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Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6


Volume 43 | Number 10 | October 2010


Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Industry News . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Asian Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Fiber Watch . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Preview: 59th IWCS Conference . . .44 Fastener Update . . . . . . . . . 34 WAI News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

The International Wire & Cable Symposium returns to Providence, Rhode Island, for its 59th staging with a technical program that has more than a hundred papers.

Chapter Corner . . . . . . . . . . 40

Preview: Wire & Cable India 2010 . .48

Technical Papers . . . . . . . 86-99

Event organizer Messe Düsseldorf has high hopes for this trade show, which has seen increased attention as more companies seek to do business in India.

Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Classified . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Career Opportunities . . . . . 107 Advertisers’ Index . . . . . . . 110

Next issue November 2010 • Used equipment and how to make it work

The ‘green’ role in manufacturing . .51 Beyond being a color, what exactly is “green,” and what does it mean (or matter) to the wire and cable industry? Extensive search has found that the definitive answer up to you. But there are some things you might want to consider.

T ECHNICAL P APERS Heat-resistant parameters of AlZr electrical alloy wires used for HTLS conductors Tadeusz Knych, Andrzej Mamala and Piotr Uliasz . . .86 Caster filtration for continuous-cast copper rod Gary L. Spence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94

Cover: A few “green” industry touches include cable from General Cable Corporation; Southwire Company Chief Environmental Engineer Joel Dicks in front of the company’s water treatment facility in Carrollton, Georgia; and an artist’s likeness of Encore Wire’s under-construction R&D center that is being built to Platinum LEED requirements. Background photo by Bill Branch. See p. 51. OCTOBER 2010 | 3



It’s hot. Molten hot. And it’s a new forum for copper continuous casting practitioners in which every process is well represented. Experts in the field from around the world will be on hand to lead discussions and answer your most burning questions about processing copper bar and rod. This introduction provides more details about this program, which is conveniently scheduled during Interwire 2011.

On Sept. 17, Kate Siddall, Group HR director for U.K.based Siddall & Hilton, became the first woman to take part in the clockwinding tradition that has linked the U.K. and U.S. wire industries for more than 60 years. She was accompanied at WAI headquarters by her husband, Peter Siddall, who wound the clock in 1999.

. . . . . . . . .36




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‘green’ is everywhere, but what does it mean? There is no lack of information about “green” to be found. A Google search of “green” and “manufacturing” returned (in a mere 0.26 seconds) “About 31,500,000 results.” Yet start plodding through those hits and it doesn’t take long to realize that there is remarkably little to be found in the way of practical information. “Green” certainly exists, but what it actually is remains unclear. It’s a matter of perception, and well-meaning people can have decidedly different opinions. Consider the following. At wire Düsseldorf earlier this year, “green” was on display in varying degrees at many stands, but certainly more than at the 2008 staging. A staffer at one such exhibit confided that the equipment his company was showcasing wasn’t really new, but the company had “discovered” that it was “green.” In contrast, another exhibitor specifically asked WJI to not describe his displayed system as “green.” As he explained, “Customers think that ‘green’ costs more, and my system is good because it is good. I don’t want them to think of it as ‘green,’ even if maybe it is.” So how does a wire and cable manufacturer approach “green”? Should a company be willing to incur any additional costs to be “green” if their customers will not pay for that added value? WJI posed that and other questions to more than 50 companies, from large to small. Not surprisingly, the larger companies, many of which have employees dedicated to such matters, were far more willing to respond. As one non-responder put it, “My thoughts are outside the mainstream. You wouldn’t want them.” (He was wrong.) Some manufacturers may simply opt to avoid “green” altogether, and in a way that’s understandable, but one aspect that hopefully comes through in the feature, which starts on p. 51, is that a company does not have to become a “green” showcase. Nobody is suggesting that a company take steps that will make it uncompetitive. Rather, it may be possible (see p. 53) to make “green” work for you. To rethink one’s processes and procedures and find ways that can save money and indirectly contribute to “green” efforts. It could be how one chooses materials, how energy and other resources are used or even how one ships out finished product. Small steps count, and it doesn’t matter whether one’s incentive is good business practices or corporate responsibility. There’s no mandate for business to address “green,” but maybe there is at least an inherent obligation for it to at least see what is possible, because for all the vagueness about “green,” as one respondent observed, “We only have one planet Earth.”

Mark Marselli Editor-in-chief


Publisher | Steven J. Fetteroll Editor-in-Chief | Mark Marselli Senior Graphic Designer | Bill Branch Director of Sales | Robert Xeller Advertising Sales | Anna Bzowski Director of Marketing & Corporate Communications | Janice E. Swindells Graphic Artist | Adrienne E. Simpson Proofreader | Livia Jacobs Publications Advisory Board Antonio Ayala | Canterbury/Genca, Mexico Ferruccio Bellina | TKT Group/President ACIMAF, Italy Malcom Michael | AWIA Australia Don Schollin | Q-S Technologies, USA Ralph Skalleberg | Skaltek USA Dave Stackpole | Nutmeg Wire, USA Giulio Properzi | Continuus Properzi, Italy Robert Wild | Niehoff Endex North America, USA WAI Executive Committee Liaison Dane G. Armendariz | Henkel Corporation Technical Advisors John Drummond | Scotia Group R. M. Shemenski | RMS Consulting, Inc.

WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL (ISSN-0277-4275) published monthly by The Wire Journal, Inc., is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Wire Association International, Inc., which is located at 1570 Boston Post Road, P.O. Box 578, Guilford, CT 06437-0578, USA, and can be contacted at tel. 203-453-2777; fax 203-453-8384; Internet; e-mail Address all correspondence concerning advertising production, editorial and circulation to the above address. WJI is printed in USA. Subscription rates: $110 per year, USA; $120 per year, Canada and Mexico; other countries, $140 per year (includes air mail). Back copies: $10 WAI members, $15 non-members. Periodicals postage paid at Guilford, CT 06437, USA, and at additional offices. Wire Journal International grants photocopy permission to libraries and others registered with Copyright Clearance Center (CCC), 21 Congress St., Salem, MA 01970, USA, for a fee of $0.50 per article. Payments should be sent directly to the CCC. Requests for bulk orders or reprints should be sent to the Wire Journal International, P.O. Box 578, Guilford, CT 06437-0578, USA. © 2010 by Wire Journal, Inc. All rights reserved. The Publisher of WJI assumes no responsibility for the validity of manufacturers’ claims made herein. Back issues of WJI are on microfilm and available from University Microfilm, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA. Phone: 313761-4700. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Wire Journal International, P.O. Box 578, Guilford, CT 06437-0578, USA.

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CALENDAR Oct. 18-20, 2010: WAI International Technical Conference Monterrey, Mexico. To be held at the Crowne Plaza Monterrey, this WAI ITC includes a technical conference, tabletop exhibits, tour and networking opportunities. Contact: WAI, tel. 203-453-2777,

May 2-5, 2011: Interwire 2011 Atlanta, Georgia, USA. WAI returns to the Georgia World Congress Center for the trade show and the Association’s 81st Annual Convention, and a first-time Global Continuous Casting Forum for copper casting. Contact: WAI, tel. 203-453-2777,

Oct. 27-Nov. 3, 2010: K 2010 Düsseldorf, Germany. To be held at the Düsseldorf Fairgrounds, Contact: Messe Düsseldorf North America, tel. 312-781-5180,,

June 19-23, 2011: JI Cable 2011 Versailles, France. This international conference on insulated power cables, which has multiple organizers and was last held in 2007, will present a comprehensive forum about power cables as well as exhibits. Contact: J1Cable 2011,

Nov. 7-10, 2010: 59th IWCS Conference™ Providence, Rhode Island, USA.To be held at the Rhode Island Convention Center. Contact: Pat Hudak, IWCS,,, tel. 732-389-0990. See preview on p. 44. Nov. 18-20, 2010: Wire & Cable India 2010 Mumbai, India. Organized by Messe Düsseldorf and the the Confederation of Indian Industry (CII), this event will be held at the Bombay Exhibition Centre in Goregaon. Contact: Eva Rowe, Messe Düsseldorf North America,, tel. 312-781-5180.

Nov. 6-9, 2011: 60th IWCS Conference™ Charlotte, North Carolina, USA. To be held at the Charlotte Convention Center. Contact: Pat Hudak, IWCS,,, tel. 732-389-0990. March 26-30, 2012: wire Düsseldorf 2012 Düsseldorf, Germany. To be held at the Messe fairgrounds. Contact: Messe Düsseldorf North America,, tel. 312-781-5180. ■

WIRE ASSOCIATION I NTERNATIONAL EVENTS For more information, contact the WAI, USA. Tel. 001-203-453-2777; fax 001-203-453-8384; Oct. 13, 2010: Mechanics of Wiredrawing Webinar Guilford, Connecticut, USA. This webinar, which is free to WAI members and $55 for nonmembers, will be presented by Joseph Domblesky, Marquette University. It will cover basic engineering principles and process calculations that are used in wiredrawing processes for metal rods and wires. See p. 39 for more details. Oct. 18-20, 2010: WAI International Technical Conference Monterrey, Mexico. To be held at the Crowne Plaza Monterrey, this WAI ITC includes a technical conference, tabletop exhibits, tour and networking opportunities. Contact: WAI, tel. 203-453-2777, Oct. 14, 2010: Southeast Chapter 9th Annual Golf Tournament Conover, North Carolina, USA. This event will be held at the Rock Barn Golf and Spa. See p. 41.


Oct. 25, 2010: Western Chapter 10th Annual Golf Tournament Rancho Palos Verdes, California, USA. This event will be held at the Los Verdes Golf Course. See p. 41. March 3-5, 2011: Modern technologies and modelling of drawing and manufacturing processes of metal products Zakapone, Poland. WAI’s Poland Chapter members are among those organizing this event. Contact: Dr. Sylwia Wiewiórowska, wiewior@mim., May 2-5, 2011: Interwire 2011 Atlanta, Georgia, USA. WAI returns to the Georgia World Congress Center for the trade show and the Association’s 81st Annual Convention, and a first-time Global Continuous Casting Forum for copper casting. Contact: WAI, tel. 203-453-2777,

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INDUSTRY NEWS nkt cables wins submarine cable project Denmark’s nkt cables reports that it has signed a contract for approximately US$454 million with RWE Innogy in Germany to manufacture and deliver a high-voltage submarine cable to the coming Welsh offshore wind farm “Gwynt y Môr.” At its website, RWE Innogy COO Paul Coffey said that the company is on schedule to build its third offshore wind farm off the coast of North Wales, with manufacturing starting at the end of 2011 and completion slated for mid-2012. In total, nkt cables will produce four 132 kV high-voltage offshore cables for RWE Innogy at its newly built cable plant in Cologne, he said, adding that the completed cables will be taken via the Rhine to Rotterdam, where a cable-laying vessel will deliver the cables to Liverpool Bay off the coast of North Wales. Later, the high-voltage cables will transmit the energy produced by the total of 160 wind turbines of the “Gwynt y Môr” wind farm across 20 km to the coast, where the closest feeding point on land is located at St. Asaph, he said. Each of the cables, he added, is about 20 centimeters thick, and will be protected with armoring against the extreme loads at high sea, such as corrosion or abrasion through tides and waves. Construction of the transformer substation on land has begun, and at a later point 160 3.6 megawatt wind turbines will be installed at the wind farm site, which is located in water depths of between 12 and 28 meters. Gwynt y Môr is scheduled to begin exporting energy in 2013, with the wind farm expected to be completed in 2014. Once fully constructed, the wind farm will have an installed capacity of 576 megawatts (MW), capable of generating enough clean electricity energy to meet the energy needs of the equivalent of around 400,000 U.K. homes every year, the release said. It added that, in parallel with the construction of Gwynt y Môr Offshore Wind Farm, RWE Innogy is building the Nordsee Ost Offshore Wind Farm (295 MW) in German territorial waters, which is due for completion in 2013.

South Korea’s LS Cable developing direct-current superconducting cable South Korea’s LS Cable reports that it has begun developing “a several gigawatt-level HVDC (high-voltage, directcurrent) superconducting cable” with Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO). A press release said that LS Cable will be in charge of developing the design and manufacturing technologies for the DC HTS cable (±80kV to ±200kV level), termination and joint box, and of evaluating the performance of all insulating materials used in the system. The company notes that in 2005, its superconducting cable passed a long-term test,

the first in Korea and the third in the world. The technology being developed produces a transmission capacity10 times greater than that of conventional cable systems and 2.5 times or more than that of the AC superconducting cable system, it said. The release said that the development of core element technology was “a national policy task organized by the Ministry of Knowledge Economy.” KEPCO, it said, “will determine which power transmission lines in Korea the sys-

South Korea’s LS Cable believes that its direct current superconducting cable will offer compelling advantages.

tem can be applied to, as well as the analysis to reduce the impact of harmonics flown in through power converter and power loss caused by harmonics.” LS Cable President Son Jong-ho said in the release that interest in the HVDC superconducting cable system technology “has been building up in the U.S. and Europe, where new power network implementation is urgently needed. We will actively promote entry into these markets once we have completed the development of the HVDC superconducting cable system.” The release noted that earlier this year, LS Cable succeeded in developing a global-standard 154kV level superconducting transmission cable termination (connector with the existing power network), and the type test for the 154kV superconducting AC cable system is currently being carried out. Also, LS Cable concluded an agreement with American Superconductor Corporation for the commercialization of a high-temperature superconducting cable with a length of 50 km or more over the next five years. “The milestone for the next decade of R&D on the HTS cable system is now ... focusing on the development of commercial scale, and a more convenient and reliable cryo-cooling system. The fundamental materials research program will be planned,” it said.

Does your company have news that belongs here? E-mail it to the WJI at


U.S.-based EIS Inc., a subsidiary of Genuine Parts Company, announced that it has acquired the assets of Seacoast Electric Company Inc. (Seacoast), a distributor of shipboard and offshore cables and electrical equipment that is headquartered in Hawthorne, New York, and has distribution locations in Virginia, Texas and California. At its website, Seacoast, which serves the marine, oil and gas markets, notes that it provides: U.S. Navy shipboard cable; commercial shipboard cable; drilling rig cable; RG coaxial cable; cable support and penetration equipment; fiber optic cable, connectors, accessories; marine electrical equipment; and portable power cable. Seacoast has provided Just-In-Time delivery programs tailored to the individual needs of its clients for more than 20 years, with programs that include dedicated inventory, special product storage, custom cutting, tagging, packaging and delivery services, it said. “This acquisition is consistent with our strategy to grow our current wire and cable business into targeted adjacent markets,” EIS CEO and President Bob Thomas said in a press release. “Seacoast will operate as a separate division of EIS and continue operations with all existing customers and suppliers from their current facilities.” Seacoast CEO and Chairman Michael Worfolk said in the release that he was “delighted that Seacoast will be able to continue its long tradition of servicing the shipboard and oil and gas markets in partnership with EIS.” The management and resources of EIS and Genuine Parts Company will increase the capabilities of Seacoast, he said. EIS, whose primary markets are electrical OEM, apparatus repair and assembly, notes that it supplies over 100,000 critical products from 31 branches and three fabrication facilities in North America.

Canada’s Norfil restructures, sees some hope despite many challenges Jean-Marc Perron, president of Norfil Inc., says that a series of factors led to the proverbial “perfect storm” that forced the Canadian ferrous wire business to seek bankruptcy protection in May, but in the wake of incredibly harsh conditions, he has seen signs of life that encourage him that the company may still be able to continue, albeit as a smaller business with a more defined scope. “We’ve been closed by China,” declared Perron, who said that it was impossible for his company to compete against imports from China, where employees were paid shockingly low wages. But beyond China, he told WJI that his company suffered from a litany of challenges: the stronger Canadian dollar, being squeezed between two giants (Heico Group and ArcelorMittal), the disappearance of too many customers, the reduction in wire rod suppliers and the recession.

“We’ve been very tough, and tried to introduce new products, like wire mesh and decking, but we just couldn’t compete,” Perron said. He said that his company went into the Canadian equivalent of Chapter 11 in May and is auctioning off much of its equipment. He said that he initially expected that the company would have to close its doors for good, but since the filing, he has heard from enough of his remaining customers that he believes it is possible the business can eke out a living. Perron explained that there still is demand for local service, and that his company, which now has 15 employees at its two plants, is buying and finishing semi-finished imports from China as well as doing some custom work. Between that demand, and concerns from companies who don’t want to have big lags between deliveries, he feels the business can continue. However, for now anyway, he said that it will operate just in Canada.

Luvata to open U.S. plant as part of 3-continent Sunwire expansion Finland’s Luvata Oy announced that it plans to open a new 32,400-sq-ft manufacturing facility online in Appleton, Wisconsin, in the second quarter of 2011, to increase production of its Sunwire brand photovoltaic (PV) wire. A press release said that the U.S. plant represents the final leg of a three-continent expansion of its capability to produce its ultra-thin flat wire, which is copper-based and tin-alloy plated, for use in connecting silicon cells and thinfilm solar panels. Luvata has two other dedicated Sunwire manufacturing facilities, one in Pori, Finland, and the other, under construction, in Pasir Gudang, Malaysia. The three plants represent the conclusion of phase one of Luvata’s 20 million pound investment that was part of the company’s plans in 2008, said Luvata Executive VicePresident Jussi Helavirta. “This investment has enabled us to develop the latest annealing and plating technology in Sunwire products as well as extra-soft Sunwire, which reduces cell breakages and reduces electrical resistance in modules. These capabilities have proven successful in the market place and very shortly we will have three dedicated Sunwire facilities on three continents, expanding our capacity to deliver this high demand product,” the release said. The release said that Luvata’s unit in Pasir Gudang serves the Asian PV market, where more and more of the new, large photovoltaic module production facilities are being established. Pori, it noted, has a dual role in Luvata’s photovoltaic strategy as the manufacturing unit supplying the European market and also as the Centre of Excellence for Luvata’s photovoltaic business with the focus on business and technology development. The added capacity in Appleton, Wisconsin, will expand on the manufacturing expertise gained in Malaysia and OCTOBER 2010 | 11


EIS acquires Seacoast Electric


North American PV industry, it said. The release noted that according to the estimations from the European Photovoltaic Industry Association the global photovoltaic module business is expected to grow globally approximately 25-35% year-on-year to 2014.

Draka supplies 200 km of cables for Ukraine’s DonBass Arena Draka Communications has delivered more than 200 km of high-tech cables in the Ukraine for DonBass Arena, which was described as the country’s “showcase soccer stadium and host for FC Shakhtar in Donetsk.” The cabling project management and installation, a press release said, was handled by Draka’s local partner, MacHOUSE, a leading Ukrainian systems integrator. The Draka cables will be used in the media and broadcast network to meet HDTV broadcast standards of global events, together with data communications cables for broadband data transmission, telephone and IP network infrastructure as well as to connect the stadium’s CCTV network and alarm systems, it said. Located in the Lenin Comsomol Park in the center of Donetsk in the Ukraine, the DonBass Arena represents an exceptional engineering achievement, with a soaring

The DonBass Arena, which opened in Ukraine in 2009, will use Draka cabling to provide HDTV capability. roof that makes the stadium resemble a flying saucer, the release said. The arena is designed to accommodate 50,000 spectators, and is the first such site in Eastern Europe to meet UEFA regulations for elite stadiums, it (continued on p. 16)

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WAI’s new forum raises the bar on copper continuous casting May 2-5, 2011 | Atlanta, Georgia, USA Information will flow. It’s hot. Molten hot. It’s pervasive. And it’s a new forum for copper continuous casting practitioners in which every major process is well represented: SCR | Contirod | Properzi | Upcast | ESSEX It’s a total immersion in a think tank where industry gurus will greet you. Experts will enlighten you. Legends will lead you. It’s high-viscosity learning that’ll stick with you because you have to be present to access it. Given its fluid format, no matter your level, you’ll leave with a rock solid understanding of what’s new and innovative in continuous casting today. Here. There. And everywhere copper bar and rod is processed—worldwide. It’s a big idea that’s much more than theory. One forum—over four days— at Interwire 2011. It’s convenient. Comprehensive. Compulsory. It’s engineered for you. Go with the flow and learn more at: The Wire Association International, Inc. 1570 Boston Post Road | P.O. Box 578 | Guilford, CT 06437-0578 USA | Telephone: (001) 203-453-2777 | Fax: (001) 203-453-8384 |

















May 2-5, 2011 | Atlanta, Georgia, USA

From the desk of Gary L. Spence

WAI Conference Programming Committee

It is exciting to announce the first-ever WAI “Global Continuous Casting Forum.” As an industry veteran of 40 years, I can assure you that these four days will change how much you already know about copper continuous casting—whether you are a competent practitioner, a supplier, or are new to the industry—because there’s a lot of new information to share. I can guarantee that you will get your money’s worth, too. This user’s forum is the most complete program ever designed specifically for copper continuous casting personnel. It is international. It will be intense. Technical and operational presentations, expert discussion panels, and workshops will be just as valuable as the contacts you’ll gain. This may be the ultimate in social networking for the continuous casting community. So you’ll have to be there to benefit. Here is the program preview: History of copper and wiredrawing | History of the copper vertical shaft furnace | Process overviews by Properzi, SCR, Contirod®, Upcast OY® | Innovation and process improvement discussion panel | Modern refractory design for copper shaft furnaces | La Farga-Properzi scrap melting technology | Furnace emission control technologies-baghouse design workshop | Investigation into baghouse fires | Maerz FRHC Direct-to-Wire technology | Cathode impurities and rod quality | Latest continuous casting process innovations | Furnace burner combustion and dissolved oxygen | Molten metal de-gassing and filtration | High pressure descaling system design | Innovation of rolling lubricants | Rolling mill and caster water filtration workshop | Electronic preventative maintenance | New improvements for surface oxide testing | Eddy current testing techniques | Analysis of rod defects and copper fines workshop | Quality requirements for modern wiredrawing discussion panel

All the best in continuous casting,

ZtÜç P.S. Plan now for next May. Find details at and in future issues of Wire Journal International.


said. It added that the arena will host FC Shakhtar Donetsk matches and some soccer matches in 2012.

Amphenol buys Borisch Manufacturing U.S.-based Amphenol Corporation has acquired Borisch Manufacturing, which specializes in supplying defense contractors with wiring harnesses, circuit boards and other electrical hardware. An article in the Grand Rapids Press said that the terms

of the deal were not disclosed, but Amphenol executives were cited as saying that “they bought Kentwood-based Borisch for its expertise, not to dismantle and absorb.” In the story, Borisch Controller Daniel Hislop said the sale should mean good things for the Kentwood business, that key employees had signed on to stay for at least two years and that Amphenol had made a commitment to see Borisch’s volume increase by 50 percent. The article cited a conference call in which Amphenol CEO Adam Norwitt told analysts that Borisch was a good fit that would expand Amphenol’s capabilities and provide customers with a one-stop-shop for its wiring and cable products and subassemblies. He noted that one attraction was Borisch’s strength in the military aerospace market, and that the company would help expand the range of offerings for customers. The article said that Borisch, which has some 600 employees at its plant in Kentwood, Michigan, recently announced a $7 million expansion that would add 150 more jobs.

Custom Cable Ind. files Chapter 11, up for sale Citing debt and litigation concerns, Custom Cable Industries Inc. (CCI) has filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection and put itself up for sale. According to wire stories, CCI, which is based in Tampa and has an office in Orlando, filed for debt reorganization with the U.S. Bankruptcy Court’s Middle District of Florida. The company reported assets of between $1 million and $10 million, and liabilities of between $10 million and $50 million. Business will continue as usual at CCI, Gregg Stewart, general manager and chief restructuring officer, said in a company statement.

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Nexans cables used in Italian solar project Nexans reports that more than 1,000 km of the company’s ENERGYFLEX® PV cables from its new KEYLIOSTM range, have been installed for Italy’s largest solar


photovoltaic project in the Puglia region of Italy. The cables, a press release, said, which provide the vital connections, were installed by Schneider Electric at the 43 MW solar photovoltaic facility in Puglia. The Cellino San Marco (CSM) project, which has some 580,000 panels, is the largest solar PV project in Italy to reach financial close, it said. The cables provide durable, high performance in-field connections between the PV panels and

the inverters that will transform the solar energy into usable AC electricity, it said. For the CSM project, Nexans has supplied 212 km of cable with a single 6 mm2 copper core and 804 km of cable with a single 10 mm2 copper core, the release said. The project, it added, includes standard ENERGYFLEX and ENERGYFLEX® One Stripe cables, the latter of which feature a red or blue strip for ease of identification. The cables were installed at the site between March and June 2010. In other project news, the release said that Schneider Electric has also purchased bare Nexans cable with a copper cross-section of 35 mm² to create the underground cable network for the CSM project.

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Nashville Wire part of ITC decision appeal on decking wire products Nashville Business Journal reports Nashville Wire Products is among a group of American steel companies that is appealing a recent U.S. International Trade Commission decision to not place duties on imported decking wire products from China. The article said that Nashville Wire was one of five companies that petitioned the ITC in June 2009 to place duties on Chinese decking, often used in warehouse shelving, claiming that those products were being “dumped” into the American market below fair market value, with help from subsidies from the Chinese government. In June 2010, the Commerce Department agreed, but the ITC’s review found otherwise. That led to the appeal.

Wind energy sparks life in transmission project A $3.5 billion project aimed at transporting wind energy power from the Tehachapi Mountains to urban Southern California and the power grid of Southern California Edison, has finally made headway. Work has started on 200-ft electrical transmission towers, each of which is designed to carry 4,500 megawatts, enough to power three million homes. Per wire service reports, the project will increase power grid reliability as

lightweight non-metallic wire; and the use of carbon nanotube material for advanced conductors and shields. Some of Minnovateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s R&D efforts are now being commercialized for medical and industrial products, the release said. It cited one recent example being the companyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s iStretchâ&#x201E;˘ wire, which can be used for applications that include apparel, earphones and medical interconnects. The elastomeric properties of the patent-pending wire originated from an Army need for improved electrical assemblies on its Future Force Warrior vests for soldiers, it said.

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Minnesota Wire & Cable wins defense contract U.S.-based Minnesota Wire & Cable Co. reports that its R&D Division, Minnovate, has won a contract from the U.S. Army. A press release said that the company was awarded a Phase One Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract from the U.S. Armyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Program Executive Office (PEO) for Aviation. The objective of the project, called, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Lightweight EMI Resistant Wiring Solutions,â&#x20AC;? is to demonstrate and develop technologies to reduce the electromagnetic interference (EMI) susceptibility and impact of both existing and future power wiring harnesses on Army aviation platforms, it said. Minnovateâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s R&D Team will examine possible solutions for the Army's needs ranging from exotic coatings, to innovative packaging techniques for wire harnesses, the release said. It noted that Minnovate was selected for the highly competitive contract in large part based on its proven successes with similar programs such as: Prognostic Health Management (PHM); Fatigue Resistant Wire (FRW); extremely

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OCTOBER 2010 | 19


well as help Edison reach a state-mandated goal that at least 20 percent of its energy be from renewable sources by 2017. The Pasadena Star-News says Edison completed three segments that bring energy purchased from independently owned Tehachapi wind farms near in Kern County to the high desert of Los Angeles County. Starting this year, the utility starts work on towers bringing power lines over the San Gabriel Mountains to substations in La Canada Flintridge, Pasadena, Monterey Park, Irwindale and Chino, it said. The new towers, the reports said, will accommodate a 500-kilovolt line, replacing 66kilovolt and 220-kilovolt wires. The goal is to finish the project by 2015. According to The Energy Bible, the Tehachapi-Mojave Wind Resource Area is considered one of the premier places in the nation for wind power and one of the windiest places in the world. The first turbines erected in Tehachapi, it noted, were about 45 to 60 feet in height and produced about 25 to 60 kilowatts.


Circuit judge reverses $20.5 million jury award in 2008 for welding-fumes Sixth Circuit Judge Jeffrey Sutton surprised many people when he reversed the finding of a jury trial in 2007 that saw the panel award $20.5 million from defendants that included, among others, Lincoln Electric. The action

stemmed from Sutton’s decision to reject testimony from an expert witness. “The Court’s ruling vindicates a position defendants have taken throughout this litigation: that lawsuits cannot be based on speculative or hypothetical science. We were very happy that the Court agreed with defendants on this important issue,” a spokesperson for Lincoln Electric told WJI. The Court has remanded the case for a new trial, and it is up to the plaintiffs do decide whether they want to bring it to trial again. The case involves Jeff Tamraz a 54-year-old former welder and iron worker now suffering from Parkinson’s disease. He and his wife sued, alleging that his condition stemmed from fumes from their welding products. An expert witness, the doctor for Tamraz, said that he believed the conditions led to his patient’s condition. “That is a plausible hypothesis. It may even be right. But it is no more than a hypothesis, and it thus is not “knowledge,” nor is it “based upon sufficient facts or data” or the “product of reliable principles and methods...applied... reliably to the facts of the case,” wrote the judge, who rejected the testimony for not being based on recognized scientific principles. “This is an imperfect system, to be sure. Both sides agree that Mr. Tamraz is a good man who suffers from a terrible disease; we now force him to take the chance of prevailing at trial a second time, with less evidence than before. ... But the alternative route—allowing the law to get ahead of science—would be just as unfair. ... (so) we reverse,” the judge wrote.

Vietnam steel body says ‘no’ to demand for new power plants The head of Vietnam’s steel association Tuesday rejected a proposal by the national electric company to require steel factories to build their own power plants rather than drawing from the national grid. A recent article in



Viet Nam Business News said that demand for Vietnam’s subsidized electricity is rising faster than it can bring new power plants on-line. It noted that the national power monopoly Electricity of Vietnam (EVN) wants the government to require that any new steel plants with power needs greater than 100 megawatts build its own generators. EVN general director Pham Le Thanh was cited as saying that the country’s fast-growing steel industry was partially responsible for rolling blackouts that swept Vietnam this summer. EVN estimated the steel sector consumed 3.5 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) per year, out of the country’s total production of 90 billion kWh of electricity in 2009, the story said. It also cited Thanh as saying that three-quarters of the country’s steel plants had been built without approval from its national steel production plan, disrupting EVN’s efforts to plan power production. The flip-side, the article said, is that Vietnam Steel Association Chairman Pham Chi Cuong disputes EVN’s figures, and said requiring plants to build their own power supplies would scare off foreign investment. EVN says foreign investors are taking advantage of Vietnam’s subsidized energy, which at under 5 U.S. cents per kWh is considerably cheaper than elsewhere in the region. An unnamed official at the Vietnam Energy Association

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is calling EVN’s proposal illogical. “No one will want to invest in steel projects if the proposal is approved,” the official said. “The way to solve the power shortage is to increase the price of electricity, and to attract foreign investment.” The article said that electricity demand in Vietnam is rising at 15% per year. The 2.5-gigawatt Son La dam, it noted, is scheduled to come on-line in December, and the country expects to quadruple its coal-fired generating capacity by 2015. Vietnam also plans to construct two nuclear power plants by 2020, it said.

News in brief Draka Communications Americas has announced that its newest ultra bend-insensitive fiber has completed independent lab testing. Lightwave Online reports that the company disclosed that its product, branded as Draka BendBright-Elite, can tolerate bends as small as 5 mm while achieving attenuation values less than 0.1 dB, the company asserts. The fiber, it said, complies with ITU G.657 A1, A2, B2, and B3, meaning it maintains backwards compatibility with legacy single-mode fiber. “Draka cables containing BendBright-Elite fiber can tolerate as many as 150 90-degree bends and 500 crown staples without experiencing power loss greater than 0.1 (continued on p. 26)

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Convention Dates: May 2-5, 2011 | Exhibit Dates: May 3-5, 2011 Georgia World Congress Center | Atlanta, Georgia, USA

INTERWIRE 2011 IS ALIVE WITH POSSIBILITIES. IT IS RENEWED, INVIGORATED, AND TAKING A NEW TACK. WHO’S AT THE HELM? Senior executives from more than 25 key corporations are skillfully guiding major changes to the show. Their interest in Interwire—the largest wire and cable marketplace in the Americas— is resolute. Interwire affects their business and is clearly worth their personal time. The result is a series of carefully considered and nimbly integrated transformations to better Interwire. Location: Atlanta, Georgia. Relocated and familiar, Interwire returns to the city of its origin where it was introduced in 1981. Compact: 3 full days of exhibits. Interwire 2011 offers a concentrated show schedule.

Special industry theme days. Look for presentations, technical papers, and executive discussions to orbit around these central themes: Metals & Materials Manufacturing Best Practices Green Initiatives Also NEW: The Global Continuous

More operating equipment. Interwire is a machinery show. Visitors can count on more operational equipment in 2011. Renewed energy. Exhibitor participation is on the upswing showing a 14% increase between the 2007 and 2009 events. Networking opportunities, ranked as the #1 reason to attend the show, will be part of the landscape. Expect to see production solution demonstrations and other attendance-building activities on the exhibit floor.

CC Casting Forum.

Uniting worldwide copper continuous casting practitioners for networking, technical and operational presentations and workshops. Fully supported. Show management continues to work with allied organizations, supporting sponsors, and educational supporters to interest a growing number of international participants in the show. Event news is communicated to Wire Journal International readers in 108 countries worldwide.

“Having all or most of the vendors in one location for a face-to-face has always had unmeasured value and still does, especially when times are tougher for travel and the like. Our company believes in the future of the business and that means get out there and find out what is going to take us into new future markets. I’ve already recommended that we return in 2011.” Ed Kozlowski, Senior Design Engineer W.L. Gore & Associates

SAVE THE DATE: MAY 2-5, 2011 AND LEARN MORE ONLINE AT WWW.WIRENET.ORG Interwire 2011 is organized by The Wire Association International, Inc. 1570 Boston Post Road | P.O. Box 578 | Guilford, CT 06437-0578 USA Telephone: (001) 203-453-2777 | Fax: (001) 203-453-8384 |

INTERWIRE 2011 EXHIBITING COMPANIES — AS OF SEPTEMBER 2010 FIB Belgium SA Fil-Tec Inc. Filtertech Inc. Fine International Corp. Fisk Alloy Conductors Flymca Flyro FMS USA Inc./FMS AG Foerster Instruments Inc. H. Folke Sandelin AB Fort Wayne Wire Die Inc. Fortune Machinery Frontier Composites & Castings Inc. Fuhr GmbH & Co. KG Fushi Copperweld Garg Sales Co. Ltd. Gauder & Co. Gauder Group Inc. Gavlick Machinery Corp. GCR Eurodraw SpA Gem Gravure Co. Inc. Genca/Canterbury Engineering W. Gillies Technologies Gimax SRL GMP-Slovakia Golden Spot Industry Inc. Guill Tool & Engineering Co. V. Hagen & Funke Hall Industries Heacock Metal & Machine Co. Inc. Heany Industries Inc. Heatbath Corp. Henkel Corp. Henrich Maschinenfabrik GmbH Heritage Wire Die Inc. Howar Equipment Inc. Hudson Color Concentrates Huestis Industrial Huettner Maschinenfabrik GmbH ICE Wire Line Equipment Inc. IDEAL Welding Systems Ideal-Werk INHOL LLC Inosym Intras Ltd. Italian Trade Commission ITO-SIN (Deyang) Wire & Cable Equipment Co. Ltd. IWE Spools & Handling GmbH IWG High Performance Conductors Inc. IWMA - International Wire & Machinery Association JMS Machinery Joe Tools Kalmark Ltd. KEI Industries Ltd. KEIR Manufacturing Inc. Kieselstein GmbH Ernest Koch GmbH & Co. KG Albert Krenn Friedrich Krollman GmbH & Co. KG Lamnea Bruk AB LaserLinc Inc. Leggett & Platt Wire Group Leoni Wire Inc. OM Lesmo Lesmo Machinery America Inc. Lloyd & Bouvier Inc. J.J. Lowe Associates LUKAS Anlagenbau GmbH M + E Macchine + Engineering Magnetic Technologies Ltd. MAGPOWR Maillefer SA Mapre Belgium SA

Merritt Davis Metavan NV MFL USA Service Corp. - Frigerio The MGS Group (MGS-HallNorthampton) MGS Manufacturing Inc. Micro Products Co. Microdia USA Millennium Steel & Wire Inc. Morgan-Koch Corp. Mountville Rubber Co. MPI Machines Ltd. NEPTCO Inc. Nextrom Oy Niagara Composites Industries Inc. Niehoff Endex North America Inc. Maschinenfabrik Niehoff GmbH & Co. KG NIMSCO LLC/SB2C Northampton Machinery NUMALLIANCE Oklahoma Steel & Wire OMA SRL OMA USA Inc. OMCG North America OMCG SpA Paramount Die Co. Parkway-Kew Corp. Pave Automation Phifer Wire Inc. Pioneer Machinery Co. Ltd. Pittsburg Carbide Die Co. Pittsfield Plastics Eng. Inc. Plasmait GmbH Plymouth Wire Reels Polytec Inc. Pourtier - Gauder Group Power Sonics LLC/Magnus Equipment Precision Die Technologies Inc. Premier Wire Die PrintSafe Promostar srl Properzi International Inc. Proton Products QED Wire Lines Inc. Queins & Co. GmbH Raajratna Metal Industries Ltd. RAD-CON Inc. Radyne Corp. Rainbow Rubber & Plastics Rautomead Ltd. Reel-O-Matic Refractron Technologies Corp. RG Attachments RichardsApex Inc. Rizzardi Rockford Manufacturing Group FELM Rosendahl GmbH Rosendahl Nextrom Technologies Roteq Machinery Inc. Saarsteel Inc. SAMP SpA SAMP USA Inc. SAMPSISTEMI Sark USA Inc. Sark Wire Corp. Sarkuyasan AS Schlatter Inc. Schmidt Maschinenbau GmbH Schunk Graphite Tech Sealeze A Unit of Jason Inc. Setic SAS Sictra Srl SIKORA International Corp. SIMPACKS

Sirio Wire Srl Sjogren Industries Inc. Skaltek Inc. SKET Verseilmaschinenbau GmbH Smeets SA Sonoco Reels Spirka Schnellflechter GmbH SPX Precision Components FENN Division STAKU-Anlagenbau GmbH Stema/Pedax Steuler Anlagenbau Stolberger Inc. (dba Wardwell Braiding Co.) Stolberger KMB Maschinenfabrik GmbH T & T Marketing Inc. Talladega Machinery & Supply Taubensee Steel & Wire Co. Taymer International Inc. Team Meccanica Srl Teknikor Teknor Apex Co. Tensor Machinery Ltd. Teurema Thermcraft Inc. Traxit North America LLC Troester GmbH & Co. KG Paul Troester Maschinenfabrik Tubular Products Co. Tulsa Power Inc. UMC United Wire UNITEK Uniwire International Ltd. UPCAST OY US Reel US Synthetic Wire Die Vandor Corp. Vitari SpA Vollmer America Inc. Wafios Machinery Corp. WAI Connection WCISA - Wire and Cable Industry Suppliers Association Weber & Scher Mfg. Co. Inc. Windak Inc. Wire & Cable Asia Magazine Wire & Cable Technology International Wire & Plastic Machinery Corp. wire 2012/Messe Düsseldorf North America The Wire Association International, Inc. WIRE BULLETIN Wire Forming Technology Wire Journal International Wire Lab Co. Wire Machine Systems Inc. Wire World Internet WireCo WorldGroup WiTechs Witels Albert USA Ltd. Woodburn Diamond Die Inc. Worth Steel & Machinery Inc. WTC Wyrepak Industries Inc. Ya Sih Technology Yield Management Corp. Zeus Inc. Zumbach Electronic AG Zumbach Electronics Corp.


A. Appiani Ace Metal Inc. ACM-KSM AFL AIM Inc. Ajax Turner All Forming Machinery Inc. Amacoil Inc. Amaral Automation Associates American Kuhne AW Machinery LLC AXIS, A Consona ERP Solution Axjo Plastic AB Aztech Lubricants LLC B & H Tool Co. Inc. Balloffet Die Corp. Bao Zhang Galvanized Iron Wire Co. Bartell Machinery Systems LLC/ Ceeco Machinery Bekaert Corp. Bergandi Machinery Co. Besel Basim San Tic Ltd. Sti. Beta LaserMike Blachford Corp. Maschinenfabrik Bock GmbH & Co. KG Bogimac Bongard Machines USA LLC Breen Color Concentrates Brookfield Wire Co. Bühler-Würz Kaltwalztechnik Butt Welders USA Caballe SA Cable Consultants Corp. Calmec Precision Inc. Carris Reels Inc. Cary Compounds LLC Cemanco LC Chase Coating and Laminating CJI Group Ltd. Clifford Welding Systems Clinton Instrument Co. CM Furnaces Inc. CMEC International Exhibition Ltd. CN Wire Corp./Er Bakir Comapac Wire Machinery Srl Cometo SNC Commission Brokers Inc. Condat Corp. Conneaut Industries Inc. Continuus-Properzi SpA Cortinovis Machinery America Inc. CRU North America Inc. Daloo Machinery Davis-Standard LLC Dem Costruzioni Speciali Srl Die Quip Corp. Domeks Makine Ltd. Sti Dynamex Corp. Ebner Furnaces Inc. Egyptian Galvanized Steel Plant Co. EJP Maschinen GmbH Elektrisola Inc. Engineered Machinery Group Inc. Enkotec Co. Inc. ERA Wire Inc. Esteves Group USA Etna Products Inc. Etna-Beechem Lubricants Ltd. Eurodraw Energy SpA Eurolls Group Srl EuroWire Magazine George Evans Corp. EVG Inc. Fabritex Inc.


dB. This level of performance makes our new fiber a perfect application for multiple dwelling units (MDUs), central offices, enterprises, and retail centers where cables will be exposed to difficult installation routes or congestion of existing cables,” it quoted a company official as saying. …W.L. Gore & Associates, Inc., has entered into a strategic partnership with A.E. Petsche Company to provide GORE® FireWire® Cable Products for the

Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) F-35 Lightning program, the U.S. Department of Defense’s next-generation strike aircraft system for the Navy, Air Force, and Marines. A.E. Petsche will manage the requirements of all program partners to ensure optimum stocking levels and timely distribution. Gore JSF Program Manager Tom Sharp said that “this alignment addresses emerging needs to provide value-added services that extend beyond the physical product, and one of the most significant benefits of this

partnership is that these additional services will come without any increase in cost to the customer.” … Bloomberg reports that Nigeria’s stock exchange has suspended the listings of 15 companies, including Nigerian Wire & Cable Plc, for failing to submit their 2008 earnings statements. The companies, it said, were given until Oct. 11 to render their accounts, or face delisting, it said, citing an e-mail from the Lagos-based bourse. … U.S.based C&M Corporation, a vertically integrated manufacturer of bulk cable, coil cords, and cable assemblies, announced that it has won a 2010 Innovation Prize from the Connecticut Quality Improvement Award Partnership, Inc. It won the award for its submission entitled, “ReInventing the Order Fulfillment Process in a Mature Industry.” In the documentation provided to the examiners, C&M outlined a program implemented to support a large multi-national OEMs need to have maximum ordering flexibility across over 300 SKUs while simultaneously reducing dock-to-dock lead-time to less than 14 days, improving on-time delivery, and, from a quality perspective, reducing PPM to world class levels. ■

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ASIAN FOCUS Chinese leads in ‘clean energy,’ but one large U.S. union files petition China has surpassed the United States to become the world’s leader in “clean energy” investments, but that activity has also led to a Section 301 trade petition against it from the United Steelworkers, who claim that it is doing so through unfair trade practices. A recent report by The Pew Charitable Trusts looking into investment in clean energy found that China easily topped the U.S. in such investment, spending $34.6 billion, $15 billion more than the U.S. An article in Natural reports that China accounted for more than 30% of the G-20 investment in renewable power. Wind power accounted for most (71%) of China’s investment, and while solar power was much smaller (8%), the country has become the world’s largest producer of solar panels, it said. The United Steelworkers union believes that one reason the U.S. has fallen behind is because of unfair competition. “America is losing its leadership of this sector in large part because of China’s plans to control this industry no matter what,” United Steelworkers Vice President Tim Conway said in a press release. In it, he said, “America can’t afford to let China cheat any longer.” At its website, the union announcement identifies a broad array of Chinese policies and practices that it said threaten the future of America’s alternative and renewable energy sector. The case alleges “that China has utilized hundreds of billions of dollars in subsidies, performance requirements, preferential practices and other trade-illegal activities to advance its domination of the sector.” “Green jobs are key to our future,” said Leo W. Gerard, International President of the USW. “Right now, China is taking every possible step – many of them illegal under international trade laws – to ensure that it will control that sector. America can’t afford to cede more of its manufacturing base to China. It’s a national priority to reduce our dependence on foreign energy supplies. But if all we do is exchange our dependence on foreign oil for a dependence on Chinese alternative and renewable energy production equipment, we will have traded away our nation’s energy, economic and job security.” Solar Home & Business Journal/ reports that the union filing was made just hours after President Obama outlined a proposal to offer a significant tax advantage that would benefit U.S. solar-related manufacturers, about 50 of which in the past year have announced plans to open new factories or expand existing operations. “That the submission encompasses 5,800 pages is just one hint of the complexities that lie behind the filing,” it said. “Regardless of the legal outcome, the

almost immediate effect may be to crimp Chinese module sales in the United States and boost U.S. solar-related manufacturers because of the filing’s effect on public opinion.” China’s solar manufacturing capacity has soared in the past three years, as has its ability to produce electric vehicles and batteries to power vehicles and to store electricity from renewable sources, the Sungrabbers article said. Much of China’s solar cell and module production has been exported to Europe and other parts of Asia, with increasing amounts sent to the United States in the past year. China’s domestic market for solar electric equipment, though growing, has been relatively modest thus far, as has that of the United States, it said.

The United Steelworkers union’s summary of its petition blames China for a sharp decline over the past year in the prices of solar photovoltaic modules in particular. However, the sungrabbers story pointed out, decline in solar panel prices also spurred U.S. demand that would not have otherwise existed, and the U.S. government and U.S. manufacturers had been forecasting that their own prices would drop well before Chinese-made solar modules became readily available in this country. The Sungrabbers article noted that there are other aspects that should be considered. For instance, several U.S. solar companies, including First Solar, Evergreen Solar and eSolar, have established relationships with China that involve plans for building large-scale solar power plants or manufacturing facilities in that country; and China’s largest solar manufacturer, Suntech, earlier this year announced plans to open a U.S. factory in Arizona; and Lancaster, California, has ambitious solar plans that include developing partnerships with high-level Chinese investors and manufacturing leaders.

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Apar plans new conductor plant in India Apar Industries plans to open a new conductor manufacturing facility in the India state of Orissa. Company CFO V.C. Diwadkar said that the location has not been finalized, but added that the goal is for the plant, which is to have annual capacity of 25,000 metric tons, to be commissioned in 2011. The company, which currently has three facilities, is India’s second-biggest producer in the conductor market after Sterlite Technologies. Apar also makes cables through its subsidiary, Uniflex Cables.

ADB loan to pay for 40 km transmission lines The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is extending a $100 million equivalent loan for a cross-border electricity initiative between India and Bangladesh that will provide impetus for increased power trading in South Asia. ADB’s Board of Directors approved the loan for the BangladeshIndia Electrical Grid Interconnection Project. The funds will be used to build a 40-km, 400-kilovolt transmission line, along with a high-voltage direct current substation and connecting loop, linking the western electrical grid of Bangladesh with India’s eastern grid. Around 500 megawatts of power are expected to flow into Bangladesh by 2012 as a result of the project, with the possibility of more in the future.

Bangladesh’s fast-growing economy has seen power demand sharply outstripping supply, resulting in frequent power cuts, voltage fluctuations and losses in economic output estimated at nearly $1 billion a year. While the economy has grown by an average of 6% a year since 2005, less than half the population of 156 million has access to power.

Woodburn Wire Die opens plant in India U.S.-based Woodburn Wire Die Group, a supplier of wiredrawing die technology, has set up a new facility, now fully operational, in Surat’s special economic zone (SurSEZ). SurSEZ is the first operating zone in the private sector in India. Over the last five years, the zone has seen impressive revenues, helped by its location just 14 km from the heart of Surat city, adjacent to the MumbaiAhmedabad road and rail routes. The new plant is an addition to Woodburn’s existing manufacturing facility in Surat. The facility has been specifically designed and equipped with automated manufacturing and quality control equipment, and is capable of producing a complete range of wire dies from 0.01538.000 mm. “The new SEZ facility is dedicated solely to exports to Asia, Africa, and Europe, and will support the extraordinary growth that Walson Woodburn has experienced in the Asian and European countries,” the company said. ■

OCTOBER 2010 | 29




PEOPLE David Braun has been promoted to vice president, managing director, at Cable Components Group (CCG), reporting to company President Charles Glew, who is turning day-today activities over to Braun, who will be responsible for overseeing all operations, including manufacturing, engineering, product development, sales and marketing and quality David Braun assurance. Braun, who joined CCG in 2007 as vice president of business and product development, has excelled at shaping the company into a cohesive market-driven, customer service-oriented organization. He led key product developments, including the introduction of FluoroFoam® chemically foamable compounds and fillers and FluoroSpun® yarns and non-woven fabrics. He also integrated a major asset purchase into plant operations that significantly increased the company’s capabilities to produce single- and dual-layer tubing for wire and cable, fiber optics, and other industrial applications. Prior to joining CCG, Braun had 18 years of cable design experience working for industry suppliers. He holds a B.S. degree in chemical engineering from the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, and an M.B.A. degree from Bryant University. Glew remains actively involved at the company, handling long range planning, product innovation, capital investment and managing growth, both organically and through acquisition. Based in Pawcatuck, Connecticut, USA, Cable Components Group (CCG)

designs, engineers and manufactures high performance extruded products for the wire and cable, fiber optic and industrial non-woven markets. Earlier this year, the GCR Group hired and later promoted Lionel Montaldot to general manager for both Comapac Wire Machinery Srl, its new specialty operation, as well as GCR Eurodraw SpA. He has 15 years of welding wire manufacturing and sales expertise acquired from his work for the ITW Welding Group. His specific background in the Lionel Montaldot welding sector will bolster those markets for both Comapac Wire Machinery and GCR Eurodraw. He holds a B.A. degree in electronics and electrical engineering and an M.B.A. degree from the University of Dayton. Based in Milan, Italy, the GCR Group supplies a wide range of equipment for cabling, wiredrawing and welding wire. Earlier this year, Frank Solitario was promoted to manager of product quality and performance for RichardsApex Inc., where he previously held the position of manager of R&D. Prior to joining RichardsApex in 2005, he spent 20 years working for The Harry Miller Corporation as quality coordinator and formulations chemist. He is a member of STLE, and holds a B.S. degree in biochemistry from the University of Scranton, Scranton, Pennsylvania. Based in Philadelphia,

OBITUARY Walter F. Crandall, a longtime employee of Wire Rope Corporation of America, died on July 19, 2010, at age 90. He was born in Niagara Falls, New York, and attended Williams College in Williamstown, Massachusetts, earning a B.A. degree in 1941. A member of Phi Sigma Kappa, he continued graduate level studies at Williams College in chemistry and mathematics until 1942. He served in the Army Air Force from 1942 to 1946 as a radar and communications officer for Pacific-based B-29 squadrons, achieving the rank of captain before leaving the Army in 1946. Crandall joined the New Haven, Connecticut, division of U.S. Electric Motors, as an assistant production control manager. Then, in 1949, he became an engineer at Wire Rope Corporation of America, and was part of the transition team that orchestrated the move of the entire company from New Haven to St. Joseph, Missouri, in 1950. He remained with the company, growing in terms of responsibilities until he retired as vice president, manufacturing, in


1982. He was renowned for both his technical skills as well as his personnel skills, with which he successfully negotiated the boundaries between management and labor in a way that was appreciated by all. He moved to Palm Coast, Florida, for his retirement. Walter F. Crandall Over the years, he was involved in many charities, social clubs and organizations, including holding key positions. Survivors include his son, Woody Crandall; daughter Dee Dee Clingan; and two grandsons.

GH Induction Atmospheres, part of the worldwide GH Group, announced that E.J. (Chip) Laskowski has joined the company as director of sales. He has more than 10 years of experience in the induction heating industry, and will be responsible for developing and managing a national sales network that will expand the company’s industrial client base and market share. He was previously employed as national sales manager for Ameritherm Inc., a manufacturer of induction heating power supplies. Based in Rochester, New York, USA, GH Induction Atmospheres supplies industrial heating solutions for automotive, aerospace, medical and energy production applications. Earlier this year, Elgin Fastener Group promoted Terry Elkins to the position of vice president/quality. He joined the Ohio Rod Products division of Elgin Fastener Group as quality manager in 2007 and recently completed a

five-month stint as interim general manager of Elgin’s Chandler Products division in Cleveland, Ohio. He has previously served in various quality and engineering positions with Syprus Technologies, Diamet Corp., Johnson Controls and Neptco. Elkins holds a B.S. degree in mechanical engineering and an associate’s degree in material engineering from Purdue University. In his new position he will assume responsibility for all quality related functions at each of the divisions of Elgin Fastener Group, including Black Belt training and implementation of Lean Manufacturing processTerry Elkins es. Based in Versailles, Indiana, USA, and comprised of four domestic fastener manufacturers (Ohio Rod Products, Leland Powell Fasteners, Chandler Products, and Precision Screw and Bolt), the Elgin Fastener Group supplies a complete range of special, semi-standard, and custom fasteners. ■

OCTOBER 2010 | 31


Pennsylvania, USA, and now in its fourth generation of family ownership, RichardsApex Inc. supplies lubricants, process coatings and cleaners to metalworking industries that include wire and cable.


FIBER WATCH Alcatel-Lucent to lay cable network linking West Africa to South America Alcatel-Lucent announced that it has been selected by eFive Telecoms (Pty) Ltd., a South African telecommunications company, to build a new submarine cable network linking the west coast of Africa to South America. The system will have two trunks, one that connects South Africa to Angola and Nigeria, and a second that will link Angola to Brazil, a press release said. “This endto-end project will further increase connectivity in Africa, deliver additional capacity for wholesale and will also enhance service and traffic protection by providing critical cable route diversity to South America,” it said. “We believe that high-growth areas such as the African continent require the development of new projects,” said Lawrence Mulaudzi, managing director of eFive Telecoms. “The planned submarine network will also provide cable route diversity to South America, making the most economical and operational sense in the current landscape.” “Growth in African Internet and mobile telephony is

driving service providers’ demand for more connectivity options to ensure higher reliability, as well as increased widespread access to bandwidth,” said Philippe Dumont, head of Alcatel-Lucent’s submarine network activity. “This project will further position Africa as a major hub for broadband connectivity,”

Michigan organization gets federal funding to further broadband project U.S.-based Ann Arbor fiber-optic firm Merit Network, Inc., a nonprofit entity owned by Michigan’s public universities, reports that it is getting federal funding for a northern Michigan network extension project. Crains Detroit reports that Merit Network has been awarded $69.6 million in federal stimulus funding to construct 1,270 miles of fiber optic infrastructure in the northern Lower Peninsula and the Upper Peninsula to serve rural and underserved communities in 29 counties. The award, the story said, piggybacks on a stimulus grant of about $33.3 million to help build 995 miles of fiber that was announced in January. The new project will

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U.S. stimulus funds to go to Hawaii to update broadband for higher education The U.S. Department of Commerce has awarded the University of Hawaii two broadband stimulus grants totaling nearly $36 million that will allow the university to dramatically enhance the state’s educational broadband capabilities, modernize and expand the university’s distance learning network, and improve the public’s access to broadband throughout the state. An announcement of the grants focused on the importance of building partnerships as the goal is for the university “to put the power of higher education to work for the entire state of Hawaii.” The funds will increase the state’s educational capital in line with workforce needs and maximize the state’s potential through research innovation and technology transfer to help fuel new industries in Hawaii and diversify the state’s economy. The “Ke Ala ‘Ike” (pathway to knowledge) project demonstrates the impact of such partnerships, the announcement said. It noted that nearly $34 million in federal funds will enable the collaboration of the University of Hawaii, Hawaii’s Department of Education and Hawaii State Public Library System to deploy and enhance direct fiber optic connectivity to all community colleges and their remote distance learning centers, all public schools including public charter schools, and all public libraries on six islands, for a total of 388 participating sites. The project, the announcement said, will provide highspeed fiber optic connectivity to some of the most isolated and traditionally underserved communities in the state, including Lanai, Molokai and Hana, Maui. It noted that public schools and public libraries will have initial capability of 1 gigabit per second, and higher education sites will have 10 gigabits per second. The university will also expand and modernize its statewide distance learning network to serve students on all islands with standardized high definition Internet-based videoconferencing. It added that it is believed that once the above steps are accomplished, Hawaii will be the first state in the nation with high-speed fiber to every one of its public schools and public libraries as well as its public colleges and universities. ■

Gain more knowledge as you calculate reductions at WAI’s

OCTOBER WEBINAR. FEATURING: Mechanics of Wiredrawing Wednesday, October 13, 2010 | 11:00 a.m. - Noon EDT Presenter: Joseph P. Domblesky Marquette University

FREE TO MEMBERS. Find out more at: The Wire Association International, Inc. 1570 Boston Post Road | P.O. Box 578 | Guilford, CT 06437-0578 USA Telephone: (001) 203-453-2777 | Fax: (001) 203-453-8384 |

OCTOBER 2010 | 33


extend the Merit network to more than 3,800 miles of contiguous, high-capacity fiber, it said. The newest extension, the story said, will serve more than 525,000 households and about 49,000 businesses. The project, it added, will also build a second fiber connection for Michigan Technological University in Houghton that features a 10-gigabyte-per-second node. By the time the fiber network is finished, Merit will have brought in more than $100 million in federal funding and $30 million in private investment, it said.


FASTENER UPDATE Report: world industrial fastener demand to top $80.5 billion in 2014 A 401-page report from The Freedonia Group, Inc., projects that world demand for industrial fasteners will remain quite strong through 2014, growing at an annual rate of 8.5 percent. The report from the U.S.-based market research firm, “World Industrial Fasteners,” cites a number of reasons why Freedonia expects to see such strong growth, with total value topping US$80.5 billion in 2014. In a press release, the company reported that it expects global motor vehicle output “to make a strong recovery from the declines registered during the 2004-2009 period, bolstering associated fastener sales.” Fixed investment levels will also continue to rise around the world, and the global durable goods manufacturing environment will improve, it said. Those positive factors, which should contribute to fasteners sales, will be somewhat offset in some markets by the use of alternative joining technologies (such as adhesives) or production methods that utilize fewer fasteners, the release said. From a global perspective, the release said that the Asia/ Pacific region is expected to post the strongest sales “... by 2019, (China) is increases through forecast to have a fas2014, “led by tener market that is healthy 12.8 percent yearly demand gains larger than that of in China.” Advances, the combined fastener it said, “will be supported by the counmarkets for Japan and try’s ongoing indusU.S.” trialization and growing manufacturing output.” It noted that China surpassed Japan to become the world’s largest producer of motor vehicles in 2009, which will provide industrial fastener manufacturers with important new sales opportunities as industry output continues to climb. It added that China is expected to account for a quarter of all additional global fastener demand through 2014, and that by 2019, the country is forecast to have a fastener market that will be larger than that of the combined fastener markets for Japan and U.S. Chinese fastener output is forecast to grow even faster than product demand in the nation itself, the release said. “While U.S.-based manufacturers made more fasteners in value terms in 2009, Chinese suppliers will easily surpass them by 2014, and the country will become the world’s leading producer.” Furthering the impact of China fastener production is that “foreign companies will continue to establish manufacturing facilities (there) to take advantage of lower production costs, and domestic firms will continue to grow,” the release said. It 34 | WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL

added that firms in developed areas like the U.S., Japan and Western Europe will still lead the world in production of more advanced, highly-engineered fasteners. “However, Chinese firms are narrowing the technological gap as their access to capital grows and they gain more manufacturing experience.” The release said that historically, advances in industrial fastener demand in the developed areas of the U.S., Western Europe and Japan have been much slower than in the devel-

Projected demand for industrial fasteners. Chart courtesy of the Freedonia Group. oping world. However, it noted, “this will not be the case in all areas though 2014, as fastener sales in many developed countries bounce back following the slump in durables manufacturing (especially of motor vehicles) that hit in 2008 and 2009.” “World Industrial Fasteners to 2014” (published 09/2010) is available from The Freedonia Group, Inc. For further details, go to

New York company gets state award U.S.-based John Hassall Inc., a manufacturer of custom metal parts and fasteners, has been awarded a grant of up to $90,000 from the Empire State Development Corporation. A press release said that the grant will be used to offset the $1.15 million cost of new machinery and employee training in order to keep the company competitive, according to a statement. The company, it said, has pledged to retain 74 jobs. The money for Hassall was part of about $30 million in grants awarded statewide by the development corporation. For the $30 million, the 28 statewide projects receiving funding pledged, in total, to retain 528 jobs and create 29 new ones. At its website, the company notes that its products include: high temp/high strength aircraft engine bolts, pins, rivets, bushings, nuts and assemblies; mil-spec fasteners; special stainless steel fasteners and parts; Swiss & CNC machined parts having critical tolerances; custom-engineered fasteners and parts; miniature fasteners and metal parts; cold-formed and hot-forged parts and fasteners; and custom nails, pins, contacts and connectors. Also, that its systems are certified to ISO 9001:2008, AS 9100 and NADCAP heat-treat standards. ■




U.K. Clockwinder calls for tradition ‘to keep on ticking’ A long-time tradition was maintained, with a twist, on September 17 when Kate Siddall, Group HR director for U.K.-based Siddall & Hilton, became the first woman to take part in the clockwinding tradition that links the U.K. and U.S. wire industries. “I would like to say what a great honor and privilege it is for me to take part in (this) wonderful tradition, which has stood the test of time for more than 60 years and stands as a constant reminder of the friendship and communication between our two nations,” said Siddall, who was accompanied by her husband, Peter Siddall, who wound the clock in 1999. In 1989, she joined Siddall & Hilton as training manager, and in 1993, she became Kate Siddall, Siddall & Hilton, becomes the first woman to “wind the managing director of S & H Communications, clock.” the service company of the Siddall & Hilton U.S. wire industry in appreciation for support provided durGroup, taking up her current role in 1999. ing World War II. The 8 ft-tall grandfather clock, which was Speaking to WAI President Dane Armendariz, former presented at the Wire Association’s annual meeting, held WAI presidents John Drummond and Ron Reed, Finance that year in Pittsburgh, needs rewinding every year. Nearly Committee member Tom Siedlarz and WAI staff, she noted every year since then, a representative of the U.K. wire that she represents the third Siddall to have been entrusted industry has made the trip to perform the ceremonial with this task, as in 1970, John Siddall was the first one to winding. perform the duties. Siddal & Hilton, she explained, is a Siddall also spoke about the evolving of the industry and family business with more than a century of history rooted the need to maintain relationships. “I have worked within in the wire industry, and that name is still closely connected the wire industry for over two decades and have seen many with the industry to this day. changes,” she said. “What I admire most about our industry “I am proud to have played a role in keeping the clock is the optimism and drive of the people who work within it. ticking and helping to promote closer working relationships What has become clear to me over the years is the growing outside our national boundaries,” Siddall said. need to forge closer links between the different branches of The tradition stems back to 1948, when a group of 32 the metals industry.” companies from great Britain presented the clock to the In 2005 Kate became a member of the Worshipful Company of Tin Plate Workers alias Wire Workers. That group has strong links to Wire Association International via the WireLink Travelling Scholarship that works with The Wire Foundation. “Having spent most of my career within training and development, the annual WireLink Traveling Scholarship in association with the Livery Company is an important initiative that I fully support,” Siddall said. “The scholarship gives young managers, both in the U.S. and U.K. wire industry, a unique opportunity to learn first-hand about issues and events in the other country. This not only benefits their companies but enhances their career development. I believe that this relationship between the Livery Company and the Wire Association is unique and serves as a reminder Attending the clockwinding ceremony were (l-r): WAI Past of the benefits inherent in cooperation and understanding.” President Ron Reed, WAI President Dane Armendariz, Peter Siddall said that she was pleased at how well the Siddall, Kate Siddall, WAI Past President John Drummond WireLink experience was for Peter Funk from Talley and Finance Committee member Tom Siedlarz.




I N T E RW I R E | W I R E E X P O T R A D E S H O W S



Your oldest friend in the business is in step with the next generation of wire professionals.

Are you? At 80, WAI isn’t old. It’s mature. And as the industry’s cornerstone technical society it is set in its ways of inspiring today’s leaders and cultivating tomorrow’s pioneers. WAI’s products are individually focused. They also happen to have mass appeal. That’s why your association with WAI will put thousands of constituents in our international network within your reach. Sure. The way we communicate has changed over the years. WAI’s high standards have not. Like you, we’ve seen faxes give way to e-mails, instant messaging, and blogs. But they haven’t invented a direction in wire and cable that we’re not interested in learning about and sharing with you. WAI now offers: • a series of live and archived educational webinars—free to members • electronic delivery of the industry-leading Wire Journal International magazine and twice monthly WAI Connection newsletter • instant chat customer support online for Interwire and Wire Expo • PDF files of the more than 5400 technical articles in WAI’s library Members receive the annual WJI Reference Guide, discounts at events, savings on WAI products and more. So if you’re still wondering what happened to the letter—here are three to remember W A I. We may not be ready to pass the torch but we’re pleased to light the way.

Learn membership details and join WAI’s network today at:

The Wire Association International, Inc. 1570 Boston Post Road | P.O. Box 578 | Guilford, CT 06437-0578 USA | Telephone: (001) 203-453-2777 | Fax: (001) 203-453-8384 |

ITC plans set, keynote speaker named The Wire Association International’s upcoming International Technical Conference (ITC) in Monterrey, Mexico, will feature a keynote presentation on trade issues by a U.S. official.

The official, Geoffrey Bogart, the Principal Commercial Officer for the U.S. Consulate General in Monterrey, will share his expertise in the area of bilateral trade between Mexico and the U.S. and discuss the opportunities that exist within the manufacturing sector in general. The presentation is scheduled for Monday, October 18, at the Crowne Plaza Monterrey, Mexico. The 2010 ITC, to be held October 18-20, is co-sponsored by Mexican wire association Asociación Nacional de Transformadores de Acero A.C. (ANTAAC), and will feature technical paper presentations, tabletop exhibits (Suppliers Market), a reception and a plant tour (a Delphi Packard Electrical/Electronic Architecture division plant in Guadalupe, Nuevo Leon). “This ITC will be both very informative as well as entertaining,” said WAI Past President Antonio Ayala, Latin America Sales Manager, Canterbury/Genca (CanGen), a key planner for both the 2008 and the 2010 ITCs. He said that the event will offer attendees opportunities to make or expand contacts in Mexico as well as to attain valuable technical information. For more details on the program go to and click on the ITC logo.

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Metals. “I understand that he found the visit to the U.K. and the wire exhibition in Germany extremely valuable. With the assistance of Metskill in Sheffield, the company looks forward to sending the U.K. candidate to the U.S. early next year.” “Your words were near and dear to me,” said Drummond, who heads the Wire Foundation, which is an independent non-profit body that supports efforts that includes the WireLink Scholarship program. He spoke briefly about the value of the program, including networking, and said that he definitely looks forward to meeting the U.K. representative next year. Earlier, as Armendariz introduced Siddall, he spoke briefly about the value of the U.K. and U.S. ties. He noted that he and his wife, Karen, will never forget how welcome they felt when they were in England to attend the Livery Company event.

WJI will be updating entries and making additions for its 2011 Reference Guide publication within the next few months. E-mail reminders was sent to the contacts listed within the Wire Association International’s (WAI) database in September. New entries are also being accepted and will be published free of charge. Published annually, the WJI Reference Guide is an international wire and cable industry buyer’s guide that also includes a directory of WAI members. Its data is used to power WAI’s Virtual Trade Show (VTS), an online marketplace. Essentially, each company profile—which details product, service, and contact information—is published in print and online at WAI’s Virtual Trade Show ensuring your company’s visibility exactly at the customers’ point of interest. VTS records are updated daily. The online service allows VTS visitors to conduct customized searches through more than 1,150 products types, 3,000 companies, and profiles from 76 countries using any combination of search parameters such as company name, geographic location (country, city, postal code), product type or business type. Search results are delivered instantly. To be listed, simply update your existing listing (no need to send duplicate information) or if your company has not been listed in the past, complete a company profile online at:; direct questions to Reference Guide Editor, Janice Swindells at:

information in a more methodical way. There was adequate time to explain some features in detail. Otherwise, if it is all presented in one webinar A screen shot of one of the visuals in the format, it would have two-part webinar presented by Dr. Sitaram Rampalli. been too much information to digest,” said Dr. Sitaram Rampalli. WAI Director of Education Marc Murray said that the two-part webinar, the second time the WAI has done this, once again proved to be a good experience that may well be applied to other topics in the future. WAI’s seminars are free to WAI members and $55 to non-members. ■

Last call for wiredrawing webinar Time is short, but if your schedule permits the WAI webinar, Mechanics of Wiredrawing, being presented by Joseph P. Domblesky, Marquette University, may well be worth sitting in on Wednesday, Oct. 13, at 11 a.m. EDT. The course will cover basic engineering principles and process calculations that are used in wiredrawing processes for metal rods and wires. The webinar is free for WAI members, $55 for non-members. It can be accessed at Click on “events,” then “webinars.”

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2-part webinar covered range of issues The 2-part webinar program (Sept. 8 and 15) by Dr. Sitaram Rampalli, Polyplast Consultants International (PCI) Inc., USA, presented a close look at many polymer issues. Part 1: Polymer Degradation, held Sept 8, focused on how polymers are degraded under the influence of various hostile elements, what property changes the material undergoes, and the selection of analytical techniques to follow the course of degradation. Part 2: Polymer Stabilization and Failure Analysis, held the following Wednesday, Sept. 15, discussed various stabilizers that are needed to combat the degradation process. It also dealt with failure analysis and prediction techniques, and includes a discussion of real-life product failures. “Splitting the webinar really helped in presenting the

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Review your company profile for use in the 2011 WJI Reference Guide


CHAPTER CORNER Picture-perfect day shines on New England Chapter’s golf tourney The sold-out field of 144 golfers enjoyed a glorious day on September 16 at the Mount Pleasant Country Club in Boylston, Massachusetts, where the 16th Annual Tournament proved to be the tightest one ever, with just two shots separating the top six teams, with card-matching declaring all the positions except for first place. The winning team of Scott Reed, Al Divincenzo, Ron Reed and Dick Palmer won with a score of 62, 10 under par. Just one shot behind was the second place team of Gino Marozzi, Bill Henderson, Kevin Burgwinkle and Bo Corn. Also finishing at 63 was the third place team of Paul McLaughlin, Mark Canrobert, Jim George and Phil Shows. The fourth through sixth place teams all shot 64.

which featured a slew of golfing items. “That’s my boss,” McKee dead-panned as Brian Bouvier came up to claim his second Closest to the Hole prize. “It helps when you have someone up there on your payroll,” Bouvier quipped. And there was a touch of irony as well, as Bob Srubas, Times Microwave, who had sold raffle tickets

Contestants in the putting and the chipping contest gather prior to their events.

The winning team (l-r) of Dick Palmer, Ron Reed, Scott Reed and Al Divincenzo. Winners of other skills contests included: Longest Drive, Hole 2: Jim Craig and Hole 10: Bruce Haines. On the ladies side, the winners were Hole 2: Deb DiIorio and Hole 10: Amy Theobold. The Straightest Drive winners were: Hole 4; Ken Berube and Hole 10: Brian Bouvier. The Closest to Hole was won by: Hole 6: Christine Moody, Hole 13: Brian Bouvier and Hole 17: Doug Bower. The winner of the putting contest was Doug Bower and the winner of the chipping contest was Al Divincenzo. Chapter President Mike Mathiasen thanked everyone for taking part. “We had a great day,” he said, a statement that was underscored an hour or so later when rain and lightning arrived, but too late to take part. The chapter’s volunteers also proved quite resourceful, both helping out at the skills challenges as well as selling raffle tickets. More than $2,000 was raised for the chapter’s scholarship program. Mike McKee, Lloyd & Bouvier Inc., co-chaired the event along with John Rivers, Delaware Marketing, and with help from Mathiasen, they presided over the raffle, 40 | WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL

but is a non-golfer, won an analysis of his golf swing. The sponsors were thanked several times for their crucial role in making the event possible. They included: the Snack Shack (Amacoil); $10,000 Hole in One (Commission Broker); Refreshment Stations (Carris Reels and Zumbach Electronics); Driving Range (Delaware Marketing Services); Carts (James Monroe); Tee-off Breakfast (Fluoropolymer Resources); Putting Contest (Wire & Plastic Machinery Corp.); Chipping Contest (NEPTCO); Long Drive (Sikora and Lloyd & Bouvier Inc.); Accurate Drive (Beta LaserMike and Breen Color Concentrates); Closest to the Pin (Amaral Automation Associates, W. Gillies Technologies LLC and Rosendahl/ Nextrom); Long Putt (Whitmor/Wirenetics); and 19th Hole Reception (Amaral Automation Associates, Heat

How good was the day? Just ask the foursome of (l-r) Bill Reichert, Rick Amaral, Mike Brown and Doug Bower, who later won the putting contest.

... and it’s not too late to take part in 2 chapter golf tourneys this month There’s little time left, but golfers can still take part in two WAI chapter golf tournaments that will be played this month in North Carolina and California. Players can sign up now, and sponsorship opportunities may still be available for companies that would like to have a profile at these popular networking events. The Southeast Chapter is set to play its 9th Annual Golf Tournament onThursday, October 14, at the Rock Barn


Trace Products, Mathiasen Machinery Inc., T&T Marketing Inc. and Tips & Dies). Corporate Hole Sponsors were: Anixter, Cable Components Group, Carris Reels, Chromatics Inc., Fluoropolymer Resources Inc., Gem Gravure Co. Inc., Heat Trace Products, Horizon Wire & Cable, Huestis Industrial, International Wire Group, IWG High Performance Cables, Leoni Wire Inc., Mantec, James Monroe, NEPTCO, Plasticolor/Woywod, Premier Wire Die, Q-S Technologies Inc., T&T Marketing, Inc., Teknikor, Tips & Dies and Whitmor/Wirenetics. The chapter’s next event is its annual dinner meeting in January 2011. Look to future issues for more details.

The final two chapter golf outings will be held this month. Golf and Spa in Conover, North Carolina. Contact Steve Vannais, Davis-Standard Corporation, tel. 704-799-2258, The Western Chapter is set to play its 10th Annual Golf Tournament on Monday, October 25, at the Los Verdes Golf Course in Rancho Palos Verdes, California. Last year’s event was won by the team of Paul McLaughlin of NEPTCO, and F. Camarena Inc.’s father-son duo of Fred Camarena Sr. and Fred Camarena Jr. Contact: Michael Howard, Coast Wire & Plastic Tech., tel. 310-639-9473,

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2 WAI chapters announce the winners of scholarship programs The WAI’s Southeast Chapter and Midwest Chapter have each awarded two scholarships through their scholarship programs. The recipients are: Southeast Chapter • Andrew G. Mailloux graduated from Dacula High School and is now in his junior year at Georgia State University, studying journalism. He is the son of Bob Mailloux, sales manager for JJ Lowe Associates.

Midwest Chapter • Shelby Leigh Herb graduated from Lowell High School, and now attends Central Michigan University with an intended major of social work. She is the daughter of Jim Herb, sales and marketing manager at Michigan Wire Processing Company. Shelby Leigh Herb

Andrew G. • Eric R. Vannais Mailloux graduated from Mooresville High School, and now attends Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, with a major in aerospace engineering. He is the son of Steve Vannais, regional sales manager at Davis-Standard.

Robert Joseph Albright

• Robert Joseph Albright graduated from Indiana Academy for Science, Mathematics and Humanities, and now attends Wabash College. He is considering majors in chemistry and history. He is the son of Raymond Albright, manager of process engineering at Superior Essex. ■

Eric R. Vannais

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The IWCS Plenury Session continues to draw many attendees.

CRU Principal Consultant Rob Daniels speaks at the 2009 IWCS event.


returns to Providence for 2010 event

The International Wire & Cable Symposium, in partnership with the International Institute of Connector and Interconnection Technology (IICIT), returns November 7-10 to the Rhode Island Convention Center in Providence, Rhode Island, for its 59th staging, with a full technical program, professional development courses and tabletop displays. “We’re delighted to be back in Providence,” said IWCS CEO/Director John Barteld, who at press time observed that registration for the event, as well as hotel reservations, provide positive indicators of strong attendance. “Our Call for Papers enjoyed a very strong response, with the technical symposium now expected to include well over 100 papers. We are on the verge of filling the exhibit hall, so things are looking pretty good for 2010.” In recent years, the IWCS has started alternating the event between Providence and Charlotte, North Carolina. “There are regional interests in our industry, and by alternating, we draw on different audiences in the two markets. However, Providence is a special place for our industry,” he concluded. The IWCS, in cooperation with the IICIT, has further broadened its interests in connectors and cable assemblies, Barteld said. He noted that the 2010 technical symposium will include two sessions with a connector focus, and the Professional Development Courses will include two tutorials on connector technology. The Professional Development Courses will begin on Sunday, November 7, from 8 am to noon. Those sessions include: CN203, Connectors and Connectorization: Fiber; CU101, Fundamentals of Copper Conductors & Metallic Cable Design & Applications; FO206, Bend-Resistant Single-mode and Multimode Fibers; and MA202, The Art and Science of Extrusion for Wire and Cable, Part A. From 44 | WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL

1 pm to 5 pm, the sessions will include: CN201, Connectors and Connectorization: Copper; FO101, Fundamentals of Optical Fibers and FO Cable Design and Application; MA101, Selection & Use of Materials in Wire and Cable; MA201, The Art and Science of Extrusion for Wire and Cable, Part B; and MA207, Sustainability Standards and Green Building Codes. The most widely attended part of the program remains the Plenary Session, which will feature the return of a frequent IWCS speaker, DuPont Senior Economist Dr. Robert Fry, who will discuss economic conditions as they impact the wire and cable industry. The second keynote speaker is Tyco ElectronicsVice President of Technology Ray Sokola, who has addressed the IWCS in the past when he was CTO for Motorola. His talk, “Baby Boomers, Millennials, Moore’s Law, Metcalfe’s Law, Wired, Wireless and What All of That Has To Do with the Future of Wire, Cable and Connectivity,” will look at the prospects for the wire and cable, and connectivity industries based on the continuing revolution in data mobility. The overall program, which runs from Monday, November 8, through Wednesday, November 10, includes the following elements. Starting Monday, session 1, the Executive Track (under development, go to for more details); session 2, optical connectivity, seven papers; session 3, copper design, modeling & measurement, four papers; the Plenary Session; session 4, new FTTH deployment technologies, six papers; session 5, optical fiber design & manufactur-

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Activity at the tabletops.

ing, seven papers; and session 6, material developments, eight papers. On Tuesday, from 1 pm to 4:25 pm: session 7, special applications, six papers; session 8, copper connectivity, three papers; session 9, fiber coatings, seven papers; session 10: animal protection, seven papers; and from 4 pm to 6 pm, Poster Session, 32 scheduled. On Wednesday, from 9 am to 12:10 pm: session 11, data center, seven papers; session 12,


exhibitors (as of 9/10/2010)

AESA Cortaillod - 205 AKSH Technologies Ltd. - 334 AlphaGary Corp. - 204 Amaral Automation - 214 American & Efird, Inc (A&E) - 424 Arkema Inc - 428 ASI/Silica Machinery, LLC - 330 Aurum Chemicals Corporation - 139 B&H Tool Co - 212 Beta Lasermike - 128 Borealis Compounds Inc - 304 Breen Color Concentrates - 410 Caballe - 207 Cable Components Group - 417 Carris Reels - 218 Cary Compounds, LLC - 409 CERSA-MCI - 301 Chengdu Centran Industrial Co. - 303 Chromatics - 130 Coats North America - 439 COIM USA, Inc - 429 Commission Brokers, Inc - 110 Conductix Wampfler - Delachaux - 434 Conneaut Industries, Inc - 114 Copper Clad S.A. de C.V. - 406 CRU North America, Inc - 131 Daikin America, Inc - 331 Davis-Standard, LLC - 138

DeWal Industries, Inc - 202 Dow Chemical Co, The - 119 Draka - 335 DSM Desotech, Inc - 101 Emirates Conversion Ind. (Senaat) LLC - 425 Estane ® Engineered Polymers - 228 EuroWire Magazine (Intras Ltd) - 411 Fiber-Line, Inc - 124 Fil-Tec, Inc - 413 Fisk Alloy - 503 FSP-One Inc - 236 Fusion UV Systems, Inc - 105 Gauder Group, Inc - 500 Gem Gravure Company, Inc - 104 Genca / Cantebury Engineering - 339 George Evans - 501 Gotex S.A. - 237 Guill Tool & Engineering Co, Inc - 129 Huestis Industrial -400 IBA Industrial - 305 Inhol - 325 J.M. Huber Engineered Materials - 314 j-fiber GmbH - 414 King Industries - 338 Kolon Industries, Inc - 211 Lantor BV - 125


innovations in FTTH deployment, seven papers; session 13, manufacturing processes, six papers; and session 14, emerging applications & standards, five papers. For specific titles, go to and click on the event icon. The tabletop displays will be open on Monday, November 8, from 2 pm to 6 pm; Tuesday, November 9, from 10 am to 6 pm; and Wednesday, November 10, from 8 am to 11:30 am. Also, on Monday, a session of new product introductions will be presented from 3 pm to 6 pm, adjacent to the tabletop displays. One IWCS exhibitor explained why they took part in the tabletops. “IWCS is a very important conference for Rosendahl/Nextrom in the U.S.,” a company representative said. “There, we have an opportunity to hear about the latest developments in the industry and meet many of our customers at the same time.” One item the company cited as being showcased will be the Rosendahl Crosshead RX 25T for foamed RF cable cores, which is designed to manufacture the complete RF Cable range from ¼” SF to 2 ¼” F. Aside from the technical elements of the proram, IWCS offers networking as well as social events. This year will see the return of a long-time favorite, the Monday Night Football party, which is returning courtesy of Cable Components Group, with an assist from Gem Gravure Inc. For the latest details, contact: Contact: Pat Hudak, IWCS,,, tel. 732-389-0990. ■

Leoni Wire, Inc - 107 Lloyd & Bouvier, Inc - 116 Longvision (Shanghai) Cable Materials Co Ltd - 225 Maillefer SA - 329 MGS Manufacturing Inc - 118 Miltec UV - 302 Mossberg Associates, Inc - 327 Nabaltec AG - 238 NEPTCO - 100 OFS - 106 OptEM Engineering, Inc - 310 PE Fiberoptics Ltd - 336 Photon Kinetics, Inc - 231 Pittsfield Plastics Engineering, Inc - 136 Plastomer Technologies - 135 Plumettaz S.A. - 312 Printsafe, Inc - 127 REELEX Packaging Solutions, Inc - 111 Rio Tinto Minerals - 230 ROBLON A/S - 407 Rosendahl Nextrom Technologies - 415 Saint-GobainPerformance Plastics - 430 Shanghai Wangxun New Material Co Ltd - 234 Shenzhen Delifeng Trading Co., Ltd. - 426

Shenzhen Unigel Telecom Co. Ltd - 307 Sikora International Corp. - 201 Solvay Solexis - 412 Sonoco Products - 313 SSCP USA - 200 Stewart Group, The - 319 T & T Marketing, Inc - 306 Teijin Aramid USA - 224 Teknikor - 401 Teknor Apex Co. - 219 Tekstilna Tovarna Okroglica d.d. - 337 Tensor Machinery, Ltd. - 436 W. Gillies Technologies, LLC - 210 Wardwell Braiding Co -435 Weber & Scher Mfg. Co., Inc - 431 Windak Inc - 311 Wire & Cable Technology Int’l/ WCISA® - 507 Wire & Plastic Machinery Corp. - 113 Wire Association International/ WJI - 112 Wyrepak Industries - 300 Yangtze Optical Fibre & Cable Co Ltd (YOFC) - 235 Zumbach Electronics Corp. - 213


new organizers see much interest The big news behind the third staging of Wire & Cable India on Nov. 18-20 is that the event will be organized by Messe Düsseldorf India Pvt. Ltd., the India subsidiary of Messe Düsseldorf, working with the Confederation of Indian Industries (CII). “The response, after the news came out that (we are) going to organize a leading regional wire event in India, has been overwhelming!” Messe Düsseldorf reported at the website for the event ( The organizers, who put on the industry’s largest event, wire Düsseldorf, as well as wire China, among others, described the upcoming event as “the most important trade fair for the sector on the Indian sub-continent.” Officially called Wire & Cable India 2010, the 3rd International Exhibition & Conference for the Wire & Cable Industry, the event will be held at the Bombay Exhibition Finolex Cables Ltd. Managing Centre Goregaon Director Deepak Chhabria lights a ceremonial lamp to open Wire & Cable (East) Mumbai, India. India 2008. The 2008 staging of the event featured 223 exhibiting companies including 56 suppliers from Europe. The net exhibition space measured 3,600 sq m, and drew 8,000 trade visitors from within India, South-East Asia and the Middle East. Wire industry production in India did decline in most sectors in 2008-09, but “is now looking forward to a recovery,” the organizers note at, which provides the following information. The outlook for India is much better than for many countries, whose industries continue to struggle with a weak economy. India is traditionally strongly focused on the domestic market and the economic development consequently 48 | WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL

depends primarily on the domestic situation. Therefore, the financial crisis generally had less effect on India than on nations with a stronger export focus. The overall conditions for the exhibition in India are very positive. Key customers for the wire and cable industry include the automotive, telecommunication and construction industries, and these three fields “have witnessed a rapid expansion and have led to an annual growth of about 25% in India.” Another driver for “Therefore, the financial wire and cable demand stems from crisis generally had less more activity by the effect on India than on government of nations with a stronger India, which has begun to focus priexport focus.” marily on publicprivate partnerships with major infrastructure projects. “With an investment need of about $450 billion until 2012, the infrastructure construction is the growth engine for the construction industry, especially for the development of the transport sector.” Further, with the country’s Automotive Mission Plan 2006-2016, the Indian government hopes to double the automobile industry’s contribution to the country’s GDP by 2016, and create 25 million new jobs in the industry. Finally, the telecommunications market in India is the third largest in the world and it is the fastest growing. This growth is being witnessed in the wireless and telephony sectors. Further, in the internet sector, the government has plans to provide the rural regions of India with broadband connections. All of the above initiatives reflect internal demand that bodes well for the country as a place to do business. The Steel Wire Manufacturers’ Association of India (SWMAI) is the official supporting association of the biennial event, which is bolstered by national groups from Austria, Germany, Great Britain, Italy and North America (Canada and U.S.) as well as from China and Taiwan. Since its inception in 2007, Messe Düsseldorf India has organized 11 trade fairs, including events such as Tube India International, Metallurgy India, ESSEN WELDING INDIA, International PackTech India and Medical Fair India. For more information, go to: ■

For the latest information, including a list of India exhibitors, go to

Zhangjiagang Victor Textile Machinery Co.

Austria Austrian Wire & Cable Machinery Manufacturers Association (AWCMA) CPA Computer Process Automation GmbH EBNER Industrieofenbau GmbH Eder Engineering GmbH EVG GmbH Lenzing Plastics GmbH MALI GmbH Medek & Schörner GmbH Unitek Maschinenbau- und Handels GmbH WKÖ-Wirtschaftskammer Österreich Aussenwirtschaft Österreich (AWO)

England BWE Ltd. Pressure Welding Machines (PWM) Ltd.

Kingdom of Bahrain MADEM Gulf Industries WLL Belgium FIB Belgium S.A. Gauder & Co. S.A. Brazil Madem Reels China Anhui Herrman Impex Co., Ltd. Baicheng Fujia Machinery Co., Ltd. Borun Cable Material Co., Ltd. Chengdu Centran Industrial Co., Ltd. Comsuc Technology Development Ltd. Dalian Tongda Equipment Technology Development Co., Ltd. Dongguan City Jingtie Machinery Co., Ltd. Golden Technologies Wire & Cable Eqpt. Ltd. Hefei Smarter Technology Co., Ltd. Ito-Sin (Deyang) Wire & Cable Eqpt Co., Ltd. No. 23 Research Inst. of China Electronic Technology Corporation Group Qunye Electrical Machinery Factory Shanghai DIELEC Electrotechnics Co., Ltd. Shanghai Wangxun New Material Co., Ltd. Shaoxing Kaichen Mica Material Co., Ltd. Shenyang Tianrong Cable Materials Co., Ltd. Sinoleader Industries Group Co., Ltd. Suzhou Zhihong Cable Material Co., Ltd. Wah Sing (Shukchin) Chemical Co., Ltd. Wai Tak Lung Engineering Factory Well Gain Cable Systems (Shanghai) Ltd. Wintime Machinery Co., Ltd. Wuxi Hengtan Wuxi Quantong Cable Material Co., Ltd. Wuxi Sunking International Trading Co., Ltd. Yangzhou Qunye Electrical Machinery

The entrance to the tented area that housed Wire & Cable India 2008 in Mumbai, India.

France FSP-One S.A.S. Redex S.A. Germany ADVARIS Informationssysteme GmbH August Strecker GmbH & Co. KG Elektro-Schweissmaschinen-Fabrik Bongard Trading GmbH & Co. KG Bühler Würz Kaltwalztechnik GmbH EJP Maschinen GmbH Elantas GmbH Friedr. Krollmann GmbH & Co. KG FUHR GmbH & Co. KG Hans Schmidt & Co. GmbH HIGHVOLT Prüftechnik Dresden GmbH KJM GmbH Klaus Merten GmbH Koch GmbH Maschinenbau Scholz GmbH & Co. KG Maschinenfabrik Johann Leimbach GmbH Minelco GmbH National Machinery Europe GmbH Niehoff GmbH & Co. KG Petig AG Queins & Co. GmbH RSD Technik GmbH Saarstahl-Export GmbH Scholz Maschinenbau GmbH SIKORA AG Troester GmbH & Co. KG WAFIOS Zeller + Gmelin GmbH & Co. KG Hong Kong Pilatus International Co., Ltd. Italy Gimax Group Micro Products Company Newtech S.r.l. SICME ITALIA IMPIANTI S.r.l. Solvay PadanaPlast SpA Norway Conoptica AS Poland ATS S.A.

Singapore Borouge Pte Ltd. Slovenia Tekstilna tovarna Okroglica d.d. Spain FLYMCA, S.L.. Sweden H. Folke Sandelin AB (HFSAB) Switzerland Maillefer SA Zumbach Electronic AG Taiwan ROC QTK Yih Shen Machinery Co., Ltd. United Arab Emirates Millennium Steel & Wire (L.L.C.) United Kingdom Alloy Wire International Ltd. ASMAG UK Ltd. BWE Ltd. E Braude (London) Ltd. EuroWire Magazine Institute of Spring Technology Int’ Wire & Machinery Association Intras Ltd. Pressure Welding Machines Ltd. Wire & Cable ASIA Magazine USA Fort Wayne Wire Die Inc. RAD-CON SPX Precision Components Fenn Division Teknor Apex Co. Wire Association International, Inc. Wire Journal International/WIRE BULLETIN Wire & Cable Suppliers Association® (WCISA®) Wire & Plastic Machinery Corp.

OCTOBER 2010 | 49


Listings of exhibitors from outside country

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Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are materials linked to the formation of smog. In addition, some VOC’s such as formaldehyde and ethylene may harm plants. Companies emitting large volumes of VOC’s are required to

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green in manufacturing



in manufacturing

green in manufacturing




in manufacturing


he concept of “green” is widely embraced. On a consumer level, it sounds so right, so obvious, that one wants to ask, “Where’s the sign-up sheet?” But on a business level, what

exactly is this essence called “green,” and how does it apply to the wire and cable industry?

By Mark Marselli, editor-in-chief This feature takes a broad look at “green,” and if there is one assessment to be drawn, it may be that industry is not opposed to “green,” only the shade had better be able to fit in a business plan that does not include “red.” The following pages include: • An interview with the manager of the Green Networks Supplier (GSN). Can a program that works through the EPA actually provide useful help to manufacturers? • The experiences of one GSN client, a longtime proponent of Lean Manufacturing that had already been certified to the ISO 14000 environmental certification. • The experiences of one company that introduced new

green products and found them welcomed by customers… but not for a premium. • The views of a company that recently launched a line of “green” products that it hopes will eventually pay off. • Observations from U.K.-based CRU International about the role of “green.” • Q&As with officials at 16 wire and cable businesses who discuss “green” aspects. • Other elements, from Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) to RoHS, REACH and WEE requirements, and more. Note: Future WJI stories in 2011 will hone in more on specific topics (see p. 82).

It’s not easy (defining) ‘green’ for manufacturing Green is good. Green is here to stay. Now, if only people could agree on what exactly “green” is. There is the “green” of one’s internal operations and processes and the “greenness” of one’s products. Asked for their definitions of “green,” manufacturers offered a range of observations, some quite insightful, but there is no one reply that would be universally accepted. One could sidestep the issue by subscribing to “A rose by any other name” philosophy, but without a single definition to go by, it’s hard to quantify “green.” At what point does a company have the right to market itself as being “green”? If a company uses all “green” suppliers, does it, too, become “green”? Must it involve new products? If a “green” product is introduced and a similar product comes along that is “greener,” does the first product lose any of its “greenness”? If a company offers “green” products but has some internal procedures that are not, can it still be


“green”? Can internal process alone qualify a company to be “green”? What if a company cuts its use of electricity or chemicals by 3%? Not enough? What about 5% or 8% or 10%? Is there any specific point, be it for operations/ processes or new products, whereby one attains “greenness”? Finally, consider the creation of “green” jobs. A recent article by Associate Editor Kristen Wright in Electric Light & Power noted that in 2008, then-presidential candidate Barack Obama pledged to create five million “green” jobs within 10 years. “Two years into his presidency, nobody knows what qualifies, including government agencies and environmental groups,” she wrote. The article cited Rick Clayton, chief of the division of administration statistics and labor turnover at the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), as saying that he and his team of 18 have been trying to define “green” for a year, without success. “We’d love it if someone would have given us (a definition),” he said.

Pursuing “green” initiatives may sound as if a company will be depleting cash reserves, but the reality should actually be the opposite, notes The Green Suppliers Network (GSN). The GSN, a collaborative venture among industry, the U.S. Environmental Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department Commerce’s Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP), helps manufacturers stay competitive and profitable while reducing their impact on the environment. GSN Manager Kristin Pierre discussed how the program works and why manufacturers should welcome its review process, which has been proven successful for well-known companies, such as Draka Cableteq USA (see p. 54), and can help smaller manufacturers too. WJI: What is the GSN and how can its review programs help manufacturers? Pierre: The GSN is a collaborative venture among industry, the U.S. Environmental Agency (EPA) and the U.S. Department of Commerce’s Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP). The service we offer is a review of a company’s processes to identify opportunities to save money and increase capacity. Each GSN assessment is designed to provide direct and immediate results through hands-on training on the shop floor. By providing customized solutions that achieve additional savings and efficiencies beyond traditional lean techniques, we can improve supplier performance as well as improve supply chain relationships.

of Lean to one that includes environmental and energy wastes. This targets the root causes of wasteful practices and provides a framework for achieving specific, measurable business and environmental goals. Lean is a great systems approach because what gets measured, gets managed. We add the environmental measurement. We ask, “Where’s your pain?” We look at a company’s use of energy, water, chemicals and more in terms of the overall process. How does everything fit together? How is it used? How do you get rid of it? Can it be reused? Can it be done differently? WJI: How might that work for staples such as water or electricity? Pierre: Water and electricity can be a big item for some manufacturers, but often nobody has ever really looked at its use. You just turn on the water, you use electricity and accounting pays “x” amount a year. Does accounting know how the water was used or what process uses the most energy? We say, break it down. Does it have to be this way? Can a process be done in a different shift when the electrical rates are lower? WJI: Is your program designed to make a company more “green” or efficient? Pierre: Regardless of what it is called, we want a company to be able to be more efficient. Doing so will help them reduce their environmental footprint.

WJI: If GSN is working with the EPA, would its experts report any problems that they may find to EPA? Pierre: The experts that GSN hires to assess a plant’s operations and processes do not report to the EPA. In fact, they are independent contractors and can sign nondisclosure statements, if required. They are there to look for ways to help a company, and they do that by looking at what a company does and pointing out ways that the overall process could be done more effectively.

WJI: Does GSN want manufacturers to buy from ‘green’ suppliers? Pierre: We don’t recommend anything that does not make good business sense because if it runs you out of business, what’s the point? We want to show cost savings. We’re really talking about efficiency. If you are more efficient, doing more with less, and more sustainable, that’s great. We don’t want you to be “green” because it’s cool or sounds good. We want you to be green because it can help your bottom line.

WJI: How does the review process do that? Pierre: We work with company employees to fix existing problems while teaching the company how to use our tools with their process as part of a continuous improvement element. Say that a company has done Lean for years and gotten good results. What we do is expand Lean, make it more robust. We augment the traditional definition

WJI: Is this program intended for only large manufacturers? Pierre: We have worked with large multinational companies and we’ve worked with companies with fewer than 50 employees. You can find out more by going to y “warm and fuzzy” thoughts to the general public, yet there is increasing interest in “green,”

OCTOBER 2010 | 53


GSN: ‘green’ should be the bottom-line color too


Draka Cableteq USA: beyond Lean and ISO 14000 By many measures, Draka Cableteq USA could already have been seen as a good steward of the environment. The company has long followed Lean principles and it achieved ISO 14000 environmental certification in 2005. Earlier this year it became active with the Green Suppliers Network (GSN). Richard Parvesse, business unit director for the company’s industrial and utility markets, discussed the company’s experience with WJI.

WJI: Do you consider this process a success on both a “green” level and a business level? Parvesse: We learned a great deal about ourselves during the process, as you often do when you listen to this kind of candid feedback. It is clear that as a result of this project, we have improved our manufacturing processes, we implemented both energy saving and recycling suggestions, and we reduced our impact on the environment.

WJI: Why did Draka initially decide to join the Green Suppliers Network? What were your expectations? Parvesse: We initially took notice of the program after one of our top utility customers volunteered to sponsor our membership. Fundamentally, however, we believe, as our customer does, that lean manufacturing and environmental stewardship is a never-ending process. There are no quick fixes and no shortcuts. Innovative programs like this one provide the tools for continual improvement for our company.

WJI: In terms of “green,” is Draka now where it wants to be, or is it likely to explore further steps? Parvesse: We are just scratching the surface of our “green” initiatives. There is no finish line in this race. It’s a gradual process of continuous improvement that demands full commitment now and for the future. Not to be measured in weeks and months, but instead in years and decades. For Draka, “green” is not just about recycling plastic and turning off the lights. We have embarked

WJI: What did the GSN representative(s) find, and were the suggestions practical? Did any of it become reality? Parvesse: The GSN review was very insightful. Since the representatives were not from our industry, they provided us with an unbiased review of our company and processes. Some of their suggestions were very practical and were implemented into our system almost immediately. Others required additional research and others required capital investment. Unfortunately, the economic downturn occurred shortly after the representatives’ final audit. This had two significant implications: 1) the suggestions that required capital investments were delayed indefinitely; and 2) our ability to measure process improvements was obscured due to a drastic decrease in volume. WJI: Can you provide a few specific examples? Parvesse: The GSN process was helpful with several projects related to both lean manufacturing techniques and reduction of our environmental impact. For instance, a value stream map provided evidence that by reducing our lot size by 50% on our primary production lines we would improved our lead time by approximately 15%; a study of our electricity usage showed that by replacing aging light fixtures and using occupancy sensors in selected areas, we would save $50,000 a year; and there were several other projects that proved that by standardizing on everything from tooling to reel sizes provided a substantial cumulative savings. We have yet to see all the benefits in terms of the return on investment, but based on what we’ve seen and what we expect to be able to do, we expect that the GSN program will prove to be a home run that will continue to pay dividends for years to come.


The Draka Cableteq “green” team (l-r): Jason Yondora, Deborah Donmoyer, Jeremy Gustitis, Rich Parvesse, Todd Tice and Glen Hilbish. Missing from photo: Tim Schweigert, Wayne Huntzinger, Rob Mestishen and Allen Schultz. on several programs to make our products more environmentally friendly, from redesigning our products by using lead-free compounds, to designing new products and compounds that are RoHS compliant. As of the beginning of 2010, we eliminated the annual use of more than 300,000 pounds of lead-bearing and therefore hazardous compound and an associated quantity of hazardous waste by using replacement compounds we specifically developed. WJI: What would you tell a company that may be reluctant to consider such an approach? Parvesse: GSN is a very effective program. It can provide both a broad overview of your company and specific actions within a process. If you want your business to stay competitive and be viable 10 or 20+ years from now, the tools that GSN offers definitely can make a difference.

As much as “green” may be warmly embraced as a concept, the reality of it can be quite challenging for the wire and cable industry. That was the experience for U.S.based Teknor Apex, which introduced lines of “green” compounds a few years ago with high expectations, only to find out that customers were not willing to pay a premium for that added value. Below, Mike Patel, industry manager, wire & cable compounds, Teknor Apex Co., Vinyl Division, discussed that experience with WJI. WJI: What was the mindset when Teknor introduced its lines of “green” products a few years ago? Was the goal for Teknor to lead the pack in terms of “green” products? Patel: Teknor initially introduced its “green” products in response to industry regulatory directives. California’s Prop. 65 restriction on lead was the basis for launching a project to develop non-lead stabilized building wire compounds that would meet the requirements of UL 83. Subsequently the European RoHS directive was the basis for broader product development in order to achieve compliance with restrictions of six substances, including lead. The market interest and environmental advocacy that we saw in moving towards more environmentally friendly products was something we felt we could capitalize on by being the market leader. We did expect that the more forward thinking parts of the market would be willing to pay a slightly higher price for new technology, which initially carried a higher cost for us. The expectation was that we could achieve an increase in market share with these environmentally friendly products. WJI: Were Teknor’s decisions based strictly on its business plan, or was being socially responsible by offering such products a part of the decision-making process? Patel: Some time ago, our top management initiated a company-wide drive to develop programs to promote sustainability. Among the results has been the establishment of a new division focused strictly on bioplastic compounds. Another is a company-wide re-examination of all of our operations and procedures that has enabled us to reduce our carbon footprint. In our wire and cable compounding business, besides the complete elimination of lead stabilizers and lead pigments we have had a very active program for development of halogen-free flame retardant compounds which are perceived as being “green” by many end users. Over the past 12 to 18 months we have started to commercialize some of these halogen-free flame retardant compounds for demanding cable applications. Work continues, meanwhile, on developing cable compounds that incorporate bio-based raw materials. Of course there was a critical business-strategy component in our decision to introduce new non-lead stabilized

compounds. Traditionally, the wire and cable industry is slow in adopting change because of the cost of qualifying new materials and obtaining necessary safety approvals. Our belief was that regulatory requirements or a significant degree of market pull would have to drive any change on the part of our customers. We wanted to be fully prepared to serve customers with new “greener” Mike Patel, Teknor Apex Co. materials as these conditions arose. WJI: What was the reaction from customers? Had you asked them prior to pursuing this initiative if they would use your products? Was there more interest in moving away from use of PVC? Patel: Discussions had occurred with a limited number of customers at the beginning stage of product development. However there were no discussions regarding economics, as we did not know what the magnitude of cost change would be. Nor were any commitments sought for purchasing the new products, since we could only offer generalities, not specifics. There was definite interest on the part of customers in the non-lead stabilized PVC compounds that we were developing. (This was not a case of wanting to move away from use of PVC). WJI: If customers liked your products but were reluctant to pay any more for them, what did Teknor decide to do? Did it focus on cutting its costs to make the product more profitable, and if so, to what degree was it able to achieve this? Patel: Customers were not willing to pay even a slightly higher price for the non-lead stabilized compounds compared to the lead stabilized compounds. The higher price was primarily the result of higher costs for new raw materials needed to overcome certain technical challenges. After nearly two years of very low sales for the newly developed product, we decided to work with a substantial mid-size customer on a price arrangement that they felt could enable them to market a price-neutral product line of non-lead stabilized building wire. This customer marketed their RoHS compliant building wires strongly within their customer base and transitioned completely from lead to non-lead stabilized product over a period of few months. The resulting growth in volume created for us a critical mass for purchase of the new raw materials at a more

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Pioneering ‘green’: one company’s experience


competitive cost. The product shift in the cable market initiated by this customer led to many of their competitors deciding to respond and offer an equivalent product. As Teknor Apex was the only commercial compound manufacturer able to provide the necessary compound, these cable manufacturers purchased the compounds from us, resulting in further growth of volume and the ability to reduce raw material costs still further. Eventually the raw material costs for non-lead stabilized compounds reached a level that enabled the corresponding compounds to be cost-neutral compared to the lead stabilized compounds. The building wire segment provides an extremely limited opportunity for compound profitability. WJI: What did Teknor learn from its experience? Has it shied away from further introductions of “green” products, or is it committed to offering such products? If so, is the company approaching this differently? Patel: What we have learned from this experience is that, in general, the wire and cable market is unwilling to pay any type of differential for “green” products. There may be some niche sub-segments that value the “green” products, but that is definitely not the case across the broader market. This is something we will have to factor in to our economic analysis for future development efforts and introduction of new “green” products. That said, we plan to continue developing “green” products, as we expect that there will be market need for them. Environmental regulations restricting use of various chemicals continue unabated. EU RoHS 2.0 has a proposal pending that would essentially eliminate the use of PVC and brominated flame retardants; REACH is reviewing and adding Substances of Very High Concern to their list every six months. In the next phase of developing “green” products, our


initial targets are niche sub-segments where we anticipate being able to price the products competitively while covering the costs for “green” raw materials. By targeting multiple niche sub-segments, we anticipate building volume for these new raw materials, enabling us to reach a critical mass for lower costs, which would then be passed on to our customers.

An assortment of “green” cables made from Teknor Apex compounds.

WJI: Do you have any advice for companies considering offering “green” products? Patel: Be sure of why they want to offer “green” products. Developing these products requires a significant commitment of R&D expenses that will not necessarily be recovered quickly. There have to be willing customers on the other end who can move these “green” products through the supply chain to end users who are really interested in adopting change. It will take time for these new products to get established in the market.


Dow: taking a long-term perspective to “green” Earlier this year at wire Düsseldorf, Dow Wire & Cable introduced DOW ECOLIBRIUM™, the company’s new line of bio-based plasticizers for wire insulation and jacketing. Perhaps the single-most important aspect of the announcement was that the company, a business unit of The Dow Chemical Company, would be marketing the line, which carries a modest premium, for use in cable products that currently don’t require “green” attributes. Will cable manufacturers be willing to pay extra for the phthalate- and lead-free plasticizers? Thorne Bartlett, the new business development director for Dow Wire & Cable, discussed the company’s decision with WJI. WJI: Regarding the recent “green” PVC replacement products that Dow introduced at wire Düsseldorf, has the company chosen to do this because it is “the right thing to do,” or because it is part of a long-term business plan that sees this as a wise move, or a combination of those two (and possibly other) reasons? Bartlett: Dow Wire & Cable’s decision to develop materials from renewable feedstocks is driven by all those reasons. We certainly think it’s the right thing to do, and as a business unit of The Dow Chemical Company, we subscribe to the same sustainability goals as the rest of

Dow Wire & Cable says that it believes in a long-term “green” approach for its wire and cable product lines. the corporation. Petroleum-based feedstocks will continue to be volatile in terms of price, capacity and long-term impact on the environment. Climate change is a real concern. It just makes sense to create materials from feedstocks that can be renewed year upon year. However, anything new requires investment – in R&D, product optimization and bringing a viable solution to market. With this in mind, Dow Wire & Cable looked at many approaches for renewable chemistry. Those that were too expensive for our customers or for us, we did not pursue. We looked to strike that right balance between what the market could accept and what will satisfy the requirement of our shareholders for return on their investment. DOW ECOLIBRIUM™ bio-based plasticizers help us OCTOBER 2010 | 57


realize that balance. Although there will be a slight premium for the product, we feel it will be in the range that customers will be willing to pay and it gives those that are interested an option to participate in providing wires and cables made with renewable technology. We are particularly excited about that. WJI: Why is this “the right thing to do,” and how longterm a view is Dow willing to take in supporting a direction that may not be profitable at this time? Bartlett: Any technology company knows that advancement needs patience. Dow is no exception. We look at trends like health and nutrition, energy, transportation, infrastructure and consumerism and decide how best to put our expertise to work to support all those key areas with technology. With any kind of new technology there’s upfront investment in R&D, testing and validation to make something work. To get from there to a commercially viable product takes time and is expensive. A crucial issue that sometimes gets in the way is that the collective “we” in society have not done a good job figuring out the actual long-term cost of things we buy. Markets run by demand rather than big picture thinking. “Any technology We’re still in the company knows that infancy of understanding the cost of advancement needs goods from manupatience. Dow is facture through no exception.” end-of-life disposal. Incidents like the recent oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico may be the impetus to bring these thoughts into the publics’ mental model, but it will take time and a real change in mindset. As a company, we are working to engage the entire value chain in this regard. For example, we recently performed an end user research study in the building and construction industry related to purchase decisions about wire and cable. We found that a number of architects would be willing to pay up to 20 percent more for wiring and cables made with renewable content. We’re taking this as a sign of progress in the acceptance of sustainable chemistry and the willingness to pay for it. WJI: Unless a cable manufacturer faces a directive or specific customer request, why should cable manufacturers be willing to increase their production costs if customers are not willing to pay for that extra value? Bartlett: Not surprisingly, there are a couple different categories of manufacturers – those who want to actively participate in sustainable practices now and those that will wait. Those that wish to engage, participate in various ways. Some have decided they’re going to use Hybrid vehicles for employee fleets. Or, there are those, similar to Dow, who look at their own energy consumption in the


manufacturing process and look at ways to reduce that footprint. Products like DOW ECOLIBRIUM™ give our customers yet another option to participate. Conversely there are those that will wait until sustainable technology is legislated. With that in mind, we have modest market share expectations in the near term but are hoping for an increase over time as people come on board for whatever reason. It’s also important to acknowledge that pricing can change over time. Volume and demand can reduce price gap. Oil prices also are a factor. Volatility here may help drive other renewable options. At the end of the day, if product processing and performance is similar – why not make the change? WJI: Dow has indicated that it wants to partner with cable manufacturers that are committed to its vision. What does it hope that this will accomplish? Bartlett: Bringing any product to market in commercial quantities is complicated. We want to work with cable manufacturers who share our vision and will invest with us Thorne Bartlett, Dow to get the product absolutely Wire & Cable. right for the market. We have proven the technology in our own labs, but it will take effort and energy to optimize the formulation in commercial quantities for robustness of handling and processing. We are confident that it can be accomplished with the right partners. WJI: How will Dow, through its marketing efforts, try to create demand for these products? Will it seek to create end-user demand that in turn would make it easier for cable makers to command a premium for them? Ultimately, can Dow market (pull) a product into demand? Bartlett: Dow is the first to market with a solution in this space, so making noise can help with awareness and spur demand. Utilizing the marketing channel direct to the end user is deliberate. Ultimately, they are the ones who can help bring all concerned parties together. To that end, we are working hard with our customers and with end users to promote the benefits of our technology and to introduce them to the broader Dow organization. Through business units like Dow Wire & Cable, Dow Agro Sciences, Dow Automotive Solutions, Dow Building & Construction, etc., we have a wealth of knowledge and experience to help position our sustainable chemistry solutions in specific markets where there is both a need and a willingness to participate.

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CRU Perspective: industry not hard-wired to ‘green’ U.K.-based CRU International is known for its business analysis and consultancy as well as putting on industry conferences, but here it looks at a different aspect: the impact of “greenness” in the wire and cable industry. Below, Rob Daniels, principal consultant, wire and cable, provides WJI his outlook. For more information about CRU International, go to WJI: How does CRU view “green”? Daniels: It is very difficult to define “green” and the definition will vary between businesses and the general public. In general, wire and cable companies seem to define it in a way that fits in to some degree with what they think is in the best interests and strategy of their own company, and is practical within their current business environment or might be practical in the foreseeable future. It’s very unlikely that any cable company is going to come up with a “green” policy that will put it at a major cost disadvantage to its competitors. WJI: Does “green” have a meaningful role in cable manufacturing today, or is it more a marketing tool than reality? Daniels: For the cable industry “green” seems to be focused on a number of areas. Reducing waste, recycling of waste, reduction in the consumption of energy and natural resources, eliminating the use of certain toxic “It’s very unlikely that materials, such as any cable company is lead, and improvgoing to come up with ing the efficiency of transportation. a ‘green’ policy that However, if you will put it at a major look in detail at these areas then cost-disadvantage to many of the its competitors. ” aims are simply good business practice and are areas on which companies have always focused. In our view to be truly “green” there must be some extra cost involved, although not necessarily in monetary terms, and it must be an initiative that is not driven by standard business practices. If you take this as a criterion then most of the initiatives being put forward by the cable industry are not truly “green.” We do believe there is some scope for the cable industry to make a significant contribution to the whole “green” debate, but that any major moves need to be addressed more at an industry-wide level than by individual companies acting alone, and also in conjunction with other industries that use wire and cable. The real


Industry analyst Rob Daniels, CRU International, believes that, in terms of “green,” the industry as a whole can do a better job. challenges in terms of the impact of the wire and cable industry on the environment can only truly be met by the cable industry working together and in association with other industries and regulators. WJI: Does “green” offer opportunities for better margins? Could the “green” cachet itself become a commodity, or does this selling aspect have long-term potential? Daniels: Because the cable industry sells products into a very wide range of end-use markets it is hard to generalize about wire and cable. Typically wire and cable is not an end-use product on its own but is combined with other elements to make a complete product. So, for example, cables used in buildings are combined with other construction materials to make a home or office, and automotive wire and winding wire is incorporated in a vehicle with many other products to make a car. Certainly in principal new innovative products that offer an end user a benefit in its drive to achieve a greener product can potentially bring in higher margins, but in many cases this is just sound business practice and would be being done anyway. In terms of long-term potential the opportunities will often become less, although this will vary depending on the technical complexity of the product and any patent protection. So for example when low-smoke, zero-halogen cables were introduced offering enhanced fire performance with green credentials of lower toxic emissions, margins on these products were undoubtedly higher than the standard cables. Now however, these enhanced fire performance cables are relatively standard in many parts of the world, so these margins have been eroded. WJI: Is “green” the purview of large manufacturers? Daniels: “Green” is not necessarily the preserve of the large manufacturers, but there seems to be no doubt that the big international cable manufacturers based in Europe, North America, Japan and South Korea have the resources


and are most vocal in promoting nominally “green” solutions. However, there are many smaller specialist manufacturers around the world which in their own niche product areas are able to play an important role in introducing “green” initiatives. Since an important element of trying to make wire and cable “greener” is innovation, those companies prepared to commit resources in R&D are going to be at the forefront of this movement, rather than just the large manufacturers. WJI: What products most lend themself to a “greener” image? Will customers support higher prices (margins) for products that are “greener” and go beyond the specs? Daniels: As has been noted, wire and cable is generally incorporated in a finished product. If the producer of this finished product, be it a building or “If you have set yourself a domestic appliance or a telecom- up to be a volume munications netlowest-cost producer of work, sees an advantage in using standard cable products, “greener” cable then there is currently that supports a higher cost, then it no real need to invest in is possible to the development of have success new ‘green’ products.” with a product that exceeds specification. If, for example, you are building a luxury apartment, it could be a selling point that the cabling is all “green” such as low-smoke, zero-halogen, even if building regulations don’t require it to be, and so this could justify paying a higher price. However, if you are building an ordinary house, then having “green” wiring is probably not a selling point and the cable used will be the cheapest that meets specification. So again it’s a case of working with your customers to achieve an end product which can carry a premium for “greenness.” While the general public may be willing to pay more for a product which is judged to be “greener,” companies are much less likely to do so. WJI: Is “green” likely to become more of a factor? To what degree does this depend on its being required by mandates/codes/directives? Daniels: “Green” is definitely becoming more of an issue, but the initiatives are currently mostly closely aligned to sound business sense. If the wire and cable industry is to make big steps towards being “greener” then we believe that this is often tied into changes in mandates/codes/directives/regulations. For example reduced smoke and toxic gas emission cables generally only started to be used when they became compulsory as a result of changes in regulation. This does though present cable companies with an opportunity. If a company is closely involved with the formulation of these new regu-


lations then it can gain at the very least a short term advantage over its competitors. WJI: Can cable manufacturers choose to avoid investing in products that are greener? Daniels: If you have set yourself up to be a volume lowest-cost producer of standard cable products, then there is currently no real need to invest in the development of new “green” products. When these are developed by other companies and then grow to take a large part of the market it is generally fairly easy for this low-cost manufacturer to introduce this new type to its range at this stage. WJI: If a customer asked CRU to estimate the potential value of “green” to the wire and cable industry, what would you say? Daniels: Inevitably it really depends on your definition of “green.” If you define this as demand for wire and cable from developments such as renewable energy generation, then this is already a significant driver of demand in a number of areas. The cables being used are not in themselves inherently “green,” as most are of a standard design, but, for example, the development of renewable energy generation and the wider impact this will have on transmission and distribution systems is potentially very important for the cable industry. If you apply a much more strict definition of “green” as a wire and cable designed solely to have less impact on the environment in its own right then the value would be much less. In general it’s fair to say that “green” issues don’t feature very highly in requests for work that CRU has been receiving in the last few years. The practicality of doing such a study would depend entirely on the scope of work, but in theory it should be possible to try and quantify the potential return on a “green” investment.

WJI: How would you sum up where the wire and cable industry sits in the whole “green” world? Daniels: In summary, the cable industry is not really currently at the forefront of “green” thinking, with the majority of the so called initiatives simply driven by normal business development. If the cable industry wants to really make a difference, then it needs to work more closely together and with its customers, and invest more in innovation to come up with solutions which can have a genuine impact. Wire and cable is used almost everywhere so there is clearly potential for this industry to make a significant contribution to the whole “green” movement.


Sustainability in Cable Packaging: A Catalyst for Innovation “Going green” is simply about making better choices. While we are all aware of the paradigm shift towards sustainability, many companies are using this shift to their advantage; incorporating the “ green” mindset in creating smarter products, better processes and in challenging the status quo. Nowhere is the model for “going green” more directly visible than in packaging. Whereas the once-standard plastic clamshells and injection-molded bottles were ubiquitous across the retail industry, the demand for sustainability is now driving their replacement. New packaging innovations such as recycled-fiber containers and waste-reducing pouches allow manufacturers to achieve their sustainability goals of reducing waste volume, but also create other benefits. By designing and adopting new sustainable packaging methods, manufacturers have been able to increase shipping efficiencies, maximize retail space, minimize waste, and present their products in an innovative new way. As a result, this packaging shift has created new competitive advantages by decreasing shipping costs per package, decreasing material cost, improving the consumer’s experience, and projecting the manufacturers’ commitment to innovation and sustainability. As with the retail industry, the wire and cable industry has an opportunity to benefit from abandoning “the way things have always been done”, and leverage the “green” movement as a catalyst for considering innovative, sustainable, and better alternatives to established norms. Paige Electric, of Union, NJ is one of these companies leading the industry in challenging the status quo. While competing for some of Walmart’s business in rewiring store security systems, the mega-retailer’s commitment to sustainability drove Paige to find more environmentally-friendly alternatives to the way their products were packaged and delivered. As a wire and cable distributor familiar with REELEX® boxes, Paige recognized that the products they sold in REELEX had many advantages over those sold on reels and spools. Not only were REELEX boxes easier to recycle than wooden reels, but they could also be manufactured from recycled materials, would produce less waste volume, were often less expensive, would offer an improved installation experience, and provide major benefits in reducing labor costs. Yet, while REELEX packages were standard across products like LAN cables, many of the security cables used in the rewiring of Walmart stores were only available on wooden spools due to a “that’s just the way it is” mentality. Recognizing an opportunity to present a better choice, Paige developed their own 1PAC®: a recyclable corrugated box design capable of handling larger REELEX coils up to 100 lbs. Manufactured using 100% recycled materials as well as being fully (and easily) recyclable, the new packages generate far less waste, and when compared to the same products on reels, are estimated to save 135 million landfill tons annually. In addition, the non-rotating REELEX payout means that where each wire pull from reels used to require two personnel (one to man the spinning reel and one to install the cable), REELEX boxes only require a single person – reducing total installation labor costs by up to 30%, and greatly improving installation speed. By replacing their wooden reels with corrugated boxes, Paige not only earned Walmart’s business, but also made the broader decision to switch much of their product inventory from reels to boxes; putting larger and heavier products in packages that simply perform better. Whether dealing with an industry-driver like Walmart, or the local small-town installer, choices in how a product is packaged sends a profound message of how the manufacturer (and distributor) is perceived. While today’s shifts in packaging practices are being driven by environmental reasons, “going green” is not just about sustainability, but is instead a catalyst for introducing change at the product level allowing suppliers to better present themselves and their products.

About REELEX Packaging Solutions, Inc. REELEX Packaging Solutions is at the forefront of developing environmentally-friendly packaging technologies for the cabling industry. Because the REELEX package requires no rotation, reel or internal structure to dispense, the only waste created by the package is the recyclable corrugated container and a small payout tube. Previously manufactured from recyclable plastic, the RF60 paper fiber payout is now available. This tube completely eliminates all plastic from the REELEX box, and allows the entire package to be manufactured from a single, sustainable material: recycled paper. For more information on Walmart’s initiative towards sustainability in cabling and Paige Electric’s response, please visit: 09/will-inside-the-box-thinkingchange-industries/ For more information on how your company can benefit from environmentally-friendly packaging for your products, please visit Contact: Timothy Copp Product Manager REELEX Packaging Solutions, Inc. 845.878.7878 x247

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Q&A Decision-making requires an understanding of the issues, but what if the many shades of “green” make them hard to identify, let alone act on? Absent of mandates, does the bottom line dictate what actions to take? Does corporate responsibility have a role? WJI posed such questions to a wide range of wire and cable manufacturers. Below are their responses.

WJI: How would you define “green” for the manufacturing sector? Do you view “green” to be an admirable goal for the wire and cable industry, a non-issue or an unfair burden, and why? A method for manufacturing that minimizes waste and pollution achieved through product and process design. Not only an admirable goal but a social responsibility. No reasonable business person would disagree that it is advantageous to keep the air clean and the environment healthy. Green manufacturing brings the environment, energy and waste together under one umbrella. Currently “green” is more of a philosophy rather than an adopted process or standard. Every company Gary Spence should be concerned about sustainability of the environment and should be conserving our precious natural resources for future generations. We only have one planet Earth. Gary L. Spence, VP, non-ferrous metals, Encore Wire Corporation. I would define green in two ways: (1) how we can become greener as consumers of raw materials and recyclers of waste materials in our manufacturing processes; and (2) how we can make our end products greener so that our customers can also enjoy the environmental benefit. I think becoming greener is an admirable goal for the wire and cable industry as we must all do our part to enhance global sustainability. Wayne Yakich, president, Marmon Engineered Wire & Cable.


The label “green” requires a positive or at least a non-damaging/unharmful effect on the environment. It is important to pursue a holistic approach and thus to evaluate a specific product from the manufacturing process through to the application. Currently, it is becoming in vogue to be “green.” But we consider it to be more, i.e., a necessary long-term objective to contribute to the protecDr. Klaus Probst tion of the environment. Moreover, there are lots of opportunities for the wire and cable industry in the field of green products. Dr. Klaus Probst, CEO and president, Leoni. My most general term for green is “what is good for the environment?” The tough part is then defining “whose” environment is important. It is good for my environment to not cut down any rain forest in the Amazon. That is not necessarily in the best economic interests of the natives in the Amazon. Poor people running air conditioners nonstop, in shabby, leaky houses is not “green,” but it sure improves the quality of life for those people (I just got back from a church mission trip to improve poor people’s leaky houses so that is on my mind). John Martin, president, Mar-Mac Wire. Going green is the transformation of moving into a socially and environmentally responsible corporation that delivers measurable benefits. These benefits can affect the company itself, our consumers, our communities, and our suppliers. In order to take your manufacturing operation green, you need to find a way to design your products and processes more efficiently. In our case, we are certain that following initiatives such as innovation, Toyota Production System and social responsibility are helping our organization to become greener every day. The ISO 14000 is imperative. More than just a goal, the wire and cable industry has a major obligation to promote and preserve the environment through the use of the raw materials that do not jeopardize the world balance, bearing in mind that our products or their remains, might last several generations. Patricio Murga, director of technology & development, and Carlos E. Treviño, manufacturing engineer, Viakable. At HPC we think of green manufacturing as the proactive, responsible use of natural resources to manufacture products that satisfy our customers’ needs. We believe

In the business-to-business world, “going green” means being able to understand the new challenges of sustainable development (reducing the environmental impact, contributing to energy efficiency and taking care of health and safety and social requirements) and translating them into business opportunities for the company. Several things are at stake: positioning an offer with product innovation and new services and information for the customers; a new way to do business and daily work, integrating rigorous ethical principals with commitment from top management to every employee; and achieving a better way of manufacturing the products with efficiency, quality and reduced impact on the environment and with safety at the core of our operational excellence manufacturing program. Green is neither an admirable goal nor a burden: it is a challenging way of transforming our industry by rethinking the business in an innovative way and structuring the

company to lead us toward a better way of working together, all along the value chain. Nexans. By their realization, “green” operations and products are socially responsible. The question is, can it be good business or, like seatbelts, are laws required to establish operational and Eric Fisk product responsibilities? For Fisk Alloy Conductors, Inc., whose business plan is to innovate and produce alloy conductors free of cadmium or other hazardous elements, it is good business to be “green.” Eric S. Fisk, Fisk Alloy Conductors, Inc. “Green” for the manufacturing sector includes all opportunities to optimize our products and processes while improving the impact on our environment. Continuously improving processes and reducing waste is

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that “going green” is a worthy goal for our industry, however we do not feel it should be pursued at the expense of or to the exclusion of other equally worthy goals, such as product quality, product safety and customer satisfaction. Emilio Cerra, vice president of engineering, International Wire Group/HPC.


part of CommScope’s overall strategy, so although “greening” is an admirable goal we consider it a nonissue because it is part of our normal operations. Julie Nielson, vice president of corporate social responsibility, CommScope. Green would be defined as any effort to do minimal harm to the environment and to use materials that also are friendly to the environment. Any efforts to help in promoting green initiatives, i.e., recycling, is a plus for all of us. It’s not so much as an admirable goal, but just using sound manufacturing principles. Plus it can save you money. Ron Reed, principal, Horizon Wire & Cable. At General Cable, we believe that “green” is a holistic approach for the manufacturing sector—it is not something that can be defined or met by one specific process, policy or product. It is the Six Sigma toolset and Lean Thinking that aims to eliminate waste throughout the manufacturing process combined with facility-wide recycling programs, energy savings initiatives, natural resource conservation, eradication of harmful substances, industry leadership and the development of sustainable products that offer a longer lifecycle, more efficient use of energy and safer end-of-life disposal. At General Cable, we strive for “green” by collectiveRichard Barker ly addressing as many of these factors as possible. Being “green” is definitely an admirable goal for the wire and cable industry. Everyone—manufacturers and individuals alike—are responsible for leaving the planet better than we found it. Sometimes “green” requires significant money, resources and challenges, but it is not something ever viewed as an unfair burden. It is simply a way of doing business that responds to the global shift towards environmental protection. In the face of popular opinion, environmental legislation and an overall worldwide demand for environmentally-friendly products and processes, “green” is undeniably not a non-issue—it deserves attention across all industries. Richard Barker, vice president, technical standards and marketing, General Cable Corporation. The power generated from nonconventional sources of energy is “Green Power,” such as wind, solar, etc. Wire and cable industry manufacturers should use an alternate source of energy instead of conventional sources like


coal, petroleum, etc., which are exhaustive. Arvind Sanghvi, managing director, Raajratna Metal Industries Ltd. For industries like ours, growing green means minimizing your potential negative impacts on the environment through thoughtful materials selection and sustainable production processes. This requires the full commitment and a drive to succeed from your workforce and your suppliers. Southwire’s commitment to growing green ranks among our top business objectives, and we have a strategy in place to help us achieve that goal. We believe companies must be more proactive in their thinking, more responsible in their behavior and more responsive to their stakeholders. As a leader in the wire and cable industry, we hope to set an example, while, at the same time, we try to raise the bar. And while we are excited about our accomplishments thus far in greening our business, we’re humbled by the road ahead and how much there is left to do. Southwire Company. “Green” is a continuous effort to reduce your factory’s impact on the environment. The three primary areas that a manufacturer can address to accomplish this is: reduction of waste products from the manufacturing process that would end up in the environment, be it landfills, ground water or air; reduction of the energy and natural resources consumed to produce these products; and reduction of impact that your products have on the environment through packaging, product usage, and product disposal at end of life. The nature of wire and cable very easily allows for a “green” approach in the reduction of waste area. The alloys and the thermoplastic extrudates are readily recycled, as are fiber wraps and braid materials. Recycling these items is an easy decision because it is more cost efficient to sell the scrap than to put it in a landfill. The paradigm shift to water-based chemicals is mature, so finding proven products with low VOCs is another relatively easy step. I don’t feel the goal is so much “admirable” as it is “obvious.” A little study and a mindset change is all that is required to start any wire and cable company down the green path. Reduction of energy/natural resources and limiting the impact of finished products requires much greater thought, effort and resources, and therefore become more “admirable” goals. Brad Burris, sales & marketing manager, Pelican Wire Company, Inc. The word “green” is overused and overhyped in today’s environment. “Green” to us is conservation of resources and minimization of waste. For FENIX, maximization of capital, energy, natural or human resources is part of being green by design. It has always been and will always be part of a well-run business, the wire and cable industry being no exception. Anand Bhagwat, plant manager, FĒNIX, LLC.

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WJI: When it comes to making changes in either your operations or products, does your company consider social responsibility as a factor, or is it that you may do something as part of your business plan that indirectly results in “green” benefits? Social responsibility is indeed one of the factors for Leoni. On the other hand, we are a listed company with a high degree of financial responsibility to our shareholders. That’s why we always consider economic and ecological aspects together. For example, we replace ordinary machines with highly efficient ones. As a result, we reduce both emissions and costs for energy. Dr. Klaus Probst, Leoni. CommScope recently elevated corporate social responsibility to be an organization reporting directly to the president and CEO, but our core beliefs in social responsibility have been a part of the company’s long-standing focus on integrity and ethical behavior. We believe that properly implemented green initiatives can increase quality and efficiency, reduce costs and improve morale. Just to provide two different examples out of many, we upgraded 1,800 light fixtures in one of our North American manufacturing facilities, which resulted in energy savings of 25% and increased light output by 45%. At one of our Asian factories, we installed a harvesting system to capture rain during the monsoon season for re-use in the manufacturing process. The system is capable of holding 66 million liters of water. Julie Nielson, CommScope. As a worldwide organization, General Cable recognizes that every aspect of our business has an impact on the environment and it is our responsibility to mitigate that impact to the best of our ability. While it is often a challenge to re-engineer products to be “green” without compromising the required safety and performance per the application and specification, we indeed consider social responsibility as a factor and have taken many steps to introduce environmentally conscious policies, processes and products. All of our plants have facility-specific waste reduction objectives and we strive to consistently consume less energy and raw materials, while still maintaining the highest level of quality and delivering maximum value. Through Technology Centers that specialize in material science, General Cable works to develop innovative products that ensure a minimal impact on the environment over the entire product life cycle. Every General Cable facility also employs an Environmental, Health and Safety (EHS) leader who is responsible for analyzing the EHS aspects of all new processes, products and equipment, and implementing steps to reduce environmental impact and eradicate the use of any hazardous substances. Already, General Cable has managed to remove more than 750,000 pounds of lead. Richard Barker, General Cable Corporation.


Being a good corporate citizen and bringing a greater level of environmental stewardship is a core belief. We have social responsibilities to all our stakeholders including, shareholders, customers, employees, suppliers and communities. We constantly look for innovative ways to design our processes and products more efficiently and eliminate waste and unnecessary product costs. For example, Encore Wire was a leader in the development of nonlead insulation on its wire products, which helped eliminate lead in the workplace environment. Gary L. Spence, Encore Wire Corporation. Annealing furnaces that I use to process low-carbon wire are not friendly to the environment. We burn massive amounts of natural gas that produce CO2 and CO. We dump that into the atmosphere and then dump the waste heat into the atmosphere. We have considered trying to reprocess the heat and capture the carbon, but both are prohibitively expensive. The Chinese we compete directly against have no reason to do it either. John Martin, Mar-Mac Wire. Social responsibility is a big factor in a lot of our operational decisions. We also get peer pressure from our “greener” customers, such as one that made a die to remold their PEX bleed out scrap into packaging materials for their product. Reduction of VOCs in our saturation and enameling processes has been our most conscious decision in this regard. The solvent-based products have more history and are easier to work with (shorter drying times, better adhesion, etc.) but they are not very environmentally friendly. We spend a lot of time finding water-based substitutes and adapting them to our products whenever possible. Brad Burris Often times “green” may refer to RoHS and REACH compliance. Since the advent of RoHS, the Union Court has new rulings, such as the list of hazardous substances changes. For instance, Deca-BDE (decabromodiphenylether) was recently put back on the list. There are still a number of companies who purchase and use this FR component in their product (knowingly). We, however, do not. Brad Burris, Pelican Wire Company, Inc. Southwire’s motto is “We deliver power…responsibly.” While social responsibility and environmental impact are not our only motivation, they are key considerations when we change our manufacturing operations or products. For example, Southwire has worked diligently to eliminate

We are heavily involved in the retail market so we do pay attention to what the consumer views as good stewards of the earth. Ron Reed, Horizon Wire & Cable. We believe that the waste stream management RoHS regulations increased “green” awareness, accelerating product acceptance and the process of change to those products. Legal pressure comes in many forms, such as government regulations and law, but it can also stem from tort actions and the plaintiffs’ bar. Companies have to be ready to someday reply to questions such as: what did you know, when did you know it and what did you do about it? For forward-thinking wire and cable companies

that were paying attention to the environmental and legal developments of the past decade, the direct business return of social responsibility is found in not inviting trouble. Eric S. Fisk, Fisk Alloy Conductors, Inc. Adaptation of any technology or philosophy has to first make business sense. It is an added incentive when the business fit coincides with social fit. We run our manufacturing operations only at night because it is cost effective. It has also turned out to be a socially responsible act by balancing the energy consumption through the day. Anand Bhagwat, FĒNIX, LLC.


lead additives from insulation and jackets, reduce the VOC and HAP content of inks, develop environmentallyfriendly reels, and partner with suppliers and customers to minimize packaging waste. These are just a few ways we are delivering power more responsibly through process and product improvements. At the same time, Southwire works publicly toward other key goals that live up to that same level of responsibility in safety, preventive healthcare for employees and their families, employee and supplier diversity, community involvement and other areas. Southwire Company.

Anand Bhagwat

HPC has introduced several green products into the marketplace, namely HPC-80EF and HPC-35EF, which are cadmium-free alternatives to our very successful

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Tensile-Flex and cadmium-copper aerospace alloys. These products were developed in response to customer requests for “green” products that would comply with the European Union’s RoHS directive. Emilio Cerra, International Wire Group/HPC. When we plan changes in our organization, social responsibility is considered as a major factor. Viakable is an ISO 14000 certified group. Because of this, it is part of our daily duty, among many others, to think “green.” Most of our insulations and compounds are RoHS compliant, and given the fact that Viakable exports directly or indirectly to Europe, we must also comply with REACH. At the same time, our belief in social responsibility extends to our employees. It is mandatory for Patricio Murga Viakable to provide equal opportunity for individuals with “different capabilities.” Currently, we have a total of 36 hearing-impaired employees. In view of this, our manufacturing operations are fitted to receive such labor and our supervisors are trained under special courses to deal with these personnel. Patricio Murga/Carlos E. Treviño, Viakable. I believe that social responsibility is a key factor in our business planning process. It’s not only good for the environment, it’s good for business. For example, by “getting the lead out” of a specific cable insulation we have a greener product to sell to customers who are also environmentally conscious and, at the same time, we establish a meaningful competitive advantage. Wayne Yakich, president, Marmon Engineered Wire & Cable. Social responsibility is quite a new concept in the industrial world. We are learning step by step what it means for us, at each level of the company. Several programs have been launched in that field. Our goal is not to do “green washing” but to really integrate that factor in our decision process and actions. For example, the purchasing department was looking for a way to contribute to reducing our impact on the environment. We ended up by negotiating with all our suppliers of wooden drums to get the PEFC certification, so they will use only wood from sustainably managed forests. All the stakeholders gained value in the product and were able to rely on the certification, as the control of the value chain is very strict and third-party certified. From the customers’ view point, it was a good way to promote their own commitment


through our initiative because at the end, the drum will be seen by the end-user and the PEFC logo proves that actions with local communities are undertaken. We also have a running program for assessing the environmental impact of our products during their entire life (Life Cycle Assessment) that is managed by our R&D team and our plants. We communicate the information to the customers through an eco-declaration, with quantified indicators so the customer can assess the impact of our products inside its own system or installation. Nexans. If I thought I could cease dumping any heat or carbon into the atmosphere for $10k or less per year (additional cost), I would certainly consider it. John Martin, Mar-Mac Wire. When we expand our manufacturing capacity or added products, we consider the importance of green power as a social responsibility. We have put up six wind turbine generators of 6.75 MW in the state of Gujarat, India thereby, reducing emission of pollution in the air to that extent and safe guarding the green environment. Arvind Sanghvi, Raajratna Metal Industries Ltd.

Arvind Sangvhi

WJI: Is your company willing to take “green” steps that do not offer a direct business return or would it have to figure out how to make it at least a break-even situation? Yes. Southwire is working to become a zero landfill company by 2017 using the familiar concept of reduce, reuse and recycle. While the ideal scenario would be the elimination of waste altogether, reducing the amount of waste we generate is certainly the top priority, with reusing waste materials being the second priority. In many cases, wastes simply cannot be eliminated or reused internally. In those cases, finding at alternative outlet is our only option. Unfortunately, there is not a market for many of our wastes, and beneficial reuse and recycling of waste often comes with a cost. On other fronts, Southwire is working toward reducing both its carbon footprint and water use. While minor improvements can be made with little cost, significant reductions can be achieved only through modifications to our processes, which can require greater capital expenses. These projects can be more difficult to justify because their payback typically takes longer than those of other projects. Southwire Company.

Our company took its first green step by joining the UN Global Compact in December 2008. Our objective was to start integrating sustainability at all level of the organization and to report on their implementation. A transversal organization has been put in place with a dedicated Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Committee under the personal chairmanship of our chairman and CEO. It involves members and representatives of all main departments and two specialized committees concerned with governance and social affairs and environment and products. All departments are covered, with dedicated programs: HR and legal, marketing and innovation, purchasing, industry. CSR is not just a criterion on the checking list, it is something to integrate in the daily actions. The decisions for green steps are not always linked with shortterm direct profit but of course, the objective at the end is to anticipate forthcoming requirements, either from the

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regulators or the market, so as to ensure the business profitability of the company. Nexans. General Cable recognizes that the world is shifting towards a “green” way of thinking, and that forces such as European directives, the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) and popular opinion are driving the demand for more environmentally sound processes and products. While “green” wire and cable products may not necessarily offer a direct business return today, General Cable nevertheless deploys its resources and technology to develop products that we believe will be viable and ultimately gain adoption in the market. In early 2010, General Cable developed a revolutionary 17 FREE™ line of riser premise cables that Bob Kenny does not contain any chlo-

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No business can afford to go without returns, but this can be worked at a break-even situation if viable. Therefore, units that consume power should go for green power generation, either through windmills or solar energy, if it is viable, so that they can save in power costs as well as simultaneously protect the environment. Arvind Sanghvi, Raajratna Metal Industries Ltd.


rine, fluorine, bromine or iodine halogens, which fall into Group 17 of the Periodic Table. While the new line of cables may not yet offer a profitable business return as compared to traditional riser cables, the overall reduced toxicity of the cable exceeds customer requirements and reflects General Cable’s stewardship to produce more environmentally sustainable products without compromising our high standards of safety and performance. Despite the challenge, General Cable is working to develop other sustainable 17 FREE cable options, like fiber and electronics, that meet growing customer demand for “green” products that potentially help gain USGBC’s LEED credits. Bob Kenny, vice president and general manager, communications products, General Cable Corporation. As described above, all ecological measures should pay off on the economic side. In some cases, we accept slightly increased cost in favor of the positive environmental outcome. But to be frank, for the time being Leoni cannot take “green” steps which might cause major negative effects on our business performance. Dr. Klaus Probst, Leoni. Generally speaking, HPC believes that projects need to have a measurable business return. Just recently in fact, we completed a very attractive lighting upgrade project that, as a side benefit, qualified for “green” credits from the SC government. Having said that, we will on occasion pursue projects that do not have direct, measureable returns, but are consistent with our corporate values. For example, some years ago we upgraded our waste treatment facilities at a cost of over $1 million. That project did not meet our payback criteria, but we did it anyway because it was the right thing to do for the company and our community. Other green projects that we’ve pursued without a measureable business gain include ISO 14001 certification (none of our customers required it), office recycling and water reclamation/reuse. Emilio Cerra, International Wire Group/HPC. We need to get a return on our green investment, as we do for all our investments. That being said, it’s not difficult to get an adequate return when you can demonstrate to customers the environmental benefit. Wayne Yakich, Marmon Engineered Wire & Cable. We strive to be cost competitive with all products competing with ours. We look to our suppliers similarly, and recognizing that price is not always the sole determinant, choose “green” wherever possible. Eric S. Fisk, Fisk Alloy Conductors, Inc. It is a delicate balance and one of the challenges that publicly-held companies face in implementing environmental projects and actions for the social good. All projects compete for resources – people, expense and capital.


In addition to performing purely financial analyses, we evaluate the impact to the environment and to commitments we’ve made to our internal and external stakeholders. For example, our award winning program, ReelSmart® for recycling the reels on which our cable products are stored and transported, started with the intent to reduce landfill waste, not because it was a “green” initiative. CommScope’s ReelSmart® Since its inception, the reel. ReelSmart program has diverted thousands of tons of material that would have been destined for a landfill and delivered savings to CommScope and our customers. Julie Nielson, CommScope. Passive, no-direct-cost steps like separating out the waste into recyclable categories and doing the research for low-VOC coatings were easily adopted by our team. Although still on the radar screen, measures that cost significant funds with long-term ROIs require a harder look. The example that comes to mind is a study we did to evaluate more energy-efficient lighting in the plant. The investment required is going to be about $16,000. The optimistic and simple ROI on that is two and a half years but if you factor in engineering time, plant disruption, the value of money, etc., it’s a break-even proposition at best. We have an impending plant reconfiguration in the offing so it looks like that option will be implemented, but frankly, it would not have been if “getting green” was the only goal. Brad Burris, Pelican Wire Company, Inc. Viakable is committed to support all efforts toward the well care of the environment and our scope of supply will contain only those correspondent products aligned with such guidelines. If that might imply paying an extra premium to buy “green” supplies, we will do that. However, we may make R&D efforts to develop home-made solutions that minimize such cost and impact. It is a fact that part of our social responsibility is to maximize the wealth creation for all our stakeholders, included among them, not only our owners, but all our employees and their families. Patricio Murga/Carlos E. Treviño, Viakable. In many cases it is just the right thing to do and often relatively inexpensive. Examples include opening windows or adding louvers for air circulation, adding skylights, reducing energy consumption, recycling of materials such as scrap copper, jacketing materials, paper, cardboard, pallets, nylon, steel, aluminum, reducing water consumption, and using biodegradable and recyclable products. A great example would be our new state-of the

With the assistance of one of our suppliers, we were one of the first manufacturers to eliminate lead and cadmium from our compounds. Those products were frequently handled by the customer and we felt the added expense of the raw material was worth it. Now pretty much all compounds are lead and cadmium free. Ron Reed, Horizon Wire & Cable.

WJI: Would you be willing to pay extra for a supplier because it is “green”? Yes. However being green is only one factor, more importantly is our relationships with our suppliers and if they fit our culture and share in our beliefs. Gary L. Spence, Encore Wire Corporation. Viakable as a company has unavoidable responsibilities with the environment. This includes our users and customers, our own employees, their families, our surrounding community, and our suppliers. So we must take care of any green initiative that meets the above and at the same time, we must find a way of being profitable. Patricio Murga/Carlos E. Treviño, Viakable. Everything has to be weighed in terms of cost versus benefits. If going “green” offers other benefits, tangible or intangible, it will be readily adopted by businesses. Anand Bhagwat, FĒNIX, LLC. Yes, depending on the products. Nexans.

Ron Reed

Again, it depends on how you define “green.” If I know of a supplier who dumps raw sewage into a pristine river and I know his competitor does not, I would probably pay

OCTOBER 2010 | 73


art LEED platinum-ertified R&D center, which uses recycled materials and renewable energy. Another example is our recently installed baghouse for our rod mill melting furnace. While not mandated, reducing emissions and returning cleaner air to the atmosphere was the right thing to do for our company and for the community. Gary L. Spence, Encore Wire Corporation.


5% or 10% more to buy from the competitor. On the other hand, if one supplier has solar panels and the other does not, I probably would not pay 30% more to do business with the “green” supplier. It would be hard to determine how green a supplier is, and then how much difference I might be willing to pay for that “greenness.” John Martin, Mar-Mac Wire. We rather consider individual products or applications to be “green” than entire companies. For our own “green” products, we necessarily need “green” raw materials. Often they are more expensive than ordinary goods, but we have no choice. Independent of the purpose of the supplies, we are willing to pay a little more for “green” supplies than for ordinary ones. Dr. Klaus Probst, Leoni. We expect the companies within our value chain to continue their work in greening their processes, services and products, while still providing the same quality goods and services at a competitive price. Southwire Company.

No, we cannot pay extra. The green power generation project should be viable. Arvind Sanghvi, Raajratna Metal Industries Ltd. Generally yes, depending on several factors such as reliability of the vendor, the significance of the greening, and if the quality and performance of the products are at least equivalent. Our expectations would be that this would help that company recoup their investment and, over time, additional volume from customers like CommScope should help them lower their prices. Julie Nielson, CommScope. The quality of our raw material stream is our primary concern. With all other things being equal between a green product versus a non-green product, we might be willing to spend more for a “green” product but neither purchasing nor engineering can remember when a product was presented to us with “green” as the only up-sell point. Brad Burris, Pelican Wire Company, Inc.

TURI: expect more ‘green’ influence Liz Harriman is deputy director of the Massachusetts Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI), at the University of Massachusetts, which as part of its mission helps identify safer alternatives to toxic chemicals used in manufacturing and products. She has helped companies comply with international regulations that restrict the use of certain chemicals as well as find ways for industry to reduce their waste and toxic chemical use. She has put on programs specifically for wire and cable companies, and was also part of a federal project that studied Life Cycle Assessments for cables, cited later in this feature. She holds degrees from Cornell University in civil engineering and an M.S. degree in hazardous materials management from Tufts University. She discussed her “green” outlook for the industry with WJI. WJI: Over the last decade the industry has been fed an acronym soup bowl of directives such as RoHS, WEEE, REACH and others that collectively either limit or prohibit certain materials for specific products or the disposal of final products. Do you see such directives as well as drivers, such as LEED certification, becoming more of a factor for the wire and cable industry? Harriman: Yes, I think they will be more of a factor in the future. To deal with issues of waste toxicity and volume, governments are increasingly turning to Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR - more alphabet soup!), or product policy laws and regulations. This focuses manufacturers and the government on products and the materials they are constructed of. To deal with consumer exposure to toxic substances in products, governments and OEMs are looking at chemical restrictions


in products. In the race to be “green,” retailers are also stepping up to place restrictions on products coming into their stores. For building wire and cable specifically, I anticipate LEED becoming an important factor in determining which materials are specified, and thus, a driver for the industry to transition to materials which are safer over their life cycle. TURI attempted to raise these issues with building design and construction professionals a few years ago, but it was too early, and the interest wasn’t there yet. For other wire and cable, we need to recognize that governments Liz Harriman and customers are focusing on the life cycle toxicity of materials, and will increasingly be requiring manufacturers to justify the choice of, and the safety of, their materials and to eliminate materials of concern from their products. WJI: How well has the wire and cable industry done at complying with the various directives/incentives? Has this been much harder for smaller manufacturers? Harriman: U.S. manufacturers have done well in developing products that comply with the various direc-

WJI: Are there any specific requirements, be they U.S or European, that you see becoming more of an issue in the next few years? Harriman: LEED is slowly moving beyond energy and indoor air quality to consider the toxicity of building materials. I think LEED will become increasingly impor-

tant for wire and cable applications in the built environment. The EU continues to drive the electronics and electrical equipment markets, and they appear to be staying on course to restrict more substances in products, as alternatives are developed and as information emerges about the health and environmental effects of certain substances. WJI: How can wire and cable companies take advantage of these chemical restrictions to develop innovative safer products, and improve their competitive position? Harriman: While the obvious answer is that innovation, greener products and niche markets will be the future of U.S. manufacturing, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;m not sure how that is playing out so far. I would be really interested to hear from manufacturers about this! Mergers and acquisitions (and subsequent plant consolidations) have masked many other changes in the industry, so that it is difficult for us to tell when that strategy is working for a company. There is little doubt, however, that if wire companies want to be the suppliers of choice for their customers, they will need to be able to supply products made of safer materials.

OCTOBER 2010 | 75


tives. For the most part, they seem to have the know-how and are ready to produce compliant products as soon as customers demand them. I think the industry has suffered from being at the fringes of the supply chain for many products. Wire and cable products do not often stand alone, and are not usually the focus of consumers. While I have seen the will of many companies to move to safer materials which are not required by law, customers are not generally willing to pay any premium for the â&#x20AC;&#x153;greenerâ&#x20AC;? product. We have tried hard in Massachusetts to make sure our smaller companies were aware of upcoming chemical restrictions and trends, and new innovative materials, so that they could continue to be competitive in the global marketplace.


LCAs: translating cable data into answers A cable company knows the materials that go into their products, but understanding the environmental impact of those cables, and factoring in the entire cradle-to-grave process of manufacturing cables is far from simple. One way of producing a total picture assessment is by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), a method that can be useful but is quite complex and time-consuming. LCAs may not be feasible for the vast majority of companies, but the below excerpts from the 47-page summary of a 2008 EPA study, “Wire and Cable Insulation and Jacketing: Life Cycle Assessments for Selected Applications,” provide a glimpse into just how exacting the process is and some of the factors that have to be considered. There are far more aspects outlined in the summary, which can be found at Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Study This study has generated information on the environmental impacts of leaded (baseline) and alternative cable constructions in order to help companies make environmentally sound product and material choices. Although some changes have been made in certain wire and cable sectors...developing and providing sound environmental data using a life cycle assessment approach could assist those and other sectors to pursue environmentally preferable cables. Because of the large quantity of cable put into commerce every year, choosing environmentally preferable materials could have a broad impact on public health and the environment. This project offers the opportunity to mitigate current and future risks by assisting the wire and cable industry in identifying cable jacketing and wire insulation formulations that are less toxic and that pose fewer risks over their life cycles, and identifying areas for environmental improvement. This project investigated baseline and alternative cable formulations within three different types of wire and cable products: (1) Category 6 riser-rated communication cable (CMR); (2) Category 6 plenum-rated communication cable (CMP); and (3) nonmetallic sheathed low-voltage power cable as used in building wire (NMB). These products were chosen...because together they (1) contain materials common to many wire and cable applications, (2) typically contain materials for which alternatives are being sought, and (3) represent a significant share of the wire and cable market. The product systems evaluated in this project are baseline (i.e., leaded) and alternative (i.e., lead-free and zerohalogen) cable wire insulation and cable jacketing formulations, as used in telecommunication and low-voltage power cable installations in the United States. Each of the three cable types was evaluated in separate analyses, as each type has a different functionality. The functional unit for each cable type is the insulation and jacketing used in a linear length of cable (one kilometer), which would be


used to transmit a signal that meets UL performance requirements and fire safety specifications for each product type. The life cycle environmental and health impacts of wires and cables were evaluated through two sequential phases: (1) life cycle inventory and (2) life cycle impact assessment. The LCI tallies the material and energy inputs and the environmental releases (collectively referred to as “flows”) throughout the products’ life cycles. Given the enormous amount of data involved in creating an inventory of all of the input and output flows for a product system, decision rules were used to determine which cable materials would be included as entire

Life cycle stages of wire and cable evaluated in this study. Chart from EPA summary report. upstream processes. The decision rule process began by assessing the materials used in cable production for the following attributes: • The mass contribution of each material. With a greater mass of materials and resources consumed, the potential for a material to have a significant environmental impact increases. • Materials that are of known or suspected environmental significance (e.g., toxic). To the extent feasible, the process considers materials or components known or suspected to exhibit an environmental hazard. • Materials known or suspected to have a large contribution to the system’s energy requirements. Because many environmental impacts can be associated with energy consumption, priorities were given to including materials or processes that are known or suspected to consume large amounts of energy. • Materials which are physically or functionally unique to one cable formulation over another. The physical or functional uniqueness of a material or component could be identified by chemical makeup or by size. Attempts were made to include all materials greater

potential impacts, depending on the impact category. Three types of approaches are used in the characterization method for the WCP: â&#x20AC;˘ Loading. An impact score is based on the inventory amount. â&#x20AC;˘ Equivalency. An impact score is based on the inventory amount weighed by a certain effect, equivalent to a reference chemical. â&#x20AC;˘ Scoring of inherent properties. An impact score is based on the inventory. Uncertainty Analysis. Four parameters within the life cycle processes of the CMP and CMR cables were considered to be highly uncertain and were modeled as uniform distributions, using Monte Carlo statistical methods. These uncertainties only applied to the CMR and CMP analyses where the full life cycle was evaluated and where there was a large discrepancy in the extrusion energy data. The first three parameters below are from the EOL stage and the fourth is from the manufacturing stage. Cable consumed in fire. The parameter representing the percentage of cable consumed in fire was selected as highly uncertain due to the lack of information about building cable burned in fire. The frequency of fires in buildings containing the cables of interest was well characterized, and the natural extreme bounds were that anywhere from 0% to 100% of the cable contained in these buildings

OCTOBER 2010 | 77


than 5 percent by weight. Materials between 1 percent and 5 percent by mass were subject to inclusion based on other decision rules or data availability. Materials of known or suspected environmental or energy significance were also included, regardless of their mass contribution. Materials that are physically or functionally unique to a cable product compared to the baseline (leaded) construction, as determined by the Core Group. The Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) is the process by which the environmental burdens identified in the LCI are translated into environmental impacts. It is important to note that direct comparisons cannot be made across impact categories, because impacts in different impact categories are generally calculated based on different scales. The WCP LCIA consisted of two steps: classification and characterization. Classification. The process of assigning and aggregating data from inventory studies to impact categories. The WCP LCA places inventory data into one or more of 14 impact categories. These categories cover a range of effects that address natural resources impacts, abiotic ecosystem impacts, and human health and ecotoxicity. Characterization. The characterization step of LCIA includes the conversion and aggregation of LCI results to common units within an impact category. Different assessment tools are used to quantify the magnitude of


would burn in the fire (equivalent to 0 to 1.1% of all cable installed). However, we chose 10% of cables that burn in a structure fire as a central estimate because fire protection methods would skew actual burn percentages toward the lower end, and bounded the distribution at 0 and 20%. The percentage of cable insulation and jacketing resins going to recycling was another source of substantial uncertainty in the EOL stage. Using an upper estimate based on data from Europe (20% of recovered wire and cable resins are recycled), a range of 0% to 20% of the cable resins was modeled as being recycled. Proportion of lead leaching from landfills. The parameter representing the percentage of lead leached into the ground assumed that 0 to 100% of the leachate would ultimately escape any landfill lining and leachate collection system (equivalent to 0 to 1.5% of total lead escaping for cable directly landfilled, or equivalent to 0 to 10% of total lead escaping for cable resins landfilled after choppingâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a process that is used to recover the copper conductor). Extrusion energy. Inconsistent and highly divergent intercompany energy values led to high uncertainty in the cable extrusion energy data. Thus, the range of the data sets collected as primary data for the lead-free cable were used to set the bounds of the uncertainty analysis, given that none of the data could be identified as anomalous. Because the baseline cable pulled energy use values from only one data






set, a proxy data set that produced an equivalent uncertainty range in extrusion energy use was incorporated. A uniform distribution was used to bound the energy used in the baseline and lead-free cable extrusion inventories. Four parameters within the life cycle processes of the CMP and CMR cables were considered to be highly uncertain and were modeled as uniform distributions, using Monte Carlo statistical methods. These uncertainties only applied to the CMR and CMP analyses where the full life cycle was evaluated and where there was a large discrepancy in the extrusion energy data. The first three parameters below are from the EOL stage and the fourth is from the manufacturing stage. The uncertainty of impact category results was a result of the concurrent variation of the four parameters. Therefore, a sensitivity analysis was necessary to assess the magnitude of each parameterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s contribution. A builtin sensitivity analysis function from the GaBi4 LCA software was used to determine the amount of variance in each impact category attributable to each of the dynamic parameters. Editorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s note: the above is but a slice of the actual report. Readers are encouraged to review the full summary on assessing the real-world life cycle of cables, which is at

LCA: one company’s experience

WJI: Has Southwire found LCAs to be useful? Southwire: LCAs help companies understand their footprints and impacts, and they require collaboration from the entire value chain. LCAs also provide a better understanding of the impact in the product life as compared to raw material processing, use phase and disposal. They are useful in making general product comparisons. In addition, if a company knows its footprint and its people are committed to improvement, an LCA can be a very helpful tool in product and service development and innovation. We have developed models for several base products that we can then utilize to compare similar products, scrap management scenarios, material components and other factors. Back in 2007 Southwire set some aggressive goals to reduce its environmental impact. The LCA process has helped us to better measure and understand the impact of

these initiatives from a life cycle perspective. We expect to continue using LCAs, where appropriate. WJI: How time consuming/costly are these studies? Southwire: LCAs are built on input data, and generic ones can be developed based on industry standards and other readily available information. However, to develop a more company-specific or product-specific LCA, one needs accurate, real data. Of course, the greater the desired accuracy, the greater the cost. To develop an effective LCA, Southwire elected to use a recognized vendor. Obviously, there is a cost associated with purchasing that vendor’s software, utilizing its impact data, and relying on its experience and expertise. There are also additional internal costs associated with collecting data – such as equipment energy consumption – necessary for product-specific models. WJI: Is there more than one way to do them or is there a universally followed approach so that they are all comparable?

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Southwire Company was among those participating in the EPA study cited in the proceeding story. Below, the company discusses its experience with doing a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA).


Southwire: There is definitely more than one approach to developing an LCA. Simple LCAs can be developed using generic data, while more complete analyses required more detailed data. Southwire’s LCAs were based on available plant- and equipment-specific data. The key element of an LCA is the boundary definition, whether it’s cradle-to-cradle, gate-to-cradle, gate-to-gate or cradle-to-grave. Again, models are significantly impacted by the quality and specificity of the data. In addition, LCAs involve a number of assumptions, and their results can vary widely based on the various boundary definitions and other assumptions plugged in to the model. Because of the variability in boundary definitions, data quality and input assumptions, we have found it is not prudent to compare LCA results from different models or different entities.

Carbon credits: what are they and why buy them? Without going into the mechanics of the Kyoto Potocol that set carbon emission rates for countries (the U.S. never signed it) based on benchmark 1990 emission levels, a carbon credit, per Wikipedia, is a generic term for any tradable certificate or permit representing the right to emit one metric ton of carbon dioxide or carbon dioxide equivalent. In 2009, 8.2 billion metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent changed hands worldwide, according to a study by carbon-market research firm Point Carbon. At its website, the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX) says that its job is “to help prepare businesses and markets for potential regulations at the international or federal level.” CCX reports that its cap-and-trade program has an annual emissions baseline of more than 670 million metric tons.” That, it notes, represents “... a baseline larger than the entire industrial emissions footprint of Germany, meaning the U.S. has more industrial emissions under a cap than any other single country in the world.” CCX spokesperson Brookly McLaughlin said that the organization was founded in 2003, and at that time, members made a commitment to reduce emissions a minimum of 1% per year, for a total reduction of 4% below their baseline. In the second phase of the program, CCX members, which now number more than 400, are committed to a reduction

Global carbon emissions in million metric tons. Chart courtesy of CCX. 80 | WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL

WJI: Are carbon credit purchases largely limited to the largest manufacturers or those in high-profile niches? Why would manufacturers want to add to their costs, especially if they are already competing against low-cost producers that are unlikely to incur a similar expense? Chan: Many small and mid-size businesses, as well as large businesses, are offsetting the carbon footprint of their operations, products, shipping and/or other aspects of their businesses. Consumers are buying greener products today, and business (B2B) customers are greening their supply chain, including the products they purchase or procure. Companies are also able to differentiate themselves by reducing their climate impact. supports third-party validated projects that help reduce carbon emissions, so support from current and new partners is important to our organization’s work in reducing emissions globally.

WJI: Is there a desire to see the carbon credit program grow to include more companies, and if so, does participation depend on a form of social altruism? Chan: has worked with over 1,700 companies who have become CarbonFree® Partners or are offering CarbonFree® Certified Products to their customers ( We’re finding that there are forward-thinking businesses that want to lead their industries and markets on their environmental stewardship by reducing their carbon footprint and becoming carbon neutral. WJI: Without directives or strong pressure from customers, will carbon credits be bought by manufacturers outside of those already doing so? Chan: Many businesses are making a practice of communicating their environmental performance to their employees, customers and other stakeholders, e.g., through their corporate social responsibility (CSR) or other reports and communications. So businesses are taking initiative on reducing their climate impact but also communicating their results. Offsetting is also the next logical step for some businesses after making reductions to their carbon footprint.

OCTOBER 2010 | 81


schedule that requires emission reductions of 6% below baseline by the end of 2010, she said. Multiple organizations provide carbon credits. WJI contacted, a provider of carbon offsets and reductions, and asked Ivan Chan, director of marketing & communications, why manufacturers would willingly take part in the program.


The carbon footprint of a teleconference call: (electrons tread lighter)

ne n-li ic i e l n ilab tra so a v ul wa No h GEO : W wit ning NE a cle

The carbon footprint performance of an 8,000-km submarine cable was the focus of a 2009 thesis report by Craig Donovan, who applied Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to analyze the potential environmental impacts of a submarine cable system. One part of it considers the carbon footprint of a teleconference call between Stockholm and New York, noting the environmental advantages, citing LCA issues from raw materials to use of cable system to maintenance to end-of-life factors. The full 120-page report can be found at wp-content/publications/LCA-submarine-cables.pdf. A few report findings of note include: • 7 grams of carbon dioxide equivalents are potentially released for every 10,000 Gb/km, given current estimations of used capacity. • For the above-cited conference call between Stockholm and New York (a distance of 8,000 km at a bandwidth usage of 18 Mbps), 0.1 grams of carbon emissions would potentially be released every second, which results in a potential release of 355 grams per hour. By comparison, this equates to only 3 km of air travel for a single person or 2.2 km road travel by the average EU passenger car. • For a 16-hour conference over two days, data transfer via the submarine cable would potentially release a total of 5.7 kg of carbon emissions. By comparison, the air travel for a single person roundtrip would amount to 16,000 km, resulting in 1920 kg of carbon emissions. • The use and maintenance phase dominate enviromental impact categories of cable system life, including raw materials and design/manufacture, which account for, on average, only 6% of the total potential environmental impact. ■

WJI: 2011 editorial focus WJI plans to focus on specific industry issues, many of which overlap with the “green” aspect of this feature, in 2011. These “Green Focus” stories will present specific questions addressed to industry suppliers, who will be asked to provide practical information that is as non-commercial as possible. The suppliers can choose to present further information in advertorials, such as the one on p. 63. The features include: Compounds, colorants & marking inks (January 2011), Plant efficiency & energy savings (July 2011) and Managing waste (November 2011). The “green” theme will also be present in other features. For the full editorial calendar, go to, click on Wire Journal, then Media Kit, then 2011.




PAPERS Convention Dates: May 2-5, 2011 | Exhibit Dates: May 3-5, 2011 Georgia World Congress Center | Atlanta, Georgia, USA

NEW THEME DAYS Interwire 2011. Three days. Three themes. Choose your presentation style and share what you know about these leading topics or any topic related to the wire and cable industry. Metals & Materials Tell us news about the constituent materials used to manufacture wire and cable. Manufacturing Best Practices Tell us how to improve processes to achieve operational excellence. Green Initiatives Tell us how to save energy, meet environmental regulations, and reduce waste.

NEW OPERATIONAL PRESENTATIONS: This category is for practical rather than highly technical information. Tell us what works in your day-to-day operations, what youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve learned by experience. The focus is on the live presentation but presenters are selected based on a short, informal summary of their proposed topic.

TECHNICAL PAPER PRESENTATIONS: Traditional and enduring, these presentations get to the core of a particular research topic. Oral presentations are accompanied by complete manuscripts presenting scientific or academic information on R&D projects, quality assurance issues, and relevant wire and cable technology. Accepted manuscripts are included in the Conference Proceedings CD and are considered for publication in the Wire Journal International. Complete and submit the form on the reverse side. ABSTRACT DEADLINE: November 1, 2010 ACCEPTANCE NOTIFICATION: December 6, 2010 MANUSCRIPT DEADLINE: February 7, 2011

Interwire 2011 is organized by The Wire Association International, Inc. 1570 Boston Post Road | P.O. Box 578 | Guilford, CT 06437-0578 USA | Telephone: (001) 203-453-2777 | Fax: (001) 203-453-8384 |

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Heat-resistant parameters of AlZr electrical alloy wires used for HTLS conductors




Adding zirconium to aluminum increases the recrystallization temperature of alloys, improving their use as high-temperature conductors without unduly increasing wire resistivity. By Tadeusz Knych, Andrzej Mamala and Piotr Uliasz

The continuous generation and transfer of electric energy is the basis of the economic and civilizational development of society. Demand for energy has continued to increase, which is why dependable electrical power systems are so vital. Delivery of energy depends on the performance of electric power stations, power plants and the network of high-voltage aerial lines. The main element of the aerial line is the phase conductor, which mainly limits the capacity of the whole electrical system. Traditionally used conductors are ACSR (Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced) and AAAC (All Aluminum Alloy Conductor). These conductors, despite their many advantages, limit the transmission of the current, due to the low admissible working temperatures, which go up to +80oC. If these temperatures are exceeded, the risk of a blackout-type system failure becomes higher (e.g. the U.S. and Canada in 2003; Greece in 2004; Germany in 2006; Poland in 2008; and Ecuador in 2009)1-2.

Electrical system capacity can be increased by either constructing new lines or modernizing existing ones. Construction of new lines is expensive and involves many problems, both legal and social in nature. Modernizing existing lines involves replacing traditional conductors with conductors that have a higher current-carrying capacity. HTLStype (High Temperature Low Sag) solutions are special construction conductors made from a conductive core with a low heat expansion coefficient and conductive materials of a higher heat resistance than that of aluminum, which allow for continuous work at temperatures of even up to 240ยบC. The currently used materials are the AlZr alloys, developed and examined in the 1960s in Japan, that made it possible to build modern constructions of the HTLS conductors. These conductors increase the current-carrying capacity of the conductors without the risk of a significant enlargement of the sags. This paper presents the results of an investigation into the heat resistance of wires made from aluminum as well as the AlZr alloy. The article presents a method of parameterization of heat resistance of the HTLS-type aerial conductors.

Heat-resistance parameters

Fig. 1. Dependence of decrease of the initial strength of Al and AlMgSi wires4.


The limitations in the current-carrying capacity of the phase conductors originate from the insufficient heat resistance of aluminum and its alloys. The border value of the current strength in the conductor, according to the Joule-Lentz law, is the reason for the increase of the material temperature to its maximum level. When the maximum temperature is exceeded, a gradual degradation of the tensile strength of wires is observed, which can be explained by the heat-activated processes of recovery and recrystallization. This is why, to increase the current strength, one should increase the working temperature of the material, which involves an application of heat-resistant materials. In general, heat resistance is the sensitivity of a given material to the influence of temperature and exposure time. The heat resistance of aluminum alloys is

Eq. (1) allows for a linearization of the collection of results of the experiments (the Arrhenius diagram) for the determined decrease of tensile strength of wires in the exposure period of up to 1000h. On the basis of such elaborated results, their extrapolation is performed to the optional period of the conductor’s operation, e.g. 50 years. The basic assumption of this method is the requirement that the examined material, in its range of working temperatures, should not show a heat-activated effect of precipitate strengthening but should merely be subject to the recovery process. The example of the studies on the property changes of strengthened 1370 grade wires provides an illustration of the presented methodology of determining heat resistance7. Fig. 2 presents the curves of aluminum softening in the temperature range from 90oC to 180oC, which made it possible to assign the isolines of the selected tensile strength decrease (e.g. 5%, 10% and 15% of the decrease of the wire’s initial tensile strength). For such assigned isolines of strength, characteristics in the time-temperature system are constructed, which are a collection of equivalent time-temperature pairs. These pairs are in fact the heating conditions of the material which cause the same decrease of the

Table 1. Selected properties of wires made of conductive aluminum alloys6.

Eq. (1) where, ΔTS = ultimate tensile strength, UTS0 = initial ultimate tensile strength, Q = activation energy, T = temperature, R = gas constant and A is a constant value for the given process conditions.

Fig. 2. Decrease of strength properties of aluminum wires in different heating conditions7.

OCTOBER 2010 | 87


dependent on the type, amount and form of the alloy additions in the matrix, as well as the initial structure of the material and the strengthening state of the wire3. A detailed definition and method of determining the heat resistance does not provide a uniquely described technique and is usually connected with a specific application. In the case of aerial conductors of electrical lines, heat resistance is described as the temperature value that will cause the assumed decrease of tensile strength of the wire taking place at a specifically described time and at a randomly selected time. Thus, the commonly known method of determining the recrystallization temperature of the material involving a one-hour heat test is not suitable for the determination of the heat resistance of aluminum and its alloys. Fig. 1 presents investigation results for the heat resistance of strengthened wires made of 1370 grade aluminum for the duration of up to 10000 h, as well as wires made of the 6101 grade AlMgSi alloy for the duration of up to 1000 h, in temperatures of 80-150ºC4. The operation time (life) of aerial conductors in Europe is assumed to be 50 years5, and during that period tensile strength cannot decrease by 10 percent or more. One reason for this requirement is that, for the majority of constructions, besides conducting the current, the wires made of aluminum and its alloys are also involved in the transfer of the conductor tension. This situation is especially significant in cases of ACSR, TACSR, STACIR, GTASCR, ACCR and AAAC conductors. A short description of these constructions is presented later in this article. See Table 1. Research into the increase of the current-carrying capacity of phase conductors has been and still is a crucial practical issue that concerns many scientists (e.g. Beers, Harvey, Morgan) and organizations working for power engineering (e.g. CIGRE, EPRI, IEEE, IEC)7-11. The main aim of these studies is the development of an effective method of determining the decrease of mechanical strength of material for the assumed level of its strengthening and the assumed distribution of temperature and the time of its occurrence. Thus, the studies concern the already existing lines with the known distribution of temperature and the time of its occurrence. Another problem is the determination of heat resistance of the new aluminum alloys. The main aim of the studies on the new alloys is to determine their heat resistance, the allowable longterm working temperature that does not cause an excess of the assumed level of tensile strength degradation. The methodology of the analysis is based on the assumption that the degradation of the mechanical properties is a heat-activated process, which, in its description, allows for an application of the general exponential dependence in the form of Eq. (1):


tensile strength. See Fig. 3. Converting the obtained curves to the Arrhenius diagram, i.e. log time - log 1/temperature (see Fig. 4), allows for a determination of the desired value of the admissible working temperature of the material, which is a characterization of the alloy regarding its heat resistance. Detailed analysis results of the heat resistance

of wires made of strengthened aluminum are shown in Table 2. As can be seen in the conditions of 10% of tensile strength decrease and 50 years of working time for an electrical line, the admissible working temperature of the strengthened aluminum is approximately +80oC. The obtained value is in accordance with the existing project requirements, as well as the results presented in the Morgan paper11. The introduced methodology is the basis for examining the heat resistance of aluminum alloys according to the IEC 62004 and ASTM 941-05 guidelines. Due to the long-term investigative methodology, in the presented tests the examinations are conducted at the time periods of 1h and 400h. The temperature value in both tests was determined with the assumption that the decrease of the strength properties of the heated wires had not exceeded 10% of the initial tensile strength value, in the period of 50 years.

Characteristics of HTLS construction

Fig. 3. Isolines of the strength propertiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; decrease for aluminum wires.

Fig. 4. Arrhenius diagram for aluminum.

Table 2. The long-term working temperatures for aluminum wires. 88 | WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL

As mentioned before, the main reason for applying the HTLS-type conductors in electrical power engineering is the significant increase of the transmitting properties of the aerial lines. In the construction of conductors, modern aluminum alloys are used, which allow for an increase of the current-carrying capacity of the conductor without a loss of its strength properties, as well as conductor cores which guarantee the minimization of sag. The wires of the conductive layer are made of the AlZr alloy or aluminum in its soft state, which allows for constant work of the conductors at temperatures of up to 240oC. A detailed specification of the properties of the conductive materials applied in HTLS-type solutions is presented in Table 3. On the basis of the analysis of the wire strength properties in Table 3, three groups of materials can be selected. The first group includes aluminum (1370) in its soft state, which is used in ACSS-type (Aluminum Conductor Steel Supported) conductors as well as the ACCC-type (Aluminum Conductor Composite Core). The second group is made up of materials whose strength is close to that of the strengthened aluminum and which are used in such constructions as: G(S) TACSR (Gap type (Super) Thermal Resistant Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced), TACSR (Thermal Resistant Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced), STACIR (Super Thermal Resistant Aluminum Conductor Invar Reinforced), ACCR (Aluminum Conductor Composite Core) and ACFR (Aluminum Conductor Fibre Reinforced). As for the third group, AT2 and KTAl-type materials with a high tensile strength (225 MPa) can be included, which are used in TAAAC-type (Thermal Resistant All Aluminum Alloy Conductor) as well as the TAACSRtype (Thermal Resistant Aluminum Alloy Steel Reinforced) conductors16-19.

Research This article presents selected results of the research conducted at the Faculty of Non-Ferrous Metals, University of Science and Technology, in Cracow, Poland, within the study of material issues concerning the HTLS-type conductors. The research materials were wires obtained by drawing from wire rod produced in a plant using Continnuus-Properzi (CP) technology. In general, the CP method involves casting a continuous ingot on a circular

Fig. 5. Sag - temperature characteristics of selected HTLS conductors. OCTOBER 2010 | 89


Another reason for the application of HTLS-type conducProperzi crystallizer, whose space is created by a recess in the tors is the significant limitation of the conductor’s sag caused casting wheel and the belting steel strap. The obtained continby the high level of the working temperatures. This applicauous ingot is directed to a 13-stand mill with a triangle-circle tion is possible in those conductors for which conductive calibration. The rolling process takes place within the tempercores with a very low thermal expansion coefficient are used, ature range of the complete material deformation equalling as well as a special construction and a special technique of its 97% (550-350oC). After cooling, the 9.5 mm wire rod is assembly. In this group one can include the GAP, ACSS and rolled up into 2 metric ton coils. ACCC-type conductors, in which the conductive core is This article presents research results for selected aluminum almost solely mechanically weighted upon assembly. The alloys with iron and zirconium additions. The chemical comapplied materials include: aluminum steel (11.5•10-6/1 deg) position is shown in Table 4. The reason for such a selection aluminum invar (3.7•10-6/1 deg), the Al-Al2O3 composite of the type and content of the alloy additions is the search for a compromise between the electrical conductivity, thermal (3.3•10-6/1 deg) and the composite made of glass-carbon resistance and strength properties of the wire20. fibres on the matrix of epoxy resins with the thermal expan-6 sion coefficient equalling 1.6•10 /1 deg. In the case of alloy no. 1, with a low content of zirconium, The application of thermally low-expansional conductive the obtained levels of mechanical (UTS) and electrical (ρ) cores is why a characteristic bending point occurs on the sagproperties of the wire rod produced in the CP line was consistemperature diagram (knee point), above which a significant tent with the assumed one (Rm = 110 MPa, ρ = 28.5 nΩm). minimization of the sag’s thermal intensity increase can be observed. Thus, the work of the HTLS conductor can be divided into two working temperature ranges: below the “knee point,” where the conductor works mechanically as a compact two-material construction; and above the “knee point,” in which the whole tension is transferred solely by the conductive core. In the latter case, the role of the aluminum layer is only that of an electrically active material. The bending temperature of the sag-temperature characteristics mainly depends on the construction of the conductors and the properties of the applied materials, as well as the span and the assembly temperature. In the case of special constructions of conductors such as GAP, ACCC and ACSS, the bending temperature of Table 3. Properties of materials used in HTLS-type solutions12-15. the characteristics equals the assembly temperature of the conductor. The described situation is presented in the example of sag-temperature characteristics for selected HTLS-type constructions. See Fig. 5.


In the case of alloys no. 2 - 4, additional detailed investigations were conducted, which included a selection of conditions for the thermal treatment of the wire rod. The aim of these actions was to render its final physical-mechanical properties such as to allow for obtaining the assumed level of the final properties of the wire. See Table 3. Results concerning

Table. 4. Chemical composition of studied alloys.

the process of the thermal treatment of the wire rod are presented in Table 5. Figs. 6-9 present observations of the microstructure of wire rods made of alloy no. 2 in the state after production (temper F = Figs. 6-7) and after the thermal treatment in the conditions of 400oC/120h (Figs. 8-9). On this basis, it can be stated that during the thermal treatment of the alloy, a recovery process of its structure takes place, which can be confirmed by the shape of the growing subgrains. See Figs. 6 and 8. Further, observation of the material structure by means of an electron microscope (compare Figs. 7 and 9) shows that the thermal treatment process leads to a separation of the Al3Zr phase from the solid solution. This fact indicates that, during the casting process, a zirconium supersaturation of aluminum occurs. An additional circumstance confirming such material behavior after casting is the high level of the electrical properties of the alloys (compare Table 5) and their change during the heating process. Wire rod obtained in such a way was drawn to 3.2 mm wire, which was then parameterized for heat resistance, according to the methodology presented earlier. Examples of curves of tensile strength increase for alloy no. 4, which was thermally treated in different conditions of deformation function process, are presented in Fig.10. As can be easily noticed, the level of the final properties of wires drawn from the wire rod in temper F and after thermal treatment depends exclusively on the level of the initial properties of the wire rod. These properties

Table 5. Physical and mechanical properties of wire rod.

Fig. 6. Scanning image of temper F material microstructure. 90 | WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL

Fig. 7. Image of structural elements in temper F material.

TECHNICAL PAPERS Fig. 8. Scanning image of material microstructure after heat treatment.

Fig. 9. Image of precipitates in the material after heat treatment.

are in relation with the selection of the thermal treatment parameters, and in the case of temper F, also with the conditions of the casting and rolling processes. In the diagram of the tensile strength changes, a similar level of the wireâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s tensile strength increase after deformation, equalling about 70 MPa can be observed. Table 6 shows a listing of the mechanical and electrical properties of the examined wires. Fig. 11 shows the softening curves of the wires from alloys 3 and 4 in a one-hour exposure test, in the temperature range between 180oC and 450oC. On the basis of the obtained curves, the level of the admissible working temperature of the material in the assumed 50-year period of operation obviously cannot be determined. The characteristics merely show the differences in the heat resistance of the examined materials. For this reason, a detailed investigation of heat resistance parameterization has been performed according to the methodology presented earlier. Examples of research results for alloy no. 2 are presented in the form of an Arrhenius diagram (Fig. 12), and the obtained numerical temperature values are included in Table 7. The results for tensile strength

changes of wires in the test conditions according to IEC 6200413 for alloy no. 2 and in different production conditions are presented in Table 8. Based on analysis of the research results for the long-term heat resistance of sample alloy no. 2 and aluminum 1370, it can be said that, with the assumed 10% tensile strength decrease, the admissible working temperature of the material in a 50-year period of operation equals 150oC. As shown in Fig. 12, a material with a higher heat resistance (alloy 2) and at a constant tensile strength decrease is located on the left of aluminum in the Arrhenius diagram. The results of the wire heat-resistance investigations conducted within the duration of up to 1000 h as well as the test performed in the conditions of 230oC/1h (Table 8) show that no. 4 alloy wires, with a high content of zirconium, also are characterized by a similar heat resistance. Also, prolonging the thermal treatment time to lower the alloyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s resistivity causes a greater decrease in its tensile strength (the material becomes less resistant to heat). Thus, the highest heat resistance can be assigned to wires produced of a material in the state directly after the CP line. An

Fig. 10. Wire rod strengthening curves for alloy no. 4.

Fig. 11. Softening curves of alloys 3.4 and aluminum 1370 in 1h test. OCTOBER 2010 | 91


Table 6. Physical and mechanical properties of produced 3.2 mm wires.

Table. 7. Determined properties of heat resistance of studies materials.

analysis of the data presented in Table 8 regarding the heating test of 230oC/1h shows the effect of a slight aging of the material (+1.44%), which makes it harder to compare the materials’ heat resistance solely on the basis of the 1h test (compare Fig. 11). Summing up, it should be noted that a zirconium addition to aluminum in the amount between 0.15 and 0.25wt% makes it possible to significantly raise its heat resistance. This increases the admissible working temperature of the conductive wire from the 80oC level for aluminium to 150°C level for alloy. As for the zirconium content, an amount between 0.03 and 0.05wt% slightly influences the increase of heat resistance of the material. An iron addition to the examined alloys also has an effect on the improvement of the material’s heat resistance (compare Table 8). The decrease level of strength properties of the wires during annealing significantly depends on the state of the wire rod (after line/after heat treatment) according to the rule that states that the higher the level of strain hardening of wire, the faster the processes of recovery and reconstruction of the material’s structure are activated.


Table. 8. Heat resistance investigation results for no. 2 alloy wires according to IEC 6200413.

Fig. 12. Heat resistance investigations of wires obtained from alloy 2 and aluminum 1370.


On the basis of the presented experimental tests, it can be stated that: 1. A zirconium addition to aluminum in the amount of 0.15–0.25wt% increases the heat resistance of wires to approximately 70oC, as compared to the typically used aluminum. From this point of view, an iron addition in the amount of about 0.4wt% is also beneficial. 2. An appropriate selection of the chemical content as well as the properties and the initial state of the wire rod (before drawing) allows obtaining materials consistent with the requirements of the IEC 62004 standard, in the form of the ATI-type wires. 3. The research into the long-term heat resistance of the selected AlZr alloys, on the basis of the presented methodology with the duration of up to 1000 h, makes it possible to determine the admissible working temperature of the material. This allows, by an appropriate selection of the material, an increase in the current-carrying capacity of the conductors in the aerial electrical power lines, without the risk of a loss of their resistance properties.

This research was financially supported by the Polish Ministry of Education and Science, grant no. 4400 B T02, 2009, 36.

References 1. Report on August 14th Blackout, Michigan Public Service Commission, 2003. 2. Report on the safety of electrical energy industrial networks in Poland, BBN, 2008. 3. F.J. Humphreys; and M. Hatherly, Recrystallization and Related Annealing Phenomena, Pergamon, 1995. 4. IEC 61597, Overhead electrical conductors. Calculation methods for stranded bare conductors, 1995. 5. EN 50341-1, Overhead electrical lines exceeding AC 45 kV - Part 1: General requirements, 2001. 6. I. Polmear, Light Alloys, From traditional alloys to nanocrystals, Oxford; Burlington, MA, Elsevier/ ButterworthHeinemann, 2006. 7. G.M. Beers, S.R. Gilligan, H.W. Lis and J.M. Schamberger, Transmission conductor ratings, IEEE Trans. on Power Apparatus and Systems, vol. PAS-82, 1963. 8. J.R. Harvey, Effect of elevated temperature operation on the strength of aluminium conductors, IEEE T. on PAS, vol. PAS-91, 1972. 9. V.T. Morgan, The loss of tensile strength of hard drawn conductors by annealing in service, IEEE Trans. on PWRD.,

Tadeusz Knych is an associate professor in the Nonferrous Metals faculty of the Department of Plastic Working and Physical Metallurgy of Nonferrous Metals at AGH University of Science and Technology (AGH-UST), Krakow, Poland. He is the head of research and development in the nonferrous metals laboratory. He works on the development of new technologies in the metals industry. He has managed more than 10 scientific research projects, practically applied to the Polish nonferrous metals industry. He is author or co-author of more than 100 papers. Andrzej Mamala and Piotr Uliasz are assistant professors in the Nonferrous Metals faculty of AGH’s Department of Plastic Working and Physical Metallurgy of Nonferrous Metals. They specialize in nonferrous metals technology, particularly electrical conductors. Piotr Uliasz is author or co-author of more than 18 papers and Andrzej Mamala more than 78 papers. This paper, which was presented at WAI’s 80th Annual Convention, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA, May 2010, won the Marshall V. Yokelson Memorial Award for best nonferrous paper.

vol. PAS-98, No. 3, 1979. 10. W.G. Cigre, “Loss in strength of overhead electrical conductors caused by elevated temperature operation,” Electra, No. 162, Oct. 1995. 11. V.T. Morgan, Effect of elevated temperature operation on tensile strength of overhead conductors, IEEE Trans. on PWRD., Vol. 11, 1996. 12. S. Sasaki, T. Takebe, K. Miyazaki, M. Yakota, K. Sato, S. Yoshida and I. Matsubara, ZTACIR-New Extra-Heat Resistant Galvanized Invar-Reinforced Aluminum Alloy Conductor, Sumitomo Electric Tech. Rev. 24, 1985. 13. IEC 62004, Thermal resistant aluminium alloy wire for overhead conductor, 2007. 14. ASTM 941-05, Heat Resistant Aluminium-Zirconium alloy wire for electrical purposes, 2005. 15. IEC 60889, Hard-Drawn Aluminum Wire for Overhead Line Conductors, 1987. 16. W.G. Cigre, Conductors for the uprating of overhead lines, 2004. 17. F. Kiessling, P. Hefzger, J.F. Nolasco and U. Kaintzyk, “Overhead Power Lines. Planning, Design, Construction,” Springer, 2003. 18. R. Thrash, Overhead conductor manual, Southwire, 2007. 19. T. Knych, Electrical overhead conductors, TheoryMaterials-Applications, AGH Kraków, 2010. 20. L.F. Mondolfo, Aluminum Alloys Structure and Properties, London, 1976. ■


Tadeusz Knych displays the awards he accepted on behalf of all the authors at Wire Expo 2010. Mamala OCTOBER 2010 | 93




TECHNICAL PAPER Caster filtration for continuous-cast copper rod The importance of caster water quality and cleanliness is a factor that is easily overlooked yet if focused on can result in significant improvements in rod quality, operating costs and more. By Gary L. Spence

Heat transfer is of paramount importance in casting a sound cast bar and resulting rod quality, but relatively little attention has been given to the importance of water quality used for the various copper continuous casting machines. This paper addresses the basic wear components, heat transfers and casting cooling water systems of the various wheel-belt and twin-belt casting processes to stress the importance of water quality and water cleanliness. The author presents an efficient, simple and economical method for filtration of casting water that uses proven gravity filtration technology combined with separation chemistry. This new filtration methodology has yielded significant product enhancements and cost savings. The presented filtration results represents an accumulation of 12 months of actual operating data.

Caster water system contamination The continuous cast method of producing copper rod depends on protective thermal barriers that are formed by the application of soot, graphite or carbon black and oil to the caster wheel, dam blocks and steel bands. As molten metal is poured onto the caster wheel or dam blocks and formed into a bar, the carbon-based thermal insulators, often referred to as lubricants, also act as a mold release. The solidified bar is then cooled with rinse water before being rolled into rod. This rinse water becomes contaminated by the carbon and oil materials that were applied to the caster wheel or dam blocks, resulting in: reduced rod production; wirebreaks; reduced life of wheels, dam blocks and casting belts; increased maintenance of heat exchangers, cooling towers and pumps; equipment and structural corrosion; increased water usage; and environmental, safety and health issues.


Overview of casting processes The majority of the world’s continuous cast copper rod is manufactured by wheel-belt or twin-belt bar casters. This includes the processes of SCR, Properzi, Essex and Contirod. The casting machines use steel bands and copper alloy components including wheels and dam blocks to form a continuous copper cast bar from molten copper. The wheel-belt processes are very similar in concept1-7. Liquid metal is transferred from the melting process to a copper alloy wheel and poured or siphoned into a mold cavity. The mold cavity profile design or mold section is typically trapezoidal or U-shaped in its periphery. The wheel profile forms three sides of the cast bar and a long endless steel band forms the other side, resulting in a water-cooled continuous mold. Controlled water-cooling is applied to the backside of the steel band and copper alloy wheel. Wheel diameters determine the production rate or expected output. Initial solidification of the liquid metal begins as a pure heat sink into the mold and a thin crust is formed before the cooling system spray begins to cool the mold and precipitate further solidification of the cast bar. The solidification front takes the form of a long “V” with the center being the last place to completely solidify. The exact “V” shape varies with metal chemistry, and other variables noted in the text under optimization of solidification. Position, alignment and adjustment of the cooling sprays are critical in controlling the solidification. Water flow rates, water pressure and water quality is of utmost importance in controlling this “V” shape solidification and maintaining contact between the solidifying cast bar and the copper wheel and band. Tapered cooling is used in an effort to maintain correct contact. A slight air gap is unpreventable as shrinkage begins during cooling3.

Casting wheel/dam block/belt lubrication The importance of mold lubrication has evolved, but the lubricants themselves have changed little over the years.8 The majority of wheel-band casters still use soot derived from burned acetylene gas combined with either air or oxygen for the wheel and belt coating. Most twin-belt casters use oil on the bands and a water-soluble graphite on the hot face of the dam blocks. Many use oil on the cold face of the dam blocks for reducing friction between blocks and dam block guide faces.

Potential concerns Excessive soot thickness will provide a thermal barrier to heat transfer and may contain moisture. The coating must be dried to prevent moisture carryover. Ucon LB is known to create more porosity in the cast bar then soot or graphite, but it is a very good lubricant for reducing friction. Dag 136, in excess, may also provide a thermal barrier to heat transfer. Dirty and uneven surfaces on wheel, dam

OCTOBER 2010 | 95


The twin-belt bar caster consists of an inclined, moving, water-cooled, rectangular mold. The mold is formed of two parallel steel belts held in tension, forming an angle of 15° to the horizontal, and is wrapped around pulleys, which move the belts5. The sides of the mold consist of two endless chains of machined bronze dam blocks that are linked together by a steel strap. The height of the dam blocks determines the height of the cast bar, and the horizontal separation of the dam block guides determines At Encore Wire Corporation’s operations in McKinney, Texas, USA, the width. Both belts are cooled on the the company has found that finding improvements in water chemistry backside by a longitudinal high-velocity and filtration of caster water offers multiple benefits. water film. The dam blocks are cooled on the return loop in a cooling chamber. The rectangular mold maintains contact The lubricants act as a mold-release agent to prevent copwith the bar on all four sides. The dam block guides may per adhesion to the described wear components and to proalso have water-cooling to enhance heat extraction. The tect the wear components from direct contact with the hot center of the cast bar is again the last place to solidify. metal being cast. In reality, most lubricants act as a thermal barrier or insulator. The mold lubricants are typically Wear components sprayed on, resulting in significant over-spray that The various casting processes utilize similar wear com“reports” to the caster water-cooling systems as a contamponents for forming the cast bar. Low-carbon or stainless inate. It is estimated that small wheel-belt casters generate steel-band materials and copper alloy wheels or dam five-cubic ft (26 kg) per day or 10 tons (9300 kg) per year blocks are typical wear components. The alloys and conof carbon soot that reports to the caster water system. Overstruction design, including material thickness, has a signifspray can be as much as 50% of the total soot used. icant influence on heat transfer and solidification. Wheels Applying an even uniform coating is critical yet the spray and dam blocks are made out of high-conductivity materinozzles that are used are very difficult to control. In most als. While the useful life of wear components is mainly cases, application is more of an art than science: if the determined by thermal cycles and cycle frequency of the lubricant film is too thick, it impedes heat transfer, and if component, assuming good casting techniques, more failtoo thin, damage to wear components or adhesion may ures from stress corrosion cracking is being observed11. It result. The coating application is one of the most important is felt the initial belt cracking is a result of exposure to high parameters of the casting operation. temperatures and thermal cracking. However, once the As information, acetylene soot is a pyrolytic product of material develops initial cracks, the “corrosive environrich acetylene and air or oxygen. Additionally, secondary ment” continues the belt deterioration. This induced crackpyrolysis occurs during each casting cycle when molten ing is a result of tensile stress and a corrosive environment. metal contacts with the soot layer. The amount and quality Therefore it is important to control chlorides, hydroxides, of the residues after secondary pyrolysis becomes an and oxygen within the cast-water system environment. important factor in determining heat transfer rate during Wear components are typically changed out and replaced solidification8-9. on timed cycles before failure occurs. Wheel and dam The most commonly used oil is a Ucon LB product conblocks are routinely reconditioned or cleaned by various taining alcohol-started polymers of all oxypropyle groups, methods including high-pressure water, sandblasting and and the water-soluble graphite is a Dag 136 product that is wire brushes to remove carbon and hard-water deposits. a colloidal suspension of graphite or amorphous carbon.


blocks and bands can cause an uneven cast-bar section. Care must be used not to use lubricant materials containing ammonia, which may cause stress cracks in copper alloys, including bronze dam blocks. Soot and graphite over-spray accumulates on the roofs of buildings and equipment and has been known to ignite, resulting in safety concerns. All lubricant mold releases have some airborne residuals, which may be cause for health concerns and safety. The over-spray residuals are also housekeeping and employee morale issues.

Optimization of solidification and mold life Optimization of solidification and mold life during wheel-belt and twin belt casting of ETP copper is dependent on: mold cooling; wheel and dam block materials; wheel diameter; water pressure and flows; casting speed (rpm); superheat and mold lubrication; air gap between the bar and mold; surface overheating; and water quality.

Cast bar and rod quality The three most important parameters that determine castbar quality and resulting rod quality are the wheel/dam block/band cooling, the impurity content of the metal and the hydrogen content10. It is critical to control and manage the mold release agent application, water quality and cleanliness and established standards to manage impurities. Mold contact to the solidifying cast bar is critical. Water pressures, flows and temperature are important in maintaining wear component optimum temperatures. Basically, the intrinsic copper quality, the minutiae of casting techniques and the gas content of the metal determine cast bar and finished rod quality.

Wire quality The wheel, dam block and belt surface condition, thickness and uniformity of mold-release agent, metal temperature, casting speed and cooling water are significant process variables that must be controlled to minimize the occurrence of centerline voids and resulting “cuppy wire” or “central burst” breaks during subsequent wiredrawing. Uniform heat extraction is required for a homogenous microstructure12-13.

Typical cast water system layouts Most SCR and Contirod processes have dedicated cooling towers and large settling pits to manage the casting water systems. These large systems may have water capacities of 40,000-60,000 gallons (151,416-227,124 liters). Generally smaller capacity processes, such as Properzi and Essex as well as the Encore Wire SCR process, use a closed-loop cooling process that uses heat exchangers cooled by a central process-cooling tower. These systems have water capacities of 5,000-8,000 gallons (18,92730,283 liters). Each system design has advantages and disadvantages. The dedicated cooling towers and large-capacity pits allow 96 | WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL

for additional settling time for the water contaminates, including soot, graphite and oils, making turbidity easier to control until the entire system becomes contaminated. The dedicated systems normally have more cooling capability than the closed-loop systems. The closed-loop systems typically have lower operating costs, including chemicals, water usage and no caster cooling tower maintenance. Clean out and recharging of the system is easier.

Typical caster water treatment Varying amounts of water discharge, referred to as “blow down” or “purging,” is used to control water hardness and turbidity levels for these processes. Water quality is usually controlled as a function of conductivity and turbidity by nephelometric turbidity units or NTU readings. Since soluble and insoluble copper is also introduced into the casting water systems from the casting process, it also must be managed. Local municipalities usually regulate the amount of copper that can be discharged directly into municipal water systems. In most cases the discharged water must be processed through a water treatment plant or the copper levels must be significantly reduced prior to discharge15. This may require additional filtration and/or precipitation of the copper from the contaminated water stream. In the late 1990s, a casting wheel, water-treatment system was developed and introduced to SCR processes for enhancing casting wheel life. The treatment system uses a combination of chemicals and procedures. The objective of the system is to keep the soot or carbon suspended in the water so it will more evenly coat the wheel mold cavity and the outside surfaces of the wheel. A proprietary polymer is used to disperse the soot. Developed procedures bring awareness of the importance of turbidity and water hardness. Water is continuously discharged or blown down to control turbidity and reduce total dissolved solids.

Prior art water treatment program The above-described water-treatment system has been used by the author and here is referred to as “prior art.” The system has proven to be an improvement over “no water” treatment or just “blow down.” It is not, however, very effective in removing copper or other tramp contaminates. Small casting systems require large amount of blow down to maintain turbidity in the recommended ranges of 80-120 NTU. The water systems must be cleaned of settled carbon, sludge and copper. The chemical and maintenance cost of the system are moderately expensive but offers an option for water treatment. Some of these include: new wheel surface etch treatment; pre-startup wheel coating; chemical additions of polymer; sulfuric acid for hardness control; turbidity control by water discharge; and conductivity control by water discharge. The equipment and supplies includes treatment chemicals, feed pumps, colorimeter, conductivity meter, reagents, indicators and devices for measuring alkalinity, hardness and titration.

It is important to manage water quality of the caster water system for aspects that include total copper, alkalinity, conductivity, turbidity, temperature, total hardness, ph, silica, iron, sulfate, chlorides and bacteria. Corrosion can be caused by hardness minerals, such as calcium, magnesium, chlorides, carbonates and sulfates, as well as by non-hardness minerals, such as sodium, potassium chlorides and sulfates. Chlorides, copper particulate and low pH also accelerate copper uptake into the solution, decreasing wettability and increasing water-surface tension, which reduces the water quench rate and overall cooling ability. Some rod mill facilities use stainless steel piping on the caster water system due to the corrosive environment.

Reverse osmosis system The author has installed a reverse osmosis system to avoid the problems associated with hard water as described above. The selected machine has proven to be durable, with simple installation, and generates high-quality water production. The system, from GE Water & Process Technologies, is Model E4H-27K, and has a permeate rate of 4.3 m3/h (18.8 gpm) and concentrate rate of 1.4 m3/h (6.3 gpm). See Photo 1. Due to the extremely fine sub-micronic particulate size of the carbon material used by the system, it has been virtually impossible, until now, to remove it from the rinse water by conventional filtration methods, including ultra filtration, which the author has tried. Table 1 shows the water quality results and Table 2 shows the particulate size of carbon in the caster water before filtration.

The separation chemistry coagulates and flocculates the sub-micronic particles into a stable floc. Once formed, the floc is removed with a high-performance, deep-bed gravity filter, as shown in Fig. 1. The process, with special features, uses a coagulant/flocculating agent that is not sensitive to overdosing or chemical instability but is consistently repeatable. The very small percentage of flocking agents used is removed with the accumulated solids via the filter media. The filter cake improves filtrate clarity through depth filtration as shown in Fig. 2. The clean caster water is virtually free of carbon and oil contaminates as shown in Fig. 3. The separation chemistryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s main function is to reduce turbidity. The equipment specifics are as follows: caster water filtration system, Filtertech Model HGF4-1000, 50 gpm high performance gravity filter, 304 stainless-steel material, one 250-gallon mixing tank, one 250-gallon floc tank, 51-in. filter media, filter tank length of approximately 10 ft. (290 cm), width 6'7" (173 cm), height 3'11" (119 cm).

Process overview The dirty caster water is pumped on a controlled bypass basis from the caster water pit or reservoir tank by the caster feed pump to a mixing tank that is specifically sized and

State-of-the-art solution After the earlier failure of using ultra-filtration to filter the contaminated caster water, Filtertech developed a proprietary separation chemistry product that enables the contaminates to be filtered out using a simple flatbed gravity filter. In April 2008, Encore Wire installed the new unit. Table 1. Results of water quality tests.

Photo 1. Reverse osmosis machine.

Table 2. Particulate size of carbon in the caster water prior to filtration.

OCTOBER 2010 | 97


Water quality


designed for the flow rate to be treated. The separation chemistry is then added to the caster water in the mixing tank by way of a volumetric solids feeder and is stored in a bulk solids hopper requiring only periodic replenishing. The feeder utilizes a variable-speed drive that can adjust the feed rate of the separation chemistry to coincide with changes in the flow rate of caster water to the system. During the mixing process, the chemistry becomes hydrated, and its long chain molecule is unraveled. The submicronic articulates become entrapped in the molecule to form a much larger floc particle, which is removed through efficient gravity-bed filtration. Specially designed mixers are used to minimize size reduction on the developing floc particles. Once completely mixed, the caster water overflows by gravity into the Model HGF “High Performance” deep bed gravity filter. As the caster water passes through the filter, the flocked solids are removed by the disposable filter media, thus allowing only the clean water to drain by gravity back to the reservoir tank for reuse. The Model HGF deep-bed gravity filter has specific features for the application which include the following: a deep operating bed with extended liquid pool for increased pressure drop across the media; multi-function media

index assembly; low-velocity internal and external inlet header to enhance separation of chemistry prior to entering the filter; extended discharge ramp to enhance drying of filter “cake” prior to discharge; a fully automatic media indexing and low media sensor; and positive filter side seals. The cost of operation of this treatment system consists of the chemistry, filter media, electricity and very minimal manpower requirements, including changing the filter media and filling the feeder. Benefits include: employee health and safety enhanced; zero-cast water discharge; enhanced bar and rod quality; reduced piping, equipment, and material corrosion; reduced maintenance and operating costs; increased rod production; allows carbon, oil mist and stream removal; and enhanced employee morale and housekeeping.

Improvement data Table 3 shows 12 months of operating data. It is expected that other casting systems results may differ from Encore Wire due to system layouts and operating practices. The somewhat-low casting wheel life is a result of Encore Wire pushing system capacity well beyond design capacity, yet wheel life has still almost tripled. As expected, wheel reconditioning costs, including sandblasting and machining, have also been reduced significantly. Production increase is a result of less downtime associated with change out of wear components and ability to run longer at a higher casting speed.

Conclusions With good water chemistry and filtration of the caster water, significant improvements can be realized in rod quality, operating costs, production, safety, housekeeping, morale and the environment. Zero discharge of caster water can be attained. Table 3. Operating data for 12-month period.

Fig. 1. A high-performance, deep-

Fig. 2. Filter cake improves filtrate

Fig. 3. Filtered caster water (l) is

bed gravity filter.

clarity through depth filtration.

virtually free of carbon and oil contaminates.



12. H. Pops and J. Holloway, “Effects of oxygen concentration on the recrystallation behavior of copper wire,” Wire Journal International, May 2004, p. 70. 13. M. Higashi, “Operating Conditions and Wire Rod Quality,” Taihei Works, Hitachi Wire Rod Co., Ltd. 14. M. Porten, “Casting–Solidification,” SCR User meeting, 2004. 15. J.F. Scalise, “Continuous cast filtration concepts,” Wire Journal International, April 2004, pp. 152-157. ■ Size Rang25-50 micr

Appreciation is extended to Daniel Jones, Encore Wire Corporation, for permission to publish this paper. Thanks is also given to Joe Scalise and the Filtertech team for their commitment to product innovation and their continuous improvement philosophy, and most of all, to the Encore Wire rod mill team for data collection and always striving to improve the process.

References 1. H. Pops, “Metallurgy and Technology of Commercial Copper Electrical Conductor Wire,” Metallurgy, Processing and Applications of Metal Wires, The Minerals & Materials Society, 1996, edited by H.G. Paris and D.K. Kim, pp. 43-61. 2. C. Muojekwu and H. Pops, “High temperature failure of casting and rolling components in continuous rod production,” Wire Journal International, April 2001, pp. 186197. 3. D.K. Peters, “The Properzi Technique for Production of Nonferrous Wire Rod,” Wire Associational, International, Nonferrous Wire Handbook, Vol. 3. 4. G.T. Hutson, “The Production of Copper Rod by the SCR Process,” Wire Association International, Nonferrous Wire Handbook, Vol. 3. 5. R.E. Mortier, H. Berendes and W. Szczypiorski, “Continuous Casting and Rolling of Copper Rod by the Contirod System,” Wire Associational International, Nonferrous Wire Handbook, Vol. 3. 6. A.E. DiSanto, “Essex Continuous Casting System,” Wire Associational International, Nonferrous Wire Handbook, Volume 3. 7. J. Meseha and G. Meseha, “Comparison of competing continuous casting processes, Wire Journal International, March 2005, pp. 185-193. 8. Y.Y. Su, “Soot characteristics in copper continuous casting,” Wire Journal International, April 1985, pp. 6673. 9. Y.Y. Su, “Analysis of the factors affecting the drawability of copper rod,” presented at WAI European meeting, Italy, 1981. 10. R. Adams, “Effects of Impurities in Copper and Casting Wheel cooling,” Southwire user meeting, October 2004. 11. C. A. Muojekwu and H. Pops, “Heat transfer fundamentals and its application to wire manufacturing processes,” Wire Journal International, June 2000, pp. 114-125.

Spence Gary Spence is Vice President, Non-ferrous Metals, at Encore Wire Corporation, McKinney, Texas, USA. During his 40-year career in the metals industry he has been involved in start-up and management activities of three continuous cast copper rod processes including, ESSEX, Contirod, and Southwire SCR, in addition to a conventional cross-country wire bar mill. He has authored a number of technical papers and articles and is the co-holder of two U.S. patents. He has served on various committees for ASTM and the Wire Association International. This paper was presented at WAI’s 79th Annual Convention, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, April 2009.

OCTOBER 2010 | 99


The filtration concept discussed herein has potential for many other uses, including process-cooling towers, wastewater and pickling-system rinse water as well as other casting processes including aluminum. The ability to direct steam, oils, mist, fumes, soot and other carbon contaminates away from the casting area to the caster water for clarification has great potential for all the rod casting systems discussed.


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The cable’s durable thermoset rubber jacket will resist tearing and abrasion which are common in mining applications, the release said. It noted that the cable, which is UL listed and CSA certified, is also flexible and resistant to extreme weather from -40°C to +90°C. It is designated SOOW, Type TC and 600 volts. Contact: TPC Wire & Cable Corp.,

Line of gel-free fiber optic cables is intended for outside plant use Hitachi Cable Manchester (HCM), the U.S. business of Japan’s Hitachi, has introduced a completely gel-free outside plant fiber optic cable. The Mojave™ line of fiber optic cables, available with 12 to 432 strands of optical fiber, consists of 250 micron optical fibers (Corning™ glass is standard) housed within buffer tubes that utilize aramid yarns impregnated with Super Absorbent Polymers (SAP) for water blocking, a press release said. Outside the buffer tubes, additional SAP impregnated yarns are used to further prohibit water migration within the cable, while the cable core is protected by a robust polyolefin outer jacket that is moisture and fungus resistant, it said. Optical fiber options include all multimode and singlemode glass types, the release said. The Mojave cables are also available with corrugated armor and all constructions


are compatible with connectors intended for loose tube 250 micron glass, it said. HCM notes that at its facility in New Hampshire, the company manufactures more than 3,500 different cable products. Contact: Hitachi Cable Manchester,

Industrial cable for heavy-duty use carries multiple code approvals U.S.-based Coleman Cable Inc. reports that its Royal® Brand Diesel Locomotive Cable (DLO), a flexible insulated/jacketed industrial cable, has UL RHH/RHW-2 and CSA RW90 approvals and is rated for 2000 volt and 90°C wet/dry. The DLO is made with fully annealed tinned copper that meets ASTM B-33, premium grade ethylene propylene (EP) insulation and a robust chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) jacket, a press release said. These compounds provide a cable with excellent impact and abrasion resistance, as well as superior resistance to oils, heat, flame, acids, and alkalis, it said, adding that the cable also carries a sunlight-resistant rating. The DLO cable, the release said, can be used for applications where a highly flexible single conductor cable is required. Some of cited applications include diesel-electric locomotive traction motor leads, electrical generation and other utility facilities, heavy electric earth-moving equipment, mining and other industrial equipment, offshore oil drilling platforms, on-shore drilling rigs, rail and transit cars, shipyard welding and other high draw machines, storage battery charging, telecom power supply leads and more. Contact: Coleman Cable Inc.,

Rigid strander design offers more flexibility and versatility India’s Associated Engineers & Industrials Ltd. (AEI), which notes that it has focused in recent years on developing advanced rigid stranding machines, reports that it has introduced a line of reliable and versatile ASRB stranding systems suitable for manufacture of highly compacted conductor (die and roll), sector-shaped (milliken) conductor and round/preshaped wire (TW) overhead conductors.

that the pneumatically powered system is clean, energyefficient and simple to operate, with a welding capacity of 5.00 mm to 12.50 mm for copper, and 5 mm to 15 mm for aluminum. PWM is represented in North America by Amaral Automation Associates. Contacts: Pressure Welding Machines Ltd.,; Joe Snee, Amaral Automation Associates,,

Resin reduces the environmental impact of wire harness insulation Co-development efforts by SABIC Innovative Plastics and Japan’s Nissei Eco Company Ltd. have introduced ECO-01 tubing, a wire insulation product made from SABIC Innovative Plastics’ Flexible Noryl® resin, which is inherently flame-retardant (FR) and free of environmentally harmful heavy metals. A press release said that the product can significantly reduce the environmental impact of wire harness insulation. The resin is non-halogenated to help customers meet global environmental requirements, but it also surpasses PVC in wear resistance, it said, noting that as measured by

Cold welder has new language facility U.K.-based Pressure Welding Machines Ltd. (PWM), which designs and manufactures high-performance cold pressure welders and dies, announced that it has upgraded the operator interface on its best-selling EP500 rod welder to provide manufacturers with five new language options. The panel view on the machine can now display instructions in French, German, Spanish, Italian or Portuguese, and PWM plans to introduce Turkish and Czech shortly, a press release said. The new language capability, it noted, will enable manufacturers with multi-lingual workforces to configure and operate the EP500 more quickly, saving effort and reducing downtime. The EP500 is designed to produce strong, reliable welds cost-effectively on nonferrous wire and strip. The release said

OCTOBER 2010 | 101


A press release said that the company, which has 40 years of expertise in manufacturing of high-technology, stranding machines for the production of medium-, high- and extra-high-voltage power cables, has designed its newest system to offer complete flexibility. The release said that the advances were made possible through the following features: motorized bobbin pintles that require minimal maintenance; an auto-regulated, pneumatic braking mechanism that is settable at a control desk; instant wire breakage detection displayed at the control desk; fast row loading hydraulic system dedicated for each cage; the latest AC drives and PLC/Touch Panel control systems using Profibus & Profinet communication for complete line synchronization in case of power failure; and remote diagnostic assistance over telecom network. The release said the company has offered some of the largest stranders in the world, such as a 128-bobbin, rigid stranding machine for 500 kV cables, to some of the highest productivity stranders. “Our machines are designed with years of customer feedback and utilize sophisticated systems but are at the same time easy to use. We have a ‘No Compromise’ policy to source the best available inputs from around the world and exacting workmanship to create machines that deliver decades of trouble-free operation,” said AEI Executive Director Alok Jain. Contact: Associated Engineers & Industrials Ltd.,,


the JASO-D-608-92 abrasion test, Nissei Eco found that Flexible Noryl resin has much higher abrasion resistance than that of PVC. Further, the product is better than other non-halogenated materials, such as flame-retardant polyethylene (PE), in terms of affordability and processing ease, it said. The release explained that as the resin delivers high-temperature performance and can meet the requirements of UL105C, it does not require cross linking using electron beam radiation, a process that it pointed out is necessary for flame-retardant PE. Contact: SABIC Innovative Plastics,

tions for enterprise applications includes Pretium EDGE™ Solutions. Designed and developed with extensive end-user input for data center applications, Pretium EDGE Solutions address the needs of ease-of-use, scalability, termination density and technology future-proofing, while offering excellent total cost of ownership, it said. Enabled by Corning® ClearCurve® bend-insensitive multiLAN and data center technology mode fiber, Pretium EDGE Solutions: allow for up to 35 offers users multiple advantages percent faster deployment; enable up to 25 percent faster U.S.-based Corning Cable Systems LLC, part of Corning moves, adds and changes (MACs); and offers up to 100 Incorporated’s Telecommunications segment, reports that percent more density than traditional preterminated soluits latest technology for LAN and data centers offers many tions, it said. advantages. Corning Cable Systems’ latest on-demand tools for LAN A press release said that the collective technology, which design and deployment include the LANscape® Solutions was slated to have been showcased at the 2010 BICSI Fall Bill of Materials Tool. A free download from Corning, the Conference in September, present advances in multiple BOM tool allows customers to quickly and easily select areas. The latest addition to the optical fiber cabling soluthe products they need for LAN cabling systems, create a detailed bill of materials with part numbers and save or email the document from their own computer, the release said. Another solution is Corning’s Plug & Play AnyLAN™ Systems for both indoor and outdoor applications, which feature a multi-mode or singlemode optical fiber cable pre-installed with network access points at customer-specified intervals and a tethered, environmentally hardened MT connector. Once distance measurements for network access point locations are obtained, the preterminated system is manufactured and tested, and the entire system is then packed and shipped to the customer on a cable reel for immediate deployment in the desired indoor or outdoor application, it said. Contact: Corning Cable Systems LLC, e-mail

Cable assemblies and wire harnesses are custom-made U.S.-based JEM Electronics, Inc., is offering a line of custom-fabricated military cable assemblies and wire harnesses that are ITAR registered


applications such as communications equipment, encryption systems, control panels, and antenna systems, JEM military cable assemblies can incorporate connectors from Amphenol, Cannon, Glenair, Souriau, Tyco, and other leading suppliers, it said. Contact: JEM Electronics, Inc., tel. 508-520-3105,

Independent testing confirms that hardware is Cat. 6A compliant U.S.-based Siemon reports that independent testing by ETL confirms that the company’s Z-MAX 6A shielded connector exceeds all Cat. 6A component performance parameters specified by amendment 2 of ISO/IEC 11801, 2nd ed. and IEC 60603-7-51 for category 6A connecting hardware. A press release said that the tests, performed by Intertek, assessed NEXT loss, return loss, insertion loss, FEXT loss, TCL, TCTL, DC resistance, DC resistance unbalance, PSANEXT loss, and PSAFEXT loss performance, and that the shielded connecting hardware “showed performance headroom” across all tested parameters. It added

Call Cemanco for

Drawing Cones and Capstans (by Ceramtec)

Parts available for all OEM equipment SYNCRO parts in stock 951 N.W. 31st Avenue • Pompano Beach, FL 33069 Phone: 954/970-3099 • Fax: 954/970-3056 e-mail: Web page:

OCTOBER 2010 | 103


(cage code 3DTF7) and ISO 9001-2008 qualified. A press release said that the JEM military cable assemblies can incorporate ruggedized and standard fiber optics, 6 to 36 gauge wire, and coaxial cabling with a wide variety of connectors from leading vendors, all built to MIL specifications. The finished cable assemblies and wiring harnesses, it noted, are 100% tested for continuity, resistance, mechanical integrity, and the shielded cables are tested for hi-pot. Specializing in custom cable assemblies for electronic


that testing by UL verifies that the shielded end-to-end system exceeds Cat. 6A/class EA channel requirements specified by ANSI/TIA-568-C.2 and amendment 1 of ISO/IEC 11801 2nd ed. The complete Z-MAX 6A shielded channel consists of Z-MAX 6A outlets, Siemon Cat. 6A shielded cable and Z-MAX 6A patch panels, as well as Z-MAX 6A patch cords, which feature a design integrating a precisely tuned printed circuit board (PCB) into every plug for enhanced signal integrity and unparalleled end-to-end system performance, it said. The shielded connector’s high performance, the release said, is driven by an exclusive, patent-pending linear termination module that eliminates split and crossed pairs, and allows conductors to be laced quickly into position without pair crosses, thereby maintaining and protecting cable pair geometry for optimized transmission. Contact: Siemon, www.siemon and

MEDIAA Study covers HV & EHV cable market U.K.-based CRU has published a new study, The Global Market for HV & EHV Cables, that analyzes and forecasts the industries for high-voltage underground cables (up to 230 kV), extra high voltage underground cables (over 230 kV) and submarine power cables for all major countries and regions worldwide through to 2020. A press release said that there is great interest in the markets for high-voltage, extra high-voltage and submarine power cables, which in 2009 collectively represented “some 40% of the entire cable market’s profitability.” It noted that besides good margins, there has been increased global interest in renewable energy generation and growing global demand for electricity. The study, the release said, answers questions such as: What impact will the growth in renewable energy generation and other distributed generation have on transmission grids? Where will the new markets for HV power cables be and how will the market for high-voltage DC cables develop? When will superconducting cables have a significant impact on the market for traditional cables? Contact: CRU Wire & Cable, CRU Group,,


Company brochure highlights new non-contact measuring system U.S.-based Beta LaserMike has released a brochure highlighting the company’s CenterScan 2010 non-contact, eccentricity measurement system for wire and cable production. A press release said that the brochure, which can be seen online at Beta LaserMike’s literature library, describes how the CenterScan 2010 measurement system helps wire and cable manufacturers dramatically control and improve the quality of product while reducing material consumption, increasing productivity and maximizing profits. The CenterScan 2010, it said, accurately and reliably monitors the diameter of insulated wire and cable, and eccentricity of conductors, during extrusion and insulation processes of ferrous and nonferrous materials. The brochure also highlights competitive advantages, such as: a compact design for a wider range of system installation on the production line; robust electronics with superior noise immunity for closer placement to line devices; factory calibration for fast, easy setup and simple recompensation; and less sensitivity to product positioning within the measurement area. The system can measures diameters from 0.1-10 mm and determines eccentricity and diameter with +0.0005 mm accuracy, the release said. Typical wire and cable applications, it noted, include LAN, RF, coaxial, mini coaxial, telephone, automotive, and installation, to name a few. Contact: Beta LaserMike, tel. 800-886-9935, ■





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Fax to: (001) 203-453-8384 The Wire Association International, Inc. 1570 Boston Post Road | P.O. Box 578 | Guilford, CT 06437-0578 | Telephone: (001) 203-453-2777 | Fax: (001) 203-453-8384 | Web site:

WIRE ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL MEMBERS seeking positions are entitled to free “Position Wanted” classified ads. Limit: one ad per issue, three ads per year. This benefit is not transferable to nonmembers or to companies.

days after receipt. Responses to Blind Box ads should be addressed to: Wire Journal International, Box number (as it appears in print or on-line), P.O. Box 578, Guilford, CT 06437-0578 USA.

CLASSIFIED AD RATES: • $1.30 per word for WJI and on-line classifieds at (20 word minimum). • Blind box numbers, add $25. • Boldface headlines, add $6 per line (up to 18 characters per line). Specify category.

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POSITION WANTED POSITION WANTED. Exec Sales Manager/GM with 20+ years of success in the areas of industrial sales, sales/business management, strategic planning and business development. Global orientation with balance of sales, organizational, managerial and interpersonal skills; relentless, results-driven leader with strong record of building highly effective teams, business start up with minimal resources, and turnaround situations in low growth markets. Specialties include sales management and training, business development, building/managing distribution network, strategic planning, supply chain, business management. Please respond to Box 10-01.

CONSULTANT WANTED POSITION AVAILABLE. Consultant is needed for a small company starting to draw wire in various materials including steel alloys. We are looking for someone with “Hands On” ability to help us get started. Fax your information to 800-691-5608.

PERSONNEL SERVICES “LET OUR SUCCESS BE YOUR SUCCESS” Wire Resources is the foremost recruiting firm in the Wire & Cable Industry. Since 1967 we have partnered with industry manufacturers to secure the services of thousands of

DEADLINES: Copy is due a full month in advance, i.e., it must be received by March 1 for publication in the April issue. Classifieds booked on-line, run for at least one-month on-line, from the date of booking. Wire Journal International “Print classifieds” booked on-line as an “add-on” to an “online classified” booking will run in the next available issue.

key individual contributors, managers and executives. For corporations we provide recruitment, outplacement, and salary assessment functions. For the professional exploring a new opportunity, we provide career evaluation and guidance. Our services are performed in absolute confidence.

Contact: E-mail Peter Carino at or Jack Cutler at, or visit the Wire Resources website at w w w. w i r e r e s o u r c e s . c o m . Wi re Resources, Inc., 522 E. Putnam Ave, Greenwich, CT 06830, 203-622-3000 or 800-394-WIRE.



1 - HALL 500’ Vertical Accumulator, 1997 3 - NEB 48-Carrier CB-1 Cable Braiders 7 - WARDWELL 12-Carrier Braiders 10 -NEB #2 Braiders, 12-C, 16-C, 44-C, 96-C 1 - FRIGECO 800mm D.T. Buncher 13 -LESMO 630mm D.T. Bunchers 1 - WATSON 36” Rotating Cabler Line 2 - EDMANDS, WMCA 37-Wire 16” Planetary Cabler Lines 2 - NEB Model C62-2 12-Wire 8” Vertical Planetary Cablers, 1987 1 - CEECO 6-Bobbin 60” Closer w/ 96” Caterpuller, 120” Take-up 1 - DAVIS ELECTRIC Model CAT-TRAK 22 Caterpuller Capstan 1 - VITECK 24” Horizontal Belt Wrap Capstan 2 - NEIHOFF Model MMH121 MultiWire Drawers, 14 and 16-Wire 3 - DAVIS STANDARD 3.5”, 2.5” 24:1 L/D Extruders 2 - D/S 2.5” 24:1 L/D, 2” 30:1 L/D Hi-Temp Extrusion Lines 1 - D/S / KILLION 1” 24:1 Extruder L/D, 2001 2 - TULSA 24” Motorized Shaftless Payoffs, Model HSPO-1, 12/02 1 - EJR 18” Motorized Payoff, Model 260FWPPO

1 - EUBANKS 6415 Prefeeder, Model 6415-03 1 - NEB 54-Wire, 12+18+24, 22” Rigid Strander Line 2 - MGS 18-Bay 10” Tubular Stranders, outside string-up 5 - DAVIS STANDARD Dual Reel Take-ups, 36” (1), 30” (4) 1 - DAVIS ELECTRIC Model TAP30 Parallel Axis Dual Take-up 5 - NOKIA Model EKP50 Parallel Axis Dual Reel Take-ups 1 - CLIPPER Model SP16 Dual Spooler 1 - DAVIS ELECTRIC Model CRS30 Respooler 2 - WATSON/AFA 84” Rewind Lines, 6,600lb cap. 2 - TEC Model 24STC Hi-Speed Twisters, rated 1300rpm w/2-Wire Payoffs 1 - EUBANKS Model 4000-04 Cutter & Stripper w/HUESTIS 36” Payoff 1 - SCHLEUNIGER PS9500RS Rotary Stripper, 2005 1 - ZOLLER & FROLICH AI-01 Stripper, 2005 1 - IMAJE Inkjet Printer, Model Jaime 1000 S4, ‘98 29 -48” x 32-1/4” ID x 25” Barrel x 3” Arbor Toroidal Reels

Contact: Martin Kenner

COMMISSION BROKERS, INC. P.O. Box 8456 • Cranston, RI 02920-0456 • Tel. (401) 943-3777 • Fax: (401) 943-3670 WEB: • E-MAIL:

OCTOBER 2010 | 107




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MARKETING SERVICES FREELANCE MARKETING for the Wire & Cable industry. Specializing in event planning, tradeshow graphics, brochures, direct mail, content development, copywriting, advertisements, promotional items, turnkey creative management, presentation development, multimedia and more. Call TERRI TERRY at 828.238.1959, or

DIAMOND & CARBIDE DIES. Take advantage of discounted pricing on new, used and recut diamond and carbide dies in standard case sizes: 2, 5 and 6. For quality dies with competitive pricing, contact Ida Pardo by e-mail at or by phone at 617519-3303.


MOLONEY DIE COMPANY. Low prices on all sizes of new, used and recut carbide dies. We also recut tapered nibs. Fast turn-around. Quality service since 1985. Tel. 904388-3654.

APOLLO DIA-CARB COMPANY. Buy & sell new/used Natural and PCD DIAMOND DIES. Fair prices and excellent lead times. Contact Paulette, Owner-Sales, by telephone at 1-508226-1508 or by e-mail at apollodie@

SANCLIFF SHAPED WIRE DIES. All sizes and shapes R2 to R12. Highest Quality, Shortest Lead Times, Lowest Cost and Superior Customer Service. 60+ years of quality products and service to the wire industry. Contact Bill

Please e-mail the requested information to: WAI’s Cindy Kirmss at For more details, you can call her at 203-453-2777, ext. 116.

Drumm at 1-800-332-0747, or E-Mail at

MACHINERY WWW.URBANOASSOCIATES. COM. For New (Hakusan Heat Pressure Welders, Ferrous & Non-ferrous; Marldon Rolling Ring Traverses) and Used Wire & Cable Equipment. Available (Cleaned, painted & checked operational) Buttwelders: Micro Models E1S, J4S, J5S, J6S, THD, J45C, GP-0 and AD-5. Coldwelders: Koldweld Models KBM-5 & KBM-9. Babcock Models CBW-2, CBW-10 & CBW-20. Printers: Gillies Models GS500 & GS100HD. Roll Pointers: Morgan Models #250 and Hand Operated. Inquire on other used equipment. Please contact by telephone at 727-863-4700 or by e-mail at

WANTED TO PURCHASE – KINREI BUNCHERS AND CABLERS Kinrei of America wishes to purchase used Kinrei Bunchers and Cablers in good condition. We will quickly provide a quotation on any of our equipment and we feel we can offer the best pricing in the industry. Please feel free to contact Mitch Jacobsen at or 973Ͳ 494Ͳ6143. 108 | WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL

ELECTRICAL WIRE HANDBOOK. Focusing on the special needs of the insulated wire and cable industry, this three softcover book set examines materials, equipment, and products. The original version remains available while the revised Electrical Wire Handbook is divided into three separate handbooks: Part 1 - Wire and Cable Production Materials, Part 2 - Wire and Cable Production Processes, and Part 3 - Types of Cables. Parts 1 and 2 are now available, but the original handbook will still be available until Part 3 is published separately. List Price: $99, WAI Member Price: $59. To purchase, go to and click on The WAI Bookstore. FERROUS WIRE HANDBOOK. The most recent in a series of handbooks published by WAI, this comprehensive hard-cover book is a new, definitive industry resource for ferrous wire written by members of the Association and edited by former WAI President Robert M. Shemenski. List Price is $235, $195 for WAI members. To purchase, go to and click on The WAI Bookstore. THE BOOK OF WIRE & CABLE TERMS. Learn the A to Zs of wire and cable with this essential reference source. Published in 2003, this 350page soft-cover book covers both ferrous and nonferrous terminology. More than 5,000 entries are offered. Each entry was reviewed by a panel of industry experts with further input from more than 50 specialists within a wide range of disciplines. A musthave resource for anyone in the wire and cable business from the shop floor worker to the chairman of the board, The Book of Wire & Cable Terms spells it out for everyone. Price $75, $50 for WAI members, plus shipping. WIRE BREAKS, by Horace Pops and Julie Steininger. 2003, 49 pages. Breakage of copper, steel, or aluminum wire is one of the most common and

costly problems facing the wire industry today. It contains pictures of the most frequent examples of broken wires found in the wire mill and at the customer’s facility. List price: $15, WAI member price: $10. To purchase, go to and click on The WAI Bookstore. COLORING OF PLASTICS: FUNDAMENTALS. Edited by Robert A. Charvat, 2004, 402 pages, bound and indexed. This latest edition offers an updated introduction to color as a science. It describes the basic families of colorants, along with their properties, and examines how statistical analysis can improve the consistency of colored polymer production runs as well as the colorants used to match the color. It is intended to give polymer and colorant manufacturers, plastics compounders, and coating and synthetic fiber industries a greater appreciation of the complex technological issues a colorist must consider. List Price: $125.00, WAI Member Price: $105. NONFERROUS WIREDRAWING COOLANTS. 2005, 52 pages. This report comprises five technical papers that were presented in a theme session during the Wire & Cable Technical Symposium at WAI's 75th Annual Convention, Atlanta, May 2005. The following papers are included:

• “Increasing drawing fluid longevity in copper wiredrawing applications,” by Matt Hathaway, Etna Products, Inc., USA. • “Optimization of drawing lubricant performance in copper wiredrawing systems,” by Michael Quinn, RichardsApex, Inc., USA. • “Coolant filtration practices and healthy emulsion,” by Thomas Horn, Filtertech, USA. • “Media filtration for nonferrous wiredrawing coolant,” by Andrew Burns, Filtration Systems Products, USA. • “A quantitative study on the different lubrication modes for wiredrawing of 80Ni-20Cr wire,” by Roger N. Wright and Chitra Baid, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, USA; and Kamal Baid, JLC Electromet Pvt. Ltd., India. You may select Letter Rate shipping charges for this item when ordered separately from other products and in quantities of no more than two. List price: $15, WAI member price: $100. Ships in 7-10 business days. Product Code: TR-TS011. ■



Our well-established wire and cable manufacturing company in the Northeastern US is continuing to grow, and we are seeking a Plant Manager with the following credentials: • A minimum of 5+ years of Wire & Cable experience • Successful track record in managing a team within a manufacturing environment • A solid work ethic and communication skills • Computer savvy • Some college or a BS degree in Engineering preferred • Bilingual English/Spanish a plus Attractive salary commensurate with experience, sales/bonus opportunities and benefits. Send resume with salary requirements to: DEPT PM/WJ at: OCTOBER 2010 | 109




ADVERTISERS’ INDEX ADVERTISER . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PAGE

ADVERTISER . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PAGE

Alloy Wire International Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71

Conneaut Industries Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

Amacoil Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cover 3

EMCWA Electr Mfg & Coil Windg Assoc . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

Amaral Automation Associates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39

Esteves Group USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37

Anbao Wire & Mesh Co Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

Eurolls SpA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

Beta LaserMike . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

George Evans Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102

Bomco Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

FMS USA Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79

Bongard Trading GmbH & Co KG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42

Fushi Copperweld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59

Cable Components Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cover 2

Gauder Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42, 43

Cable Consultants Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82

Gem Gravure Co Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50

Carris Reels Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61

Howar Equipment Inc/Unitek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73

Commission Brokers Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107

Howar Equipment Inc/Metavan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81

Cemanco LC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103

Huestis Industrial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12, 22


Great minds are developing. Engineers. Metallurgists. Innovators. The future of the industry depends on them. Find them online. Connect with them. Influence them. And meet them halfway through WAI.

The Wire Association International, Inc. 1570 Boston Post Road | P.O. Box 578 | Guilford, CT 06437-0578 USA | Telephone: (001) 203-453-2777 | Fax: (001) 203-453-8384 |


ADVERTISER . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PAGE

Inhol BV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69

Properzi International Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2

IWG High Performance Conductors Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18

Queins & Co GmbH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41

Jinyoungtech Co Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27

Rainbow Rubber & Plastics Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20

Keir Manufacturing Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42

REELEX Packaging Solutions Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5, 63

Kinrei of America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108

Reel-O-Matic Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

Lamnea Bruk AB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21

Rosendahl Maschinen GmbH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45

Leoni Wire Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

SAMP USA Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26, 32

Lesmo Machinery America Inc/Appiani . . . . . . . . . . . . .103

SIKORA AG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

Messe Dusseldorf GmbH/Wire & Cable India . . . . . . . . . .65

Sjogren Industries Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101

Paramount Die Co/WiTechs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83

Staku . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .80

Pittsfield Plastics Eng Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19

SuperPower Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .78

Power Sonics LLC/Magnus Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75

Talladega Machinery & Supply Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4

Pressure Welding Machines Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

Teknor Apex Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67

OCTOBER 2010 | 111


ADVERTISER . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PAGE


ADVERTISER . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PAGE Tubular Products Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31

December 2010 WJI • Industry trends

US Synthetic Wire Die . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Vandor Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47


Windak Inc., USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Wire & Plastic Machinery Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Wyrepak Industries Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 Yuen Neng Co Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .56 Zumbach Electronics Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cover 4

WIRE ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL ADS Global Continuous Casting Forum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-15 Interwire 2011 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24-25 WAI Webinar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 WAI Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 Interwire 2011: Call for Papers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .84-85




Robert J. Xeller Anna Bzowski Wire Journal International 1570 Boston Post Road P.O. Box 578 Guilford, CT 06437-0578 USA Tel: 203-453-2777 Fax: 203-453-8384

U.K., France, Spain, Holland, Belgium, Denmark & Scandinavia Jennie Franks David Franks & Co. 63 St. Andrew’s Road Cambridge CB4 1DH, England Tel/fax: 44-1223-360472


SALES OFFICES ASIA/WAI INDIA OFFICE Germany, Austria, & Switzerland Dagmar Melcher Media Service International P.O. Box 103 D-82402 Seeshaupt Germany Tel: 49-8801-914682 Fax: 49-8801-914683

India Wire & Cable Services Pvt. Ltd. (WCS) 501, Rainbow Plaza, S. No. 7 Pimple-Saudeagar Vil. Rahatani, Pune - 411017, India Huned Contractor mobile - +91 988 1084 202

Wind up with an Amacoil/Uhing assembly for perfect pitch every time Pitch is adjustable (10:1) without requiring gear changes or adjusting motor speed. A single Amacoil/Uhing assembly may be used for winding many different diameter materials. Automatic reversal of the traverse is mechanically controlled – without clutches, cams or gears. No electronics or programming needed. FEATURES • Zero backlash. • Automatically synchronizes pitch with take-up reel rotational speed. • Traverse drives with up to 800 lbs. axial thrust. • Smooth, unthreaded shaft won't clog or jam – no bellows assembly needed. • One inexpensive, unidirectional motor drives both the traverse and take-up reel. • Free movement lever – no need to "jog" system on and off to position linear drive. • Options and accessories for every winding situation. • Light, medium and heavy-duty systems.

For Brochure or CD-ROM Call toll free 800-252-2645

email: AMACOIL, INC. PO Box 2228 • Aston, PA 19014 • Phone: 610-485-8300 • Fax: 610-485-2357

ZUMB.707.0105.U_WJ SEP.10

w True Length Measurement Even Down To Zero Speed


The Achilles heel of non-contact speed and length measurement has always been the detection of Zero speed or the period change from and to zero speed. Whether going through a change in direction or start/stop operation. These areas of concern have now been eradicated in the new Zumbach SPEEL 3000.

Ask us for additional information:

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18 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 20 Nov. 2010, Mumbai Booth AOA

Switzerland, Argentina, Benelux, Brazil, China, France, Germany, India, Italy, Spain, Taiwan, UK, USA www.


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