Page 1

More than 90 stunning photographs in this catalog highlight the most spectacular items from the original exhibition, Bohemian Boudoir: Czech Vanity Glass. Luxurious perfume bottles are complemented by powder boxes, dresser sets, and vanity accessories made in the 1920s and 1930s from glass or crystal. Many are etched, carved, and cut in vivid colors ranging from crystal clear to malachite green, lapis blue, coral, aqua, ruby

The National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library is nationally and internationally

red, onyx, and more, displaying the

renowned for extraordinary exhibitions

artistry of the “golden� interwar

and experiences telling stories of

period in Czechoslovakia.

freedom and identity, family and community, human rights and dignity.

Vanity set featuring perfume bottle with rose stopper, atomizer bottle, and round powder jar, Vogel & Zappe


Art Direction/Design Eric Johnson, Jodi Hormann Curator Stefanie Kohn Curator Stefanie Kohn WDG Communications, Inc. Editor Gail Naughton Editor Gail A. Naughton Cedar Rapids, Iowa Creative Direction Duane Wood Creative Direction Duane Wood Design and Art Direction Eric C. Johnson and Jodi Hormann Photography Mark Tade, Iowa City, Iowa WDG Communications, Inc. WDG Communications Inc.,Typography Cedar Rapids, Iowa Cedar Rapids, Iowa Photography Mark Tade, Iowa City, Iowa This volume has been published in conjunction with the exhibition, Bohemian Boudoir: Czech Vanity Glass held at the National & Slovak Museum & Library with in Cedar Rapids, Iowa from April 23 to July 17, 2016. This volumeCzech has been published in conjunction the exhibition, Bohemian Boudoir: Czech Vanity Glass held at the National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library in Cedar Rapids, The catalog was made by17, support Iowa from Aprilpossible 23 to July 2016. from The Czech/Slovak Genealogy Interest Group of Bellevue, Washington in honor of Rosemary Bodine.

The catalog was made possible by the Czech/Slovak Genealogy Interest Group in Bellevue, PublishedWashington, by the National Czech &Scott Slovak Museum & Library, Dan Bodien, Bodien, Marjorie Bianco2016. and Bob Vernon and Peter and Betty Bengston in honor of Rosemary Bodien and by Western Fraternal Life Association All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission publisher. Published from by thethe National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library, 2016. Copyright © 2016 National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, in any or byby any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, First published inor the United States ofform America recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library 1400 Inspiration Place SW Copyright © 2016 National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library Cedar Rapids, IA 52404 319.362.8500 First published in the United States of America by National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library 1400 Inspiration Place SW Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cedar Rapids, IA 52404 Bohemian319.362.8500 Boudoir: Czech Vanity Glass -- First [edition]. pages cm Issued in connection with an exhibition held April 23, 2016-July 17, 2016, National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Cataloging-in-Publication on file with the Library of Congress ISBN 000-0-0000000-0-0 (alk. Data paper)

ISBN 978-0-9826138-6-3 (alk. paper) 1. AA0000.00000A0 2016 000.090—dc00 Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

0000000000

Printed in the United States of America

2

10 9 8 7 6 5On 4 3the 21

cover: perfume bottle in cornucopia shape, Josef Schmidt

(5.5 x 5.5 in.)


Perfume bottle with metal and “jewel” accents, Josef Schmidt (5.5 x 4.75 in.)

1


Perfume bottle with metal and “jewel� decorations, Johann Umann (4.5 x 2.5 in.)


FOREWORD by Gail Naughton . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

INTRODUCTION by Curator Stefanie Kohn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

GLASS HOUSES Johann Umann . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Josef Schmidt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Heinrich Hoffman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Henry Schlevogt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 František Halama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Vogel & Zappe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Orphans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

GLOSSARY & BIBLIOGRAPHY

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

3


Perfume bottle with cupid motif, Schlevogt, 1930s (6.25 x 3.75 in.)

4


Gail Naughton President and CEO National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library

It is a pleasure to present an exhibition

1920s and 1930s a number of glass houses

catalog for Bohemian Boudoir: Czech Vanity

revolved around producing boudoir items

Glass, held from April 23 to July 17, 2016

for a mass market that was hungry for stylish

in the Smith Gallery. More than 90 brilliant

items. Almost all of these glass houses are

photographs in this volume highlight the most

gone today due to collectivization under

spectacular items in the original exhibition,

Communism. So these items are precious

which featured over 200 pieces from our

examples of art glass created during the

collection. The publication of this catalog

short “golden” time between wars before

is the culmination of a goal to document

Czechoslovakia was plunged into the dark

the museum’s permanent collections to make

days of World War II.

them more accessible to a broader audience. It also meets our desire to connect people

Bohemian Boudoir: Czech Vanity Glass is

of all backgrounds to Czech and Slovak

generously sponsored by the Czech/Slovak

history and culture, which is our mission.

Genealogy Interest Group in Bellevue,

Artifacts of such charm, as well as utility,

Washington, Dan Bodien, Scott Bodien,

cross all boundaries of ethnic culture and

Marjorie Bianco and Bob Vernon and Peter

represent our shared desire for beauty in

and Betty Bengston in honor of Rosemary

our everyday lives.

Bodien and by Western Fraternal Life Association in Cedar Rapids, Iowa. I am

There is another important reason for

grateful to Stefanie Kohn, curator of the

documenting these items. Building upon

exhibition, and to our dedicated staff who

the long history of glass and crystal artistry

helped with the myriad tasks related to creating

and production in Bohemian lands, in the

this brilliant original exhibition and catalog.

b 5


Stefanie Kohn Curator National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library

Brilliant perfume bottles, powder boxes,

brushes, cigarette boxes, lighters, clocks,

dresser sets, and vanity accessories stand

trays, powder boxes, and vases, mostly from

out as some of the most stunning objects in

the time period of the 1920s and 1930s.

the collection of the National Czech & Slovak

All are made from glass or crystal, and many

Museum & Library. Comprising the Ladd

are etched, carved and cut. The vivid colors

and Lydia Straka Loss Memorial Collection

range from crystal clear to malachite green,

of over 200 pieces of Czech vanity glass,

lapis blue, coral, aqua, ruby red, onyx,

they were donated between 2001 and 2015

and more.

by Rosemary “Rosie” Bodien in honor of her parents.

American consumers had a voracious appetite for Czech perfume bottles during

6

The majority of the exquisite collection is

the inter-war period when women were

featured in the exhibit Bohemian Boudoir:

exploring a new sense of freedom. After the

Czech Vanity Glass, making it a challenge

horrors of the First World War, young people

to select only about half of these beautiful

were determined to enjoy lives sprinkled

pieces for inclusion in the exhibition catalog.

with zest, glamour, and fashion. Women

Those pictured were chosen as wonderful

experimented with short skirts and short

examples of design and workmanship,

hair. These “Flappers” drank alcohol in

which showcase the variety of boudoir items

spite of (and maybe because of) Prohibition.

produced by six of the pre-World War II glass

They smoked, listened to Jazz, and “dated.”

houses in Bohemia. Perfume bottles take

Fashion cues came from Hollywood where

center stage, complemented by mirrors,

many movies featured the stars seated at


Rare dresser clock featuring motifs of Diana riding a deer, Heinrich Hoffman (3.0 x 2.75 in.)

lavish dressing tables crowded with beautiful

taken home and filled from a more utilitarian

bottles, jars, mirrors, and accessories. Fan

bottle. Small, inexpensive purse bottles could

magazines magnified the allure by picturing

be purchased at the store and filled with

the actresses at home in their sumptuous

a dram (1/8th of an ounce) of costly perfume.

boudoirs that mirrored the luxurious, albeit

The small amount made the expensive scent

make-believe, movie sets.

affordable and the little bottles were a charming accessory. These perfume bottles

To make things even more attractive, the

and the accompanying accessories were

quality of Czech boudoir glass was uniformly

affordable luxuries that brought beauty and

high and the prices relatively low with many

glamour into the lives of countless women.

of the bottles retailing for a dollar or two, and some costing as little as 50 cents. Department

The fascination for Czech vanity glass started

stores and drug stores sold bottles prefilled

for Rosemary Bodien when she was researching

with scent, or empty bottles that could be

her family genealogy. She purchased her first

7


Czech perfume bottle in an antique shop

State with her husband Dan. Rosie’s interest

in 1994 in Salem, Oregon, and the rest,

in genealogy, contra dancing, and travel led

as they say, is history. Over the next 20 years

to several cross country tours and frequent

Rosie amassed an impressive collection,

trips to the Czech Republic to visit newly

not just of vanity glass, but also of glass

discovered relatives.

Brychta figurines, Czech pottery and dolls. Active in Czech glass collector groups, she

Rosemary Bodien was an

wrote many articles for newsletters and other

enthusiastic and knowledgeable

publications. In 2014, an exhibition of her

collector and devoted friend

vanity glass and perfume bottle collection

to the National Czech & Slovak

was mounted at the Tacoma Museum of Glass.

Museum & Library. She was

Afterwards, she completed the donation of her exquisite collection to the NCSML.

thrilled with the planning of the Bohemian Boudoir exhibit but, sadly, passed away December 25, 2015, at age 72, before

Rosie was born in 1943 in Minnesota to

she could see the exhibit or catalog realized.

Ladd and Lydia (Straka) Loss. Ladd’s parents

The exhibition and catalog are presented with

emigrated from Bohemia in the 19th century,

respect, gratitude, and affection.

b

and Rosie’s family kept the connection to their heritage alive. A graduate of River Falls College, she taught fifth grade in the late 1960s, then in 1977 moved to Washington

Purse bottles, which were quite small, ranging from 2 to 3 inches high with plastic or metal caps that screwed on tightly to prevent leaking, Mid-20th century, Schlevogt

8


Hand mirror, Ingrid line, 1930s, Schlevogt (7.5 in. long)

Vanity set featuring monogrammed perfume bottle with sunflower stopper, atomizer bottle, and round pin box with sunflower motif, Vogel & Zappe

9


Atomizer with metal accents, Johann Umann (5.0 x 2.5 in.)

Atomizer, Johann Umann (4.25 x 2.75 in.)

10


In 1860, Johann Umann set up his first

shaped into flacons, sprayers, and complete

glass-cutting shop in Potočná, Bohemia.

toilet sets with full relief decorations and

He had previously worked at the Ferdinand

molded stoppers. Patterns included floral

Unger Glassworks. Umann received awards

motifs, fauna (butterflies, fish, spiders, and

for his chandelier glass and jewelry at the

parrots), female nudes, and geometric

world exhibitions at Vienna in 1873 and

patterns. The surface was often painted.

Philadelphia in 1876. He soon owned shops in Paris, London, and Berlin.

Umann House suffered during the economic decline of the 1930s and World War II. Its

In 1893, the firm operated the first glass-cutting

factories were in the Sudetenland, the part

shop for optical glass in Austria-Hungary.

of Czechoslovakia that was also home to

Before World War I, the firm was the largest

ethnic Germans. The Munich Agreement

in Bohemia’s Jizerské Mountains and employed

of 1938 ceded the Sudetenland to Germany.

300 people. The firm produced optically cut

After the war, most ethnic Germans were

prisms, chandelier decorations, thermometers,

expelled from Czechoslovakia. The post-war

inkwells, salt and pepper sets, flacons, imitation

Czechoslovak government, under the growing

diamonds, lenses for tail lights of bicycles and

influence of the communists, nationalized

trains, stereoscopes, and spectacle glass.

many of these privately owned companies. Umann House was incorporated into the

In 1926, a new direction began — art crystal

national enterprise Krystalerie.

b

ware, primarily bottles. Pressed glass was

11


Perfume bottle, cut glass, Josef Schmidt, circa 1935. The Morlee Company in the United States imported bottles from Czechoslovakia beginning in the 1920s (8.25 x 4.25 in.)


Josef Schmidt founded a glass-cutting shop

by French vanity glass. Later designs mimicked

for novelty crystal ware, small domestic glass

those of other companies, such as Schlevogt

pieces, and chandelier parts. Before the First

and Hoffman. Some Schmidt bottles featured

World War, the refinery was represented at

metal and imitation gemstone decorations.

prestigious Leipzig trade fairs and sold goods

It is believed that an exporter purchased

through retailers in Berlin, Paris, London,

the bottles from Schmidt and contracted with

Vienna, Hamburg, and Warsaw. In addition

other businesses to add the embellishments,

to a glass-cutting shop in Příchovice,

and then exported the finished bottles

Schmidt also operated factories in Kořenov

around the world.

and Harrachov, where 150 people were making chandelier glass, glass trimmings,

Although the global economic crisis of

ashtrays, saltcellars, flacon stoppers,

the 1930s and World War II severely affected

vases, and glass eyes for dolls. Later, the

the Josef Schmidt House, it was in operation

headquarters transferred to Dolní Polubný.

until 1945. At that time, because it was a German-owned company, it was nationalized

The earliest evidence of the addition of

by the post-war Czechoslovak government.

perfume bottles was in 1924. The company

In 1947, the brand name disappeared when

started to manufacture toilet bottles that

the factories became part of the national

featured stoppers in the shape of stylized

enterprise, Krystalerie, and the company

flowers and smoothly cut bottles with full

was later incorporated into the Gablonz

relief decoration. The patterns were influenced

glassworks.

b 13


Perfume bottle

Perfume bottle

Perfume bottle

with metal accents

with basket

with glass dauber,

and blue glass rose,

weave design,

Josef Schmidt

Josef Schmidt

Josef Schmidt

(6.0 x 5.0 in.)

(5.0 x 2.5 in.)

(6.5 x 3.0 in.)

14


Perfume bottle with metal and “jewel� accents, attributed to Josef Schmidt (5.0 x 2.75 in.)

15


Josef Schmidt House

16

Perfume bottle,

Perfume bottle with

Perfume bottle,

1940s (7.25 x 3.25 in.)

glass dauber, 1940s

cut glass, circa 1935

(7.25 x 8.5 in.)

(6.5 x 4.5 in.)

Perfume bottle with glass

Perfume bottle with

Perfume bottle,

and metal decorations,

metal accents, 1930s

circa 1935

1930s

(6.5 x 3.75 in.)

(9.5 x 4.0 in.)

(6.25 x 3.75 in.)


Perfume bottle with peacock motif on stopper. The bottle was purchased at O.H. Holmes Co., New Orleans. Josef Schmidt (5.0 x 2.75 in.)

17


Perfume bottle with geometric-shaped stopper, Heinrich Hoffman (4.75 x 1.5 in.)

18


Heinrich Hoffman learned to make pressed

bottle. Hoffman pieces are known for their

glass from his father, who owned a glass

expert workmanship, from the manufacture

jewelry-making company in Marschowitz,

of the molds to the actual pressing and final

Bohemia. By 1900, Hoffman operated glass

hand polishing.

firms in Paris and Jablonec, Bohemia, which produced high-quality, well-designed glass

Heinrich Hoffman produced some of the

products. Hoffman’s designs were inspired

most stunning perfume bottles during the

by art nouveau, art deco, and classical

Golden Age of glamour and prosperity.

mythology. Hoffman lived and worked in

Max Factor, makeup artist to the stars,

Paris while his wife Josephine ran the business

imported Hoffman bottles for his cosmetics,

in Jablonec.

and the eye-catching bottles and

Decorative box with dancing nymphs and Pan from mythology (6.75 x 3.5 in.)

jars made their way onto film During the 1920s, Hoffman invented a new

sets and into the boudoirs

technique for pressing glass. The design was

of Hollywood

pressed as a negative from the reverse side

celebrities.

b

into the glass, and then frosted. This type of manufacture is called intaglio cutting. Many of Hoffman’s stoppers showcase this technique. Another Hoffman trademark is the “nude dauber” which features an exquisitely wrought female nude suspended inside the

19


More than 90 stunning photographs in this catalog highlight the most spectacular items from the original exhibition, Bohemian Boudoir: Czech Vanity Glass. Luxurious perfume bottles are complemented by powder boxes, dresser sets, and vanity accessories made in the 1920s and 1930s from glass or crystal. Many are etched, carved, and cut in vivid colors ranging from crystal clear to malachite green, lapis blue, coral, aqua, ruby

The National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library is nationally and internationally

red, onyx, and more, displaying the

renowned for extraordinary exhibitions

artistry of the “golden� interwar

and experiences telling stories of

period in Czechoslovakia.

freedom and identity, family and community, human rights and dignity.

Vanity set featuring perfume bottle with rose stopper, atomizer bottle, and round powder jar, Vogel & Zappe

National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library Bohemian Boudoir Vanity Glass Collection  

Exhibition catalog for The National Czech & Slovak Museum & Library Bohemian Boudoir: Czech Vanity Glass, held from April 23 to July 17, 201...

Advertisement