# 52 CITY LABELS Y
City labels Never change a winning team Sustainable living Sweden Less CO2 and future transport Subterranean space design The bicycle as the urban transport system of tomorrow Space oddity Interview: Hub forward Nature does not plan How much do we know about our neighbours? ViaVIA is published by the study-association VIA Urban Design, at Eindhoven University of Technology
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EDITORIAL Dear reader, This is already the second edition that I will publish as the editor-in-chief of the ViaVIA and also the second edition in our new lay-out. I was really proud when our last magazine was finally delivered and it gave me and the ViaVIA committee a lot of new positive energy for this number. With some small changes and more articles added, I am confident this number will be even better. While our last number was all about changes; the change of the board, the change of the master track and the change in urbanism, this number will be more about the current state of different subjects. First you can find some articles about the current state of VIA as a study association. We are really busy with organizing a lot of interesting and fun activities. In this number you can read about the first workshop of VIA this year in cooperation with Hélène Aarts and about the excursion VIA organized to the Belgian city Leuven. If you want to join one of our activities you can read about an upcoming activity on our news page, the pop up expo. Besides this, we have also planned a symposium together with AnArchi about biomimicry in May. More information about biomimicry can be found in the article of Favas, a bureau for urbanism of which a representative will speak at the symposium. With all these activities, some small lunch lectures and excursions to go, we will finish this year as the board of VIA with a study trip to the United Kingdom in July. We will visit Edinburgh, Glasgow and London in ten days. Thinking about how fast this year went, we are already looking for a new board for the next educational year. If you are interested in a great year where you can learn more about yourself, experience some wonderful moments and get to know a lot of new people, please let us know. Of course this magazine is not only about our study association, but mostly about urbanism and the theme we have for this number, which is about the current problems in our society. In specific: the current state of the sustainable (or not sustainable) world we live in. The theme of this number is called city labels. Can we give cities a sustainability label like our houses as well?
year 22, number 52 - April 2016
The articles you can find in the theme section of this number are about sustainability and green energy in urbanism. The articles are ordered in a chronological way: firstly, an article about sustainable cities in the past, the next articles will be about a current sustainable city and transport settings and lastly an article about sustainable cities in the future. In addition to these articles you can find a column about sustainabile cities and an interview with Mariëlle Kok en Esther Kruit both from KruitKok Landschapsarchitecten. Hopefully, you will enjoy reading this magazine and gain a lot of inspiration for designing and planning a more sustainable environment in the future. If you also became enthusiastic about the new plans of VIA, I hope to see you soon at one of our upcoming activities. Anouk van Otterlo Commissioner Public Relations Editor-in-chief ViaVIA 2015-2016
Elke week een bijzondere plek om te bezoeken Op weg gaan. Kijken, ontdekken, beleven. Wijzer worden. Als ruimtelijk ontwerpers bezoeken we voortdurend plekken die ons inspireren. Het zijn plekken die ons anders naar het landschap laten kijken, die een esthetische ervaring geven of waar we simpelweg een fijne tijd doorbrengen. Deze betekenisvolle plekken willen we met u delen. Een jaar lang publiceren we elke week ĂŠĂŠn wegwijzer. De 52 wegwijzers brengen u naar stad en dorp, in Nederland en soms daarbuiten. Ze laten u kijken door de bril van de landschapsarchitect en stedenbouwer, maar bovenal nodigen ze u uit te genieten van bijzondere plekken.
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CONTENTS CONTENTS Colofon ViaVIA, published by study association VIA Stedebouw, TU/e year 22, number 52 Eindhoven, April 2016 ViaVIA is published by:
Improve your hand drawing skills Workshop of VIA: Hélène Aarts How much do we know about our neighbours?
PR-committee VIA Stedebouw Den Dolech 2 (Vertigo 07) E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org www.viastedebouw.nl facebook.com/groups/viastedebouw Editors
Anouk van Otterlo (editor-in-chief) Mark van Esdonk Naomi Huveneers
Activity of VIA: Excursion to Leuven
HAMONIC + MASSON & Associés Case study: Vectorworks The bicycle as the urban transport system of tomorrow
Column: Ad de Bont
The urban artifact of the port Master project: Jard van der Lugt
THEME : City Labels
Never change a winning team Article: Jeroen Kools Sustainable living Sweden Article: Nathalie Snels Less CO2 and future transport
Jeroen Kools Catalien Peerdeman Nathalie Snels Aron Straver Guest Editors Renée van der Bijl Rob van der Bijl Ad de Bont
Jasper Calliauw Marc Houben Jard van der Lugt Hans Snijders Chris Steenhuis
Jan Tatoušek Vectorworks Printing DrukwerkMAX (Zoetermeer)
Article: Catalien Peerdeman
Subterranean space design Article: Mark van Esdonk
Hub Forward Interview with KruitKok Landschapsarchitecten Nature does not plan Article: Dr.ir. Rob van der Bijl & Renée van der Bijl MSc.
ISSN 1385-7045 Picture on cover: Naomi Huveneers Theme picture: Nathalie Snels
year 22, number 52 - April 2016
Re-use of the former NBDS railway Graduation project: Marc Houben Space Oddity Column: Hans Snijders
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NEWS Lunch Lecture André Houtman Thursday the 7th of January André Houtman explained us everything about urbanism abroad. The main question was; which ‘Dutch’ knowledge could you use and which knowledge is irrelevant in a country like China? André Houtman is the co-founder of HOUTMAN + SANDER, an office for landscape architecture. He designed i.e. the Taiyuan Industrial Heritage Transformation Masterplan in collaboration with OMA. Around 25 VIA members joined the lunch lecture and our members from China had many moments of recognition. André Houtman demonstrated the importance of multifunctional spaces in China, but also admired their decisiveness. The aspect of maintenance is not important, because there is enough manpower. Keep an eye on the website to read more about new projects of HOUTMAN + SANDER. Lunch Lecture Tom Bergevoet The second lunchlecture of 2016 took place on February 2nd. Tom Bergevoet presented his book ‘The Flexible City - Sustainable Solutions for an Europe in transition’. ‘In Europe, the period of great economic and demographic growth is largely over. Unlike in Latin America, Asia or Africa, the boundaries of most European cities are therefore no longer moving away, but have come to a halt. The spatial assignment of the future European city will be fundamentally different. Building new space outside the city boundaries is no longer necessary. Instead, what exists should be made sustainable. The new spatial assignment involves maintaining, restructuring, densifying or diluting the existing city.’ He outlined the current situation of the European City and showed us different examples of solutions. Around 40 VIA members joined the lunch lecture. After the lecture there was the opportunity to buy the book. Pop Up Exp. 2016 After the success of the first edition of the experiment, there wasn’t a doubt whether we would organize a follow-up with Anarchi or not. The 31st of May is your chance to test your design. How can you change the public space for an afternoon and possibly give it a new purpose? Ten locations, scattered throughout the city of Eindhoven will have a different appearance for a few hours. Maybe your design will encourage pedestrians to think about the location in a different year 22, number 52 - April 2016
way. The designs will be judged by a professional jury. The entire month of May will be devoted to the theme Pop Up. What are current examples of Pop Up? How did this movement arose? Make sure you are available on the 31st of May and be surprised by the other activities that will Pop Up during this month. The landscape in between. Tuesday the 8th of March, an exhibition was held in the Designhuis in Eindhoven. It was about ‘the Landscape in between’, which refers to the landscape between Eindhoven and Helmond: the rijk of Dommel and Aa. The day consisted of five interesting lectures, a lunch and debate, presentations from students of different institutions, and finally a concluding discussion with a drink. Dirk Sijmens was the first to give a lecture, in which he talked about the origin and transformation of the Dutch landscape, and the impact of the decreasing role of the government. After a small discussion David Hamers informed us about scenario making: how to predict the future? What tools, data and methods do we need? To strengthen his points, he addressed the difference between prognoses, scenarios, speculations and normative and descriptive design. After this series of lectures, the students guided the guests through their presented findings about the drivers of change in the Rijk van Dommel and Aa. The findings consisted of three parts: a collection of items from the landscape, scenarios about the landscape in 2070 on different topics, such as energy and climate, urbanization and housing, mobility and networks. Lastly, slideshow about the different values of the landscape was shown. After this tour, lunch and debate, Ruut van Paridon tutored us about landscape design in practice, strengthened with inspiring examples from his bureau. While Bart de Zwart talked about the more theoretical point of view: ‘A matter of representation’. Boudewijn, creative director of brainport park Eindhoven, ended the lecture series with the positive impact of proper corporation between companies, the government and other actors. In short: a very educative and interesting day, with challenging point of views and discussions between students, lecturers, citizens and the government about the future of the landscape in between. To be continued!
WORKSHOP OF VIA: Improve your handdrawing skills by Hélène Aarts With an increasing choice of computer programs and tools to draw your design and to make it look even better, hand drawings are not used as much as before. However, hand drawing is still an important skill for an (urban) designer to learn. It improves your view for a better understanding of your design in form and scale and it is still one of the fastest ways to express yourself. Although we know the importance of drawing, a decline of drawing skills occurs in our education. To be able to learn more about these skills, VIA organized a workshop that focused on improving your hand drawing skills (mainly) in urban drawings. On Thursday the 28th of January a group of 25 enthusiastic students joined our workshop. Everyone just finished their exams, and was looking forward to an educational and leisurely afternoon. We gathered in the drawing classroom on the second floor of Vertigo, and everyone had to bring their own drawing materials and tracing paper. While the participants searched a place to draw, Hélène started the workshop with an introduction, explaining some simple theories about drawing and especially how to easily draw an urban plan or overview of an area. She used a PowerPoint presentation with many inspiring pictures of different drawings, while explaining the theory behind them. After the introduction everyone tried to apply the learned theory in a drawing assignment. Everyone had a printed map of the TU/e campus and had to make a 3D perspective using tracing paper. While Hélène gave some tips and advice everyone made a nice 3D drawing of the campus. After this in class session, the participants had some time to try and apply the learned drawing techniques on location. Before everyone went outside and walked over to the new building Flux on the campus, VIA provided them with some coffee or tea and homemade cake and muffins. When everyone had something to snack we were good to go and we started walking to the Flux building. It must have looked strange for the physics and electro students to see a group of students with chairs and drawing boards walking by. Settled down in the cafeteria or on the stairs in front of the building, everyone had a nice view of the campus and started to draw an eye-level
perspective. The weather was really nice for a day in January, therefore some people were sitting outside to have a better view. With some help and tips from Hélène again, everyone had a nice result of the workshop and went home with a satisfied feeling. Some people did not even wanted to stop drawing, while others joined us for some beers in the Skybar! For the next academic year Hélène already announced a new master course about hand drawing. The purpose of that course will be to stimulate students to start drawing on location. In that way, students will learn how to manage visual imagery and how to manipulate visualizations. Besides this, Hélène wants to stimulate both analog as well as digital drawings for the making of convincing (end)presentations. Anouk van Otterlo
year 22, number 52 - April 2016
ACTIVITY OF VIA: Excursion to Leuven The city of Leuven in Flemish Brabant is known for its historical center, large student population, and its rich beer culture. During our visit, we, of course visited the UNESCO-listed Grand Beguinage, a city-in-acity-like monastery. And logically, we enjoyed a variety of abbey beers at the end of the day. Besides these obvious sites, our excursion took us to the core of Flemish practice of urbanism. And admittedly, some of us were surprised at the end of the day, how different the Flemish urban environment and its problems are from what we are used to on our side of the border. Hospital site becomes compact neighbourhood We started the day at the Hertogensite on the western edge of the historical centre. The Hertogensite, one of Leuven’s largest redevelopment sites, is a former medical campus. It once housed two hospitals, a renowned cancer research institute and other carerelated buildings. However, its location in the dense city centre is problematic in today’s perspective. Accessibility by car is an issue, and there is a significant demand for more housing in the city centre. Therefore, the medical facilities at Hertogensite have gradually been moved out to a new campus at the city’s edge. Today, Hertogensite is almost ready for a radical transformation under the leadership of developer company Resiterra.
At Resiterra’s office, Jürgen Van Der Donckt from the Gent-based firm 360 Architecten gave us an overview of the characteristics of this urban transformation. Many existing buildings will be demolished, including an eleven-storey hospital wing that has never been in use since its construction in the 1980s! Even some older, non-listed buildings will be cleared, either because they are structurally unfit for redevelopment or because of necessary infrastructural interventions. A major cluster of bus routes is led around the complex in a series of impossible turns. This will be solved by adjusting the footprint of the new buildings and thereby creating more space for buses to turn. What opportunities will the clearance of many existing buildings bring? Most importantly, a tremendous amount of space will be recovered in favor of a parklike environment. Greenery is largely lacking in the packed centre of Leuven, and this redevelopment will feature a wide green belt around the river Dijle. This river, which cuts through the site divided into several streams, has been canalized and built over, but it will now be reinstalled in its former glory. The central park will also display the remnants of fortifications and a height difference, which will once again show that the site is placed on the edge of the old fortified city and its later extension.
The resulting masterplan features high density (600 housing units) around a central park and several intimate green courtyards. A centre for podium arts will give the site a cultural twist to enhance its liveliness. Cars will be banned from the central park and stored in underground parking spaces. Their role should be diminished in favor of new cycle and public transport routes, including a future tram route through the area in accordance with the city’s mobility policy. In the traffic jam plagued environment of Flemish cities, a mobility shift is a must and a compact inner-city project like Hertogensite helps to counter suburbanization and resulting dominance of the car. Friendly Belgian neighbours After a city tour through the historic center, we visited BUreau voor URbanism(e), abbreviated to the friendly word BUUR – the Dutch word for neighbour. This acronym also reflected the hospitable way we were received at the office. With 45 employees, BUUR is the largest office for urbanism in Belgium. Their office is situated in Vaartkom, the former industrial port of Leuven, which processed shipments until the 20th Century. The Vaartkom site is currently one of the largest redevelopment areas of Flanders. BUUR is located at the heart of it, in a recently redeveloped Stella Artois brewery. The director of BUUR, Johan Van Reeth, gave us an eyeopening introduction into the current state of Flemish urbanism. The most striking part of his presentation was the map he showed of the built environment of Belgium and the Netherlands (picture 1). Here we saw the closely organized Dutch cities in the north following the ‘gebundelde deconcentratie’ principle and the south showed the scattered ribbon developments of Flanders. The map did not show the border between the two countries but it was clear where the Netherlands ended and Belgium started. Johan started to explain that these radically different patterns of urbanization are only a product of the last 50 years of development. In the Netherlands, the post-war housing shortage was taken up by regionally organized housing associations, whereas in Belgium people could proceed to build their own homes anywhere throughout the country. Flanders has gradually developed nearly all its open space for residential functions. This, combined with subsidized car ownership, means that Belgium is facing a serious spatial problem in the next 10 years. Most of us could not guess the scope and impact of the Belgian urban planning peculiarities. Apparently we do not know that much about our close neighbours.
Picture 1: Map of the built Environment, BUUR
For example, BUUR performed research and developed a strategy on linking upgraded public transport in the Leuven region with controlled development nodes. Another example is the redesign of town centers, such as that of Maldegem, in order to fight the generic appearance of smaller Flemish towns. Let us hope that these projects can trigger a paradigm shift in the urban development of Flanders. Jan Tatoušek & Chris Steenhuis
The philosophy of BUUR is to develop effective answers to Flanders’ most scorching urbanization problems. Their current projects focus on the densification of existing settlements and conservation of the scarce open space that is still left. year 22, number 52 - April 2016
Naar Holzer Kobler Architekturen. Rendering door LMcad Studio.
BIM voor ontwerpers Waarom kiezen tussen ontwerpen en BIMâ€™en? Met Vectorworks doe je het tegelijk!
_ Gratis studentenversie op student.myvectorworks.net _ Meer informatie op www.vectorworks.nl Vectorworks is een gedeponeerd handelsmerk van Vectorworks, Inc.
A CASE STUDY BY VECTORWORKS HAMONIC + MASSON & Associés Breaking through the Parisian skyline Over the last several decades, French law has imposed strict height limits to keep the historic and iconic skyline of Paris purposefully low. But in more recent years, businesses like the architecture firm HAMONIC + MASSON & Associés actively lobbied to enable the City of Lights to grow upward, reflecting its rising population. Their efforts proved successful; in November 2011, the Paris City Council amended the urban planning laws and raised the height limitation on the construction of housing blocks from 37 to 50 meters. Many cited the decision as a historic move that will forever change the landscape of Paris. HAMONIC + MASSON & Associés was one of the first architectural firms to capitalize on this change, partnering with Comte Vollenweider Architects to design the ZAC Masséna Paris Rive Gauche high-rise. This project marked the first collaboration between the two firms. The project’s objective was to mark this landscape with a remarkable building, combining offices, private housing, social housing, and parking, as well as beautiful architecture. HAMONIC + MASSON turned to Vectorworks Architect software to design the dual-towered structure, which will reside in Paris along the southern bank of the River Seine. “Our project will be delivered at the beginning of 2015 and will be the first 50-metertall housing solution to be built in Paris since the start of the 1970s,” says Masson. “It is symbolic of a willingness to question the possibility of height in Paris. Functioning as one single building whilst offering social housing and home ownership opportunities, the project links the strict rigidity of the Avenue de France, the railway landscape, the entrance to Ivry suburb, and finally the transition of a linear city toward a vertical one.” Experimenting with urban design Masson and his partner Gaëlle Hamonic did not create the high-rise with the intent to simply exceed the old height barrier. Rather, since the ZAC building year 22, number 52 - April 2016
was the first mixed-use high-rise to be built in Paris in more than 30 years, the designers felt it had to be something greater than projects that came before. Their inspiration was literally a twist on the traditional tower structure, which fits in with the firm’s guiding principles of focusing on functionality for their clients while also experimenting with the classic “city image.” Each story of the two towers is aligned differently than those above and below it. This series of shifting floors creates a swirling prism that rethinks urban space and is a design that the architects feel has a lot of potential for future projects. While the look of the building’s exterior was obviously important, Hamonic and Masson sought innovation inside the structure, as well. The ZAC high-rise achieves diversity by combining 17 stories of public housing in one tower with 14 stories of privately owned flats in another, combining for 200 units. Both towers rest on a common base filled with shops that open up onto the Avenue de France, one of the busiest areas of the vibrant city. Despite the dichotomy, Hamonic and Masson’s firm made no distinction when designing the interiors. The architects found a way to not only break through the ceiling of the old Parisian skyline in an eyecatching way, but also to bridge the divide between public and private housing in the eyes of Parisians. Innovation through Vectorworks HAMONIC + MASSON uses Vectorworks software because it is well-suited for the way the firm works, which means a 2D orientation for competitions and the use of 3D for advanced projects that require more time. “For us, Vectorworks is an obvious choice,” says Hamonic. “The advantage of using Vectorworks is that it works fast because it’s logical, intuitive, and easy to learn. Aimed at organized users, Vectorworks is very close to the architect because it’s dedicated to architecture. It’s intuitive.” Vectorworks www.vectorworks.nl
GREETINGS FROM BRUSSELS Paris 2015 is called the most important climate conference in history. Or so they say, as they were already ‘determining’ conferences in Kyoto, Genève, Durban, Poznan and 17 other world cities. All of the above were as important as the Paris climate conference is today. As mankind wants to keep the climate change below two degrees Celsius, every opportunity should be taken to accomplish this goal. In the past, these conferences unfortunately led to only a handful of empty non-rules and non-agreements between all countries except the most polluting ones. As a result, media are often filled with negative news and meaningless graphics. For the real news people should listen to the dreamers, thinkers and doers of today and tomorrow. The real newsmakers are the universities, scientists and developers; people who try to counter the climate change with innovations, ideas and life concepts, produced in their backyard shelter or high-tech labs. With the project ‘We Are Paris’, the VUB (Vrije Universiteit Brussel) wanted to raise awareness for these positive stories during the Paris Climate Conference. We Are Paris tried to investigate how far mankind has come on the road of countering these negative stories into positive ones. This way, participating students brought positive stories about how we can save the climate. Therefore, We Are Paris gave a strong and positive message in a period where people only heard the disappointing outcomes of the climate conference. Thus, Paris had the most successful climate conference in history. Within the project, our group composed out of students with different academic backgrounds, focused on the topic of transport. As everyone knows transport is everywhere and without transportation we are nowhere. But the hidden price we pay for this is appallingly (extremely, considerably, of significant height?) high. The transport sector alone accounts for no less than one fifth of global greenhouse gas emissions. In which exhaust is of course not only carbon dioxide, but also other materials where we feel the impact much more directly and much more local. Every year, air pollution results in the death of an improbable 11,000 people in Belgium. We believe that it is our moral duty to look for solutions and good examples of fresh ideas. Our trip went from Antwerp, where the Personalized Travel Planning project runs, to Brussels, where we spoke with the Minister of Mobility and Transportation about the arrival of a new car sharing system. We also tested the famous bicycle
highway between Leuven and Brussels. The ultimate experience, however, was experienced abroad. After a challenging journey of 28 hours by train, we unraveled the success of electric cars in Oslo. In short we can conclude that electric cars are not the future, they are a reality. But electro mobility may be only a part of the solution. It is time for Belgium to catch up with these pioneers. As We Are Paris tried to bring stories that can change the world, everyone is given the strong message that the climate change is something which each of us can start to counter. The real climate conference was not in Paris, but was at the VUB, and will be in the future in everyone’s individual decision and daily habits. Together we can make the world turns green again. Because the climate belongs to us! And you! We are Paris, are You? If you want to check out more about the We Are Paris project you can find us on www.weareparis.be. On this website a lot of interesting information on a diversity of topics can be found, including our road trip and other videos on the ‘Nordic electrical revolution’. Jasper Calliauw Vrije Universiteit Brussel Urban Desgin and Planning 2nd year student
THE BICYCLE AS THE URBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEM OF TOMORROW A good health is a blessing. In the list of ‘what is important in life?”, a good health ranks number one. Nowadays a healthy, sporty lifestyle and a healthy diet are popular. All wonderful, but at the same time we see the rise of an ever thickening, sugar addicted society. Unfortunately, a healthy lifestyle is especially reserved for the higher educated. Health and longevity are still related to the socio-economic status. We all want to be healthy, but how much effort do take and do we actually adapt our behavior? Our (healthy) behavior depends on many factors that can not be influenced by urbanists; for example socioeconomic situations, personal motives and cultural lifestyles. Nowadays urbanists do have an impact on our daily living environment. They determine our physical and mental health; a healthy city offers its residents healthy living conditions. Due to the extensive automation of society, one moves less. Someone does not have to move if they do not want to. Moving has become a choice: the car, escalator, scooter, elevator, E-bike, Segway, computer, remote control and all kinds of household appliances make movement unnecessary. Many (new) lifestyle diseases are associated with this inactivity; obesity, depression, dementia and cardiovascular diseases are increasing and are partially explained by inactivity. People move too little, while the “proven” contributes to the reduction of these diseases. Fortunately, this awareness also penetrates us planners. Many places are experimenting with exercise friendly environments. More exercise (walking, cycling, sports and games) is high on the agenda. The challenge is to design cities that tempt healthy behavior. Ensure that residents are tempted to cycle, sport, recreate and children and seniors can safely use the outdoor space. We can not achieve this by prohibiting behavior, instead we should provide healthy alternatives. Cycling is an important tool to contribute to the health of city dwellers. Try to integrate the 30 minute brisk effort the government tries to propagate in everyday lifestyle. Daily cycling fits perfectly in this endeavor. But how can we as urbanists contribute? First, by learning from the past, something our discipline does not excel in. In the 70’s and 80’s the bicycle had gained an explicit place in the Dutch town planning. Descendant from these years are the so called “Bloemkoolwijken”, that are well connected to nearby amenities by cycling routes. These districts are crossed by green, car-free cycling and walking routes. These designs were all motivated by a rising environmental year 22, number 52 - April 2016
awareness. “The limits to growth” by the Club of Rome in 1972, was a milestone. This environmental awareness was translated to the objective to obtain healthy, sustainable cities. Sustainable transport, such as cycling, became fashionable. One focused on direct slow traffic structures in centers of growth (eg Houten) and dense centre-to-centre public transport systems (eg Almere and Zoetermeer). Large green areas frame and flow through the monofunctional low density neighborhoods. At the same time we still propagated the monofunctional city, where areas for living, working, recreation and traffic were separated. Sometimes the distances between these monofunctional areas are so large, that the car has become the preferred transport. Remarkable because these neighborhoods are designed from the perspective of the cyclist. Mono-functionality, low densities and extensive green areas do not contribute to bicycle use. Therefore, it is more interesting to continue looking back in time. In older (inner) cities with grained mixed use and higher densities there can be found more cyclists. The distances between someone’s house and facilities are limited. Cycling is the fastest, easiest and most comfortable way of transport. An interesting notion that has not been studied thoroughly yet. The world, including the Netherlands, is urbanizing rapidly. Dutch cities are growing, while the periphery is shrinking. Particularly in the city and for the new city dweller, the bicycle is the ideal mean of transport. It fits in the tight cities which are not designed for the car, it is most effective, it is a social vehicle (cycling together; encountering people), it contributes to the economy of the city (a cyclist spends more in local retail than motorists) and it is also clean and healthy. The new urban dweller cycles while networking and chatting from home, to workplace, from third place to the gym. In addition, the daily commuter is using the E-bike and bicycle highways as daily transport from suburb to urban workplace. The popularity of the city is a blessing to the bicycle, and vice versa. The bicycle as the ultimate urban transport creating an inviting prospect. Boris Johnson in London already knew it, Residents of Copenhagen knew it, other cities discover it now, but we were already doing it. This obviousness provides a good basis for further development of our cities to transform them in healthy cities with the bicycle as a normal mean of transport. Ad de Bont Lecturer Urban planning TU/e
MASTER PROJECT The urban artifact of the port The port of Scheveningen is a small port, next to the village of Scheveningen, and a part of the municipality of Den Haag. The port is originally an industrial fishing area with added residential functions during the last few years. Large parts of the area are empty due to the departure of the Norfolk Line. The famous boulevard of Scheveningen, a very busy tourist location during the summer is adjacent to the port. The shaping shape Observing the area, one is struck by the influences of boundaries to the area. The dykes, beach, sea and fences are all constructions that shape the possible activities in the port. The shape of the water in the port is the most influential boundary of them all. It is the physical limit of the area. The starting point of a different transport method. The easiest way to handle this shape is walking along it, the hardest is to swim across it. The shape also influences our memories as we connect this, both personal and collective, to specific places. All these aspects together make this shape one of the urban artifacts of the area. By
urban artifact I mean a shaping shape, independent of its function, constantly shaping our way of living, our memories and our image of the city. A cold structure As I now have discovered the urban artifact of the port, the next step consists of the determination of a good approach to handle this specific artifact. Itâ€™s vital for an urban artifact to be allowed to change. Making the urban artifact into a monument, an unchangeable structures to be left alone, will make the artifact cold as it will only be a reflection of a memory from the past and not create new memories. Therefore, the artifact should be allowed to change and develop, it should be kept alive, but how should this development be designed? Confronting, contrasting, lifting, joining The design approach consists of custom made interventions for the different elements of the shape. The shape of the port has grown in history. This growth can be seen in different stadia of the shape. The
shape itself is therefore built up by different elements. The design approach enhances and emphasizes the different elements of the design by using confronting, contrasting, joining and lifting elements. Furthermore, the existing elements of the area that already support the urban artifact are used and further strengthened. These elements are the “Visafslag” and the remnants of the Atlantic wall. The first design element implemented in the area is the enhancement of the ‘’arms’’ of the port. The right dyke of the basin of the port is connected to the remnants of the Atlantic wall. The left ‘’arm’’ or dyke is connected to the third port using a roofed outdoor space. By making this space, the shape of the port is felt from above in the enclosed but still open space. The roof of the structure will consist of dwellings. Underneath this roof people can walk and port activities can take place, such as the manufacturing of ships. Both arms will be public walking spaces.
Urban artifact of the port. Urban artifact of the port
The second design element consists of changing the shape of the first port, adjacent to the “Visafslag”. A round jetty is placed on the existing shape of the port, emphasizing the hard corners of the port. This round jetty will be the location to sit and eat fish while looking at the fishermen working in the port. The third element consists of the placement of a large roof over the pier. This roof is extended and placed in the water, hereby enhancing the shape underneath the roof and making the pier into one whole area. The shape of the roof is a copy of the roof of the “Visafslag”, but 90 degrees turned. On top of this roof a tower with dwellings will be placed. The area underneath the roof will facilitate all the watersport activities of the port. The fourth element is a small wall along the second port. This wall forms a boundary between the water and the public space and emphasizes the extensive length of the second port. The design of the former Norfolk terrain located between the second and third port is predominantly characterized by the placement of dwellings. The shape of the dwellings correspond to the amorphous shape of the port in that area and the existing long line of the canal. The amorphous shape of the dwellings is connected to the straight configuration of the existing buildings. The shape of the port is made even more loose and sanded to characterize the shape of the port at that spot.
Existing plus added structures. Existing plus added structures
The elements of the new design of the port of Scheveningen emphasized the existing shape of the port by confronting, lifting, contrasting and joining. These elements keep the shape of the port alive and make the artifact even stronger. The result of my design approach is an overall design strategy which will make interesting places and spots, and, in time, it might even make new urban artifacts. Jard van der Lugt
The last design element consists of the placement of a hotel against the Atlantic wall. The shape of the hotel is a reflection of the shape of the “Visafslag”, connected to the shape of the Atlantic wall.
year 22, number 52 - April 2016
CITY LABELS Currently a very popular theme in urbanism is sustainability and all countries should make their cities more sustainable. An energy label is given to cars, electrical devices and buildings to indicate how energy efficient the product is. What if we go further and give our cities an energy label or city label in the future too? Can we indicate how energy efficient or sustainable a city is or should be? It is already difficult to say what sustainability is exactly? Over the last years everything is categorized under the word sustainability, it has become a container concept. How is sustainability implemented in different cities and in what way is it related to green energy systems. To learn more about developments in this field, you can find different articles about this concept on the next pages. Will you find sustainability in the urban plan of the city or can you implement different tools in new plans? Should we focus on transport in cities to reduce CO2 emissions or on implementing more collaboration in subterranean space design? Another solution is to mimic nature through biomimicry and fit this in new urban plans. Probably, we should combine a lot of different solutions together to create a more sustainable world. We should be more creative a think of new solutions where we combine energy systems, sustainable housing, and other transport systems in an integral design.
Anouk van Otterlo
year 22, number 52 - April 2016
NEVER CHANGE A WINNING TEAM The Amsterdam Royal palace on the Dam Square was designed by Jacob van Campen and opened in the glory days of the Golden Age. Since then, Atlas stands on top of the building, representing the restricting less liberal thinking of Amsterdam.
For more than a hundred years, Atlas is standing on the top of this former city hall, carrying his globe. The mighty titan, who initially was seen as the one who stated why heaven was not falling down growth to the symbol of endurance. Children often heard the story, that if Atlas’ globe would fall, Amsterdam would perish. But who or what is carrying Atlas himself? The field of urbanism is always under development. The search for a more sustainable and modern city is a continuous quest. This quest has already created some innovative solutions for sustainability in cities. However, the term ‘sustainable’ has become a container concept within the last ten years. The question ‘’what is a sustainable city?’’ is even more interesting than making something sustainable. A city free of fossil fuels and carbon dioxide can be seen as sustainable, but is the city itself not a sustainable object? A city is like a living organism, continuously subject tochange and impressionable by time.
To get a clear vision, it is wise to take a look at a specific city. In this article, this city will be Amsterdam. The city where Atlas standson top of the former city hall, the current royal palace, from here hehas seen many of the changes made to the city. Buildings were built, demolished, burned down, as happened in many cities. Amsterdam was, and is, always under construction. This city has seen manyurban developments and concepts.
The history of Amsterdam starts with a fewbuildings on the banks of the Amstel river. The dike in the Amstel, located at the current Dam square, was the start of the growth of the former small hamlet. The city had a rapid growth in size and importance. The
strategic location, the war in the southern Netherlands and the fall of Antwerp in 1585, made Amsterdam develop quickly. Many wealthy merchants moved to Amsterdam, forcing the city to expand. To give the growth of the city a place; the wellknown canal belt (Grachtengordel) was designed and built. The swampy sole in Amsterdam forced the inhabitants to built everything on poles. These poles still are the main foundation for many buildings in Amsterdam. While creating the canal belt, this problem was there as well. The whole area was incremented with sand from the Gooi area in the east of Holland. The canals were created for the inner transportation of goods in Amsterdam, but also had the function of solving groundwater problems. The practical, functional and aesthetic aspects of this expansion of Amsterdam made the area one of the most beloved and expensive places to live inthe Netherlands. For the canal belt, the natural grounds were covered with sand. This was an expensive solution to create a blank paper. The later added expansions of Amsterdam instead used the natural ground. The Jordaan and the Pijp were built following the underlying ditches. These neighborhoods housed the working class and the poor of Amsterdam. The old ditches became the new canals. This resulted in narrow streets with in the middle a canal, whom quickly became an open-air sewer. These expansions largely differed from the earlier ones. Nowadays, this neighborhood can be seen as part of the inner-city and is highly popular. Living in these areas can even be seen as a status symbol. Centuries later the city had a large expansion period again. The post-war period led to a high shortage of housing in the Netherlands. To tackle this problem, the city started with the “westelijke tuinsteden”. This western expansion was again built on a layer of sand, with the natural surface hidden underneath. This applies as well to the “Bijlmermeer” in the 1960’s. Were a former lake made roomfor a large new living area. These neighborhoods offered year 22, number 52 - April 2016
large open green spaces, to relief the inner city of Amsterdam. In the end, these places were not developed as expected. The inhabitant rather lived in or nearby the city center.
Sources Bakker, F.J., Boiten, E.A.J. & Veen, W.K. (1983). Stad in kaart. Canaletto; Alphen aan de Rijn. Groeneboer, S., Soldan, P. I., Pelser, R.M., Reeuwijk, A., Sanders, P. Tigges, R. Tussenbroek, G. & Vreden-
The changes in using the natural ground, or not, do not say anything about sustainability. A building is often built for a period of 100 years. Some last longer, and for some this period is shorter. After this, it will simply be replaced with something new. This does not apply for the city plan. This is something that is here for centuries. Changing a city plan is something radical, and not often done. However, when it is done it has mostly something to do with a big fire or a war.
berg, J. (2013). De Amsterdamse grachtengordel, werelderfgoed sinds de gouden Eeuw. Matrijs; Utrecht. Heeling, J., Meyer, H. & Westrik, J. (2009). Ontwerp van de stadsplattegrond. Sun; Amsterdam. Picture: Anthony Coronado
Conservation is a way of sustainability. Some things in a city can be hard to change or will change under the influence of time and insights. But the city plan mostly survives. It is a radical element and makes itself sustainable.
“The practical, functional and aesthetic aspects of this expansion of Amsterdam made the area one of the most beloved and expensive places to live inthe Netherlands.” So what is a sustainable city? We can say that every city is sustainable in its own way. From a birds eye view, a city does not change much. The buildings can change easily during over time. But a good solid urban plan will not. So cities might be all sustainable in their own way. Nowadays, no-one would suggest changing the canal belt, the “Jordaan” or the “Pijp”. Because as an urban plan, they work perfectly. So, to keep it clear. Never change a winning team? Jeroen Kools
SUSTAINABLE LIVING SWEDEN
Where and how we live, is getting more and more important. Our dwellings have to comply to stricter rules with regards to sustainability, which is why it is important to create housing that will last forever. Implementing new ways of energy use, relieving the nature from our demands, and more, could be part of the solution. In the Swedish city Malmö, one of the first sustainable urban developments was designed.
Västra Hamnen Västra Hamnen in Malmö is the symbol of sustainable urban development for the city. It all started in 2001, when Bo01 held the European homes fair in Mälmo. The coastal industrial land transformed into a densely built urban area and was open for the public. The urban area became an area for knowledge and sustainable living. Three years before the home fair in 2001, the university already opened its doors in this area Västra Hamnen became the national example of sustainable urban development. This district contains of a mixture of housing, service industries, workplaces,
education and recreation. The main principles of what type of density and greenness is needed, has been derived from the inner city. The district works well, due to the fact that it is a unique system at an attractive location. There are special urban and natural features. In addition, it has a short walking distance to the inner city and a proper transport network. They are developing these qualities and buildings in a mixed city. Hopefully the result will be that Västra Hamnen is the link to the central parts of Malmö.
“Västra Hamnen in Malmö is the symbol of sustainable urban development for the city.” At the start of 2014, the district Västra Hamnen consists of 4,000 homes and has around 10,000 jobs. The planning is to create another 6,000 homes and 7,000 jobs. It should be a neighborhood where just over 20,000 people are able to live.
Buildings For Västra Hamnen it was important to create a neighborhood with a lot of variation. So it would be a surprise what to find. Therefor the houses were designed by twenty-six different architectural firms. These firms had a lot of freedom in designing and an ecologic appearance was not obligated. This resulted in the fact that the ecological and sustainable solutions are not visible from the outside. Many houses in the Bo01 area have advanced technologies to decrease the energy needs. Other dwellings use more simple techniques to reach the same goals. Eco-cycle Another important aspect for a sustainable neighborhood is the re-use of materials. Recycling and minimizing consumption are important. In the neighborhood in Malmö there are facilities for separating packaging, food waste and mixed waste. Most dwellings have access to vacuum systems, which make it possible to lead the waste underground. With this underground system the trucks do not have to come inside the residential areas to collect their waste. The food waste that has been collected in the city will be converted into biogas and bio fertilizer. Energy When people hear about sustainable living, the first thing people relate to is the use of renewable energy. For the project in Västra Hamnen it was important that the local energy production would be integrated right from the start. The ultimate goal is to reach 100 percent locally produced energy supply from the renewable sources. How is this all organized in the neighborhood? Well, many of the buildings have solar panels for heat as well as for power production. In the complete district there are over 3,000 square meter of solar panels generating heat for the network. Besides the solar panels, some of the buildings have small wind turbines incorporated on the roof. But, how do the dwellings regain the heat? Well, they are all being heated by the district heating. The supply is from the waste incineration, interseasonal storage and from the solar energy.
aspects are the main symbol for ecofriendly. Varied greenery in parks, yards, along streets and in squares represent the natural elements in the cities. In addition, it also has positive effects on the health of the residents and visitors. In the Västra Hamnen neighborhood it is encouraged to infiltrate the rainwater into the ground. The dwellings also have a green roof, which most of the time consists of a thin covering of drought-resistant plants or thicker green roofs with higher biodiversity and greater capacity to deal with surface water. In Malmö a tool, called the Green space factor, is used to keep the green quality in the city. This results in keeping proper living conditions for humans, animals and plants. Also the greenery and water contributes to a positive urban environment, which stimulates recreation, noise reduction and improves the local climate. Mobility Just like in many other sustainable neighborhoods, it is important to create a more sustainable way of transportation. The goal for Malmö is to reduce the car journeys with 30 percent. The longterm goal for Västra Hamnen is that 75 percent of the journeys will be walking, cycling and public transport, and for trips to work 70 percent. Initiatives to realize this is to change the physical planning and influence the behavior of the residents. The municipality has already started to create new concepts within the mobility management. More information and new means of transport for the citizens are the results of these concepts.. A pilot project of car and cycle pools has been implemented, and there are other plans to design a new cycle bridge to link the neighborhood with the inner city. Lastly the city is developing new tram connections for the future. Concluding, will the neighborhood in Malmö stay the national example for Sweden? Or will the new neighborhoods be similar to the old ones? Hopefully it will change the way people use the public space and think about the way we live. And then this could be the new sustainable way of living for the coming decades. Nathalie Snels
Green city How is it possible to show the world that there is a sustainable neighborhood? Green year 22, number 52 - April 2016
Sources Avdelningen för miljö (n.d.). Western Harbour / Bo01. Retrieved from: http://malmo.se/English/Sustainable-City-Development/Bo01---Western-Harbour.html Mälmo (n.d.). Ekostaden Augustenborg - on the way towards a sustainable neighbourhood. Retrieved from: http://malmo.se/ download/18.af27481124e354c 8f1800015944/1383649554009/AugustenborgBroschyr_ENG_V6_Original-Small.pdf d’Ersu, M. (n.d.). Bo01, Malmö, Sweden. Retrieved from: http:// www.urbangreenbluegrids.com/ projects/bo01-city-of-tomorrow-malmo-sweden/ Picture: Humphrey, R., Humphrey, J. (8th of April 2013). Retrieved from http://www.idealmagazine.co.uk/ mad-about-malmo-4/
Mercedes Benz F 015 Luxury in Motion
LESS CO2 AND FUTURE TRANSPORT Smog and air pollution, two issues that confront cities in the Netherlands. Road traffic is the most important source of CO2-emissions in the transport sector and traffic on the highways will have risen by 9,6 percent in 2020. Therefore the Ministry of Infrastructure and Environment has set the ambition of reducing the CO2-emission of road transport. In 2050 this quantity has to be taken down by sixty percent compared to 1990. In order to achieve this goal the government has to implement future innovations in their vision. In this way policy-makers can focus on long-term interventions as well. What are these innovations and how can they be applied? Electric vehicles Approximately one third of all oil-, half of all natural gas- and more than eighty percent of all coal reserves should not be cultivated between now and 2050 to keep the temperature change below the 2 ºC limit that was set at the Copenhagen Climate Conference in 2015. The transition to new electric vehicles is an almost evident decision to realize this.
This new type of car is actually the opposite of new. In 1842 the first electric cars were already used in the US. They were big and expensive and therefore fell into a niche segment. Nowadays accumulator techniques and electronics are highly developed which makes it accessible for both companies and consumers.
Today’s massive use of cars can be traced back to an universal use at competitive costs and the lack of suitable alternatives. To make electric vehicles a realistic alternative, they have to meet several conditions. They have to meet the same characteristics as cars
with conventional engines, the purchase price and operating costs have to be almost the same for cars with conventional engines and the fuel consumption and air pollution standards for cars have to be tightened, to realize they can only be implemented using electric motors. The current issue lies within the usability of the batteries. Most electric cars have an operating radius of just 70 to 170 km and recharging stations are rare. One of the biggest obstacles of electric car use will be the consuption of energy. The new possibility of fast recharging was received as a pleasant development, but it can lead to big peaks in energy usage. This raised the question whether there should be built more power plants. The first reaction was no, because most cars get recharged in the night. During this time of the day we have to cope with off peak electricity. This means most power plants have a surplus because they keep producing while the demand is low. However, in 2008 the Oak Ridge National Laboratory concluded that there should be built 32 big power plants in the USA if all the cars in the USA would be hybrids, which are not even full energy powered cars. The question is whether this is not an outdated vision seen emerging local energy and potential future self-sufficiency.
“The new possibility of fast recharging was received as a pleasant development, but it can lead to big peaks in energy usage.” Self-riding cars Another fast rising trend will probably be the self-riding car. It seems crazy that we are already talking about
this kind of automation, but it is a gradual process involving a slow transition of the role of the driver. The Netherlands Institute for Transport Policy (KiM) made four scenario’s based on different automation and sharing levels. In the most extreme scenario they talk about mobility as a service you can rely on whenever and wherever. In this scenario technology has achieved a high level and consumers are willing to share their vehicles. This sharing will result in less car use and programmed cars will probably create less congestion as well, which leads to a decrease of pollution. Cities are divided in different areas where people walk and cycle short distances. The city will become more livable because vehicles are stored outside the city and this creates a lot of space. There will be more room for green and recreation. Because of the easy to excess service there could also start another trend of increased car use. Additionally programmed cars can form platoons of vehicles. Due to these formations the capacity of a road will increase to 2900 vehicles per hour, which supports travelling by car. At last the cars will get used intensively, this mean they have to be replaced faster than “normal vehicles”. Another plus side is the fact that we will always drive with state of the art technology. The bottleneck of this plan will be the fact year 22, number 52 - April 2016
that people should get used to giving up a little control and let go of the obsolete. This has mainly to do with the behavioral changes that humans have to go through. Conclusion Electric cars tend to be much cleaner than fossil fuel driven vehicles, but they will cause big peaks in the electricity networks. Self-riding cars will be more environmental friendly while they can be used in a sharing and demand based society, thus creating more space for green areas. The combination of the two could work out pretty well. For example if there would be less usage of cars in general, the effect of energy usage peaks could be insignificant. The real challenge lies in the change in behavior that needs to be triggered. When the facilities will be present, these futuristic innovations could probably be implemented in policies. But only one step at a time. Catalien Peerdeman
Sources Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid (2015). Trendprognose wegverkeer 2015-2020 voor Rijkswaterstaat. Retrieved on March 3, 2016 Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid (2015). Beleidsopties voor verminder CO2 uitstoot wegverkeer. Retrieved on March 4, 2016 Eyckmans, J. (2015). Klimaatbeleid na 2020: mag het iets meer zijn? Retrieved on March 4, 2016 Bal, F., Vleugel, J. (2015). Elektrisch autorijden: Waarom geen maatschappelijke discussie? Retrieved on 8 March, 2016 Decker de, Kris. (2009). Waarom de elektrische auto geen toekomst heeft. Retrieved on 4 March, 2016 Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid. (2015). NM magazine 2015 – 2. Retrieved on 3 March, 2016 Kennisinstituut voor Mobiliteitsbeleid. (2015). Chauffeur aan het stuur. Retrieved on 3 March, 2016 Images: Left: Mercedez Benz, Right: Company data, Morgan stanley research. Timeline for adoption.
SUBTERRANEAN SPACE DESIGN AND ITS CONSEQUENCES
The focus for urban and landscape design is mostly on ground level and above. However, structural collaboration beneath ground level (subterranean space design) could mean a lot for financing and applying energy systems, such as city heating, LED lanterns or heat pump systems. Additionally, it could mean more space for green elements in the city, such as trees. This article focusses on subterranean space design and the possible impact of the consequences. Letâ€™s start with explaining what subterranean space design is. Most urban and architectural designers are likely to think about underground basements or big shopping malls in prominent cities all around the world. That is correct, but there is more. It is everywhere, underneath every street, beneath every house, even beneath the tiniest villages or just beneath farmland: internet, rainwater systems, electricity cables, sewer and more. Old and new ones, just wildly crossed over each other. Within cities it is mostly better organized. For example the Dutch Knowledge Centre for subterranean space use (COB), is working hard to improve the subterranean coherence and systems.
In addition to the network function, COB plays a key role in implementing knowledge platforms. This is important because there are, similar to above ground, many different actors included, each with different demands and ideas. If those actors do not work together and do not share their ideas, the subterranean space stays a mess. Impact on the streetscape When structural collaboration beneath ground level will be applied, there is more space in streets for trees or other kinds of nature. Some benefits of more green in the streetscape are: calming traffic, perform ecological functions, easier to manage storm water, contribution to the aesthetic quality of the neighborhood and a decrease of the amount of CO2 in the air, which improves the air quality and therefore the health of the inhabitants of the city. In the future landscape plan of Parish (Louisiana, United States), such green streetscapes are realized. The designers used a context sensitive approach to street design with complete streets and sustainable storm
water management. The plan was widely accepted and appreciated, because it is realized with public participation. It is not entirely comparable because Louisiana has wide streets, and in the Netherlands most streets are narrow, but it definitely illustrates the positive impact of the green streetscapes.
â€œWhen structural collaboration beneath ground level will be applied, there will be more space in streets for trees or other kinds of nature.â€? Impact on energy supply Additionally, when the subterranean space is used more effective and all the different actors work together, the costs of implementing an energy system decreases significantly. This decrease in costs is mostly caused by the time effectiveness of the underground work within the city. In most cases for changing and adapting the sewer or electricity cables, digging is needed. Digging leads to roadblocks, and roadblocks delay traffic which has an impact on the local retail companies on the long term. Both consequences lead to more expenses. Today the different actors do not or hardly work together and only improve their own cables or pipes. If the different actors would work together, with platforms such as COB, they could maintain more cables and pipes of different companies with just one physical dig operation. This decreases the roadblock time and therefore the costs. These costs are the main reason why largescale energy systems such as city heating or LED lanterns are not applied. When the expenses decrease, sustainable energy systems can be applied more easily and cities will become more sustainable. To strengthen this point, two examples of an energy system are shown: geothermal energy and geo-materials. Geothermal energy is one of the many resources that can be tapped into the subterranean city. Made more accessible by excavations, it can be used for heating residential and industrial applications. Geo-materials is another resource. The accumulated debris from excavations can be used to stabilize roads or produce year 22, number 52 - April 2016
cement. You then have greater access to groundwater and, with careful preservation, this may help in developing sustainable cities. Conclusion Implementing more collaboration in subterranean space design has two important consequences: firstly, it creates more space for designers to implement trees and other kinds of nature in street design. This leads to more attractive living areas, calmer traffic, ecological benefits and better air quality, which improves the health of the inhabitants. Secondly, it can lead to cost reduction for large energy systems, such as geothermal energy or heat pump systems. Which could eventually lead to more investments in these systems and therefore more sustainable cities with a higher city label! Mark van Esdonk
Sources De Vries, S., van Dillen, M.E., Groenewegen, P., Spreeuwenberg P, 2013, Streetscape greenery and health: Stress, social cohesion and physical activity as mediators., Elsevier. Webster, G.S., Subterranean Street planning, The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. Vol. 51 Housing and Town planning pp 200-207. Writing Urban Spaces: Street Graphics and the Law as Postmodern Design and Ordinance. This Big City post, maximising the potential of subterranean cities. 17 jan, 2014. sustainable collective Ravesteijn, R., jubileumboek, COB.
Pictures: Left: De StraaD, Bosch Slabbers landschapsarchitecten Right: Ravesteijn, R., jubileumboek, COB
INTERVIEW HUB FORWARD Using energy as a part of the urban design process is still an uncommon aspect. Last year, the EO Wijers-foundation organized a design contest that focused on creating an energy neutral region, between Apeldoorn, Deventer and Zutphen, before 2030. One of the prize winning submissions was “Hub Forward”, designed by the team of Esther Kruit and Mariëlle Kok. In 2014 they established their joined company KruitKok Landschapsarchitecten, situated in Eindhoven and Oss. VIA had the honor to interview them and to learn more about their prize winning submission “Hub Forward”.
About a year ago, Esther and Mariëlle received their first energy related assignment, a meandering creek project that needed to be unified with several wind turbines. This project sparked their interest, especially because energy transition will have such a huge spatial impact on our landscape. Not long after their first energy related project, the EO Wijers contest crossed their path. The goal of this contest was to create a realistic design to develop an entire energy neutral region between Apeldoorn, Deventer and Zutphen, and to improve the spatial qualities of the region, before 2030. This region is called the “city triangle” (stedendriehoek).
Determining the amount of needed energy was a very important and difficult aspect of the assignment, because how do you determine which source you need to generate enough energy, but also to cover the differences in supply and demand when talking about energy? For example, if we would cover the entire region with forest, using wood as biomass, would that produce enough energy for everyone in the region? Or, when you would supply the region purely on wind energy, wind turbines would be scattered everywhere in the landscape to generate enough energy for everyone. Is that what the region wants? From the above the Hub Forward Team concluded that we need all the space we have in order to develop an entire
energy neutral region and that an energy master plan is needed to decide where to do what.
“We need all the space we have in order to develop an entire energy neutral region.” But, how can we link all the different initiatives together? That is how the unique and location specific hubs from “Hub Forward” emerged. To design all the hubs, a mindset change is needed. Today, we mainly think about energy as electricity. But, warmth is also a very, and maybe an even more, important source. To generate warmth we use gas, a source of which we do not have enough to comply with the local energy demand. Especially, if we do not start to think about, for example, district heatings. Becoming energy neutral is otherwise impossible. Another problem occurs when we all start to produce our own energy, our current energy network is unable to handle all the produced energy. The excess amount of energy needs to be stored and converted somewhere. A new hub is created. As told before, every hub is unique and location specific. In the city triangle, for example, energy can be combined with one of the industrial areas, using residual heat as the energy source. Or, creating a so called “grow hub” at a location where a large amount of biomass can be produced and a second business model can be developed. For example: combining willow trees with free range chickens. The owner can sell the willow tree branches as biomass and the free-range eggs to locals. Another example is a “water hub” which can emerge along weirs because of the enormous seepage flow. The excessive amount of water pressure that is created, can be used to generate energy. This old fashion technique is long forgotten, but will be very useful in the future.
year 21, 22, number 52 - April 2016
Together with their team, Esther and Mariëlle designed several unique and location specific hubs, which led them to a shared first place in the contest. Recently they started with a follow up assignment to elaborate their ideas on several locations. We are curious to see what “Hub Forward” will bring us in the future! Interviewing Esther and Mariëlle taught us that in the near future, energy will play an important role in the design process again. We are moving towards a time in which energy will become a visible feature in our landscape, just like it has been in the past. We are used to hiding our energy sources under the ground, which is an unnecessary and expensive habit. Examples like the high lines in New York and Paris will become common features in other cities, and will allow our sustainable energy to flow from one place to the other.
Sources More information about Forward” can be found www.ruimte-energie.nl www.hubvooruit.nl
Hub Forward is co-designed by - Rho adviseurs voor leefruimte: Guido van Loenen Stefan la Grand Jos Leijten - Kruit Kok Landschapsarchitecten: Mariëlle Kok Esther Kruit - Dominic Tegelbeckers Stedenbouw en Architectuur: Dominic Tegelbeckers - Jelle Rijpma Advies: Mariska Louman - Bestwerk: Timo Bralts Fiona Sterling With the cooperation of: Otto Hettinga (Energierijk Voorst) Jolanda Hoeflak (Bril van Jane) Jelle Rijpma (JRA) Adriaan Weerheim (Rho adviseur) Rob van Leeuwen (Rho adviseur) Derk-Jan Verhaak (Rho adviseur) Eric van der Aa (Rho adviseur) Frits Dinkla (Rho adviseur)
“Energy will play an important role in the design process.” The EO Wijers-foundation was the first to organize a contest which focused purely on energy. The contest made clear that for many contesters this was their first attempt to use energy as the main theme in their design. Today, it is still hard to grasp how much energy is needed and what this will look like in our landscape. Our generation, of current students and future designers, needs to make the big changes; a change of mindset is much needed. In the future, energy will become one of the many aspects which needs to be included in our design process, an aspect that will help us to enlarge our ever growing toolbox with knowledge. Naomi Huveneers
NATURE DOES NOT PLAN
Urban planning inspired by biomimicry Ghent, Nieuw Gent, Favas.net, May 29, 2013
Favas.net uses biomimicry to mimic natural growth in urban planning. This natural growth analogy enriches our work. Instead of conventional top-down planning we prefer the enhancement of relevant conditions that could favor bottom-up and other ‘spontaneous’ or yet unknown actions, interventions, or the birth of new, unexpected ideas. Still we accept and apply conventional rational planning if necessary, but at the same time we recognise that incremental planning and actions are of great importance in many of our cases.
Our name is derived from the famous fava bean, which has been on the human menu for thousands of years. We appreciate this tough bean as it can withstand harsh and cold climates. As nature doesn’t plan complementary (and for that matter also alternatively) to traditional urban planning we love to mimic the natural growth of this bean. The fava-soil is our inspiration for the empowerment of citizens. The fava-season makes us aware of the necessity of proper timing, while the fava-climate reflects the conditions of (pragmatic) governance. Moreover the fava bean needs sunlight, in other words energy for our mediation work, bridging gaps and enforcing personal and social interrelationships. In etymologic sense the name ‘fava’ is historically close to the name ‘Favela’. And of course, it is no coincidence that the foundation of Favas.net was
inspired by our experiences with the Favelas in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which are named after our bean. The ‘natural’ unplanned, though in many respects successful growth of these neighbourhoods became apparent to us, while we were preparing our ‘Penha-case’ in 2010. At the end of that year we had a conversation with well-known aid worker Nanko van Buuren who strongly believed in unconventional empowerment of inhabitants in Favelas like Penha . We discussed the former events in the Favelas with him and in particular, the problems related to the governments ruthless top down preparation for the FIFA world cup in 2014. Nanko explained us the events when military tried to take over Penha in a violent way. Obviously local interests were not covered in Rio’s urban policies and schemes. From that moment we were convinced of the necessity of citizen´s empowerment and the need of incremental urban planning, reflected ever since in series of our cases and projects . Four of these cases and projects are introduced briefly. They mainly consist out of post-war housing neighbourhoods (inspired by e.g. Vanstiphout, 2010). Aarhus (Denmark) ‘Gellerupparken’ in the city of Aarhus is a problematic neighbourhood from the seventies. Like similar neighbourhoods in Copenhagen (e.g. Vaerebro in Herlev) it is considered as a negative showcase. Favas. net assessed alignments of a proposed tramway
from the city to Gellerup (with Midttrafik, Letbanesekretariatet, March 2011, in cooperation with Lightrail.nl). Particularly we addressed the question how to optimize the accessibility of future tram users’ in the Gellerup area. The case Gellerup reveals potential of rail-based public transport to enhance problematic neighbourhoods socially and economically without masterplanning (though one need a plan for a tramway). However, the effect of a tramway as local condition for social and economic improvement highly depends on many external aspects like the availability of jobs in the urban area at stake. But also from internal features, notably the way the tram improves local accessibility and regional connectivity (e.g. fast and reliable connections with job centres in the city and around). Moreover, we concluded that it is challenging to really involve residents and local stakeholders in the top-down infrastructure planning. Ghent (Belgium) Many neighbourhoods in Belgian cities face severe social problems. Not as harsh as, for instance some areas in Brussels (e.g. Molenhoek), the neighbourhood ‘Nieuw Gent’, which was built in the seventies and eighties, has been subject of municipal investigation for many years. Favas.net explored the urban and socio-geographic features of the high-rise housing in this area (assigned by the City of Ghent, 2013, in co-operation with Brainville). We proposed to map the life style and living culture of inhabitants systematically (inspired by Saunders, 2011), and generally attitudes and views of all stakeholders, particularly of local entrepreneurs. Then we advised to use all mapped information and knowledge to empower the residents. For example, by offering them temporary semi-public space for meetings and gardening in between the blocks of the high-rise buildings. Eventually all our design proposals were fully inquiry based and ready to condition future, yet unknown opportunities for empowerment. Rotterdam (Netherlands) Above average problematic pre- and post-war neighbourhoods in ‘RotterdamZuid’, a large precinct on the left bank of Rotterdam’s Maas river, are widespread. Recently Favas.net got involved in a large year 22, number 52 - April 2016
Aarhus, Gellerupparken, Favas.net, March 30, 2011
3 year programme (2016-2018) that aims on improving Rotterdam-Zuid’s social fabric. (first phase, in co-operation with Drift, Fietsersbond, Hogeschool Rotterdam and the City of Rotterdam). Instead of considering master planning or establishing largescale social programmes we will try to boost small scale initiatives to tackle transport poverty, which is one of the most serious problems in this precinct. We presume that pragmatic enhancements of cycling culture and cycling practice could seriously contribute to the creation of favourable conditions for empowerment. Grigny (France) The French neighbourhoods of the sixties are notorious. Urban planning failed (e.g. Epstein, 2016). Grigny in the southeast of Paris metropolis serves as one of our prime reference projects. Our case here is the neighbourhood ‘La Grande Borne’. Favas. net started a research project to improve the social fabric of this neighbourhood (first phase, 2016, in co-operation with magazine Blauwe Kamer). Complementary to the official urban blueprint plan we want to invent an alternative approach that includes local interest, culture and knowledge and offers residents opportunities to develop themselves socially and economically.
Sources  December 10, 2010, Juliette van der Meijden and Rob van der Bijl. Sadly, Nanco van Buuren died February 15, 2015 in a hospital in Rio de Janeiro.  Since 2010 a series of cases and projects worldwide were powered by Favas.net: Aarhus (Denmark, 2011), Amsterdam (Netherlands, 2010-2014), Aruba (2010), Bogotá (Colombia, 2015), Curaçao (2010), Fukuoka (Japan, 2010-2013), Ghent (Belgium, 2013), Jerusalem (Israel, 2010), Hong Kong (2011), Paris-Grigny (France, 2016), Rotterdam (Netherlands, 2016), Taipei & Kaohsiung (Taiwan, 2015-2016), Tel Aviv / Bat Yam (Israel, 2010), The Hague (Netherlands, 2012-2013), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil, 2010). References Renaud Epstein, Le ‘problème des banlieues’ après la désillusion de la renovation. Metropolitiques, le 18/01/2016 Doug Saunders, Arrival city. Cornerstone, 2011. Wouter Vanstiphout, De rol van stedenbouw, architectuur en stadsbestuur in de rellen in de Franse voorsteden van 2005. De architect heeft het gedaan! Crimsonweb, 2010. Contact & Information www.favas.net
Dr.ir. Rob van der Bijl & Renée van der Bijl MSc.
GRADUATION PROJECT Re-use of the former NBDS railway |Cycling| as a strategic and spatial design in medium size region of Brabant
The former Noord-Brabants-Duitse-Spoorlijn (NBDS) runs through several medium size cities in the network of East-Brabant and lost its original function over time. It was founded in 1873 and much of the rail-track and other heritage from it is however, still present.
Both the situation of this heritage and mobility questions made the consideration of re-use a multi-disciplinary research. Using explorative scenarios results for the re-use as a bicycle highway as a new suitable and sustainable successor to the former railway.
The same region this line runs through can be considered as a medium size city-region where the cities Uden Veghel, Boxtel Schijndel and Gennep are located on this former line. These cities are clearly different from the bigger cities as Eindhoven and s’Hertogenbosch. The medium size city network evolved mainly from local historic industrial developments. What is the role of these cities and how can the re-use of this former NBDS railway form a spatial and strategic improvement for this region and the medium size city itself.
The distance between places on the former line, together with the network of the medium size city fit the potential cycling distance improvement. The original connection between the places due to the former NBDS line as a backbone for the medium size city of Veghel, Uden, Boxtel, Schijndel, Gennep could be restored. Moreover, the heritage and the experience of the variety and diversity within the surrounding landscape are bearers of the experience of this route.
First, it was not allowed to do anything other with this line than considering the re-use of it by trains for transport. However, after several debates between the provinces, municipality’s and train and transport associations, the re-use of the line as a traditional train railway wasn’t approved. This leads to more spatial opportunities that suit the current demands in mobility and the society. The presence and visibility of the line in the urban and rural landscape makes it an interesting object from historical objective. Secondly, actors and residents underpin the importance of the former line as a historical collective value.
The new typology of ‘high speed cycling’ gives people the opportunity to travel fast, flexible and individually between places. However, with the existing cycling routes, this new typology demands a safer and straighter route. The combination of these variables makes the concept self-evident as it logically fits each other. The scale and distance of the network in the medium size city structure suits the average distance that could be practicable increased with high speed cycling. The parallel growth in sales of e-bikes makes another argument to construct an infrastructural network that answers society’s demands.
Analyses of the historical remainingâ€™s and different landscapes represent the variety of the cycling route. As a backbone, the user can easily travel in two speeds differentiated lanes towards other connections in the cycling network of the region. The former railway is already positioned with a minimum of interruptions which makes the execution of the cycling lane much more feasible. Other locations with a comparable straight cycling lane face generally considerably more obstacles and barriers. It is easy to re-use this already linear element in the landscape in a function that demands the same linearity. In addition to travel-time and distance improvement, secondary benefits and opportunities arise with the arrival of a high-end cycling connection between the medium size cities.
different representative locations. These 6 locations are elaborated to give a clear impression on the potential of the former railway as a cycling route. Examples of the locations are: recreational nature areas and the former station area that will be developed as a station park for residents. Important for cyclist and this typology is the presence of facilitating services such as; bike-repair, charge-locations and safe spots to meet and repose to ensure comfortable use. Cycling as a catalyst and improvement of the collaboration and functional backbone of a bicycle highway will serve as a spatial and strategic intervention with preservation of heritage in the medium size region of Brabant. Marc Houben
Over time the local economy, recreation as well as the possible catalytic effect on the un-used spaces near the rail track will improve with the bicycle highway. Spatial developments on several locations on the line are inseparable connected with the project and the potential of it. To receive a good image of this development a categorization is made. The categorization is based on typologies that represent the former railway in pieces. In addition, speed difference and landscape types are incorporated. All these preconditions formulate 6
year 22, number 52 - April 2016
SPACE ODDITY Ground Control to Major Tom The Netherlands has a strict planning culture. Our ‘Ground Control’ explored the new boundaries in the beginning of the 21st century. Energy is from great importance in the political agendas. Fossil energy creates much of the geopolitical tension. The traditional fuels run out and ultimately they accelerate the global warming. An obvious result is to search for local and sustainable solutions now. The required energy transition will have a worldwide impact on cities and the rural areas. It is one of the most important transitions within the 21st century, so we have to explore a new unknown space; the fossil free city. Put on your helmet With the energy transition a large horizon is at stake, the walls, the streets, the moorlands, the city borders and the landscape of the city. Each of them forms a potential location to collect or save sustainable energy. It is important that urban designers in the Netherlands embrace this challenge and accommodate the images and plans of the finity of fossil fuels. A theme about energy in this magazine is therefore very appropriate. Commencing countdown Ten. What can we do? In the first place we can take measures to reduce energy consumption. We can construct in a different way, we should move more frugal and we should adapt our behavior. Nine. Which alternative energy sources can we implement? In the future we will not extract energy intensively underground anymore, but we are going to produce and store extensive forms of energy above ground. Eight. What is our strategy? In our busy country there already exist many different spatial claims. Green energy may not be a big competition to other interests such as food production, nature values and landscape experience. The strategy is to avoid a mono-functional approach. Seven. Does energy transition has to search for an added value? Energy transition will have to make ligatures with other urban assignments. It has to participate in projects where other goals will also be part of the agenda. Energy transition will only be really interesting if you can link it to other spatial assignments.
Six. But where and with what can we link it? Many assignments have an energy component. Even if it is not that obvious.
Five. Where will the urban design students work on? In the past few years students have worked on the master project ‘Urban Energy’. The focus of the project was not only on the built environment, but also on the larger scale of the landscape and the regional assignment. Four. At the moment they are working on the project Landscape 2070. In February 2016 a group of students started with this project. The students work on a long-term vision to give a sustainable form to the urban landscape between Helmond and Eindhoven. These students are searching for a combined developing direction for the region Eindhoven. Three. What assignments can be applied? The region wants to invest in the quality of life by offering regional knowledge workers a green and peaceful residential environment. Brainport Eindhoven wants, where possible, to take physical measurements to strengthen the spatial structure of this Brainport. The Brainport does not necessarily need a new railway or roads. It is not on their agenda at the moment. The main focus lies in the international competitive living landscapes. Two. Has this anything to do with energy? Definitely! We are able to connect the question for a greener residential environment with the ambition of a fossil free Eindhoven. We can entangle the economic perspective with the energy perspective. One. Left off: How to make it specific? In the Dutch energy transition, besides solar and wind energy, geothermal energy and the use of industrial residual heat; the availability of biomass also plays an important role. This biomass provides energy and a green environment. Look at the example of Suppervillage Eindhoven from 2009. Energy plants are connected with agriculture, living and recreation. They can be designed in divergent settings and function combinations. It is a challenge for the designers to come up with new inspiring and functional designs. Now it is time to leave the capsule It would be incredible to see the former city of lights transform into a sparkling arcadia of biomass. The beta worker who voluntarily retreats in a green quarantine and acquires inspiration for an energy efficient 21st century. “Planet Earth is blue. There’s a lot we can do.” ing. Hans Snijders
Sponsors VIA Stedebouw
Partners VIA Stedebouw Architectuurcentrum Eindhoven Gemeente Eindhoven Eindhovense School.net Motta Kunstboekhandel BNSP NAi year 22, number 52 - April 2016