National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library Slovo Magazine Summer 2015

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an bottled r is cheaper th e e b , e u g ra P 14 b In get as low as s ce ri p r e e B water. costs hereas water w t, in p a a n . koru .33 litre bottle a r fo a n ru ko about 35 n eer productio b ch ze C f o nted b Almost 97% bottom-ferme t, h g li f o d se ri is comp Pilsner style. beers in the

A Publication of the






FEATURES: A Brief History of Czech Beer


Beer has been brewed in the Czech Republic for centuries. Follow our timeline to brush up on the history of pivo.

How Czech Beer is Brewed


Learn more about the science — and what seems to be a cultural secret — of brewing Czech beer.

Experiencing Famed Breweries


Enjoy photos taken on the recent Czech Brewery Tour hosted by the NCSML.

Czech Beer in the United States: A “Perfect Brew”


By Alison Orton An insightful look at the popularity of Czech beers with immigrant populations in the United States.

A Czech & Slovak Beer Garden for the Ages

Slovo is published biannually by the


By Katie Mills Giorgio Step back in time as you learn about Astoria’s century-old Bohemian Hall and Beer Garden.

Beer Gets More Respect


By Virginia Thomas Learn about a newly developed program to transform beer lovers into certified beer experts.

A Battle Long in the Brewing

On the Cover: A few of the most important things about Czech brewing are rich, aromatic local malt—an absolute key to the character of Czech beer—as well as those famous herbal, tangy Saaz hops.


By Benjamin Cunningham Dive into the long heated battle of Budvar vs. Budweiser.

National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library. The editor welcomes research articles and essays written for a popular audience that address Czech & Slovak history and culture. Please address inquiries to Editor, Slovo, 1400 Inspiration Place SW, Cedar Rapids, IA 52404. Publisher: Gail Naughton Editor: Katie Mills Giorgio Curator: Stefanie Kohn Librarian: David Muhlena Educator: Jan Stoffer COO: Leah Wilson Design: WDG Communications Inc.

Slovo = Word Slovo is available as a benefit to members





of the National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library. Individual memberships: $35 for one year. For information, write to the NCSML, 1400 Inspiration Place SW, Cedar Rapids, IA 52404; call (319) 362-8500; or visit our website at ISSN 1545-0082 Copyright © 2015 National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library



Or email to:

museum S CRAP B OOK

Please send your letters to: Editor, Slovo 1400 Inspiration Place SW Cedar Rapids, Iowa 52404

My husband Denny and I had the pleasure of leading the Bohemian Beer Tour just a few weeks ago. We shared many a cheers to good health — Na zdraví! — while the entire group sampled more than its share of the fruit of the grain. Prague beer expert Evan Rail set everyone on the right track at the welcome dinner at Pivovar Bašta on Táborská in Prague. Denny still can’t stop talking about the incredible “Brewery Plate,” a wooden serving trough mounded with duck, roasted pork, smoked pork and baked sausage. Keeping with the theme of pork dinners, another stand-out was the “earth-grilled” pork at the St. Florian Brewery in Loket. Polka music serenaded the uncovering of the featured entree, which was baked over a wood fire in a concrete pit. Their beer was tasty, too. Of course, the pivo was the star of the tasting adventure. There’s nothing like sampling unfiltered beer right from the barrel in the cellar. Delicious! I have to admit I’ve become a convert. One of the secrets to Czech beer is the famous hops that are known all over the world. We learned all about them at the Hop Museum in Žatec, the visit to which started with a cartoon starring a little elf named “Hop” telling the story. We also toured breweries and tasted beer at the Velké Popovice Brewery, (home of Kozel, one of the group’s favorites), the Chodovar Family Brewery (where many of us dipped our tootsies and more in a soothing beer bath), and Pilsner Urquell (the industry giant). By the time we arrived in Plzenˇ, we were beer connoisseurs. We ended our tour with three memorable days at the Liberation Festival in Plzenˇ, which celebrated the 70th anniversary of the arrival of General Patton’s Third Army on May 5, 1945. It’s hard to describe the feeling of seeing Czech and American flags flying from every lamp post and thousands of people waving American flags at the parade, while vintage World War II military vehicles with impeccably costumed reenactors and active soldiers drove by. You can’t help but stand a little taller and swipe at misty eyes. A dozen or so Veterans who were with General Patton’s forces that liberated Plzenˇ were able to return to tell stories and be saluted at every venue. Another memorable moment was an amazing fireworks display that burst over the center of Old Town as ‘40s big-band music played and photographs of the liberation were shown on a big screen in Nameˇstí republiky, or Square of the Republic. I still shiver to think about it. If you ever have the opportunity to attend the Liberation Festival, don’t miss it. It’s truly a once-in-a-lifetime experience. You don’t have to visit the Czech Republic to celebrate the NCSML’s “Year of Beer” however. The tour was just one of the many activities celebrating this essential component of Czech and Slovak culture. Bragging rights have been on tap for this favorite of Good King Wenceslaus for centuries, so enjoy this Slovo devoted to the golden brew as we continue bragging on the preeminence of our favorite beverage. Na zdraví! Gail Naughton President / CEO National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library

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We encourage discussion of the issues and stories presented in Slovo.



Letters to the Editor



Andy Roell of Washington D.C. was the guest of his grandmother Marilyn John of Shorewood, Wisconsin on the tour.


P RE VIE W Gail Naughton with NCSML Board Member Denver Dvorsky and Martin Baxa, Deputy Mayor of Plzen˘ at a reception held by the NCSML on the opening day of the city’s annual Liberation Festival.


from the P U B L IS H E R

Right: United States Ambassador to the Czech Republic Andrew Schapiro welcomed the tour group to his residence, the Petschek Palace, which was built in the late 1920s.





CONTRIBUTORS Alison Orton (Czech Beer in the United States: A “Perfect Brew”) is a Ph.D. candidate in the Department of History at the University of Illinois at Chicago. Her dissertation examines how beer and the brewing industry were used as a means to express national affiliation in the late-nineteenth century Czech Lands, and among immigrants to the United States from Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia. Katie Mills Giorgio (A Czech & Slovak Beer Garden for the Ages) is a freelance writer and editor living in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. She has been writing for a variety of publications and websites around the U.S. for the past 12 years. Ms. Giorgio is thrilled to have contributed to this issue of Slovo — both as a writer and as managing editor — and would like to toast the National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library on an exciting Year of Beer! Na zdraví!

Virginia Thomas (Beer Gets More Respect) is the Business Manager for the Cicerone Certification Program. Aside from the founder, Ray Daniels, Virginia is the longest tenured employee of the program. She can be reached at for questions about Cicerone Certification. Benjamin Cunningham (A Battle Long in the Brewing) is a Prague-based writer and journalist. He covers Central Europe for The Economist, Politico, The Christian Science Monitor and others. In 2014, he was a fellow at the Institute for Human Sciences in Vienna. Benjamin is also a senior editor at The Slovak Spectator, a columnist for the Slovak-language daily Sme and a professor of journalism at Anglo-American University in Prague. You can follow him on Twitter at @Cunning_Tweets.

YO U TO O C A N B E A CONTRI BU T O R T O S L O V O. The National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library’s mission-focused publications and programs are made possible through generous contributions from our friends, members and donors around the world. The back cover of Slovo is often used to pay tribute and honor or memorialize friends and loved ones. If you are interested in honoring a friend or loved one by contributing to a future issue of Slovo, please contact a member of the NCSML Development Team at (319) 362-8500 today. Slovo | 3



C A L E N DA R RE VI E W S 4 | National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library

Beer is a core part of national identity and there’s no denying that Czechs love the stuff (they’re the biggest per capita consumers of beer in the world), but their love affair with it goes far deeper than simply drinking beer. There’s a well-established culture surrounding the beverage, incorporating everything from beer spas and brewery hotels to various beer festivals held throughout the year.


D EFI N ITIO N O F C Z E C H B EE R A pale beer that has a distinct aroma of pale malt and hops.This beer has a medium sharpness, just like the fullness of its taste, which is primarily given by the difference between the apparent and achievable degree of fermentation. The intensity of the bitterness of the beer is medium to high, with the level of freshness being mild to slightly harsh. The beer is golden yellow in color, with a medium to high intensity. The beer is sparkling and when being poured into a glass it creates a compact white foam. A higher value of polyphenols and a higher pH level are typical for Czech beer.

ue stival in Prag Fe r e e B ch ze b The C al in the st beer festiv is the bigge held for blic which is u p e R ch ze C y. ry year in Ma 17 days eve highest public has the erson) e R ch ze C e h b T tre/p mption (144 li beer consu hat’s nearly double .T in the world tes! ta S d e the Unit

The “History” timeline graphic is courtesy of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic and the Czech Beer and Malt Association.

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b Different pours give different experiences. The classic Na dvakrát has a golden body topped with a thick creamy head. Hladinka is a smoother, creamier serve. Finally, the Milko is presented as virtually pure foam giving the most aromatic and sweetest of serves.


Antique Pilsner Urquell freight train car on display at the Pilsner Urquell brewery in Plzen˘. Pilsner Urquell brew house with the new automated brew house at left in the glass building.

In 1838, a momentous event in Plzenˇ saw 36 barrels of bad beer smashed and emptied into the street. At the time, some 250 burghers had brewing rights in the city, but poor quality beer and slow beer sales brought a real threat of cheaper imported beers replacing local brews. A committee of concerned townspeople gathered and decided that building one new brewery to be run by the city would be the natural solution. In January 1839, they agreed to a plan to create this new brewery. A young architect named Martin Stelzer was enlisted to build the Burgher’s Brewery, a forerunner to the present day Pilsner Urquell brewing company. Visionary Bavarian brewmaster Josef Groll was hired to make the beer. He combined new techniques to produce pale malted barley. Local Czech Saaz hops, the unique soft water of the wells in Plzenˇ, and a lager yeast combined to create a new beer for Plzenˇ. The first batch of beer was brewed on October 5, 1842. Five weeks later, on November 11, the beer was first drunk in town. The world’s first golden beer, it was fresh, clear and refreshing with a hint of caramel sweetness and a fragrant, balanced hop bitterness. It was an immediate success and a proud moment for the city of Plzenˇ. The Pilsner Urquell recipe remains the same today and continues to find success with beer drinkers all over the world.


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b Czech beer is m ad hops, which giv e from Czech Sa az e the beer charac specific teristics . b Three to four h ops cone to pro s ar duce one half-litre e needed of beer. b The st ate of W ash of the hops in t ington grows 75 % he Unite d States .

ALL ABOUT THE HOPS Czechs have been drinking beer for more than a millennium. The secret behind their beer brewing perfection is the country’s agricultural conditions, which are ideal for growing hops. Hops are a perennial plant that can grow in one location — on trellises up to 18 feet high — for as many as 30 years. Since the early 800s, brewers have been using hops in beer production for several reasons, perhaps most importantly to provide a bitter counterpoint to sweet malts. Hops also impart flavor and aroma, have antimicrobial properties and help with head retention. Hops cultivation in Bohemia was first recorded in 859 A.D, while the first evidence of their export dates back to 903. As in other parts of Europe, brewing was originally done in individual homes. In 1118, a group of locals decided to create a cooperative brew house in Cernehice (about 35 miles east of Prague), creating the first Czech brewery. Czech hops were shipped up the Elbe River to the Hamburg hops market starting in 1101, and the Germans still prize Bohemian Saaz hops from Žatec today. Saaz hops are considered to be “noble” hops. The term noble hops traditionally refers to varieties of hops which are low in bitterness and high in aroma. (Other noble European cultivars include Hallertau, Tettnanger, and Spalt). Saaz hops have a very distinctive flavor. When used in beer, the aroma is very mild, earthy, herbal and spicy. Even after centuries, Czech hops are regarded as the best quality for producing fine beer.


By Stefanie Kohn, NCSML Curator

MALT Czech beer is made from sprouted and dried grains of barley. Pale Czech (Pilsener) malt is the most widely-used type of malt (basic raw material for all beer types) and the basic raw material is spring malting barley. There are 2,400 grains of malt in half a litre of 12° beer; this corresponds to 90-100 ears of barley. Slovo | 7

ces epublic produ b The Czech R of beer 19 million hl ly te a m xi ro p p a per year. ced lass (pronoun G t in P ic n o N b The ge which as a slight rid h ) k” ic -n o “n m from g, stops the ri in ck a st in s er id a mmodates be o cc a d n a g in chipp ds. crowning hea r e rg la h it w













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This graphic represents a small group of popular drinking vessels from around the world. When paired with specific styles of beer, each glass produces a unique beer drinking experience. Oversized











The “How Czech Beer is Brewed” graphic is courtesy of the Ministry of Agriculture of the Czech Republic and the Czech Beer and Malt Association.

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Pilsner Urquell museum and visitor entrance, Plzen˘.

A. Apparatus for draining beer from the brewing tanks. The spigots allow a controlled draining of beer or waste from different vertical levels within the tank to aid in keeping the product pure.


EXPERIENCING FAMED BREWERIES The National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library recently organized a beer tour of the Czech Republic for members and friends of the Museum. It was a truly remarkable visit that included stops at numerous breweries to sample world-renowned beers. Those who took part in the tour arrived as beer enthusiasts and left as connoisseurs.

B. B. Aging tanks at the Chodovar Brewery. Chodovar offers dinners in the cellars, and the nearby beer spa offers beer baths. C. The entrance to the beer cellars at Chodovar Brewery. The Chodovar family brewery in Chodová Planá, which dates back to 1573, was built on ancient cellars cut in the granite massif. D. Open fermentation tanks at Chodovar Brewery. E. Chodovar Brewery temperature gauge, which was made by S˘koda Works, a large manufacturing firm in the Czech Republic.

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C. D.





I. F. Andrew Roell poses for a toast with a Master Brewer for the Pilsner Urquell Brewery in Plzen˘. G. Sue Vavroch hoists a beer after completing her beer tapping lesson at Pilsner Urquell Brewery. H. Hotel Ferdinand in Loket. Members of the tour enjoyed an earth roasted pig with all of the accompaniments at the restaurant in the lower level, Rodinny´ Pivovar Svat´y Florian.


I. Pivovarsk y´ dvu° r Zvíko is a brew pub-style brewery in the town of Písek. J. Brewing artifacts in a cellar at the Beer Museum in Plzen˘. The stairwell descends to the expansive tunnel network that underlies the city that our group toured. K. This group photo was taken in front of the Kozel Brewery. Kozel C˘erny (Kozel Dark) was the trip favorite of many of the tour’s members.

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Loket Castle at dawn, with the River Ohr˘e in the foreground.

BEYOND THE BREWERIES The recent tour wasn’t just about the beer. We took in some of the amazing sites and experiences the Czech Republic had to offer.





A. Karlovy Vary, which was founded in 1370, is famous for its many hot springs and its colorful and whimsical architecture. B. The group makes a toast during a light lunch at brewery and restaurant “u orloje” in Z˘atec. C. Fireworks over the Cathedral of St. Bartholomew during the Plzen˘ Liberation Celebration. 12 | National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library




D. Hop Astronomical Clock. The moving figures on the clock celebrate the end of hops harvest by toasting with mugs of beer. Under the figures hell opens, a reminder for Z˘atec beer drinkers, and the Latin inscription warns “Remember beer from Saaz hops.” E. Tour members Tammy Smith and Andrew Roell pose for a photograph at the Chodovar Brewery. F. Main gate of the Pilsner Urquell Brewery in Plzen˘.

G. G. The group poses with musicians and dancers from “Dinner with J. W. Goethe” in Loket. The authentic six-course dinner included the story of Goethe’s visits to Loket with historical dance and music from the 18th and 19th centuries. Slovo | 13

Czech Beer in the United States:

A “PERFECT BREW” By Alison Orton An advertisement in a German-American newspaper for “Anthracite Bohemian Beer.” Scranton Wochenblatt, August 23, 1906, p. 5. Below: A paragraph in this ad reads: “Perfect Brew is a Bohemian style Beer with a distinctive flavor. “Bohemian Style” is not merely a name when applied to Perfect Brew. It means that in the combining of the ingredients and in the brewing and aging exactly the same process is used that has made the beers of Bohemia the standard of excellence the world over. Perfect Brew possesses a richness of flavor that can be compared only with the most expensive imported beers.”

The Washington Herald, Friday, August 15, 1913, p. 7.

While researching the nineteenth-century brewing industry in the Czech Lands for my PhD dissertation, I stumbled across a number of advertisements that surprised me.1 I had just begun to explore a series of riots and industrial sabotage between brewers who identified as ethnically Czech and those who considered themselves ethnically German in the towns of Plzenˇ, Brno and Ostrava. While looking for coverage of the conflicts in the United States, especially in Czech-American and German-American newspapers, I discovered that, no matter what the newspapers said about how bad the immigrants were, beer brewers in the United States were advertising their ethnic beer as “pure,” “wholesome,” and healthy. On one page there would be an article about savage Bohemians causing fights in Chicago, and on the next page an advertisement for pure, delicious Bohemian beer. How could this be? Was there something more to this story than just the power of advertising trying to promote a certain image? It turned out there was. With the arrival of immigrants from the Czech and German Lands, the United States brewing industry exploded. German-American brewers, including Adolphus Busch, Captain Fredrick Pabst, and Joseph Schlitz, receive much of the credit for the advances and expansion of beer production in the United States. Yet, the popularity of lagers brewed in the U.S. prior to the 1870s remained fairly low outside the immigrant population. It wasn’t until the last decades of the nineteenth century — with the influx of migrants from the Czech Lands and the “discovery” of brewing methods and recipes from Bohemia — that lagers found a market among the broader American public. Brewers suspected that the American public would favor a lighter, crisper beer. At the Vienna International Exposition in 1873, American brewers took note of the numerous prizes won by the lighter, less-malty lagers from the Czech Lands. It appeared that pilsner and other Bohemian-style beers might be the hook for lager brewers to capture more consumers. Brewing a similar beer became their goal, including for Anheuser-Busch and Best Brewing (owned by Frederick Pabst). A Bohemian immigrant, Anton Schwarz, is often credited with teaching American brewers how to create a pilsner with ingredients readily available in the United States. He promoted the use of adjuncts, such as corn and rice, in the brewing process. The adjuncts allowed American brewers to use barley grown in the United States to create the same flavor and consistency

1 The term “Czech Lands” refers to the historical regions of Bohemia, Moravia, parts of Silesia, and parts of Slovakia.

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Daily East Oregonian, Evening Edition, February 12, 1905, p. 5.

as the Czech lagers. The efforts paid off, leading to the spread of lighter lagers throughout the United States. Anheuser-Bush marketed their new lager as “Budweiser.” At the same time, brewers from the Czech Lands worked for and opened their own breweries across the United States. Trade publications in both the United States and the Czech Lands contained help-wanted ads from American breweries requesting brewers with experience in Bohemian breweries or brewers trained by Prague’s Research Institute for the Brewing Industry, or other industry schools in the region. The majority of immigrants listing their occupation as “brewer” in the United States census records from the late nineteenth century came from Germany, but migrants from the Czech Lands were a clear second. At about the same time, Anton Schwarz founded the United States Brewers’ Academy in New York and purchased Der Amerikanische Bierbrauer (The American Brewer), one of the primary brewing trade publications in the United States. The spread of pilsner-style beer created a heated conflict over naming rights. The primary German- and Czech-owned breweries in Plzenˇ sought to limit the use of the name Pilsner or Pils to beer produced solely within the town itself. But brewers working outside of Plzenˇ paid no attention and labeled their beer Pilsner, after the manner in which it was made. Between the 1880s and the 1910s, a number of lawsuits were filed, as brewers pursued legal action against each other in locations ranging from Germany, the United States, and Plzenˇ’s neighboring town of Plzenec. Anheuser-Busch entered the fray when they began selling Budweiser beer. The conflict over naming rights between Anheuser-Busch’s Budweiser and the Cˇ eský Akciový Pivovar (now Budeˇjovick´y Budvar) continues today. Alas, Plzenˇ’s brewers mostly lost, hence the proliferation of beer labeled “pilsner” brewed around the globe today. And this leads me back to my surprising find in the immigrant newspapers. Many of the beers brewed in the Czech Lands used hops grown in one of the three major hop growing regions in Bohemia and Moravia: Žatec (Saaz), Ústeˇck (Auscha), and Tršice (Trschitz). The Žatec region’s hops, known as Saaz or Saazer, were used in pilsners and developed a global reputation for quality. Brewers imported large quantities of these hops and advertised widely about their quality. As I flipped through the advertisements, the terms “Bohemian Hops” and “Saazer Hops” appeared in countless advertisements alongside words like “pure” and “wholesome,” and even “soothing.” Hops growers in the United States brought Saaz hops to this country and cultivated an American version of Saaz hops that had a more bitter flavor (and are still used today in a variety of beer styles). A number of American brewers decided that, by using the name “Bohemian” for their beers — or even in their brewery name — they could attract more buyers. And they did. In the United States, associating beer with the Czech Lands implied quality, flavor, and drinkability. Meanwhile, brewers’ trade publications kept a close watch on new developments in recipes, methods, and technology developed in Bohemian breweries. For national brewing

The Minneapolis Journal, July 11, 1906, Page 9.

The Chicago Eagle, January 6, 1912, p. 6.

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Goodwin’s Weekly, July 1, 1916, p. 18.

The Independent, January 8, 1901, p. 5.

technology and product exhibitions, the U.S. government sent special requests to Habsburg foreign ministry officials asking them to encourage participation of chemists, equipment manufacturers, and hops growers from the Czech Lands. And from beer advertisements alone, one sees the popular association of quality beer and the Czech Lands. It is even possible to argue that the growing acceptance of immigrants from the Czech Lands was assisted by their beer.


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Bohemian Hall:


The Astoria neighborhood in Queens, New York has been growing by leaps and bounds in recent years. But on one block a neighborhood fixture, Bohemian Hall, has been a community gathering point for more than a century. “People can come and immerse themselves in the culture and the setting where they really feel like they are stepping into a different country and a little bit back in time,” said General Manager Andrew Walters. “Beer gardens like this don’t exist very much any more. We are very unique. We are original.” Walters has worked at Bohemian Hall for about two years. But he’s lived in the neighborhood since 1998, and like many who live in and around Astoria, he has long appreciated the beer garden as a home away from home. “As much as we draw visitors from all over the Northeast, and the world really, there is still very much a family vibe to the place,” he said. “We are a Czech and Slovak beer garden and we need to embrace the cultural ideas on which we were founded in the 1890s.” The Bohemian Citizens’ Benevolent Society of America did in fact get its start in 1892, by Czech immigrants from Bohemia, at that time part of Austria-Hungry. By 1910, the group began raising money to build a place they called the Czech Home, a designation still displayed on a sign above the door today. The home was meant to be a gathering place where the traditions of their homeland could be maintained. At that time, it became a membership-based organization. Today, the Bohemian Citizens’ Benevolent Society of America boasts more than 200 members, all of whom continue to pledge themselves to work for and promote the purposes of the Society.

Established in 1892, Bohemian Hall has the oldest running beer garden in New York City. The hall offers a number of draft beer selections, and is also known for its traditional Czech and Slovak menu, which includes cultural favorites such as potato pierogies, juicy klobasa, schnitzel, and Czech potato salad.

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Bohemian Hall & Beer Garden has a big indoor and outdoor bar. The complex can hold 800 people and hosts parties, festivals, local jazz groups, Czech bands, and touring acts. Bohemian Hall has been honored as a Queens landmark under the Queens Historical Society’s Queensmark Program.

Bohemian Hall in Astoria was the nation’s first site listed in the National Register as a Traditional Cultural Property.

Bohemian Hall was visited by former Czech Republic President Václav Havel . The visit is commemorated in the beer garden by a plaque and a young linden tree he helped plant.

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As soon as construction began on the main hall, organizers realized they were going to outgrow the space quickly, and so additional farm land was purchased. In 1919 the hall and beer garden were completed. Of course in 1920, prohibition kicked in, threatening to shutter the doors of the new operation. But Bohemian Hall managed to survive, in part because it was a community gathering place. The main hall was, and still is in fact, used by Sokol for sporting events, namely gymnastics. “We’ve maintained a relationship with Sokol for 75 years and gymnastics lessons are still taking place here today,” said Walters. Interestingly, the Cultural Center is currently supported by the sale of beer at the ever popular Bohemian Hall Beer Garden. “All of our beers are craft beers, or small batch beers and we have them all on draft,” said Walters. “Many of them are hard to find regularly anywhere in the United States. People come here because they want to try a beer they’ve not had before.” Many of the beers on tap are in fact indigenous to the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Pilsner Urquell and Straropramen are two of their most popular, Walter said. Visitors shouldn’t forget to order food when they visit either. “We primarily sell beer but we also have a traditional kitchen,” said Walters. “Our chef is Slovak and we have come up with a lot of traditional Czech and Slovak dishes to offer.” The menu features everything from goulash and svícˇková to bryndzové halušky. It’s obvious from Bohemian Hall’s history that it was never just about the beer though. Today there is still a cultural learning center where adults and children can come and learn the dance, language and cultural ideas of their ancestry. “We also have a Czech and Slovak Festival — our biggest event of the year — where we demonstrate traditional music and dance and the school children will sing,” Walters said. And on any given Saturday, you’ll find patrons — from hipsters to families out enjoying the day, perhaps even a wedding party — sitting at long public tables tasting a new beer or two. “You get drawn into conversation and it all goes back to the sense of community that this place offers,” said Walters. “There’s no place else in New York that I know of that allows you to have that opportunity.” “Nor are there very many places where people come and say ‘I was here 65 years ago,’ and reminisce about what it was like,” he added.

M Y B O H EM I AN HAL L By Peter Bisek While serving as President of the Bohemian Citizens’ Benevolent Society of America (BCBSA) between 2000 and 2009 (a modern times record!) I was told by one of the New York beer distributors that more beer was consumed at the Bohemian Hall than at the home of the New York Mets, Shea Stadium in nearby Queens. I suspect that it is still true as we built in 2008, a new beer cellar with a capacity of 400 beer kegs, replacing a tiny, century-old cellar with no cooling apparatus. As President of the Bohemian Hall and Beer Garden, I preferred that the famous Pilsner Urquell beer would be served at the Bohémka and — very unexpectedly — was eventually awarded with a diploma of an Honorary Connoisseur No. 10 by Pilsner Urquell. It was presented to me by a senior brewmaster, Václav Berka, who signed it along with the General Manager of the Pilsner Urquell brewery. To me it is a great honor to be in the same company of, for example, the famous Czech movie director, Miloš Forman (One Flew Over a Cookoo’s Nest, Amadeus), who carries the same diploma No. 7. In 2001, I invited the late President of the Czech Republic, Václav Havel, to visit our Bohémka during his state visit to the United States. He helped plant in the Bohémka’s beer garden a Czech national tree — a linden tree — where an almost century-old tree had died. Havel, accompanied by his wife Dagmar, cheerfully shoveled the dirt on the tree roots, and then, after a short consultation with his staff, ordered a goulash and a beer and they all stayed for almost two hours instead of an originally planned quick visit, enjoying the friendly, quiet place.

Peter enjoying some pivo at Bohemian Hall. He served as a member of the Board of Trustees from 1996 to 2009. From 2000 to 2009 he also served as President of the Board. Under his presidency the Society went from a near bankruptcy to a new era of prosperity. From 1990 to 2010, Bisek was also the publisher of Americké listy, the leading Czech language newspaper in the United States.

Today, the Bohemian Hall and Beer Garden, which was threatened by bankruptcy in the mid-1990s, is fully recovered, both financially and socially. Over the last 15 years, it has become a Mecca for what I call young working professionals who come, order a pitcher of their favorite brew and perhaps something tasty off the grill, and relax with their friends under the old trees, in a stress-free environment, away from the hassle and bustle of New York City. No other beer garden has the old trees and the old-world atmosphere that Bohémka is so famous for.

“The essence of this place still remains as it was. The heartbeat of the culture still exists.” Bohemian Hall not only delights an eclectic mix of visitors, especially in the warm summer months, but it also impresses industry experts. In fact, Bohemian Hall has been voted as one of the top five beer gardens in the world by such prestigious outlets as The Travel Channel, Conde Nast and U.S. News & World Report. “At the time Bohemian Hall was built there were some 800 beer gardens in New York City,” said Walters. “We are the only one that has stood the test of time.” “Beer gardens are very trendy right now,” he added. “But when you have 1,000 seats outside and trees that are 100 years old surrounding you, it really is a different feel. We are a European style beer garden that remains timeless. That’s what we’ve done well for the last 105 years and we hope to continue for another 105.”

There’s never a shortage of entertainment at Bohemian Hall; the venue hosts an annual Czech and Slovak Festival filled with live entertainment and authentic cuisine celebrating the history of the culture.


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By Virginia Thomas

Ray Daniels, Founder of the Cicerone Certification Program.

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BEER GETS MORE RESPECT While people all over the world love beer — and pilsner in particular — few know the important role that beer plays in both the history and culture of the Czech people. But thanks to a new education program for beer professionals, more people are now learning the truth about the connection between Czech heritage and beer. In 2008, Chicago-based brewer and beer writer Ray Daniels launched the Cicerone Certification Program as the beer world’s answer to wine sommeliers. The program offers a series of certification exams to assess beer knowledge and tasting skill. The exams start with the basics and the first level tests the knowledge needed by bartenders and wait staff. Those who pass earn the title of “Certified Beer Server.” “At that first level, we teach the history of Pilsner — its success and the fact that it is named for the city where it was first brewed — and we talk to people about differences between a German-style Pils and a true Czech Pilsner,” said Daniels. To date, the program has awarded more than 50,000 certifications at the first level. Most participants live in the United States, but increasingly the program sees exam takers from places outside the U.S. where interest in beer is growing. As people advance in the Cicerone program, they must learn the details of draft systems, brewing ingredients and processes, beer and food pairing and a great deal about the many beer styles made in all parts of the world. They also have to develop their palates. “At the second level — called Certified Cicerone — we require people to pass a tasting exam that covers off-flavors, style identification and beer acceptance,” Daniels said. “One of our favorite tasting exam questions

requires candidates to taste a beer and decide whether it is an authentic Czech pilsner or whether it is a German Pilsner instead. When you don’t have anything to compare it to, this is a challenge for a most people.” While more than 4,000 people have taken the second level exam in an effort to become a Certified Cicerone, fewer than 2,000 have passed. To pass this exam requires real study and hands-on experience, said Daniels. Many candidates take the four hour exam more than once before they pass. Daniels was inspired to start the Cicerone program by bad beer. In the 2000s, he worked for the Brewers Association in the U.S. representing American craft beer. “Too often I would go into a bar that was serving 20 or 30 beers and find that they really didn’t know anything about the beers they were serving — or much of anything about beer at all,” he said. “I decided to do something to motivate people in the beer business to learn more about beer and to become more informed while serving. The Cicerone program was born from that goal.” In addition to the first two levels of certification, the program offers a third level, Master Cicerone, that serves as the ultimate test of beer knowledge. So far, only nine people have passed the two-day exam that includes essay questions, nearly 40 tasting samples and a gauntlet of oral examinations by industry experts. “At the Master level, we expect candidates to describe three to five brands in each style — and the beers they choose to describe have to be from more than one country. Given that we test on more than 60 different styles, that’s a lot of beers to remember!” In addition, candidates for the Master Cicerone exam have to know how each type of beer is made — the differences between brewing in Plzenˇ and

The Cicerone Certification Program, started in 2008, encourages beer lovers to take their knowledge of brews from all over the world to the highest level.

Slovo | 21

“One of our favorite tasting exam questions requires candidates to taste a beer and decide whether it is an authentic Czech pilsner or whether it is a German Pilsner instead.” – Ray Daniels

tin m the La o r f s e m co drink.’ ord beer b The w ere’ meaning ‘to ib eer word ‘b ipe for b c e r n w o est kn ade by b The old 00 years old, m 4,0 is over s. n ia r x Sume B- comple f o e c r u a so b Beer is s. vitamin

The certification process includes testing and tasting to determine one’s ability to identify differences in a variety of beers. To date, just nine people have achieved Master Cicerone status.

brewing in Munich and between London and Dublin for example — as well as what foods to pair them with and which glass to use. “There’s a lot to know about beer,” said Daniels. “While people have long studied beer as a passion, we have given them a way to turn that passion into a professional accolade.” During the process, they wind up having a lot more respect both for themselves and for the many wonderful beer cultures around the world.” To learn more about the Cicerone Certification Program, visit


22 | National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library

ˇ Ceské Budeˇjovíce is better known by its former name, Budweis, making the beer that is brewed there literally “Budweiser.”



By Benjamin Cunningham

Though it sounds a lot like a debate that might be had at the local watering hole, the struggle over who has the right to call their beer Budweiser plays out in courtrooms all around the world in a dispute that has gone on for well over a century. Back in 1894, Adolphus Busch, president of famed brewer Anheuser-Busch, was testifying in U.S. Circuit Court in Manhattan. At issue was a trademark dispute with rival Fred Miller Brewing Company over who had the right to the name Budweiser — a German-language reference meaning “from Budweis”, a city then part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. “The idea was simply to brew a beer similar in quality, color, flavor and to the beer then made at Budweis, or in Bohemia,” Mr. Busch said, according to court transcripts. And though Anheuser-Busch would prevail in that dispute the testimony still has relevance today. Beer is still made at Budweis, now called Cˇ eské Budeˇjovice and part of the Czech Republic, and running court battles have a brewer based there — Budeˇjovick´y Budvar — fighting the world’s largest brewer, Anheuser-Busch InBev, for the right to use the Budweiser name. Slovo | 23

In 1922 the first artesian well was bored in Cˇeské Bude˘jovice, and after some further time an additional two artesian wells were also bored. The brewery achieved the source of high quality water which helps create the excellent flavor properties of the original Budweiser lager up to the present day. In 1930, the brewery registered its Budvar trademark, which was used for the 12° export pale lager. The extraordinary international success of this trademark eventually drove the board of directors to include the word in the name of the brewery, which subsequently from 1936 was: Budvar – Czech Joint-Stock Brewery, C˘eské Bude˘jovice.

During the Occupation, a Nazi administrator was appointed to the Budvar – Joint-Stock Brewery and it became a part of the Protectorate breweries network.

24 | National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library

In the United States, a 1939 agreement — signed just months before the Nazis occupied today’s Czech Republic — ceded rights to the Budweiser name to Anheuser-Busch for all of North America, where the aforementioned Czech beer is sold under the name Czechvar. But agreement ends there. Though Anheuser-Busch InBev is now officially headquartered in Belgium and their beers are brewed all over the world, their version of Budweiser is inextricably connected with America. In much of Europe it must be labeled merely as “Bud”, with the Czech brand long ago having tapped those markets. The disagreement has seen both sides engage in a country-by-country struggle to secure the brand name in court. And though the Anheuser-Busch InBev brewing Goliath is ahead on the overall scoreboard, the Czech version of David is also making its mark with its strongest sales year on record in 2014. Since 2000, 184 court disputes were concluded, with 125 of the cases favoring Budeˇjovick´y Budvar. In about 70 countries worldwide, AnheuserBusch InBev is unable to market its beer with the label Budweiser. In December 2014, a Norwegian court was the latest to find in favor of the Czech brewer after Anheuser-Busch InBev had appealed a similar 2011 decision. Earlier in 2014, a Portuguese court had done the same, joining a number of European countries — including Austria, Italy, Germany and others — where Budeˇjovick´y Budvar has recently secured exclusive rights to the name. In the United Kingdom both brewers have the right to use the name, with a judge ruling in 2013 that beer drinkers were capable of noting the difference. “We respect the court’s decision, we feel this is not the right solution,” says Karen Couck, a spokeswoman for Anheuser-Busch InBev. There is little doubt that Mr. Busch took inspiration from Czech brewers as he crafted the recipe for his own beer. He would trademark the name in the United States in 1876, but during the aforementioned court testimony he admitted he would taste test beer imported from Bohemia — a region that now comprises the western half of the Czech Republic — every year, beginning in “1868 or 1869” as he honed the recipe. But inspiration, even imitation, is not a legal concept. Though brewing in Cˇeské Budeˇjovice dates back to at least 1265, when King Otakar II founded the city and gave it brewing rights, today’s Budeˇjovick´y Budvar brewery only dates from 1895 — decades after a certain brewery opened in St. Louis, Missouri. For much of the 20th century the trademark dispute was of little consequence as beer brewing largely remained a local concern and trademark law had little international relevance. But as Anheuser-Busch increasingly went global in the 1980s, the Czech brewery lingered in a centrally planned communist economy. Though it now exports to 100 countries, to this day Budeˇjovick´y Budvar remains state-owned. It brews all its beer at a single brewery — in Cˇeské Budeˇjovice. Anheuser-Busch, which merged with InBev in 2008, has vastly outpaced their Czech competitor, not to mention all the world’s other brewers. In 2014, Anheuser-Busch had $47.1 billion in revenues from its 200 brands, about 500 times more than Budejovicky Budvar’s $94 million. Such size befits the grandiose,

The Czech Joint-Stock Brewery began to brew its famous beer on October 7th, 1895.

In 1973, Budweiser Budvar launched a novelty — canned beer.

if awkwardly phrased, Anheuser-Busch InBev’s corporate motto with a goal to be the “Best Beer Company Bringing People Together for a Better World”. Like most beer, Budeˇjovick´y Budvar uses just three ingredients: hops, malt and water. It is the last of these — which comes from an artesian well on the site of the brewery — that Budeˇjovick´y Budvar continues the claim that makes them genuinely “from Budweis”. Anheuser-Busch InBev openly disputes the premise that beer must be produced in one locale or the other — and has a business model to match — but that hasn’t stopped them from hedging their bets and acquiring two smaller breweries based in Cˇeské Budeˇjovice in recent years. In 2011, Anheuser-Busch InBev acquired the brand Budeˇjovick´y Meˇsˇtansk´y Pivovar, a brewery in Cˇeské Budeˇjovice that is actually older than Budeˇjovick´y Budvar and also has some rights to brew beer under the Budweiser name. Last year, it bought another brewer in the city, called Samson, which notably has its own water source. Don’t expect the two sides to toast one another anytime soon. As anyone who has spent time in a bar might tell you, sometimes it is better to agree to disagree.

Left: The Budweiser Budvar Brewery (Bude˘jovick y´ Budvar) today, in the city of Cˇeské Bude˘jovice, Czech Republic. Budweiser Budvar is one of the highest selling beers in the Czech Republic and exports into more than 60 countries across all continents.


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´ BAZANT ˇ Z L AT Y No Slovo issue about beer would be complete without a mention of Zlatý Bažant, Slovakia’s most popular beer. “Golden Pheasant” is the most exported Slovak beer with over a million hectolitres sold all over the world each year. Golden Pheasant was the winner of a Silver Medal in 2005 at the World Beer Championships. In 2006, its 12% version was awarded the Zlatá pivná korunka 2006 (Golden Beer Crown 2006). The prize was given by the Slovenské združenie výrobcov piva a sladu (the Slovak Union of Beer and Malt Producers). The brewery, Pivovar Zlatý Bažant, is located near the southernmost tip of Slovakia by the northern border of Hungary, in the small town of Hurbanovo. It was started in 1968 as a state-owned enterprise to supply beer to Western Slovakia. As a part of the massive European beer market consolidation, the brewery was purchased in 1995 by Heineken in what was the first investment by a major brewing corporation in this region since the fall of communism.

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As the Czech proverb instructs, “A fine beer may be judged with only one sip, but it’s better to be thoroughly sure.” That’s why NCSML has dedicated an entire year to a seriously fun examination of the fermented grain. Our original Beer, Please! exhibition explores the rich history of beer and it’s relationship to those — especially those of Czech and Slovak heritage — who love to drink it.


Below: Authorities in New York City dump illegal beer down the sewer during Prohibition.

museum SHOWCA SE

Museum Showcase:

b It was never illegal to drink during Prohibition. Prohibition barred making alcohol, selling it, and shipping it for the purposes of consumption. b On December 5th, 1933 the 21st Amendment was ratified and Prohibition ended. This day is known as Repeal Day.

Right: Children and police officers posing with a car decorated with anti-prohibition slogans in Wilmington, Delaware.

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Above: Women turn out in large numbers for the anti-Prohibition parade and demonstration in Newark, N.J., October 28, 1932. More than 20,000 people took part in the mass demand for the repeal of the 18th Amendment. AP photo/source

Above: In 1892 the Pilsner Brewing Company was founded by Bohemian immigrant Wenzl Medlin. Courtesy of Rob Musson

Top: Velkopopovick y´ Kozel is a Czech lager produced since 1874. The brewery is located in Velké Popovice, a town about 15 miles southeast of Prague. Kozel became famous for its dark “Bock” beer. Kozel means male goat in Czech. On loan from Gerald Pecinovsky Above: Memo written in Czech from Forest City Brewing Company, Cleveland, Ohio.The Forest City Brewing Company was one of several breweries in Ohio founded by Czech immigrants. It was located on Union Avenue and was known for producing a variety of beers, including Select Pilsner Beer, Waldorf, and Samson Ale. Courtesy of Rob Musson Left: Bürger Bräu sign. On loan from Gerald Pecinovsky 28 | National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library

Above: The Buffalo Brewing Company began brewing beer in Sacramento, California in 1890. At one time, it was the largest brewery west of the Mississippi. The beers depicted are called “Bohemian” to reflect the style of beer. They were not imported. On loan from Gerald Pecinovsky

Top Right: Budweiser Budvar sign. On loan from Gerald Pecinovsky Right: Staropramen Brewery is the second largest brewery in the Czech Republic. It was founded in 1869 and the brand name Staropramen, meaning “old spring”, was registered in 1911. On loan from Gerald Pecinovsky Bottom Right: Duluth Brewing & Malting was one of the few breweries in the U.S. with its own malting plant. Some well-known beers the company produced include Moose Lager, Castlebrew, Royal Bohemian, and Karlsbrau. On loan from Gerald Pecinovsky Bottom Center: Czechvar Tap Handle. On loan from Gerald Pecinovsky Bottom Left: National Bohemian Beer, or “Natty Boh,” was originally brewed in Baltimore, Maryland. The scoreboard was a common feature in taverns before television- the bartender would listen to baseball games on the radio and write the scores on the sign for all to see. On loan from Gerald Pecinovsky

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Top: Our “Beer, Please!” exhibit features a wide variety of memorabilia such as these items from Czech-owned Breweries in Chicago. On loan from Paul Cervanka Above: Riverside Brewing Company, which made a Bohemian Lager, was founded in Ontario, Canada in 1926, but closed shortly after in 1935. On loan from Gerald Pecinovsky

Middle Right: King’s Bohemian was a brand name created by the Massachusetts Breweries Company over 100 years ago. On loan from Gerald Pecinovsky Bottom Right: Bohemia is one of Cerveceria Cuauhtemoc’s (Mexico) oldest brands and has won international recognition as one of the world’s finest beers. 30 | National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library

b Cenosillicaphobia is the fea r of an empty glass. b The strongest beer in the wo rld has a 67.5% alcohol conten t. b President Theodore Roose velt once took more than 500 gallons of beer with him on an African saf ari.

Above: Display of Items from Budweiser and Czechvar. On loan from Gerald Pecinovsky

Left and below: Czech Beer Signs. On loan from Gerald Pecinovsky

Right: Soldier S˘vejk Figurine. The Good Soldier S˘vejk is the abbreviated title of an unfinished satirical comedy by Jaroslav Has˘ek. The Czech title of the novel is Osudy dobrého vojáka S˘vejka za sve˘ tové války [The Fateful Adventures of the Good Soldier S˘vejk During the World War]. S˘vejk is often found at his local pub, beer in hand. Left: The Egyptian goddess of beer was Tenenit (from one of the Egyptian words for beer tenemu) and it was thought the art of brewing was first taught by the great god Osiris himself.

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Museum Takeover Day August 5

If your kids like going behind-the-scenes then sign them up for our first Museum Takeover Day! Take a special tour of the National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library and learn about how museums work. Then, spend the day with a group of new friends handling artifacts, designing exhibits, planning events, and creating tours! You are in charge. Museum Takeover Day activities will be followed by a reception for friends and parents, and a chance to proudly show off the projects you’ve worked on. Open to ages 10-18.

Alfonso Ponticelli and Swing Gitan August 6

A blend of the jubilant swing of early jazz with the feisty passion of gypsy music and a strong dose of spontaneous co-arranging, Alfonso Ponticelli & Swing Gitan are a set of world-class musicians following in the footsteps of Django Reinhardt. The Balkan and Flamenco-influenced melodies and rhythms on guitar, violin, bass and percussion will make you want to tap your feet and clap along.


Bobbin Lace Making Demonstrations


MUSEUM EVENTS Monday through Saturday 9:30 a.m. – 4 p.m.

August 12, September 9, October 14, November 11 and December 9

Sunday Noon – 4 p.m.

Ladies from the Doris Southard Lace Guild are at the museum the second Wednesday of each month. See beautiful examples of bobbin lace, watch them create intricate pieces, and find out how you could learn to make lace yourself.

Holidays (Closed):

Music @ the Museum: The Nadas

b Easter b Thanksgiving b Christmas Day b New Year’s Day

Holidays (Open): b Memorial Day b Fourth of July b Labor Day

August 28

The Nadas are Iowa’s signature alt-rock-folk band, selling more than 200,000 albums through their own label, Authentic Records. Singers/guitarists Mike Butterworth and Jason Walsmith, bassist Brian Duffey, and drummer Brandon Stone mix country, rock, alternative, and indie styles with flawless songwriting and catchy melodies for a crowd-pleasing experience. Join us for a concert experience to remember. Jam out to The Nadas under our lovely chandeliers, then stay for an exclusive Q&A session with the band.

BrewNost! October 16

Regular Admission: Members . . . . . . . . . . . . FREE Adults. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $10 Seniors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $9 Active Military (with ID). . . . $5 Students (with ID) 14+ . . . . $5 Youth 6-13. . . . . . . . . . . . . $3 Children 5 & Under. . . . . FREE

It’s no secret that this annual fundraiser inspired the Year of Beer. Join us for our famed international beer and food tasting event and get ready to party! Every year is better than the last, and 2015 will be spectacular! Over 40 beers will be featured and more than 18 local restaurants will provide the most delectable food imaginable. Make plans now to celebrate with more than 1,000 friends of the NCSML, pivo in hand.

An Evening with Michael Z˘antovsk´y November 9

DON’T MISS OUT! For up-to-date information on these and all programs, events and exhibitions, check the NCSML website often:

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The author of the critically-acclaimed biography, Havel: A Life, will spend an evening sharing stories about his involvement with the Czech government under President Václav Havel. Michael Žantovský will become the Executive Director of the Václav Havel Library in Prague starting in September 2015, and has been the Czech ambassador to the Court of St. James and to the United States. He is the president of the Aspen Institute Prague. He was among the founding members of the movement that coordinated the overthrow of the communist regime. In January 1990, he became spokesman, press secretary, and advisor to President Václav Havel. The evening will include a reception.

Old World Christmas Market December 5 and 6

Experience the magic of the Christmas season at the NCSML’s 6th annual Old World Christmas Market! Shop for specialty imports and handmade gifts by select artisans, stop for seasonal treats, listen to live music and watch dance performances, and enjoy free family activities all weekend long. Admission to museum exhibition galleries will also be free on December 5th and 6th! Bring the whole family for one of Cedar Rapids’ best-loved holiday events.


Don’t miss out on our current and upcoming exhibitions.


Global Shoes

Through September 7, Petrik Gallery Global Shoes is an exhibition on loan from the Brooklyn Children’s Museum. Bring your family and experience a variety of hands-on, feet-in, multimedia activities that let children and their families explore aspects of global cultures within the context of a fantasy shoe store and factory.

Original exhibition: Beer, please! Through October 27, Smith Gallery

You think you know everything you need to know about beer…but you don’t –– that’s where we come in! Relax and have fun with this interactive exhibit that is as enlightening as it is mood-enhancing. Is it true that Good King Wenceslas ordered the death penalty for anyone caught exporting the much-coveted Bohemian hops? Or that the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth Rock because they ran out of beer? Test your beer savvy in this pub quiz-themed exhibit. It’ll bend your mind without the hangover in the morning.


Samizdat: The Art of Czech Resistance, 1968-1989 October 10 through April 2016, Petrik Gallery

Samizdat (a Russian term which means self-published) presents rarely seen handmade books, journals, and other original works on paper that circulated secretly during the years between the Prague Spring and the Velvet Revolution. The multimedia exhibition also includes period footage of underground concerts and bootleg recordings of banned Czech bands. Samizdat explores how these seemingly small acts of opposition played a crucial role in resisting the totalitarian regime in Czechoslovakia.

Pop Ups From Prague

November 21 through March 27, 2016, Smith Gallery Vojteˇch Kubašta was a Czech architect, graphic artist, children’s book illustrator and master of the pop-up book. In his heyday, in the 1960s and ’70s, his ingeniously engineered books were translated into dozens of languages and read by millions of children around the world. Organized by collector and curator Ellen Rubin, the exhibition showcases the broad range of artwork by Kubašta and celebrates his life’s work with paper, pencil and scissors.


Dedicated to Robert and Mary Michalicek, who believe that wise words taken to heart strengthen the soul and shape the world.

– Cathy, Steven, Jeffrey, Sherry, and Michael

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