communicate directly with Rockwell FactoryTalk View SE and ME versions. Electric datasheets (EDS files) help to seamlessly integrate with the Rockwell PLCs as well. DW Advantech Corporation

Bridge communications between the office and plant floor The ioLogik E1200 line of remote I/O modules introduces support for EtherNet/IP and a RESTful API. With the addition of EtherNet/IP the ioLogik E1200 is a cost-effective alternative to proprietary I/O modules. The modules are available with a range of input and output types, including voltage, current, digital, pulse, frequency, RTD, thermocouple and more. Existing owners can gain the additional functionality for free by downloading the new firmware and completing the online registration process. The firmware adds support for both EtherNet/IP and a RESTful application program interface specifically designed for IIoT applications that interact with cloud services. Updated ioLogik units will be able to collect sensor and device data through EtherNet/IP, Modbus, and Active Ethernet I/O to share data with IT platforms over SNMP, RESTful APIs, and MXIO. New E1200 models will ship with the updated firmware beginning in January 2017. DW Moxa



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January 2017

1/18/17 3:21 PM

You're ready. We're set. Let's move. Connected Automation Starts with Open Core Engineering

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I nter net of Things

Sercos slave prototyping kit for Arduino A Sercos III product uses an Arduino board as a rapid prototype platform and a corresponding shield with a Sercos EasySlave FPGA. With these compact elements, a developer uses freely available software tools to create prototypical Sercos applications to develop corresponding Sercos III devices. With the Sercos shield for Arduino, Sercos III device prototypes can be inexpensively developed and tested in the simplest manner. Licenses for the EasySlave are granted through Sercos International. Different license models are available; and member companies of Sercos International receive preferential prices. DW Sercos International


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January 2017



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Smallest dimensions, largest performance.

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Precision drives demand maxon. Unsurpassed Quality. maxon motor is a worldwide leading provider of high-precision drives and systems. We develop and manufacture brushed and brushless DC motors with a unique ironless core winding as well as motors with no iron cores. maxon motor’s modular system includes planetary, spur and special gearheads, as well as encoders and control electronics. High-tech CIM and MIM components are manufactured in a specialized facility. maxon motor stands for top quality, innovation, competitive pricing and a worldwide distribution network. For over 50 years, maxon engineers have understood that there is no compromise in “precision”. Our focus is on customer specific solutions and our products are modular and priced competitively. Best of all, we are a one-stop resource offering an extensive product line with unsurpassed quality. • • • •

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I nter net of Things

.......................................... ................................ ........................ ................... .............. ........... ........ ...... .... .. Communicate on CC-Link IE Field The Anybus CompactCom 40-series family has a new version that enables any automation device to communicate on CC-Link IE Field. The family includes a range of embedded communication interfaces which provide automation devices with connectivity to any industrial network fieldbuses as well as industrial Ethernet.

Available in two certified form factors Fully certified by the CC-Link user organization (CLPA), the Anybus CompactCom 40-series offers CC-Link IE Field connectivity in two formats: • Module format, which enables instant connectivity for existing CompactCom users by simply plugging in the CC-Link IE Field module. • Brick format, for users who have limited space or want to add their own choice of network connectors. CompactCom embeds into a host automation device to enable communication with any industrial network. Designing it into an automation device is quick with the accompanying example driver code and configuration file (CSP+). Designed for slave communication on CC-Link IE Field networks, it can handle up to 1536 bytes of process data in each direction making it suitable for most slave devices. The module supports generic device profiles and comes with a dual port switch implemented in the network processor, Anybus NP40. Available networks in the 40-series are: PROFINET, EtherNet/ IP, EtherCAT, Modbus TCP, Powerlink, PROFIBUS, DeviceNet and CCLink. Ten other networks are also available through the Anybus CompactCom 30-series. 82


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January 2017

Embedded and stand-alone gateway solutions are available for any CC-Link-related communication issue: • Stand-alone Anybus Communicator gateways for connecting any serial device to both CC-Link and CC-Link IE-Field. • Anybus X-gateways for connecting CC-Link and CC-Link IE Field to 11 other industrial networks. • CC-Link connectivity in the Anybus CompactCom 40-series. DW

HMS Industrial Networks


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1/18/17 3:22 PM

Galil Motion Control


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Internet of Thi ng s Introducing the HARTING M8/M12 Cordset Configurator App Configure a connector solution quickly and easily with the HARTING Cordset Configurator App. HARTINGapplications Internet of Things 1-17_Vs4.LL.indd 84

Platform for end-to-end IoT systems The next generation EcoStruxure architecture and platform delivers IoTenabled solutions at scale for building, grid, industry and data center customers. The architecture and platform is open, scalable and interoperable, connecting the three core layers of Schneider Electric’s technology stack, from connected products, to edge control, to applications, analytics and services. EcoStruxure enables users to develop scalable and converged IT/OT solutions that deliver innovation at every level to an organization or enterprise.  Leveraging connectivity and data to create controls and actionable insights. The architecture fosters open innovation and interoperability and is developed in partnership with leading standards organizations and best-in-class technology leaders. EcoStruxure provides a comprehensive portfolio of interoperable and cloudconnected and/or on-premise technologies organized around its three layers of technology innovation: • The first layer builds on developing connected products with embedded intelligence, such as sensors, medium and low voltage breakers, drives and actuators. • The Edge Control layer helps users manage their operations on-premise as well as from the cloud. This includes connected control platforms with remote access, advanced automation and operator override capabilities. 84


January 2017

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Local control and firewall protection is included to maximize the benefits especially for mission-critical applications. • EcoStruxure enables an extensive breadth of vendor-agnostic apps, analytics and services on open IP protocols to work with any hardware, system, or control.

EcoStruxure is designed to meet the core customer challenge of implementing IoT solutions seamlessly, cost-effectively and at scale. DW Schneider Electric


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I nter net of Things

N EWS: ....................................... ............................. ..................... ................ Custom IP testing services ........... ........ ..... ... . The University of New Hampshire InterOperability Laboratory (UNH-IOL), an independent provider of broad-based testing and standards conformance services for the networking industry, launched the Internet of Things (IoT) IP Testing Services. UNH offers custom Internet Protocol (IP) test services for IoT products specific to industrial networks, smart cities, and others, the group will help improve IoT interoperability, reducing time-to-market and enhancing the customer experience. One of the first labs approved to issue the IPv6 Forum’s IPv6 Ready logo, UNH-IOL’s IoT IP Testing Services deliver access to a multimillion-dollar test bed, custom IP testing services, and an array of networking experts with more than 60 years of combined experience in IPv6 protocols and testing. DW

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University of New Hampshire



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January 2017


1/18/17 3:25 PM

Your Custom Gearbox Solutions are CGI Standard Products.

Advanced Products for Robotics and Automation CGI Motion standard products are designed with customization in mind. We understand most off-the-shelf products or a complete in-house design may not fit your application, so our standard products are designed for functional flexibility. Our team of experts will work with you on selecting the optimal base product and craft a unique solution to help differentiate your product or application. So when you think customization, think standard CGI gearbox assemblies. Connect with us today to explore what CGI Motion can do for you.

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State-Of-The-Art Thermal Solutions Give You A Competitive Advantage

Watlow’s Data Logger Offers Best-In-Class Ease of Use Watlow’s D4T data logger offers: •

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Ethernet TCP and USB host port connectivity

Watlow’s new D4T combines the flexibility of a modular I/O data logger with best-in-class ease of use. It offers a 4.3-inch, capacitive color touch panel and features COMPOSER® PC software for easy set up and connectivity. Visit to learn more.

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EtherCAT P specification documents available



EtherCAT P is an industrial Ethernet technology that combines EtherCAT communication and power lines into one standard 4-wire Ethernet cable. Soon after the introduction of EtherCAT P by Beckhoff Automation, this technology extension to EtherCAT was included in the work of the EtherCAT Technology Group. The ETG has developed an official specification document and the first draft has been published. The document, ‘ETG.1030 EtherCAT P Specification’ defines the basics of EtherCAT P as an extension of the physical layer of the EtherCAT technology. As such, all other EtherCAT standard documents in which EtherCAT P will be integrated have also been extended. An application note from Beckhoff provides guidelines for designing EtherCAT P slaves. This application note includes the according extension of the EtherCAT implementation and the associated connectors, electrical specifications as well as recommendations for EMC-compliant design. In addition, the application note highlights the different design requirements, especially with regard to the usage and connection of supply voltages, and describes calculations on the basis of existing currents and voltages in the network. All documents mirror the actual status of the EtherCAT P technology definition and are available for download on the EtherCAT Technology Group website. DW EtherCAT Technology Group

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M o t i o n

C o n t r o l

Step Motors


performance capabilities Dan Jones • Incremotion Associates

Step motors continue

There have been many misconceptions by motion control system designers as to which motor driven position system is better, the step motor or the servo motor driven motion control system. The issue began more than 40 years ago when the use of electric/electronic motion control systems began expanding dramatically.

to march toward parity with servomotors in some

Today most designers can evaluate the choice of either motor technology by a number of performance criteria that their specific application requires. For instance, servomotors traditionally develop higher torque at higher speeds. The servomotor must be paired with a feedback device in the form of a resolver or encoder to achieve position capability. On the other hand, the step motor uses pulses sequentially supplied by a driver-controller to move from one position to another. The servomotor requires a 4-quadrant closed-loop control. The step motor uses a lower cost open-loop control. Today, the servo system suppliers are working on lowering cost while the step motor suppliers are improving motion stability and torque in low and mid-speed operation. While many applications sort themselves into one category or another, there is an increasing performance overlap between the two motor driven position systems.

applications, with new motor-control combos boosting torque while reducing losses.

Step motor driven systems As an example, so-called hybrid motors continue to be developed, incorporating the best elements of both technologies. Hybrid step motors with new driver-controllers have been developed to achieve a higher rated continuous torque with substantially reduced losses.



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January 2017

1/18/17 4:12 PM


TRADITION OF EXCELLENCE STR3 Miniature Stepper Drive Designed and Produced for OEMs

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StepSERVO™ Integrated Motors The Next Evolution in Step Motor Technology • Closed loop outperforms traditional, open loop step motors in every way • More torque • Better efficiency • Cooler and quieter operation

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M o t i o n

C o n t r o l







140 104

Δ40° C (104° F)











The lower losses result in a more power efficient and low temperature operation. Today’s open loop step motor motion is more stable at lower speeds and step motor positioning is best at shorter moves. One step motor manufacturer has developed a new step motor family with a new digital control. One can select the best number of microsteps needed to properly



Time (min)



a result, lower power losses lead to lower motor temperatures. A 5-phase step motor with matched control can significantly reduce step motor vibrations by several orders of magnitude. The elimination of velocity vibrations provides the basis for better motion stability. Velocity vibrations are a condition of the step motor’s very low damping characteristics and

Current Waveform in Motor (theoretical figure)

1.40 Vibration Component Voltage (Vp-p)


match the pulse train to the applications output speed and position requirements. The new higher efficiency driver-controller typically reduces the 5-phase, size-23 step motor temperature by 40˚C. A lower I2R, or winding resistance, and lower Eddy currents combine to reduce the step motor’s internal lost power. The drive also reduces power losses by eliminating current harmonics. As

Vibration Characteristics Comparison

1.20 1.00 0.80 0.60 0.40

RKII Series: sinusoidal wave Conventional products: trapezoidal wave

0.20 0 0






speed (r/min)

RKS566AC-◊ Step angle: 0.72° 1.8° Stepper Motor That Uses Micro Step Driver


Fig. 1: A new higher efficiency drive-controller helps reduce motor surface temperature by as much as 40˚C.

Conventional Model

Temperature (°C)

Temperature (°F)

Motor Surface Temperature Comparison under the Same Conditions


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January 2017

Fig. 2: A 5-phase step motor with matched control helps reduce vibration, as these current waveforms demonstrate.

1/18/17 4:12 PM

The Only Coupling To Earn Its Wings

The NEW patented Baldor•Dodge® Raptor takes coupling innovation to greater heights. Utilizing a patented winged element design for higher bond strength and improved fatigue resistance, the Raptor delivers:

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• Easier installation and reduced maintenance • Drop-in interchangeability The Raptor is backed by over 50 years of natural rubber expertise and an industry leading 5-year warranty. Expect a higher level of reliability with the new Baldor•Dodge Raptor coupling.


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Raptor’s slotted clamp rings offer more clearance at the bolt holes for an easier installation than competitive designs.

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M o t i o n

C o n t r o l

What engineers want

RK II Series 85 mm Motor and Output 400W/750W Servo Motor RKS596AC - ◊ RKS599AC - ◊ RKS5913AC - ◊ Servo Motor 400W (Rated Torque) Servo Motor 750W (Rated Torque)


Torque (N-m)

6 4 2

Here is how they responded when asked about a step motor system’s most important attributes:

0 0

For insight into what design engineers are looking for in a step motor system, Oriental Motor asked its customers what is most important in selecting a step motor. They received over 250 responses based on their experience with step motor driven systems.






Speed [r/min]

1. Easy to use - 34% 2. Lower system cost - 17%

Fig. 3: Torque vs. speed curves comparing servomotors with new step motors show that for an equivalent frame size the step motors can produce two to three times as much torque as comparable sized servomotors.

the magnetic materials used in the motor. Reducing the losses, especially the sinusoidal current harmonics, also reduces current and velocity vibrations, or jitter. The controller can swiftly change the microstep command to smoothly stop the application load quickly.

Today’s open loop step motor motion is more stable at lower speeds and step motor positioning is best at shorter moves.

Step versus servomotor companies Typically each frame size, whether step motor or servomotor driven family, usually has three members of varying axial length.

3. Simple operation - 16% 4. No need to tune system - 12% 5. Other - 21% The longer the motor length, the higher the rating or developed continuous torque. Figure 3 displays the lower torque versus speed performance of three size 34 step motors. They represent three different stack lengths. Also plotted are two size 34 brushless permanent magnet motors torque versus speed performance. They represent a shorter stack 400 W servomotor and a longer stack 750 W servomotor at lower speeds up to 1,000 rpm. The servo control strategy was a consistent continuous torque over wide speed range. The motor outside diameters were all the same.

Fig. 4: For linear drive systems, these new step motors combined with a ground ballscrew produce fast linear speeds, although similar sized servo systems can produce faster speeds but with lower torque.



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M o t i o n

C o n t r o l

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The motor axial lengths were almost the same with the servomotors slightly longer. The longest stack size 34 step motor develops over 8 Nm at 200 rpm. That’s twice the torque of the 750 W servomotor and almost three times that of the 400 W servomotor. At 400 rpm, the torque difference is about 5 Nm for the medium and longer step motors versus 4 Nm for the 750 W servomotor. The step motor and 750 W servomotor exhibits the same performance rates at about 600 rpm. The servomotor’s constant torque performance will generally reach 3,000 rpm before dropping. At speeds below 400 rpm, the new step motor family will respond to quick moves more nimbly than the equivalent size 450 W or 750 W brushless servomotors. This response is due to its more efficient operation that allows the step motor to raise its input current and hence more torque without overheating. The driver-controller’s enhanced operation allows the motion control designer more flexibility in order to achieve the improved torque, speed, power, efficiency, and position. Typical application As an example, one of the new step motors was connected to a normal ground ballscrew with a pitch or lead of 10 mm (0.394 in.). The ballscrew’s linear position accuracy is plus/minus 0.01 mm (0.000394 in.). The step motor’s accuracy is plus/minus is 0.03 arc/min. When combined the system position is plus/minus 0.000055 in. or 55 micro-in. System speed is 43.8 mm/sec or 1.69 in./sec. Faster linear speeds can be obtained with the same sized servo motors but at a lower torque value. Step motor driven systems are found in many applications and industries in factory automation, semiconductor manufacturing equipment, solar panel, medical device, analytical instruments, food packaging machines, smaller precision stages and other applications. Open-loop systems are much easier to set up for operation mainly because there’s no need for tuning any PID control loops. The step motor counts the controller’s input pulses to determine the required final position, and electronic damping techniques can be provided to smooth velocity motion. DW

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Onboard electronics

make linear actuators safer and smarter Built-in actuator support for the SAE J1939 CAN bus standard gives engineers new options for integrating electromechanical actuators into construction, agricultural and mobile off-highway designs.

Chad Carlberg Production line manager for linear actuators Thomson Linear

Today’s electromechanical actuators deliver performance that’s comparable or even superior to other technologies in outdoor applications. They’re often cleaner with lower cost of ownership than predecessors. Traditional electric actuators provide basic machine functionality (to push and pull loads on command through switches) but more integration of advanced electronics is making today’s linear actuators smarter, safer and easier to network with an array of equipment. Such linear actuators can track parameters remotely and react automatically, making for inexpensive real-time operation and network flexibility. At the core of this new breed of actuator smarts are programmable microprocessors. 100


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Onboard electronics and the everincreasing stroke and load capacities of today’s electromechanical linear actuators mean they are powerful and rugged enough to go into even the most demanding outdoor applications.

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This is a traditional communication architecture — a system without CAN bus functionality. The actuator connects to ECUs only with a standalone controller.

“Standardizing on one common actuator makes diagnostics easier and simplifies ordering and inventory. Using a single actuator also improves leadtime.”



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Safer operation with condition monitoring Conventional electric-actuator designs can sustain motor or mechanical-component damage from continuous overloading. Such actuators that fail at unfortunate times can damage equipment or threaten the safety of personnel especially in heavy-duty offhighway applications. Actuators that sport onboard electronics prevent such incidents by monitoring voltage, current, load and temperature. They safety shut down if any of these parameters exceed critical set points. So if detected temperature is hotter than what the actuator can withstand, the onboard electronics can steer the axis into a safe shutdown. In a similar way, onboard electronics can also detect unsafe loading. Say an actuator setup to move a 2,000-lb load with 18 amps of current suddenly outputs an amperage that is beyond a factory-

This system runs off a CAN bus for easier and more versatile networking. Condition monitoring, new motion controls, and J1939 can give OEMs and end users diagnostic capabilities. Case in point: An engineer in Iowa remotely accesses a combine in North Dakota to identify the cause of one actuator’s failure. Failure might show up as an electronic message flag to help reveal the failure origin — including extreme temperature, position, current or input voltage.

calibrated trip point. Here, the actuator’s electronics can shut the axis down at a given safe position. Some electronics even prevent nuisance tripping (and degraded productivity) by letting the actuator run harder in cooler environments.

Actuator electronics improve motion control Electronics onboard linear actuators give designers enhanced motion control as well. These functions take six forms: Low-level power switching. Traditional actuators often need large and powerinefficient relays or independent controllers to retract, extend, and stop. In contrast, onboard electronics manage power so current at switches or contacts goes from 20 A to less than 22 mA for simpler and less costly system design.

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for example, a voltage signal indicates actuator position, speed and direction for more controllability. Digital position feedback. One single-channel pulse-signal encoder can synchronize actuators or communicate the position and speed from a single unit. Dynamic braking. Where power to an actuator is cut but the load keeps the axis coasting, there’s a threat to repeatability and precision. Conversely, onboard electronics with dynamic braking controls can guide a linear actuator to a precise stop even if power is lost. Limit-switch output. Safe and effective actuator operation depends on knowing when the actuator reaches end-of-stroke. So if an actuator functions to lock a device into place, a simple LED light triggered by the output can alert operators when that doesn’t happen — an unsafe condition. End-of-stroke output also helps protects actuators and equipment to which they connect. Internal end-of-stroke limit switches. These automatically shut down actuators at ends of travel to make mechanical clutch ratchets at stroke ends unnecessary and maximize actuator life.

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SAE J1939 support for actuator flexibility The SAE J1939 CAN bus communication is a standard gaining traction in agriculture and construction-equipment markets. Using electric actuators with J1939 compatibility lets equipment designers and end users leverage the benefits of J1939-enabled condition monitoring and controls. Onboard J1939 compatibility lets linear actuators speak the same language as electronic control units (ECUs) already on such equipment. This in turn enables communication across networks running through a twisted pair of wires. In contrast, traditional electric actuators need standalone ECUs. 104

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L i n e a r Traditional communication architectures only let actuators connect to ECUs with standalone controls. But smart actuators compatible with the J1939 CAN bus can run in arrays off one main ECU to enable control strategies once too complex for implementation. Such setups also boost flexibility, as a given actuator can work in different applications. Other benefits of SAE J1939 CAN bus communication compatibility are less wiring and minimized engineering time and cost. Deploying traditional actuators to an ECU took a dedicated communications cable to that ECU, a thick power cable to the equipment battery, and a relay or switch. In contrast, an actuator with onboard compatibility simply connects to the J1939 bus for efficient power-supply connections. As long as the J1939 CAN bus network stays in use — which is for the foreseeable future — OEMs can incorporate electric actuators into their designs easily and at a fraction of the expense that might have been necessary otherwise. There’s no need for independent controllers, and one actuator model can work in multiple applications. Another benefit is that J1939 support often lets engineers eliminate a standalone controller. Consider how traditional electric actuators are operated by a stand-alone ECU. A network of actuators with integrated J1939 support only need a single cable run from the controller. Each actuator gets a unique address, listens to every signal from vehicle controls, and responds only to signals designated for its operation. Such smart actuators also feed basic speed and position information (with diagnostics) to the control unit for better automation.

One actuator for several different uses Consider how some farm-equipment manufacturers strive to use a single actuator model for several applications on a given piece of machinery. One application may need a 2,000lb push-and-pull force for travel of 6 in., while another may only need 500 lb moved over 4 in. Traditionally these needed completely different actuator designs. Now however, one J1939compatible actuator might let system engineers program identical units to function specifically to application requirements, drastically cutting engineering time and wiring (not to mention the

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This is a Thomson Electrak HD linear actuator. It’s rugged enough for equipment that runs outdoors and is has onboard SAE J1939 CAN bus communications for easier networking.


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cost of adding and maintaining a separate controller). 8 7 9By electronically modifying the stroke length, these 10 9 8 engineers can use a given actuator model and housing 10 9 8 on an axis with a 500-lb trip point and another axis 9 8 7 with a 2,000-lb trip point. One common actuator here makes diagnostics easier (as error monitoring one

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New ways of

controlling indexers for precision motion There are key differences between fixed-position indexers and closed-loop position indexers. Here we review them and how to control for maximum accuracy.

Ken Pfahl • Sales Manager • Motion Index Drives

Indexing tables come in an array of versions with different speed and dwell settings to satisfy tasks in machine-tool handling, stamping, medical-device assembly, and bottle capping. These tables use mechanical drives, variable frequency drives (VFDs), programmable servo setups, and direct drives. Some mechanical cam-based indexers convert input into intermittent output by transmitting motion through a precision barrel cam. Versions that work as fixed-position indexers have the motion profile cut directly into the cam for engaging followers. Such mechanical drives are often simpler and more robust for set tasks than other options. That said, some indexing tables now integrate VFDs and even servos to deliver the intermittent movements of indexing with more flexibility where production requires it.

Indexing is when machine axes move from an initial rest position to one or more other rest positions. The indexer shown here has a slip ring to feed communication and power to tooling fixtures that ride on them. Some versions of these index-table slip rings can transmit high-voltage three-phase power and communication via Ethernet, Device Net, and Profinet.



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Barrel-cam design for indexing tables

Some cam-based indexers convert input into intermittent output by transmitting motion through a precision barrel cam. Versions that work as fixed-position indexers have the motion profile cut directly into the cam for engaging followers. Other indexing tables now integrate VFDs or servos for more flexibility. Motion Index Drives makes indexing tables to move inertial loads of less than 1 kgm2 to 180,000 kgm2 or more.

History of indexer controls and today’s leading designs Legacy indexer designs include motor contactors and two-speed motors for control. There’s a good reason that two-speed motors were once so common. That’s because traditional indexers need to recover from outof-position conditions at low speed due to the steeper angle cut into the cam and shearing threshold of the cam followers. Fast-forward to today’s options. Now that VFDs are more affordable than before, they’re

the first choice to get the same recovery from out-of-position conditions as that from legacy indexer setups. No wonder then that use of motor contactors has largely faded from existence as a method of controlling indexers. In fact, migration to VFDs has made it possible to use inverter-duty single-speed ac motors that accept VFD-based control. This enables more versatile indexing functions from constant-lead-cut cams thanks to closed-loop positioning. Such

flexible systems differ from fixed-position indexers because (as mentioned) fixedposition indexers have the whole motion profile cut directly into the cam. In contrast, newer closed-loop positioning indexers use a VFD to control some of the motion profile. One caveat: While this is a more flexible setup, it’s also easier to incorrectly program such indexers ... and even damage the cam followers and cam in the process. Note that there are other options besides pairing ac motors with encoders for

RT Series servo-rotary tables come in myriad sizes, and their ultra-precise cam assemblies can be custom-made to order by Motion Index Drives. The tables either come with a fixed number of stations or with flexible dial output (running off a servomotor or ac brake motor with encoder).



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flexible indexer performance. Servomotors and amplifiers can also control indexers with closed-loop positioning. Such servo setups for indexers are the most difficult to commission, because most servo amplifiers here are primarily designed to control robots ... and so are limited by the restricted ways in which robot manufacturers allow control of auxiliary motors. What’s more, many of these designs don’t allow for modified trapezoidal motion profiles, either — so the design is forced to have rates of acceleration and deceleration that are identical. This limits indexer sizing due to the inability to create balanced motion profiles that properly limit torque into the indexer.

TMF servo-driven programmable rotary tables from Motion Index Drives deliver fully programmable operation. They have zero-backlash operation and a minimum of four oversized cam followers that always engage the barrel cam.



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More details on fixed-position indexing tables Cam-based setups that run at constant speed convert constant input-drive motion (from a motor) into intermittent motion

1/19/17 9:06 AM

Migration to VFDs has made it possible to use inverter-duty single-speed ac motors that accept VFDbased control. This enables more versatile indexing functions from constant-lead-cut cams thanks to closed-loop positioning. output through mechanical means. Indexer-part manufacturers digitally shape the cam upfront so it doesn’t cause jerk but instead makes soft and shockproof strokes optimized for the task at hand. Most such cams go into assemblies to maintain secure mounting to the output table (sometimes called a dial). The motor is often a three-phase brake motor that transmits power through a chain wheel, belt wheel, or gear reducer to the table driveshaft. This connects directly to the barrel cam to turn cam followers and output flange. The flange sits inside a wire-bearing assembly free of backlash, and the whole drive is sealed against ingress. Some versions include flame-hardened cams and followers for smooth acceleration and deceleration as well as robust endurance in extreme environments. Accuracies to ±0.008 mm are standard with myriad configurations. One option is a locking dwell to get standalone precision for critical stations. Other choices include a reinforced output-flange bearing for higher tilting moment; an optional friction clutch on the drive; and dwell and step angle tailored to specific requirements. Options for flexible and programmable indexing tables January 2017


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As mentioned, flexible indexer designs use either a servomotor setup or an ac-motor setup with an encoder. Indexing tables that run off a VFD can cycle the motor driving the cam at a preset speed to a preset dwell and then stop. That lets the dial park at a location for seconds to hours — to allow processes at a station to complete before advancing workpieces to the next station, for example. The encoder tracks camshaft position for high positioning accuracy. Some designs have the output dial ride a high-precision four-point bearing assembly preloaded against runout. Some manufacturers seal the whole drive against dust and moisture ingress. The drawbacks of the other flexible indexer setup — that based on programmable servos — have already been mentioned. But to address a major issue for applications that need the highest level of programmability, some manufacturers design their servo-based programmable index tables so they’re identifiable by all robot brands and controls. Note that cams provide mechanical benefits even in these forms that rely on controls for some motion profiling. Consider how these indexer setups have a gear reducer that connects the motor to the barrel cam’s input shaft, but the barrel cam rotates the top dial through cam followers with a rigid zero-backlash connection. This direct connection between the table’s rotating dial and cam eliminates the focus during design sizing on toque output for geared linkages. Instead, the machine builder can work with the manufacturer to size the cam drive to the total system and payload moment of inertia. That ensures the kinematic assembly of the indexing table withstands the application’s inertia loads without issue.


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Fixed-position indexer

Closed-loop position indexer


This is an extremely accurate and repeatable system, because the cam followers are preloaded against the cam (with cam perpendicular to the rotation). There’s no added cost for encoder feedback.

These indexers get even greater accuracies than fixedposition types because more preloaded cam followers always engage the cam. One caveat: Encoder placement and resolution can affect resulting accuracies and cost.


This is a strong system using only two cam followers during the motion and when in the fixed position.

This is the leading system because more cam followers always engage the cam.


This is the simplest indexer type. Engineers can use a lower-cost VFD and single sensor for recovering from out-ofposition conditions. Entry-level controls engineers can configure these, too.

Closed-loop position indexers are more complex than fixed-position types in that the drive must be tuned and parameters must be set to correctly control the motion profile. Usually only an upper-level controls engineer can complete the setup.

This can be the most cost-effective indexer, but remember that there are many factors that affect cost. That said, this is usually the most cost-effective option where mass moment of inertia is low or index time is slow.

This usually has a higher cost of integration, because the design needs a more sophisticated VFD (able to handle encoder feedback). This indexer’s controls can only be setup by highly skilled personnel. Its encoders are costlier than the switches of simpler indexers, but the ability to handle much high mass moments of inertia can sometimes offset these additional costs.

This system is less flexible than closedloop position systems. The number of stopping positions are pre-determined and are not cost effective to change.

This indexer is more flexible than fixed-position types because it allows for infinite number of stop positions. Remember that the useable stop positions for typical applications are often possible with a fixed-position indexer.



M o t i o n

These are considerations when choosing the most suitable design for an application needing indexing.

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Final consideration: Stopping indexers during emergencies Note that one of the most important aspects of controlling indexers is handling emergency stops. Fixedpositioned indexers use a brake on the motor sized to stop the load’s mass moment of inertia. In contrast, closed-loop positioning indexers always have a brake attached to the motor for maximum holding power. But this type of braking almost always stops the indexer faster than the capacity of the indexer, so must not be used in emergency-stop situations. Instead, closed-loop positioning indexers must have emergency-stop procedures that use the motor controller to stop the load. DW

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does simultaneous sourcing/measurement matter? Engineers whose test bench already comes equipped with power supplies, meters, and electronic loads might wonder what good a source measure unit might be. Here’s the rationale for this type of instrument.

Qing D. Starks • Tektronix Inc.

Most engineers have a power supply and a DMM on their benches. So it’s logical to ask why a source measure unit (SMU) instrument that incorporates both would add value and increase productivity. It turns out that combining a power supply, DMM, current source and electronic load creates a test instrument that for many applications is more versatile than the individual instruments are alone. There are a few differences between an SMU and its forefathers, the DMM and the power supply. In a general sense, the SMU can be either a voltage source (with a programmable current limit) or a current source (with a programmable voltage limit). Both the source and limit functions can be programmed   

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Four-Quadrant Operation

E le ctro n i c s

2602B SourceMeter Instrument

with 16-bit resolution, and both quantities can be measured with the precision of a high-resolution DMM. Comparing the SMU’s finer points with those of the more familiar power supply or DMM may help clarify the differences. Speed – Many power supplies are designed to limit currents that are effectively dc, but SMUs typically do so with much higher bandwidth. The speed of the source and limit function depends on load. But in some cases, SMUs can source or limit to a settled current or voltage value in as little as 50 msec. What’s more, the limiting is fast enough to protect components and entire circuits from over-current conditions—not true for low-cost power supplies. SMUs also let you apply voltage or current in pulses to limit device power. Dynamic range – Most power supplies only have a few ranges, and many have only one. Depending on the model, the large dynamic range of an SMU permits measuring currents from as low as a few hundred femtoamps all the way up to 50 A. The lower current ranges are useful for component characterization, finding components that are slightly damaged, and debugging super-low-power applications. High resolution – Like DMMs, SMUs offer high resolution and up to 22-bit measurement functions for both voltage and current. Programmability – SMUs can be programmed

to pulse their voltage or current or to program any special sequence of voltage or current. For higher-end SMUs, the built-in programming language is powerful enough to define waveforms in the manner of an arbitrary waveform generator (ARB) that can source both voltage and current. Input impedance – Unlike DMMs, SMUs maintain high input impedance up to the voltage capability of the instrument. In contrast, DMMs (and oscilloscopes) use resistive dividers to measure high voltages. Four-quadrant operation – SMUs can source positive and negative current at either positive



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Typical Power Supply

Source + Sink +I

Source Only +I











The current-voltage relationship for an ordinary power supply (right) illustrates how the instrument offers only two-quadrant operation. Specifically, a conventional power supply operates in the first quadrant where it supplies a positive-voltage and current output to a load. With a deliberately miswired output, an ordinary supply operates in the third quadrant as a “minus” supply. However, a conventional supply cannot operate in the second quadrant as an adjustable load for a minus supply. Nor can it operate in the fourth quadrant as, for example, to discharge-test a battery with a specific constant current. An SMU instrument can source and sink power in all four quadrants

or negative output voltage. Thus the output amplifier covers all four source quadrants, and it can be used as an electronic load. A typical power supply can only source voltage and/or current, thus providing only two-quadrant operation. During operation as a source or sink, the SMU can simultaneously measure voltage, current, and resistance. This operating flexibility can be especially valuable when characterizing batteries, solar cells, or other energy generating devices. SMU scenarios A few scenarios help illustrate where SMUs can come in handy. In one, suppose we’re working on a new power supply design on a tight deadline with specifications changing at the last minute. It’s a feature-rich, software-controlled power supply with numerous operating modes for different applications. Among the power supply features are programmable supply voltage, step response, and high efficiency. It employs power factor correction (PFC) and an off-line (mains)

Rectifier voltage drop

In the example of a software-controlled power supply, a scope display illustrates the proper voltage drop across the rectifiers in a full-wave bridge when sourcing rated load (bottom trace) and no load (top trace).

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Elect roni cs supply followed by several push-pull forward converters with lots of secondary outputs. Further suppose the supply has many other softwarecontrolled features, not all of which are finished. A major concern is that software mistakes could damage the board. Before sending the boards off for fabrication, we take one to the test bench. Using an SMU, we apply the rated supply output voltage to each of the output supply printed circuit board traces (PCBT), as well as to the line (mains) voltage circuits. When the supply is running, it must operate at the rated voltages, so why not try them out with a safe 10 μA current limit first? The line voltage (and safety spacing) looks okay, as do all the low-voltage supplies. But the 700V high-voltage output hits the 10 μA current limit immediately. Something is very wrong. The SMU reports the limit voltage at 350 V, a clear indicator of a voltage breakdown issue rather than a short. And in fact, the breakdown occurs at 350 V. After some digging, we discover that milling a slot between the high-voltage net (high-voltage traces on the PCB) and a short ground track on the PCB solves the problem. It turns out that voltage spacing rules for this net were never enforced by the computer-aided design (CAD) tool. The engineer maintained spacing as he ran the traces but must have forgotten one. Finding this mistake early let the slot be added before the boards were populated. It would have been much more difficult to correct the breakdown problem after the board had been populated. With this problem solved, suppose we grab a new board and set the SMU to provide line voltage by executing an ac line voltage test script we’ve written. The script programs the output to a 50-Hz sinusoid with the correct limit current for the quiescent current of the unloaded supply. The new board powers up fine with all supply voltages within specifications. Using an oscilloscope, we look at the voltage across each rectifier to capture an entire power supply switching cycle. This change in voltage across the rectifier diode reflects the load current defined by the log amp I/V curve that can be found with an SMU. If these traces do not look like a simple shift, or if the shift is not correct, there may be a problem in the secondary circuits following the rectifier. Suppose the voltage on each rectifier of each output looks correct. If the rectifier current was

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E le ctro n i c s Typical push-pull supply T1

D2 C1




0V A schematic for a typical isolated push-pull buck converter power supply.


problems: Either the transformer was incorrectly designed or manufactured or the push-pull ON time for each of the half cycles of the push-pull MOSFETs were unequal, a condition known as flux imbalance. After much sleuthing, we discover that the problem was in the controller code for the MOSFET switching. Apparently, an interrupt executing only during half of the push-pull sequence, and which always took place on the same switch, was changing the ON time enough to cause a flux imbalance problem in the transformer. Our transformer design was particularly sensitive to this issue because this design had little magnetizing inductance. On this project, the SMU played a key role in debugging a serious problem. Power consumption testing Moving to a different scenario, consider the task of validating and debugging an advanced energy harvesting watch for military applications. It has wireless capabilities for

Military watch testing setup SOURCEMETER

+ V out


+ V in too high for any reason, the rectifier voltage (essentially a log amp), would have shown this increase in current over time. We can use a second SMU to measure the I-V characteristics of each diode and find what the voltages should be. The procedure is one of programming the SMU to apply a sweeping voltage and measuring current. Further suppose problems surface: Within about 30 minutes the SMU powering the second board reaches its current limit. This time, however, nothing fails and the board doesn’t burn up. We simply had to turn off the output of the SMU to program the instrument to zero volts and restart the ac line voltage script. To isolate the problem, we use an oscilloscope to measure the primary currents of each push-pull supply. There are typically no resistors in these lines, but we may measure the primary current by measuring the small voltage drop across a one-inch PCB trace. While this test normally takes place with a floating oscilloscope, we can also use a high-resolution digitizing DMM. This measurement proves enlightening. In just a few minutes, we notice that the magnitude of the current was rising! Because the previous tests showed that the secondaries were fine, that left one of two possible


tracking soldiers and keeping the wearer in touch with central command. It also syncs time and date with other watches in the command. Sometimes it passes key information to soldiers by passive LCD, sometimes by flashing lights, and sometimes by a mild electric shock. It scavenges power from body heat, light, and movements. And it has dozens of operating modes, each consuming a different quiescent current. A critical concern is keeping watch current consumption under the magic threshold of 1 nA, the lowest guaranteed current delivered by the watch’s combined energy harvesting techniques. If the watch current ever exceeds 1 nA for any amount of time, the watch must reduce its load for a period to “make up” for the extra energy drain. Initially, we test each of the peripherals with an SMU and a low-leakage guarded test fixture. SMUs, such as the Keithley Model 2461 SourceMeter instrument, are available










Test setup with fixture for the example of an SMU testing a military energy harvesting watch.



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E le ctro n i c s

with the necessary low current measurement ranges and low-noise-current triaxial cable connectors. This setup allowed us to record not only the current consumption but also the rate-of-change of the current when enabling or disabling the candidate circuits. Slight changes had a measurable impact. For instance, changing the current consumption too quickly forced the energy harvesters to operate at a lower efficiency. We used the SMU to simulate the I-V characteristics of the watch solar cells to test the watch’s ultrahigh-efficiency power converters. This testing required a fast source capable of operating at high voltages as well as low currents.

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We then moved to the test fixture. The watch housing and wrist strap were unavailable, so the test fixture and triaxial cabling had to be used to guarantee measurements of current consumption were valid. Surrounding the device with a Faraday shield ensured that all measured current would be from the watch itself and not caused any spurious external influences. The fixture also let engineers and auditors operate the watch using their computers, rather than using the watch buttons. This interface was developed to speed the audit and let it take place anywhere. To speed the test procedure, we wrote code to run on the SMU that made the instrument continuously monitor the watch load current as the SMU supplied power. The code let the instrument track all instances over the 1-nA limit as well as the average current. 126

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E le ctro n i c s A misbehaving feature could cause an audit to fail. It could also fail if the watch were to consume excessive current. Whenever this happened, engineers would inspect the specific hardware state causing the failure—and find a solution. Given the complexity of the design, the audits were somewhat unpredictable. The team had to repair instances of excessive current consumption and feature implementations that were broken. However, SMUs reduced debugging time compared to that necessary when using separate power supplies and electronic loads lacking lowcurrent performance and programmability. In a nutshell, an SMU can help save time solving problems while reducing repair and rework. To be sure, the degree

of usefulness that a measurement tool provides is directly related to your understanding of its functions and how to use them to their fullest. DW Tektronix Inc., source measurement units


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SIMSOLID large-assembly design study of 1,128-part assembly. Source: Serapid. SIMSOLID



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Simulation Is Becoming Democratized— At Last (Part 2) Two decades after software vendors’ first efforts to put simulation and analysis capabilities in the hands of non-analyst engineers and designers, a wealth of new technological avenues have opened up to finally make this a practical reality. Bruce Jenkins • President, Ora Research

In the December 2016 issue of Design World, Part 1 of this series looked at how contemporary connections between CAD and CAE software environments have grown more sophisticated and intelligent than the industry’s early attempts. Now, we look at two more trends acting to democratize simulation. • Meshless structural analysis and other recent technological advances that simplify and accelerate the traditionally time- and labor-intensive tasks of analysis model creation and problem setup. • The cloud-based high-performance computing (HPC) revolution, driven by a wave of visionary young organizations and initiatives working to make cloud HPC-based simulation resources easily and affordably available to engineering organizations of all sizes. January 2017

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Investigation of piston and rod deformation in SimForDesign used just eight minutes of computing time for the entire simulation process. Source: Fidesys

De-bottlenecking model preparation and problem setup A new generation of simulation software is bringing novel, powerful approaches to simplify the modeling and setup of analysis problemsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a bottleneck where much of the time and expertise required to use sophisticated CAE have long been concentrated. A leading example is SIMSOLID, a young software company whose structural analysis product of the same name was developed specifically for design engineers. Its most dramatic technological breakthrough is to let users perform analysis directly on imported CAD geometry without first having to perform Cloud computing is starting the two most time-consuming and expertise-intensive steps to reshape the simulation in traditional FEA: geometry simplification and meshing. landscape and for good reason. In addition, SIMSOLID can analyze complex parts and Simulation users have long large assemblies not practical with traditional FEA, and do been frustrated by constrained so efficiently on desktop-class computers, the company says. availability of high performance Another such startup is simulationHub, a new, computing. easy-to-use, cloud-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) app for designers.

Delivered as Software-as-a-Service (SaaS), the app is accessible from mobile, tablet and desktop devices. Intended to redefine the traditional CFD simulation process for complex CAD models, even working with dirty CAD assemblies that contain large openings, the app eliminates the CAD repair and de-featuring process from the CFD simulation work cycle. The companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s aim is to greatly simplify meshing, solve and postprocessing operations to let designers focus on product design. SimForDesign from Moscow-based FEA software developer Fidesys is a cloud-based CAE service that streamlines simulation for designers. Aimed specifically at designers, it does not assume its user to be a simulation expert. The software is meant to help designers understand structural performance of their designs, specifically displacements and stresses, to make smarter design decisions. Not meant to replace conventional CAE tools used by analysts for final design validation, SimForDesign is intended to make structural analysis an integral part of the design process by using automatic mesh generation and analysis to remove the complexities of setting up standard structural analysis of parts and small assemblies. January 2017

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Pricing is on a prepaid-usage basis, starting with a $25 Standard package for one user, one compute hour, one GB storage, and five projects (plus free examples); users can then purchase additional credits as they use simulation more. Unlike with many services, SimForDesign users are charged only for compute time spent on geometry processing, meshing and analysis, not CPU core hours. The service automatically chooses the optimal hardware for each model to ensure best performance. The software can be deployed in local data centers if desired. Cloud HPC revolution making simulation more accessible and affordable for all The last two examples show how cloud computing is starting to reshape the simulation landscape, and for good reason. Simulation users have long been frustrated by constrained availability of HPC (highperformance computing) resources to run their computationally demanding applications. Expensive on-premise hardware could be hard to justify based on infrequent or fluctuating usage, while leasing time from supercomputing centers could incur exorbitant costs. But the explosive growth of commodity cloud computing in the past handful of years has completely rewritten this equation, making ultra-high-end processing power available and affordable for even the smallest engineering groups today. Leading the charge to make cloud HPC resources readily accessible to engineering simulation software users is a new wave of young, visionary organizations and initiatives. One prominent example, San Franciscobased Rescale, offers software platforms and

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pay-as-you-go, or users can employ their own license server. Another prominent example is SimScale, provider of a cloud-based CAE platform accessible entirely through a standard web browser that lets users seamlessly simulate, share and collaborate in its community of 65,000 engineering professionals. The company, headquartered in Munich, Germany, characterizes its mission as “harnessing the power of the cloud and cutting-edge simulation technology to build not just another simulation software but an ecosystem in which simulation functionality, content and people are brought together in one place, enabling them to build better products.” Yet another example generating high interest and engagement is UberCloud, an online community and marketplace where engineers and scientists discover, try and buy computing power as a service, on demand. Engineers and scientists can explore and discuss how to use this computing power to solve their demanding problems, and to identify the roadblocks and solutions, with a crowd-sourcing approach, jointly with the UberCloud engineering and scientific community. A fourth such initiative is AweSim. A partnership among the Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC), simulation and engineering experts, and industry, its aim is to put simulation-driven design capabilities within reach of small to mid-sized manufacturers (SMMs). AweSim builds on OSC’s former Blue Collar Computing initiative to offer a new level of integration and commercialization of products and services for SMMs. DW

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M e c h a n i c a l

Hip to be square:

New U-joint “square ball” design is smoother than it sounds Mike Santora • Associate Editor



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CCTY Bearing new U-joint design features a “square ball” and only six parts. The engineers say it’s stronger, lighter and smoother. This is how they made it happen.

The “u” in U-joint could just as easily stand for ubiquitous or unchanged. But unique? Hardly. For almost a century, universal joints have been created with the same fundamental design. Sure, they’ve been improved since their first incarnations; they’ve gained needle bearings, increased machining qualities, and lubrication and sealing abilities. Regardless, the basics haven’t changed in a while. Now, a new basic design is in the works to bring smoother, more efficient motion to the old component. When a major forklift manufacturer came to CCTY Bearing to ask for help with a U-joint problem, CCTY’s Head of Engineering for North America, Rich Perlberg and Strategic Sales Manager John Sweetwood had their work cut out for them. The forklift manufacturer was seeing repeated failures in its steering linkages and the space envelope was too small to go up in size. “It was the kind of space envelope issue where they needed a larger load capacity but didn’t have more room to pack anything in there. Rich started working on the project and a few months later he got me involved with it,” said Sweetwood. It was during the U-joint section of a new design software training course that led Sweetwood and Perlberg to the Square Ball U-joint’s eureka moment. “By the fourth day of class we were done designing some of the fundamental components. Then it was time to do an assembly. The project was on a U-joint. I was looking at the assembly and simulating the movement with it. I noticed that when I broke down the movement to just one yoke it rotated on one axis, the other one opposite would rotate on an axis 90° to it. It was the combination of those two motions. When you’re rotating through it, you have the same motion you would have with a U-joint. I hit Rich in the arm and said, ‘Rich, we need a square ball,’” said Sweetwood.

The square ball (shown here), is one of six parts total: two yokes, one central element, two retaining pins and the seal to protect the moving parts and hold the grease in. The design functions much like a spherical plain bearing; the advantage being spherical plain bearings have a large load zone and the contact area is spread out over a large surface. This design element allows pounds per square inch to remain low on the material compared with the needle bearings typically found in a universal joint.  

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M e c h a n i c a l

fficiency Perlberg and Sweetwood say that they have been able to maintain a good, consistent fit between the central element and the yokes for a smooth sliding, strong torque transferring unit.

The term “square ball” didn’t conjure images of smooth, elegant motion and it wasn’t particularly clear what it would even look like. It was up to Perlberg to go home that night and try to draw the new component into existence. “The next day he came into class and showed me his drawing. I said, “Yes, that’s what I was trying to tell you,” said Sweetwood. It’s a lean and simple construction. Six parts total: two yokes, one central element (the square ball), a couple of retaining pins and the seal to protect the moving parts and hold the grease in. Again, it works much like a spherical plain bearing; the advantage being that spherical plain bearings have a large load zone and the contact area is spread out over a large surface. This design element allows pounds per square inch to remain low on the material compared with the needle bearings typically found in a universal joint. The load zone is basically the line contact the designer is getting with each needle bearing in the load zone. The square ball U-joint spreads that out and can handle the loads quite efficiently.

The ball seeks its own center and finds it. It still transfers the torque without it, but the pins are only there to keep the central element into the yokes together where it just keeps it from sliding out the side cylinder.



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Perlberg and Sweetwood say that they have been able to maintain a good, consistent fit between the central element and the yokes for a smooth sliding, strong torque transferring unit. A video available on CCTY’s website makes the U-joint’s motion more clear but the company still receives questions. “I have actually had a number of engineers ask if the pins are needed to help transfer the torque. The answer is that they really don’t. They’re in the center of the whole yoke and the center of the ball. All the torque is transferred out towards the outer corners of the ball off the outer edges of the yoke. The pin is only there to keep the ball from sliding out either end. When it’s traveling or rotating at a high enough speed—and everything’s perfect on the loading—the pins don’t even need to be there,” said Sweetwood. Perlberg and Sweetwood experimented by pulling the pins out and putting them back in at an angle. Once the ball started rolling, it stayed centered. The ball seeks its own center and finds it. It still transfers the torque without it, but the pins are only there to keep the central element into the yokes together where it just keeps it from sliding out the side cylinder. The design has progressed consistently since its inception and CCTY is pleased with how development is turning out. The Square Ball design rotates smoothly, introducing very little rotational torque into the application. For example, in a steering application with two conventional universal joints, eight seals are dragging on the central element (4 per universal joint) and will contribute to the added rotational torque of the steering system.  The Square Ball Universal Joint TM doesn’t introduce this type of rotational torque to the application. Down the line, CCTY sees potential for this component being modified into a constant velocity joint. “There are some ways we might be able to adapt this into a constant velocity joint. With how well it transfers torque in a

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small package, a constant duty application would be the next challenge. We still have a little ways to go,” said Sweetwood. For now at least, CCTY’s focus is bringing the U-joint design to market. CCTY received the provisional patent early this year and has added some additions to the U-joint since then. Sweetwood and Perlberg say they are doing a variety of tests right now from life testing to destruction testing. “We’re at the point where we’re pretty close to nailing down what standard size would best serve the markets that we studied. Then we can figure out what our production costs are going to be and what tooling we’re going to need to bring this to market,” said Sweetwood. CCTY has visited numerous customers with the new component and have created 3D printed models to help customers understand what a “square ball” is. Sweetwood said simply, “It’s kind of one of those things that really doesn’t exist by definition, I suppose, but it’s the closest two words to actually describe it.” As for an estimated product launch, CCTY is hoping for a late Spring 2017 release. Perlberg is optimistic. “Our typical lead time from the point we get a purchase order to being able to deliver product is about four months. Assuming testing goes well I’d like to think that a user will have this ready for their design, by next summer or late spring. That would be great.” DW CCTY Bearing

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Cometâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Gearbox SimApp lets gearbox designers optimize a two-stage gearbox for weight with stress and gear-life constraints. The underlying Comet Simulation Automation Template uses CAD (Autodesk Fusion), FEA (Nastran) and Romax (systems gearbox analysis) tools to perform the calculations, seamlessly combining and managing the systems and 3D models. Source: Comet Solutions



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Simulation Is Becoming Democratized— At Last (Part 3) This third and final installment in this series focuses on a revolutionary new generation of fit-for-purpose, product-specific and often user-organization-specific simulation “apps.” By placing advanced simulation and analysis technologies “under the hood” from the user’s perspective, simulation apps are making unprecedented powers of automated design exploration, optimization, synthesis and validation accessible, usable and safe for non-analyst engineers and designers across a wide and still growing range of products and industries. Bruce Jenkins • President, Ora Research

Automating the setup and execution of simulation and analysis problems has been a goal of both practitioners and software vendors almost since the beginning of the CAE industry. Early approaches relied heavily on scripting and custom programming. Repetitive, routine processes could be captured and reused in macro languages provided by CAE software vendors as adjuncts to their solvers and pre/post-processors. Engineering organizations have also used scripting languages such as Java and Python to build powerful, sophisticated layers of automation on top of their commercial analysis tools. But as powerful as that approach can be, it has limitations. Often narrowly case-specific, custom scripts are generally applicable only to the focused range of problems for which they were first conceived. They tend to be January 2017

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EASA technology architecture. Source: EASA

tightly bound to the specific solvers and pre/post-processors for which they were written, and require considerable rework to incorporate new tools entering the organization. And their value is most often to help expert analysts work more efficiently and productively—they often do little to help make simulation available to engineers and designers outside the analysis department. Second wave: Process automation frameworks To move beyond those limits, a second wave of simulation process automation has gained momentum over the past decadeplus. This wave consists of environments and frameworks for simulation workflow capture and automation, often featuring drag-and-drop workflow editors that let analysts readily set up sophisticated process flows that can call functionality from a range of modeling, analysis, pre/postprocessing and reporting software tools, and control data flows among Simulation apps are a third them. Once defined and validated by CAE experts, these workflows can approach. These apps deliver often be used safely by non-experts— that is, engineers with expertise in sophisticated simulation their discipline, but without advanced training in CAE tools. capabilities packaged as easy- That approach yielded substantial productivity gains for expert analysts, to-use apps that automate the and also captured their expertise and made it available to engineers outside design, analysis, and verification the analysis department. However, practitioners report that often enough, of a product. these solutions still suffer from some of the same limitations as custom programming. In particular, when a

problem turns out to vary too greatly from the idealized scenario for which the automated workflow was constructed, the system freezes up, breaks down, or requires exactly the manual intervention it was meant to eliminate. Third wave: Simulation apps Most recently, a third approach has begun gathering momentum: simulation apps. These provide sophisticated simulation capabilities packaged as easy-to-use, tightly focused apps that automate the design, analysis and verification of a specific type of product, often tailored to the needs of a specific user company. In this approach, the expertise of an engineering organization’s analysts is captured as rules in a set of templates that automate the design of a specific class of product. In use, the templates call on underlying, general-purpose modeling, simulation and analysis software tools for geometry creation and modification, mesh generation, physics calculations in the various disciplines involved, and results presentation in the form of an optimized, validated design solution. How simulation apps escape some of the limits of older approaches is by capturing the expert rules based on the functional architecture of the product family, instead of on the geometry or topology of particular designs. This is what can make the templates January 2017

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ESRD’s CAE-Handbook of Sim Apps provides standard solutions for routine design and analysis problems in a very user-friendly environment, with confirmation of reliability. Source: ESRD

robust even across significant geometry, topology and configuration changes, and across an entire product family. Automation templates constructed on this basis allow any user, expert or non-expert, to explore alternative architectures, and to swap out entire components to find the best design most effectively. Most important is that these apps, designed and certified by experts, are immediately usable by engineers and designers without requiring specialized training—and make the full power of the underlying simulation and analysis tools available to them, safely and reliably. Important to emphasize is that, for now, simulation apps are not only solution-specific, but also need to be made company-specific to have their greatest impact. Every engineering organization that uses simulation has developed best practices for using particular simulation codes. Thus, solution providers need, at the least, to customize a “starter” app  

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to conform exactly to the company’s best practices, in order for the company’s experts to embrace these tools, and for everyone in the organization to trust the results they produce. Pioneering simulation-app software and service providers and their offerings include Comet Solutions SimApps, SimApp Authoring Workspace and SimApp development services; COMSOL Multiphysics Application Builder; EASA app development services; ESRD Smart Engineering Simulation Apps and development services; Front End Analytics SmartApps and development services; Xogeny app development services, and more. These leaders spearhead a rapidly expanding ecosystem of app development tools and frameworks, app development services, and off-the-shelf suites of productspecific apps ready to be customized for individual end-user companies by having their in-house experts’ knowledge and best practices captured and embedded. January 2017


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How simulation apps work Front End Analytics managing director Juan Betts lists seven core things that simulation apps do: • Leverage the user organization’s intellectual property—know-how, methods, existing software toolsets and previous designs. • Work across a wide range of design changes and product families. • Speak the language of the intended user, and have built-in safeguards that prevent non-expert users from creating invalid designs. • Automate within or across workflows such as CAD geometry creation, analysis and other engineering tasks. • Are employable for different levels of model abstraction, from 0D/1D functional and systems-level modeling through 3D CAD, FEA and CFD computational analysis. • Are most often cloud-based and web-enabled, and thereby support global collaboration. • Are built on an agnostic server-based platform that accommodates a variety of software tool integrations, and that allows an implementation to start small and rapidly begin showing returns. The process for creating simulation apps typically has three steps: first workflow capture, then app creation, then democratization. “Workflow capture is really about process capture,” Betts explains. “Then app creation is about being able to amplify that, being able to embed controls so that your non-experts can use this and democratize it across the enterprise. And we find this is an iterative process, because many times your experts don’t know what they know. So we use an agile product development process, where it’s iterative. And democratization is where you take this and then are able to go to the enterprise and deploy it in a controlled fashion.” Comet Solutions CTO Malcolm Panthaki elaborates. Simulation apps are “simple, targeted, web-deployed engineering calculators,” he says. “They are targeted and narrowly focused. They answer specific questions about the design of a particular product at particular levels of fidelity. They’re dirt-simple to use, and available anywhere. They need to be useful and usable, robust across a range of design changes, and in fact across an entire product family.”

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The process for creating simulation apps typically has three steps: first workflow capture, then app creation, then democratization.


Importantly, he continues, “They need to be expert-certified. The experts are the ones who embed their expertise in them and certify them. And in fact these apps must use the full power of the underlying expert tools, not tools that are in some way limited.” Finally, they provide users with ubiquitous access to whatever amounts of computing power are needed, either on internal clusters or on the cloud. “These apps can range from the very simple to the highly complex,” Panthaki emphasizes. “There isn’t a limitation. You can go from simple—that is, apparently simple—plastic bottle design, to aircraft and automobile parts and subsystem design, to complex optical systems that require multifidelity and multiphysics calculations such as laser systems, and even shock analysis of PC boards.” “There’s a huge unmet demand,” he declares. “Product engineers and others in manufacturing companies who are not CAE experts need—and are now using, safely and robustly—simulation capabilities that work across a wide scope.” Such apps have the potential to expand simulation access and usage “from the under a million simulation experts we have today, to—as a first phase— the eight million engineers who could benefit immediately from these tools, and then ultimately to ten times that number of potential users—salesmen, designers and others who would want to use these simple engineering calculators in their daily work.” And far from reducing the need for CAE experts, Panthaki notes, “the role of the experts is changing—they’re becoming more valuable to the organization. Anyone in their global product development organization who needs simulation can now access it without the need to go to the experts each time. And in setting up each of these models for analysis, you can go from days, hours or weeks January 2017

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3D CAD of an expert’s time, literally to seconds or minutes of the non-expert’s time—and it’s done correctly the first time, providing the templates are set up correctly.” Simulation is becoming democratized—at last The simulation software industry and its customers have made vast strides since their first efforts to expand access to simulation beyond the small number of specially trained analysts compared with the much greater number of non-analyst engineers and designers found in most engineering organizations. Those analysts’ scarcity as a resource often made them a bottleneck in product development—or, worse, irrelevant, when schedule needs forced a project to move on before analysts had time to finish their work, then make their results accessible and comprehensible to other project members. Thus came the early software products some two decades ago that tried to make some degree of simulation capability usable by non-analyst engineers and designers by integrating finite element analysis tools into CAD user environments. But after early enthusiasm, many users concluded that, in being made safe for generalist users, the tools’ simulation functions had been so curtailed as to deliver disappointingly less value than first hoped for. But across the past handful of years, software developers and service providers have opened up a wealth of new technological avenues—far more sophisticated and intelligent CAD/CAE interconnections than the early attempts, meshless structural analysis and other techniques to simplify and accelerate problem setup, very affordable cloud-based HPC resources, and a rising wave of new fitfor-purpose vertical simulation “apps.” All these, and doubtless more just over the horizon, are at last making advanced simulation capabilities accessible, practical and safe for use by non-analyst engineers and designers. One great benefit is to let analysts remove themselves as a bottleneck in product development, and instead focus 156


January 2017

on amplifying their value to the enterprise by embedding their expertise within digital tools and frameworks that then enable that expertise to be deployed to, and safely applied by, non-specialist engineers and designers throughout the organization. And, at the same time as amplifying the value available from an organization’s expert analysts, democratization of simulation is helping engineering organizations get more value from all their other simulation assets as well—software tools and technologies, and the methods and work processes developed around them. Ultimately, democratization of simulation will empower engineers to move beyond the intuition-based, guess-and-correct product development practices still prevalent in too many industries today, and begin to exploit all the possibilities for systematic, rational, rapid design discovery, development, optimization and validation available from contemporary simulation and analysis technologies that, even today, users have scarcely begun to tap. DW

Ora Research


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How HMIs

can solve the industrial Ethernet communication problem

Connecting the many different industrial Ethernet protocols found in a typical plant or facility can be a headache, but an HMI can relieve the pain. Marcia R. Gadbois

General Manager and VP for the Wonderware InduSoft Web Studio group of Schneider Electric

Diagram depicting Ethernet communications. An HMI can be used as the communications hub to enable communication among a variety of Ethernet protocols. (courtesy of InduSoft).



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I n d u s t r i a l


E t h e r n e t

Selecting and configuring a software protocol driver in HMI software to communicate to a new device through Ethernet or some other industrial


communications protocol is simpler than adding


protocol conversion hardware and it’s also the low-cost option.

Due to the popularity of the IoT and the IIoT, along with other factors, the variants

of industrial Ethernet have never been greater. When connecting data and information across the plant floor, how can all of these different industrial Ethernet protocols communicate? One solution: use a modern HMI as a gateway to connect common industrial Ethernet protocols, with a focus on messaging and information protocol interfaces. Many older automation systems and networks are becoming obsolete but they still work great. Industrial Ethernet evolved from an earlier version of Ethernet, and includes many features from fieldbus-style communications standards that were supposed to be used instead of Ethernet. These fieldbus-style standards include DeviceNet, Control Area Network (CAN), Profibus, Modbus and CCLink. These networks are still widely used, but they are slowly moving to the obsolete side of the scale. Technology is moving many from these serial networks towards Industrial Ethernet to take advantage of its speed and flexibility. Industrial Ethernet is now handling real-time control networks and is well suited to communicate with more complex devices such as motion controllers and drives. It also provides the technology to connect to the IIoT. While many networks have changed from proprietary to open standards, Ethernet sets the bar as the most open of all networks in terms of hardware, but not with respect to all layers of its communication protocol, particularly for industrial applications. All variants of Industrial Ethernet share some or all hardware, but

there are still many different Ethernet-based protocols, including: Ethernet TCP/IP EtherNet/IP Modbus TCP/IP Profinet Ethernet Powerlink EtherCAT Sercos III CC-Link IE Ethernet TCP/IP is the leading standard for communication on Ethernet hardware. A simple description is that it’s the internet connection between two or more devices that makes sure data are sent and delivered correctly. Most other industrial Ethernet protocols use all or part of this protocol in various ways. These different Industrial Ethernet protocols were developed by leading automation manufacturers. For example, EtherNet/IP was developed by Rockwell Automation and created from DeviceNet and ControlNet using the same Common Industrial Protocol (CIP) over TCP/IP. Like most of the other industrial Ethernet protocols, EtherNet/IP is now open and administered by an independent foundation.   

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I nd ust r ia l E t h e r n e t

This chart lists some of the leading industrial Ethernet protocols and planned adoption rates. (courtesy of IHS). Modbus TCP/IP is the industrial Ethernet version of the

original Modbus RTU protocol developed by Modicon in 1979. It’s a client/server configuration that’s easy to implement but not deterministic. Profinet is the Industrial Ethernet version of Profibus. It’s the protocol of choice for Siemens and many European suppliers, and it comes in three different variations offering different degrees of performance. Powerlink was developed by B&R Automation and sits on top of IEEE 802.3, the Media Access Control (MAC) layer of Ethernet. Time synchronization, enabled by a master, managed node, makes it a fast and deterministic option. EtherCAT was developed by Beckhoff Automation using

a MAC level protocol. Much of the data is handled in the hardware layer to reduce latency, making it a good choice for high-speed motion applications with many connected nodes. Sercos III is like EtherCAT with its on-the-fly packet

processing for very fast real-time control, and adds TCP/IP communication as well. It is commonly used in servo drive applications. CC-Link IE was developed by Mitsubishi, and it has a control and field version. The control version ties controllers together, and the field version links I/O and motion control components. Both versions use the Ethernet data link layer. 160


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HMIs enable Ethernet communications Although multiple Industrial Ethernet protocols can travel over one Ethernet cable, they each contain different types of messaging and data schema that make it impossible for them to communicate with each other directly. An HMI is one solution to enable communication among these different protocols. The HMI can be either PC-based, or it can run on an embedded operating system such as Windows Embedded or Linux. In either case, the HMI acts as the communications hub, enabling different Ethernet protocols to talk to each other. As a communications hub, an HMI lets systems integrators and machine builders incorporate hardware from multiple manufacturers and easily update legacy systems with new equipment. Using Ethernet and modern HMI software also makes it easier to create remote or webbased interfaces, which let operators view and control machines and processes from anywhere.   The first step when implementing an HMI as the communications hub is to select


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the right software. Although many PC-based HMIs support the leading industrial Ethernet protocols, some embedded HMIs may only work with a few. On the other hand, the right HMI software, whether embedded or PC-based, offers a more open option. These HMIs can communicate with hundreds of industrial protocols, serial and Ethernet, allowing users to make connections to just about any type of industrial automation components with a communications port. Some HMI software packages also offer support for communication with custom and proprietary protocols, although this always requires some configuration or programming. Advantages of an HMI hub Why use an HMI hub instead of an alternative solution? After all, one could instead use hardwarebased protocol convertors, or even switch the entire plant or facility to one protocol. Selecting and configuring a software protocol driver in HMI software to communicate to a new device through Ethernet or some other industrial communications protocol is simpler than adding protocol conversion hardware and itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s also the low-cost option. The number of required protocol converters can quickly multiply, forcing plants and facilities to stock many components. While not common, hardware malfunctions do occur, and these points of failure can be eliminated through a software-based approach. Switching all of the automation components in a plant to one protocol is often not practical, particularly in older plants and facilities. Many devices may run on different protocols, especially in legacy automation systems. As industry moves to make connections to these legacy systems to make them part of the IIoT, switching to a common protocol would be expensive as it would require replacing legacy automation systems which are still functioning properly. Even in new systems, some OEM equipment will use different protocols. Instead of disrupting well-functioning automation systems, or requiring OEM suppliers to adhere to one protocol standard, and HMI can make the required connections. This is especially effective in monitoring applications where real-time protocols are not needed. For example, many items of OEM equipment use their on-board automation systems to control operation, with communication to other systems for monitoring 162


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and coordination through an HMI. Some of the advantages of using an HMI as the communication hub include: • Works with a range of protocols simultaneously • Easy to expand • Lower cost than using separate protocol converters • Often more practical then switching to a common protocol • Easy to program for integration of Ethernet data • Provides cybersecurity between plant floor and internet/intranets The use of tags to exchange data among automation controllers is common, and it is now easy to import tag names from a controller to an HMI, speeding integration and reducing development time. Finally, as industrial Ethernet is based on the well-developed commercial Ethernet, the security requirements and functions are well understood. While good design practice keeps the office/enterprise network separate from the control network, some common cybersecurity rules and procedures can be implemented to keep the both networks safe. In application In a large assembly system, there are often many devices including controllers, robots, drives, motion controllers and smart sensors. All of these devices can be connected with industrial Ethernet networks using various protocols. These connections may be for real-time control, or for data and information purposes only. For real-time control, the chosen protocol should focus on deterministic operation of the machines and equipment. The most efficient method is to use a single protocol. If high-speed communication among different protocols is necessary, protocol converter hardware may be the only practical answer because converting protocols through the HMI software would take too long. For data and information networks, the HMI can communicate with many devices simultaneously through multiple


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protocols. It can be used to exchange data among various automation systems for coordination and sequencing. The HMI can also acquire, store, process and transmit information to other platforms such as ERP, production management and asset management systems. All these data need to evolve into information without interfering with the control network. The HMI can perform this task by only exchanging selected data with higherlevel systems, while at the same keeping the operators informed with real-time operating information. The key point is that the real-time networks need to run fast and cannot be slowed down by data collection and information. Users can set priorities by using the HMI as a hub along with the appropriate Ethernet switches and routers. This allows exchange of data with higher-level systems, and among various automation systems, with little or no impact on the real-time control functions of the network. The right HMI can be used as a hub in an industrial Ethernet network to link automation systems, equipment and machines. It is often the best option to line many different protocols, is flexible enough for use in legacy or new applications. It’s also low cost and easy to integrate. DW InduSoft


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M e c h a n i c a l

Fake bearings, real danger: How to fight back in 2017 2016 saw sustained strength within the counterfeit bearings market. While global initiatives by companies like SKF and groups like the World Bearing Association have helped slow the bleeding, experts say there is still much to be done. Here is what fighting counterfeit bearings will look like in 2017. Mike Santora • Associate Editor

Early last year, the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development reported that the import of pirated or counterfeit goods was nearing half a trillion dollars for 2016. That represents 2.5% of global imports, much of which is luxury consumer goods. While knock off purses and fake footwear are bad for businesses, they rarely endanger a consumer’s safety. Counterfeit bearings on the other hand, usher in a much more complex threat. SKF participates in more than 100 raids per year so we spoke with the company’s Director, Group Brand Protection, Tina Astrom and Press and Media Relations Director, Theo Kjellberg to learn about the dangers of counterfeit bearings. Here is what they had to say about what industry professionals can do to protect themselves. Our conversation, edited for space and clarity, follows:

The basics of fake

I would put quite a bit of blame on companies outside China as well. The retailers and traders in general are the people buying this merchandise. It’s generally known in the bearing market that if you buy certain items there is a very high chance that you’re getting counterfeit goods. It’s the retailers, those that are selling to customers, that are really cheating people. That’s where the lion’s share of the money ends up also. DW: Outside of China, what other countries are particularly vul-

Design World: What are some of the tactics counterfeiters use to fool

nerable? How does the US stack up?

consumers? Astrom: It varies considerably. The worst affected areas are Africa Astrom: Because bearings are standardized, counterfeiters take the cheap-

est available on the market. Then they brand them in small sweatshops and put them into packaging looking identical to an accepted brand’s packaging. These bearings are then sold to the market. Typically, what happens is you have companies in China that spam the market. They create nice websites and then wait for customers to buy from them. When they have an order, it’s handed over to a middle man, who is ordering from one of those branding workshops. Of course, China is dominating. But if you look in the flow of things,



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and The Middle East. It has reached double digits in terms of percentage share of counterfeits being available in the market. China, India, Southeast Asia and Central America are heavily affected also. They’re in double digits as well. Countries like the US and Germany have many cases too. I would say once a month we have a Premature failure of counterfeit bearings like these can have catastrophic consequences.

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M e c h a n i c a l

worse, but counterfeit bearings should receive more attention. I should point out that the US customs authorities are excellent; top 10 in the world, from my perspective. It’s the local US police enforcement agencies that are less attentive on these issues.

How to protect yourself DW: Can you tell us about the preparation process for a raid? Astrom: It usually starts with a customer

Unmarked bearings from a raid in China.

case where we detect that the customer has accidentally been delivered a counterfeit bearing.

Of course, China is dominating. But if you look in the flow of things, I would put quite a bit of blame on companies outside China as well.



Mechanical (Counterfeit Bearing) 1-17_Vs4.LL.indd 168

DW: What is law enforcement support like from country to country?

contacting us with some sort of complaint, a premature failure, or something of that nature. We find out where they bought it and then we do a test purchase and collect information. We then hand it over to the police. From the customer complaint until police involvement, it’s usually two weeks maximum. At that point it’s the police who decide whether or not we’re going to take action. The specifics of those decisions vary considerably from country to country. In some countries, Kenya for instance, they are ready to do it the same day. In other countries, it could take a couple of months. In the US, I would say the process takes approximately one month. Kjellberg: I guess it’s really a difference in

Astrom: Kenya is a good example. The basic problem is, as

in the US and some other western countries, the perception is too heavily connected to counterfeit luxury goods. It’s easy to presume that customers buying luxury counterfeit goods don’t really do any harm. It’s not a priority for the police; this idea has not yet landed with law enforcement in the western world. The situation is not only a matter of intellectual property infringement, it’s also a matter of substandard products that create big risks. Bearings go into electrical power plants, airplanes, elevators, hospital equipment, et cetera. We have had cases in all four of these areas. In the US for instance, there was a case with the New York Metropolitan Transit Authority accidentally buying counterfeit bearings. We also had a case involving helicopters in the US where the producer of the helicopter accidentally bought counterfeit bearings. We have had cases, not in the US, but in the Western world where a company accidentally bought counterfeit bearings placed in hospital equipment. We have a number of issues with power plants as well. To be clear, I’m not saying that US law enforcement is bad, there are many countries that are January 2017

proactivity. We talked about the police in Kenya and China being quite proactive, for example. In different countries, the police have different priorities and resources. Whether or not this is on the top of their list of actions, that’s when you see a deeper relationship with the police. Astrom: Whenever we work with a police

force that has a department that is dedicated to these types of activities, it goes much quicker because they have the expertise. They have the knowledge, they have the competence to know exactly what to do. There are no such dedicated police units in the US. DW: Are you seeing any specific types of bear-

ings more frequently during your seizures? What bearing types should our readers pay special attention to when ordering?

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M e c h a n i c a l Astrom: Usually, I say that it’s all the product

types; everything is equally affected. “Mass produced” smaller-sized, deep groove ball bearings are counterfeits that distributors often keep in stock. Large sized bearings are different in that distributors often do not carry stock of such bearings, which means there are some delivery time issues. If the customer doesn’t want to wait, he finds it elsewhere… There is always someone out there who is ready to supply. For instance, we raided a company recently in Spain that was specializing in large size bearings. But they didn’t carry any stock. That sent up some red flags. Spanish police worked for a long time trying to detect their stock. Eventually, it was Spanish customs that helped out. After the whole mess was sorted out we learned how the company operated. Other companies placed orders with them because they specialized in large sized bearings, and it was only when an actual order was placed that this Spanish company went to China for the bearing. At that point they would have it deliv-

“Counterfeiters don’t really do any R&D on the bearings themselves. All of their R&D goes into making the packaging of the bearing look as closely as possible to the genuine article. They are quite good at this and that is dangerous,” said Astrom.

ered by way of Korea to Spain, which meant that they offered a delivery time of less than one week. And again, we’re talking about bearings typically 50, 100, 200 kilos in size. The scale is obviously concerning because as a general rule of thumb, large bearings mean large machines, and if they fail, it means large problems. DW: We often hear that counterfeiters are getting smarter every day. Have you noticed

an increase in counterfeiting sophistication? What developments are you seeing in terms of the way counterfeiting is being done with your bearings? Astrom: Counterfeiters do not do much

R&D on the bearings themselves. All of their R&D goes into making the packaging of the bearing look as closely as possible to the genuine article. They are quite good at this and that is dangerous.

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I had a case just two days ago with a bearing that failed catastrophically. This was in Germany. The bearing that the customer had bought was a type that is specifically designed for vibrating applications. The real bearing has a special design to handle a high-vibration environment. Naturally, the counterfeit failed. The only similarity between the genuine bearing and the counterfeit was that it fit in the hole. No other similarity. I have seen counterfeit bearings that are supposed to have a brass cage, and in reality they have a steel cage that is painted with gold color to make it look like brass. I should also point out that we’re seeing more and more companies producing some sort of machinery with parts from China. It could be, for instance, that they buy the electric motors that fit into a piece of machinery. We have had a number of cases where the electric motors have been fitted with counterfeit bearings. Consequently, what you start seeing is that these companies have to pay more for guarantees. It takes some time before someone starts investigating and we find out about a large number of undetected cases. DW: What are some of the ways consumers can protect themselves from counterfeit bearings? Astrom: The most important thing is to be careful

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where they buy their product. Purchase from authorized distributors. Be skeptical of certificates. When someone says, ‘Oh, they must be genuine because there was a certificate,’ I’m usually thinking ‘they’re probably counterfeit.’ Of course, that’s not always true, but certificates are just a piece of paper; anyone can counterfeit a piece of paper. [Editor’s note: Some company’s, SKF included, have developed smartphone apps so users can take a picture of a bearing and automatically send it to a company’s bearing specialist to confirm authenticity.]

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483 ©2016

Astrom: We plan to continue spreading our activities

into a new geographical market. In places like the US for example, we plan to continue encouraging customers to be more alert than they are today. Unfortunately, I would say that many customers in the Western world, including US, think that this will not happen to them. It can. It can definitely happen to them. They have to be much more cautious. It’s a matter of reaching out to customers in different creative ways. We will do that more and more in 2017. DW SKF |


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P n e u m a t i c s

A primer on vacuum systems When a machine needs to pick up or move fragile or oddly shaped objects, vacuum might be the answer. Edited by Paul J. Heney In the simplest sense, vacuum is pressure that is lower than atmospheric. At sea level, atmospheric pressure is usually 14.7 psia. Therefore, any pressure lower than that constitutes a vacuum. In a vacuum system, the difference between atmospheric and vacuum pressure creates the ability to lift, hold, move and generally perform work.



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The essence of vacuum generation is the reduction of molecular impacts within a system. In effect, vacuum is the pressure differential produced by evacuating air molecules from a system. There are two types of vacuum applications, sealed or non-porous and open or porous. In a closed system, removing air progressively decreases the air density within the confined space. This causes the absolute pressure of the remaining gas to drop, causing a vacuum. To achieve a vacuum in an open or porous system, a

Photo courtesy of Vaccon/Bimba.

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vacuum cups How do you select a vacuum cup? When it comes to gripping and moving anything from cola cans to car fenders, vacuum cups on end-of-arm tooling are incredibly versatile devices in many automated handling systems. They come in countless types, sizes, constructions and materials to suit widely varying applications. Here are some general engineering considerations for choosing the right one for a particular task: Construction. Suction cups are available in various geometries, such as simple, circular types for general-purpose handling; extradeep cups for round or highly curved surfaces; and oval shapes for picking up long and narrow products. These cups often include molded-in structural details like exterior reinforcing ribs for added strength or interior nubs for better contact with a mating part. Shape. Suction cups come in two general shapes, flat and bellows. Flat vacuum cups are best for handling workpieces with flat or slightly curved surfaces, such as metal and glass plates, plastic sheets and wooden boards. Properly designed, they have good rigidity and stability to handle high shear forces and can withstand forces and accelerations from fast automated-handling movements. Bellows suction cups, on the other hand, have one or more accordion-like convolutions. This allows them to compensate for varying workpiece heights and handle parts with uneven surfaces. Evacuating the bellows also creates a lifting action which can be useful to lightly grip fragile parts, like electronic parts or even chocolate candy. Bellows versions are typically used for handling curved parts like car body panels, pipes and tubes, injected molded plastic parts, and non-rigid packaged goods or shrink-wrapped products. Interior volume. A corollary to cup shape is its interior volume. That’s important because this is the volume that must be evacuated to create a vacuum—and the holding force—to actually grip and pick up a workpiece. Flat cups have a relatively small inner volume and, thus, evacuate quickly and can grip in a very short time. The total inner volume of all the cups in a system, as well as that of tubing and connectors, must be added to determine the total volume of the gripper system. From there, engineers can calculate the evacuation time based on vacuum flow capacity and, ultimately, how quickly the system can pick up a part. Finally, also consider how long it takes to supply air to the cup, to purge the vacuum and release the workpiece.



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Materials. Vacuum cup suppliers offer a variety of options to suit specific application requirements. Typical examples include nitrile rubber (NBR) that’s economical, offers excellent oil resistance and is a first choice for general-purpose applications; silicone for food-grade applications; natural rubber for handling wood; polyurethane for excellent wear resistance and high strength; and fluoroelastomers for high chemical and weathering resistance. Other common materials include options like PVC and EPDM, as well as proprietary formulations from specialty chemical manufacturers. Some come in anti-static versions for handling electronics. Environment. Depending on the application and setting, suction cups might need to tolerate rough or porous surfaces or withstand ozone, oils, washdown solvents or steam. Operating and workpiece temperatures can be a concern, too. Some silicone products, for example, offer a temperature operating range from around -20 to 350° F (-30 to 180° C) and fluoroelastomers to nearly 400° F (200° C). Of course, in addition to selecting the type of suction cup, engineers need to determine the holding force based on parameters like cup size, vacuum level, ambient air pressure, leakage rates, product weight, workpiece surface coefficient of friction, and the magnitude and direction of loads and accelerations.

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The following are the most important terms to consider and understand in any discussion or application using vacuum.

performance. It is confusing in that it does not tell us what type of performance to expect in a given range (level of vacuum force). Free air capacity is analogous to the size of an engine in a car; it is a starting point, but tells us very little about specific performance or efficiency.

Vacuum—That pressure or any pressure

Vacuum force—This term is most commonly

lower than atmospheric. As previously discussed, at sea level atmospheric pressure is usually 14.7 psia; any pressure lower than that constitutes a vacuum.

defined as the level of pressure within a system, usually measured in inches of mercury. The amount of vacuum force created usually determines the lifting capacity of a suction cup or measures the amount of atmosphere left in a system. Vacuum force can not overcome porosity in a system nor can it speed the evacuation time of a given volume. The higher the level of force, the longer it takes to achieve.

vacuum unit must have the capacity to remove more atmosphere or air molecules than are able to leak back into the system.

Vacuum flow—The rate at which atmospheric pressure is removed from a system, or the amount of outside atmosphere that flows through a pump. Usually, this is measured in standard cubic feet per minute (scfm). The significance of vacuum flow is that it determines the speed of evacuation of a system, or the ability to compensate for leakage in a system. As the level of vacuum (vacuum force) in a system increases, the flow rate decreases because there are fewer molecular impacts.

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Compressed air—The energy source that drives an air driven vacuum pump, measured in scfm. Compressed air is comparable to the electricity that runs a mechanical vacuum pump. Generated by an air compressor, and supplied via a network of piping at a certain pressure level (psi).

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driven vacuum pump. Optimal pressure is obtaining a balance of supply pressure and air consumption to achieve the maximum efficiency level. Evacuation time—The amount of time it takes to evacuate a given volume to a desired level of vacuum. Energy consumption—The amount of energy, whether expressed in hp, kW, scfm or any other expression, that a vacuum pump uses to generate a desired amount of vacuum. Lifting force—The lifting capacity of a

suction cup, determined by multiplying pressure times the area. Volume—The total of all area in a vacuum system from the interior of the pump to, and including, the area of application. These are the most important and primary terms to understand about vacuum. Please refer to the glossary for a more complete listing of terms.

Levels of vacuum Vacuum is typically divided into three areas of application, dependent upon the level of vacuum required. Low level vacuum applications are typically those requiring high flows and low force (inches of mercury). These applications are primarily serviced by blowers. Screen

printing on cloth is an application that falls into this range. Industrial vacuum falls within the range of 6 to 29.5 in.-Hg. The largest number of applications occur here. Vacuum in the industrial range can consist of anything from pick and place to thermoforming. The largest segment is in the 12 to 21 in.-Hg range. Scientific or process is an area encompasses the deepest levels to 29.92 in.-Hg. Vacuum at this level is usually measured in torr. Flow in this range is minimal in transition from viscous to molecular. Examples of applications are ion implantation and space simulation. The highest level of vacuum achievable on Earth is 29.92 in.-Hg. A perfect vacuum (i.e. 30 in.-Hg)—a space that contains no molecules or atoms—is purely theoretical. The only possible place where this condition can exist is in space and, even there, a few atoms can be found. DW

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Photography: NASA HQ Photo

NASA’s Deputy Administrator Dava Newman has a vision for the future of humankind on Mars and on earth. She advocates for an inclusive approach to garner top talent for math, science, art and design fields encompassed in STEAMD programs—and thinks that understanding engineering as an integrated field for problem solving will ultimately serve the industry best.


Paul J. Heney • Editorial Director


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1/18/17 11:17 PM

Dr. Dava Newman

leads engineers

toward teamwork

When you first meet Dava Newman, it’s easy to warm to her friendly and comfortable manner. But make no mistake about it, she’s also focused and eager to get to work—qualities that have served her well as NASA’s second in command. Newman, who holds a Ph.D. in aerospace biomedical engineering from MIT, has served the space agency for a year and a half as Deputy Administrator, and has led projects as diverse as Mars exploration and organizational innovation. As engineers and scientists move into more leadership roles to manage both technical and non-technical people, Newman sees a lot of opportunity. “As engineers, we’re at our best when working with people who aren’t exactly like us,” she said. Her logic is that engineers lend intellectual diversity when working as part of a team, especially when they bring depth of technical knowledge on a subject. “There’s no substitute for understanding other disciplines,” she said, noting that written communications, oral communications, and visual communications are all key for today’s engineers. The latter includes graphic design, animation, technical illustration, industrial design, and software-based forms of distilling and presenting data and ideas, and is where Newman sees most room for improvement for those in technical fields.  

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1/18/17 11:16 PM











Photography: NASA HQ Photo

“We technical types need to start working on visual communications skills, because that’s not usually taught in school. I certainly wasn’t taught that, so I’m trying to make up for it. We also want the future workforce to be on top of their game in this department. We want them to be incredibly good communicators, especially as we’re quantitative people.” These days, much of

sharing quantitative information depends on leveraging all modes of communication. As her career path attests, Newman herself is an excellent communicator and knows how to get her message out. She says her secret is practice, practice, practice. 25 years of being a college professor certainly involved a lot of talking for Newman, but it often took the form of 90-minute lectures.

Photography: NASA HQ Photo



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Her role now requires that she give many shorter speeches each day. “I’ve learned a lot here at NASA about communicating on a different level,” she said. “It’s been really interesting and a great experience for me.” Leaders and managers

Newman sees leaders as separate from management, and is quick to contrast the roles. “I think they’re both incredibly valuable functions. The truth is that leaders can manage, and some managers must also lead, but it’s useful to differentiate these responsibilities. After all, leading doesn’t just mean just leading from the front. Usually it’s more distributed leadership through consensus building and having and sharing a vision. In my opinion, leadership starts with vision and putting that in context by making sense of the goal’s real-world environment. Case in point: At NASA we have the vision and are on a clear journey with a goal to get people to Mars in the 2030s.”

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As most champions in industry, Newman stresses that good leadership and management puts one’s teammates first. “First and foremost is relating to people and asking, ‘What about our people?’ That’s why it’s a pleasure and an honor for me to work with [NASA Administrator] Charlie Bolden, because he says in every speech he gives every day that it’s about taking care of our people. Members of any team must be very, very highly valued, and they have to know they’re valued; we’re really sincere about it.” Just last month, NASA was named the best place to work in the federal government for the fifth consecutive year. The annual survey of federal workers is published by the Partnership for Public Service and ranks almost 400 federal organizations by overall employee satisfaction and commitment. Additionally, it evaluates key workplace focus areas, including innovation, training and



development, leadership and diversity. “We’re lucky because we get the best and brightest to come join us at NASA,” Newman said. “There’s also diversity because some specialize in research, some in aeronautics, some in space, and some in the sciences.” Turning STEM into STEAMD

There’s been a long national discussion about science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) education and careers. Newman wants to jump headfirst into the conversation—but to change it with the addition of a couple of letters for art and design. “I love STEM—my entire career has been what can we do to improve the study and pursuit of science and technology, engineering, and math. But I’d change the conversation and call it STEAMD, because

Photography: NASA HQ Photo


“I love STEM—my entire career has been what can we do to improve the study and pusuit of science and technology, engineering, and math. But I’d change the conversation and call it STEAMD, because it’s always been STEAMD for me.”

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it’s always been STEAMD for me. My whole career I’ve brought artists into projects because they help me with visioning, sense making, relating and inventing. Just consider Michelangelo confronted with a hunk of marble. How did he envision David? That challenges me every day: How does this beautiful thing come out of that?” It begs the question of what Michelangelo would’ve sculpted with 21st-century tools. After all, nowhere is the convergence of art and science more pronounced than in the burgeoning uses of 3D printing. “We have a whole generation of 3D makers, so the D for design in STEAMD is for the designers of this maker generation. If someone doesn’t see him or herself as a rocket engineer, I’m completely okay with that, and I’m not going to force them.” Such an attitude allows for crossover engineering fields in high-tech fashion and architecture not possible even a few years ago. On the same token, Newman thinks the old engineering-school tradition of celebrating “weed-out” classes is the wrong way to approach things, whether drawing new kids into STEAMD careers or building audacious new teams at NASA. “No more filtering anyone out. Instead we should filter everyone in and say, ‘Hey, do you want to make the impossible possible?’ Because that’s what we do, we turn dreams into reality—but we must cast a large net and filter in more candidates. I think that that’s our responsibility in the technical community. I think we really got it wrong filtering people out, and we don’t have the luxury to do that anymore,” she said. Newman feels that another problem from the past is the idea that one must be the absolute best in every technical subject to succeed in an engineering career. She tells kids all the time that’s untrue. “That idea of needing to be scholastically perfect is completely wrong,” she said. “So I change the conversation. You don’t need to be the best. Instead I ask students, ‘You want to be an astronaut? You want to get to Mars? You want to be the designer of the next X-plane?’ and I get a lot of kids shaking their heads yes, yes and yes. They want to solve big  

Leadership Feature (NASA) 1-17_Vs3.LL.indd 191




“Newman feels that another problem from the past is the idea that one must be the absolute best in every technical subject to succeed in an engineering career. She tells kids all the time that’s untrue.” problems such as climate change. They also want to solve clean-water problems. That’s when I explain that this is what engineers do: We have a problem and we solve it. Then I tell these aspiring students who want to solve big problems that we need tools to do so.” Of course, those tools are math skills and knowledge of hard sciences. “You’re going to take your math, and you’re going to take your chemistry, calculus, and physics—but concepts learned in these subjects are just tools. I remind students that they’re going to have to study hard, and yes it’s going to be challenging, of course. But I tell them to put it in perspective. They’re really after tackling big problems, and concepts learned in school are nothing more than tools they’ll use later to accomplish their ultimate goals. It’s so important that younger folks abandon the idea that they must be the best in science and math or despair if they get a B. A lot of us got plenty of Bs to go along with our As. I think that that’s important to tell aspiring scientists and engineers to keep pursuing their dreams, even if they weren’t the best student in their calculus class.” Getting young women STEAMD

Newman acknowledged that there’s unconscious bias in many places where females are in a classroom setting in subjects that have historically been male dominated. “Unfortunately it’s there, so I think it’s good to acknowledge it. I guess I had January 2017



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“I remind students that they’re going to have to study hard, and yes it’s going to be challenging, of course. But I tell them to put it in perspective.”

Tube Connection Components a lot of passion to make it in aerospace, so I tried to never let the discouragement affect me too much. I think being a competitive athlete really helped, because again, I wanted to excel. I always tell folks if they hear discouragement, just don’t listen. Saying no is the easiest thing in the world—saying yes, this is how you succeed. Then I say yes, this is how you can be great. I’m a big fan of just saying yes. Everyone I think has infinite talent, but we must harness that.” She said she didn’t pay much attention to the folks who said no. “I just thought they were small-minded, and thought: I want to fly and design and get humans to Mars. So I’ve been focused on that trajectory for many decades,” she said. What advice does she give to young would-be female engineers? “It is the coolest job you could ever have … and we need female engineers. I’d love them to join us. Whatever big problems and challenges they see in the world, engineering is probably for them, because we are problem solvers devising solutions—especially if they like to get their hands dirty and make and build and design things. I just want to make sure they know that, for me, I would never trade it for the world. It’s been a great career, and I can’t imagine doing anything else.” January 2017

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Newman acknowledged that her future as NASA was a little uncertain, due to the change of administrations. “It’s been a pleasure to serve in the Obama administration, and it’s been incredible for me to serve NASA as the Deputy Administrator. I wouldn’t change it for the world, as it’s probably been my best job ever. Keep in mind that for me, being Apollo professor at MIT was before coming here the best job ever—to teach students and do research. How fortunate am I to have had two amazing jobs.” She always wanted to serve in the government, so if given the opportunity she’ll likely continue the work. “Exploration is my passion, so it will definitely be this vision of getting humans to Mars, whether working at NASA or externally. My life goals and career goals all

Photography: NASA HQ Photo

Next steps

stem around exploration. In a very broad sense, it starts with the oceans, moves to Earth, our spaceship Earth, and then air and space. I really see exploration across the continuum of all those four. I will be involved hopefully, and that’s my plan for the next decade or two.” Newman also laughed about how earlier in her career, she felt that engineers and scientists were often overlooked—but

that has shifted a great deal. “Now we’re cool and in vogue. The upside is now people expect us to lead. That’s a huge shift. Previously the perception was, ‘Well, they’re in the lab, and they’re doing their technologies, and they’re doing their robotics, and they’re doing their science.’ Now it’s wonderful because there are many technical leaders in government, industry and academia.” DW


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Produ ct Wo rl d High-current encoders Leine & Linde The FSI 800 series rotary encoders take up less space, need less cabling and live up to performance and robustness requirements. The HCHTL encoder excels in heavy industry-type settings. A hollow shaft encoder model called the FSI 862 has been developed for EN ISO 13849-1, EN 61800-5-2, IEC 61508 and IEC 62061 certification. This allows the encoder to be used in Functional Safety applications up to risk level SIL2 and PLd, Category 3.

Efficient stepper motor and encoder combo CUI The AMT series is a range of rugged, high accuracy modular encoders available in incremental, absolute and commutation versions. The AMT series is not susceptible to contaminants such as dirt, dust and oil that typically plague encoders in industrial environments.

As a guarantee for safe installation, the hollow shaft encoder model is equipped with a keyway, to be matched with a shaft with a key. By this slip-free solution, the encoder is mechanically secured to the shaft, and will always detect even the smallest movements with certainty.

With the digital nature of the encoder design, the AMT series also comes with a number of programmable features, including resolutions up to 4096 PPR, zero position, line drivers, and in the case of the absolute version, a 12-bit absolute output. Combined with an operating temperature from -40 up to +125°C, high accuracy, simple assembly and low current draw, the AMT is a suitable option for a range of applications.



Gefran, a leading global designer and manufacturer of sensors for position, pressure, temperature, and force measurement, now offers a complete range of devices for earthmoving and lift equipment.

Gefran sensors use leading edge technology (Hall effect, MEMS, and magnetostrictive) to achieve the demanding requirements in operator and vehicle stabilization, rotation, reach, and inclination.


GEFRAN INC - 8 Lowell Avenue Winchester, MA 01890 Toll free 1-888-888-4474 -

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1/21/17 10:31 AM

Prod uc t Wo rld Hypoid right angle gear with stainless steel shaft Oriental Motor The right-angle hollow shaft hypoid JH gear has IP66 class protection from a stainless steel shaft, oil ring, oil seal and new motor connector type. Because torque is not saturated with the gear, the maximum output torque is available


at each gear ratio.   The BMU series brushless dc motor speed control system offers a maximum speed of up to 3,600 r/min (80 to 3,600 r/min). Speed


ratio is 1:45. This allows for a wider speed range, wider selection of gear ratios and


torque ranges making the BMU Series an ideal alternative for servo, brushed motors or ac three-phase Inverter driven applications. Features:


• Stainless steel shaft, IP66 rated • Broader and stable speed range compared to

Integrated Moon Controller & Drive • • • • • • •

Micro-Step to 1/256 per full-step Standard NEMA size outline (17 & 23) Communicate through RS485 (Modbus Opon) Up to 255 axes on a single com port No Heat-sink required for typical currents Robust screw-terminal connector plugs Capable control for opmum performance

three-phase inverter driven motors • New motor connector type • Available now for 120 W (1/6 HP) brushless motor & driver packages • 200 W (1/4 HP) and 400 W (1/2 HP) motor models will be available in the future.


Sales@OMSmo | 800-707-8111 216

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January 2017

1/20/17 12:29 PM

For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @


Magnetic kit encoders feature multi-turn range Posital These new kit encoder components offer a number of advantages over traditional rotation measuring devices. The electronic components, including Hall-effect sensors, a 32-bit microprocessor and the Wiegand-wire energy harvesting system, are packaged in a 36 mm diameter, 24.2 mm deep unit. For servomotors with magnetic brakes, a special magnetic shield isolates the magnetic pickups of the measurement system from the external magnetic fields. The resolution of the kit encoders is 17 bit, with an accuracy of better than + 0.1°. The operating temperature range is -40 to +105 °C. These devices are available with a variety of non-proprietary communications protocols, including BISS, SSI and RS485-based protocols.

LEMO, a global leader in the design and manufacturing of precision custom connectors and cable solutions!

• High-Quality connectors (metal & plastic) • Custom design for a variety of applications • Custom Wire & Cable Assembly Solutions • Reliability where quality, safety and ruggedness are essential! • ISO13485 Certified  

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LEMO USA, Inc. 800-444-5366

1/21/17 10:46 AM

ROSS CONTROLS A Global Leader in Pneumatic Safety Valves

ROSS Safety Applications Energy Isolation

Pneumatic Energy Isolation L-O-X® Lockout Valves

Safety Exhaust

Control Reliable Energy Isolation 2® DM Double Valves Cat 4 PL e

Safe Cylinder Return

Control Reliable Cylinder/Actuator CrossMirror® Double Valves

Load Holding

Vertical Cylinder Load Holding Po Check Sensing Valves

Pneumatic Solutions to Complete Your Safety Systems 1-800-GET-ROSS

Ross Controls 1-17.indd 218

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Produ ct Wo rl d Cable configurator Weidmuller The HDC Cable Configurator, is an online tool created to simplify the task of designing and building custom cable harness and mating assemblies for heavy duty connectors. Using the “design-to-order” tool, a single part number is assigned to the completed cable harness, and a single part number is created for each mating assembly required for a user’s application. No more than three part numbers are needed for a complete and protected pluggable connection for use between panels, machinery, equipment and more.   Pivot Point half hor.indd 1

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12/22/2016 4:46:03 PM

1/21/17 10:50 AM

Prod uc t World High-torque, zero backlash brake SPIE Photonics West booth 2109 DesignCon booth 1235

Nexen The Model I-300 is a spring engaged, air released, power-off brake for backlash-free holding and emergency stopping on indexers and positioning systems. Key features for the I-300 brake include: •

Zero backlash for precise holding

High dynamic torque: 5300 in.-lb (600 Nm) 

Torsionally stiff:  6,152,148 ft-lb per radian  (8,341,193 Nm/rad)

Spring engaged, air released: 60 psi (4.1 bar)

Engagement response time: 85 milliseconds


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January 2017

1/20/17 12:31 PM

Click here.

For easy installation.

PowerPact B circuit breakers — efficiency that clicks. The new PowerPact B circuit breakers feature one-click accessories and built-in DIN rail or plate mount capability. Put that into a space-saving size and add Everlink technology to combat cable creep, and your work clicks right into place. TM


© 2016 Schneider Electric. All Rights Reserved. Schneider Electric | Life Is On is a trademark and the property of Schneider Electric SE, its subsidiaries, and affiliated companies. • 998-19794452_US_A

DesignWorld_0916_US.indd Schneider Electric 10-16.indd 1221

9/2/16 9:04 3:02 AM PM 1/19/17

Prod uc t World Industrial press function and support for fieldbus protocols Wieland The expanded capabilities of the samosPRO COMPACT-PLUS modules allow machine design engineers to seamlessly integrate peripheral devices into the automation network, and to relay control information back to these devices using one of several industrial communications protocols. With this expansion, these safety controllers can deliver cost-effective, critical safety functions for both new and existing industrial press machinery, including eccentric and hydraulic presses. These include: base units with up to 20 safe inputs and eight safe outputs, expandability up to 116 safe inputs and 56 safe outputs, integrated Ethernet ports, and free software for simulation and automatic report generation.



RollBeam Telescopic push-pull

LinearBeam guided push-pull Press-mounted dual push-pulls

SERAPID Inc. | 34100 Mound Rd. | Sterling Heights, MI | Tel +1 586-274-0774 | |

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Drive And Controls For Any Application Whether youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re designing a simple conveyor or planning a complex system, you can rely on Interroll for your conveying needs. Our drives and controls are crafted with precision and engineered to deliver outstanding performance and reliability. The Interroll EC310 24V brushless RollerDrive can be paired with different Control Cards, depending on your application: EC310 & DriveControl Card EC310 & ZoneControl Card EC310 & MultiControl Card

Simple motor control. Simple ZPA conveyor line, some external I/O. State-of-the-art conveying and controls, monitor signals, track packages, adjust speeds on the fly, interface to a PLC, create custom package movements. UL Listed.

Visit to learn more about our solutions.

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GET PREDICTIVE. Still postdictive? Get predictive with CONVERGE. Industry leading CONVERGE CFD software yields accurate and reliable results you can trust. Spend time optimizing your design instead of building costly prototypes. Ideally suited for transient cases, reactive flows, spray, moving boundaries and complex moving geometries. Explore the latest in innnovative CFD at

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Prod uc t Wor l d Frameless brushless torque motor H2W This unhoused arc segmented frameless brushless torque motor (TWR-070-410-1150-3PH) has a low inertia moving coil assembly for high angular acceleration applications. The rotary 3-phase brushless motor, also known as a rotary servo motor, is a direct drive motor that is suitable for limited or unlimited, closed loop servo, rotary motion applications. It can generate a continuous/peak torque of 480 in.-lb [53 Nm]/1440 in.-lb [159 Nm]. It has been designed to have a 70° rotation and operate on a 20” (500 mm) radius, but additional modular magnet tracks (33° each) can be added to increase angular displacement.

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Extreme-force capability for electric linear rod actuator Tolomatic The Tolomatic RSX family of hydraulic-class actuators is capable of 50,000 lbf/222.5 kN or higher. The initial offering, the RSX-096, is capable of 30,000 lbf. The actuator’s heavy duty construction includes tie-rods and Type III hardcoat anodized aluminum or zincplated steel. A standard anti-rotate feature prevents the rod from rotating without external guidance. Rated IP67, the actuator resists water from a light washdown and dust from outdoor environments. The RSX actuator is also designed and rated for extreme conditions including cold-weather operation.

Backer Hotwatt Inc.

January 2017

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1/21/17 10:32 AM

Produ ct World Medium voltage drive ® Switc h Your Swivel® Switch Your Swivel


Siemens The Perfect Harmony GH180 Medium Voltage Drive features

No Kinks No Hose Twisting

Simplified hose configuration, less hose and adapters combine to reduce repairs and downtime cutting the overall cost of hydraulics.

a PCB based power cell with a reduced part count by more than 70% on previous design. The drives are IEEE 519 compliant and compatible with any motor type including induction, synchronous, permanent magnet, and round rotor motors. The drive also supports 480 V or 600 V input voltages up to 400 A - making this drive suitable for new or retrofit applications of existing motors. The Sinamics Perfect Harmony drive offers up to 96.5% energy efficiency through the entire speed range.

Hydraulic Live Swivels Inline & 90°

Brushless Motors

Heavy Duty Ball Bearing Design • Rated To 10,000 P.S.I. • Heat Treated • Available In 304 & 440 Stainless Steel • Custom Design & Sizes Available • Rebuildable Ball Bearing Design • Withstands Heavy Side Loads • Superior Quality Alloy Steel • Full Flow — Low Pressure Drop

• Hollow or solid shaft high performance housed and frameless • • • •

Available In BSPP

Quality Products Made In The U.S.A. Patent No. 5547233 Fax: 1-763-784-7423 Email:

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brushless motors and matching drives for demanding applications. Sensorless or hall motors and drives for aerospace, military, medical, industrial, canned pumps, vacuum, extreme temperature applications. Custom drive programing and designs available. Standard or custom designs up to 98% efficient, up to 200,000 rpm. Highest power density in the industry. Slotless and slotted designs. Available with encoders and gearheads and separate or integral electronics. Quantities 1 to 10,000.

For technical assistance, 937-695-1275 Data sheets at



January 2017

1/20/17 12:39 PM

FINN-POWER Innovation, Precision, Durability...





Since 1973, Lillbacka’s Finn-Power Crimpers have been the industry’s choice for quality and dependability. Visit us at 1629 Prime Court, Suite 400 , Orlando, FL 32809 Phone (847) 301-1300

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Equipment guarding can be one less thing to worry about. Dynatect will design & deliver the ideal protective cover.

Produ ct World Widescreen touch panel


AutomationDirect The C-more EA9 series of touch screen HMIs now includes 7-in. widescreen TFT models. These WVGA panels fit the same enclosure cutout as the EA9-T6CL panels and are direct replacements with larger screen area (800 x 480 pixels).The touch panels


are equipped with 800 MHz CPUs, 64k colors, and reliable 50,000-hour non-replaceable backlights. Hardware options include three serial ports plus one 10/100BaseT Ethernet port on the full-featured EA9-T7CL model, one serial port plus one 10/100BaseT Ethernet port on the basic EA9-T7CL-R model, two USB 2.0 ports (one type A, and one type B), and one slot for SD


memory card.

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Dynatect manufactures a full line of flexible covers to reduce premature wear and damage.

Make all your flared fittings:



Visit our Website for FREE samples and literature (800) 298-2066 Customized Designs Engineering Support 70 Years of Proven Designs Over 500,000 Designs Over 60 Local Field Reps

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Flaretite, Inc. Phone: 810-750-4140

Available in Kits.

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Electronic locking swinghandle Southco The H3-EM with Integrated Multi-class RFID Reader includes the same electronic locking and monitoring features as the standard H3-EM, but also reads HID 125 kHz RFID credentials and 13.56 MHz iCLASS smart card based credentials. The H3-EM has integrated LED indicators for visual status of equipment access plus a simple, single-hole panel preparation compatible with industry standard enclosures for OEM integration or field retrofits. When connected to an access control system, the H3-EM lets the user easily track and record access to the electronic locks, providing an audit trail to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements, such as HIPAA, HITECH, PCI DSS and Depiction of Frequency Waves




January 2017

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1/20/17 12:41 PM

Prod uc t World

Pre-configured geared bearing solution Nexen This geared bearing package comes with a zero backlash gear mounted and dialed in on a precision grade high capacity bearing. System capabilities include: •

High Indexing Precision: As low as ± 30 ArcSec with repeatability as low as ± 5.0 ArcSec

Zero Backlash: The Geared Bearing offers a rigid, zero backlash system

High Output Load Capacity: Supported by precision grade, high load capacity crossroller bearing


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High Speed: Handles speeds up to 632 RPM


January 2017

1/20/17 12:42 PM

The Step Motor Specialists BACKED BY








√ Select Your Motor √ Select Your Screw √ Select Your Nut

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Prod uc t World Extra-short M12 inductive proximity sensors Carlo Gavazzi With a thread length of 23 mm, and housing lengths as short as 25 mm, the ICB12S Extra-Short Inductive Proximity Sensors are compact sensors that are a suitable solution where space is limited. Main features: •

M12 extra-short 23 mm thread length

Sensing distance: 4 mm flush, 8 mm non-flush

Operating frequency up to 2000 Hz

Operating temperature range: -25 to +80°C (-13 to +176°F)

NPN or PNP, NO or NC output

2m oil resistant PVC cable

Yellow LED clearly visible from any directions

Output DC 200 mA

CE, cULus and cCSAus approved

Port to Port, End to End, Sensor to Actuator More Reasons to Connect with Alpha Wire End-to-end industrial connectivity has a new name: Alpha Connect, the dependable connectivity solution from sensor to actuator.




Product World_1-17_Vs10.indd 232

January 2017

1/20/17 12:43 PM

For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @

One component elastomeric system Master Bond The Master Bond X5TC is an elastomeric system that has a thermal conductivity of 10-12 BTU•in./ ft2•hr•°F [1.44-1.73 W/m•K] while maintaining solid electrical insulation properties. This one part, no mix adhesive/sealant has a paste-like consistency and is easy to use. It readily cures in 8-12 hours at room temperature or in 60-90 minutes at 150°F.

X5TC can be used in aerospace, electronic

and specialty OEM applications. The service temperature range of this product is from -80°F to +250°F, although it can withstand brief exposure to temperatures as high as 350-400°F. It has good resistance to water and oils. This compound is available for use in ounces, ½ pints and pints containers.




Just like the full range of Tsubaki products, Tsubaki backstops provide the winning combination; unmatched quality, durability, reliability and service & support. Prove you’re a winner too by protecting your application against costly downtime with Tsubaki brand backstops and clutches.


Total Package

USTSUBAKI.COM January 2017

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©2017 U.S. Tsubaki Power Transmission, LLC All Rights Reserved.

1/20/17 12:44 PM

Prod uc t World Control hardware in embedded PC form factor Beckhoff The CX2000 Embedded PC series from Beckhoff is being expanded with many-core control technology versions. These compact CX20x2 devices will integrate Intel Xeon D processors, each with 4, 8 or 12 CPU cores of the 5th generation Intel Cor microarchitecture, and manufactured using 14 nm process technology. Another feature that enables these performance increases is the separate graphics card. Since Intel Xeon CPUs do not incorporate graphics cards, the CX20x0 devices integrate a separate graphics card, equipped with 2 GB RAM.

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quotes for your plastic injection molding projects. Visit and get started.

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LCR Series Linear Rotary Actuators

Independent Control of Linear and Rotary Axis

Click here to learn more about this versatile & useful electronic assembly deviceÂť

The Ideal Device for Electronic Assembly


Brushless rotary motor with 24K Counts Vacuum through the motor and directly out of the unit Life tested to 250 million cycles Applies a programmable force to assemble the component Ability to find a surface with very low impact

SMACâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s low moving mass means high speeds and low impact forces Electronic chip designs continue to emphasize smaller and more fragile package designs. The LCR13 incorporates a small (13mm in width), powerful direct-drive DC brushless motor. The LCR13's moving mass is well below 100 grams, resulting in an impact that meets the 1.ON target while moving at a relatively fast contact velocity. 760-929-7575

SMAC 1-17 .indd 235

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Produ ct Wo rl d Online product configurator Brother Gearmotors

Brother Gearmotors has launched a product configurator on the homepage of its website. This tool gives an intuitive, step-by-step guide for determining gearmotors and reducers to suit various equipment and production needs. Site visitors can perform a quick search by product style, output RPM and horsepower or part number, or conduct a more advanced search. Here, an expanded set of parameters includes searches by product style, product type, mounting style, gear ratio, horsepower, output RPM, voltage and frequency, output torque, frame size, shaft bore diameter, and phase and shaft direction. Customers can compare up to ten different products at a time, and more detailed 3D, 2D, and technical data is available, complete with specs, on the individual product pages.


Product World_1-17_Vs10.indd 236


January 2017

1/20/17 12:46 PM

FEB17 AC Power Ad (DW).qxp_Design World 12/29/16 1:38 PM Page 1

Your Total Power Solution The most trusted brands, all under one roof. Phoenix Contact, Siemens, TDK-Lambda, Square D, AP, Telemecanique , SolaHD, Bel Power Solutions, SL Power, Cosel, Schneider Electric, Panasonic, Meanwell, Dantona Industries, Power-Sonic, XP Power, and hundreds more.

•1.800.433.5700 © Allied Electronics, Inc 2017.

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Prod uc t World 3U OpenVPXTM single board computer Acromag The AcroExpressTM VPX6600 3U OpenVPX single board computer uses the 6th Generation Skylake Intel Xeon processor and C230 PCH chipset for extensive I/O support. Expanded memory performance comes with up to 32GB of DDR4 ECC SODIMMs that are firmly attached to the board and are removable for security or upgrades. This SBC is designed for commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) applications and manufactured to meet VITA 46.0 with a minimum 7-year life expectancy. An array of backplane I/O options includes PCIe x4 data and expansion planes, optional SATA III expansion plane, Ethernet ports, RS-232/422/485 ports, USB 3.0 and 2.0 ports, DisplayPort 1.2 ports, SATA III ports, and audio. The Data Plane and Expansion Plane interfaces can be used to interconnect multiple VPX6600’s or to provide PMC/XMC support.

Industry's Lowest On-Resistance Ultra-Junction MOSFETs at 650V and 850V Enabling Very High Power Density

Part Number IXFB150N65X2 IXFN150N65X2 IXFN170N65X2 IXFB90N85X IXFN90N85X IXFN110N85X

VDSS (V) 650 650 650 850 850 850

RDS(on) max. TJ=25°C (mΩ) 17 17 13 41 41 33

Features: • • • • •

Ultra low on-resistance RDS(on) and gate charge Qg Fast body diode Superior dv/dt ruggedness Avalanche capability Low package inductance

Qg typ.



(nC) 355 355 434 340 340 425

(J) 4 4 5 4 4 3

(V/ns) 50 50 50 50 50 50

Package Type PLUS264™ SOT-227 SOT-227 PLUS264™ SOT-227 SOT-227


Applications: • • • • • • •

High-efficiency switched-mode and resonant-mode power supplies Electric vehicle battery chargers AC and DC motor drives DC-DC converters Robotics and servo control Power Factor Correction (PFC) circuits Renewable energy inverters EUROPE IXYS GmbH +49 (0) 6206-503-249

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LinMot offers a sophisticated and dedicated linear drive system that can be easily integrated into all leading control systems. Our aim is to push linear direct drive technology and make it a standard machine design element.

LINEAR SERVO MOTORS • • • • • • • • •

Quick Payback Through Reduced Energy Costs Significant Plant Maintenance Cost Reduction Over 975m/sec2 Peak Acceleration (~100g) Greater than 2700N Max Force (>600lbs) Adjustable Speeds to 7.4m/s (290in/s) Repeatability to .05mm (.002in) Strokes to 2m (6’6”) Long Service Life Clean (no air)


• Independent linear and rotary motions • Programmable press force & torque • Linear & Rotary Direct Drive • Compact Design • Hollow shaft

MAGSPRINGS • • • • •

Simple design consisting of stator and slider Constant force over entire working range Multiple mounting configurations Ideal for vertical applications Purely passive element


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EtherNet/IP easy connectivity Force control technology function 72Vdc / 25A (24Vdc - 85Vdc capable) Controls LinMot motors or Brushless DC motors Internally stored profiles, commands, and sequences

1/19/17 9:15 AM

Prod uc t World Profile rail linear recirculating bearings Lintech Lintech’s MR, ARC & HRC Profile Rail Linear Recirculating Bearings incorporate two or four rows of re-circulating balls arranged in a 45 degree contact angle with the raceway. The rigidity under moment and torsional loads is increased by this design. Larger ball size enhances the load capabilities. This design offers equal loading in all directions while providing smooth motion. Features: • 2 rows of re-circulating balls • Equal loading in all directions • Dust proof design • SS bearing, rail, and balls • Self-lube reservoir standard

Protect EVERYTHING Fluid Power


Many Sizes and Styles in Stock

Order Mini-Packs & Micro-Packs for Smaller Quantities

Wide Variety of Sizes & Styles for Metric, SAE, BSP, JIC, NPT Threads & Fittings •



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January 2017

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Precision Components Photo Etched Parts

S M ign D&M Wee u 2 Des Part est - s at: G F ign 2Pa rapevi ebruar y 7rt O ne 9 F a


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• Intricate components as thin as .0005" • Eliminates cost of hard tooling • Eliminates burring and stress problems • Short lead times • In-house forming, laminating and plating • Prototype through production Download our Capabilities Brochure.

Flexible Circuits • Medical, Aerospace and Telecom markets • Adhesiveless construction • Selective plating of gold and tin • SMT and through hole component assembly • Package sizes down to 0201 and .4mm pitch • Microvia sizes down to .001 diameter Download Flex Circuit Design Guide.

EMI/RFI Shielding • Global supplier standard and custom products • Commercial and military markets • Over 100 finger stock gasket profiles • Shielded vents and filters • Conductive foam and elastomer gaskets • Board level shielding Download our Shielding Catalog.

ISO 9001 AS9100C


TECH-ETCH, INC., 45 Aldrin Road, Plymouth, MA 02360 USA • TEL 508-747-0300 • FAX 508-746-9639 •

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Prod uc t World


AIR COMPRESSOR KIT Includes air compressor, feathering air valves, feathering shift cylinders, ram mount, mounting plate, color-coded tubing and fittings. Ideal for snow plow, refuse (roll offs) and dump body vehicles without air brakes such as Ford Super Duty F550 and similar vehicles. EZ-ALIGN

Pneumatic Shift Cylinder

Linear actuator Portescap These 20 mm linear stepper motors have a design suitable for applications demanding high linear force. The 7.5 deg step angle provides finer incremental movement with a high degree of accuracy and repeatability. With maximum holding force up to 50 N, the 20DBM actuators are suitale for applications such as electronic pipettes, medical and non-medical analyzers, XY stages and valve actuators. 20DBM is available in Captive and NonCaptive versions with various leadscrew pitch options on our online motor selection tool,

DEL HYDRAULICS INC. 571 Howard Street Buffalo, NY 14206


MotionCompass. They are manufactured in an ISO certified facility and are RoHS compliant.

TEL 716.853.7996 FAX 716.853.8003 242

Product World_1-17_Vs10.indd 242


January 2017

1/20/17 4:26 PM

For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @

Oil- and abrasion-resistant cable Lapp Group With the ÖLFLEX 409 P PUR control cable for oil- and abrasionresistant industrial machine tools and appliances a special interstice filling functional layer on a special PVC base enables more efficient and reliable stripping and ensures improved stripping characteristics, reduction of damage to core insulation, less subsequent manual processing and reduced material waste. Features: •

Intermittent flexing temperature range from -5 to 70°C

Fixed installation temperature range from -40 to 80°C

Test voltage: 4000 V

Minimum bending radius: • Flexible use: 12.5 x outer diameter • Fixed installation: 4 x outer diameter

“2 hose styles plus 1 couplings style” Kurt The exclusive “2 hose styles plus 1 couplings style” handles the most common hydraulic application pressure ranges from 3,000 to 6,500 PSI. This includes the Tuff hose, E-Z Bend Hose and W-Style couplings. OEM’s and distributors have expressed the importance of streamlined inventory of hydraulic components for lean manufacturing. This solution requires less-inventory to be maintained when compared to any other industry hose and coupling offering.  

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January 2017



1/20/17 12:50 PM

Prod uc t World Secure data transfer in moving applications


igus CAT7 Ethernet cables increase the data transfer rates of CAT5e and CAT6 cables by as much as ten-fold to increase the communication inside Industry 4.0 facilities. CAT7 cables come in three jacket material options for rolling flex applications, as well as a torsional CAT7 option for robotic applications. Immunity to electrical interference, along with higher data transmission rates helps Industry 4.0 factories and equipment manufacturers. Like all chainflex cables, chainflex fiber optic options are designed and tested to stand up to 36 months of continuous-flex performance. To suit all other mechanical requirements, a range of fiber optic chainflex cables are available including those for harsh environments or torsional movements. Let Us Help You 1-800-543-0470 244

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January 2017

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3:49 PM

Kawasaki Precision Machinery (U.S.A.) Inc. Grand Rapids, MI 616.975.3100


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Produ ct World Oil sight glass for increasing machinery life

Highest Torque in the Smallest Space ... or the largest.

Maxitorq® clutches and brakes deliver power, reliability and are customized to meet your exact needs. Land, sea and air – CJM is everywhere.

Des-Case A clear cylinder that installs in the drain port of the oil reservoir of pumps, gearboxes, bearing housings and other pieces of equipment, the sight glass provides continuous fluid monitoring of the clarity, color, sediment and water contamination of the equipment’s oil. The new OSG has a white bottom that makes detection far easier and more reliable. The redesigned device also has a dual mount versatility for use in both horizontal and vertical


applications, eliminating the need to buy two single-orientation OSGs. The sight glass’ polyamide casing not only provides a crystal-clear view of the oil, but is strong enough to withstand the toughest environments.

Bearing Protection that Outperforms all Others Superior performance for maximum peace of mind. Helwig’s Bearing Protector extends the life of motors by keeping shaft voltage to a minimum. Prevents pitting and costly damage to bearings. The best choice for the motor industry.

Clutches, Brakes & Power Transmission Products • electrical, mechanical, pneumatic & hydraulic models • system design and integration • expert engineers working on every order

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Low maintenance Excellent conductivity Cost effective

Engineering Solutions for Clutches & Brakes

Call 1-888-354-9914 or visit our website at Phone: 860-643-1531 291 Boston Tpke, Bolton, CT 06043 246

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January 2017

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Welcome To Our World


State Of The Art Testing ~ ISO 9001:2008 ~ Mil-45-208-A ~ 0 to 5,000 PSI Testing Hydraulic Pumps ~ Hydraulic Motors ~ Hydraulic Cylinders ~ Actuators Dead Slug Cylinder Testing Up to 40000 Pounds ~ Cylinders 8â&#x20AC;? bores and Up Nuclear/Fossil Energy Plant Beach Russ Vacuum Pump Remanufacture Computer Generated Test Reports ~ Graphs ~ Plots Full Flight Simulator Motion Platforms ~ Military ~ Commercial Turn Around Times Based on Unit Condition When Received

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Prod uc t World Proportional pressure reducing pilot valve Eaton The EPPV5 valves are available in a variety of control pressures and voltage ratings, and come with integrated Deutsch connectors. The EPPV6 valves offer a similar range of control pressures and voltages, as well as the added functionality of a manual override. This latest addition to the range of screw-in cartridge valve (SiCV) products, the EPPV family enables increased machine performance in a compact, integrated package suitable for clutch and gear control









manifolds and other mobile off-road applications.


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Produ ct World Series compact ejector FIPA EMA Series compact ejectors combine a pressure regulating, energy-saving function with an electronic airsaving function to achieve operational savings of up to 97% when handling non-porous, light- to medium-weight workpieces. The series also combines electronic vacuum and blow-off control functions in a single signal to achieve short cycle times, and features an integrated open silencer for noise reduction, and a compact, IP65 dust-resistant block construction that both negates the need for additional filtration and enables space-saving assemblies. EMA Series compact ejectors are rated for 24 Vdc adjusted control voltage ±10%, and operating temperatures spanning 10 – 60°C (50 – 140°F). Feed pressure for the series spans 58 – 116 psi.

Rotary hand valves IMI Norgren Redesigned VHLA rotary hand valve reportedly offers users a significant upgrade, compared with previous versions. It includes more options, with three body sizes, ports ranging from 1/8 to ¾-in. and ISOG threads as well as traditional NPT threads, the valves are designed to handle many OEM or MRO applications using lubricated or nonlubricated compressed air. The smooth moving, easy-to-grasp handle and an integral body thread that allows quick panel mounting make the IMI Norgren VHLA suitable for material handling, conveying, assembly test equipment, packaging, sealing and cutting or machine tools.


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January 2017

1/20/17 12:55 PM

For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @

Load sensing proportional control valve Hengli The internal closed loop position design of HVSP valve achieves spool position accuracy levels nearing the performance of a servo-valve. This is done by continuously comparing the set- point of a remote-control device (potentiometer, joystick, machine controller) with the feed-back signal generated by a high-precision hall effect position transducer. Additional features of the HVSP with CAN-Bus control: •

Up to 10 sections

High peak pressure rating: 350/420 bar (5040/6048 psi)

Individual load independent flow control via section pressure compensators

Low hysteresis

Manual override

Flow: Inlet maximum 150 l/min (39.6 gallons/min) (with valve compensators).




precision manufacturing

stainless steel & brass

direct engineering support

QUICK DISCONNECTS Call 603-433-1188 - or Email for Samples Visit us at

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global market

REGULATORS Excellence in Miniature

Since 1964

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Prod uc t World PTFE products and materials Hallite The Armorlene PTFE product and material portfolio is a high-performance polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) product and material portfolio that encompasses more than 30 product profiles, 26 materials and 18 Armorlene PTFEs. Major industries positioned to benefit from the product and material portfolio include: chemical processing; construction and forestry; food and beverage; hydropower; industrial hydraulics; injection molding; machine tools; marine; material handling; mining and mineral extraction; mineral fabrication; mobile hydraulics/offhighway; oil and gas; steel and aluminum processing, and transportation.


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January 2017

1/20/17 12:57 PM

Experience is the Best Part

For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @

Nuclear quality assurance program Nuttall This program lets Nuttall Gear provide nuclear safety-related components directly to its base

For over a century Newcomb Spring has led the industry with precision spring, stamping and wire form manufacturing. We are pleased to now offer Kando Tech Centers at each of our manufacturing facilities to help improve the production process for our customers. Visit a Kando Tech Center to: • work on-site with our staff & equipment • quickly develop prototypes • test part fit & function • perform quality tests • review parts & processes

of installed product in nuclear power facilities around the world. Nuclear facilities can reduce costs by purchasing new components, rebuilds and replacement parts directly. Engineers can be assured that repairs and replacement components are genuine OEM quality and manufactured at its ISO 9001:2008 certified facility to meet or exceed original design specifications.

HydroClean: Sanitary Conveyors

We work to make the order process easy – whatever you need, we Kando-It!

HydroClean conveyors feature a stainless steel, sanitary design, manufactured to NSF standards and designed to eliminate opportunities for bacteria growth. For fast, efficient cleaning, pull pins provide a tool-less solution to belt, tail and drive end removal, as well as activating a flip up tail.

513.753.6000 ·  

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Precision Custom Springs, Stamping & Wire Forms


January 2017



1/23/17 9:02 AM

Prod uc t World Flat face multiconnector series Manuli Hydraulics The Multiconnector series, is a new range which combines performance with the added efficiency and safety related benefits of a multiconnector block system. Quick coupling multiconnectors are often used on agricultural and construction equipment where a myriad of attachments and tools must be connected quickly, safely and without the risk of error. Q.Safe Flat Face Multiconnectors provide a solution to these challeges and includes a compact design for minimal weight, almost zero oil spillage on connection and disconnection, and industry leading performance with reduced pressure drop. Q.Safe Flat Face Multiconnectors are also designed to be universally interchangeable according to ISO 16028.


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January 2017

1/20/17 1:02 PM

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700 V CoolMOS for quasi resonant flyback topologies


Infineon Technologies The 700 V CoolMOSP7 technology delivers reduced switching losses (E OSS) from 27 up to 50%. In a flyback based charger application

Kuriyama Hydraulic Connections Catalog • Includes new Alfabiotech extra flexible and bio oil resistant hydraulic hoses. • New Flexor TR4XF extra flexible SAE 100 R4 oil return hose.

the technology leads to up to 3.9% higher efficiency. Furthermore, the device temperature is reduced by up to 16 K. In comparison to the previous 650 V C6 technology it offers a 2.4% gain in efficiency and 12 K lower device temperature.

KuriKrimp™ Crimpers & Accessories Catalog • Improved Die Kages for protection and storage of dies for the KD100 series crimpers. • KD4-650 and KD4-1000 series crimpers for crimping larger ID industrial hoses.




Today’s Solution for Tomorrow’s Automation

Piranhaflex™ Non-Conductive Hydraulic Hoses • Series PF267NC has improved flexural rigidity offering increased flexibility for medium pressure hydraulic oil and lubrication lines. • Series PFLT364 for medium pressure Hydraulic lines for fork trucks in cold storage applications. • New P400 Portable Service hose crimper.

• Encoders to fit your Requirements • Quick, Dependable Delivery • Proven Reliability and Quality Contact Us Today! (608) 924-3000  

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January 2017


Phone: (847) 755-0360 | Fax: (847) 885-0996 360 E. State Parkway • Schaumburg, IL 60173  


1/20/17 1:02 PM

Produc t Wo rl d


Pressure Switches

• Compact Design for OEM Applications Safety: Up to 4X • Overpressure Burst Pressure: Up to 8X •

(IP67/IP6K9K) Withstands High-Pressure Washdown and Immersion

• PNP-Output / NPN Output

Controller for motor performance and rapid prototyping Crouzet The BDE PRO is an external motor drive suitable for use in medical, access control, commercial and industrial applications, and rapid prototyping for new product development. The 84855104 BDE PRO controls motor speed and torque in a compact panel-mount package that measures just 5.1 x 3 x 1-in. Performance

Call for Product Info:


characteristics include a power range of 25A peak current and 15A continuous current while supporting both Hall-effect sensor and incremental encoder type feedback. Other features include a red/green LED that indicates operating status and three operation modes for current, encoder velocity or duty cycle.


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January 2017

1/20/17 1:04 PM

For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @

Simplify installations while planning for the future with Cube67+

Powerful radial-piston motor Bosch Rexroth The MCR-T radial-piston motor in frame size 10 are for use in compact tracked loaders and other tracked vehicles. The newly designed unit is approximately 20% shorter than conventional radial-piston motors and has around 10% higher starting torque for more tractive force. And to improve efficiency, especially when machines must move long distances, the MCR-T units also allow high travel speeds at low diesel-engine speeds. MCR-T motors operate with a differential pressure of up to 400 bar (5,880 psi) and the largest version has an output torque of up to 8,500 Nm. Displacement of the series ranges from 620 to 1,340 ccm.

NEW FEATURES FOR 2016! Placeholders allow users to

reserve input and output bytes inside a Cube67+ station for future system expansions.

Free I/O Mapping functionality

allows users to define the addresses of each I/O module connected to the Cube67+ station.

Machine Option Management

allows users to change the topology of a Cube67+ station without changing their PLC program.  

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January 2017



P: 770-497-9292 F: 770-497-9391

1/23/17 9:02 AM

Prod uc t World Conveyor belts for steep inclines Continental


In 17 different profile options (14 USA-made), Continental Select cleated belts convey


You also have a choice for hydraulic cylinder positioning

materials such as stone, sand, gravel, various wood products and many recycling products by taking advantage of the custom profiles and cleat designs available. In a one-in. cleat design with four different configurations, ContiCleat can convey products demanding up to a 45-degree incline.

Miniature Mounting

Non Contact Operation

Inside the cylinder?

Signal Electronics Built Inside

Features: •


• Compact, robust design • Maintains ASAE pin dimensions Absolute Signal

• Excellent *vibration capablity

Short Length Maintains Pin to Pin Dimensions

No Extra End Cap Costs

On Site Replaceable

Profiled and cleated belts for the mining

14 different profile options of USA-made belts

Ability to convey products demanding up to a 45-degree incline

*Tested to Mil-STD-202G

Or outside the cylinder?

Magnet Works Through Carbon Steel

• Easily field replaceable • No expensive SS cylinder tube needed • Ideal for steering cylinders No Deep Drilling Costs

Maintains Piston Rod and End Cap Strength

• Ideal for long cylinders up to 130 ft.


UK Tel: +44 (0) 161 764 0424 US Tel: 972 359 1041

Wellington Street, Bury, Manchester, BL8 2BD, UK


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January 2017

1/20/17 1:04 PM

For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @

Ultra-lightweight decentralized vacuum generators

Your Partner in Custom Plastic Components

PIAB The piINLINE plus is a new configurable

Precision Plastic Machining Complex Plastic Injection Molding Quick Turnaround Prototyping

platform for decentralized vacuum generation. Tailormade for automotive press-shop automation, piINLINE plus has new technology that will also benefit other applications. Designed with ports for compressed air and vacuum in-line, supported by quick-fit push-in connectors of varying diameter, they are mounted directly onto the hose, close to the point of suction. Made in lightweight and extra durable PA66 material, the piINLINE plus generators use COAX technology, ensuring low air consumption (typically 25% lower than other technologies), increased suction capacity, and fast evacuation. Generators are supplied

Custom Plastic Couplings, Adapters, Bearings, Fittings and More!

with either one or two MICRO COAX cartridges; two cartridges for larger suction cups in high speed applications, or one cartridge for smaller suction cups or for reduced air consumption when high speed is not essential.

Plastic Injection Molding to +/-.001.

Pneumatic directional control valves Aventics ES05 is a standard valve, modular system with only 25 components. The valves come in Custom Plastic Connectors, Insulator, Caps, Poppets and More

a robust housing made of polymers that are especially stable and compact, and provide flows up to 0.61Cv. Users connect the end and base plates (available with metric or inch ports) and can extend the system in pairs up to twelve single or double solenoid valves. The valves are controlled via single wiring with a type CI connector according to ISO 15217, a D-Sub connection with 25 pins, with AES valve electronics or an integrated IO-Link interface. AES supports all common fieldbus and Ethernet protocols. Brogan & Patrick Manufacturing Wisconsin Office 515 E. Centralia St. Elkhorn, WI 53121 Phone: 262-723-6909

Illinois Office 505 Wegner Drive West Chicago, IL 60185 Phone: 630-639-5011

Contact: Shawn Healy • • 630-639-5011  

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1/20/17 1:05 PM

Prod uc t World FDA/USDA/3A-dairy compliant linear slides LM76 FDA/USDA/3A-Dairy compliant, Water Dog Sliders have CorroSlick coated 300 series stainless steel rails and contoured WDX Polymer blocks. They can be washed down with the most aggressive chemicals and caustic foaming agents and have an operating temperature range of - 400O to +180 OF. Water Dog sliders are available in two sizes. WD1 rail and block assemblies measures just 1.02 x 1.00-in. high. Standard off-the-shelf rail lengths a re 12, 24, 36 and 48-in., and standard stock lengths of 157-in. are available. The WD1 blocks are 1.00-in. wide x 0.75-in. high x 4.00-in. long with two Stainless Steel anchors threaded for 1/4-20 screws. Rails are drilled on 3.15-in. centers for easy integration into a processing system and are designed for side loads up to 179 lbs and vertical compression loads of 89 lb.

DieQua offers more gearboxes Are You Selecting The Right Technology?

For Power Transmission

Whether your application is for precise motion control or for general power transmission, there are several gear technologies that can do the job. But which one does it best? Only DieQua offers the widest range of gearmotors, speed reducers and servo gearheads along with the experience and expertise to help you select the optimal solution to satisfy your needs.

Worm Reducers

Helical Gearmotors

Spiral Bevel Gearboxes

For Motion Control

If you are using gearboxes, you should be talking to DieQua!

Planetary Gearheads

Servo Worm Gearheads


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Precision Cycloidals

1/19/16 3:00 PM


January 2017

1/20/17 1:05 PM

For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @

Linear motor stages with magnetic direct drives PI The PIMag series of high dynamics linear motor stages now has two new models and a new motion controller. Stages are equipped with incremental and absolutetype linear encoders for direct position measurement and ironless 3-phase motors and single-phase voice-coil drives.

The V-522 has travel ranges of 5 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm, and a maximum velocity of 250 mm/s. The frictionless voice-coil

The V-551 models come with an integrated absolute-measuring, encoder

drive of the V-52x series ensures high accuracy and long life.

providing 2 nanometers resolution. Absolute encoders don’t require referencing

An integrated optical linear encoder and precision crossed roller

and avoid accumulation of errors due to noise or cable issues. Precision crossed

bearings with anti-creep cage assist provide high positioning

roller bearings with anti-creep cage assist guarantee excellent guiding accuracy

resolution and guiding accuracy.

(1µm straightness / flatness per 100 mm).

Smaller frame drives Siemens sinamics-g120c-pr The Sinamics G120C drive in AA size replaces the previous G120C frame size A in power ratings up to 2.2 kW (3 hp), including communication variants for USS, PROFIBUS, PROFINET and EtherNet/IP. On new control cabinet designs, the G120C FSAA has significant size advantages, up to 32% less overall volume, for the OEM or integrator, but requires no re-engineering, when migrating from the G120C FSA on current jobs. Overall dimensions on the smaller unit, designed for use with PROFIBUS and USS variants are only 173 mm high x 73 mm wide x 155 mm deep (6.8 in. x 2.8 in. x 6.1 in.).

January 2017

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1/20/17 1:06 PM

Prod uc t World Diesel air compressor/ generator combination unit Personal CNC Prototyping - Product Design - R&D - Engineering Eisertech, a medical device company in San Diego, CA, designs and manufactures spinal implants and surgical instruments with the help of their Tormach PCNC 1100. What started out as garage shop prototypes has grown into a successful medical device product line. To read more about this story, and to see what others are doing with their PCNC mills, visit PCNC 1100 Series 3

Titanium bone screws and surgical spinal implants manufactured by Eisertech LLC.

Mi-T-M The new air compressor/generator has a 9.1 HP Kohler KD420 diesel overhead valve engine with electric start and glow plugs for starting in cold temperatures. The unit includes a 3000 watt generator and two stage compressor with a powder coated ASME coded 30-gallon receiver tank. With a brushless alternator and a total harmonic distortion of less than 6%, the generator has100% copper windings, comes standard with 120 volt and 240 volt receptacles and provides power for industrial and contractor needs. The built-in air compressor features a splash lubricated compressor pump, large canister intake filter, regulator and two gauges for tank and outlet pressure and a 16 ½-in. fly wheel. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s built to provide high capacity air flow to power a multitude of air tools.

PCNC 770 Series 3 PCNC mills shown here with optional stand and accessories. 262

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January 2017

1/20/17 1:07 PM

For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @

LVITs for cylinder and actuator feedback Alliance Sensors Group The SS-7 Series Linear Position Sensors are used to measure the ram position of hydraulic and pneumatic cylinders in industrial, mobile, or subsea applications. With no magnet required. The ME (embedded version), MR (port-mount version), MHP (port mount 25 mm hex housing) and SS-7 (Subsea port-mount) Series fit into a gun-drilled cylinder in the same way a magnetostrictive sensor would be installed but without the counterbore necessary for the magnet. Additional Features: • NEW SS-7 Series operates to a depth of 12000 ft • MHP with 25 mm hex housing • Measurement ranges from 1 to 24 in. (25 to 600 mm) • IEC IP-67 aluminum or stainless steel housing



MANUFACTURED TO DIN AND NACE SPECS Metric and English sizes available


Immediate Delivery! 24-Hour Service 7 Days a Week!

Tel: 724-295-5111 Fax: 724-295-2570 Toll Free: Tel: 800-245-3600 Fax: 800-847-1672

Visit our Website: for a FREE Design CD-ROM


100 Key Lan e Leechbur g, PA 15656, U.S.A. Visit our Website a t: www,key Email:  

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1/20/17 1:08 PM

Prod uc t World Precision encoder Celera Motion The MicroE Optira Series Encoders have a resolution up to 5 nm with all automatic gain control (AGC), interpolation, and signal processing carried out in the sensor head. The Optira sensor head comes with two mounting options and a standard FFC connector that has the flexibility and durability required by designers focused on compact precision motion control solutions. In addition, the Optira consumes low power, and a 3.3 Vdc version is available for use in precision instruments powered by batteries. The Optira sensor head measures only 11.4 x 13 x 3.7 mm. No additional PCBs, adapters, or dongles are necessary for the full functionality and resolution of the sensors. Optira sensors can also be universally applied with MicroE linear glass scales (to +/-1 μm/m accuracy), linear metal tape scales (to +/-5 μm/m for Optira), and rotary scales (to +/-2 arc-seconds). The interfaces options are A-quad-B or 1 Vpp sin/cos.



• 5 cubic inch to 400 gallons • 1,000 psi to 65,000 psi • ASME, ABS, DNV, PED, etc. • Engineered Coatings & Seals • Linear Position Sensors • Custom Engineered Solutions Kocsis Technologies, Inc.

Alsip, IL 60803 USA

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January 2017

1/20/17 1:08 PM

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Customizable angle sensors Novotechnik The Vert-X 2800 Series of sensors measure angular position and convert rotational angle into an analog or digital output—depending on version. Users can select a stock part to simply measure angle or they can be configured, using a tool connected to a PC called Easy Adapt, to be application-specific. Possible configurations include start- and end-angles for less than 360° maximum range, index point, cw or ccw indication, calibration settings and non-linear curves. Vert-X 2800 Series sensors come in single and fully redundant versions. Measurement range is 0 to 360° with repeatability of 0.1°. Available analog outputs are 4 to 20 mA, 0.1 to 10 V, 10 to 90% of supply voltage and 5 to 95% of supply voltage. Digital output choices are SPI or PWM. Up to two programmable TTL-level switches are options.  

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1/20/17 1:09 PM

Prod uc t World Long range door and gate photoelectric sensors Carlo Gavazzi The rugged design of the PD140 Series Long Range Photoelectric Sensors makes it a suitable choice for harsh outdoor use, where strong ambient light, fog, rain, snow, and dust, might be present. The aluminum and polycarbonate housing also protects the sensors against vandalism. The PD140 has an outdoor sensing range of up to 60 meters (200 feet); for controlled indoor environments, the range is up to 120 meters (400 feet). Additional Features: •

Adjustable alignment: ± 100°

Voltage Output (APD140-TC01)

horizontal, ± 15° vertical

2-24 Vac/dc power supply

Emitter mute (test input)

IP65, NEMA 1, 2, 3, 3R, 3RX, 3SX,

Two alignment tool options:

Visible Green Laser (APD140-LA01)

3X, 5, 12 and 12K rating

Teflon coatings ™

Improve part performance

The PROGRAMMABLE Size 25 shaft encoder that goes anywhere

with unique properties of Teflon™ coatings!

Coatings can be applied to: • metals • elastomers • ceramics • composites • rubber • glass

Program your CPR, waveform, and output! CPR – any resolution from 1 to 65,536 Waveform – choose from 32 options Output type – 6 different outputs

As a licensed industrial applicator, Donwell... • provides custom coating services to

Designed for an industrial environment, the Model 25SP comes standard with dual bearings rated 80lbs axial or radial, and offers sealing up to IP67.

your specifications.

• coats both small and large parts to

close tolerances in quantities from 1 to 1,000,000. • has over 50 years of high-performance coating application expertise.

Call EPC today to learn how the Model 25SP can be your encoder solution.

1-800-366-5412 •

1-800-864-2702 For FREE Coating Sample



January 2017 DON-201701-DesWorld Qtr pg TEFLON OK.indd 1

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Use of the Teflon™ mark requires a direct trademark license. Customers and distributors of Donwell can only resell LICENSEE’s product as licensed with the Teflon™ mark.

12/14/16 3:03 PM

1/20/17 1:09 PM

For further information about products on these pages visit the Design World website @

Press-fit PCB pins for plated through-holes Mill-Max These PCB pins feature multi-faceted (polygon) geometries and suit solderless PCB termination or direct soldering to the board. When the pins are pressed into a plated through-hole, the points (the major or circumscribed diameter) of the polygon are set or imbedded in the hole while the flat sides of the feature (minor or inscribed diameter) provide relief, allowing the remainder of the plated through-hole barrel to remain intact. These pins can be found in applications with more demanding mechanical/electrical requirements such as power supplies, power converters and any device subject to blind mating or rough handling.The smallest pin diameter in the group is 0.040-in. while the largest is at 0.080-in.., typical sizes for dc-dc converters.  

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It’s not a web page, it’s an industry information site So much happens between issues of Design World that even another issue would not be enough to keep up. That’s why it makes sense to visit and stay on Twitter, Google plus, Facebook and Linkedin. It’s updated regularly with relevant technical information and other significant news to the design engineering community.

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Ad In dex 3d Systems .........................................134 Accumold .............................................138 Ace Controls ........................................145 Aerotech ..............................................169 Aggressive Hydraulics .......................41 Aignep USA ..................................... 58,225 Airpot Corporation ..............................111 All Motion .............................................4 Allied Electronics ............................... cover Allied Electronics ............................ 14,237 Allied Moulded Products, Inc. ............128 Alpha Wire ...........................................232 Altech Corporation ..............................39 Altra Industrial Motion .........21,22,23,24 American Roller Bearing ....................153 AMETEK PMC .......................................19 AMETEK/DFS .......................................57 Anchor Fluid Power .............................265 Anderson Metals ................................230 Anomet Products, Inc. .......................38 Applied Motion Products ....................93 Arthur G. Russell Co., Inc. ...................170 Aurora Bearing Company ..................119 AutomationDirect ...............................13 Backer Hotwatt ...................................225 Baldor Electric .....................................95 Balluff ..................................................86 Bansbach Easylift ..............................46 Beckhoff Automation .........................80 Bel Power Solutions (BPS).................191 BellowsTech, LLC ................................212 Bergquist, a Henkel Company ..........167 Beswick Engineering .........................251 Bimba ..................................................11 binder USA ...........................................129 Bird Precision ......................................217 Bishop-Wisecarver .............................106 Bison Gear ...........................................IBC Bodine Electric Company ..................120 BOKER’s Inc. ........................................137 Bosch Rexroth ....................................79 Branson Ultrasonics ..........................139 Braxton Mfg. .......................................194 BRECOflex CO L.L.C. ............................107 Brennan Industries ............................127 Brogan & Patrick Mfg. ........................259 C-Flex Bearing Company ...................240 C.matic .................................................257 Cadence, Inc. .......................................151 Canfield Connectors ...........................116 Carlo Gavazzi ......................................204 Carlyle Johnson ..................................246 CC Link .................................................214 CEJN North America ...........................254 Central Semiconductor Corp. ............243 CGI ........................................................87 Chieftek Precision USA ...............63,65,67 Chroma Systems Solutions ...............165 Cicoil ....................................................196 Clippard Instrument Laboratory, Inc. ..............................173 CMT ......................................................34 Coilcraft ...............................................197 COMSOL ...............................................69 Convergent Science ...........................224 CPC-Colder Products Company .........189 CS Hyde Company ..............................12 DEL Hydraulics ...................................242 Del-tron Precision, Inc. ......................98 Delta Products ....................................144 Deublin ................................................175 DIEQUA .................................................260 Digi-Key Electronics ...........................17 Donwell Company ..............................266 Dorner ..................................................210 DSM Somos .........................................150 Dunkermotoren, part of Ametek ......97 Dynatect Manufacturing, Inc. ...........228 Eagle Stainless Tube ..........................28,29 Electrocraft .........................................126 Elmo Motion Control ...........................64

SALES Encoder Products Company .............266 EPLAN ..................................................70 Epson ..................................................199 Equipto ................................................67 ESI ........................................................261 Essentra Components .......................53 EXAIR Corporation ..............................5 EZAutomation .....................................1 Fabco-Air ..............................................131 FESTO....................................................72 Fischer Connectors ............................90 Flaretite ...............................................228 Flow Ezy Filters ..................................236 Fluid Metering .....................................193 FluiDyne Fluid Power .........................50 Fluke Electronics ................................125 Fotofab .................................................220 Galil Motion Control, Inc. ....................83 GAM ......................................................108 GE Digital .............................................188 Gefran ..................................................215 Harmonic Drive ...................................26 HARTING, Inc. of North America .........84 HAWE ....................................................179 Haydon Kerk .......................................117 HBM, Inc. .............................................58 Helical Products Company ................7 HELUKABEL, USA ................................45 Helwig Carbon Products ....................246 Hitachi Cable America, Inc .................47 HIWIN Corporation ...............207,209,211 Holmbury, Inc. ....................................154 Hy-Pro Filtration .................................200 HYDAC International ...........................203 I-PEX Connectors ................................51 ICOMold ................................................234 IDEC ......................................................77 IGUS ......................................................85 IKO .......................................................105 Imagineering .......................................3 Intech ...................................................250 Interroll USA ........................................223 ITT Enidine ...........................................43 IXYS ......................................................238 J.W. Winco, Inc. ...................................193 Kawasaki Precision Machinery ........245 KEB AMERICA, Inc. ..............................66 Keller America Inc ..............................123 Key Bellevilles Inc. .............................263 Keystone Electronics Corp. ...............15 KHK USA Inc. .......................................109 Kocsis Technologies, Inc. ..................264 Koford Engineering ............................226 Kuebler ................................................192 Kuriyama .............................................255 Lee Spring Company ..........................195 LEMO USA ............................................217 Lenze Americas ..................................130 Lillbacka USA ......................................227 Lin Engineering ..................................231 LinMot ..................................................239 Mach III Clutch, Inc. ............................156 Main Manufacturing ...........................256 Maple Systems ...................................71 Master Bond ........................................116 maxon precision motors ...................Insert MEAN WELL USA, Inc. .........................37 Memory Protection Devices, Inc. ...................................59 METCASE .............................................55 MFP Seals ............................................248 MICROMO .................................. 174, Outsert Miki Pulley US .....................................75 Mitsubishi Electric ..............................161 mk North America, Inc. ......................18 MOCAP .................................................240 MP Filtri USA Inc. .................................152 Muncie Power Products .....................143 Murrelektronic, Inc. ............................257 Nason ...................................................205 NB Corporation ...................................54

NBK America LLC ................................115 Neugart USA Corp. .............................249 New England Wire Technologies/Catheter ..................202 Newcomb Springs ..............................253 Nippon Pulse Americas Inc. ...............89 Novotechnik ........................................136 NSK Americas .....................................148 Ogura Industrial Corp. .......................119 OKW USA ..............................................263 Omron Automation .............................91 OMS Motion, Inc. .................................216 Ondrives.US Corp ................................99 OPTO 22 ...............................................62 PBC Linear ....................................... 48,49 Pelonis .................................................40 Peninsular Cylinder ............................267 Penn Engineering ...............................172 Permco ................................................213 PHD Inc. ...............................................104 PITTMAN, part of Ametek ...................101 Pivot Point Inc. ....................................219 POSITAL-FRABA Inc. .............................164 Prince Manufacturing Corp. ...............114 Pro-face America ................................201 Proto Labs ...........................................9 Pyramid Inc. ........................................211 QA1 .......................................................229 QC Industries ......................................253 Quantum Devices Inc. ........................255 R+W America .......................................162 Red Lion ...............................................61 Renishaw .............................................60 Rollon Corporation ..............................103 ROSS Controls .....................................218 Rota Engineering Ltd. ........................258 Ruland Manufacturing .......................206 RYCO Hydraulics .................................252 Schmersal ...........................................182 Schneeberger ......................................208 Schneider Electric ..............................221 Schneider Electric IMS .......................113 Serapid Inc. .........................................222 Servo Kinetics ....................................247 Servometer® .......................................212 Setco ....................................................244 SEW-EURODRIVE .................................BC SIKO Products .....................................18 SMAC MCA ............................................235 Smalley Steel Rings ...........................10 Smart Products ..................................157 solidThinking ......................................155 Sorbothane .........................................229 Stock Drive Products / Sterling Instrument .......................209 SUCO Technologies .............................256 Super Swivels .....................................226 Tadiran Batteries ................................35 Tech-Etch, Inc. ....................................241 The Lee Company ...............................177 THK ......................................................IFC Tolomatic .............................................33 Tompkins Industries ..........................198 Tormach ...............................................262 Trelleborg Sealing Solutions ..............190 Trim Lok ...............................................31 Turck ............................................ 181,183 US Tsubaki ...........................................233 Veljan Hydrair LTD ..............................268 Visumatics Industrial Products ........................73 WAGO Corp. ..........................................163 Watlow .................................................88 Weber Knapp Company .....................118 WEISS North America .........................171 Weldaloy ..............................................187 Whittet-Higgins ...................................27 Yaskawa America, Inc. .......................74 Yates Industries ..................................180 Zero-Max, Inc. ......................................2  

Ad Index Jan 2017.indd 519

Mike Caruso 469.855.7344 Garrett Cona 213.219.5663 @WTWH_gcona Jessica East 330.319.1253 @wtwh_MsMedia Michael Ference 408.769.1188 @mrference Michelle Flando 440.670.4772 @mflando Mike Francesconi 630.488.9029 David Geltman 516.510.6514 @wtwh_david Neel Gleason 312.882.9867 @wtwh_ngleason Tom Lazar 408.701.7944 @wtwh_Tom Jim Powers 312.925.7793 @jpowers_media Courtney Seel 440.523.1685 @wtwh_CSeel

LEADERSHIP TEAM Publisher Mike Emich 508.446.1823 @wtwh_memich Managing Director Scott McCafferty 310.279.3844 @SMMcCafferty EVP Marshall Matheson 805.895.3609 @mmatheson


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January 2017



1/23/17 10:15 AM



AC Runs Cooler & Longer Lasting than Traditional Right Angle Gearmotors AC and DC options available now 1/15 - 1/2 HP; 35-1780 in-lbs • AC MOTOR OPTIONS: 115V 1PH, 115/230V 1PH 230V 3PH Inverter Duty, 230/400-460 50/60HZ 3PH • DC MOTOR OPTIONS 720 frame size: 12V, 24V, 90V, 130V and 180V 725 frame size: 12V, 24V, 90V, 130V and 180V 730 frame size: 24V, 90V and 130V • Maximum power density means a compact profile without compromising performance • Ground gearing provides whisper quiet operation, low backlash precision • Latest hypoid gear technology ensures less friction/heat and extends product life • Versatile mounting interchangeability to easily upgrade your installed drives • Exclusive PowerSTAR® EP lubricant for extended life To learn more about PowerSTAR® right-angle gearmotors, please visit Bison’s NEW WEBSITE at or call 1-800-AT-BISON.

©2014 Bison Gear and Engineering Corp.

Bison Gear 3-16.indd 1

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SEW Eurodrive 1-17.indd 1

12/20/16 9:52 AM

Design World January 2017 main issue