Refrigerant Handling Guide 2023

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Refrigerant Handling Guide

Disclaimer of expressed and implied warranties

Although reasonable care has been taken in the preparation of this booklet, no warranties or representations as to the accuracy or completeness of the information contained herein can be given; nor can Wilhelmsen Ships Service AS assume any responsibility regarding the suitability of this information for the user’s intended purposes or for the consequences of its use. Each individual should make a determination as to the suitability of the information for their particular purpose(s).

02 Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Rules and Regulations Responsible Refrigeration Refrigerant quality and its impact on refrigeration machinery Unicool Marine Refrigerants Safe handling when working with refrigerants Environmental Return Management (ERM) Refrigerant Equipment Refrigerant Tools Compressor Oil Cylinder Handling Refrigerant log sheet and sticker labels in pocket folder 03 04 06 07 08 10 11 12 13 14 15Contents

Refrigerant Handling Guide

Global warming potential

The Global Warming Potential (GWP) was developed to compare the global warming impacts of different gases. It is used as a measure of the amount of energy absorbed by the emissions of one tonne of gas, relative to the emission of one tonne of carbon dioxide (CO2).

Today, environmental regulations and agreements such as the Montreal Protocol and F-gas regulations are phasing out high GWP refrigerants in favour of more environmentally friendly solutions.


The Montreal Protocol was established to protect the ozone layer by phasing out HCFCs such as R-22.

EU F-gas Regulation (517/2014) entered into force in 2015 to reduce the use of HFCs and impose a service ban on HFCs with high GWP of >2,500 like R-404A, R-507 and R-422D from 2020.



In 2016, 197 countries agreed upon an amendment to the Montreal Protocol for phasing down HFCs such as R404A, R134A.

Global HFC phase down Montreal Protocol: A5 countries: Introduction of HFC quota/license system Non-A5 countries: Quota cut by 1/3

EU F-gas regulation: Quota cut by 50%


*Full list of A5 and non-A5 countries can be found in glossary

Challenges and impact on Marine Industry

- Refrigerant suppliers will focus on producing HFO blends for wider inland market.

- Most of the HFO blends are not suitable for Marine applications (A2L – slightly flammable)

- Alternative refrigerants (Propane & Ammonia) are flammable and toxic.

- CO � applications are small due to risk of leakage into accommodation spaces.

- Fewer refrigerant options

- Business disruption, financial impact


Refrigerant rules & regulations

National and international regulatory bodies will continue to regulate the environmental situation through the gradual phase-out of CFC and HCFC refrigerants. Most regulatory work builds upon The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer.

Total Phase out by 2020 (Up to 0.5% of base level consumption can be used for servicing equipment existing on 1st January 2020, until 1st January 2030).

From October 14th, 2016 HFC refrigerants will be controlled under the Kigali Amendment and it will be phased down from 2019 in order to fight climate change. The following table summarises the current major regulations.

Total Phase out by 2030 (Up to 2.5% of base level consumption can be used for servicing equipment existing on 1st January 2030, until 1st January 2040).

Reg. (EC) 1005 / 2009

Valid For: EU countries

Reg. (EC) 517 / 2014 (F-gas regulation)

Valid For: EU countries

Illegal to use new reclaimed and recycled HCFC for servicing from 2015

Total phase out by 2020 (up to 0.5% of base level consumption can be used until 2030 for servicing existing equipment).

Illegal to use new HFCs with GWP>2500 such as R-404a, R-507 and R-422D from 1st Jan 2020. Recycled or reclaimed HFCs can be used until 2030

leak test is required if existing HCFC system charge >3kg.

2016 - 93%

2018 - 63%

2021 - 45%

2024 - 31%

2027 - 24%

Next reduction in quota in 2024 from 45% to 31%

2030 - 21%

04 Refrigerant Handling Guide
International RegulationHCFC HFC HFC Consumption Phase Down
Montreal Protocol Valid
Non-Article-5 countries Phase down from 2019 Non A5-1Non A5-2 2019 - 90% 2020- 95%
2024 - 60%2025 - 65% 2029 - 30%2029 - 30%
- 20%2034
Kigali Amendment to the
Next significant phase down for A5-1 countries in 2024 from 90% to 60%
15%2036 - 15%
A5-1 A5-2 2029 - 90%2032 - 90%
- 70%2037
- 50%2042
Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol Valid For:
limit freeze from 2024
- 80% 2040
- 70% 2045
20%2047 - 15%

Refrigerant Handling Guide

ABS Valid For: ES / ENVIRO+ Notation

Not permitted on ships constructed after 1 Jan 2020

GWP <=2000

• Illegal to vent to atmosphere

• Recovery system & cylinders

• Consumption logbook

• Fixed leak detection system

• Max leak = 10% of total annual charge annually

LRS Valid For: ECO Class Notation

Not permitted GWP <1950

• Illegal to vent to atmosphere

• Recovery system & cylinders

• Consumption logbook

• Fixed leak detection system

• Monthly checks for max leakage rate (%) per system: 10%, 3-30kg system 5%, 30-300kg system 3%, >300kg system

DNV GL Valid For: Clean Class Notation

Not permitted GWP <=2000 (Clean Design)

• Illegal to vent to atmosphere

• Recovery system & cylinders

• Refrigerant monitoring with fixed leak detector and/ or logging in consumption and conduct checks with handheld device on weekly basis

• Max leak = 10% of total charge annually

BV Valid For: Cleanship Notation

Not permitted GWP <=2000

• Illegal to vent to atmosphere

• Recovery system & cylinders

• Consumption logbook

• Fixed leak detection system

• Only A1 refrigerant is permitted

IMO Marpol 73/78 Valid For: Parties to Annex VI

Not permitted on ships constructed after 1 Jan 2020


• Illegal to vent to atmosphere

• Recovery system & cylinders

• Consumption logbook

• Max leak = 10% of total charge annually

• Refrigerant monitoring: Quarter or annual leak inspection for system charge >50lbs.

US EPA Aim Act (2020) Not Permitted from 2020 (only recycled or stockpiled quantity allowed for servicing)

HFC consumption phase down by one-third in 2024

• Ban the import and placement of disposable cylinders from Jan 2025

• Illegal to vent to atmosphere

• Recovery system & cylinders

• Consumption logbook

The table is intended to be a guideline only. Wilhelmsen Ships Service takes no legal responsibility in case of errors or new regulations in the above table, as applicable rules and regulations are constantly changing.

Responsible Refrigeration (R 2)

A crucial aspect of keeping in line with environmental regulations involves maintaining the integrity of the refrigerant system; leaks increase energy consumption – the biggest environmental impact from a refrigerant system. For example, a 10% loss in refrigeration increases energy consumption by up to 20%.

To keep your system free of leaks and working at its optimal state, we provide a complete range of tools, spares, and maintenance equipment. A well-maintained system will help you stay within the boundaries of environmental regulations and keep your refrigeration cost down.

1 2 3 R2

Adopt Low GWP Refrigerants

Move away from high to low GWP refrigerants for existing ships

Specify only low GWP refrigerants for new build ships

Minimise Refrigerant Loss

Proper refrigerant recovery

Leak detection and prevention

Reduce Indirect Emissions

System optimisation

Avoid illegal / counterfeit refrigerants

06 Refrigerant Handling Guide

Refrigerant quality and its impact on refrigeration machinery

In order to allow trouble-free and safe operation of refrigeration systems, refrigerants must comply with certain quality standards - just as compressors, the control systems, the piping and other essential components have to meet specific quality standards. A major quality concern with regard to refrigerants is their purity. The moisture content in the refrigerant is of great importance: Even a drop of water, which can enter a refrigeration system through sub-quality refrigerants during top-up, can cause serious operational problems.

Moisture in refrigeration systems

Excessive moisture in refrigeration systems may cause the following four major conditions:

Freeze ups

Freeze ups occur when moisture picked up by the refrigerant starts to freeze, building ice crystals that block the refrigerant passage in narrow passageways, for example in the expansion valve. This effect is called intermittent cooling, as the compressor stops after a while due to the blockage in the expansion valve and starts again when the ice crystals have melted and allow the refrigerant to pass through again. This is a periodical process of constant freezing and melting of the moisture inside the system, causing a periodical stop / start operation of the compressor.


Moisture alone in the form of water can cause corrosion. However, moisture plus a refrigerant containing Chlorine (For example, HCFC R-22 and mixtures) creates much more serious corrosion, as the Chlorine will slowly hydrolyse with the water and form Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) which is aggressive to most metals. Heat adds significantly to the problem by accelerating the acidforming process. When it comes to the HFC refrigerants, it is the oil (especially polyolester oils that are very hygroscopic) that may decompose at high temperatures forming aggressive Hydrofluoric acid with the moisture contained in the refrigerant.


As refrigeration oil is highly hygroscopic, it rapidly absorbs moisture. Moisture turned into acid from the hydrolyses with a refrigerant can be especially dangerous, as it emulsifies with the refrigeration oil to form aggressive oil sludge that greatly reduces its lubrication properties, which can result in serious compressor damage.


Due to high acid content inside a system, a solid product can be formed. It exists as fine powders or sticky solids and it is commonly known as sludge. This sludge can cause a variety of problems such as blockages of fine strainers, expansion valves and capillary tubes. And because sludge usually contains acid, it can also be strongly corrosive. Acid will, over time, attack the windings in hermetic compressors.


Rectifying problems caused by too much moisture inside refrigeration systems can be a costly exercise. If the moisture enters the system with the refrigerant, it will lead to continuous costly repairs that rectify the consequences but do not eliminate the cause.

It is therefore important that refrigerants comply with appropriate quality standards with regards to their purity.

In order to ensure trouble-free and safe operation of your onboard refrigeration machinery, all refrigerants supplied by Wilhelmsen Ships Service throughout the world comply with the stringent ARI 700-2006 standard that defines and benchmarks the purity of these substances. ARI 700-2006 demands the moisture content to be less than 10 ppm.

07 Refrigerant Handling Guide

Refrigerant Handling Guide

Unicool Marine Refrigerants

Refrigerant Group Name ODP GWP IPCC (4AR) GWP IPCC (5AR) Replacement for Chemical / Composition R-22 HCFC 0.049 1810 1760 - Chlorodifluoromethane R-134A HFC 0 1430 1300 R-12 Tetraflourethane R-404A HFC 0 3922 3922 R-502 Blend R-125 / R-143a / R-134a (44/52/4) % R-407C HFC 0 1774 1624 R-22 Blend R-32 / R-125 / R-134a (23/25/52) % R-407F HFC 0 1824 1674 R-22 / R-404A/ R-507 Blend R-32 / R-125 / R-134a (30/30/40) % R-407H HFC 0 1495 1378 R-404A / R-507 Blend R-32 / R-125 / R-134a (32.5/15/52.5) % R-410A HFC 0 2090 1923 R-22 Blend R-32 / R-125 (50/50) % R-417A HFC 0 2346 2127 R-22 Blend R-125 / R-134a / R-600a (46.5/50/3.5) % R-422D HFC 0 2729 2473 R-22 Blend R-125 / R-134a / R-600a (65.1/30.5/3.4) % R-427A HFC 0 2138 2024 R-22 Blend R-32 / R-125 / R-143a / R-134a (15/25/10/50) % R-507 HFC 0 3985 3985 R-502 Blend R-125 / R-143a (50/50) % R-448A HFO Blend 0 1387 1273 R-22 / R-404A/ R-507 Blend R32 / R125 / R1234yf / R134a / R1234ze (26/26/20/21/7) % R-449A HFO Blend 0 1397 1282 R-22 / R-404A/ R-507 Blend R-32 / R-125 / R-1234yf / R-134a (24.3/24.7/25.3/25.7) % R-452A HFO Blend 0 2140 2140 R-404A / R-507 Blend R-32 / R-125 / R-1234yf (11/59/30) % R-513A HFO Blend 0 631 573 R-134A / R-404A Blend R-1234yf / R-134a (56/44) % R-744 - 0 1 1 - Carbon dioxide
**Applicable to Article-2 countries to the 1987 Montreal Protocol only

Refrigerant Handling Guide

Oil Type*GlideBoiling Point °C Cylinder volume Filing weight Product Number Cylinder colour Remarks Min, AB, PAO- -40.8 12.3 litre 56 litre 12.5 kg 57 kg 905621 905059 green Single fluid Consumption and trade limited Phase out 2030** POE - -26.1 12.3 litre 56 litre 12.5 kg 57 kg 905620 905557 blue Single fluid Medium and high temperature applications POE 0.5 K -46.6 12.3 litre 56 litre 9.5 kg 45 kg 905623 905606 orange Zeotrope Service Ban in EU due to high GWP >2500 (F-gas Regulation). POE 7.4 K -43.8 12.3 litre 56 litre 11 kg 52 kg 905624 905607 orange-brown Zeotrope Medium and high temperature applications POE 6.6 K -45.0 12.3 litre 56 litre 11 kg 51 kg 905712 905715 light green Zeotrope Low, medium and high temperature applications POE 7.0 K -44.7 12.3 litre 56 litre 10 kg 45 kg 905761 905760 gray Zeotrope Low, medium and high temperature applications POE 0.2 K -51.6 12.3 litre 56 litre 9.5 kg 45 kg 905627 905608 rose Zeotrope Pressure 60% higher than R-22 Min, AB, PAO, POE 6.0 K -42.0 12.3 litre 56 litre 11 kg 51 kg 905705 905637 green Zeotrope Low, medium and high temperature applications Min AB, POE4.9 K -43.2 56 litre 52 kg 905710 light green Zeotrope Service Ban in EU due to high GWP >2500 (F-gas Regulation). POE 7 K -42.7 56 litre53 kg 905708 green Zeotrope Low and medium temperature applications POE 0 K -47.1 12.3 litre 56 litre 9.5 kg 45 kg 905628 905610 Teal Azeotrope Service Ban in EU due to high GWP >2500 (F-gas Regulation). POE 4 K -45.9 12.3 litre 56 litre 10 kg 45 kg 905736 905740 gray Zeotrope Low and medium temperature applications POE 4 K -46.0 12.3 litre 56 litre 10 kg 45 kg 905744 905748 gray Zeotrope Low and medium temperature applications POE 3 K -47.0 12.3 litre 56 litre 10 kg 45 kg 905728 905732 gray Zeotrope Low temperature applications POE 0 K -29.2 12.3 litre 56 litre 11 kg 50 kg 905771 905770 gray Azeotrope Medium and high temperature applications Min, AB, PAO, POE - -78.4 40 litre27 kg 905790 gray Single fluid Low and medium temperature applications

Safe handling when working with refrigerants

Theguidelinesbelowprovidesgeneralinformationfor CFC,HCFC,HFC,andHFOrefrigerants.Formoredetails, pleaserefertotheapplicableSafetyDataSheet.

Thesecanbedownloadedfromwilhelmsen.comor wssproducts.wilhelmsen.comundertheDocumentation tabofeachrefrigerant.


•All refrigerants have a global warming potential and therefore contribute to the greenhouse effect when released into the atmosphere.

• CFC and HCFC refrigerants also contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer when released into the atmosphere (see regulations implemented on page 4).


•Odour: Sweet ether-like odour.

•Appearance: Liquefied gas.

•Contact with eye: May cause irritation.

•Contact with skin: Possible frost-bite of affected areas.

•Inhalation: May cause dizziness, confusion, headache or stupor. In case of severe exposure, unconsciousness may develop.

Handling and storage


Do not expose cylinders to temperatures above 45ºC, 113ºF. Store as a compressed gas. Keep in a well-ventilated place. Keep away from open flames, hot surfaces and other sources of ignition.

The gas is normally transported under pressure in gas cylinders. In case of a leak, prevent sparks and open flames.

Safety measures to protect persons

• Always wear eye protection and insulated gloves.

• Protective clothing should be worn if there is a possibility of direct contact or splashes.

• Wear safety boots when handling refrigerant cylinders.

• Never lift a cylinder by the top valve.

• When moving cylinders, keep their caps on.

• Always assume that the cylinder contains gas.

• Wear self-contained breathing apparatus in high gas concentrations.

• Provide good ventilation.

Safety measures to protect the environment

Do not release refrigerants into the atmosphere and always use recovery equipment. Obsolete cylinders should be returned to an approved reception facility and empty ones to the supplier at a maximum 10% of the initial product weight to meet import restrictions.

Proper methods for damage limitation and cleanup

Stop leaks immediately, if possible without jepordising personal safety. Move leaking cylinder(s) to the open air, where the leak will not jeopardise personal safety.

Exposure control

Refrigerant gases are heavier than air and will accumulate on the ground. They may cause suffocation by reducing oxygen available for breathing. Wear self-contained breathing apparatus in confined spaces.

10 Refrigerant Handling Guide

Environmental Return Management (ERM)

The concentration of greenhouse gases (GHG) has risen sharply compared to the last decade, and as concentration rises, so does the Earth’s temperature. In an effort to fight the effects of climate change, Global Treaties, Marine Regulatory bodies and environmental agencies have established standards and laws to treat refrigerant waste in a responsible manner. Non-compliance such as venting of refrigerants will face stiff punishments such as fines or imprisonment. Therefore, it is necessary to have the right experience and knowledge to reclaim and dispose refrigerant waste.

ERM Procedure

Wilhelmsen Ships Service has established such a procedure on a global basis. The Enviro Return Management (ERM) complies with applicable global treaties, and different local regulations. Today, ERM is available in selected ports in Europe, Americas, Asia Pacific, and Middle East.

Please contact your local sales representative for any ERM request.

This procedure ensures compliance to local regulations and off-loading requirements and applies to the following requests:

• Recovery cylinders (either empty or filled with recovered refrigerants).

• Unitor refrigerant cylinders which contains more than 10% of product.

1 Contact WSS sales office and provide them with the refrigerant type and number of cylinders to offload.

2 An ERM form will be sent to the customer which will need to be filled up completely with all cylinder details recorded.

3 Ensure the quantity of cylinders and product weight are accurate.

4 Send over the ERM form once completed. WSS will evaluate if it can be offloaded at the port.

5 The approval process must be completed before offloading can commence.

6 If offloading is not approved, WSS will look for other ports where offloading may be possible.

7 If offloading is approved, a quotation including handling and delivery charges will be sent.

8 Once charges are agreed and a purchase order has been issued, WSS will advise offloading instructions and arrange for pick up.

11 Refrigerant Handling Guide
Send to waste management facility Pick up by WSS Verification & approval Check quality & weight Fill up ERM form Contact WSS

Refrigerant Handling Guide

Refrigeration Equipment

U.V Tracer Kit (587199)

Invisible refrigerant leaks are tiny or intermittent leakages typically hidden in inaccessible areas which may not be detected with conventional methods. The UnitorTM Refrigerant Leak Detection U.V. Tracer Kit is an effective tool for pinpointing invisible refrigerant leaks in the system.

Hand Held Refrigerant Leak Detector (716142)

It enables crew to perform refrigerant leak inspection and find leaks in the system. It is battery powered and able to detect all types of refrigerants (HCFC, HFC and HFO).

Minimise Refrigerant Loss

Refrigerant Leak Monitoring System (708051)

To help existing maritime users of Samon’s refrigerant leak monitoring system to maintain their system better, WSS is now Samon’s exclusive distributor for all shipowners, ship-management teams, and ship suppliers and retailers in the maritime industry, supplying spare parts such as sensors, detectors, and calibration tools.

A refrigerant leak monitoring kit is available for existing ships that are looking to install a new system to minimise refrigerant leaks.

Refrigerant Recovery Package 220V (652522)

Refrigerant Recovery Package 110V (652511)

This package is a must-have for every crew. The package consists of carefully selected quality equipment, designed for crew members to handle refrigerant recovery or charging processes, evacuation, leak checks and maintenance for air conditioning and refrigeration systems on board.

Recovery Cylinder Table

Safety codes recommend that closed tanks should not be filled with more than 80 % of their total volume with liquid. It is advised to follow the recommended maximum filing weight.

Refrigerant Small 22 Ltr Tank (596544) Large 56 Ltr Cylinder (632588) R-22 17 kg / 37 lbs 45 kg / 99 lbs R-134A 17 kg / 37 lbs 45 kg / 99 lbs R-401A 17 kg / 37 lbs 45 kg / 99 lbs R-404A 13 kg / 29 lbs 36 kg / 79 lbs R-407C 15 kg / 33 lbs 41 kg / 90 lbs R-407F 15 kg / 33 lbs 41 kg / 90 lbs R-407H 15 kg / 33 lbs 41 kg / 90 lbs R-410A 13 kg / 29 lbs 36 kg / 79 lbs R-417A 17 kg / 37 lbs 43 kg / 94 lbs Refrigerant Small 22 Ltr Tank (596544) Large 56 Ltr Cylinder (632588) R-422D 15 kg / 33 lbs 41 kg / 90 lbs R-427A 16 kg / 35 lbs 44 kg / 97 lbs R-448A 13 kg / 29 lbs 36 kg / 79 lbs R-449A 13 kg / 29 lbs 36 kg / 79 lbs R-452A 13 kg / 29 lbs 36 kg / 79 lbs R-502 16 kg / 35 lbs 44 kg / 97 lbs R-507 13 kg / 29 lbs 36 kg / 79 lbs R-513A 15 kg / 33 lbs 41 kg / 90 lbs

Refrigeration Tools

Digi-manifold set 4-way (711480)

Deluxe manifold set 4-way (711473)

Deluxe manifold set 2-way (711499)

This digital tool enables cost and time savings, as only one tool is required to support all common refrigerants used in maritime applications. With the ability to convert the pressure to temperature readings as well as calculate superheat and subcool automatically, it is recommended for all ships, particularly those undergoing a refrigeration system conversion and ships using multiple types of refrigerants on board.

Refrigerant Handy Tool Case (752154)

The kit contains both specialised refrigeration tools and general tools that are necessary for day to day ship-board operation and maintenance of refrigeration systems.

Service and maintenance consumables and supplies

3/8 - 5/8” COLLECTION OF FITTINGS (636449)

1/4 - 3/8” COLLECTION OF FITTINGS (636431)

An assorted collection of the most common types of brass fittings that are used in various refrigeration piping and connection applications.

Hand oil pump (597534)

Allow crew to pump refrigeration oil into the system or compressor crankcase while the unit is in operation, no need for system shutdown during oil charge.

Duct Air Treatment 2KG (743466)

Duct Air Treatment 4KG (764417)

The natural, biodegradable, non toxic gel block helps prevent the buildup of bacteria, mould, and fungi which are commonly found in marine HVAC systems. It is suitable for use in all HVAC systems, including ducted systems, AC unit, and room air conditioners.

Cylinder Stand (513564)

A stand for UNICOOL cylindewvrs to secure the cylinders during voyage against movement

Charging Hose Set - 3X0.9M (320093)

Charging Hose Set - 3X1.8M (597757)

Hose set used together with refrigeration service manifold

Hycool Marine 45 25L (708511)

Hycool Marine is developed to provide a cost efficient and environmentally friendly secondary refrigerant for use in indirect cooling systems. It is based on the organic salt Potassium Formate. It is environmentally friendly because it is biodegradable and has neither Ozone Depleting Potential nor Global Warming Potential. It is non-flammable and non-toxic and can be used in freezing, cooling and heating applications.

13 Refrigerant
Reduce Indirect Emissions

Refrigerant Handling Guide Compressor Oil

Guidelines on refrigeration oils

Correct lubricant selection for a refrigeration system is important not only for the compressor itself, but also to ensure that the oil does not separate from the refrigerant gas in any part of the plant. If the oil type or supply manufacturer is mixed, incompatibility and hence poor miscibility within the plant can cause problems.

With the wide range of mineral and synthetic products on the market, coupled with different additive technology, it is vitally important to check oil miscibility prior to top-up with a different grade oil. The alternative is to drain the oil completely from a refrigeration system, which can be very difficult or even impossible without strenuous procedures. During warranty, compressor and / or system designers often prohibit the use of non-approved refrigeration oils.

Oil testing

A field test of oil can be done by visually inspecting the oil and using an oil acid test kit to determine if the system has been exposed to moisture.

Oil samples can also be sent to a laboratory for analysis; this routine requires clean sample bottles and is used for systems containing large quantities of oil.

Oil changing procedures

Refer to manufacturers recommendations on oil change intervals. These may be done annually or could be more frequent if the oil becomes dark or cloudy.

A good rule is to renew the oil if a major service or repair has been done to the compressor or the system.

For changing the oil in a standard condensing unit, it is normal to replace the oil charge in the compressor crankcase. It is also recommended to clean or change the oil filter (if applicable) and the refrigerant drier filter cores at the same time.

Normal oil change procedure:

1. Run pump down and shut down the unit.

2. Close the service valves on the compressor.

3. Ensure that any crankcase oil heaters are switched off.

4. Drain oil carefully from the compressor crankcase.

5. If the oil has been drained with the compressor pressurised, new oil can be charged with an oil-filling pump capable of working against pressure.

6. Fit the oil pump to the oil container according to manufacturer’s instructions, attach pump to compressor with a charging hose and leave the hose connection to compressor loose. Pump oil into the charging hose until it is filled. This is necessary to prevent air from entering the system and to ensure proper pump function when working against a pressurised system.

If the compressor has been opened for inspection or repair:

7. Ensure that the compressor crankcase is clean.

8. Run deep vacuum on the compressor using a vacuum pump, preferably down to 500 micron.

9. Charge oil using the vacuum to suck up the oil from the container into the crankcase.

10. Remember to switch on the crankcase oil heater if applicable and allow time for the oil to be heated before the unit is put back in operation.


Used refrigeration oil must be returned to an approved waste reception facility.


Cylinder Handling

Building a strong relationship with our customers is important to us. At Wilhelmsen, we pride ourselves on going the extra mile beyond selling high-quality products to coming up with additional services that help you navigate existing and future regulations to come in the maritime industry.

Convenience — Global Cylinder Exchange Programme

Know the whats, wheres, and whens of all your cylinders with our global cylinder exchange programme: our accurate, secure, and costeffective stock management system. With this, you can have your UnitorTM cylinders delivered, exchanged, serviced, and re-supplied on a worldwide stage — we’ll go to wherever your vessels are.

By providing full traceability, you can be assured of the authenticity of the refrigerants. Additionally, it helps you to eliminate the risks of receiving illegal or counterfeit refrigerants.

Quality Guaranteed

Some refrigerants are cheaper upfront, but they’ll cost you in other ways: refrigerants susceptible to moisture contamination can cause corrosion in compressors in a short period of time — you’ll pay more via lesser operating efficiency and frequent mechanical breakdowns.

With Unicool refrigerants, purity and moisture content are guaranteed as per AHRI Standard 700 - filled and sealed only by approved suppliers.

Reliable — Cylinder Safety and Maintenance

Worry-free — Complete Compliance

Strict rules govern cylinder inspections before filling and those that fall below our standards are scrapped, because the integrity of our cylinders is our hallmark.

The ISPS Code enforces strict rules on the close monitoring of highpressure cylinder movements. Thankfully, global track and trace does just that; allowing us, and thereby, you, to stay fully compliant.

Our gas products and services also comply with all international regulations for global warming reduction and the prevention of ozone depletion.

Technical Expertise

We have a wide range of documents available detailing all the specific technical data, properties, and other information on our products and their usage to help you maximise your resources effectively.

Refrigerant Handling

Refrigerant Handling Guide



Fourth assessment report: IPCC formula for calculating GWP. Published in 2007. Used for calculating CO2 taxes and import quotas for refrigerants.


Alkyl benzene refrigeration oil.


American Innovation and Manufacturing (AIM) Act of 2020


U.S. Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute.


American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and AirConditioning Engineers.

Article 5-1

Albania, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Barbados, Benin, Bhutan, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Botswana, Brazil, Bulgaria, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cabo Verde, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Chile, China, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Côte d’Ivoire, Cuba, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Eswatini, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Grenada, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Honduras, Indonesia, Jordan, Kiribati, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, Lesotho, Liberia, Malawi, Malaysia, Maldives, Mali, Marshall Islands, Mauritius, Mexico, Micronesia, Mongolia, Montenegro, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Niue, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Rwanda, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Serbia, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, South Africa, South Sudan, Sri Lanka, Syrian Arab Republic, Taiwan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Tunisia, Turkiye, Turkmenistan, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Republic of Tanzania, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe

Article 5-2

Bahrain, India, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Pakistan, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Non Article 5-1

Andorra, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Holy See, Hong Kong, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands Antilles, Netherlands, New Zealand, North Macedonia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States of America

Non Article 5-2

Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan


Blend of refrigerants of different volatilities which do not appreciably change in composition or temperature as it evaporates or condenses under constant pressure. Behaves like a single refrigerant and has no glide. Refrigerant blends assigned R-500 series number designations by ANSI / ASHRAE 34 are azeotropes.


Mixture of two or more refrigerants with different volatilities.


Fully Halogenated Chlorofluorocarbon, e.g. R-12, R-500, R-502 and others. Environmental burden: High ODP, high GWP.


Destruction of used refrigerants in an environmentally sound and Montreal Protocol approved manner.


U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.


Fluorocarbons, Perfluorocarbon; fully halogenated Fluorocarbons.

F-Gas Regulation

A EU regulation that is aimed at preventing emissions of Fluorinated gases which are contributing to Global Warming.


Temperature Glide. This means that the boiling point temperature increases while vapour is boiled off at constant pressure. (The most volatile component boil off first) Usually used to describe the evaporation or condensation of a zeotropic blend.

Greenhouse gases

Gases that contributes to Global Warming, i.e. has a certain GWP. Regulated by the Kyoto Protocol.


Global Warming Potential. Reference value is CO2 which has GWP=1 (time horizon 100 years).


Fully halogenated hydrocarbons, containing Bromine, mainly used as fire fighting agent. Regulated and banned by the Montreal Protocol. Environmental burden: High ODP, high GWP.


Refrigerant Handling Guide


Hydrochlorofluorocarbon. Partly halogenated Hydrocarbon e.g. R-22, R-401A and others. Environmental burden: Low ODP, moderate - high GWP.


Hydrofluorocarbon. Partly halogenated Hydrocarbon, e.g. R-134a, R-125, R-404A and others. Environmental burden: No ODP, moderate - high GWP.


Hydrofluoroolefins. Unsaturated organic compounds consist of hydrogen, fluorine and carbon. Environmentally friendly alternative: No ODP, low GWP.


International Maritime Organization, main task has been to develop and maintain a comprehensive regulatory framework for shipping.


Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change is a scientific intergovernmental body set up by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

Kyoto Protocol

Promotes policies and measures that limit or reduce the emission of Greenhouse Gases not controlled by the Montreal Protocol, e.g. HFCs, Methane, CO2 and other substances.

Min Mineral refrigeration oil.

Montreal Protocol

Regulates the production and consumption of substances that contribute to the depletion of the ozone layer (i.e. have a certain ODP) e.g. R12, R22 and others.


Ozone Depletion Potential. Reference value is R-11, which has ODP=1. The substances implicated generally contain chlorine or bromine.


Ozone Depleting Substance.


Polyalphaolefin refrigeration oil.


Polyolester refrigeration oil.


Extraction of refrigerants from a system into a separate container, e.g. a recovery cylinder or tank.


Reuse of a recovered refrigerant following a basic cleaning process such as filtering and drying for removal of oil, moisture and acid from the refrigerant.


Treatment of recovered refrigerant in order to restore the substance to a specified purity standard (e.g. ARI 7002006).


Second Assessment Report; IPCC formula for calculating Global Warming Potential (GWP). Published in 1996, used by some governmental bodies and classification societies.

Single Fluid

Refrigerant comprising of one component only e.g. R-22, R-134a and others.


Stichting Erkenningsregeling voor de uitoefening van het Koeltechnisch Installatiebedrijf. (Dutch non-profit organization to set standards for and monitor refrigeration companies).

SWEDAC Swedish Accreditation.


Third Assessment Report; IPPC formula for calculating Global Warming Potential (GWP). Published in 2001. Used by few selected countries, predominantly to calculate GWP to a higher value, as a basis for CO2 tax calculations.


Total Equivalent Warming Impact. Takes into account the direct GWP and the energy consumption required to run the refrigeration system. The TEWI is not refrigerant specific information, but rather relates to a particular refrigeration system.


Blend of refrigerants of different volatilities that appreciably change in composition or temperature as it evaporates or condenses at a given pressure. Causing a temperature glide. Zeotropes are assigned R-400 series number designation.

18 Refrigerant Handling Guide
19 Refrigerant Handling Guide
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VE S SEL NAME: FL A G: O WNER: D a te System Refrigerant Initial system Refrigerant Refrigerant Loc a tion of recovered refrigerant Remarks / foll o w up Original oil System oil Sign type type charge (kg) added (kg) recovered (kg) (for instance recove r y c ylinder type and changed or tank , disposed etc.) filling (ltr) added or changed (ltr)
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