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I N T E R N A T I O N A L w w w. w i r e n e t . o r g


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Editorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6


Volume 43 | Number 1 | January 2010


Calendar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Industry News . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Asian Focus . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Fiber Watch . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

Report to members . . . . . . . . . . . . .30

Fastener Update . . . . . . . . . 28

This annual report by WAI Executive Director Steve Fetteroll highlights some key Association activities that took place in 2009, a year that will not soon be forgotten by the industry.

WAI News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

Wrapup: IWCS 2009 . . . . . . . . . . . . .40

Chapter Corner . . . . . . . . . . 39

IWCS organizers report that the 2009 staging went quite well, bolstered by the convenient location in North Carolina.

Technical Papers . . . . . . . 52-69 Products/Media . . . . . . . . . . 70 Classified . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Career Opportunities . . . . . . 76 Advertisers’ Index . . . . . . . . 79 March 2010 WJI

Preview of

Wire Expo

Feature: fiber optics versus copper . .42 This feature returns to a topic that has been debated for years: has bandwidth demand finally reached a point where copper cable, even 10 GB, can no longer compete in the last leg?



Filter system design, coolants, and production Tom Horn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Wire alloys and their use in electrical resistance furnaces James Brocklehurst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Estimation of standard PN-EN 10264 – steel wire for rope Ryszard Budzik, Bogdan Golis, Rafal Wludzik, Jan W. Pilarczyk and Wieslaw Waszkielewicz . . . . . . . 64

Cover: Copper cable continues to be upgraded to be more competitive with optical fiber for the last leg, but is it inevitable that optical fiber will displace 10 GB copper technology? Cover by Bill Branch.

JANUARY 2010 | 3




. . .10

There may still be much uncertainty in the wire and cable industy, but cable demand for windmills has been quite brisk. One of the latest customers for this technology is NV Bekaert SA. The Belgium company has entered a deal to have three windmills installed at its headquarters in Zwevegem. It noted that it is also considering using this environmentally friendly power source for some of its other operations.




The WAI’s new publication in India, produced by its subsidiary there and WAI staff, is one of the highlights in WAI Executive Director Steve Fetteroll’s annual “Report to Members.” The report, not just for WAI members, outlines subjects of interest to the industry as a whole. To view the quarterly publication, go to and click on the logo for “WIRE BULLETIN.”

. . . . . . . . . .46





Beginnings, opportunities and possibilities As a New Year begins we look forward to the opportunities it brings us. Like most people, I start the year with resolutions. I am going to walk two miles a day, learn to scuba dive, never eat fast food, improve my golf game and bring in a new member to the WAI. Why not? It’s a new year, and anything is possible! I once reported to a man named Fred Hershicorn, a Fortune 500 company marketing director who was active in many outside organizations, such as scouting. I asked him why and he wisely said, “You have to put more back than you take out so there is something for those coming along later.” I walked out of his office thinking, “Well, if he didn’t want to tell me he should have just said so.” Decades later, I believe that his statement makes a lot of sense. I didn’t become a scout leader, but I did become active in WAI. I found value in doing so and you may as well. There are big things ahead, such as Wire Expo being held this May as a two-day event in Milwaukee. It will be co-located with the National Electrical Wire Processing Technology Expo, and in conjunction with the American Wire Producers Association, which is holding its annual meeting and a new Long Products Symposium. Kudos to both groups for making these synergies happen. Our executive director, Steve Fetteroll, continues to make on-site visits to manufacturers and suppliers to seek their ideas and involvement. It’s all aimed at figuring out how to provide meaningful service to the industry we live and work in. There are far too many people who have contributed to these and other efforts to cite here, but if you read Steve’s report on p. 30, you will get a sense of the vitality. Our publication in India, which has a new editor, looks great, as you can see for yourself at (A special thanks to Anand Bhagwat for establishing us in India.) There are new initiatives to increase membership and offer more benefits. The headquarters continues to make electronic headway through its new operating system and ongoing series of webinars. I’d like to thank all the past, current and future WAI volunteers who put back into the industry for those who will follow. Regarding my resolutions, how can you pass up the fries at McDonalds? I’ll walk more but not two miles a day. Sorry Scott Higgins, I saw the movie Jaws and will never put on a scuba tank. Bob Shemenski will see no improvement in my golf game (we came in last at the 2009 Ohio Valley outing), but I do expect to sign up a few new WAI members. It will be both a good start and a good year. All the best to you and your families, and I hope that 2010 proves to be a healthy and prosperous year for each of you!

Dane G. Armendariz WAI President


Publisher | Steven J. Fetteroll Editor-in-Chief | Mark Marselli Senior Graphic Designer | Bill Branch Director of Sales | Robert Xeller Advertising Sales | Anna Bzowski Director of Marketing Services | Janice E. Swindells Graphic Artist | Adrienne E. Simpson Proofreader | Livia Jacobs Circulation Manager | Jan Valois Publications Advisory Board Antonio Ayala | J.J. Lowe, Mexico Ferruccio Bellina | TKT Group/President ACIMAF, Italy Malcom Michael | AWIA Australia Don Schollin | Q-S Technologies, USA Ralph Skalleberg | Skaltek USA Dave Stackpole | Nutmeg Wire, USA Giulio Properzi | Continuus Properzi, Italy Robert Wild | Niehoff Endex North America, USA WAI Executive Committee Liaison Dane G. Armendariz | Henkel Corporation Technical Advisors John Drummond | Scotia Group R. M. Shemenski | RMS Consulting, Inc.

WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL (ISSN-0277-4275) published monthly by The Wire Journal, Inc., is a wholly owned subsidiary of The Wire Association International, Inc., which is located at 1570 Boston Post Road, P.O. Box 578, Guilford, CT 06437-0578, USA, and can be contacted at tel. 203-453-2777; fax 203-453-8384; Internet; e-mail Address all correspondence concerning advertising production, editorial and circulation to the above address. WJI is printed in USA. Subscription rates: $110 per year, USA; $120 per year, Canada and Mexico; other countries, $140 per year (includes air mail). Back copies: $10 WAI members, $15 non-members. Periodicals postage paid at Guilford, CT 06437, USA, and at additional offices. Wire Journal International grants photocopy permission to libraries and others registered with Copyright Clearance Center (CCC), 21 Congress St., Salem, MA 01970, USA, for a fee of $0.50 per article. Payments should be sent directly to the CCC. Requests for bulk orders or reprints should be sent to the Wire Journal International, P.O. Box 578, Guilford, CT 06437-0578, USA. © 2010 by Wire Journal, Inc. All rights reserved. The Publisher of WJI assumes no responsibility for the validity of manufacturers’ claims made herein. Back issues of WJI are on microfilm and available from University Microfilm, 300 North Zeeb Road, Ann Arbor, MI 48106, USA. Phone: 313761-4700. POSTMASTER: Send address changes to Wire Journal International, P.O. Box 578, Guilford, CT 06437-0578, USA.

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CALENDAR March 9-10: Cables 2010 Cologne, Germany. To be at held at the Maritem Hotel Cologne, Contact: Applied Market Information, Ltd., U.K., tel. 44-117-924-9442, March 16-19, 2010: CABEX 2010 Moscow, Russia. To be held at the Sokolniki Exhibition Centre, CABEX focuses on cables, wires, fastening hardware and installation technologies. Contact: Exh. Dir. Natalia Medvedeva, Tel. 7-495 925 34 82, Apr. 12-16, 2010: wire Düsseldorf Düsseldorf, Germany. To be held at the Messe fairgrounds. Contact: Messe Düsseldorf North America, tel. 312-781-5180, May 9-11, 2010: AWPA Long Products Supply Chain Symposium and AWPA Annual Meeting Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. The American Wire Producers Association (AWPA) is organizing this new symposium, to be held May 10-11 at the Pfister Hotel. It will also hold its Annual Meeting on May 9-11. Contact: Heather Outhuse, AWPA, tel. 703-299-4434. May 12-13, 2010: Wire Expo 2010 Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. To be held at the Midwest Airlines Center, this event includes the WAI’s 80th Annual Convention, trade show and technical program. It will be co-located with The National Electrical Wire Processing Technology Expo. Contact: WAI, tel. 203-453-2777, May 12-13, 2010: The National Electrical Wire Processing Technology Expo Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. To be held at the Midwest Airlines Center, this event will be co-located with Wire Expo 2010. Contact: Jay Partington, Expo Productions, Inc., tel. 262-367-5500,

Sept. 21-24, 2010: wire China 2010 Shanghai, China. To be held at the Shanghai New International Expo Centre (SNIEC). Contact: Messe Düsseldorf North America, tel. 312-781-5180, fax 312-781-5188,, Oct. 27-Nov. 3, 2010: K 2010 Düsseldorf, Germany. This event for the plastics and rubber industry will be held at the Düsseldorf Fairgrounds, Halls 1-17. Contact: Messe Düsseldorf North America, tel. 312-781-5180, fax 312-781-5188,, Nov. 7-10, 2010: 59th IWCS Conference™ Providence, Rhode Island, USA. Contact: Pat Hudak, IWCS,,, tel. 732-389-0990. Nov. 18-20, 2010: Wire & Cable India 2010 Mumbai, India. This event, organized by the Confederation of Indian Industry, will be held at the Bombay Exhibition Centre in Goregaon. Contact: Confederation of Indian Industry, tel. 91-22-24931790, May 3-5, 2011: Interwire 2011 Atlanta, Georgia, USA. WAI returns to the Georgia World Congress Center for the trade show and the Association’s 81st Annual Convention. Exact dates to follow. June 19-23, 2011: JI Cable Versailles, France. This multi-organizer international conference on insulated power cables, which has multiple organizers and was last held in 2007, will present a comprehensive forum about power cables as well as exhibits. Contact: J1Cable 11, ■

W IRE ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL EVENTS For more information, contact the WAI, USA. Tel. 001-203-453-2777; fax 001-203-453-8384; Internet Jan. 27, 2010: New England Chapter Annual Meeting Uncasville, Connecticut, USA. The New England Chapter will return to the Mohegan Sun Resort Conference Center to hold its 16th annual meeting. Contact: Chip Marsh, tel. 203-453-1748, Feb. 9, 2010: WAI Extrusion Webinar Guilford, Connecticut, USA. “Extruders/Extrusion groups: design, configuration and typical application,” will be


presented at 11 am EST by Dominique Perroud, managing director of SAMP USA. See p. 34 for more details or contact WAI’s Marc Murray at May 12-13, 2010: Wire Expo 2010 Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA. See main listing. May 3-5, 2011: Interwire 2011 Atlanta, Georgia, USA. See main listing.


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INDUSTRY NEWS NV Bekaert SA is the customer for this windmill partnership NV Bekaert SA announced that it has entered into a partnership agreement with Electrabel, part of the GD Suez Group, for the construction of a wind farm on Bekaert’s site in Zwevegem. Bekaert reported that it plans to install three towers, each of which are rated for 2 MW production. It said that the Zwevegem location was not necessarily chosen due to its “wind potential,” but because the site was feasible and the space was available. “Moreover, with the very high energy prices in Belgium, Electrabel wind turbines in this project obviously Bütgenbach, Belgium. aims at economic returns too,” it said. A joint press release said that the two companies decided to work together to study the possibilities of on-site power generation, both in Belgium and abroad, as well as to ascertain the best energy conservation solutions for Bekaert’s activities.

Once permits are obtained, the first phase will be to construct the wind turbines in Zwevegem, with the power being used by Bekaert. Construction is scheduled for the end of 2011, with the goal being for Bekaert to begin using the “green electricity” in early 2012. The same approach, it said, is being examined for Bekaert sites abroad. “Thanks to this cooperation, Electrabel will further its desire to be more than a supplier to its customers. Electrabel, by providing Bekaert with solutions that are tailored to achieve energy efficiency, the rational use of energy, audits and energy production from renewable sources, will enable its customers to have better control over their energy costs,” the release said. “This move is part of the aim of Electrabel and the GDF SUEZ Group to develop reliable, high-performance and diversified production facilities featuring a balanced energy mix.” The release noted that, “The industrial partnership with Electrabel will boost energy-saving actions in which Bekaert has been investing for a long time, with the goal of controlling energy consumption at its plants and, consequently, reducing (carbon) emissions from its production.” It added that Electrabel is the biggest energy supplier on the Benelux market, and the largest producer of green energy in Belgium.

… but a ‘batty’ ruling takes wind out of an ongoing U.S. project in West Virginia At least for now, a U.S. judge has halted further development of another wind project, this one by Chicago-based Invenergy in West Virginia, because the Beech Ridge project’s 390-ft-tall windmills are within miles of a bat habitat. reports that U.S. District Court Judge Roger Titus has ruled that the project, which already has

now available on-line The WJI’s annual article index for 2009 can be accessed at Just click on “WJI” and then “Article Indexes,” which includes searchable files for 2009 and the three previous years.

Does your company have news that belongs here? E-mail it to the WJI at


A three-fold industry package promises to make for lots of synergies this May in Milwaukee, where attendees can participate in The 10th Electrical Wire Processing Technology Expo, a new symposium by the American Wire Producers Association (AWPA) and WAI’s Wire Expo event. Below are some brief perspectives from the organizers. Electrical Wire Processing Technology Expo The Internet has grown to be an indispensable part of the manufacturing community, but it can never replace the interaction of a targeted industrial trade show, said Jay Partington, whose company, Expo Productions, Inc., produces the annual wire processing event, to run concurrently with Wire Expo 2010, May 12-13, at the Midwest Airlines Center. “You can’t shake hands in cyberspace,” he said. Partington said that his event allows attendees to “test

drive” new technology. Upgrading manufacturing processes is a challenge, especially during economic downtimes, so the ability to watch new equipment run and feel confident it is what your company needs is valuable. Another key remains the ability to network with colleagues, he said, “You’ll find more of your own wire processing solutions by talking to machine designers, meeting the speaker from a technical seminar or having a beer with a new competitor.” The 10th Electrical Wire Processing Technology Expo will present a full range of topical seminars, a series of social events and the unique ability to meet more than 100 worldclass suppliers and service companies in the wire and cable processing industries, Partington said. Exhibitors include manufacturers of assembly equipment, crimping machines, test equipment, wire soldering equipment, spoolers and dereelers, and more. Attendees of both his show and Wire Expo will be able to discover a wider range of vendors for “a new set of one-stop solutions,” he said. AWPA: Long Products Supply Chain Symposium The American Wire Producers Association (AWPA) believes that it is imperative to have healthy companies in all parts of the long products supply chain to have a successful industry in North America. To that end, AWPA, partnering with WAI and other associations, will coordinate the Long Products Supply Chain Symposium, a new industry event, May 10-11. The symposium, explained AWPA Executive Director Kimberly Korbel, will bring together key decision makers from all strata of the

supply chain. “Business cycles are typically on the upswing in the spring, so it is an important time for entrepreneurs to gather information about the economic recovery. You’ll hear from industry leaders and experts in a knowledge-packed program. You’ll have an immediate ‘take-away’—new insight that you’ll gain from talking with your vendors, customers and peers—all in one place,” she said. Speaker topics include: The Manufacturing Economy in the U.S. and the World, which includes forecasts for the automotive, construction, agriculture, and retail markets; and an economic outlook of NAFTA countries, China, Europe and developing nations. U.S. Economic and Manufacturing Policy, which will cover the financial impact of healthcare reform, energy policy, and climate change; whether exports can save North American manufacturing; and if U.S. trade cases are the only way to protect the supply chain. And Supply Chain Outlook, which will cover worldwide scrap markets; the wire rod supply rollercoaster; and the effect of imports of finished products in the U.S. market.

“Anyone in the ferrous sector will find this symposium, to be timely, valuable and relevant to their business,” Korbel said. WAI Annual Convention and Wire Expo 2010 The WAI has focused on making its 80th Annual Convention, Wire Expo trade show and the related technical programs both simpler and more cost-effective for both exhibitors and attendees. A key element was paring the event from three to two days. When the news was announced last year about linking up with the Wire Processing event, then WAI President Antonio Ayala declared that the move would be a definite plus for the industry. “To have the two events side-by-side in 2010 enhances the value for attendees as well as exhibitors, which is critical in today’s difficult economic times,” he said. Beyond that, the compressed Wire Expo schedule will result in less time and lower costs for participant, he said. The WAI has adjusted its schedule to reduce conflicts between the technical programs and exhibits as much as possible. The WAI’s Fundamentals Course will be held Tuesday, May 11, but all other events will be held on either Wednesday, May 12, or Thursday, May 13. The Awards Breakfast and Opening Reception are both scheduled for May 12. Most exhibitors will be able to move in on Tuesday, May 11, but those who need more time can begin on Monday, May 10. More details will be presented in the February issue.

JANUARY 2010 | 11


3 industry events in Milwaukee this May offer plenty of reasons to go


started construction on 40 of the planned 120-122 windmills, will violate the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and that the developer must obtain an incidental take permit (ITP) from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), which allows the injury or death by lawful activities of federally listed species permit for the injury or death of Indiana bats. That process, the article said, could take several years and cost millions of dollars. The judge noted that this is an ironic story as it is the result of two federal mandates colliding. “This is a case about bats, wind turbines, and two federal polices, one favoring protection of endangered species and the other encouraging development of renewable energy resources. ... It is uncontroverted that wind turbines kill or injure bats in large numbers, and the Court has concluded, in this case, that there is a virtual certainty that construction and operation of the Beech Ridge Project will take endangered Indiana bats in violation of Section 9 of the ESA.” The report said that work can continue on the 40 wind turbines currently under construction, but Titus wrote that, “Any construction of additional turbines should not be commenced unless and until an ITP has been obtained. The simple reason for this is that the ITP process may find that some locations for wind turbines are entirely inappropriate, while others may be appropriate.” The judge will allow the completed turbines to be run, but only during the winter months when bats are in hibernation. Environment News Service reports that foundations for 67 turbines had been poured, turbine deliveries had begun and transmission lines were being strung along 23 miles of Appalachian mountain ridgelines. The project, to cost more than $300 million, will produce 186 megawatts of electricity, equivalent to the annual electricity consumed by 50,000 West Virginia households, it said. The Beech Ridge project was to include about 120 turbines with capacity of more than 180 megawatts, in Greenbrier County, West Virginia. Invenergy, which identifies itself as the largest independent wind developer in the U.S., notes that it has 19 operating projects with nearly 2 gigawatts of capacity in North America and Europe. The company notes that it is also a major natural gas power plant developer and is moving into solar.

Sonoco acquires EconoReel Corp. U.S.-based Sonoco reports that it has completed the acquisition of EconoReel Corporation, a manufacturer of injection-molded plastics spools and reels located in Logan, Utah, USA. Terms of the transaction were not disclosed. The acquisition, a press release said, includes a molded plastic spools and reels manufacturing facility in Logan, Utah, and additional manufacturing assets of Southern Reel, a controlled subsidiary of EconoReel located in Mississippi. EconoReel designs, manufactures and distributes small to mid-sized diameter plastic and composite spools and reels primarily for the insulated wire market. “EconoReel fills an important gap in Sonoco’s existing


plastic, plywood and composite wire and cable reel business by adding mid-range diameter plastic and plywood replacement spools and reels,” said Bob Puechl, division vice president and general manager of Sonoco’s Global Rigid Plastics business unit. “In addition, the business provides patented technology that improves product performance and reduces costs for our customers.” Sonoco’s cable-related operations include 21 plants, both domestic and in Canada, Mexico, Brazil, The Netherlands and Germany. At its website, EconoReel reports that the company was founded in 2002 by the father and son team of Robert and Jacob Ripplinger. Robert Ripplinger, it said, in 1989 founded a company called Spooltech, which supplied millions of spools and reels to U.S. customers in the west and south. In 1997, he sold Spooltech, and in 2002 the father and son decided to go back into the business.

Nexans lands major submarine cable project in Indian Ocean Nexans announced that it has been awarded a US$52 million turnkey contract by EDF to construct a new submarine power cable for the French island of La Réunion in the Indian Ocean. The cable link, a press release said, will take a subsea route along the coast to connect the power production area located at Le Port in the west of the island to the capital city of Saint-Denis, which requires much of the energy. The subsea cable route makes it possible to avoid having to create 20 km of aerial power lines across a natural environment made of rugged, steep and mountainous terrain, it said. Nexans will manufacture two 90 kV subsea XLPE cables, each 17.3 km in length, to provide a power link of around 100 MW, the release said. Each cable will include three phases with copper conductor cross-sections of 400 sq mm, resulting in a weight of 60 kg per meter for a total of 2,000 metric tons of cable. The company will also provide complete turnkey service for EDF, including design and manufacturing of the cable, as well as laying and protection, it said. The cable will be delivered and installed at a water depth attaining 100 meters. The La Réunion cables will be assembled in the specialized Nexans facility in Halden, Norway, and will incorporate fiber optic monitoring and control elements supplied by the Rognan plant, which is north of Norway, the release said. “The La Réunion project is particularly challenging, not only due to the terrain but also the local climate, and is a perfect illustration of our capability to implement innovative power connection solutions in even the most demanding global locations,” said Yvon Raak, Nexans Senior Corporate Executive Vice President. “We have a long standing working relationship with EDF and won this latest major contract following the successful completion of a number of similar projects.” (Industry News continued on p. 16)

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Ferrous Nonferrous Wire Making Wire Processing SEE BOTH SIDES AND MEET IN THE MIDDLE AT WIRE EXPO 2010 Look left. Look right. At Wire Expo 2010 you’ll be at the center of three events that bring wire makers and wire processors together in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, USA.


MAY 12-13


Find show details online at:

If you’re steel minded, feel free to flow from the American Wire Producers Association’s annual meeting and new Long Products Supply Chain Symposium May 9-11 into all of the Wire Expo activities and exhibits on May 12-13. One registration is all you need. Or if you’re energized by the electrical | nonferrous segment your registration will take you into neighboring territory as Wire Expo co-locates with the National Electrical Wire Processing Technology Expo to explore the downstream products and technologies that are of mutual interest. If you want to network with like-minded professionals visit us at Wisconsin’s Midwest Airlines Center where we’ll be celebrating the 20th anniversary of Wire Expo with new friends and great neighbors. Meet us in the middle at Wire Expo 2010.

Scheduled in conjunction with Wire Expo 2010.

Co-located with Wire Expo 2010.

The Wire Association International, Inc. 1570 Boston Post Road | P.O. Box 578 | Guilford, CT 06437-0578 | Telephone: (001) 203-453-2777 | Fax: (001) 203-453-8384 | Web site:

Wire Expo 2010

EXHIBITING COMPANIES as of December 2009

ACIMAF/Italian Trade Commission

Engineered Machinery Group Inc.

Allen-Balley Tag & Label Inc.

ERA Wire Inc.

Amacoil Inc.

Esteves Group

Amaral Associates

Eurowire Magazine/Wire & Cable Asia Magazine

Anbao Wire & Mesh Co. Ltd. AW Machinery Axis Computer Aztech Lubricants LLC B & H Tool Co. Inc. Balloffett Die Corp. Bartell Machinery Systems LLC Bekaert Corp. Beta LaserMike Bongard Machines USA LLC Brookfield Wire Co. Butt Welders USA Inc. Caballe SA Canterbury Engineering Co. Inc. Carris Reels Inc. Central Wire Industries Ltd. Clinton Instrument Co. Collins & Jewel Co. Commission Brokers Inc. Condat Corp. Conneaut Industries Inc. Cortinovis Machinery America Inc./Eurolls Group

George Evans Corp. Fabritex Inc. Filtertech Inc. FMS USA Inc. Foerster Instruments Inc. Fort Wayne Wire Die Inc. Frontier Composites & Castings Inc.

Leggett & Platt Wire Group


Leoni Wire Inc.


Lesmo Machinery America Inc.

SIKORA International Corp.

Lloyd & Bouvier Inc.


Madem Reels USA Inc.


Magnetic Technologies Ltd.

Sonoco Products Inc.

The MGS Group (MGS-HallNorthampton)

Stoelting LLC

Micro Products Co.

August Strecker GmbH & Co. KG

Morgan-Koch Corp.

T & T Marketing Inc.

Niehoff Endex North America Inc.

Talladega Machinery & Supply

Northwire Inc.

Gauder Group Inc.


Gem Gravure Co. Inc.

Ohio Rod Products


Oklahoma Steel & Wire

Gebr. Hezel GmbH & Co. KG

Paramount Die Co. Inc.

W. Gillies Technologies LLC

Parkway-Kew Corp.

Guill Tool & Engineering Co. Inc.

Phifer Inc.

Rudolf Grauer AG Heany Industries Inc. Heatbath Corp. Henkel Corp. Houghton International Inc. Huestis Industrial IDEAL Welding Systems LP Joe-Tools Inc. Krueger Steel & Wire

Pittsfield Plastics Eng. Inc. PolyOne Corp. PrintSafe Properzi International Inc. Queins & Co. GmbH Radyne Corp. Rainbow Rubber & Plastics Inc. Refractron Technologies Corp. Rockford Manufacturing Group

Die Quip Corp.

L-S Industires Inc.

Rosendahl Nextrom Technologies

Engineered Control Systems Inc.

Lamnea Bruk USA

Roteq Machinery Inc.

LaserLinc Inc.


Taubensee Steel and Wire Co. Traxit North America LLC Tubular Products Co. Tulsa Power Inc. United Wire Co. Inc. US Synthetic Wire Die Vandor Corp. Vollmer America Inc. Wafios Machinery Corp./ Witels Albert USA Ltd. Weber & Scher Mfg. Co. Inc. Windak Inc. Wire & Plastic Machinery Corp. Wire Association International Wire Journal International Wire Lab Co. Wire Machine Systems Inc. Woodburn Diamond Die Inc. Worth Steel and Machinery Inc. Zumbach Electronics Corp.


Neighbors look back on 50 years: Radcliff Wire and Plymouth Spring Two U.S. manufacturers, both a short drive away from each other in Bristol, Connecticut, have just celebrated 50 years in business, and are now focusing on the next 50. Led by company President Charlie Radcliff, Radcliff Wire, Inc., produces flat wire, square wire and special shaped wire in dozens of metals and alloys. Scott Kirkpatrick, vice president of sales and marketing, explained that Radcliff Wire has fared reasonably well in the economic downturn by the scope of its manufacturing. “One of (our) unique features is that we are not a commodity producing manufacturer. Because of the many different shapes, materials, odd tempers, and special requirements, each and every order is customer-specific.” Radcliff Wire benefits by selling to many different markets, Kirkpatrick said. “We began by servicing the spring industry. Today, we sell to aerospace, automotive, appliance, medical, jewelry, electronics, electrical, fasteners, marine, hardware, consumer and industrial, to name just a few.”

Radcliff Wire staffers gathered for a photo commemorating the company’s 50th anniversary. From l-r are company founder and Chairman Don Radcliff (seated), Treasurer Betty Radcliff and President Charlie Radcliff. Standing behind Don Radcliff is CEO Jeanne Radcliff. The company’s focus has also helped, Kirkpatrick said, “We don’t stock finished products. We concentrate on controlling the purchase of raw material. In down cycles, customers tend to buy in smaller quantities and closer to their date of production. Customers also look for vendors that have the purchasing power to procure raw materials at the right price and in a timely fashion. This is where we excel.” Kirkpatrick said that Radcliff Wire is not standing still. “We believe that to be able to celebrate future anniversaries, we need to expand our capabilities by offering more unique shapes, alloys, tolerances and value-added services that are not supplied by our current competitors,” he said. The 50-year milestone, Kirkpatrick said, represents the loyalty that the Radcliff family has for the company and the employees that work day-after-day to satisfy their customers. It is that “experience” benchmark, he declared, that will lead


Bristol Mayor Arthur Ward, r, admires Plymouth Spring Co.’s anniversary cake with President Richard Rubenstein. the company into the next half century. One long-time Radcliff Wire customer, which also just celebrated its 50th anniversary, is Plymouth Spring Co., Inc., a manufacturer of a wide range of springs, four-slide stampings, custom wire form parts and precision pins. Its specialty is compression springs, torsion springs and extension springs, and its customer base includes Fortune 500 companies and others around the world for sectors that include lighting, electrical, security, automotive and computer. Like many others, the company was hit by economy woes in 2009, with sales dropping about 30 percent, said company President Richard Rubenstein. Work was “not being stolen by other companies, it just wasn’t there,” he said. Those dismal conditions, he said, forced the company to have the first layoffs in its history and some worker furloughs. Times may be harsh, but the company has shown steady growth, Rubenstein said. Annual sales have grown from $1 million in the mid-1980s to about $13 million today, and the workforce has grown from 35 workers in 1988 to more than 50 today, almost all full time. Despite concerns about the economy, Plymouth Spring remains in decent shape, he observed. “Fortunately, we have no debt. We are very strong financially,” he said. “We have great customers who are taking a breather.” One plus for Plymouth Spring is that it has a customer base (1,500) that is diverse both geographically and by industry, which has helped, Rubenstein said. He is not confident that the economy has bottomed out but conditions appear to have leveled off for now and he hopes to avoid any more layoffs. Despite the uncertainty, he said that he remains optimistic. “We’ll be here for the long haul. We’re not going anywhere.” At the 50th anniversary celebration, Rubenstein congratulated the Plymouth Spring staffers. “The reason we’ve done so well is because of our employees,” he told the gathered workers. “You guys are terrific. You don’t know how many companies don’t make it 50 years.”

Italy’s Redaelli Tecna SpA announced that it has opened a new manufacturing facility in Trieste that will produce the largest wire ropes in the world. The new Italian facility will have the capacity to produce cables that are 175 mm in diameter and weigh over 550 metric tons, the largest such wire ropes ever manufactured, Steel Guru reported. The article noted that the current rope weight record will be exceeded by more than 200 metric tons. The story said that Redaelli, which produced 15,000 metric tons of wire rope in 2008, invested more than US$18 million in the facility. That, it noted, was done with help from its parent company, Severstal metiz, which acquired Redaelli in July 2008. Redaelli also produces PC strand and steel cord. At the new plant, the story said, some 25 employees will produce Flexpack compacted non-rotating steel wire ropes, which it described as “the industry standard for the most demanding high-load, high-resistance to axial and transverse pressure applications.�

Turkey, bringing the total number of offices to 10. The other locations are in Brazil, China, Egypt, India, Italy, Korea, Russia, Ukraine and U.S.

Draka expands the range of its subsea power cable technology Draka recently completed the expansion of its subsea power manufacturing capabilities for the offshore wind energy, oil and gas, and subsea power distribution markets, for

New ew Patente Patented Pate ented te e B ed Break-Down re eak-Dow wn Reels wn Reels

Sikora expands both its headquarters and its global presence Germany’s Sikora AG, which plans to expand its headquarters in Bremen in 2010, extended its worldwide presence in 2009 by opening up offices in Japan, France and Turkey. The company reported that it is extending one of its existing three buildings in Bremen by three stories to provide more space for future developments. Construction is scheduled to begin this spring, it said, noting that this follows the addition of a new building in 2007 for research, development and service. “Sikora sees further growth opportunities in the international market, for which the new building will be utilized to support this growth,� it said. In 2009, Sikora opened up a new office in Tokyo, where Yumi Ito will serve as sales manager. A native of Japan, she also speaks English and German fluently. She has completed six months of technical training in Bremen. During 2009, the company also opened offices in France and

• • • • •

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JANUARY 2010 | 17


Redaelli opens wire rope facility in Italy


which it now can provide medium voltage XLPE power cables up to 36kV from its factory in Drammen, Norway. “Not only have we expanded our manufacturing capabilities, we also offer a complete power solution for offshore wind,” said Martin Dale, commercial director of subsea cables for Draka. A press release noted that Draka has been delivering subsea power cables to the oil and gas sector for close to 30 years. “Our expanded capabilities better enable us to supply the increased power and communication needs in umbilical and platform-to-platform operations for the oil and gas market,” said Endre Espeseth, vice president, Draka Offshore.

Kiswire to build plant in Malaysia Kiswire SDN BHD, the Malaysian office of South Korea’s Kiswire Ltd., announced that Kiswire plans to invest US$80 million to build a new plant in Tanjung Langsat Industrial Complex for production of very large wire ropes for offshore and mining applications. A wire story noted that Kiswire said it had already bought the land and would announce orders for the building work by the middle of the year. The project will include dockside facilities to allow raw material to be delivered and finished

Kiswire’s NEPTUNE 2 plant, scheduled to be on-line in in 2011, will include record-sized equipment from SKET. cable to be loaded directly on to vessels. The goal is to provide “one-stop service” for the offshore industry from the new factory, the company said. It noted that the Neptune wire rope will be the largest offshore wire rope brand. The plant will deploy equipment from Germany’s SKET GmbH, which reported that it will supply the world’s largest planetary closer, suitable for making 160 mm rope, that can accommodate reels with a maximum capacity of 600 metric tons, It will also supply the longest tubular strander, able to produce strands of up to 55 mm at speeds to 100 m/min. SKET also supplied equipment for NEPTUNE 1. At its website, Kiswire reports that the new plant, NEPTUNE 2, to be located in Tanjung Langsat, on the east coast of Johor, Malaysia, will be operational in the summer of 2011. The announcement said that the company is installing equipment capable of manufacturing wire rope units in non-


rotating, multi-strand constructions. The plant’s annual capacity will be 25,000 metric tons, which matches the output for the company’s NEPTUNE 1 plant, it said.

South African tribunal to consider fines for fixing in the mesh products market South Africa’s Competition Commission announced that it has recommended that the body’s Tribunal impose fines for price fixing and market allocation of reinforcing mesh products market. At its website, the Commission said that four companies are involved in the investigation, including one BRC Mesh Reinforcing (Pty) Ltd., a subsidiary of Murray and Roberts Steel Group, that it noted has admitted its role in a leniency application. The other three companies are Aveng (Africa) Limited (trading as Steeldale Mesh); Capital Africa Steel (Pty) Ltd. (trading as Reinforcing & Mesh Solutions); and Vulcania Reinforcing (Pty) Ltd (“Vulcania”). In its September 2008 application, BRC admitted to participating in the cartel and was granted conditional immunity, it said, adding that it will not be subjected to the 10% penalty being sought for the other three companies. The fine would be 10% of the annual revenue on individual companies, it said. The case stems from activity that violated the Competition Act between 2001 and 2008 by engaging in price-fixing and market allocation, the Commission reported. “This was done through monthly formal meetings under the auspices of South African Fabric Reinforcing Association (SAFRA). After the respondents were advised that their conduct was a contravention of the law, the formal meetings were largely replaced by informal meetings which were held in restaurants, golf courses and pubs. In these meetings the four respondents agreed to fix the selling price and discounts for reinforcing mesh products, and to not sell to or target each other’s customers.” The committee reported that all of the respondents compete in the reinforcing mesh market and are suppliers and manufacturers of products such as hard-drawn wire, welded steel mesh for construction reinforcing and relatedproducts, as well as fencing products and other wire-related products.

Leoni converts former brake factory to automotive cable plant in Serbian town Germany’s Leoni AG recently opened a plant in Prokuplje, located in southern Serbia, that produces automotive cables. It is starting with 400 workers and plans to employ as many as 1,000 people later this year. Serbia Montenegro reported that Leoni is investing about US$22 million to convert what was the defunct Fiaz brake factory in Prokuplje into a modern plant for producing automotive wires. It noted that Leoni had also considered Bulgaria but ultimately chose a good offer that included incentives by the Serbia Investment and Export Promotion Agency and the Local Economic Development Office of Prokuplje.

WAI has issued its official announcement that the Association will return May 3-5, 2011, to the Georgia World Congress Center in Atlanta, Georgia, USA, to hold its 81st Annual Convention and Interwire 2011. The Interwire trade show has been shortened to a threeday event and the paperwork is being sent to exhibitors. Companies considering exhibiting can send a request for that information to WAI must receive completed applications from exhibitors by March 8, 2010. The Points Meeting, where exhibit space will be allocated, will be held March 11, 2010, at WAI’s headquarters.

Draka Cableteq USA wins DoE grant Draka Cableteq USA has won a $3.2 million grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) to develop next generation downhole cables for geothermal applications. A press release said that Draka Cableteq USA, a business of Netherlands-based Draka, will support the development of a new generation of tools that will allow Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) to supply the U.S. with clean, carbon-neutral electrical power. It noted that six different Draka companies in the U.S., France and Netherlands cooperated to win the grant. The company noted in the release that there is currently no

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cable available that can operate in a well hotter than 300°C for a period greater than a few days. Insulated wire and glass fiber cables are crucial for EGS as they are used for downhole tools such as temperature and pressure sensors to communicate with the surface, it said. It noted that one EGS power plant has the potential to generate power equivalent to more than 40 wind turbines or a coal-fired plant.

Corus to test steel process method that could halve carbon emissions Corus announced that it will test what it described as “potentially groundbreaking new iron making technology” in a pilot plant project scheduled to be commissioned at the end of 2010 at its IJmuiden steelworks in the Netherlands. A press release said that the technology, called Hisarna, “has the potential to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide in the blast furnace steelmaking route by more than 50%.” The US$30 million project is an initiative done under the auspices of ULCOS, a consortium of European steelmakers that has drawn up the world’s most advanced program to reduce the steel industry’s carbon footprint, it said. The pilot plant, which will have annual capacity of 60,000metric tons, will produce liquid iron from virgin raw materials in a single step, eliminating two of the three production steps required in blast furnace iron making, the release said,

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JANUARY 2010 | 19


Interwire 2011 dates announced


adding that the process could represent a 20% improvement in steel industry energy efficiency.

Prysmian to supply fiber cables to KDG Prysmian Germany announced that it has won a contract to supply fiber optical cables to Kabel Deutschland (KDG), which it described as Germany’s largest CaTV operator. The contract, a press release said, calls for Prysmian to supply a wide range of optical cables for the KDG network, covering fiber counts from 12 up to 216. The cables, it said, will be used by KDG in the ongoing enhancement of its infrastructure, providing Fiber-To-The-Building (FTTB) and thus allowing the improved delivery of broadband services to its growing customer base. The release said that KDT operates cable networks in 13 German federal states and supplies its services to approximately 9.1 million connected households in Germany.

News in brief U.S.-based Amaral Automation reports that it has been named the exclusive representative in the U.S. and Canada for Sweden’s Subec AB, which provides adjustable guide rollers, straighteners, ceramics, pulleys, sheaves, wheels, length meters, mechanical traverse units that it said provide the marketplace with a reliable and quality source of consumables for the wire, cable and plastic industries. Notes Subec Sales Manager Horst Schneider, “Amaral Automation with their experience and industry contacts will help us to increase our presence in these specific market areas.” Amaral Automation also represents B&H Tool Co., Bardac, Engineered Control Systems (ECS), Industrial Indexing Solutions (IIS), New England Temperature Solutions (NETS), Maag pump systems, Powertec Industrial Motors, Rosendahl/Nextrom, TSM Control Systems, Tulsa Power, W. Gillies Technologies, Yield Management and Zumbach as well as serving as the North American distributor for the Pressure Welding Machine (PWM) line of cold pressure welders, dies and spares. … Ryan Cahill, regional sales manager of Zumbach Electronics Corp., was among the 43,741 runners participating in the 2009 ING New York City Marathon. He and his wife, Cheryl, both ran to raise funds for prostate cancer research in honor of Ryan’s brother. … U.S.-based B&H Tool Company has expanded its field resources for customers in the Pacific Northwest with the addition of Equipment Resources Northwest, Inc., to its North American rep network. Headquartered in Portland, Oregon, Ryan Cahill Equipment Resources has extensive experience with the precision tooling used for plastic extrusion. “This is an excellent match for us,” said B&H Tool President Peter Neville. “Equipment 20 | WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL

Resources Northwest has outstanding credibility in the medical device market, as well as in the communications and wire and cable sectors, where B&H Tool is also wellknown.” … U.S.-based Molex Incorporated announced that it has received the prestigious Core Partner Award for superior performance as a global supplier from China’s Huawei Technologies Co. Ltd., a provider of next-generation telecommunications networks. It also reported that its Dongguan, China facility was presented with the Ford Motor Company’s Q1 Award, its highest recognition for supplier quality and service. … Austria’s Eder Engineering has named Matthias Bruegger as its representative for Colombia/Ecuador. He currently represents companies such as Wafios, Koch, Schlatter, Strecker, among others. … The Austrian Wire and Cable Machinery Manufacturers´ Association (AWCMA/VOEDKM). founded in 1988 by Dr. Kurt G. Eder, named the following board members who will serve through 2012: President Dr. Kurt G. Eder (Eder Engineering-Austria); Vice President Robert Ebner (Ebner Industrieofenbau); Secretary Werner Lichtscheidl (Medek & Schoerner); and Officers named for the Coordination & Advisor Austrian Wire and Cable Siegfried Altmann (Knill Machinery Manufacturers´ Group/Rosendahl GmbH) … Association (AWCMA/ U.S.-based Cobra Wire & VOEDKM). Cable, Inc., reports that Richard S. Schwob has joined its Board of Directors. His telecom and electrical business background spans many years with companies like Marconi, formally RELTEC, and Burndy Corporation. … Houston Wire & Cable Company (HWCC), a U.S. distributor of specialty wire and cable, announced it was included in Forbes’s list of the 200 Best Small Companies in America for 2009. In addition to stock price performance versus peers, the ranking is based upon return on equity, sales growth and profit growth over the prior twelve month and five year period. HWCC said that it maintained 3rd place in the important 5-year average return on equity category. … New Hampshire’s Department of Environmental Services has awarded an Honorable Mention to Hitachi Cable Manchester (HCM) for its submission for the Governor’s Award for Pollution Prevention. HCM currently has 21 green initiatives that it has undertaken in an effort to further limit the environmental impact of its manufacturing facility. HCM noted that it has simultaneously increased its recycling efforts and significantly reduced its process waste, including a dramatic reduction in the amount of methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) it generates by transitioning to water-based products. ■

ELANTAS Welcomes The Formulated Resins Business of


Resin systems for the overall protection of electronic circuits and electric devices

ELANTAS Electrical Insulation is your global leader in liquid electrical insulation. ELANTAS provides materials all along the electric and electronic value chain. Wires are covered with our wire enamel before they are wound into a coil. The coil is additionally insulated with our impregnating resins to ensure electrical insulation, mechanical strength, and thermal conductivity. Our electronic and engineering materials are used to cast, encapsulate, or imbed electrical or electronic components like circuit boards, sensors, or motors. It is in the area of electronic and engineering materials that our two newest additions, Quadrant and Shimo, will reside. The unique technologies and applications provided by these acquisitions will enhance the ELANTAS leadership position around the globe. ELANTAS intends to leverage the new resins systems acquired in these acquisitions to service all of our customers with a broad range of products to meet their electrical insulation needs. ELANTAS Group: ELANTAS Beck, ELANTAS Beck India, ELANTAS Camattini, ELANTAS Deatech, ELANTAS I.E. do Brasil, ELANTAS PDG, ELANTAS Tongling, ELANTAS UK, ELANTAS Zhuhai


ASIAN FOCUS ments over the next three years to stimulate the economy. It noted that China’s power cable market is not easy to penetrate because of the preferential treatment given to Chinese LS Cable Ltd., Korea's largest power cable maker and one companies and high customs duties on foreign products. of the largest cable makers in the world, has established a “The strategic significance of LS Cable’s acquisition of subsidiary in China as part of its efforts to secure a foothold Hongqi Electricity is that it has laid the foundation for breakin the fast-growing market. ing down an entry barrier to the Chinese market as well as The company announced at its website that it has opened secured a base in Hubei Province, a point of strategic importhe subsidiary, LS Hongqi Cable Co., heralded by a ceremotance for the development of Northwestern China,” it said in ny in the city of Yichang, in China’s Hubei Province. The another press release. launch follows LS Cable’s acquisition in September 2009 of LS Cable has a considerable presence in China, with an a 75% percent stake in Hubei Yongding Hongqi Electricity, affiliate in Wuxi, Jiangsu Province, that produces power China’s third-largest submarine cable maker, from China’s cable connectors, bus ducts, automotive cables, and Yongding Group for US$17 million. device cables; one in Tianjin, Hubei Province, that proAt the LS Cable website, it states that Hongqi Electricity duces winding wires and another that produces winding was founded in 1968 by the wires for power transmisChinese government with sion for US-based SPSX, a the aim of fostering key 2008 LS Cable acquisition. national industries. It LS Cable plans to capitalemploys about 1,000 people ize on the acquisition of and its main clients are Hongqi Electricity to comstate-run enterprises. It proplete its overall business portduces submarine cables, folio in the Chinese market, power cables (including and take advantage of its 220kV extra-high voltage sales arm in Shanghai, LSIC, cables), and special industrito extend market coverage al cables and more in its across China, a release said. plant in Yichang City, the It will “aggressively target second largest city in Hubei special industrial cable marProvince. The Yongding kets including markets for Group had acquired Hongqi With the creation of its new subsidiary and recent acquisition 220kV plus high-voltage Electricity, a state-run enter- of China’s Hongqi Cable Co., South Korea’s LS Cable has power cables, submarine prise, in 2003, and managed furthered its presence in key markets. cables, and cables for railroads, it until the business was sold ships and nuclear and wind as part of the group’s restrucpower plants, and transform it turing strategy. into a major cable maker in China worth KRW1 trillion “The brand awareness and customers of Hongqi within a few years,” it said. Electricity, the production technology and operating capabilLS Cables’ ultimate goal is not just to be the leader in ities of LS Cable, and the synergies we have with existing China but to use that potential to become the leader elsebusinesses will allow us to turn the company into a major where as well. “To become the world’s No. 1 cable maker general cable maker in China,” said LS Cable President we will reinforce our global presence by strengthening our Jong-ho Sohn. internal business competitiveness, engage in small M&A’s LS Cable, which was listed as the 7th largest cable compain strategic markets, and beef up and expand our business ny in terms of revenues for 2007 (and may have climbed in the key positions we already have,” LS Cable President higher since then because of acquisitions), has made China a Jong-ho Sohn said. top priority. LS Cable Chairman Koo previously said that the LS Cable, which notes that it has over 60 branches and company’s goal is to become “No. 1 in the cable market of affiliates in 20 countries, reports that in terms of sales, it is China.” The company cited the following reasons for why the world’s third largest cable maker. it sees such potential. The Chinese market, which currently During a visit with employees, Chairman Koo told accounts for 24% of the global power cable market, is employees, “The success of any business depends on its expected to see considerable annual growth until 2012 as the people. You will be the ones who will enable Hongqi Chinese government is expected to make substantial investElectric to achieve its vision for growth.”

South Korea’s LS Cable has big plans and new subsidiary in China

Have news that belongs here? If so, e-mail it to


Consortium plans to build Asian cable system with largest broadband capacity An agreement has been entered into by a group of major telecom and technology companies to build and operate the Southeast Asia Japan Cable system (SJC), a newly proposed international submarine cable system that was described as, once complete, being able to provide the highest broadband capacity in the world. The SJC system, estimated to cost US$400 million and measure 8300 km, will initially link Singapore, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Philippines and Japan, reports India Infoline News Service. It said that the six-fiber-pair high capacity submarine cable system has a design capacity of 17 Terabits per second (Tbps) upgradeable to 23 Tbps, the highest capacity system ever built so far. Companies that are part of the project include Globe Telecom (Philippines), Google (USA), KDDI (Japan), Network i2i, Reliance Globalcom (through FLAG Pacific Limited, Bermuda), and Telemedia Pacific Inc., Ltd. (Hong Kong/Indonesia), the report said. It noted that other initial parties have signified their intent to participate in the project once requisite approvals have been obtained. The project, it

said, is expected to be operational in 2012. “This breakthrough project will link the Philippines to the Southeast Asia Japan Cable System and give our customers enhanced data connectivity going out of the Philippines to Hong Kong, Japan and Singapore, and onwards to the U.S.,” said Globe CEO and President Ernest Cu.

India company commissions wire rod plant Nagpur-based Jayaswal Neco Industries announced the commissioning of a wire rod plant that it said is part of the company’s plans to offer steel processing. The company notes that it already makes about one million metric tons of iron a year, and “now with the commissioning of our bar mill and wire rod mill, we will be in the fully finished alloy steel market.” The expansion, the company said, includes the implementation of a 300 MW power plant and the creation of a subsidiary company to be called Raigad Energy. Ramesh Jaiswal, Joint Managing Director, said that the wire rod mill will have initial capacity of 450,000 metric tons a year. Jayaswal Neco Industries is a flagship company of the Neco Group of Industries, which was promoted by Basant Lall Shaw in 1976. The company has two strategic business groups: a steel plant division and a foundry division. ■

JANUARY 2010 | 23




PEOPLE U.S.-based Sonoco announced that M. Jack Sanders has been named executive vice president, consumer, with all of the company’s global industrial businesses reporting directly to him. A 1976 graduate of Louisiana State University with a B.S. degree in finance, he joined Sonoco in 1987 as national sales and marketing manager, wire and cable reels. In 1991, he was named general manager for Sonoco’s Protective Packaging division and was promoted to division vice president and general manager of Protective Packaging in 1998. He M. Jack Sanders was elected a corporate officer and named vice president, Industrial Products, North America, in 2001. He was named vice president, Global Industrial Products, in 2005, senior vice president in 2006 and executive vice president in 2008. He succeeds Charles Sullivan, who is retiring at the end of March, and had held that position since 2005. He previously served as senior vice president, 2000-2005; regional director, Cargill Asia/Pacific in 2000, and president, Cargill's Salt Division, 1995-2000. He joined Sonoco in 2000. The company also said that John Colyer has been named vice president, Global Industrial Converting. He will have responsibility for the company’s global tubes and cores, protective packagCharles Sullivan ing, wire and cable reels and paperboard specialties. He joined Sonoco in 1983 and has held numerous business leadership and manufacturing positions in businesses serving industrial and consumer markets. Prior to this appointment, he was vice president, North America Converting. He also served as vice president, Industrial Products Division (IPD), North America, and served as division vice president and general manager, IPD, North America since 2006. In 2004, he became division vice president of manufacturing, IPD, North America. He holds a B.S. degree in business administration from Southern Oregon State University. Based in Hartsville, South Carolina, USA, Sonoco Products Company supplies a wide range of industrial and consumer packaging products and packaging services. Teknor Apex Company has named Rod Fischer to be the director of sales for the company’s Vinyl Division. He joined the company in 2000 and most recently served the Vinyl Division as western regional sales manager. He has 15 years of experience in the PVC compounding marketplace. Prior to joining Teknor Apex, he worked for five 24 | WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL

years as the business development manager for Manner Plastic Materials, Inc., a compounder of PVC, TPE, and olefinic materials. Previously, he held managerial and sales positions with other firms, including nine years in the metals industry. He holds an MBA from the University of California at Irvine and a BSc degree in Rod Fischer Economics from Michigan State University. He is a member of the Society of Plastics Engineers and the Wire Association International. He replaces Jack R. Loiselle, who is retiring after leading the Division’s sales program for many years. Replacing Fisher as the new western regional sales manager is Marcy A. Shay. She has 15 years of experience in the polymer industry. She joined Teknor Apex in 2000 as a sales engineer in charge of Ohio and Michigan and managed the company’s OEM development activities in those states. Previously she held sales and technical service positions with Goodyear Chemical, Nemotrade Corp. (Petroflex), and Mach-1 Compounding (M.A. Hanna Company). She holds a B.S. degree in chemical engineering from the University of Akron. Based in Pawtucket, Rhode Island, USA, the Vinyl Division of Teknor Apex Company is an international compound supplier to sectors that Marcy A. Shay include wire and cable. Allied Wire & Cable has named two more sales representatives. Lori Paczewksi has joined the company’s office in Pennsylvania. She has been in sales since graduating in 2006 from Shippensburg University with a bachelor’s degree. Kim Morrison has joined the company’s New Hampshire Lori Paczewksi office in Merrimack. Her background is in financial services and she has a degree in English from Clark University. Based in Collegeville, Pennsylvania, USA, Allied Wire & Cable supplies electrical wire and Kim Morrison cable products in the U.S.

Valerio Battista, CEO of the Prysmian Group, has been elected president of International Cablemakers Federation (ICF), the worldwide association of manufacturers of cables and systems for energy, data and telecommunications. ICF, founded in 1990 with a permanent Secretariat in Vienna, with more than 100 members from 30 countries from regions all over the globe, seeks to promote the use of cables in all sectors of application, the promotion of energy savings and increased safety, as well as the publishing of analysis and research regarding the industry.

John Shwartz has been named to fill the new position of northwest regional sales manager for Alps Wire Rope. He will be responsible for the northwestern states as well as three Canadian provinces. He has more than 25 years of sales experience in the crane industry including selling experience in boom trucks, carry decks, rough terrains and crawler crane markets. Based in Glendale Heights, Illinois, USA, Alps Wire Rope supplies a wide range of products as well as fabrication services John Schwartz for wire rope.

The Supervisory Board of Leoni AG has extended the contract of Management Board Chairman Dr. Klaus Probst for five years. The new contract runs through the end of 2014. He has been with the Leoni Group for 20 years and was appointed to its Management Board in 1997. He has been the Board’s chairman since July 2002. He holds a PhD in chemical engineering and is in charge of the Wire & Cable Solutions division. Based in Nuremberg, Germany, Leoni AG is one of the largest wire and cable Dr. Klaus Probst producers in Europe. â–

JANUARY 2010 | 25


Todd Thurston has joined Hitachi Cable Manchester, Inc. (HCM) as vice president of premise and fiber sales. He previously worked for HCM from 1993 to 1996 as a regional sales manager, and since then has held sales management positions at Essex, Nordx/CDT and CommScope. Most recently, he was the vice president of sales for Mohawk Inc. Based in Manchester, New Hampshire, USA, Hitachi Cable Manchester manufacturers copper and fiber optic cables for the communication industry as well as round and flat electronics cables.


FIBER WATCH Report card for broadband deployment to U.S. homes reveals mixed grades A report by the Columbia Institute for Tele-Information (CITI) on broadband services to the home in the U.S. cited both positives and negatives in terms of what has been accomplished to date. The CITI’s report was in response to a request from the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), an independ-

Optical fiber is expected to be a key in broadband deployment in the U.S. ent U.S. government agency that reports to Congress, to do “an analysis of the public statements of companies as to their future plans to deploy and upgrade broadband networks as well as an historical evaluation of the relationship between previous such announcements and actual deployment.” Optical fiber plays a key role in broadband, with the report citing estimates that Fiber-To-The-Home (FTTH) was available to about 17 million homes (homes passed) in mid 2009. Verizon, it noted, has announced that it will deploy FTTH systems capable of serving 17 million locations by 2010, and a number of other smaller companies, including small rural telephone companies, will be covering additional homes with FTTH. AT&T has also announced it will offer DSL from fiber-fed cabinets (fiber to the neighborhood: FTTN DSL) to 30 million homes by 2011, it said, adding that AT&T currently offers advertised speeds of up to 18 megabits per second downstream (although the actual speed can be much lower), with increases possible as bonding allows doubling total speeds on DSL. “Therefore, if just these two largest telephone companies achieve their goals, at least 50 million homes will be able to receive advertised speeds of 10 megabits per second or more downstream within the next two years,” it said. Other telephone companies will be providing additional similar offerings in their service areas, it noted. One of the key positives in the report is that by 2013, 14 26 | WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL

broadband service providers expect to be able to serve about 95% of U.S. homes with at least a low speed of wired broadband service and they expect to offer to about 90% of homes advertised speeds of 50 mbps. Further, service providers expect to provide many homes with access to these higher speeds by 2011-2012, and wireless broadband service providers expect to offer wireless access at advertised speeds ranging up to 12 mbps downstream (but more likely 5 mbps or less due to capacity sharing) to about 94% of the population by 2013. Another plus cited is that besides wireless broadband choices, the majority of American homes will have the choice of two wired broadband services, it said, noting that upstream speeds for wired and wireless services will generally be significantly lower than downstream. That’s the good news, but there are some aspects that are not so noteworthy. The report concludes that a significant number of U.S. homes, perhaps 5 to ten million (which represent 4.5 to 9% households), will still have significantly inferior choices in broadband. Most of these homes will have wireless or wired service broadband available only at speeds substantially lower than the speeds available to the rest of the country, it said. Some of these homes, it added, will have no choice except satellite broadband, which has some performance attributes that make it less satisfactory for many applications than a terrestrial broadband service. Another conclusion, it said, is that the adoption of broadband service will continue to lag substantially behind the availability of broadband for the foreseeable future. Investment analysts forecast that about 69% of households will subscribe to wired broadband by 2015, and that 53% of the population will subscribe to wireless broadband services by 2013, it said. Broadband service is currently available from cable companies to 92% of households according to estimates, the report said. Comcast, the largest cable company, addressing nearly half the U.S., expects to cover nearly all its 50.6 million homes passed by 2010, it said. Regarding wireless, the report said that a number of wireless broadband service providers expect to deploy Long Term Evolution (LTE) and WiMAX technologies (so called “4G” wireless services) between 2010 and 2013. If that comes about, it would bring multi-megabit speeds to a majority of U.S. homes and population, it said. The wireless services offer shared bandwidth, so the speeds obtained by users will be dependent on actual traffic loads at each cell site, and in particular on how many users are simultaneously using bandwidth intensive applications, such as watching video on wireless Internet connections, it said. It cited Verizon, which it said expects that by 2013 it will be able to use LTE that will provide subscribers with 4 to 12 mbps downloads in a deployment planned to reach all of its covered population. It added that at the end of 2008, Verizon’s network covered 288 million people, about 94% of the U.S. population.

A new survey by the National Telecommunications Cooperative Association (NTCA), which represents more than 560 locally owned and controlled telecommunications cooperatives and commercial companies throughout rural and small-town America, reveals that small rural communications providers are deploying fiber at an impressive pace, bringing faster high speed broadband service to America’s rural communities. NTCA’s 2009 Broadband/Internet Availability Survey found that nearly three-quarters (73%) of respondents with a fiber deployment strategy intend to offer Fiber-To-The-Node to more than 75% of their customer base by 2011, a press release said. In terms of Fiber-To-The-Home, 55% plan to offer that service to more than half their customers in that same time frame, a rate that is more than double from last year’s 26%, it said. Rural areas, the release said, are seeing significant gains in broadband speeds, primarily due to the increased fiber availability in their communities, according to the survey. It noted that 53% of respondents indicated that their customers can now receive broadband service of between 3 and 6 Mbps (up from 46% last year), and 39% can receive service in excess

King of the Hill

of 6 Mbps, an increase from just 25% one year ago. Survey respondents also indicated an increase in take rates for the higher broadband speed tiers, it said. While growth is strong, that does not mean it is a simple direction, the release said. It noted that 93% of the survey respondents cited the cost for fiber deployment as representing a significant impediment, with the problem worsened by rugged terrain, distance and low customer density. In terms of services, 75% of respondents now offer a video play, up from 68% last year, with 93% offering video under a cable franchise, it said. An additional 11% said they plan an offering in the future. Most (89%) respondents indicated that they face competition in the provision of advanced services from at least one other service provider, including national Internet service providers, cable companies and wireless Internet service providers, it said. The 2009 NTCA survey was sent electronically to all telco members in its e-mail database, with 156 companies (31%) responding, the release said. Of those, 56% of the respondents’ service areas are 500 sq miles or larger, including 27% whose territories are at least 2,000 sq miles, it said. About two-thirds of respondents have customer densities of 10 residential customers or less per square mile, with nearly one third (31%) reporting customer densities of just two or fewer residential customers per square mile, it said. ■

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Telecom group survey shows big fiber increase by small rural providers


FASTENER UPDATE Sterling Tools enters joint venture to market fasteners with FABORY India’s Sterling Tools, a manufacturer of high-tensile, cold-forged fasteners primarily for the Indian automotive industry, has entered into a joint venture with Borstlap Masters in Fasteners Group B.V., (FABORY), a global distributor, technical services provider and supply chainand vendor management provider of fasteners, tools and industrial supplies based in The Netherlands. Business Wire reports that the joint venture will act as the exclusive distributor and value-added services provider of the FABORY product range in South Asia. It noted that FABORY has more than 110 branches in 16 countries. The goal, it explained, is to be better poised to serve the fastgrowing demand for non-automotive fasteners in the emerging markets in South Asia, using the know-how of Sterling Tools and the competitive global sourcing capabilities and supply chain know-how of FABORY. The joint venture, the release said, calls for Sterling and FABORY to hold an equal stake in the joint venture, which it said will be incorporated during the first quarter of 2010 and will trade as Sterling FABORY. The joint venture, it said, will operate from a Greenfield facility at Faridabad.

Raymond acquires Tinnerman A. Raymond, a supplier of automotive engineered fastening and fluid-handling connections systems, has acquired Tinnerman Palnut Engineered Products of Brunswick, Ohio, USA. The French company announceed that it will merge its current North American operations with Tinnerman to form A. Raymond Tinnerman Manufacturing, Business Wire reported. It said that the acquisition will substantially expand A. Raymond’s presence in automotive as well as other industrial markets in North America. “We’re creating a powerful, new North American organization to provide our customers with a better, more competitive and complete portfolio of plastic and metal fasteners, fluid quick-connectors and other assemblies,” said David J. Nenno, president of the new operating group. Yet to be resolved is what A. Raymond will do with Tinnerman’s small fastener injection molding operation in Brunswick, Ohio as the French company already has a much larger fastener injection molding facility in Rochester Hills, Plastic News reported. The Business Wire article noted that Tinnerman has been supplying A. Raymond with metal fasteners for the past year. Tinnerman was described as a supplier of engineered metal-clip fasteners and precision metal stampings for the auto industry with 482 employees at facilities in Brunswick, Ohio; Flemingsburg, Kentucky; Logansport,


Indiana; Southfield, Michigan; and Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. A privately held company based in Grenoble, France, in North America, A. Raymond currently has 133 employees at two manufacturing plants in the Detroit suburb of Rochester Hills, it said. A. Raymond, founded in 1865 to produce fasteners for the European textile industry, is now a network of companies based in Grenoble, France, with 34 companies, 19 manufacturing facilities and 10 engineering centers. Tinnerman, founded in 1870, supplies spring steel fasteners, precision stampings, automation and assembly aids and complete sub-assemblies to customers that include major automakers, Tier One suppliers and other industrial manufacturers.

Hilti again a top 50 company Hilti, a U.S.-based manufacturer and supplier of specialized tools and fastening systems for the professional user, reports that for the fifth straight year it has been named one of the best manufacturing companies to sell for. A press release said that the corporate research team at Selling Power identified it as placing eighth in the magazine’s annual “50 Best Companies to Sell For,” a comparison and evaluation of the largest U.S. sales forces. Focusing on companies with sales forces of 500 or more, Selling Power’s annual rankings identify companies with the most to offer salespeople, it said. Hilti noted that it earned outstanding scores in every category, including tying for first place among manufacturers in the career mobility category. Compensation and training scores were also among the best, leading to Hilti’s continued good standing on the list, the release said.

Acklands-Grainger acquires K&D Pratt Industrial Division Acklands-Grainger Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Grainger, announced that it has acquired the assets of the K&D Pratt Industrial Division. Canada’s reports that the K&D Industrial Division, with 2008 sales of approximately C$12 million, is a distributor of industrial and safety products with facilities in Dartmouth, NS; St. John’s, NL; and Saint John, NB. It was previously one of six business units owned and operated by K&D Pratt Group Inc. Terms of the deal were not disclosed. The K&D Pratt Industrial Division, a distributor of industrial and safety products with three facilities, was one of six business units owned and operated by K&D Pratt Group Inc. Founded in 1889, Acklands-Grainger notes that it is Canada’s largest distributor of industrial, safety and fastener products, with 161 branches and five distribution centers. ■

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2010 WAI Report to Members The following Report to Members by WAI Executive Director Steve Fetteroll provides a look back at the last year and the implications on The Wire Association International (WAI) and its subsidiary operations: the Wire Journal, Inc., and WAI Wire and Cable Services Pvt. Ltd. It is intended not only for the membership of the Association, but for customers that purchase the various products of the WAI as well as readers of WJI. This past year, which saw a severe economic downturn create challenges for manufacturers in many sectors that had previously offered opportunity and growth, was one that industry as a whole would like to forget. But 2009 If the industry is had to be addressed, a reflection of the and for many wire and cable compaglobal economy, nies, management then the Association responded by reducing production is a reflection of the and expenses by industry we serve. consolidating operations and reducing shifts. Those conditions were certainly unwelcome, but they also were the backdrop for one of the highlights for the WAI in 2009: key executives at a panel presentation at the Interwire Trade Exposition engaging in a frank discussion of how they had reacted and some of the steps that they have taken to better withstand the downturn. That presentation reflected the value in having a venue where the

WAI President Ayala with Vatan Kablo founder Hikmet Akin during the 2009 Istanbul Technical Conference.


industry can share its experiences and advice. It was also a message that applied equally to the Association. If the industry is a reflection of the global economy, then the Association is a reflection of the industry we serve. In good years, many of WAI’s key barometers are favorable, such as membership, meeting attendance, exhibiting, volunteerism, paper submissions, and advertising. The opposite is true in a difficult economy. This phenomenon, which is common among associations, serves to keep us equally focused on cost reductions and continuous improvement much like the industry. This is certainly the case with WAI, which reduced two staff positions during the past year and is at the same time asking more of the 14 remaining employees. Three projects in the past year exemplified WAI’s continuous improvement approach. The first project was participation in the U.S. Department of Commerce’s International Buyers Program for the Interwire event. This was the first time that the Association participated in this competitive program designed to attract global attention to Interwire. Implementing the various elements of the program required significant internal resources, demonstrating our commitment to returning value for all involved in Interwire. The second project involved the monthly production process of the WJI. By shifting more of the process from our off-site printer to our internal team, we were able to negotiate more favorable rates that will keep the value equation strong for the more than 300 advertisers that support the WJI. The third project was the conversion of our Association Management Software package to an internet-based product. The conversion has been a time consuming project with much of the work performed internally for cost reasons. However, the new software will allow us to incorporate web functionality into our operation and keep pace with customers’ expectations. One important initiative, that will be made easier with the new software, is the production of regular webinars on a variety of topics specific to the wire industry. In the past year, WAI has generated six webinars, including a November webinar on pre-stressed concrete that was instructed in Spanish. Six more programs are planned for 2010. Webinars provide an excellent vehicle for reaching the diverse interests and locations of the global wire and cable industry. Early indications strongly suggest that webinars are a high value member service, which is critical considering that membership within the Association has declined by 7% in the past year from 2,332 to 2,167 individuals. The Member Relations Committee, chaired by Don Schollin of Q-S Technologies, has been hands-on in managing this important component of the Association’s business. Based

be a valued asset of the operation. This Report cites the Board of Directors, the Member Relations Committee and the newly formed 2011 Interwire Conference Programming Committee, but it is important to note that more than 100 volunteers give their time and expertise back to the industry WAI’s India subsidiary has launched by serving on WIRE BULLETIN. the 12 WAI Committees or the Boards of the nine Chapters. The Association would be unable to operate without the volunteer contributions of so many. The WAI was established in 1930 to serve the educational needs of the wire and cable industry and while much has changed in the past 80 years, the mission of the organization remains intact. WAI is the only individual membership organization serving the global wire and cable industry. If you have any questions or would like more information about WAI, please contact President Dane G. Armendariz at or Association Executive Director Steve Fetteroll at ■

From l-r, Executive Panel participants at Interwire 2009 included:Gregory J. Lampert, General Cable North America; Hugo Alberto Gómez Sierra, Grupo Condumex; Jack Carlson, Southwire Company; Richard Carr, Coleman Cable, Inc.; and moderator Philip Radbourne, Integer Research.

JANUARY 2010 | 31


on its input, the WAI will make a special offer in the first quarter of this year that reinforces the value of belonging. Like any business, poor results cannot be allowed to continue. The Board of Directors, unsatisfied with the lower attendance at Interwire 2009, reached out to wire and cable manufacturers to ensure that future Interwire shows meet the needs of the industry. The effort involved dozens of meetings, both face-to-face and by telephone, and the feedback has been extremely positive, with all contacts reinforcing the importance and value of Interwire. As a result of those meetings, the 2011 Interwire Conference Programming Committee includes senior level personnel from 25 major wire and cable “The Association has manufacturers. also taken significant The Association has also taken sigsteps forward in nificant steps forIndia …” ward in India, where our subsidiary, WAI Wire and Cable Services, has introduced a completely redesigned publication specifically for the growing wire and cable industry in India. The publication, WIRE BULLETIN, will be published quarterly and distributed exclusively within India. An Indian editor, Huned Contractor, was hired to ensure local reporting of the industry’s activities. “The Association is pleased with the new look and scope of the WIRE BULLETIN and remains committed to serving the global industry. We are fortunate to have an international perspective from within the Board, including two directors from India that have guided us throughout the process,” said WAI President Dane G. Armendariz. You can see the publication by going to and clicking on “WIRE BULLETIN.” The volunteer support of the Association continues to




Dane G. Armendariz to serve as WAI president in 2010 Dane G. Armendariz, Henkel Corp., will serve as WAI president for 2010, succeeding Antonio Ayala, J.J. Lowe Associates. The other 2010 officers are First Vice President Dominique Perroud, SAMP USA, and Second Vice President Nicholas Nickoletopoulos, Sivaco Wire Group. The WAI officers are key to the direction and planning for events, products and services to serve the WAI’s more than 2,100 members. Steven Fetteroll serves as executive director/secretary and David LaValley is the treasurer.

President: Dane G. Armendariz Dane Armendariz, a WAI member since 1993, is currently serving his second term as a member of the Board of Directors, and is a member of the Executive Committee. He served on the Oversight Committee, co-chaired the Conference Programming Committee and was chairman of the Suppliers Management Committee, where he served from 1996 until the committee was reorganized. He has served on the Exhibition Planning Committee and was a member of the Interwire Site Evaluation Task Force in 2004. In addition to serving as Interwire committee chairman in

2010 WAI organizational chart Below are the committees/boards and chairmen that will help direct the WAI’s activities in 2010.

Board of Directors Dane G. Armendariz President, Henkel Corporation Dominique Perroud, First Vice President, SAMP USA, Inc. Nick Nickoletopoulos, Second Vice President, Sivaco Wire Group. Richard R. Miller Member, Southwire Co. Antonio Ayala (Immediate Past President) J.J. Lowe Associates


2005, he has served on organizing committees for Interwire in 1999 and Wire Expo in 1998 and 2004. He also participated in the 2003 establishment of the Ohio Chapter of WAI. He serves both as a board member and secretary for the chapter. A veteran of more than 30 years in the surface treatment industry, Armendariz is Business Development Manager for Henkel Corporation. He has worked in the fields of zinc phosphate, specialty coatings, drawing compounds, and most processes used in the treatment of ferrous metals. Currently, he works primarily with new processes and environmentallyfriendly products for the wire, tube, and stainless steel industries. A Pittsburgh native, he holds a B.S. degree in chemistry from the University of Pittsburgh.

First Vice President: Dominique Perroud Dominique Perroud, a WAI member since 2000, is currently serving his second term as a member of the Association’s Board of Directors. He is also a member of the Executive Committee and has served on multiple committees and task forces. Perroud has been involved in the wire and cable industry on the machinery supplier side of the business for the past 25 years, and has developed expertise on a wide range of products

Board members Louis Arcuri, Pinnacle Metals Neville Crabbe, Leoni Wire Inc Jaime Fuente, Condusal Erik Macs, Fine International Thomas Maxwell, Die Quip Corp Malcolm Michael, Australasian Wire Industry Association Nicholas Nickoletopoulos, Sivaco Wire Group Ralph Noonan, Etna Products Donnie Norton, Phifer Wire Inc Mahesh Poddar, Miki Wire Works Jose Ranc, CNA Technology William Reichert, Champlain Cable Donald Schollin, Q-S Technologies Gary Spence, Encore Wire Mark Spencer, W Gillies Technologies Andrew Stromer, Howar Equipment Raj Kumar (RK) Tyagi, Assomac Machines Ltd Baskar Yalamanchili, Gerdau Ameristeel

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ASM since 1989, and served on the executive committee of the Montreal Chapter. He is a graduate of McGill University, where he received his B.Eng degree in Metallurgical Engineering in 1994 and his Ph.D. in 2001. He has co-authored numerous papers on related subjects.

Executive Committee and Board of Directors for 2010

Nick Nickoletopoulos, a WAI member since 2000, is currently serving his second term as a member of the Board of Directors, and is a member of the Executive Committee. He is Co-Chairman of the Conference Programming Committee, a member of the Oversight Committee, and Executive Liaison to the Exhibition Planning Committee. In past years he has served on the Ferrous Management Committee, has authored articles and presented technical papers, and has acted as moderator at various WAI conferences. He is general manager of Sivaco W Rolling Mills in Canada, where he has worked in various capacities for 15 years. He has been a member of the Professional Engineers of Ontario since 1997, and has been an active member of

In 2010, the WAI Executive Committee will consist of President Dane G. Armendariz, Henkel Corporation; First Vice President Dominique Perroud, SAMP USA, Inc.; Second Vice President Nicholas Nickoletopoulos, Ivaco Rolling Mills; Immediate Past President Antonio R. Ayala, Lowe Associates, Inc.; and new member Richard Miller, Southwire Co. WAI’s full Board of Directors includes Louis Arcuri, Pinnacle Metals; Dane G. Armendariz, Henkel Corporation; Antonio Ayala, JJ Lowe Associates; Neville Crabbe, Leoni Wire; Jaime M. Fuente, Conductores Electricos Salvadorenos (Condusal); Erik Macs, Fine International; Thomas Maxwell, Jr., Die Quip; Malcolm Michael, Australasian Wire Industry Association; Richard R. Miller, Southwire; Nicholas Nickoletopoulos, Ivaco Rolling Mills; Ralph Noonan, Etna Products; and Donnie Norton, Phifer Wire. Also, Dominique Perroud, SAMP USA; Mahesh Poddar, Miki Wire Works; Jose Ranc, Whitney Blake; William F. Reichert, Champlain Cable; Donald Schollin, Q-S Technologies; Gary L. Spence, Encore Wire; Mark Spencer, W Gillies Technologies; Andrew J. Stromer, Unitek/Howar Equipment; Raj Kumar Tyagi, Assomac Machines; and Bhaskar Yalamanchili, Gerdau Ameristeel.

Bylaws Committee

Member Relations Committee

Second Vice President: Nick Nickoletopoulos

Sharon K. Young, Versitech

Conference Programming Committee Thomas E Moran (Co-Chairman), National-Standard Co Ronald W Reed (Co-Chairman), Horizon Wire & Cable

Education Committee

Donald Schollin, Q-S Technologies Inc.

Nominating Committee Brian A. Bouvier, Lloyd & Bouvier Inc.

Oversight Committee Nicholas Nickoletopoulos, Ivaco

Dale Olp, American Spring Wire Corp.

Paper Awards Committee Exhibition Planning Committee

Erik Macs, Fine International Corp.

Anthony De Rosa, Cortinovis America LLC

Publications Committee Finance Committee

Donald Schollin, Q-S Technologies Inc.

Ronald Schenk, RichardsApex Inc.

WAI Chapters Memorial Awards Committee Scott S. Higgins

India Chapter, Italy Chapter, Mid-South Chapter, Midwest Chapter, Ohio Valley Chapter, Poland Chapter, Southeast Chapter, Western Chapter, New England Chapter

JANUARY 2010 | 33


ing extrusion, wire drawing and bunching equipment. He began his career with Brown Boveri in Baden, Switzerland, now known as ABB, as a project engineer in one of their electrical automation divisions. Since 1981, he has held various positions in engineering and product management for Nokia-Maillefer, both in Switzerland and in the U.S. He joined SAMP in 1997 and since 1999, has been the managing director of SAMP USA in Williamsport, Maryland. Perroud holds an electrical engineering degree from the ETS School in Fribourg, Switzerland, and a MBA from the University of Massachusetts in Amherst.


Winning WAI 2009 technical papers The WAI’s paper rating committee has chosen the winners of the best technical papers in 2009 from those presented at WAI’s International Technical Conference in Istanbul, Turkey, and at Interwire 2009 in Cleveland, Ohio. The winners who will be honored at the Awards Breakfast at Wire Expo 2010 include the following: In the Ferrous Division, the Allan B. Dove Award, goes to Charles Coffin, Hans Depamelaere, Dale King and Walther Van Raemdonck, all of NV Bekaert SA, for their paper, : “Evaluation of high-temperature behavior of Zn and ZnAl coatings on core wires and strands for ACSR, ACSS, and alike overhead power conductors.” The Silver Certificate Award went to Song Seong-Hun and Ban Deok-Young, Kiswire R&D Center; and Cho Kil-Won, POSTECH, for their paper, “Effect of the Sn content of bead wire and the kind of compound on the interface morphology.” In the Nonferrous Division, the Marshall V Yokelson Memorial Award went to Tadeusz Knych, Andrzej Mamala and Piotr Uliasz, AGH University of Science and Technology, for their paper, “Heat-resistant parameters of AlZr electrical alloy wires assigned to HTLS conductors.” The silver Certificate Award went to Rafał Włudzik, Marcin Knapinski and Jan W. Pilarczyk, Czestochowa University of Technology, and Stanisław Ksiezarek and Zbigniew Smolarczyk, Institute of Non-Ferrous Metals, for their paper, “Effect of parameters of extrusion on strain and stress states in the manufacturing process of wire from alloy CuAg15P5.” In the Electrical Division, the Urbain J.H. Malo Award went to Paul Laurenson, Borealis Polymers NV, and Jan-Ove

Boström, Borealis AB, for their paper, “High productivity and reliability of XLPE insulated medium-voltage cables.” The Silver Certificate Award went to Terence Journeaux, Prysmian Cables & Systems Limited, for his paper, “Reaction to fire performance of cables.” In the General Division, the Horace Pops Award went to Kazunari Yoshida, Takanori Sato and Shunichi Kikuchi Tokai University, for their paper, “Improvement of drawability of shape-memory alloy wire.” The Silver Certificarte Award went to Masahiro Yoshida, Motoo Asakawa, Satoshi Kajino, Motohiko Urabe and H. Kanaeda, Waseda University, for their paper, “Improvement of straightness in rotational blade straightener for superfine wire.”

First Spanish-only webinar a success, next up: Feb. 9 extrusion program The WAI is pleased with the results from its first-ever Spanish-only webinar, and now looks forward to the next webinar, a Feb. 9 program on extrusion that is being presented by SAMP USA’s Dominique Perroud. WAI President Antonio Ayala, a key proponent of WAI's Spanish-only webinar, held Thursday, November 19, said that he believes the presentation on prestressed concrete wire by industry veteran Eduardo Anaya was a good effort that should be continued. “This first program was modest in attendance, but I believe future events would draw larger audiences as they become better known,” Ayala said. The attendees appreciated being able to hear the discussion in their native language and there were some very good discussions on extrusion and bunch-

WAI Q&A This occasional section will discuss a topic of general interest involving WAI. This one is by WAI Membership Director Chip Marsh. Q: Is WAI primarily a ferrous or a nonferrous organization? Marsh: That’s an interesting question which gets asked pretty frequently, and people are often surprised with the answer. When the Wire Association was formed in 1930, and for the 20 years that followed, the vast majority of members represented the steel wire segment. It is worth noting that the first meeting of the Wire Association was held in conjunction with the Association of Iron and Steel Electrical Engineers convention. As a result, the overwhelming majority of the 200 people in the room were connected to the steel and steel wire industry, including Jack Mordica of Bethlehem Steel who became the Association’s first president.


Gradually, the electrical and nonferrous segments of the industry became more active in the Association, and today the mix is fairly well balanced with 47 percent of the membership in the ferrous segment and 53 percent in the nonferrous/electrical category. Appropriately, the Association attempts to reflect that balance WJI Member Services between ferrous and nonferDirector Chip Marsh. rous/electrical with the members who serve on the Board of Directors and the 12 operating committees. Also, in case you were wondering, Wire Journal International readership is 57 percent ferrous and 43 percent nonferrous/electrical.

MEMBERSHIP APPLICATION Send application and payment to: The Wire Association International, Inc. 1570 Boston Post Road | P.O. Box 578 | Guilford, CT 06437-0578 | Telephone: (001) 203-453-2777 | Fax: (001) 203-453-8384 | Web site:

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Business Information (required) A. Which ONE of the following best describes your company’s type of business? WIRE & CABLE MANUFACTURING 10 ❏ Aluminum & Aluminum Alloys (Rod/Bar, Bare Wire, Both ) 20 ❏ Copper & Copper Alloys (Rod/Bar, Bare Wire, Both) 30 ❏ Steel & Steel Alloys (Rod/Bar, Bare Wire, Both) 40 ❏ Other Metal (Rod/Bar, Bare Wire, Both) 50 ❏ Electrical Wire & Cable (Insulated Wire) 53 ❏ Communications Wire & Cable (Insulated Wire) 55 ❏ Fiber Optics

WIRE END-USER 11 ❏ Appliance 12 ❏ Communications (Voice/Data) 13 ❏ Computer 14 ❏ Construction/Building 15 ❏ Electrical (Equipment/Components/Power) 16 ❏ Transportation/Vehicular 17 ❏ Wire Formed Durable Goods

FASTENERS, WIRE FORMING, FABRICATING 61 ❏ Fastener Manufacture 62 ❏ Four-Slide Forming 64 ❏ Hot and/or Cold Forming and Heading 66 ❏ Spring Manufacture 68 ❏ Wire Cloth Mesh Screening 69 ❏ Other Forming and Fabricating (Please specify) SUPPLIER TO THE WIRE & CABLE INDUSTRY 72 ❏ Machinery 74 ❏ Process, Accessories, Materials

OTHER 80 ❏ Service Centers, Distributors & Warehouses 90 ❏ Consultants 92 ❏ Government, Library and allied

B. Which ONE of the following best describes your primary job function? 10 ❏ General & Administrative Management 20 ❏ Engineering, Operations, Production

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January 2010 International Technical

Conference Proceedings

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JANUARY 2010 | 37


ing, he said. Representatives from a total of 15 companies heard Anaya, a consultant with his firm, Indepa S.C., in Mexico City, discuss a wide range of topics related to prestressed concrete wire and strand. The webinar has been uploaded to, where it can be accessed for a fee, and for free by WAI members. The focus now turns to the 11 am EST Feb. 9 program, “Extruders/Extrusion groups: design, configuration and typical application,” to be presented by Perroud, who this year serves as WAI’s First Vice President. See his bio on p. 32. Perroud’s presentation will focus on the technical and process requirements at the extrusion group level. It will include the mechanical and electrical configuration of the extruder and its components, process and functional features of the screw/barrel combination, design of screw and barrel depending on the type of compounds to process, cross-head configuration as well as the overall temperature regulation and control concepts for an extrusion group. The presentation will also include an overview of the most common extrusion group configurations, output requirement and processes (i.e. foaming techniques, cross-linking) depending on the type of cable to manufacture and product categories commonly used in the industry. For more details, contact WAI’s Marc Murray at ■






JANUARY 2010 | DATA COMMUNICATIONS Will fiber dominate or can broadband’s “triple play” satisfy market demand? Can wireless grab more market share? A focus on these topics and more. Also: IWCS Wrapup; 2009 WJI Article Index.

JULY 2010 | EQUIPMENT: PART 1 Couldn’t make it to wire Düsseldorf? This issue will showcase some of the newest technology that was displayed there. Also: Wire Expo Wrapup.



AUGUST 2010 | WIRE CHINA PREVIEW As China continues to be the world’s leading driver for manufacturing, this trade show remains a significant event. This preview will tell readers what they can expect to see. Also: ITC Preview; Regional Outlook.

FEBRUARY 2010 | WIRE DÜSSELDORF PREVIEW This biennial event is more than just the world’s largest wire and cable show, it is an industry barometer in terms of technology and industry confidence. Read what exhibitors plan to display and what kind of response they hope (and expect) to get from attendees.

9. CALL READERS TO ACTION SEPTEMBER 2010 | EQUIPMENT: PART 2 WJI will present a second look at the latest solutions offered by equipment suppliers at wire Düsseldorf.

3. INTRODUCE A PRODUCT OR SERVICE MARCH 2010 | PREVIEW Recreated and responsive for an industry seeking directions, The WAI’s Traveling Road Show will have a new venue, a new co-location partner, and a new (shorter!) schedule.


4. REACH NEW PROSPECTS APRIL 2010 | PACKAGING SOLUTIONS Reels, spools, carriers, plastic wrap and more: if it’s used to package or transport wire and cable, this feature will present it. Also: Wire Expo Update.

going green

5. RETAIN EXISTING CUSTOMERS MAY 2010 | SPECIALTY MANUFACTURING/ NEW APPLICATIONS Does the future (and profits) belong to producers of highvalue wire and cable products? What new wire applications are driving technology, and what sectors are likely to offer manufacturers the greatest potential? This feature will look at those topics and more.

OCTOBER 2010 | THE ‘GREEN’ ROLE IN WIRE & CABLE The environment has long been a topic of much general interest, but some skeptics question whether it largely remains a PR factor for industry. This feature will look at how some manufacturers have applied environmental technology to better their ‘green’ profile and their bottom lines, including a look at how and where it has been applied in the production process from start to finish. Also: IWCS Preview.

11. REDUCE SALES COSTS NOVEMBER 2010 | USED EQUIPMENT & HOW TO MAKE IT WORK This article will cover the pros and cons of buying used machinery; focus on what else may be needed to get solid results; and include a “what to look out for” list. Also: wire China Wrapup.



JUNE 2010 | ANCILLARY EQUIPMENT/ REPLACEMENT PARTS Back by popular demand, this feature will focus on a wide range of equipment—from air wipes to cable strippers, as well as replacement parts—that is essential to keep the industry working. Also: wire Düsseldorf Wrapup.

DECEMBER 2010 | INDUSTRY TRENDS This feature will revisit the state of the industry after the economic challenges that began in late 2008 and what may be to come.


Contact the WJI Sales Team to reserve your space today. Bob Xeller | ext. 119 | or Anna Bzowski | ext. 126 |

The Wire Association International, Inc. 1570 Boston Post Road | P.O. Box 578 | Guilford, CT 06437-0578 | Telephone: (001) 203-453-2777 | Fax: (001) 203-453-8384 | Web site:

Davis to speak at New England Chapter meeting on January 27 Alden B. Davis will be the keynote speaker at the WAI New England Chapter’s 16th Annual Dinner Meeting on Wednesday, January 27, at the Mohegan Sun Conference Center in Uncasville, Connecticut, USA. The chapter will celebrate the successes of 2009, look ahead to plans for 2010 and offer the networking opportunities for which this annual dinner is known. “The Annual Meeting is like an informal kickoff to the new year,” said 2009 Chapter President Joe Snee of Amaral Automation Associates. “It’s a great time to connect with your industry colleagues, the food and service are always good, and I’m looking forward to hearing Alden Davis.” Davis, a specialist in regenerating institutions, has 29 years of global expertise in industry, including 18 years with United Technologies, where he has helped design, orchestrate and lead large-scale institutional change. His presentation, “Totally Wired for 2010...My Beliefs, Our Future,” promises to be interesting. Davis focuses on financially-based change processes, business turnarounds, collaborative labor-management

change and leadership development. A frequent conference speaker and workshop leader, he has presented to numerous organizations. He has degrees in business and engineering from Arizona State University, and holds two patents. “Alden Davis caught my attention when I heard him as a guest speaker on a popular radio show,” said Annual Meeting chair John Rivers of Delaware Marketing Services. “He came across as a good fit for the chapter – both informative and entertaining – and attendees should be able to leave with some food for thought.” The evening starts with a 5 pm networking reception, followed by a dinner buffet. Davis will speak, outgoing officers and directors will be thanked for their service and the 2010 leadership will be introduced. Registration is $85, discounted to $75 for WAI members, $70 for chapter members. Companies can sponsor the wellattended event with a Gold ($300), Silver ($200) or Bronze ($100) sponsorship. All sponsors will be recognized at the event, in the program and the WJI wrap-up. Gold sponsors will be further recognized with an individual slide. For more information, contact WAI’s Chip Marsh at or call him at tel. 203-453-1748. ■

If You’re Changing Parts As Often As You’d Change Him It’s Time You Changed To Micro-Weld At Micro-Products, we realize that change is never easy. That’s why we build all our Micro-Weld parts tough. Though our butt welders work harder, last longer and offer consistent high quality welds, certain parts will eventually wear out. Use only genuine Micro-Weld parts to reduce downtime. Keep stacking the building blocks that help you get the job done and increase productivity. Also ask us about our reconditioning service. You'll save up to 40% and still get a new welder guarantee. For more information, call 1-800-872-1068, or visit Genuine Micro-Weld Parts Service Reconditioning

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EVENT WRAPUP IWCS reports that the North Carolina venue, close to many U.S. telecom manufacturers, helped bolster attendance.

North Carolina proves good venue for IWCS A convenient location for many U.S. telecom manufacturers helped boost attendance for IWCS’s 58th Conference, which was held November 8-11 at the Charlotte Convention Center in Charlotte, North Carolina, USA, where organizers say attendance neared 1,100. “Considering the economy, this was a very good showing,” said IWCS CEO/Director John Barteld, observing that the location was a plus as it made it easier for many telecom manufacturers to send employees. “Delegates from 32 countries and nearly half of the states participated, making (it) an outstanding success,” he said, adding that the results support the plans to return to Charlotte in 2011.

A press release said that in addition to the nearly 1100 attendees, there were 124 exhibits, nine professional development courses and 108 technical papers. The papers, it said, included new and emerging technologies in materials, cable design, applications and connectivity. The IWCS program included changes that made for a richer experience for attendees, the release said. The Executive Forum, which previously required a separate registration, was transformed into the Executive Track and included in the Technical Symposium registration package. The Executive Track presented invited papers on Smart Grid technology, Intelligent Buildings, developments in the fiber

Commission Brokers was among the exhibitors.

Attendees had multiple presentations to choose from at IWCS.


EVENT WRAPUP CRU Principal Consultant Rob Daniels spoke on the metallic cable industry.

From l-r in the executive forum session, Neil Wilkin, President and CEO, Optical Cable Corporation; Clark Kinlin, CEO, Corning Cable Systems; Brian Garrett, COO, CommScope; Bob Canny, Sr. VP, Nexans, Inc; Alan Griser, VP Sales and Marketing, Draka Communications NA; and Brian DiLascia, VP/GM, Prysmian Communications Cables and Systems NA.

markets and technology, and a perspective from a major industry supplier on surviving and prospering in down markets. The session concluded with a panel of industry top executives giving their views on 2009 and 2010 for the industry. “The room was packed for the entire program, with standing room only for many of the presentations,” the release said. The plenary session included topics covered in the past in the Executive Forum, including the views of a top economist on the economic prospects for the near term, and presentations from expert market analysts on the state of our industry markets. Plenary Session Speaker Robert Fry, a DuPont senior economist, said that, by the numbers, the U.S. has gone through its longest and deepest recession since the Great Depression. By a textbook definition, the recession probably lasted 18 months, most likely ending in June 2009. The lowlights, he said, include real GDP declining 3.9% over four quarters, with some 7.2 million jobs lost. One nagging problem is the continuing sense of pessimism, he said. He added that he is not a big fan of further federal stimulus efforts. CRU Principal Consultant Rob Daniels, speaking on global metallic cable industry, said that while there are signs of a return to growth in some parts of the developing world, it looks as if 2009 will result in an unprecedented 7.7% fall in the global metallic cable market. China and India are the two major markets that will see growth in 2009, with China representing about a third of the total, he said. Looking forward, CRU has increased its growth estimates for global metallic cable consumption for 2010 from 4.5% to 5.5%, he said. That growth should continue even stronger in 2011, at a rate of 8%, he said. The best outlook for growth is in Asia, but companies that want to pursue that will need to have more of a manufacturing presence there, Daniels said. At the same time, he noted that cable companies in North America and Western Europe have better margins. He observed that those regions are more consolidated and focused on specific products, whereas in China there has been little consolidation and many compa-

nies offer very wide product lines. As an interesting sidenote, Daniels pointed out that while the global market for metallic cable is estimated at just over US$150 billion, the cable sector of optical fiber is worth around US$6 billion. Patrick Fay, Senior Consultant, KMI Research/CRU Group, spoke about the emergence of developing economies in fiber and cable. China, he said, has seen staggering growth, projected to be 86% in 2009, whereas the Rest of World is expected to have declined by 11% in 2009, with Developing Markets as a whole expected to have grown by nearly 40%, although dominated by China’s role, he said. To put China’s leading role in context, he noted that the projected single-mode cable fiber demand from the next 14 countries (led by the U.S., India and Japan) is only 57% of that of China. He said that he expects that fiber growth will be accelerated by technologies such as 3G, Video on Demand, FTTH, IPTV, 3D TV and video conferencing. The Executive Track Session saw multiple topics, from profit margins to competition, covered by the panel, which included Neil Wilkin, President and CEO, Optical Cable Corporation; Clark Kinlin, CEO, Corning Cable Systems; Brian Garrett, COO, CommScope; Bob Canny, Sr VP, Nexans, Inc; Alan Griser, VP Sales and Marketing, Draka Communications NA; and Brian DiLascia, VP/GM, Prysmian Communications Cables and Systems NA. In the Executive Track, Dr. A. Sarkar, observed that global optical fiber demand and capacity are in balance. He noted that there have been no new fiber factories outside of China since 2001 and that the economics of spending $50 million or so for a Greenfield plant are not good. That could lead to a scenario, where there is a shortage in some regions and too much capacity in others, he said. Further, he said that because of patents due to expire, there may be less of a gap between producers in the next four to five years. The Chinese and Indian markets are becoming more important, he said. The 59th IWCS Conference is scheduled for November 7-10, 2010, in Providence, Rhode Island. ■

JANUARY 2010 | 41


Fiber Optic vs Copper T

his feature returns to a topic whose final resolution was thought to be inevitable a decade ago: the transition from copper cabling to optical fiber for the final

horizontal leg. That never happened, and in some regards the story now is not so much about fiber replacing copper as it is about what technology makes most sense for a given use. On that basis, there is room for both. This feature presents a range of perspectives, both fiber and copper, including trends cited by KMI/CRU, and more.

1 billion fiber km served...and counting

Optical fiber is glowing with potential if not big margins.


In 1963, McDonalds sites across the U.S. began declaring in large words that after eight years, the fast food chain had achieved an industry milestone: “1 billion served.” The fiber optics field has joined that lofty turf, as noted at IWCS 2009, where Patrick Fay, senior consultant, KMI/CRU, observed that at some point in 2008, total global installment of optical cable to date had topped the 1 billion km mark. Optical fiber, a darling of the worldwide stock markets in the 1990s, swooned in 2001-02, but has shown a resurgence, albeit one without gaudy profit margins. Part of optical fiber’s magic was that it seemed inevitable that it would displace copper wiring. Only, it hasn’t, at least not yet, notes C. William Day, senior analyst for the KBD Planning Group, who wrote on the topic last year. “In early 1995, when schools and universities began rewiring buildings from thin net and Cat. 3 infrastructures, some predicted that copper network infrastructure cabling had seen its end, because of emerging technologies and the demand for bandwidth speed,” Day wrote in a 2009 article posted at American School & University. “Nearly 15 years later, it is hard to believe that copper wire still is king.” In his article, Day explained that cost is not the sole deciding factor. Multimode fiber (MMF) is used in building backbone but unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) copper cable continues to dominate to the desktop because of

fool you,” the Corning document states. “Complex to design with and install, UTP copper cables create more issues than they resolve at 10 Gb/s and beyond. The time is now for 10G optical connectivity in the local area network (LAN) and data center.” The Copper Development Association (CDA) notes that while optical fiber has advantages, it insists that copper cabling remains a practical choice. “Fiber optics has its uses in large networks, but copper remains the preferred physical medium for cabling to the desktop,” said CDA National Program Manager David Brender. He observed that in local networks, copper is preferred over fiber optic cable because total network costs are still less expensive using copper. Another advantage, he said, is that copper can carry low levels of power, enough to power security cameras, card readers or other devices. Brender said that Cat. 6a cable continues to be chosen for commercial buildings by designers and architects for local networks “because copper delivers on performance.” Cat. 6a copper satisfies data-transfer requirements in the majority of horizontal office-environment applications as well as many network “backbone” applications, he said, noting that it can operate at frequencies up to 500 MHz, as defined in 2008 in ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-B.2-10. Cat-6a’s larger-diameter conductors, lower packing density and tighter twists help avoid crosstalk interference between cables, a technical hurdle that had to be overcome in achieving 10G data rates, Brender said. It is ideal for installing multiple applications through the network

The CDA believes that copper’s days are long from past. simultaneously and allows large-file transfers and bundled cable uses for channels up to 100 meters, he said. Brender added that wireless data transmission is equally problematic. “A wireless channel with 50 megabits per second might suit a single user in a home office, but it is inadequate in a busy office environment where capacity is shared (while) a 10GE copper cabling network could support 10 Gb/s data rates for each user simultaneously. That’s exactly the solution that IT managers are seeking.” JANUARY 2010 | 43


“perception,” he wrote. When it comes to cabling options for horizontal pathways to the desktop, he said that there is a “three-pronged” reason why traditional copper paths continue to be chosen. The first reason, Day wrote, is that copper cable manufacturers have made sure that copper wire still is specified for LAN infrastructure. “Buzzwords such as 100 Mbps, Gigabit and 10 Gigabit are all terms derived from the reinvention of products to create a demand for rewiring,” he noted. A second reason is that manufacturers of “People continue to data switches have do what they know. been slow in offering economi- ... There will have to cal 24- or 48-port be a paradigm shift fiber switches. Finally, “People in the industry to continue to do push fiber to the what they know,” he wrote. “There desktop. will have to be a C. William Day paradigm shift in the industry to push fiber to the desktop.” Day wrote that the transition to fiber will eventually happen because of its bandwidth potential; greater pulling strength; and immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI) and crosstalk; as well as its smaller diameter, lighter weight and easier testing and maintenance requirements. Perspectives can side with both mediums. A Corning “white paper” questions the outlook for transmission faster than 10 Gb/s on twisted-pair copper, citing the required distances in the data center as well as the local area network (LAN). “End-users installing 10G twisted-pair copper today will most likely need to replace their copper cables when they transition to speeds greater than 10 Gigabit,” it states. The Corning paper cites a range of fiber advantages, including the drawbacks of copper being a “heavyweight” medium. “A typical plenum Cat. 6A UTP cable weighs 46 lb per 1000 ft of cable. The accumulated weight of (this cable) alone to serve a 108-circuit, 200-ft length, 10G installation will be approximately 1000 lb, compared with just 40 lb for the same length of a 216-fiber optical cable. The 25x greater weight of Cat. 6A cables will require additional hardware costs to support the load and may contribute to cable strain relief issues in hardware, as well as compression issues in trays and conduits. “If you plan to deploy, or migrate, your network to 10 Gb/s, don’t let those bulky, twisted-pair copper cables


Copper vs. fiber: the choice continues Deployment of optical fiber may dominate the news, but one U.S. industry observer believes that it would be wrong to write off copper cable. Below, Frank Murawski, FTM Consulting, Inc., discusses points from his report, “Fiber vs. Copper Battle for the Cabling Systems Market.” For further study details, contact Murawski at tel. 717533-4990, Copper sector should see better days Recently, it has been a popular notion that fiber cabling would overtake copper cabling or at least make an inroad into the structured cabling systems market. At one point in time, fiber-to-the-desk (FTTD) was looked upon as the Holy Grail for fiber cabling. Even we had a preconceived idea that fiber cabling would make an inroad for displacing copper cabling systems. In the early days of the structured cabling systems market, support of 1 Mbps was required. Early unshielded, twisted-pairs (UTP), copper cabling satisfied this requirement. As speeds increased to 10 Mbps, then to 100 Mbps, and then to 1 Gb/s, UTP copper cabling kept pace with newer designs. Currently at 10 Gb/s, the push is on to have UTP copper cabling support this throughput over 100 meters. Many cable manufacturers claim they have Cat 6a UTP cables that satisfy the TIA standards requirement for supporting 10 Gb/s over 100 meters. Beyond this looms 40 and 100 Gb/s, in which the TIA standards are expected to evolve with fiber cabling as the primary media for these higher speeds. It appears as if UTP copper cabling has finally succumbed to fiber cabling. It is very easy to draw the conclusion that fiber cabling will be thrust into the forefront at these ultra-high speeds. We concur with this and, in addition, still have our reservations for UTP copper cabling support of 10 Gb/s over extended distances, as tweaking of compensation electronics and increased complexities in testing may forfeit its position to fiber cabling, especially for future proofing the cabling installation. The fiber vs. copper cable battle for structured cabling systems is on. In our recent analysis of this battle, we have come to the conclusion that copper cabling will ... we have come to continue to domithe conclusion that nate in the structured cabling syscopper cabling will tems market. We continue to dominate undertook an extensive analyin the structured sis, examining cabling systems and forecasting the use of fiber market. and copper cabling in the major structured cabling systems applications, such as LANs, data centers, VOIP, video and others. Our underlying finding was that copper cabling, which accounted for 76.8% of the total 44 | WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL

market in 2009, would account for 79.1% of the total market in 2014. As noted earlier, fiber cabling will continue to make inroads into the data center cabling market, but copper cabling will also be used extensively in future VOIP systems. Other factors contribute to our overall analysis, but these are two of the primary drivers for the future structured cabling systems market. The difference lies in the limited distances found in data centers requiring smallFrank Murawski fiber cable lengths, while the VOIP systems will require long distance, separate, horizontal cabling between the telecommunications closets and the VOIP telephones to maintain voice quality. The VOIP cabling application is reminiscent of copper cable’s growth in the early LAN market, when copper cabling was strung between the telecom closets and each desktop PC.

Have it your way: will that order be fiber, copper and/or wireless? U.S.-based CommScope is a global supplier of a complete solution of products for enterprise LAN applications. Below, David Hall, RCDD, Director, Advanced Technology Services for CommScope, explains how his company, which offers optical fiber, coax cable and wireless technology, views the different media. For more details, go to WJI: Does CommScope make recommendations to customers based on considerations such as “future proofing”? Hall: Our customers often look to CommScope for guidance on media selection. This is because we design and manufacture all the primary media types of coax, twisted pair, optical fiber, and wireless, while most of our competitors offer only one or two of these and so have a somewhat limited view. Also, we are heavily involved in the groups that set industry standards in the U.S. and globally, and therefore have a firm understanding of the directions in which these standards are moving. When making media recommendations, many questions must be answered by the customer. What applications are you planning to run on the network? What new applications do you anticipate using in the next three-five years? What growth are you expecting? Other planned major technology changes? The answers to these questions, along with the distances needed to cover with the network, will determine what media is needed. WJI: Does CommScope intend to continue improving its 10 GB copper cables, or might there be a point where bandwidth demand reaches a point where copper is no longer viable for more and more LAN uses?

WJI: Has the cost differential between fiber and copper cable narrowed to where it is not the deciding factor? Hall: The cost of optical fiber and copper cable has never been the deciding factor when choosing media types. Once distance and bandwidth needs are met, the price of the electronics is what drives the economics in choosing the media type. Fiber optic transceivers still cost more than copper transceivers, and single mode electronics costs more than multimode electronics, so it’s the electronics prices that really separate the overall cost of a particular solution. WJI: While some customers with large bandwidth needs will turn to fiber, is there also a percentage of new projects that


Hall: We keep reading in the media that copper is dead, and fiber-to-the-desk is imminent, yet we still see the majority of our customers installing unshielded twisted pair (UTP) to the work area. We do see more data centers moving to a heavier mix of optical fiber as their speeds and distances increase, but copper and coax continue to be used for out of band networks, short links, and smaller data centers. Our copper cable R&D engineers continue to amaze all with how much performance can be squeezed out of tiny copper conductors, so stay tuned for what emerges out of the labs next. SYSTIMAX 360 UTP patch panels from CommScope. are unlikely to ever need more bandwidth than can be provided by copper cable? Hall: Twisted pair and coax copper cables are not going away anytime soon. There are many, many applications that run just fine over these media, such as voice, video, data, building automation and wireless. All of these run over copper media now and will continue to do so in the future. WJI: Has wireless reached a point where it can be a factor for other than mobile applications? Can it compete more with copper and fiber for some broadband applications?

JANUARY 2010 | 45

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Hall: Wireless is already used as an extension of the wired network. Many workers use wireless as their primary LAN connection, whether they are moving around the office or not. Others use wireless cards in their laptops to provide “anywhere connections” so they never have to worry if a LAN port is nearby. As 3G and 4G networks come to reality it will be interesting to see how this transforms the workplace and the types of devices people use to do their jobs.

POF: the ‘other’ fiber option Below is an edited presentation made by Paul Polishuk, president and CEO, IGI Group, and co-chair, Plastic Optical Fiber Trade Organization (POFTO). at the 18th International Conference on Plastic Optical Fibers (POF 2009), which was held September 2009. A key proponent of POF technology, he believes that it offers real-world advantages beyond its core use in automotives. Developments in Plastic Optical Fibers (POF) technology have led to a number of new applications, opened new markets, and seen the entrance of a number of new companies and products. The industry is now at a turning point where the needs of applications for higher bandwidth; lower cost, weight, and power consumption; reduced EMI emission; and ease of handling favor POF. In addition to the six major markets developed by present suppliers, 40 other markets have been identified as potential applications for POF. POF has changed dramatically since it was first introduced in the early 60s. The first commercially available data link using GI-POF was announced by Fuji Photo Film in 2005. The link was a 30-meter DVI link operating at 1 Gb/s using a 780nm VCSEL. In 2008, the technology was capable of 40Gb/s over 100 meters of PF GI-POF, and in 2009 that capacity increased to 10.7 Gb/s over 220 meters of PF GI-POF. POF offers decided advantages, including an easy-toterminate large diameter; low-cost connections; inexpensive test equipment; lower component and systems cost; visible operating range; durability and flexibility; ease of handling; stable technology; immunity to EMI/RFI Growth potential (10Mbps->10Gb/s); and low transceiver power consumption compared to copper. Those advantages are important for applications such as data centers, which have a need for lower-power and smaller-sized components due to the cooling required by high-performance servers. Also, it can meet future high-speed needs as all that needs to be upgraded is the optoelectronics. This works well for the automotive field, where POF has been widely used, especially in Europe, but this technology can also be practical for aircraft, heavy machinery, construction and mining equipment and other transportation vehicles. The main competitors to POF are copper wire and multimode glass optical fiber (GOF). Copper is the main barrier to the increase of POF in today's systems. As the prices of optical components come down and the need for high speed increases, copper start to run out of steam, 48 | WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL

IGI Group President Paul Polishuk, r, with Abang Annuar Ehsan, a presenter at the 18th Int’l Conference on POF. and an optical medium is needed. Because of the large embedded base of copper, the familiarity, and the ease of use—and thus the comfort level with the technology among technicians and design engineers—it is difficult for POF to displace copper. In addition, copper technology for transmitters and cables continues to be developed. Wireless is also a potential competitor for all media, but is difficult to compare with hard wiring because of the range of frequencies possible. The first POF applications were in consumer electronics for digital audio interfaces (DAI) and then for industrial controls. To date, the most successful application of POF has been in automotive optical data networks, where a consortium of European automakers developed the MOST standard for a POF optical data ring for automobiles. First introduced in 2001, MOST is now on the road in over 70 models of automobiles consisting of over 70 million optical nodes. With the introduction of new technology and the increased awareness of POF, the market for POF has been growing at an annual rate of over 10%. IGI Consulting has identified dozens of potential markets that reflect great potential for suppliers of POF technology. For more information on POF, go to the POFTO website at and to

Trends that will impact what is to come Technology is the key for further advances, but the reality is that other factors can greatly impact how and whether it is deployed. Below, Richard Mack of KMI Research, a business of U.K.-based CRU Group, which provides a range of market analyses, forecasts and newsletters for the sectors that include the wire and cable industry. His four topics include aspects that will directly and/or indirectly impact how broadband technology further develops and is deployed, For more details, go to New technologies drive further broadband advances In the past three to five years, the fiber and cable makers have pursued several technical developments that can make FTTH or FTTx networks easier or less expensive to install. Two significant areas of new products are outside-

2009: recession did not stop progress Although there were massive bank failures, liquidity crises, and negative GDP growth starting in the third quarter of 2008, the demand for optical cable did not start to drop in most markets until first or second quarter of 2009. Since then telecom operators have cut back on wireline expenditures, slowed down construction efforts,

or delayed new projects. The result is a downturn in optical cable deployments in almost all major markets around the world. Russia’s optical cable demand, for example, dropped by more than 50% from 2008 to 2009. The extent of the year-on-year decrease varied among other markets, depending on the status of large network construction projects, especially FTTx projects. North America was down 15%, Western Europe was down 4%, Eastern Europe was down 43%. But the real story was China, which was up 89%, from 42 million fiber-km installed in 2008 to 79 million installed in 2009. This is not only a huge growth surge, but it’s a vast amount of fiber to be installed in one year. In 2009 China accounted for 48% of the optical fiber installed worldwide – almost half. This percentage is up from 30% in 2008. China’s demand has caused the world’s total of optical cable installations to show positive growth from 2008 to 2009. Without China, the world’s total would have dropped 10%. China: many pluses, no recession During 2008, the Chinese government decided to restructure the major telecom operators into three nationwide companies, each with wireline, wireless, and broadband network assets. This restructuring was done in the third and fourth quarters of 2008, and the government issued licenses for “3G” mobile broadband services to start in 2009. As a result, the three carriers began building the infrastructure needed for mobile broadband, upgrading cell sites and adding fiber optic lines for backhaul, tying the cell sites to controller and switching facilities. As part of an economic stimulus package, China’s government also provided financial support for telecom network projects. This stimulus package, which began inthe fourth quarter of 2008 and will run into 2010, will provide $585 billion to support key manufacturing industries, offset job losses, and fund infrastructure projects, especially in areas affected by the January 2008 snowstorms and the Sichuan earthquake in May 2008. Information and transportation have been given high priority. Some of the telecom funds are supporting the effort to reach small

JANUARY 2010 | 49


plant connectors and bend-insensitive fibers. In the first case, the industry now has about five years of experience with pre-connectorized drop and distribution cables. Over the five years, however, newer versions with multi-fiber interconnects have entered the market, along with more compact distribution terminal designs. In the case of bend-insensitive fiber, there has been a steady stream of fiber enhancements as well as new cable and hardware products for several years. These are mainly aimed at helping to install FTTH networks for end-users living in multi-tenant dwelling units (MDUs). This environment has challenges that differ from those of singlefamily homes: a need for low-profile cables that can be routed in tight spaces, questions of how to mount the cable to interior walls, little space for panels or terminals, etc. The latest products and standards have loss specifications for fibers with a 5-mm bend, which is low enough to accommodate the bend in a cable when it is stapled with a traditional staple gun. New low-profile cables are being developed for easy routing, entry, and splicing. These advances are helping service providers to extend FTTH in major U.S., European, and Asian metropolitan areas. As the recession runs its course, more broadband service providers will be investing in FTTH networks, and there will be continuing innovation in fiber and cable products to support network construction in a wide range of environments. Some, such as bend-insensitive products, will address high-density metropolitan environments. At the same time, the U.S., Australian, and other governments, are focusing on broadband for low-density rural areas, emphasizing the need for a full range of fiber, cable, and hardware products.


villages and remote areas. The government also is supporting FTTx in metropolitan areas. The Chinese economic miracle itself is a major factor in the domestic cable demand. The country has had doubledigit annual growth in GDP since the mid-1990s. This slowed down to 8.9% in 2008 and 8.8% in 2009, when other large economies had slid into negative growth percentages. The outlook for 2010 is up over 10% again. This economic growth is accompanied by huge building construction projects, both commercial and residential, as workers move to urban and industrial areas for jobs. The Chinese government has maintained a strong role in managing the plans and investments of China’s telecom operators for years. Starting in the 1980s or 1990s, the national governments in other large economies have been stepping back from ownership or direct investment in the telecom carriers, holding onto a role as regulator to promote competition and fair treatment of new carriers. In the past year or two, however, we have seen some national governments proposing financial support or other participation as a way to promote greater broadband penetration. Australia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Singapore, and several others have launched national broadband projects with government support. The US also has implemented new financial support for broadband as part of the 2009 American Re-investment and Recovery Act (the ARRA or “Stimulus Act”). ARRA and U.S. broadband networks The Obama Administration’s $787-billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) includes a total of $7.2 billion of funding for broadband network projects, mainly in rural or underserved areas. Two separate federal agencies will administer the funds. First, the Dept. of Agriculture’s Rural Utilities Service, which has been supporting rural telecom for years, will receive an additional $2.7 billion in funding under the ARRA. Second, a new agency, organized under the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA) and called the Broadband Technology Opportunity Program (BTOP) will administer $4.5 billion. The NTIA funds are mainly for broadband network projects in rural or under-served areas, but several hundred million also has been set aside to pay for mapping efforts, to be undertaken by each state, that will show where broadband services are and are not available. The RUS and BTOP funds are being awarded in two rounds of grant applications. The first-round applications were filed in August 2009. Selection of the grant winners was delayed from November but began on Dec. 17 when Vice President Biden announced the recipients of $183 million: 18 broadband projects benefitting 17 states. The federal funding for these projects was matched by more than $46 million in public and private sector capital. The government will soon name the winners of $2 billion in awards, with the remaining ARRA funds to be awarded in the second round.


This CRU chart shows steady growth in installation of optical cable, led by China. These federal programs have brought some telecom jargon into the news. The expression “middle mile” refers to infrastructure that does not “predominantly provide broadband service to end users or end-user devices and may include interoffice transport, backhaul, Internet connectivity or special access.” ( An FCC staffer said a cable route tying an Internet network access point (NAP) to a telco central office would be an example. The other term, “last mile” previously has been used to refer to the local-loop, and is defined for use in the grant applications as “any infrastructure the predominant purpose of which is to provide broadband service to end-users, including households, businesses, community anchor institutions, public safety entities, and critical community facilities.” The $183 million awarded in December included $122 million for middle-mile projects, $51 million for last-mile projects, and $10 million for public computing centers and projects to promote broadband adoption. It is noteworthy that the “middle-mile” projects have dominated at least in this first set of award announcements. These are mainly fiber-based, and show the government’s interest to support broadband infrastructure that will support a large group of ultimate end-users. The ARRA also has another element in the realm of broadband networking: a requirement that the FCC develop a long-term “National Broadband Plan” to guide policy-making and potential legislation. One major planning objective is to promote affordable broadband service for all Americans. The FCC has a deadline of February 17, 2010 to deliver this plan. Toward this end, the FCC has established a task force known as the Omnibus Broadband Initiative, which has FCC staffers, Obama advisors, and newly hired telecom experts working on the plan. (See

Fiber goes ‘around the bend’ just fine


Verizon has been a major driving force behind optical fiber deployment in the U.S. Below, the company comments on its use of bendable optical fiber. WJI: Where has Verizon used “bendable� fiber in its networks and why? Verizon: We use bendable fiber in our Multi-Dwelling Unit (MDU) deployments where it saves time on installations and allows us to deploy fiber deeper into the MDU living units. It saves on installation time, is less prone to breaks as it is more rugged and can be deployed in a similar fashion as copper wire without compromising signal quality. We don’t use it in Single Family Unit (SFU) locations where the Optical Network Terminal (ONT) is typically located just inside the unit/garage and where there is not much fiber deployed inside the units. In MDUs, the ONT may be in a more visible location and further away from the point of entry, thus requiring us to use the fiber along the walls and conforming to the twists and bends of the walls.

Verizon: It has met our expectations and no problems have been seen. As mentioned before, it is fairly easy to install, like regular copper wiring. The installer can do multiple bends without thinking about performance degradation (so) there is no real slippery slope.

WJI: If the fiber is meant to bendable, just how much more play do installers have? Is there a definable “slippery slope� point where installers are still limited?

WJI: How successful has this technology has been? Verizon: It has been very successful and is now part of our normal deployment techniques for MDU locations. â–

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JANUARY 2010 | 51


TECHNICAL PAPER Filter system design, coolants, and production Filtration systems are offered in ‘good, better, best’ choices, and a wire manufacturer should fully understand what each level offers as well as the difference between up-front savings and long-term costs, before making a decision. By Tom Horn

The need for advanced filtration is more important today than ever due to increased wire production speeds, modern dies with closer tolerances that produce a high quantity of very fine particulate and higher associated temperatures. The coolants used in today’s wiredrawing operations require them to be maintained at high levels of clarity so that quality wire is continually produced at these higher rates. A system design that maintains coolant with good wetting, lubricity, detergency, flushing, particle transfer to the filter and heat removal

from the process is the wire producer’s goal. This paper will expand on the different filter system designs available, from very advanced to the very simple OEM style in relation to coolant quality and meeting expectations.

Fig. 1. Conveyor tank system.

Fig. 2. Cylindrical tank system.


Meeting expectations The three typical system designs are presented here as examples. The first is a two-compartment tank with vacuum filter (to meet high coolant clarity expectations). The second

Filter system design: highest expectation The choice of system design depends on application, available space, coolant clarity expectation and budget. Besides the main job of filtration, there is liquid transfer, coolant heating and cooling, level control, automatic lubricant and water addition systems, and bacteria and ph control. Filter systems that are correctly sized for the application and flow rate will result in economical media usage, good cake production and the removal of more fine particles.

Fig. 3. Vacuum filter.

A multi-compartment tank should be selected that allows a separation of the filtered coolant from the incoming dirty coolant. Tanks with correct retention allow the emulsion to rest and reestablish lubricant distribution, improving settling of solids. Heat will dissipate, helping to stabilize the emulsion. Chemistry balance is easier to maintain with larger volumes. System coolant temperature control requires both heating and cooling and remains an important factor in good coolant performance. Today, the typical temperature control package includes a tank heater that keeps the coolant warm during process downtimes. A plate and frame-heat exchanger that precisely removes the heat from the process coolant is preferred due to easy maintenance and ability to increase capacity by adding more plates. Whether a flooded suction, self-priming or vertical-column style pump is selected, with lower speed pumps the coolant will not be overworked and less heat will be added. Pumps are sized for total system pressure, including specified machine pressure requirements plus piping and heat exchange pressure loss. All pumps should be sized non-overloading over the entire pump curve. Pipes should be sized for the correct velocities and low friction loss and include throttle and isolation valves with pressure and temperature gauges where needed.

Best systems to meet highest expectations A self-cleaning conveyor type tank system (see Fig. 1) is used when there is a high degree of solids, such as for rod or continuous cast applications. The coolant drains from the drawing machine by gravity to the larger dirty compartment. The filter feed pump transfers the dirty coolant to the air vacuum filter at 110% of the required system flow. In the vacuum filter, a highly efficient cake is produced that captures the very fine particulate. A clean supply pump transfers the clean coolant through a plate and frame heat exchanger back to the drawing machine at the proper flow rate and pressure require-

Fig. 4. Labyrinth side-seal design.

JANUARY 2010 | 53


is a two-compartment tank and gravity filter (to meet midrange expectations). The third is an economical OEM style system with smaller single compartment tank and smaller style cylindrical bed gravity filter to meet lower expectation levels but for a lower price as well. These different designs that meet different performance expectations can be summarized as a “Good-Better-Best” system choice. They are presented here as “Best-Better-Good.” Each of the three system choices offers a different capability to maintain coolant clarity, and therefore a different expectation should exist for each as well. The more sophisticated filter system (#1) will require a significantly larger initial expenditure to purchase and install and will take up more precious plant real estate. System #1 will keep the coolant cleaner longer, so the user can expect to save money on coolant replacement cost. However, it will also result in savings on die and capstan life as well as fewer costly wire breaks. With the more advanced systems, one can expect to use consumable media more efficiently for further overall lower operating costs. As the filter system becomes simpler in design sophistication, smaller in size and less expensive, it becomes a challenge to keep good coolant clarity resulting in increased overall operating costs related to coolants, dies, capstans, and media usage.


Fig. 6. Traditional filtration design.

Fig. 5. Cake formation.

ment. A common standby pump is also supplied for system backup for either the clean supply or filter feed pumps. As with the conveyor tank system, the cylindrical tank system (see Fig. 2) is also a good choice for the delivery of high solids to the vacuum filter. The clean and dirty cone bottom cylindrical tank systems are very efficient in keeping solids in suspension until delivered to the vacuum filter. The vacuum filter sizing (see Fig. 3) is based on the wiredrawing machine manufacturers’ required flow rate and the proper square foot area of filtration for the application. Due to the increased pressure differential across the media developed by the integral vacuum producer, a vacuum filter will produce a thicker cake and remove more fines with minimal use of media as compared to a gravity filter. Fig. 3 shows the features of a flat-bed vacuum filter, which include automatic indexing float, low-velocity inlet header, precoat zone and liquid extraction zone. Each design feature is important for efficient solids separation and for providing clean healthy coolant.

When the dirty coolant enters the filter, a liquid pool of coolant is formed on the media by the positive barrier labyrinth side seal design seen in Fig. 4. This retains the particulate on the media producing the filter cake. As shown in Fig. 5, once the cake is produced, the very fine particulate can be removed.

Controlled Level Indexing (CLI) feature design The Controlled Level Indexing (CLI) design feature is a marked improvement over the traditional design (see Fig. 6) that required a distinct rise and fall of the liquid level to turn on and off the media drive advancing the media. Each advancing of the filter media causes potential solids bypassing through the fresh media entering the filter. A level float within the filter bed actuates a variable speed drive regulating the media speed, which is extremely slow but continuous. See Fig. 7. The same float is interconnected to the vacuum producer air inlet damper that maintains an optimum

Fig.7. A filtration system with the Controlled Level Indexing (CLI) feature. Fig. 8. Increased solids loading and CLI media speed control.


TECHNICAL PAPERS Fig. 10. An advanced style gravity filter. Fig. 9. A gravity filter and two-compartment tank.

vacuum level. Solids migration through the clean media is minimized as it continuously and very slowly enters the filter. The consistent liquid level within the filter bed produces a uniform pressure drop across the media, and in turn, a very efficient cake is produced removing even finer particulate. As seen in the graph in Fig. 8, when production is increased and additional machines brought on-line, the media speed will automatically increase as well. As the production requirements change, the media will speed up or slow down accordingly. Other advantages are that a consistent operating vacuum level will mean lower power consumption and a minimizing of potential misting or evaporation due to the fluctuations that may occur with the standard indexing design. Finally, media usage will also decrease due to the consistency and efficiency of the resulting cake produced by the use of the CLI feature.

Filter system design: mid-range expectation

Fig. 11. A typical OEM system.

Fig. 12. A cylindrical bed gravity filter.

In the two-compartment gravity filter system seen in Fig. 9, the dirty coolant drains to the filter, and once the solids are removed on the media, clean coolant will drain to the clean compartment. A smaller pump is included to recirculate the coolant to the filter at 10% of the required system flow rate to provide 110% filtration. A clean supply pump will transfer clean coolant back through heat exchange to the drawing machine at the manufacturer’s required pressure and adding any lift or friction loss to the equation. Savings are realized in initial system costs with the removal of the common standby pump and filter without a vacuum producer. This system will work well to meet mid-range performance expectations, but without the design features of the more advanced system designs, there could be a trade-off of

JANUARY 2010 | 55


media usage and overall coolant life. Careful consideration must be given to filter size at all times. The gravity filter shown in Fig. 10 has the same seal configuration as the vacuum filter and a deeper liquid pool but without the vacuum producer feature, only liquid head pressure will form a less efficient cake allowing some additional fines to bypass.

Filter system design: OEM/Economical expectations This economically priced system typically is supplied to meet lower expectations for coolant clarity requirements. As seen in Fig. 11, the dirty coolant will drain to the cylindrical bed gravity filter. The clean coolant drains to a smaller single compartment clean tank. A single pump transfers clean coolant through heat exchange back to the drawing machine. Fig. 12 shows the cylindrical bed style gravity filter with a very simple seal design that captures the particulate on the media. Without the more substantial liquid head pressure produced by the more-advanced style gravity filter or the high differential produced by the vacuum filter, a very basic cake is produced removing even less fines. When the choice is made for an OEM/Economical-style system, the savings realized up front with the purchase of the system will be offset in time. The system will pose a challenge keeping up with the solids load generated and media consumption could rise along with dissolved solids in the coolant due to settling. Dies and capstan wear could increase affecting the wire quality. Typically there will be an increase in wire breaks and the associated labor and loss of production.

Conclusion Wiredrawing today requires the producer to consider the expectations one has for the process and to also consider the options to meet those expectations. Understanding that there are “Good,” “Better” and “Best” system choices to meet different expectations at varying costs, will help in selecting the right system. It is not unusual for a filter system to be operating for more than 20 years. Serious consideration should be given to selecting the very best system that is affordable to save money in the long run in terms of increased die life, reduced wire breaks, increased emulsion life, decreased roll and capstan wear and economical media usage. Certainly, these benefits will also mean higher production rates and better quality wire, ensuring the most important benefits for your company: higher profits and more business.


Bibliography/References Joseph Scalise, Filtertech, general information from two technical papers: “Continuous Cast Filtration Concepts,” Wire Journal International, April 2004, p, 152; and “A Comprehensive Program For Reducing Wire Breaks Through Process Control and Effective Filtration,” Wire Journal International, October 1992, p. 51. Lawrence El-Hindi, Filtertech, general information from technical paper, “Efficient Filtration For Non-Ferrous Wire Annealing Quench Solutions,” Wire Journal International, May 2005, p. 55. ■ The author would like to thank Dan Vollmer for his help in providing the illustration for this presentation.

Horn Thomas Horn is the technical sales manager for Filtertech, Inc., Manlius, New York, USA. He joined the company in 1998 as technical field engineer. With 30 years of engineering, sales, and marketing experience in the process equipment manufacturing industry, he has authored technical papers and numerous articles supporting the related industry associations. He has long been active within the Wire Association and is currently a member of its Conference Programming Committee. This paper was presented at WAI’s 79th Annual Convention, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, April 2009.












AND IMPORTANT PAPERS Some of the most important documents in the wire and cable industry are the technical papers presented at Wire Association International conventions. But many authors lack the proper funding needed to travel for speaking opportunities, which means that even the most world-wise ideas could stay packed away somewhere without a destination.

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TECHNICAL PAPER Wire alloys and their use in electrical resistance furnaces This article reviews a variety of wire alloys that can be used as heating elements for electrical-resistance furnaces, noting which ones make most sense for a given application and why. By James Brocklehurst

This presentation looks at the use of wire alloys in electrical resistance furnaces, but it is fitting to begin by noting that wire-wound electric furnaces have been in commercial use for more than a century and as a concept for nearly two centuries. An article by R.C. Mackenzie in the October 1982 issue of Platinum Metals Review, “The Story of the PlatinumWound Electrical Resistance Furnace,” notes that circa 1815, an Englishman, William Pepys, used soft iron wire powered by a large battery to heat iron and diamond powder to see if he could create steel. Mackenzie also cited Frenchman Georges Charpy, who in 1893 constructed a platinum-wound furnace that was used in studies of annealing and physical properties of brass. By 1894 he had developed a unit that was capable of operating between 500°C and 1300°C. The article also lists William Candler Roberts-Austin as using an iron wire furnace for thermocouple calibration in 1897. In 1899, the team of Holburn and Day were using a unit for the same application that employed nickel wire. Mackenzie attributes the first com-

Fig. 1. Comparison of maximum watt loadings for FeCr and NiCr materials.


mercial platinum wire furnace to a German firm, W.C. Heraeus, around 1900, with the company advertising a platinum ribbon-wound unit in 1902 that could heat to 1400°C in 5 minutes, run at 1500°C for hours and could reach 1700°C for short periods. In the roughly 200 years since inception, resistive electric furnaces have seen many advances in controls, insulation and heating materials but the basic concept is fairly close to that first recorded system used by Pepys: a resistance heater, electrical current, some insulation and a product to be heated. With this in mind, what follows is a review of the various wire alloys typically used today on a commercial basis, along with their advantages and limitations.

Overview of materials A variety of materials are available for use as heating elements in the field of electrical resistance heating. They range from metallic alloys through ceramic-metal based and graphite/carbon materials. However, even though some of the cermets (a strong alloy of a heat-resistant com-

Fig. 2. Maximum element temperatures for FeCr and NiCr materials.

decrease to prevent element overheating. Fig. 1 shows this relationship for freely radiating elements in air. Atmosphere is important in that at increasing temperatures, materials react differently to various compounds. A system that works very well at one temperature in air, may fail quickly if applied in a different atmosphere at the same temperature. Fig. 2 shows the maximum element temperatures in various atmospheres for freely radiating elements. Service life of the element is also an important economic consideration. One must determine whether the elements are to last for years, months or weeks. With any given element, the higher its operating temperature, the shorter its lifetime. Thus, for a long life, it is implied that the element should have a low head temperature with respect to furnace temperature. This is accomplished by decreasing the watt loading. The downside of this equation is that when lowering the element loading, one may need to add more elements to meet the heat load requirements of the furnace. These additional elements yield higher initial cost, and their number may be restricted due to space limitations in the furnace. This restriction may dictate conversion to a higher power/temperature rated material not covered in the scope of this paper. Finally, consider the power or heat load requirements of the furnace. The power required is determined by process temperature, amount of material to be heated, heating rates and furnace losses. Restrictions are normally placed on the amount of power (KW or kilowatts) that can be placed on the furnace walls. These restrictions are based on element configuration, placement, material type, and furnace temperature. Fig. 3 shows this relationship for a freely radiating ironchrome-aluminum element (ROB), versus one housed in grooves in the furnace wall.

Fig. 3. Relationship between wall loading and mounting for FeCr and NiCr materials.

Fig. 4. Sag Test comparison for APM, FeCr and ASTM-grade NiCr material

Review of materials A general review of materials indicates their advantages and limitations. Metallic alloys. These materials (nickel-chrome and

JANUARY 2010 | 59


pound) are available in what could be construed as being a wire form, this article will concentrate on traditional wire metallic alloys, the most common being nickel-chrome (NiCr), iron-chrome-aluminum (FeCr), tungsten, molybdenum, tantalum, platinum and platinum-rhodium alloys. These alloys typically are categorized into materials that can work in the presence of oxygen and those that must be protected from oxygen, the latter category including tungsten, molybdenum and tantalum. This restriction somewhat limits use of these materials (as does the cost of platinumbased or precious metal alloys), so they are only given a cursory examination here as the focus is on the more common nickel-chrome and iron-chrome-aluminum materials. Much of the information presented in this paper comes from available sales literature and specification sheets such as those published by Kanthal AB, Hallstahammar, Sweden; Thermcraft Inc., Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA; and others. A brief explanation of how these materials function, their limitations and basic design considerations, will provide the reader a basic understanding as to why a given material was chosen for a given application. It should be noted that a variety of factors not covered in this paper could affect operational characteristics of these materials: therefore, the reader is urged to contact a reputable furnace vendor to discuss any specific applications they might have. Factors that should be examined in choosing a heating element include temperature, atmosphere, life and power or the required heat-load. The temperature referred to is actual element operating temperature, which is based on the inter-relationship of furnace temperature, element watt loading and the ability of the element to radiate the heat generated. Design information, available from a variety of sources, shows the effects of element placement on radiation ability and the relationship of furnace temperature versus element watt loading. An energized element always operates at a higher temperature than its surrounding “ambient” temperature. The higher the watt loading, the greater the temperature differential or “head” generated. As the furnace temperature increases, the watt loading must

TECHNICAL PAPERS Fig. 5. Life Index comparisn of NiCr and FeCr materials.0

iron-chrome-aluminum) are often the easiest to use and the least expensive. Unfortunately, they also have the lowest operating temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere. Metallic alloy materials are fairly rugged with respect to mechanical and thermal shock. Their resistance remains relatively constant in relation to element temperature and service life. These two factors combine to produce a product that is very easy to control, yielding what is generally a rather simple and inexpensive power supply. This fact, in turn, can have a significant effect on the overall capital costs of a project, making this class of materials very attractive. Thermal cycling does not present a significant problem. Most of these alloys are available in wire, strip, rod and tube forms. Typical element configurations are coils, either in grooves or on ceramic tubes; a free radiating design commonly referred to as an ROB or sinuous loop element; or as part of a packaged system in which the alloy is either embedded in or mounted on an insulation or ceramic panel for mounting on furnace walls, floors or roofs. Nickel-chrome alloys. These groups of alloys are among the oldest electrical heating materials and are still widely used today. They are fairly ductile, have good form stability, and hot strength. The three most common compositions used for heating applications are ASTM “A” grade (80% nickel, 20% chromium), ASTM “C” grade (60% nickel, 26% chromium, balance iron), and ASTM “D” grade (35% nickel, 20% chromium, balance iron). There is a fourth, rather recent, alloy gaining widespread use that has a typical mix of 70% nickel and 30% chromium. It should be noted that the above ASTM grades are specified minimum mixtures and the actual alloy compositions can vary widely among vendors. Of these various alloys, the 70/30 material is listed as having the highest maximum element temperature of 1250°C in air, and in most cases would be limited to a maximum chamber temperature of 1150°C. It generally has poorer ductility than the more common ASTM “A” grade alloy, and was developed primarily to combat “Green rot” (an intergranular oxidation of chromium experienced by other ASTM grades of nickel-chrome materials


when used in either exothermic or endothermic atmospheres in the temperature range of 1500 to 1800°F). As indicated, the ASTM “A” grade material is the more common alloy and is limited to a maximum element temperature of 1200°C with a maximum chamber temperature of 1100°C. This is the material listed as NICR in the enclosed charts and graphs. The “C” grade material is rated for 1125°C with chamber temperatures typically 1000°C maximum. The “D” grade is listed at 1100°C with chamber temperatures around 950°C maximum. Iron-chrome-aluminum. These alloys are typified by a composition of 72.5% iron, 22% chrome and 5.5% aluminum. The higher grades made by traditional melt technology have limiting temperatures of 1400°C on the element with chamber temperatures typically 1300°C. There are other grades available with lower use temperatures in which the aluminum content has been reduced and the balance is made up with iron. These alloys were introduced in Scandinavia in the early 1930s and their use as a replacement material for nickel-chromes has been on the increase. Iron-chrome-aluminum alloys typically have a higher use temperature, higher resistance and lower density than nickel-chromes. Generally, when properly applied, these features yield a less expensive, longer-lived element than a comparable nickel-chrome design. On the down side, Ironchrome-aluminum alloys suffer from a lower hot strength, reduced ductility, and embrittlement with use. Iron-chrome-aluminum, PM grades. In the past few years, iron-chrome-aluminum alloys have been introduced that use powder metal (PM) technology in their manufacturing process. Typically, these materials start with a high-grade iron-chrome-aluminum alloy made by conventional melt technology. The resulting ingot is then turned into a powder and compressed into a billet, either by a hot isostatic press or, more rarely, a cold isostatic press operation. This billet is then used to produce the final wire, strip or tube product. The advantage gained by this extended and fairly expensive process is that an iron-chrome-aluminum product has greatly improved hot strength and a higher end-use temperature. In one case, the resultant maximum element temperature is listed at 1425°C while the parent alloy is listed at 1400°C. Fig. 4 shows the results of a sag test comparing one of these powder metal-based, iron-chrome-aluminum alloys (APM), a standard high temperature iron-chrome-aluminum (FECR) and an ASTM Grade “A” nickel-chrome (NICR) material. The tests were performed on 4 mm diameter rods in a horizontal position, supported at 200 mm intervals and exposed to 1200°C. The results are shown in millimeters of sag plotted on the vertical axis against time on the horizontal axis. As indicated, the PM grade material is superior to its parent alloy.

Oxide formation One of the most important considerations in the use of any heating material is reaction with oxygen at elevated

Packaged systems The above discussion has been based on “free standing” elements that are designed for mounting independently of the insulation system. Various systems are available that combine the elements and a suitable insulation package in one unit. Generally, these systems use either nickel-chrome or iron-chrome-aluminum alloys for elements. The standard shapes are cylindrical, half rounds or flat panels in a variety of sizes, power and voltage. General construction is either a cast/pressed ceramic support with an optional insulation package or a vacuum cast form that provides both support and insulation. Maximum chamber temperatures range from 1100 up to 1400°C for specialized packages with rather stringent operating limitations. Wire can also be found inside metallic sheath heaters (a type of a package system) without the insulation panels normally associated with the packaged system concept. Oxygen-sensitive materials. As indicated, these materials include molybdenum, tungsten, tantalum and graphite. Oxygen-sensitive materials can have fairly high use temperatures and watt loading as long as they are protected from exposure to oxygen by either an inert atmosphere or proper vacuum levels. These items all exhibit substantial increases in resistance with increasing temperature. This characteristic dictates using a power supply that can limit current to protects the elements as well as the furnace and power supply from excessive power during cold start up conditions. Several of these items also exhibit sensitivity to both mechanical and thermal shock. An unfortunate aspect of most applications using these materials is that even for those items not particularly susceptible to thermal or mechanical shock, they use support and structural components that are. Therefore a slow, controlled ramping function from one operational set point to another is desirable. Finally, most of these materials operate at levels lower than available standard line voltages. This generally translates into a fairly high amperage requirement from the power supply. All these characteristics indicate the need for a complex and expensive power supply. Molybdenum. This material was first used in industrial furnaces around 1930 with increasing usage after 1940. It is available in many forms with the most common element shapes being wire, rod, strip, and on occasion, tubes. Molybdenum has a strong affinity for oxygen at elevated temperatures and can only be heated in the presence of a vacuum, reducing (dry hydrogen or cracked ammonia), or pure inert atmosphere. This material starts to oxidize between 250 to 300°C with the formation of molybdenum dioxide (MoO2), which will offer a limited amount of protection against further oxidation up to approximately 600°C. The molybdenum dioxide then converts to molybdenum trioxide (MoO3), which becomes dominant. Molybdenum trioxide is very volatile and readily boils off, exposing the base metal to further oxidation. At around 800°C catastrophic oxidation occurs with clouds of molybdenum trioxide being generated. In regard to atmosphere purity, an argon atmosphere containing 45 to 50 PP of oxy-

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temperatures. With some materials—such as molybdenum, tungsten or graphite—this oxidation process continues until the material is consumed. In other materials, a protective oxide layer forms which, unless disturbed, inhibits further oxidation and may offer protection against attack by other compounds. Oxide formation is dependent on time and temperature. Generally, for iron-chrome-aluminum alloys, temperatures above 1000°C should be used to ensure a good oxide formation; while for nickel-chrome alloys, 800 to 900°C should suffice. Nickel-chrome. This material forms a chromium oxide layer when heated in the presence of air. The oxide layer is relatively thick and greenish in color and has a propensity to flake off during cycling. This flaking exposes the base metal to further oxidation. Eventually the chrome is depleted, leading to element failure. This flaking can also lead to product contamination unless the elements are either located in such a position that falling oxide will not land on the product or the elements are encased in protective tubes. The oxide offers little protection against carbon infiltration and is highly reactive to sulphur. Iron-chrome-aluminum. These alloys form an oxide comprised mainly of alumina (Al2O3). Like the chromium oxide, iron-chrome-aluminum oxide is very stable. However, it has one very important difference. It is very thin and adheres tightly to the base metal, making it less likely to flake off and lead to product contamination. As the element is thermally cycled, small cracks may develop in the oxide, which eventually will lead to aluminum depletion in the base metal. Generally, this aluminum depletion occurs at a much slower rate then the chromium depletion in nickel-chrome materials of similar configuration. The oxide is very resistant to carbon infiltration and is particularly stable in the presence of sulphur. The oxide is also an excellent electrical insulator, which is beneficial should element sections inadvertently touch. This situation can be disastrous in the case of chromium oxide-protected materials. Element life. As mentioned, element life is based on factors such as temperature, atmosphere, mechanical shock, and chemical attack. Because of differences in mounting, operating cycles and other variables, it is difficult to give an accurate figure for the life of a given element. Metallic alloys. In general, the flaking of the chromium oxide on nickel-chrome materials has a greater effect on base material depletion then the cracking of the alumina oxide on iron-chrome-aluminum materials. This, coupled with a higher use temperature, indicates that in oxidizing atmospheres, for a given watt loading, atmosphere composition, and furnace temperature, the iron-chrome-aluminum material should last longer. Fig. 5 shows a “life index” for the two alloys in air. Although it cannot be directly translated into hours, an element with a life index of 400 should last twice as long as elements with a life index of 200.


gen will lead to rapid oxidation of molybdenum at temperatures around 1200 to 1300°C. Decreasing the oxygen content to 4 to 5 PP should lead to a successful application. In general, to prevent oxidation problems, never expose molybdenum to oxygen at temperatures over 400°C. As indicated earlier, molybdenum has a rather significant increase in resistance from room temperature to operating temperature. Depending on specific composition, this increase could be on the order of ten (10) times or more from 20°C to 1900°C. Most common forms of molybdenum are made from a powder that is compressed and then either extruded, drawn or molded into the desired shape. When new, the material is fairly ductile and easy to work with. However, when molybdenum has been heated to around 950°C to 1000°C it starts to re-crystallize and at 1500°C spontaneous crystal growth occurs. While at temperature, the material remains ductile but once cooled, this crystal growth phenomenon causes the material to become quite brittle. Depending upon the actual temperature reached and time spent at temperature, the ductile to brittle transition point can range from as low as 20°C for unheated material up to 150°C for completely re-crystallized molybdenum. Thus, after heating, molybdenum becomes very sensitive to both mechanical and thermal shock. When properly applied, molybdenum can be used in applications having chamber temperatures up to 1900°C. However, it experiences a sharp reduction in strength and hardness at elevated temperatures. The creep strength is also strongly dependent on temperature. These characteristics indicate the requirement for a significant amount of physical support for the elements to ensure proper operation. Unfortunately, molybdenum also has a marked propensity to react strongly with many common furnace ceramics at elevated temperatures, leading to element failure. As a result, firebrick is typically limited to a maximum of 1200°C when used with molybdenum while very pure Al2O3 has a history of very successful usage at 1700oC. When used with high purity Al2O3 ceramic panels, molybdenum can be supplied as part of a prepackaged system. This material is commonly used in dry hydrogen, dry cracked ammonia and very pure inert (argon or helium) atmospheres to 1900°C and, in some instances, even higher temperatures. In vacuum levels of less than 10-2 torr molybdenum can be used to 1700°C but in high vacuum applications, such as less than 10-4 torr, molybdenum evaporation becomes considerable between 1600 to 1700°C and excessive around 1800°C. Oxidation is also a problem around 700°C when exposed to water vapor and at 1000°C in the presence of carbon dioxide (CO2). Carbon monoxide (CO) and many hydrocarbons will cause surface carbonization starting between 1000 to 1200°C. Molybdenum can be supplied in a prepackaged form which uses high purity aluminum ceramic plates. Tungsten. Tungsten exhibits many of the same characteristics as molybdenum in its electrical, mechanical, chemical and thermal properties. It is available in the same gen-


eral physical forms as molybdenum. Tungsten is somewhat less ductile than molybdenum and is therefore harder to work with. It has embrittlement, mechanical and thermal shock problems that are caused by the same re-crystallizing process that effects molybdenum. One important difference is a much higher melting point for tungsten. This yields both higher use temperatures and higher vacuum levels than are possible for molybdenum. When correctly applied with the above defined reducing and inert atmospheres, maximum use temperatures of 2500°C are quite common. In vacuum levels of less than 10-2 torr’ it can be used up to 2000°C. In levels of less than 10-4 torr strong tungsten evaporation occurs around 2400°C and above. Oxidation starts around 500°C with catastrophic oxidation occurring around 1200°C. Tantalum. Tantalum can only be heated in an inert atmosphere or in a vacuum of less than 10-4 torr. This substance shows a strong affinity for bonding with many of the gas molecules found in common industrial heating atmospheres. When heated in the presence of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen or carbon, both gas absorption and chemical reactions occur, leading to the formation of hydrides, oxides, nitrides, or carbides. These reactions result in tantalum erosion and/or embrittlement. Of these compounds, the hydride formation is reversible so that heating in a high vacuum can soften tantalum that has become brittle due to exposure to hydrogen. To some extent, tantalum oxide can also be removed in a similar fashion, because of its high vapor pressure characteristic. Since it has a high reactivity to certain gasses and the fact it can be somewhat “recycled” in addition to being used as heating elements and heat shields, tantalum is often used as a “getter” in critical applications. Tantalum is very ductile and, if protected from exposure to the above-mentioned gases, it maintains this ductility even after repeated heating and complete re-crystallization. Therefore, mechanical shock is generally not a concern unless getter usage or improper usage has led to the described gas embrittlement phenomena. When used in vacuum levels of less than 10-4 torr, tantalum can be used up to 2400°C. Above this point, strong evaporation occurs. Use as a heating element in vacuum levels of less than 10-2 torr is not recommended due to tantalum’s strong getter action. In very pure argon or helium atmospheres, tantalum can be used up to 2400°C. It should be noted that tantalum is very expensive compared to either molybdenum or tungsten. An average price is approximately one half of that currently listed for platinum. Therefore, except for specialized or very restrictive applications, tantalum’s usage is somewhat limited by economic considerations. Precious metals. This category’s most common metals are pure platinum, platinum/rhodium alloys, and on occasion pure rhodium. They all experience significant increases in resistance with temperature. Depending upon the alloy, these increases can range from just below three times to five times when comparing 20°C and 1500°C readings.

Summation The proceeding discussion concentrates only on the more common forms of wire heating elements for industrial applications. As can be seen, there are many options available and there may be multiple good choices depending on the desired application. While this paper discusses use of wire for use as heating elements in the field of electrical resistance heating, it would be remiss to not mention other uses for wire products in furnaces in general. Wire is often used as reinforcing in cast refractory parts such as lentils or vestibules. It is

also used to support either insulation panels, packaged systems, or in many cases, the heaters themselves. From these internal furnace parts, one could also consider their use for baskets used to hold parts, woven wire for mesh belts and hangers for conveyor systems. In short, the use of wire in the electrical furnace is legion and has been so for nearly two centuries. ■

Brocklehurst James E. Brocklehurst has worked for Thermcraft Inc., Winston-Salem, North Carolina, USA, since 1992. He is involved in the sales, application, and design of heating elements, ovens, furnaces, and kilns. He previously worked for Kanthal Corporation in Bethel, Connecticut, where his duties included the sales, application, and design of various heating alloys and elements. Prior to that, he was actively involved with the design, application, and sales of various power equipment for industrial heating applications, first at Control Transformer, Cortland, Ohio, and then at Spang Power Electronics, Sandy Lake, Pennsylvania. He received his degree in electrical engineering from Grove City College, Grove City, Pennsylvania, USA. He has authored or co-authored articles dealing with control schemes for industrial heating applications, technical descriptions of specialty furnaces, technical bulletins detailing heating element storage, handling and installation, and power supply selection for various heating element configurations. This paper was presented at WAI’s 79th Annual Convention, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, April 2009.

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These resistance changes can result in excessive amperages being drawn during cold startup conditions unless proper care is taken. Although the metals are not overly sensitive to rapid thermal cycling, many of their support structures used in the actual furnace are. This indicates the desirability of a ramping function in the control system when making changes in the operating temperature set points. Any power supply must be able to limit amperage to design specifications and should have the ramping function to protect the entire system against damage. Pure platinum has a rather low melting temperature (around 1770°C), suffers from a rather high vapor pressure, and is prone to losing material through oxide volatilization at high temperatures. Typical use temperatures for pure exposed platinum are listed around 1450°C. By embedding the platinum in approved refractory cement, it is possible to reduce metal and oxide losses. This allows for an increase in operating temperatures, typically up to 1600°C on a regular basis and up to 1700°C in special cases with very stringent operating parameters. Pure platinum becomes brittle with use due to grain growth, which occurs above 1600°C element temperature. Rhodium has a higher melting point (approximately 1960°C), improved vapor pressure and oxide evaporation rates, significantly better hot strength, and a higher temperature for grain growth inception. Although these features would indicate pure rhodium would be the better choice for heating elements, its very poor ductility and adverse resistance curve makes it very difficult to work with. By alloying various percentages of rhodium with platinum, it is possible to create new compounds with marked improvements in use temperature, vapor pressure, oxidation rates and brittleness with some degradation in ductility when compared to pure platinum. Standard alloys typically contain 10, 20, 30 or 40% rhodium with a platinum balance. These alloys have published use temperatures of 1550, 1650, 1720 and 1770°C respectfully, compared to 1450°C for pure platinum and 1850 to 1900°C for pure rhodium. The 10 and 20% rhodium/platinum alloys are most commonly used because of ductility, temperature and cost. Due to the high cost of these materials, their usage for heating elements is on the decrease as less expensive solutions become available. Main areas of usage tend to be in small research and development equipment and specialized applications in the glass industry.


TECHNICAL PAPER Estimation of standard PN-EN 10264 – steel wire for rope A review of the EN10264 standard for steel wire for use in ropes has found that, while it is useful, it is lacking in some areas. The use of new indicators is suggested to produce more accurate results. By Ryszard Budzik, Bogdan Golis, Rafal Wludzik, Jan W. Pilarczyk and Wieslaw Waszkielewicz

Countries that belong to the European Union manufacture steel wire for ropes to requirements specified in standard EN 10264. In Poland, this standard is marked as PN-EN10264. This paper reviews the effectiveness of the relationships among strength properties (Rm= tensile strength) and technological ones (Nb = number of bends and Nt = number of bends) of steel wire for ropes described in this standard. The research has led the authors to believe that the standard, as written, is lacking. Instead of using three properties (Rm, Nb and Nt) to estimate wire quality, new indicators based on above mentioned properties have been suggested: Wb = Rm/N b; W t = Rm/N t ; and W = W b + W t . These new indicators make it possible to estimate the quality of steel rope wire as this methodology better presents the relationship

between wire strength and technological properties. Using these indicators, some errors in analyzed standards were found. The authors believe that their new indicators can not only provide a good estimation for wire quality, but also for the quality of strands and rope made from those wires. It is also possible to calculate the fatigue strength of ropes on the basis of indicator values for wires.

Introduction Wires and wire products make up a considerable part of the group of plastic-worked steel products that often operate under high external loads. These products include ropes and different types of cables, springs, tire reinforcement steel cords, strings and steel wires for the reinforcement of concrete (post-tensioned pre-stressed concrete). The behavior of these products in various structures and machine parts, and their reliable, smooth and safe operation, all depend to a considerable extent on their mechanical and engineering properties. Experience has shown that the most useful test for the evaluation of wire quality is the tensile test, which determines factors that include mechanical properties, while the nominal tensile strength (Rm) characterizes wire quality.

Fig. 1. The change of indicator Wb in relation to the nominal tensile strength of the class B rope wires from 0.75 mm to 1.7 mm.


Editor’s note: Due to space limitations, Tables 1-5 for this paper were not included. You can request a PDF of these tables by sending an e-mail to

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The tensile test can determine the plastic properties of a ure, Nb) and a high value of deformation amplitude. wire, namely: the elongation (A) and the reduction of area (Z). Considering that wire applications are diverse, and the use The static test of metals thus provides a basic description of of wire is determined by its properties, the following properthe mechanical properties of metals. In Poland, the test condities come to the foreground: the nominal tensile strength tions are specified in PN-91/H-04310. The static wire tensile (Rm), the number of twists (Nt) and the number of bends test, described in PN-83/H-04316, provides a determination (Nb). for: physical yield point; nominal tensile strength; rupture Instead of using the three above-mentioned indicators, an stress; Young’s modulus; uniform and unit elongation; and idea was conceived to define the properties of wire by a sinpercentage reduction of area. gle index. Work undertaken by Prof. B. Golis, concerning The test is performed on certified testing machines of differprimarily rope wires and spring wires, has resulted in the ent construction. Often, it is necessary to perform other development of new methods for the determination of the checks, such as the torsion test of wire and the bidirectional properties of wires and ropes by theoretical means based on bending test of wire and wire rod. the properties: (Rm, Nt, Nb)1-8. The effect of these factors The wire torsion test is conducted in conformance with the on the properties, as well as their inseparable character, prorequirements of the PN-83/M-0003 standard. The subject of vided the basis for developing new indices: this standard is the test of unidirectional and bidirectional R bending of wire made of steel or nonferrous metals and their R Wb + m; Wt = m; W = Wb + Wt alloys with its diameter ranging from 0.3 to 10.0 mm, at an Nb Nt ambient temperature The torsion test is accomplished on torsion test machines that allow the test specimen to be tensioned with a maximum The index Wb conventionally defines the tensile strength axial force of 2% of the nominal rupture force. This process value per one wire bend, is quite informative in assessing wire quality as it subjects a very long test specimen to deformation, which allows any material defects to be assessed more accurately. The number of full twists required for the test specimen to break and a fracture to appear makes it possible to draw conclusions on the plastic properties of a wire. Also, from the twist test, an inference can be drawn on material homogenewhere: Rm = nominal tensile strength, MPa and Nb = numity and on any possible surface or internal wire defects. A ber of wire bends. The Wt index tells conventionally what basic indicator of the quality of wire is the number of twists, the tensile strength value per one wire twist is. “Nt,” defined as the minimum value specified in the relevant standards for wires of different applications. It should also be mentioned that the surfaces and type of the fracture characterize the steel wire examined. The bidirectional bending test is performed in accordance with PNISO 7801. The purpose of this test is twofold: to determine the susceptibility of the test specimen (of wire and wire rod of a diameter or thickness from 0.3 to 10 mm) to plastic deformation; and to detect any material defects by bending the test specimen until it breaks. The number of bends, Nb, is determined on a multiple bending machine. The PN-ISO-7801:1996 standard gives the values of the bending roller radius, “r,” for given wire diameters, “d” and for a specific distance from the guide and the guide opening. Wire bending can be regarded as a fatigue test with a low frequency Fig. 2. The change of indicator Wb in relation to the nominal tensile (a small number of cycles to failstrength of the class B rope wires from 1.1 mm to 2.6 mm.


the number of bends and Nt = the number of twists, as specified in the PN-EN 10264-2 standard (Steel wire and wire products – Steel rope wire – Part 2: Cold-drawn unalloyed steel wire for general-purpose ropes). where: Rm = tensile strength, MPa, and Nt = number of twists. The sum of the two above indices substitutes for the basic wire properties (Rm, Nt, Nb)

The introduction of the new above-mentioned index is of paramount importance as it enables: the quality assessment of rope wire (Wwire) and rope strand (Wstrand) and the assessment of rope (Wrope). It also makes it possible to control the quality of the manufactured ropes and offers the possibility of calculating the fatigue life of steel ropes. For ropes manufactured from round wires, the rule is likely to exist, that the lower the values of the index (Wwire, Wstrand, Wrope), the higher are both the strength and the hardness of the rope. The index also points out the significance of the requirements for rope wire, as provided in standard specifications or technical specifications. Thus, the correctness of the construction of wire standard specifications can be assessed. The purpose of the studies within the present work was to assess the correctness of establishment of the correlation between the strength and engineering properties of steel rope wires, as included in the standards. The values of the following parameters were subjected to analysis in the work: Rm = the nominal tensile strength, Nb =

Authors’ investigation The European Standard EN10264-2:2002 has the status of a Polish Standard (PN-EN 10264-2) and has been implemented by the Polish Standardization Committee. The scope of the Standard encompasses cold-drawn unalloyed steel wire to be used for the manufacture of general-purpose ropes and hoisting ropes, and ropes intended for applications for which there is no other European Standard. The Standard is not applicable to steel wire taken from finished ropes. For cold-drawn unalloyed steel wire for general-purpose ropes, the European Standard specifies: dimension tolerances, mechanical properties, requirements for the chemical composition of steel wire and the requirements that are to be met by coatings. The designation of round rope wire includes the nominal wire diameter (d), surface appearance and the classification of tensile strength. For the state of surface finish, the symbol “U” for wire with a bright (uncoated) surface, and the symbol “A” or the symbol “B” for a zinc or zinc alloy coating, depending on the coating class, have been adopted. The zinc coating and the zinc alloy coating are distinguished from one another by adding “Zn/Al” in parentheses for the Zn/Al alloy coating. Table 1 shows the tensile strength categories and the ranges of nominal diameters, can be found at Electronic copies of it and the other Tables referenced in this paper can be obtained by sending a request to The required mechanical properties for wire of specified nominal diameters and tensile strength categories for different surface finishing states are quoted in EN10264-2:2002. On the basis of data contained in Polish standard PN – EN10264 the calculations of values of the proposed indicators were executed. The results can be seen in Table 2.

Standard data analysis: coefficient Wb

Fig. 3. The change of indicator Wt in relation to the nominal tensile strength of the class B rope wires with diameters from .75 mm to 1. 3 mm. 66 | WIRE JOURNAL INTERNATIONAL

On basis of results of calculations of coefficient Wb shown in Table 2, graphs were prepared that represent variations of the coefficient in relation to the values of the tensile strength of the considered wires. The analyzed part of the standard is represented in the figures in this paper by a set of separated lines for given wires. It should be noted that

assumed in the analyzed standard are equal. Also, a disturbance in the graph can be observed for the 1.6 mm wire as the coefficient value is overlapping with its value for the 1.4 mm wire for a tensile strength category of 1250 MPa. At the category of tensile strength, 1960 MPa, the value of the analyzed coefficient overlaps with its value for the 1.3 mm wire. This means that in the standard identical values of number of bends were assumed for two levels of tensile strength (250 and 1960 MPa). Conditions of a deformation are less severe with the increase of the wire diameter (ε 1,3= 0.147, ε1,6= 0.137 and ε2,1 = 1.22), so it was possible to differentiate the number of bends required in the standard.

Standard data analysis: coefficient Wt On the basis of data introduced in Table 2, calculations for coefficient Wt were prepared for Fig. 3 and Fig. 4 for class B quality of wire in Fig. 4. These figures present calculated coefficient changes in relation to the tensile strength of considered rope wires for their different diameters. For the analysis of other parts of the standard, Fig. 3 was prepared for wires from 0.75 to 1.3 mm while Fig. 4 shows data for wires from 1.5 to 2.6 mm. The data in Fig. 3 shows that wires from 0.75 to 1.0 mm are on one common line. This agrees with an assumption in the standard that the same number of twists for a given nominal tensile strength category. One line is also formed for 1.1 and 1.2 mm. In the authors’ opinion, the standard number of twists should be different for different wires diameters than it is for some others standards for rope wires. On the base of Fig. 4, it can be stated that three groups of lines can be found for wires from 1.5 to 1.8 mm; 1.9 to 2.4 mm; and 2.5/2.6 mm. For all above mentioned groups, the

where: ε = plastic strain; d = wire diameter; and D = diameter of bending roller. The values of calculated strains were as follows: ε0,85 = 0.145; ε1,65 = 0.141; and ε1,7 = 0.145. It creates difficulties in assuming different number of bends in relation to the wire diameter. Overlapping of points for 0.95 mm and 1.5 mm wires (Fig.1) is also a result of an assumption of the same numbers of bends for considered wires. Different diameters of rollers used in bending tests for those wires could be a reason for the differentiation of number of bends placed in the standard. Conditions of deformation during bending of the wire with diameter 1.5 mm are more severe (strain of outer layers is equal to ε1.5 = 0.130) than for a wire with a diameter 0.95 mm where this strain is equal to 0.112. Fig. 2 shows values for coefficient “Wb” for wires with diameters from 1.1 to 2.6 mm. From Fig. 2, it can be seen that the values of this coefficient are overlapping for wires with diameters of 1.3 and 2.1 mm. This means that Fig. 4. The change of indicator Wt in relation to the nominal tensile strength of the numbers of bends the class B rope wires with diameters from 1.5 mm to 2.6 mm.

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the lines are not crossing or overlapping each other, which confirms the correctness. When analyzing the graphs of relationship of the Wb index versus the category tensile strength for the B quality class wire according to PN-EN10264 (Figs.1-2), it can be seen that the values of this index, as represented graphically for the examined tensile strength values, are mostly not straight lines. Some wire diameters have the same values of the Wb index for several different diameters of the wire examined, which makes the curves superimpose on one another. For wires with diameters 0.85-1.65-1.7 mm (Fig.1) the overlapping of all data with one curve has been found. It means that for wires with diameters 1.65 mm and 1.7 mm bent on rollers with diameter R=5 mm in standard requirements, the same numbers of bends were assumed. A wire with diameter 0.85 mm was bent on the roller with diameter R=2.5 mm. For a comparison of deformation conditions for the above analyzed wires, the strains that occur in the outer layers of those wires were calculated from the following equations:

TECHNICAL PAPERS Fig. 5. The change of indicator W in relation to the nominal tensile strength of the wires.

those figures of the PN-EN10264 Standard are a graphical representation of the calculated index W. The lines illustrating the index W are arranged toward one another in a regular fashion on Fig. 5 and are mostly straight lines. Fig. 6 shows that common points were found for 2.15 mm and 2.22 mm wires in one case and for 1.85 mm and 1.9 mm wires in another case. In the first case, the values of “W” coefficient, which are the same as its components Wb and Wt, are the same for the given strength category. The results are similar for the 1.85 mm and 1.9 mm wires.


By analyzing the PN–EN 10264 Standard “Cold drawn unalloyed steel wire intended for standard predicts an equal minimal number of twists, which in general-purpose ropes,” the goals set out in this paper have the authors’ opinion is not correct. The values of the number been achieved. The studies have shown that, indeed, there is a of twists should be dependent on the strength category and the correlation between the strength properties of wire and its wire diameter. engineering properties. The tests and calculations discussed in this article enable one to draw the following conclusions: Standard data analysis: coefficient W Appearance of the part of the standard shown in figures Using the results of calculated coefficient W (data placed in should form a set of lines separated for a given wire that do Table 2), Figs. 5 and 6 were prepared. The curves shown in not intersect or overlap those for other wires. Overlapping of “Wb” values for wires with diameters of 0.851.65-1.7 mm (See Fig. 1) for all categories of nominal tensile strength suggests that the assumed values in the requirements for number of bends are not correct. Using coefficient “Wt,” it is possible to estimate the “correctness” of the assumed in the standard values of number of twists; the overlapping of “Wt” points for wires with diameters of 1.51.6-1.7-1.8 mm in a given tensile category is shown in Fig. 4 not to be correct. Using coefficient “W” it can be also proven that the analyzed standard is not correct (see, for example, the Fig. 6 data for wires with diameters of 2.15 and 2.2 mm or diameters of 1.5 and 1.9 mm) but it is not clear if this Fig. 6. The change of indicator W in relation to the nominal tensile strength of is related to incorrect values for the class B rope wires with diameters from 1.8 mm to 2.3 mm. Wb or Wt .


References 1. B. Golis, J.W. Pilarczyk, Z. Błazejewski, M. Suliga and T. Małecki, Calculation of ropes fatigue strength on the base of mechanical properties of wire,” WJI, Sept. 2005, p. 80. 2. B. Golis, H. Dyja, J.W. Pilarczyk and R. Budzik, “Strength characteriistics of steel ropes manufactured from round wires with punctlinear contacts.,Trends for Ropes. OIPEEC Conference Proceedings, Editor I.M.L. Ridge, Athens, Greece, March 2006, pp. 277-296. 3. B. Golis, H. Dyja, J.W. Pilarczyk, W Waszkielewicz and R. Budzik, “Changes of steel rope parameters as result of the transformation of their Construction from ‘conventional’ to ‘compacted,’” Trends for Ropes, OIPEEC Conference Proceedings, Editor I.M.L. Ridge, Athens, Greece, March 2006, pp. 95-106.

4. B. Golis, J.W. Pilarczyk, Z. Błazejowski and E. Filipczyk, “Fatigue strength of rope wires,” WJI, Feb. 1997, pp. 244-248. 5. J. Hankus, E. Filipczyk, J.W. Pilarczyk and B. Golis, “Fatigue durability of steel ropes, WJI, Oct. 1997, pp. 72 - 77. 6. B. Golis, W. Waszkielewicz, R. Budzik and J.W. Pilarczyk,”Indicators of quality of wire and ropes in wire industry,” WJI, October 2005, pp. 73. 7. W. Waszkielewicz, H. Dyja, B. Goli, J.W. Pilarczyk and Rudzik, “Application of new indicator for strength characteristic of steel ropes,” WJI, Nov. 2005, p. 83. 8. B. Golis, J.W. Pilarczyk, Z. Błazejowski and Z. Muskalski, “Theoretical possibilities of determination of a fatigue strength of ropes on the base of wire properties,” 2003 Conference Proceedings of The Wire Association International, Wire & Cable Technical Symposium, 73rd Annual Convention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, May 2003, pp. 41-57. ■ Editor’s note: Due to space limitations, Tables 1-5 for this paper were not included. You can request a PDF of these tables by sending an e-mail to

Ryszard Budzik is an associate professor and head of the Chair of Management and Logistics at CUT, Poland. He has practical experience in metallurgy, management, and evaluation of industrial enterprises. He is the author or co-author of more than 150 papers. Bogdan Golis is a professor of plastic working in the Dept. of Materials Processing Technology and Applied Physics at CUT. He joined the university in 1987 and previously worked in Poland’s Central Laboratory for Metals Products in Zabrze. He has more than 40 years of experience in the wire and rope industry. He is the author or co-author of more than 200 papers. Rafal Wludzik is a candidate for a doctoral degree in the department of metallurgy and materials engineering at CUT. He is studying central bursting in wiredrawing. Jan W. Pilarczyk is a professor in the Department of Materials Processing Technology and Applied Physics at CUT. He works on the development of new technology for wire drawing and metal products. He is the author or co-author of more than 170 papers and is president of the Poland Chapter of WAI. He holds a Ph.D. degree and a degree in specialty plastic working of metals from Czestochowa. Wieslaw Waszkielewicz is a member of the faculty at AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland. He is the author or co-author of more than 80 papers on management and marketing in the steel industry. This paper was presented at WAI’s 78th Annual Convention, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA, June 2008.

Pilarczyk, Budzik and Golis



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The proposed new indicators (coefficients) Wb, Wt and W can successfully be used for the determination of the proper correlations between the strength properties and the engineering properties of wires, either in developing new standard specifications or in controlling already applicable wire standards.


PRODUCTS & MEDIA PROD DUCTS New line of thermoplastic elastomer compounds offers multiple benefits The Thermoplastic Elastomer Division of U.S.-based Teknor Apex Company said that it has introduced a new line of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) compounds for wire and cable and molded products that meets requirements for RoHS and UL-V0 flame retardance while providing excellent performance over a wide range of end use conditions. The Elexar HighPerformance FR series includes six grades, with Shore A hardness ranging from 58 to 85, upper use temperatures from 105-125ºC, low-temperature flexibility down to -50°C, excellent UV resistance and good oil resistance, a press release said. For applications where appearance is critical, the compounds provide excellent colorability and non-blooming surfaces, it said. “Conventional flame retardant TPEs not only fail to comply with the RoHS directives but are more limited in terms of flame test ratings and service temperatures,” said Market Manager Keith Saunders, adding that such products can also result in blooming or surface staining. The Elexar series is recommended for insulation and jacketing for automation and control cables, fiber optic cables, specialty low-voltage power cables, appliance wire, and flexible cord, said the release, which added that the compounds meet standards specified under UL 1061, and. unlike conventional TPEs, they can also pass the UL VW1 vertical flame test for cable jacketing. Contact: Thermoplastic Elastomer Division, Teknor Apex Company,

Caterpillar offers advantages for FOC dry tube production A new clenching caterpillar offered by Austria’s Rosendahl GmbH and Finland’s Nextrom Oy is designed to enable the company’s newest generation of high-speed loose tube/secondary coating line RL-R/OFC40 buffering lines to support precise excess fiber length (EFL) control


for even small product dimensions. A press release explained that totally dry cable designs, such as those that use super-absorbent powders (SAP) in the form of swellable powders or yarns to achieve water tightness, offer benefits over traditional cable designs that use jelly. The jelly-filled design, the release said, is stable but it results in much more preparation time for end-users who later have to clean the messy cable before they can do any splicing. SAP eliminates the messy splicing problem, but a manufacturer who uses it to produce loose tubes must take steps, such as using injected pressurized gas, to make sure that the tube diameter size remains constant and thus avoids EFL problems, it said. The company‘s clenching concept makes it simpler to effectively produce compact dry loose tube Fibre Optic Cable (FOC) designs, the release said. The clenching caterpillar is installed in front of the mid-span capstan inside the tube cooling section, where it ensures a very low tube tension during the tube crystallisation process, it said, adding that this method results in less post shrinkage (REL) of the produced buffered tube. The NCA 210 clenching caterpillar (see picture) helps make it possible to meet the specific demands related to long-term stability within a challenging environment, the release said. It added that the technology is also suitable for the upgrade of existing Nextrom OFC40 & Rosendahl RL-R buffering lines. Contact: Rosendahl GmbH, tel. 43-3113-5100- 0,, Nextrom Oy, tel. 358-9-5025-1,,

Enviro-mechanical tests for fiber and components offers superior precision U.S.-based Photon Kinetics reports that it is now able to offer unprecedented loss measurement precision for the environmental and mechanical testing of optical fiber, cable and components. The new OTDR-based technique is not only more precise, but also immune to the uncertainty created by the drift of the optical switches that are part of most test setups, a press release said. The test system uses the 8000 OTDR and proprietary data analysis algorithms to provide


more reliable product qualification, especially for those that use bend-insensitive fibers, it noted. The technology, it added, is capable of measurement precision better than 0.004dB, a 10X improvement over current methods. Loss measurements are an important part of all environmental and mechanical testing and this testing is performed on virtually all optical fibers, cables and components, the release said. Applicable tests include temperature cycling, freezing, aging, hydrogen ingress, macrobending, impact, compression and tension, all of which require precise detection of any changes in optical loss that are produced by the applied environmental or mechanical stress. The new technique can satisfy such requirements, it said.

Contact: Dave Kritler, Photon Kinetics, tel. 503-5264655,

Laser micrometer is especially good for small extruded products U.S.-based LaserLinc, a manufacturer of non-contact, precision measurement systems, describes its new laser scan micrometer, the TLAser130s, as a compact, highspeed, single-axis model for wire, centerless ground parts, multi-strand measurement such as monofilament, and many other processes. A press release said that the model’s non-contact, high-

JANUARY 2010 | 71


speed scanning is especially useful for flaw detection in small extruded products. The model has an accuracy rating of up to +/-.00004 in., which makes it ideal for measuring diameters, detecting short defects or profiling parts, it said. The TLAser130s, it noted, operates at a rate of 1600 measurements per second standard with an optional capability of 4000 scans per second, The TLAser130s has a 30 mm measurement window that fills an important niche between the TLAser160s (60 mm measurement window) and the smaller TLAser122s (22 mm measurement window), the release said. The separate transmitter/receiver, it added, gives the unit versatility for products that require more horizontal room for measuring or more space below the scanner. Contact: Robert Wexler, LaserLinc, tel. 937- 318-2440,

Wire annealer is a ‘brite’ idea U.S.-based Radyne Corportation reports that its new inline atmospheric bright annealing systems can maintain the highest quality surface finish and interior strength for copper wire. The system, which anneals copper wire in sizes ranging from 10 to 2 gauges up to 700 ft/min or more, has a newly designed energy-efficient FN induction power source that can reduce overhead costs and increase productivity, a press release said. It can eliminate all traces of alkali, thus minimizing carbon deposition and stress relieving. That, it noted, will reduce overhead costs and increase productivity. The company notes that it recently shipped one of its oxygen-free copper wire bright annealing systems to a leading supplier of electrical grade copper and aluminum wire. Radyne Corp. is one of 40 companies that make up the Inductotherm Group. As a multi-technology, global organization, Inductotherm Group serves the thermal processing industry by manufacturing and marketing a diverse range of products and services, all of which feature the characteristics of high quality, leading edge technology and top-flight engineering. Contact: Radyne Corporation,,

Double-twist strander is designed to process a wide range of conductors Niehoff Endex North America, a subsidiary of Germany’s Niehoff GmbH, reports that its double-twist stranding machines, models DSI631 and DSI1001, are built to process a wide conductor cross-section range with a maximum strand diameter of 8 mm or 15 mm respectively. Both machines, available in left and right-hand versions, are designed to combine insulated conductors to pairs or quads and to strand conductor pairs into LAN cables and other special cables, either with or without back twist, a press release said. The DSI stranders have a single bow


design that results in significantly reduced energy consumption and noise emission while three-phase drive technology and non-contact machine data transfer reduce maintenance to a minimum, it said. The DSI machines and additional equipment can be combined to precisely, reliably and economically manufacture all types of the mentioned cables, including LAN cables of all existing and even future generations, the release said. It cited several examples, such as instrumentation cables for the petrochemical industry. One cable producer uses a stranding line with three tangential payoffs (ATP630), three pay-offs (ALB600), a pre-twister (VVD180) and the DSI631 to create a single in-line process to produce a cable with two flexible conductors with polyethylene insulation, two fillers and a drain wire, it said. During the stranding process, it added, the inner part of the cable was covered with three film layers. Contact: Niehoff Endex North America, tel. 856-4674884,

X-RAY line sets precision standard Germany’s Sikora AG, represented in North America by Sikora International Corp., reports that the company’s latest product line, the X-RAY 6000 line series, sets new measuring standards with regard to precision, long operation time and efficiency. A press release describes the company’s new X-RAY 6000 line as a very cost-efficient and innovative device offered as a 2- and 3-axis unit that is promising for the Indian market. The X-RAY 6000, which can measure products with up to three layers of different materials, allows fast centering of extrusion tools and control of line speed or extruder rpm in consideration of the minimum values, it said. The values can be displayed graphically and numerically at 8 or 12 points respectively on the company’s ECOCONTROL 6000 processor system, with the wall thickness shown as an eccentric ring on the monitor and the thinnest wall thickness position displayed in a highlighted color, it said. A range of the 2-axis measuring devices are offered for specific

Jacket stripper can process just the outer layer of an insulated cable A new jacket stripper offered by the North American office of Swiss-based Schleuniger AG is designed to be able to slit the outer jacket of insulated cables without damaging the underlying cable layers. The JacketStrip 8310 model uses a unique, patented floating blade system that enables it to process round or out-of-round cables for insulation materials such as PVC,

PUR, rubber, TeflonŽ, TefzelŽ and Kapton, among others, a press release said. The model can process cables from 2.5 - 25 mm in diameter and stripping lengths up to 500 mm, or more, if the length scale is removed, it said. The key to the process is that the model’s rotating blade system follows the contour of the cable, ensuring precise radial slitting of the cable jacket, the release said. It noted that the cable jacket can also be slit axially (lengthwise) while extracting it from the machine. It added that the 8310 stripper is simple to program and operate. Contact: Schleuniger, tel. Tel. 603-668-8117,,















   'BY    'BY


QMS Inc.

JANUARY 2010 | 73


product diameters from 5 to 650 mm while the 3-axis system (X-RAY 6070) TRIAX can measure wall thickness and ovality at six points for product diameters from 6 to 65 mm, the release said. System graphics include a flexible length or time-related trend diagram for all measuring values, distribution of the single values and statistics with the minimum, maximum and mean values and standard deviation as well as Cp- and Cpk-values. Contact: Jeff Swinchatt, Sikora International Corporation, tel. 770-486-1233,


2-stage compounding system helps produces top XLPE purity A new 2-stage processing system from Swiss-based Buss AG is designed to process peroxide cross-linkable polyethylene (XLPE) for use in industry applications such as insulation for high-voltage power cables, which require exceptional purity levels to meet demanding requirements for dielectric strength and durability. The Buss system uses two of its kneaders. The first kneader, a press release said, melts the polyethylene and homogeneously mixes in all additives except the cross-linking agent, such as processing agents, UV and thermal stabilizers as well as fillers. Prior to underwater pelletizing, the compounded material passes through a melt filter with automatic screen changer, which removes all impurities and agglomerates, the





release said. The second kneader (pictured) has a highprecision liquid temperature control system that complies exactly with temperature limits and prevents local overheating, the release said. Once the granulate is gradually raised to a consistent temperature, a peroxide cross-linking agent is injected and homogeneously mixed into the melt, it said, adding that this process enables the XLPE to be produced without any pre-crosslinking. The technology, which was designed in particular for medium-sized production, is compact compared to systems using other cross-linking methods, the release said. It noted that Buss was able to develop the company’s process based on its 20 years of experience with XLPE compounding lines for medium-voltage cable insulation. Contact: Marco Senoner, Buss AG, tel. 41-61-825-65-51,,

Brochure describes line of superalloys U.S.-based SPS Technologies has published a 14-page brochure that describes the company’s line of superalloys designed for use in aerospace fasteners, including physical and mechanical properties, performance data and application information. The brochure, which highlights the company’s MP35N®, MP159® and AEREX® 350 superalloys, also describes the corrosionresistant performance,

chemical composition and metallurgical strengthening mechanisms for each material. Several charts and graphs illustrate such characteristics as tensile strength, stress relaxation and thermal expansion of the superalloys. The company’s high-strength fasteners are used for commercial and military aircraft, jet engines, high-performance racing and other applications requiring reliability and consistent quality. Contact: SPS Product Engineering Group, SPS Technologies, tel. 215-572-3145,

Book: from engineer to entrepreneur A new 366-page softcover book from CRC Press, Entrepreneurship for Engineers, provides information that can help engineers transfer ideas into individual success. Authior Kenji Uchino, an electrical engineer with two decades of sucessful business experience, explains how to start up a company, create product lines, collect venture capital, write R&D proposals, apply “forward thinking” and keep a steady cash flow. Contact: CRC Press, a division of The Taylor and Francis Group, at ■

The world’s ONLY one-stop wire tooling source… Inch Series Straightener

European Style Straightener

Sjogren also offers: • 5 Additional Styles of Roll Straighteners • Roll Replacement for ANY Style Straightener • 4 Styles of Wedge Grips and Replacement Parts • 3 Styles of Wire Guides • 3 Styles of Magnetic Brakes & Clutches Sjogren Industries, Inc. Tel: 1-508-987-3206 Fax: 1-508-987-1965 Email:

JANUARY 2010 | 75




CLASSIFIEDS WIRE ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL MEMBERS seeking positions are entitled to free “Position Wanted” classified ads. Limit: one ad per issue, three ads per year. This benefit is not transferable to nonmembers or to companies.

days after receipt. Responses to Blind Box ads should be addressed to: Wire Journal International, Box number (as it appears in print or on-line), P.O. Box 578, Guilford, CT 06437-0578 USA.

CLASSIFIED AD RATES: • $1.30 per word for WJI and on-line classifieds at (20 word minimum). • Blind box numbers, add $25. • Boldface headlines, add $6 per line (up to 18 characters per line). Specify category.

PAYMENT POLICY: All ads must be pre-paid.

BLIND BOX INFO: Blind box numbers assure the confidentiality of the advertiser in both the WJI and the on-line publication. Responses are mailed out within two business

DEADLINES: Copy is due a full month in advance, i.e., it must be received by March 1 for publication in the April issue. Classifieds booked on-line, run for at least one-month on-line, from the date of booking. Wire Journal International “Print classifieds” booked on-line as an “add-on” to an “online classified” booking will run in the next available issue.



SALES REPRESENTATIVES. MLP Steel is presently searching for manufacturing representatives to sell cold drawn and cold rolled round, flat and shaped wire for its Fayette Steel Division. Several territories available throughout the USA and Canada. Interested parties to contact MLP Steel, LLC, 18 Mount Pleasant Road, Scottdale, PA 15683 or email

APOLLO DIA-CARB COMPANY. Buy & sell new/used Natural and PCD DIAMOND DIES. Fair prices and excellent lead times. Contact Paulette, Owner-Sales, by telephone at 1-508226-1508 or by e-mail at apollodie@

PERSONNEL SERVICES “LET OUR SUCCESS BE YOUR SUCCESS” Wire Resources is the foremost recruiting firm in the Wire & Cable Industry. Since 1967 we have partnered with industry manufacturers to secure the services of thousands of key individual contributors, managers and executives. For corporations we provide recruitment, outplacement, and salary assessment functions. For the professional exploring a new opportunity, we provide career evaluation and guidance. Our services are performed in absolute confidence. Contact: E-mail Peter Carino at or Jack Cutler at, or visit the Wire Resources website at w w w. w i r e r e s o u r c e s . c o m . Wi re Resources, Inc., 522 E. Putnam Ave, Greenwich, CT 06830, 203-622-3000 or 800-394-WIRE.

MOLONEY DIE COMPANY. Low prices on all sizes of new, used and recut carbide dies. We also recut tapered nibs. Fast turn-around. Quality service since 1985. Tel. 904-388-3654. DIAMOND DIES. Vijay Precision Dies (P) Ltd, a leading manufacturer of Natural Diamond Dies and Polycrystalline Dies with an estab-


FOR SALE 1 - HALL Vertical Accumulator, 15” O.D. Sheaves, 500’ accum., ‘97 1 - NEB 64-Carrier CB-1 Cabler Braider 2 - WARDWELL 24-C Speedmaster Braiders 3 - NEB 24-C, 44-C, 96-C #2 Braiders 3 - DeANGELI 760mm Bunchers 1 - WATSON 36” Rotating Cabler Line 1 - GODDERIDGE 800mm Cabler 3 - NORTHAMPTON 630mm D.T. Cablers 2 - NEW ENGLAND BUTT 12-Wire 8” Vertical Planetary Cablers 1 - CEECO 6-Bobbin 60” Closer w/Caterpuller, Take-up 2 - MGS Model LC50.4 Caterpuller Capstans 1 - DAVIS ELECTRIC Model CAT-TRAK 22 Caterpuller Capstan 1 - VITECK 24” Horizontal Belt Wrap Capstan 1 - NIEHOFF M15 Wire Drawer, Annealer, SG45 Spooler 4 - D/S 3.5” 24:1 L/D Extruders 1 - D/S 3” 24:1 L/D Mark V Extruder 1 - D/S 2.5” 24:1 L/D Hi-Temp Extrusion Line 1 - D/S 2.5” 24:1 L/D Nylon Extruder 1 - D/S 2” 30:1 L/D Hi-Temp Extrusion Line

1 - HALL 36” Motorized Payoff 2 - TULSA 24” Motorized Shaftless Payoffs, Model HSPO-1, 12/02 3 - MGS 18-Bay 10” Tubular Stranders 1 - DAVIS STANDARD 36” Dual Reel Takeup, Model PS36 1 - ENTWISTLE 36” Dual Reel Take-up, Model THE 24/36 4 - D/S 30” Dual Reel Take-ups 1 - DAVIS ELECTRIC Model TAP30 Parallel Axis Dual Take-up 4 - NOKIA Model EKP50 Parallel Axis Dual Reel Take-ups 1 - CLIPPER Model SP16 Dual Spooler 1 - DAVIS ELECTRIC Model CRS30 Respooler 1 - WATSON/AFA 96” Rewind Line, 10,000lb reel weight max 2 - TEC Model 24STC Hi-Speed Twisters, rated 1300rpm w/2-Wire Payoffs 1 - TEC 600mm Backtwister D.T. Twister 1 - TEC 600mm D.T. Twinner 41 - 48” x 32-1/4” ID x 25” Barrel x 3” Arbor Toroidal Reels

Contact: Martin Kenner

COMMISSION BROKERS, INC. P.O. Box 8456 • Cranston, RI 02920-0456 • Tel. (401) 943-3777 • Fax: (401) 943-3670 WEB: • E-MAIL:


NAME _________________________________________________________________________TITLE _________________________________________________ COMPANY ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ADDRESS ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ CITY ________________________________________STATE _______________POSTAL CODE _____________________COUNTRY _______________________ PHONE ______________________________FAX________________________________EMAIL _______________________________________________________ AD CATEGORY____________ ISSUE YOUR AD BEGINS___________E-mail NUMBER OF ISSUES RUN _______LAST ISSUE ________________RUN TILL FURTHER NOTICE? YES____ NO ____ FULL RUN (WJI & ON-LINE) YES____ NO ____

BLIND BOX? YES____ NO ____

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lished brand image. Manufacturing range includes ß Natural Diamond 0.010 mm–2.0 mm ß Monocrystalline - 0.010 mm–0.60 mm ß Polycrystalline - 0.100 mm–2.5 mm ß Matched Elongation Die Sets in Natural Diamond.

Authorized Representative in Germany: Mr. Werner Stroemann, M/s. HWS Consulting, Habichtweg 9, D-35614 Asslar, Germany, Ph: +49 (0) 6443 3600 Fax: +49 (0) 64432277. Send e-mails to: Send enquiries to: Mr. G. Radhakrishnan, email: No.79A, Mysore-Belagola Road, Metagalli, Mysore – 570 016, India. Ph: +91 821 2582459, Cell: +91 994 5275094.

SANCLIFF SHAPED WIRE DIES. All sizes and shapes R2 to R12. Highest Quality, Shortest Lead Times, Lowest Cost and Superior Customer Service. 60+ years of quality products and service to the wire industry. Contact Bill Drumm at 1-800-332-0747, or E-Mail at

Please e-mail the requested information to: WAI’s Cindy Kirmss at For more details, you can call her at 203-453-2777, ext. 116.



REELS: NEW HIGH QUALITY ABS COPPER WIRE PROCESSING REELS FOR IMMEDIATE SALE. DONNELLY REELS has a surplus of high quality ABS plastic copper wire processing reels, available immediately, at discounted prices. These “Super Tough” reels have proven themselves in wire drawing, bunching, stranding and general shop use. The sizes that are currently available for immediate sale are: 22”x15”x5”, 24.8” (630mm) x15”x5”, 24.8” (630mm) x 11”x5”. Samples can be provided. Requests for additional sizes and constructions are also available. Please contact Mitch Jacobsen by e-mail at or by telephone at 973-494-6143 for additional information.

MICRO PRODUCTS BUTT WELDER. J7C 15423, 440V 400A Cap., 128-340 Brass ½” Cu/AI, $5995.00. Reconditioned, other models available. ACW Corporation, tel. 203888-9330. WWW.URBANOASSOCIATES. COM. For New (Hakusan Heat Pressure Welders, Ferrous and NonFerrous; Marldon Rolling Ring Traverses) and Used Wire and Cable Equipment. Please contact by tel. at tel. 727-863-4700 or by e-mail at

MEDIA FERROUS WIRE HANDBOOK. The most recent in a series of handbooks published by WAI, this compre-

WIRE FOR SALE FOR SALE. Titanium wire for sale. .125,” .144,” .160,” .187.” Grade 2, 4, 5. In coil and 12” length. Contact

Serving the non-ferrous and ferrous industries since 1983

JANUARY 2010 | 77




hensive hard-cover book is a new, definitive industry resource for ferrous wire written by members of the Association and edited by former WAI President Robert M. Shemenski. It is a modern-day reference tool for those working directly in the steel wire or manufacturing, engineering, or operations sectors of the industry. At 1,168 pages, the publication’s comprehensive 36 chapters cover a broad range of topics including many of the equipment types, processes, and specialty applications of steel wire manufacturing. The book begins with a history of the steel industry and includes the evolution of ferrous steel manufacture, appendices and a complete index. List Price is $235, $195 for WAI members. To purchase, go to and click on The WAI Bookstore. WIRE ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL’S ELECTRICAL WIRE HANDBOOK. This three soft-cover book set examines materials, equipment and products. Part 1 is Wire and Cable Production Materials, Part 2 is Wire and Cable Production Processes and Part 3 is Types of Cables. Parts 1 and 2 are now available, but the original handbook will still be available until Part 3 is published separately. List Price: $99, WAI Member Price: $59. To purchase, go to and click on The WAI Bookstore.

FERROUS WIRE HANDBOOK. The most recent in a series of handbooks published by WAI, this comprehensive hard-cover book is a new, definitive industry resource for ferrous wire written by members of the Association and edited by former WAI President Robert M. Shemenski. It is a modern-day reference tool for those working directly in the steel wire or manufacturing, engineering, or operations sectors of the industry. At 1,168 pages, the publication’s comprehensive 36 chapters cover a broad range of topics. List Price is $235, $195 for WAI members. To purchase, go to and click on The WAI Bookstore. ANNEALING: PARTS 1-3. This three-part video set presents information from industry expert Dr. Horace Pops. The set, which has a total running time of 1 hr., 36 min., includes: Annealing Part 1: Principles of Annealing (28 min.); Annealing, Part 2: Annealing of Copper and Aluminum Wire (31 min.); and Annealing, Part 3: Annealing Problems (37 min.). The set can be ordered for $285, $225 for WAI members, plus shipping, or by individual parts for $95, $75 for WAI members, plus shipping. To order, go to and click on the icon at the lower right side for the WAI Store.

WIRE BREAKS, by Horace Pops and Julie Steininger. 2003, 49 pages. Breakage of copper, steel, or aluminum wire is one of the most common and costly problems facing the wire industry today. To help minimize the number of breaks, drawing personnel must first be able to recognize and identify the type and cause of material failure. With this need in mind, the following reference manual was prepared. It contains pictures of the most frequent examples of broken wires found in the wire mill and at the customer’s facility. Although some of these photographs were taken at high magnification with a scanning electron microscope, adequate visual examination of the broken ends can be made in the plant using either a magnifying glass or a low power stereomicroscope. In addition, many pictures of cross-sections are included that were obtained in the laboratory using metallographic techniques The photomicrographs do provide useful supplemental information that helps to confirm and explain the nature of the wire breaks. List price: $15, WAI member price: $10. To purchase, go to and click on The WAI Bookstore. ■

now available on-line The WJI’s annual article index for 2009 can be accessed at Just click on “WJI” and then “Article Indexes,” which includes searchable files for 2009 and the three previous years.


ADVERTISER . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PAGE

ADVERTISER . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PAGE

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Niehoff GmbH & Co KG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cover 3

Bongard Trading GmbH & Co KG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71

NIMSCO LLC/SB2C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49

Carris Reels Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13

Paramount Die Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45

Commission Brokers Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76

Pittsfield Plastics Eng Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

Elof Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35

Power Sonics LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23

Eurolls Group/Teurema . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29

Pressure Welding Machines Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37

George Evans Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71

Properzi International Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9

Mario Frigerio SpA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2, 46-47

Queins & Co GmbH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73

Gem Gravure Co Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cover 2

Sikora International Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7


RECENT PURCHASES — INVENTORY HIGHLIGHTS CBR1044 48” Entwistle Bow Twister, 1+4 TKU1158 50” Clipper Dual Shaftless Parallel Axis Take up, PS-50, Yr 1995, CBR1043 NEXTROM/CEECO 4 pair 500mm Group Twiner w/backtwist, 1000 mm rotating cradle take up, Yr. 2000. TKU1149 NEXTROM Take ups EKP-63 Yr. 2000 Never used/(4) EKP 50, Yr. 1998, TKU1118-1121/EKP-5, Yr. 2001 (2) WRD890 (4) SAMP TR2TP Wire Drawing/Annealing /Preheating Yr. 2000 Never Used. WRD887 820 mm SAMP Drop Coiler, Model AS/3-820, Yr. 1999 CBR1040 Entwistle 30” Payoff Neutralizer, 6 pos, (flyer arm style) CBR998 (8) SETIC 630mm PA630i D.T. Twinners, 1998. CBR1000 84” CABALLE/KALMAR/POURTIER Drum Twisting Line, 1990’s. CBR995/CBR989 630mm MGS & TEC, 800mm NMC D.T. Twinners.

MGS/BARTELL Payoffs 60”, 72”, 84”, 96” Take ups 60”, 84” 96” (some rebuilt) EXPL347 2 1/2” D.STD./SAMP Tandem Wire Dwg Insul Line w/2 1/2” & 1 1/4” extruders, 630mm Samp dual T/U, Yr. 2005. EXPL325 4 1/2“ Jacketing Line w/2) 60” Belt Caterpullers, 96” Portal P/O, T/U, 30” multipass capstan. EXPL304 ROSENDAHL Skin-Foam-Skin Ins Line, 2000, Henrich annealer, preheater, 60/45/30mm extruders w/gas inj., multi cap, Rosendahl DIN500 dual T/U. EXRL38 3 1/2”/ 1 1/4” AMERICAN KUHNE XLPE, CV Line, 2001, Endex CC18 18” Drop Coiler, multipass capstan. EXR172/171/168 4 1/2”, 3 1/2”, 6“ D.STD. 20:1 Rubber Extruders, roller feed water cooled. CLR214 SKALTEK MPS-260 Automatic Coiling Line for 250mm coils, CS260 pallet stacker. RWD359 2.6m SKALTEK Rewind Line. A264K P/O, S60/L100 line controls., meas. mach. Guide roller assy. U26T T/U.


JANUARY 2010 | 79




March 2010 WJI ADVERTISER . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PAGE Rautomead Ltd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 Sikora International Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7

Preview of

Wire Expo

Sjogren Industries Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75


Talladega Machinery & Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4


Teknor Apex / Vinyl Division

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33


Tubular Products Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 Wire & Plastic Machinery Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Woodburn Diamond Die Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Wyrepak Industries Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Zumbach Electronics Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Cover 4

WIRE ASSOCIATION INTERNATIONAL ADS Wire Expo 2010 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14-15 Membership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34-35 Wire Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57




Robert J. Xeller Anna Bzowski Wire Journal International 1570 Boston Post Road P.O. Box 578 Guilford, CT 06437-0578 USA Tel: 203-453-2777 Fax: 203-453-8384

U.K., France, Spain, Holland, Belgium, Denmark & Scandinavia Jennie Franks David Franks & Co. 63 St. Andrew’s Road Cambridge CB4 1DH, England Tel/fax: 44-1223-360472


SALES OFFICES ASIA/WAI INDIA OFFICE Germany, Austria, & Switzerland Dagmar Melcher Media Service International P.O. Box 103 D-82402 Seeshaupt Germany Tel: 49-8801-914682 Fax: 49-8801-914683

India Wire & Cable Services Pvt. Ltd. (WCS) 501, Rainbow Plaza, S. No. 7 Pimple-Saudeagar Vil. Rahatani, Pune - 411017, India Huned Contractor mobile - +91 988 1084 202

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