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VIAVIA VIA

CONTOURS OF A NEW DECADE

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Y E A R 2 8

News

from

the

Past

Activity

in

your

Holliday

Greetings

from

Luxembourg

New Board Reversal of Ideology Back to Basic Exteme Designing Digging the Future Circular

Energy

Boeiende

Binnenstad

Urban

Corona

VIA

Abroad

in

Macau

viaVIA is published by the study-association VIA Urbanism, at Eindhoven University of Technology


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EDITORIAL Dear reader, Welcome to this 61th edition of the viaVIA. It is good to see that it found you. Whether you are reading this from the safety of your own home (which I recommend highly during these times of the pandemic), at your office, in some form of public transport or even another place, I hope you are in good health. What strange times these are. However, it is not the first time a viaVIA edition was published during COVID-19. As a commission we adjusted accordingly even though meetings and writing would be much more fun in real life. Luckily, we live in times where digital platforms have proven to work greatly and therefore I would like to proudly present the 61th edition. of the viaVIA to you! A magazine published by the master-association of Urbanism at Eindhoven University of Technology. Within this edition several of our sponsors will tell you something about the projects they have been working on, the new board of Via Urbanism will present themselves to you and tell you something about who they are. We will dive into some news of the past and give you some tips on how to get away in our own country. As usual we will have the via abroad and greetings from section where two students will tell you about their time from home during these times. Later on we will find the theme section with articles regarding topics such as ‘how to grow a city’ and ‘back to basic’, later on we find challenges and a mining city. Even a guest-writer can be found in the theme-section, namely Hajo Schilderpoort who will tell us a bit about circulair energy. Finally the theme section ends with an interview with Victor Wijdeveld. This year’s project winner, Simone Tax, will write about her project as a sequel on the latest edition of the viaVIA. Then, the masterproject of Guy van der Wilt can be found, followed by the graduation project of Jolien Hermans. Finally Sara Siegel will write to you about the consequences of a pandemic on urban level in the column. Enjoy this November-edition of the viaVIA! Miriam Pouwels On behalf of the commission of viaVIA Commissioner of the viaVIA 2019-2020

Year 25, number 58 - April 2019

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Station area | Assen

Jeroen de Willigen | Creative Director & Partner “This transport hub strengthens Assen’s position as centre of the region. The new station createsa striking and welcoming arrival and recovers lost links between the city’s east and west side” Looking for an inspiring working environment? Contact us at jobs@dezwartehond.nl


CONTENTS Colofon ViaVIA, published by study association VIA Urbanism,TU/e

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De Zwarte Hond

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Buro Lubbers

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New Board News from the Past Activity in your Holliday Greetings from Luxembourg VIA Abroad Macau

year 28 number 61 Eindhoven, November 2020 viaVIA is published by: viaVIA-committee VIA Urbanism Den Dolech 2 (Vertigo 02)

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E-mail: via@bwk.tue.nl www.viaurbanism.nl facebook.com/viaurbanism Editors Miriam Pouwels (editor-in-chief) Maarten Kamp Leander Krijnen

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Lena Blommers Hongao Leng Guest Editors

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Contours of a new decade

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Reversal of Ideology Article: Leander Krijnen Back to Basic Article: Miriam Pouwels Extreme Designing Article: Lena Blommert Digging the Future Article: Maarten Kamp Circular Energy Article: Hajo Schilderpoort Interview Boeiende Binnenstad With Victor Wijdeveld

de Zwarte Hond Emilia Bonnoit Esmee Moonen Giordana Credendino Guy van der Wildt Hajo Schilderpoort Hassan Javed Jolien Hermans

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Sara Siegel Simone Tax Stefan Dermaux Tiffanny Lin Victor Wijdeveld Printing DrukwerkMAX (Zoetermeer)

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ISSN 1385-7045 Picture on cover:

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Source: Unsplash

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Theme picture:

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Personal picture by Miriam Pouwels Source: Private Collection Reference: Toekomstvoorspellingen uit 1900. (2017, September 15). Retrieved from https:// isgeschiedenis.nl/nieuws/toekomstvoorspellingen-uit-1900

Winning Project

Sunset, Melbourne by Hendo Wang

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A follow-up article from Simone Tax

Master Project Guy van der Wildt Graduation Project Jolien Hermans Urban Corona

Column: Sara Siegel


TRANSFORMATION OF THE RODEWEESHUISSTRAAT De Zwarte Hond, together with real estate developers MWPO and Beauvast, transforms Rode Weeshuisstraat from a dark back street in the heart of Groningen into a lively part of the inner city. The repurposing of the former V&D building and its distribution warehouse, and the construction of the Mercado market and housing complex will breathe new life into the public domain. The project demonstrates De Zwarte Hond’s expertise in combining and integrating the strengths of architecture and urban design to improve the (inner) city. Figure 2: the Former V&D department store will be transformed into a multi-tenant building with retail, offices, a restaurant with roof terrace and a large bicycle park in the basement

Figure1: Structure within the city

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The northern section of the Grote Markt, Groningen’s main city square, was destroyed in the Second World War. During the post-war reconstruction of the 1950s, large buildings were erected here which radiated the optimism of the era. In one of these, Vroom & Dreesmann (V&D) opened a modern


five-storey department store. Over the years, V&D expanded into a complex of different buildings, with Rode Weeshuisstraat primarily functioning as a supply street. The bankruptcy of the department store chain marked the end of a golden era for the company, but the closing of large department stores in old city centres is not an isolated trend. “Cities are changing,” says Henk Stadens, architect and partner at De Zwarte Hond. “Whereas city centres were previously dominated by cars and department stores, we now see the focus shifting towards experience and quality with, for example, attractive pedestrian areas, local products and specialty shops.” Rode Weeshuisstraat offers many starting points for this development, with the changing function of buildings and storage spaces into places with activity. “The street has so much potential and it’s a shame to not fully utilise it for the city. If it is up to us, Rode Weeshuisstraat will become a happening new hotspot.” Kristiaan Capelle, Director of MWPO adds: “It is fantastic that we can have this mix of functions in a forgotten part of the city; this works to enliven the city centre.”

Figure 3 & 4: Designed by the architectural consortium De Zwarte Hond and Loer Architecten, Mercado features a covered market on the ground floor with luxury apartments above.The new building has a smaller footprint than the current block, thus creating space for the new Stalplein

Whereas the city centre previously ended at the north section, the area will now open up and form a new link between different routes in the city. De Zwarte Hond is currently working on two transformation projects and one new building: Het Groot Handelshuis (MWPO), The Warehouse and Mercado (both MWPO & Beauvast). At the same time, the municipality is renewing the pavement in the city centre and creating more space for cyclists and pedestrians. Together, the different projects will ensure a revitalisation of the public space. De Zwarte Hond

Figure 5: the former V&D distribution centre has been repurposed with a new mixed-use function. The design celebrates the characteristic elements of post-war architecture, giving it a new life Year 28, number 61 - November 2020

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THE GREEN URBAN FUTURE Cities are changing fast. The world is rapidly urbanizing and in the next ten years, city growth will be a major topic in urbanism. 2007 was a special year, since for the first time in history, more people lived in urban centers than in rural areas. In the upcoming years, more and more people will move to cities (Ritchie and Roser, 2018). As a result, cities become densely populated. As you probably are a student from Eindhoven, these changes have to be familiar to you. Eindhoven’s skyline is being filled with high rise buildings at a high pace. The benefits of urbanization are recognized by most people. Short trade links, shared infrastructure, better social integration and high economic activity are just the tip of the iceberg of advantages. People love living in cities since in general, living standards are higher compared to a life in the countryside. But be careful! The environmental downsides of urbanisation, even in a well-developed country like the Netherlands, should not be underestimated.

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Air pollution resulting from both industry, and exhaust gasses from cars concentrates in cities. Flooding resulting from heavy rainfall occurs in most Dutch cities due to the huge amount of paved surfaces. The lack of biodiversity – occurring everywhere but particularly in cities – forms a huge threat to a healthy living environment. Also heat stress due to the absorption of the solar energy by the concrete jungle of buildings is more and more recognized as a problem. At Buro Lubbers, we believe the environmental downsides of urbanisation can all be prevented when designing cities in the correct way. The most important tool? The one thing often seen as opposed to urbanisation: nature. Greenery is able to resolve all disadvantages described above. Plants and trees are able to reduce the amount of particulate matter in the air. They absorb water by creating a water buffer; They attract insects and other animals, contributing


to biodiversity. On top of that, they function as a heat absorber reducing the temperature in cities. A well-balanced mix of nature with cities results in sustainability. An interesting thing is that a mix of greenery with cities comes into existence by itself without the intervention of people. Houtouwan, an abandoned Chinese village, shows how quickly nature enters the built environment with the absence of humans. The once thriving fishing village is now only visited by tourists as the mix of nature and buildings forms a beautiful environment. Of course, nature in cities cannot be left unmaintained as it would cause chaotic and unfunctional sites. But, the example shows how self-evident and beautiful greenery in cities should be. What does greenery mean for our design strategy? It means to start the design process with nature, and fit in the rest of the program later. Space for flora and fauna always forms the base of the design. The conservative way of designing cities where fitting in greenery at the end of the design process belongs to the past, and the next ten years will focus on the opposite order of designing where nature comes first.

Celsius, Eindhoven

Also in the designs for the roof parks on the previous factories Anton and Gerard in Strijp S, greenery is maximized. In this case, greenery was implemented in an existing situation, having buildings which form industrial heritage, giving limited freedom to design. At a height of 32 meters on a roof having weight restrictions, a dense forest of birch trees and a park of plants attracting butterflies, bees and birds are created.The parks are great places to reside and have spectacular views on Eindhoven. The roofs function as water storage, air pollution filter, heat absorber and contribute to biodiversity.

This is for example shown by the design for the neighbourhood Celsius in Woensel-West, where greenery is maximized. In the area existing of social housing, bringing in limited budget, a colourful impression is created by implementing bright coloured buildings and greenery with different flowering periods throughout the year. Every square meter of public space not being used as calamity route or not having subsurface infrastructure is occupied by greenery. All facades next to public space are overgrown by climbing plants, including firebreaks and alleys.The greenery forms an important instrument in order to make the neighbourhood climate resistant. Anton, Eindhoven

Even in the most dense parts of cities where the implementation of nature seems to be beyond the bounds of possibilities, we show that greenery can be implemented contributing to a healthier living environment. The urban future will be green! Stefan Dermaux Buro Lubbers

Year 28, number 61 - November 2020

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NEW BOARD Giordana Credendino Nice to meet you, reader of viaVIA! This academic year you will get to know me as chairwoman of VIA Urbanism as well as its co-commissioner of activities! I look forward to the final year of my Bachelor’s working closely (metaphorically) with the faculty and its students! Also, I am very excited to be a part of YOUR journey as a member of VIA, thank you for supporting us and for sharing our passion for Urbanism! During my time as chair I wish to inspire this amazing community to be curious and enthusiastic, to share knowledge and be open to learning. My goal is to help you create a safe, organized and fun environment where you can easily connect with the working field as well as share your views on urban topics. I hope to see and get to know all of you eventually, at a lunch lecture, coffee break, through a screen or simply walking by Vertigo! Until then, enjoy this 61st edition of our magazine!

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Esmee Moonen I too, am very excited to be a member of the new board. This year I will be the new secretary and commissioner of media of VIA Urbanism. Having finished my Bachelor’s degree here in Eindhoven, I am currently in the second year of my Master’s degree, the combined register track AUDE for Architects and Urbanists. Besides studying, I want to broaden my view and gain work experience. Since September 2019 I have been working as an intern at MR. STIR architect + planner. When the opportunity of becoming a board member for VIA Urbanism came up, I saw new chances to strengthen my relations with the professional field, professors and students. Furthermore, these positions allow me to develop my skills in planning, communication and teamwork. During the coming year, I hope to make positive contributions to the association. Despite the challenges that COVID-19 brings, let’s make it together a fantastic year with events that inspire us and strengthen our relations!


Leander Krijnen My interest in architecture and urbanism has been with me for a long time, and I already knew that I wanted to pursue the path of becoming involved in urban development during high school. This started with applying for the study Architecture, Urbanism and Real Estate at this faculty three years ago, which confirmed my assumption that this was the right choice for me. In my second year I joined the viaVIA magazine committee as a fun addition to my study activities. I am still a member of this committee to this day. During the final year of my Bachelor’s, I was asked to become a member of the new VIA board. The reason for finally making the decision to join was twofold; On the one hand I was already looking for a new experience, and on the other hand I wanted to really challenge myself for once. I think this year will teach me a lot of things that will help me achieve my goals in the future, and I am looking forward to this experience.

the new field is important. Therefore, I have decided to change my focus from architecture to urbanism this year. Hopefully I can figure out which track(s) to follow in the Master’s. On the one hand, together with my upcoming TA position, I see joining in VIA urbanism as a good opportunity to get deeper insights into education of urbanism at Master’s or higher level as well as relevant cutting-edge theories and practices. On the other hand, liaising between students and professors and cooperating with members and other associations require a high level of communication and organization skills. I think the experience as a board member will help me to improve these skills and foster a more solid foundation for both future study and career. I am looking forward to this new journey together with you wonderful people and let’s enjoy it!

Hassan Javed This year I will be the new commissioner of the study trip and activities. When I started my Bachelor’s at TU/e my focus was on Architecture track and I would have never imagined joining a study association focused on Urbanism. But here I am, not only joining the association but also becoming a board member. My interest in urbanism grew after taking part in a few activities organized by VIA Urbanism and I decided to take a few electives from Urbanism track. I’m still on the Architecture track but I find the knowledge gained by urbanism electives and activities organized by VIA very important. This year my goal is to broaden my knowledge, not only in Urbanism but also in team work. I hope to bring you guys some very exciting activities to inspire all of you the same way I was inspired and to make the most memorable study trip. See you there! Hongao Leng First of all, it is a great honor for me to be the commissioner of education and commissioner of viaVIA for the study associationVIA urbanism. I started my Bachelor’s with specialization in architecture and have always been passionate about the design process of architecture. However, after taking some courses, completing two projects related to urban planning, growth and regeneration and working as a researcher for Stanford Social Innovation Review for half of a year, I found I was particularly interested in the multidisciplinary nature of urbanism and tackling complex problems for public interests from broad perspectives. As a student, never to stop exploring Year 28, number 61 - November 2020

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NEWS FROM THE PAST An urban centre is not just a location but is also defined by the users, creating an experience.The past predictions of urban centres focused on designing and developing cities with maximum human experience, environmentally friendly, and inhabitable. Ronald Barthe, for instance, noted that a city is a discourse and a language where the city speaks to people by inhabiting, traversing, and looking at it. The prediction of future urbanism relies on the experience of the inhabitants rather than just living and staying in the city. Plug-in City by Peter Cook and Arcology: The city in the Image of Man by Paolo Soleri provided an overview of how future urban centres were supposed to look like and the critical factors that to be considered like technological, social, and physical factors that could be incorporated in the urban centres.The two, in this case, provided concepts that could help to design a city that is capable of creating discourse and maximize the human experience. The idea has been that inspiration and experience should not come from erected buildings or constructed structures but through the general perspectives like technology and the environment provided by the city. The respect for nature is one of Paolo Soleri’s views. He proposed an urban design that upholds environmental sustainability, enhancing ecological balance where the energy of man is not redirected against man or manhood.

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This concept possesses futuristic urbanism that incorporates both future technology and past elements. This perspective imagines an urban environment that is both new as well as anachronistic. One of the key proposals was to develop urban centres that have aesthetic values and support sustainable values. In this case, actual urban functions were not supposed to derail for the reasons for urbanization and create artificial ugliness. As a result, the predicted city had to focus on nature, urban aesthetics, and technological changes among others. Planning urban landscape was meant to include a physical environment that adapts to human needs. For instance, China started designing urban green centres that reflected the desire of people and the sustainability of the environment. China was influenced by the Western and Soviet countries to come up with the green space framework as part of the revolution that helps in achieving the goals of urbanization rather than focusing on the construction of good looking buildings. Technology would play an important role in ensuring that the cities were adaptable to changes in the environment. This builds on the notion of protecting the environment and including traditions and ancient technologies. The concept of the plug-in city by Peter Cook also provided a new look of cities that do not concentrate on the infrastructural perspectives


of the city. The plan was a fantasy city with a mega-machine that could adapt effectively to the needs of the people. This concept involved a megastructure that includes transportation and essential services that are movable by cranes. Similarly, it also focused on social collective living. The retro-futurism of creative structures and artistic processes that could bring good experience to the residents in the city. The retro-futurism of urban centres in this regard focused on technology, social life, and the culture to build futuristic and habitable cities with undoubted experience. The approach of retro-futurism cities in this age to represent Cook and Soleri’s views and concepts take the approach of simulations to help figure out the technological, social, and environmental concepts of urban centres. Most urban centres have not achieved the desires and therefore simulations among other perspectives are being used to depict the sustainability, habitability, and physical look of urban centres as was predicted in the past.The futuristic ideologies of cities also appear in films such as Avatar and The Hunger Game, the endless Marvel Comics spin-offs that provide science fictions that predict the futures of urban centres. As a result, the past prediction of future urbanism has not represented the predictions but focused more on industrialization and the construction of tall buildings to face the challenges.

Year 28, number 61 - November 2020

Peter Cook and Paolo Soleri predicted future urban centres that have not been achieved to date. While Cook focused on mobile or moving cities that are able to use human needs, experience, and technology, Soleri focused on the sustainability of urban centres. However, cities have not achieved plug-in city as well as Arcology but instead focused more on the construction of structures and production that leads to physical aesthetics and actual transportation. However, it leaves out the moving aspect and environmental sustainability. Currently, movies, animations, and video games act as reminders to the retrofuturism of urbanism and continue to predict future urban designs. As a result, more designs still come up as urbanists continue to design, act, and animate while the previous remain unachieved. Hongao Leng

Sources: Chen, C. (2013). Planning urban nature: urban green space planning in post-1949 China: Beijing as a representative case study (Doctoral dissertation, Lincoln University). Cook, P. (1972). Plug-In Archigram.

City,

Beville, M., Stephan, M., & Sencindiver, S. Y. (2019). Otherness and the Urban. Esser, H. (2019). Uncanny Retrofuturism and Urban Otherness Victorian London as Steampunk Cyber-City. Otherness and the Urban, 143. García, M. S. (2020). Urban archetypes applied to the study of cities in historic contemporary fictions. Symbolic urban structures in Age of Empires III and Bioshock Infinite. Culture & History Digital Journal, 9(1), 006. Pegoraro, É. (2013). Steampunk in Brazil: Visuality and Sociability in an Urban Retro-futuristic Culture. International Journal of Communication, 7, 1852-63. Sian, S. A., & Lucas, T. (2018). Implementation of Retro-Futurism Style in Architectural Building Design for 3D Animation. Trends in Undergraduate Research, 1(1), d1-8. Soleri, P. (1967). ‘Arcology: The city in the image of man’ by Paolo Soleri (Complete book). Retrieved from https://www. organism.earth/library/document/ arcology White, D. (2015). Critical design and the critical social sciences. Picture: MOMA.Retrieved October 26-2020. h t t p s : / / w w w. m o m a . o r g / collection/works/796 Benjamin Grandy, Nov20, 2018. Retrieved from https:// medium.com/@bpgrandy/ i n c re a s i n g - o u r- d e n s i t y - a rc o l o g y - p r i n c i p l e s - f o r- a - s u s t a i n able-future-ac8506ee1563

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TIPS FOR YOUR STAYCATION Due to corona, many of us stayed at home during the holidays. The so-called “staycation”-term has now been used more than ever. Besides minimizing the spread of the virus, staycation also benefits us in diferent ways! What immediately comes to mind when thinking about other benefits of a staycation, are of course the ecological perks.A staycation means no flying is involved, which results in a beneficial outcome for our climate. According to several studies, flying accounts for up to 75% of the world‘s tourism-related greenhouse gas emissions. A holiday by airplane causes 7 to 11 times more pollution than the same trip by train! So next time, when planning a new trip. Try to look for alternatives instead of choosing a short flight!

promote the local economy, win-win for everyone! Convinced about the benefits, but do not have any inspiration for what exactly you can do? We are here to help you out! Make • A bucket list for your future road trips • A holiday playlist • A photo album from your previous vacation • A bucket list for “things that I always wanted to do” Online • Go on a museum tour • Go on a virtual train tour • Listin to a concert • Watch a broadway show

Furthermore, tourism often puts a strain on water resources. It can force the local population to compete for the use of some very critical resources, whereas Eat or drink tourists mostly are not even aware of this problem. • Tapas from all over the world Besides water resources being endangered, it’s been • Try to be vegetarian for a week proven that when people are abroad, they fail to grasp • Order exotic food local waste habits. This can therefore result in more • International cocktails waste being produced and less recycling taking place. To Do Besides the ecological advantages of a staycation, this • An indoor spa/wellness day type of holiday also has some economic advantages, • Camping in your own garden for you and for the economy. A staycation even has • House or room swap with friends financial benefits for not only you, but also your home- • Watch the stars in a local park country! Taking a stroll on a local market, going to the farm to pick some fruit and vegetables are some examples you as an individual could benefit from, as Lena Blomert well as the local economy! Furthermore, staying at home does not need to be predictable! Look for new things, like taking part in seasonal sports or try out an artistic course or even just staying the night in an interesting hotel nearby.You broaden your scope and

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GREETINGS FROM MACAU

My name is Tiffany and I was a Bachelor’s student of Architecture, Urbanism and Building science in TU/e. From September 2017 to July 2020 I studied and lived in the Netherlands. I would like to share my experiences under coronavirus measures in Eindhoven. Avian influenza or swine flu was not new to me. In Macau where I live, warnings and measures are taken almost every year; Influenza viruses are almost as seasonal as typhoons. Therefore, measures and protection to contagious flus are a part of the basic knowledge. From the first SARS virus crisis in 2003, we learned to keep our practices in order to prevent any unnecessary consequences. At the beginning of the year, Covid-19 appeared but nobody seemed to pay much attention because we wouldn’t expect it to spread all the way from the other side of the globe. In early March, the virus was no longer a story but a fact alerting the whole of Europe. My instinct kicked in immediately and I prepared a lot of masks in order to ease my worries. I might be considered as too sensitive, but as an international student in an unfamiliar environment it is necessary to be cautious and adaptive to different situations, especially when knowing the worst scenarios might be one of the biggest potential threats to individual and public health. I personally struggled when in public because we cannot fully see each other’s face and read each other’s expressions.Therefore I sometimes felt that I needed to be a bit more expressive with my eyes and voice tone in order to convey a clearer message.

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The biggest challenge for me as a student was the online transition of all educational activities. Even more so because of the short time in which it happened. Although there were usually some supplemental resources provided by the courses, it was still uneasy to adapt. I was uneasy with applying this new style of learning and preparing. Studying from home became compulsory and the livestream format was not fully developed. Both academics and students may have felt the lack of training needed for quality online education. In team projects, a lot of students encountered difficulties with studying online, considering many students might be experiencing feelings of isolation caused by a lack of face-to-face interaction and social experience. However, I would still like to thank the university for their best efforts to guide teachers and provide students with detailed and updated information to help tackle the current situation from time to time. A problem that concerned me was the local public response to the pandemic. I noticed that the majority of people in Eindhoven were reluctant to wear face coverings. At first, social distancing was not mandatory. Therefore I felt rather awkward and frustrated when trying to follow the safety guidelines in public. In general I perceive people here as less willing to comply with guidelines than the people in Macau, but I hope that everyone can realize that their decision can cause a very striking influence to the Netherlands on recovering and returning to prosperity. Tiffany Lin


VIA ABROAD LUXEMBOURG As the COVID-19 pandemic grew, all of us had to reshuffle their plans, and most of us had to reorganize their travels, including academic exchanges abroad. In my case, I had to abruptly leave my home in Eindhoven for the sake of being locked down with my family, in the little Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. So this is what my corona “studying abroad” over the past two months has looked like… When we arrived, a little like everywhere, the tension was everywhere, you could almost touch it. Everyone was realizing that something completely unknown, yet very big was happening: no one on the streets, the blinds of all stores closed, occasional pedestrians walking not 1.5 but 5m apart from each other – the sight was gloomy, to say the least. Nevertheless, me and my family members did our best to stay calm, and established a rhythm for the foreseeable long weeks to come. We talked through our lunch and dinner times, we all claimed a working spot in the house, we planned shifts for cooking and for weekly grocery shopping. Obviously, with all the usual distractions gone, I spent a lot more time studying. In the meantime, that made me realize how important it is to have physical activities, and some form of social contact. That motivated me to go running at least once every two days in the neighboring forest, as well as trying to call my friends as often as possible. Also, CHEOPS and other student associations have made their best to organize many online meet-ups, so there certainly was no way for me to feel lonely.

Since Luxembourg is such a small country, no matter the first deconfinement measures, the fact that neighbouring countries closed their borders could really be felt. Some cities just behind the border in Belgium, or France, or Germany are only 30 to 50km away, and most people, including my family, take the option to go there for granted. Obviously, this was not the case any longer. There are a lot of people living in one country and coming to work in Luxembourg – and that process became very difficult for them. Similarly, we as a family, could not go to our second residence in Belgium for the same reasons, and I had no way to come back to my home in the Netherlands because of it. Not knowing when I was going to be able to come home brought quite some worries on top of the rest. Luckily enough, after 2 months, the measures became less strict (both officially, and non-officially), which allowed me to take the train back to Eindhoven (through Belgium), where my amazing roommates and most of my friends were. The relief of coming back made me understand where my life and my home are: here, in Eindhoven. Emilia Bonnoit

As all of us were expecting the peak of new Corona cases, some things got rough: public parks were closed, and the stores were quite empty. On the other hand, solidarity grew along with Covid: with the first sunny days, people started to lift the vibe up by playing music loudly so that it could be heard from the street, and people would dance and sing along to it. Also, a national scale “thank you” to the medical staff was organized: everyone cheered at 17:00 on a Friday evening from their balconies. And then, slowly but surely, the first deconfinement measures were announced, and that had a drastic effect on the vibe in the city! All of a sudden, people were all outside, laughing, and enjoying life from 1.5m distance, sharing the positive prospect of summer.

Year 25, Year 28, number number58 61- - May November 2019 2020

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CONTOURS OF A NEW DECADE Have you ever wondered what the future will be like? Where you would live, what you would do for a living and with whom you would live? If you answer yes to this question, I know for sure that you are not the only one to do so. For example, there is a famous movie called ‘Back to the future’ where they thought everyone would use a flying board to transport themselves by now. Furthermore, in 1900, an engineer named John Elfreth Watkins made a list of predictions for the coming century; He predicted tanks, photography and telephones which all became true as we know it nowadays. He also made the prediction of strawberries the size of an apple, unfortunately that didn’t come true (1).

In this theme section we will dive deeper in the topic of the future, what it will bring and how it can be anticipated accordingly. Since there is no future without a past we will also look at some progressive solutions from the past. I hope these articles may inspire you and make you enthousiastic to see what the future holds! Miriam Pouwels


REVERSAL OF IDEOLOGY During the industrial revolution, most large western cities could be described as dense, chaotic and very polluted. City renewal projects have long been around, and this era was no exception. These projects often consisted of demolishing old dilapidated neighbourhoods to replace them with big flashy new ones, displacing the original inhabitants to worse neighbourhoods. However, certain amenities that used to be considered non-crucial like greenery were introduced. Due to the growing size of urban areas, nature was lessand-less accessible for inhabitants. Some of the most famous parks date from this early era of the implementation of greenery: Central Park in New York City, Hyde Park in London and Vondelpark in Amsterdam.

Contours Tactical Urbanism of a New Decade

This changed with the implementation of social housing. In the Netherlands itself, the ‘Woningwet’, or ‘housing act’, made sure that dwellings for the less fortunate would have to abide by certain standards before being allowed to be built and rented out. This drastically increased the quality of social housing and would permanently change the urban landscape.

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These trends of both bringing green into cities and having new, better forms of housing within cities were combined into the concept of garden cities. These were first theorized by Ebenezer Howard. He described small communities that were surrounded by a green belt, within a city. At this point, green was still very scarce in cities and the idea of the movement was to incorporate idyllic rural life back into cities because they thought this would drastically improve people’s overall happiness. They proved to be right; The garden city model was implemented all over the globe over the 20th century.


After the second world war, the greenery aspect of the garden-city model was adopted by the modernist movement. Architects like Le Corbusier envisioned vast cities that consisted of towers within a parkland that were very different from the traditional city with relatively small buildings in a dense urban fabric. This evolution of the garden city proved to be less successful. In Europe especially, there was a large modernist movement after the war: Because of their grim architecture, huge scale, and industrial materials, the human element that made garden cities successful was taken out of the equation which resulted in the urban mess we can still see in the Banlieus of Paris, the post-war socialist outskirts of Moscow and the Barbican in London. Of course, modernism has brought us some astounding pieces of architecture like Mies van der Rohe’s Barcelona pavilion, Oscar Niemeyer’s works in Brasilia, and the Guggenheim museum in New York by Frank Lloyd Wright, but certain urbanism-aspects of the modernist movement have proven undesirable like the unhuman scale of buildings and cheap materials. This sparked a new movement: the Post-Modernists. Here the industrial, clean aesthetic was retired and replaced by principles of before the modernist building revolution. Instead of straight, repetitive urban landscapes, variation, swirling roads and small-scale buildings were reintroduced. In the Netherlands, this movement was first manifested in the form of ‘Bloemkoolwijken’, or Cauliflower-neighbourhoods. These were large planned neighbourhoods with a uniform, but somewhat traditional architecture. They consist of pointed roofs, brick facades and space for gardens. Despite being critisized for their chaotic layout, and now arguably outdated architecture, it did bring the human scale back, and these neighbourhoods are these days more accepted than the modernist ones from the 50’s and 60’s. The introduction of ‘woonerfen’, or ‘residential streets’, also played an important role in bringing the Year 28, number 61 - November 2020

human scale back: these neighbourhoods discouraged drivers to drive fast, and made it more convenient to walk and play on the street.

Pictures: Read, L. (n.d.). Den Haag, Netherlands [Photo]. Retrieved from https://unsplash.com/photos/ sEUXSKkROWw

In the decades that followed there was a lot of experimentation on how these neighbourhoods could be designed best. The funny thing is that the further we progressed, the nearer we got to traditional city designs. The neighbourhood of Nootdorp, the Hague, was designed as a neighbourhood center that had a lot in common with a historic Dutch town, despite being finished almost a century after the Bauhaus school was founded. Not only architecturally, but also spatially we are referring back to the historic town: Other developments in the country see a distancing from large-scale developments, and focus more on ‘Inbreiding’, or ‘Inspansion’, opposed to the traditional ‘expansion’ of cities, where brownfield developments in the urban area are encouraged due to scarce space. This infill of the urban structure densifies the city and makes the city more efficient in terms of amenity use. This does raise some questions. How can it be that we are moving back to the historic cities, while they were despised during their own time? Maybe we will never know, but it leaves space to wonder. Leander Krijnen

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Contours Tactical Urbanism of a New Decade

BACK TO BASIC

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Nowadays it is common knowledge that the earth as we know it is facing some serious climate problems. Carbon emissions are creating serious issues when not being stopped or reduced within a significant period of time. Changes related to this issue can already be found all around the globe, polar caps are losing Millenium-old ice (1), sea levels are rising (2) and endless other negative effects can be found in nature (3). As the built environment creates 28% of total emissions by the daily usage of the building (e.g. power, heat, light) (4) this article will look at unique, more energy-friendly solutions to how people can live their lives, contributing to a cleaner world while still living comfortably.

owners claim that it gives more financial freedom as well as fewer maintenance costs and lower monthly costs. Furthermore, it is easy to move and as there is less space, less property can be stored in the house resulting in a more conscious lifestyle. On the downside, it gives an extra challenge to live together with someone else in a limited space and the house can get dirty quicker as all the space is used relatively more compared to a normal-sized house. But above all, it is a great sustainable way as such a tiny house has fewer emissions and a smaller carbon footprint than the average house, on top of it, there are fewer possibilities to buy new things as there is not much room to store it (6).

The first solution that has gained more popularity over the last few years (5) is tiny housing. This housing concept provides on average a living space for two people with around twelve square meters, often with optimal use of space, creating half levels. Most of the time it is easy to move away because of the towing options given by the presence of wheels under the house. Since the house is relatively small,

Secondly, a relatively newer concept can be found on the market. After the construction of a house, no daily energy usage can be found on the monthly bills. The power, light or water bills are never too high as the second concept regards self-sufficient houses. These kinds of dwellings are fully autonomous which


means that they rely solely on their own measurements regarding heating, cooling, electricity and more. Houses like these are fully off the grid.They can be adjusted accordingly to the homeowners’ wishes, the climate and location (7). People who live in such dwellings often like the technical challenge it gives, how can everything be balanced just right? Often too much energy is produced, providing a buffer for days when it is needed the most.The complete technical installation should be seen as an investment, the purchase is quite expensive but once bought, no extra daily costs need to be paid. One risk that is included in this plan is the small chance that if something is broken one day, the house will have no electricity or water. That is why all components need to be chosen wisely, resulting in less stress and giving the dwelling a minimal carbon footprint (8). In the former concept, only a singular idea was mentioned. Of course there are also bigger examples where a complete community has an off-grid structure, providing energy for a complete set of dwellings.They can be found everywhere in the world, from the jungle in Costa Rica (9) to a floating community on the shores of Freedom Cove in Canada (9). Such forms of providing for an entire community can take the form of all different styles, forms and functions, all dependent on the way people design it.

community instead of the individual way of people that can be seen more often nowadays (10). As a result of this way of living, everyone can bring something to the table and all can be shared equally while living a very eco-friendly life. Looking at all three examples, some overlay can be found. It can often be a challenge to live like this, as the energy income can fluctuate per moment and there is not as much insurance as a “normal” house would provide. However, it proves to be very eco-friendly while it makes residents more conscious of their surroundings and the way they live. Do not be afraid to look into these varying concepts, would one of it fit you perhaps? Miriam Pouwels

Sources: Thompson, H. (2019, September 25). How climate change is already altering oceans and ice, and what’s to come. Retrieved from https:// www.sciencenews.org/article/ipcchow-climate-change-already-altering-oceans-ice-future Oppenheimer, M., B.C. Glavovic , J. Hinkel, R. van de Wal, A.K. Magnan, A. Abd-Elgawad, R. Cai, M. Cifuentes-Jara, R.M. DeConto, T. Ghosh, J. Hay, F. Isla, B. Marzeion, B. Meyssignac, and Z. Sebesvari, 2019: Sea Level Rise and Implications for Low-Lying Islands, Coasts and Communities. In: IPCC Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate [H.-O. Pörtner, D.C. Roberts,V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, M. Tignor, E. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Nicolai, A. Okem, J. Petzold, B. Rama, N.M.Weyer (eds.)]. In press. Jackson, R. (n.d.). The Effects of Climate Change. Retrieved from https://climate.nasa.gov/effects/#:%7E:text=Increased%20 heat%2C%20drought%20and%20 insect,coastal%20areas%20are%20 additional%20concerns. Budds, D. (2019, September 19). How buildings contribute to climate change. Retrieved from https://www. curbed.com/2019/9/19/20874234/ buildings-carbon-emissions-climate-change#:%7E:text=Buildings%20and%20their%20construction%20together,the%20United%20 Nations%20Environment%20Program.&text=Globally%2C%20building%20operations%20account%20 for%20about%2028%20percent%20 of%20emissions%20annually. McNulty, M. (2019, October 2). Tiny house trend: Why so many people are looking to live small. Retrieved from https://www.foxbusiness.com/ real-estate/tiny-home-phenomenathe-pros-and-cons-of-living-in-a-micro-home De voor- en nadelen van een Tiny House. (2020, April 11). Retrieved from https://tinyhouse-store.nl/ de-voor-en-nadelen-van-een-tinyhouse-2/ Asaff, S. (n.d.). Self Sufficient Homes. Retrieved from https://greenliving. lovetoknow.com/Self_Sufficient_ Homes#:%7E:text=By%20Beth%20 Asaff,cooling%2C%20electricity%2C%20and%20more. Off-grid gaan: alleen voor durvers. (2018, April 24). Retrieved from https://www.ecobouwers.be/duurzaam-bouwen/artikels/grid-gaanalleen-voor-durvers Comm, D. (2019, September 26). 5 Most Sustainable Off-grid Communities. Retrieved from https:// iconlifesaver.com/news/5-most-sustainable-off-grid-communities/?v=796834e7a283 Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. (2017, December 23). Worden we individualistischer? Retrieved from https://www.cbs.nl/nl-nl/nieuws/2017/52/worden-we-individualistischerPictures: Capyvara Alec Krivec

It proves to give more feeling for the Year 28, number 61 - November 2020

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EXTREME DESIGNING

Contours of a New Decade

Climate is changing. This has been common knowledge for a pretty long time now. However, this fact has become more noticeable even more in the last few years. More severe hurricanes, devastating droughts, extreme ice storms and exhausting heat waves are occurring because of climate change.These phenomena are claiming lives and causing immense damage. It is evident that climate change influences weather conditions everywhere in the world. Who would’ve thought a few years ago that temperatures around 32°C and nights over 25 °C for weeks would become “normal’’ in summer. These temperatures don’t allow us to recover at night. Cities don’t have the time to cool off and therefore the temperature can become unbearable, making it hard to do basic things like working and even just having a goodnight’s rest.

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The impact of climate change is clearly visible in several different aspects of our daily life. Longer periods of extreme temperatures like drought are harming flora and fauna. Besides the rising temperatures, heavy rainfall events taking weeks and the associated floods impact our living areas greatly. The ground can no longer absorb this amount of water and the gullies overflow. Especially the cities that are built near rivers, face high risks of flooding. Water is a devastating element which can destroy everything in its way. As Earth’s climate changes, the frequency, intensity and duration of these extreme weather events is expected to increase. Events like extreme temperatures, heavy rainfall and the associated floods will definitely happen

more often in the future, therefore it is necessary to design with these scenarios in mind. A city should be able to cope better with fluctuating temperatures and weather conditions in the future. But how to design for the future? According to several studies, creating suburban buffers are key to designing sustainable cities. Nowadays cities are perceived as urban heating islands, big surfaces of land, consisting mainly of concrete and similar materials. Concrete heats up very slowly, but once heated up, also cools down very slowly, which results in hot nights as well as hot days.There is no easy solution on how to cope with these future challenges all cities will be facing. However, we do know that our habits and way of designing needs to change drastically. A good starting point in this process is to investigate cities that are currently facing these extreme climates and how they deal with them. One of these cities which coped with extreme weather conditions for decades is Yakutsk, located in Russia’s Sakha Republic. The relatively warm summer in this city can have temperatures around 30 °C, whereas during winter the temperature could easily dip below -40 °C. Talking about extreme high and extreme lows, the coldest temperature in this city ever recorded was -64.4 °C! Residents do not get outside unless they really have to and crops have only a small growing period of only a few weeks. So how to build in this extreme cold? Construction-wise this means that buildings are built on concrete and steel stilts, suspending the buildings 2 meters above the ground. The reason for this is the melting top ice


layer, which results in an unstable active groundlayer. Therefore the foundations of the building are firmly deep-rooted in the permafrost below. Furthermore, extreme climates result in a rising sealevel and The Netherlands has always been innovative when it comes to building with this in mind. The floating housing at Maasbommel is a project which demonstrates flood resilient architecture. The floating houses are fastened to flexible mooring posts and rest on concrete foundations and consist of a lightweight timber construction. These posts limit the motion caused by the water while allowing houses to move upwards and float when the level of the river rises. Mankind has already succeeded in developing successful architecture in some challenging locations and weather conditions. Humanity is known for thinking outside of the box and focusing on what is possible instead of what is not. But maybe let’s first try to save our planet… Lena Blomert

Year 28, number 61 - November 2020

Sources: Mynott, A. (2010). How do you survive in the coldest place on earth. Retrieved August 17, 2020 from https://www.bbc.com/news/ world-11875131 Yakutsk city, Russia. Retrieved August 17, 2020 from https:// russiatrek.org/yakutsk-city Edmonds, P. (2018). Look inside the world’s coldest city. Retrieved August 17, 2020 from https://www. nationalgeographic .com/ magazine/2018/02/explore-yakutsk-russia-coldest-city/#:~:text=The%20 capital%20city%20of%20 t h e , t e m p e r a t u re % 2 0 e x treme%2C%E2%80%9D%20 Iuncker%20says. How extreme weather conditions affect home building. Retrieved August 18, 2020 from https://allurausa.com/ blog/how-extreme-weathe r- c o n d i t i o n s - e f fect-home-building Climate change impact on buildings. Retrieved August 18, 2020 from https://en.klimatilpasning.dk/sectors/ buildings/climate-change-impact-on-buildings/ Srishti (2019). 10 Examples of extreme architecture around the world. Retrieved August 18, 2020 from https://www. re-thinkingthefuture.com/ architects-lounge/a726-10examples-of-extreme-architecture-around-the-world/

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DIGGING THE FUTURE

Contours of a New Decade

Situated one hundred and fifty kilometres above the arctic circle, on a hill called Haukavaara, lies Kiruna, the most Northern city of Sweden. Directly under the city, mining employees of Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara AB (LKAB) are working in the largest iron ore mine on the globe. The situation was not always like it is today. Back in the 1890’s, the mine was an open quarry, and the first workers settled nearby, in small, wooden houses that would later become the city of Kiruna. The mine and city are in total symbiosis, with thousands of its citizens working for the company directly, or indirectly via support functions to maintain the workers; It is a real working city.

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However, besides its location, Kiruna also faces some rather specific nuisances and dangers from mining deep down in the mountain below. In some cities you have the regular noise of airplanes taking off or busy roads with thousands of cars passing by, the inhabitants of Kiruna have the familiar sound of exploding dynamite every night. This is necessary in order to extract the iron ore, and by doing it at night on specific times the impact is limited. The inhabitants of Kiruna get used to the feel and sound like we get used to the church bells ringing every Sunday morning; at some point you will not notice it anymore. However, noise is one thing you can get used to, sometimes these blasts can incur small earthquakes, which can have the potential to do some actual damage. Last year a record earthquake was measured, with a magnitude of 4.9 on the Richter scale, the heaviest in the history of mining history (Jonassen, 2020). Not too long ago, another accident happened in Malmberget, which as related to a mine that is operated by LKAB, where a large sinkhole appeared next to the residential area. A warning of what could come‌

Since the mine goes deeper and deeper under Kiruna, with uncountable blasts to come, plans are needed in order to make it safe. Especially since the mining company is not planning to stop anytime soon: the richness of the pellets (which is iron ore melted into small balls) are unequalled in quality and therefore of great economic value. They are used for high-end steel products such as construction or the German automobile industry. In addition to this, the mine is crucial for employment for the city (Kinder, 2014; LKAB, 2019). Already in 2004 it was decided that the city centre should be moved, geographically it was the closest to the mine and therefore also the most vulnerable. It took 10 more years to finalise the plans for the move, because it became a real move. Not only are the city centre functions relocated 3 kilometres to the East, some of the actual buildings are as well. This only goes for the oldest buildings, including the century-old church that has been chosen as Sweden’s most beautiful public building. With its large wooden structure it has to be deconstructed beam by beam, bolt by bolt. It will be a delicate matter to rebuild on the new spot, not all residents like the idea of moving such a monument. For the smaller houses they found the solution of moving them entirely in one piece via a crane and truck and moving it over the road to their new place. The majority of the houses and apartment blocks will be demolished and its current residents will get a replacement in the new city centre. And as a good patron of the city, LKAB is paying all the residents the current value of their house plus a solid 25% extra. Since the people will also need a new house, LKAB is also selling them a newly built one nearby the future


city centre. Actually, the mining company is paying for almost the entire operation, they take care of their people and for now they will spend 12 billion Swedish kronor (about 1.2 billion euros) in the process. (Kinder, 2014) Aside from the huge financial aspect, moving such a city also offers new opportunities for creating a new centre! Experts from all over the country are involved in making the city more liveable and durable while taking into account the extreme weather situation (temperatures drop below -25 degrees during winter, with chilly winds haunting the streets).The old heart was stretched out quite a bit, and by making more narrow alleys with cosy corners the inhabitants will be protected even more (White Architekter, n.d.). In addition to the physical matters, the social ones are also important and face some attention. Gender inequality is also really an issue since the city attracts relatively more men who are willing to stay, however women on the other hand won’t. This imbalance is something the city wants to tackle in their new centre by building differently. For more information on moving Kiruna, have a look at the short documentary by two Swedes.

great extent, for example by building homes and providing sports facilities. This often happened in the same city or region. Globalisation has made this connection between company and employee more anonymous, the bond is weaker and with a stronger focus on monetary capitalization, the place for the human worker has become ambiguous and unstable. Awareness and the will to intervene on the environmental and humanitarian impact level by companies belongs to a greater movement. The future will probably see more symbiotic relationships, the time of responsibility has been inaugurated. Maarten Kamp

Sources: Jonassen, T. (2020, May 18). Earthquake in Kiruna: Most powerful in Sweden in 12 years. Retrieved October 28, 2020, from https://www. highnorthnews.com/en/earthquakekiruna-most-powerful-sweden-12years Kinder, T. (2014). Kiruna: How to move a town two miles east. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/ news/magazine-26447507 LKAB. (2019). This is LKAB performance in ironmaking. Retrieved from https://www.lkab.com/en/SysSiteAssets/documents/publikationer/broschyrer/this-is-lkab.pdf Skarstedt, J., & Sundberg, H. (2016). This is Kiruna: How to Move a City. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WKvqJ05AsPY White Architekter. (n.d.). Kiruna masterplan - the Arctic city of Kiruna has to move | White Arkitekter. Retrieved August 28, 2020, from https://whitearkitekter.com/project/ kiruna-masterplan/ Pictures: Left: Photo by Lennart Durehed [ArkDes] https://pressroom.arkdes.se/media/92458/lennart-durehed-kiirunavaara-2019jpg Middle: August 31, 2017. Photo by Jessica NildĂŠn. [ArkDes] h t t p s : / / p re s s ro o m . a r k d e s . s e / media/92348/cred-jessica-nildenthe-pic-was-taken-on-2017-08-31when-the-house-was-moved-building-ingenjorsvillan-jpg Right Render of the future city centre, with the old clock tower. By White Architekter https://whitearkitekter.com/project/ kiruna-masterplan/

This case of moving a town is an example of how companies can take responsibility for their impact. Back in the days, especially the larger companies indeed cared for their employees to a Year 28, number 61 - November 2020

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CIRCULAR CHALLENGES TITEL

Circularity is often simplified to reduce-reuse-recycle, but what are the challenges while looking at the big picture on planetary level? Planetary boundaries and definitions Huesemann & Huesemann define three indicators for circularity on planetary level: - All energy comes from renewable sources at or below renewable rates. - All materials come from renewable sources at or below renewable rates. - Waste can only be released at or below assimilation rate, without negative impacts for the ecosystem of biodiversity.

needs to grow at unprecedented annual rates for 17 metals in the next 30 years to bring about the Paris energy transition, while this does not even take into account the metal use by other industries. This is also a geopolitical problem, as Europe has almost no relevant mining and refining capacity of its own. Metal production is particularly damaging. The Environmental Cost Indicator shows that the “shadow costs” of, for example, one kilogram of aluminium or one kilogram of steel are roughly 1000 times and 100 times higher than those of one kilogram of concrete. The ECI is based on Life Cycle Analysis with 11 monetized environmental impact categories.

Contours of a New Decade

The aim of circularity is to keep impacts within planetary boundaries, and moreover avoid depletion of needed resources. We are currently far removed from that point as we overshoot particularly the safe boundaries for biodiversity loss,deforestation,nitrogen and phosphate depositions and global warming, causing substantial alteration of the Earth System.

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“Rate” is the keyword in the Huesemann indicators. Overshooting is temporarily possible, but only at the cost of damage, destruction and depletion. Restoration is sometimes possible, but not all processes are reversible, or not in a linear manner. Then if this is our global compass, where do we meet problems, what are the circular challenges? Challenge 1: Renewable energy and nonrenewable materials One problem is that we are moving towards renewable energy, but in doing so we rely on nonrenewable materials, particularly a wide array of (rare) metals for solar, wind and batteries. Various reports signal that mining production

Figure 1 The Environmental Costs (or shadow costs) for common construction materials (image credit: TNO, 2018a), based on Life Cycle Analysis of 11 monetised environmental impacts. Reuse and recycling can help to reduce the demand for virgin metals, but only in the long term, while we need the renewable energy transition now. Reuse and recycling do not allow volume growth, while the global demand is far exceeding the global supply. Substitution of rare materials in solar, wind and batteries would help, but without shifting to other materials that will quickly be depleted.


should also include an assessment of rebound effects, as efficiency gains due to innovation can actually lead to more consumption. Examples are careless use of energy efficient lighting, or buying bigger energy efficient cars (primary rebound effect); or spending money that was saved on basics now on luxuries such as travel and meat consumption (secondary rebound effect). It is never enough to modify one control and effective policies will have to oversee the whole dashboard.

Challenge 2: Organic and economic growth The Huesemann definition also brings another problem to light. At some point we will run out or exceed the production rates of non-renewables. For metals, concentrations get lower, so mining gets more costly and ever more damaging. Minerals seem abundant and harmless, but in Asia a “sand mafia” steals entire beaches and river banks to provide sand with the particular properties that are needed in concrete production. Identified fossil fuel reserves are finally available for another 50150 years, but we can use only a very small portion of them to avoid catastrophic global warming. The only resources that allow ongoing volume growth are bio based materials.Their growth is infinite in the sense that the Earth and Sun combined can produce them forever, but it is not unlimited in terms of production rates. For example, it takes decades to grow trees into maturity. We are limited to the production capacity of sustainably managed forests that urgently need to grow. Materials such as bamboo, straw, flax, hemp, reed and mycelium have considerably shorter cycles, and can be implemented without such delay. Not just time, but also space is a fundamentally limiting factor. The production of non-food organic materials is in competition with land claims for agriculture, built-up area and wild diverse nature. This is an important task for global spatial-temporal planning. Challenge 3: Systemic changes and considerations Technological innovation can play an important role in solving our problems. Although we need a systemic view, we are not in the advanced stage yet that technological solutions create no new and serious problems in different areas. Systemic thinking Year 28, number 61 - November 2020

In the end, much will depend on simultaneous social economic innovation, as the overshoot of various planetary boundaries and the scarcity of time, land, energy and materials are directly caused by the size of global consumption, which puts everything “under pressure”. The developed countries have a special responsibility here, the few rich have a much bigger footprint per capita and combined even bigger than the poor majority.

Sources: European Commission (2018). Report on Critical Raw Materials in the Circular Economy. Huesemann & Huesemann (2011). TechNO-fix. Why technology won’t save us or the environment. Metabolic, Copper8 & CML (2018). Metal Demand for Renewable Electricity Generation in the Netherlands. Perez, R. et al (2015). A fundamental look at the supply side energy reserves for the planet. Rosling, H. (2014). Hans Rosling showing the facts about population. Rovers, R. et al. (2011). Zero impact built environments, transition towards 2050. Rovers, R. (2018). People vs Resources. Restoring a world out of balance. Steffen, W. et al (2015). Planetary boundaries. Guiding human development on a changing planet. Sustainable Finance Lab (2014). Een schuldbewust land. Naar een stabiel en duurzaam Nederland. TNO (2018a). Circulair bouwen in perspectief. TNO (2018b). Global energy transition and metal demand. Tweedie, N. (2018), Is the world running out of sand? The truth behind stolen beaches and dredged islands. Van Diepen, K. et al (2010). Het technisch potentieel voor de wereldproductie van biomassa.

A circular economy will have to acknowledge ecological boundaries, and step away from the modern idea of infinite “growth”. “Doughnut economics” embodies this vision, whereas a more equal global distribution of capital and consumption is part of the global solution. A circular economy will also feature fair pricing of products and services. This creates a level playing field for sustainable solutions, that are often considered to be more expensive, but that holds only true when “shadow costs” are ignored and not paid for that mix will ecologically and economically change everything. Hajo Schilderpoort

The author is lecturer of the elective Master course 7xc1m0 Circularity in the Built Environment, which is part of the TU/e wide Master Certificate Circular Design in the Built Environment.

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Contours of a New Decade

INTERVIEW TITEL BOEIENDE BINNENSTAD

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The inner city of Eindhoven has seen a lot of construction and renewal in the past years.What makes it relatively unique in the country is the fact that it has seen highrise development. Normally, this will be restricted to peripheral locations, but Eindhoven, together with Rotterdam breaks this tradition. Examples are the Vesteda-tower, built in 2006, and the more recent Student Hotel tower next to the train station. These developments also fall within the ‘Verdichtingsvisie’, or densification vision. Supervisor of city development and renowned architect Winy Maas is one of the main proprietors of this strategy. It increases the quality of the city on multiple fronts and has therefore been maintained since 2008. An interesting development that helps in the realization of this high-rise vision is the Bouwhub. This is a location close to the city center from which a large portion of logistic practices for multiple projects are taken care of: it will help to tune plans to each other’s needs and reduce congestion and pollution in the city center.

One of the streets where the issue of congestion became very problematic was the Vestdijk. It is one of the most well-known streets in Eindhoven, but before the start of its renewal two years ago most people would not describe the street as being attractive. It was cramped with three traffic lanes and thus caused a lot of air and sound pollution. Clearly, renewal was necessary, and the municipality started rebuilding the street two years ago. In order to get a better idea of what developments are taking place, and to become more acquainted with future developments, we spoke to Victor Wijdeveld, an enthusiastic junior project manager at the department of project development.After completing his study in the city of Amsterdam, he strived to work in a city that had a high emphasis on innovation and saw things from an open-minded perspective. Eindhoven suited this vision very well, and Victor is now highly involved in the renewal project ‘Boeiende Binnenstad’. It focuses on visually, as well as practically updating the city center on street level. The current


outdated pavement is slippery during rainy days and generates a lot of problems with drainage. According to Victor, the municipality thought that this pavement did not fit their modern, innovative image of the city, and that an update would be suitable. Some have seen the patches of ‘test-pavement’ in the city center. These were laid out to give inhabitants a taste of what might be in store, and to test the different options on durability and aesthetics. The team responsible for the project has also gone on research trips to Germany to research how similar tiles weather over time and how practical they are. If they prove to be satisfactory, they will also be integrated in the city center of Eindhoven. “These styles of tile were chosen as an homage to the industrial, ‘rough-edged’, character of the city” says Victor. “We think that the traditional historic ‘sett’ type stones are not suitable for the city, since they are generally associated with historic towns”. The plan also sees the implementation of a lot of greenery on street level. Besides being aesthetically pleasing, it additionally allows for better rainwater drainage.This is necessary because puddles of water often form on the current pavement, creating a dangerous and messy atmosphere.

Pictures: [Picture left]. (n.d.). Straatbeeld nieuwe Vestdijk. Retrieved from https:// www.eindhoven.nl/sites/default/files/styles/colorbox_large_1x/public/2020-06/Vestdijk%20Vesteda%20%28juni%202020%2C%20JdP%29. jpg?itok=3lIBTvdk [Picture right] (n.d.). Impression of renewed Demer street. Retrieved from

All in all, the overhauling of the city center is a process that is still taking place. Besides the projects physically being completed, there are a lot of other interesting developments happening out of sight. The Vestdijk is only a small part of a much larger plan, and it will be exciting to keep an eye on further developments in the city. We can at least be sure that Eindhoven is moving towards a very interesting identity, and that there are a lot of people working very hard to make this as attractive of a place as possible.

https://www.eindhoven.nl/sites/default/files/styles/body_medium_2x/ public/2019-10/Visual%20proefbestrating%20Demer%20%28DEF%29%20 006_Demer_View_Background_20181009%20Lzkl%20%282%29.jpg?itok=1Z73amVQ

We would like to thank Victor for his time and his enthusiastic insights in the developments in the city, and hope that we will enjoy and reek the benefits of all these new developments. Leander Krijnen and Lena Blomert

Year 28, number 61 - November 2020

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Master Project

LAYERS OF GROWTH ‘Renovating or building new?‘ - One of the most pressing questions housing corporations are currently facing. In a time when densification and sustainability are high on the agenda, many social housing neighbourhoods in the Netherlands have been, are currently being or will soon be redeveloped. ‘t Ven in Eindhoven is one of them. When looking at the history of ‘t Ven, four different layers of growth can be distinguished. Before the 1930’s, the main building principles were based on geomorphology and the parish concept: the Theresia church was built on the highest point in a rural landscape outside of the city. In the 1960’s architects Brinkman and van den Broek added a new structure of houses with a characteristic architectural style next to the area that had already been built. By that time ‘t Ven was still separated from Eindhoven by meadows. During the years that followed Eindhoven started growing, the space in between ‘t Ven and the city was gradually filled up. The Jacob Oppenheimerpark, the Evoluon and new dwellings and roads were constructed, making ‘t Ven part of the city of Eindhoven. While the first three layers were all placed adjacent to one another, the fourth layer - that started development around 2008 and is still taking shape today - has been laid over the built area. This is a layer of densification and sustainability, driven by population growth and the urgency to

32

tackle challenges of climate resilience and energy transition. New buildings were added where and was available and housing corporation ’Thuis’ is making plans for renovating and demolishing parts of the existing dwellings. This last layer is being approached in a rather pragmatic way, by different designers, without a clear, cohesive plan for the neighbourhood as a whole. The aim of this four week project is providing ’Thuis‘ with a tool that shows a variety of options for redevelopment and the impact of the chosen strategy. The tool takes the shape of a matrix (see right page, bottom) visualizing the redevelopment possibilities for ‘t Vens building typologies. The different options are graded on several aspects. Obviously, it highly depends on the different stakeholders which aspects are more important than others. Based on the matrix an alternative design is presented, which is just one out of many possibilities. However, it does show the added value of a coherent plan, following thoughtful choices and starting from an inventory of all possibilities. The method of using such a matrix could offer new insights to housing corporations with similar challenges at other locations. Simone Tax


LAYERS OF GROWTH Layer 1 30’s

Layer 2 60’s

Layer 3 after 60’s

• Geomorphology • Parish

• Housing structure • Architecture

• Growth • ‘t Ven part of Eindhoven

Layer 4 2008 - now (on top of it all) • Densification • urbanity • population growth

D F M

Current situation

• Sustainability • climate resilience • energy, waste etc.

C renovated E

A renovated

K

A now in renovation

H

A untouched

D

B untouched

G D

DESIGN PLAN

I

Later additions J

L

Outside ‘Thuis area Parks

eme

Apartments (1-2 people) Roof garden Community rooms

5

Strategy

Keep heritage

People can stay

Costs renewal

0. Original situation

++

++

++

1. Renovate inside

++ 0 0 1.a Keep shape

shape ++1.b. Change -

Scheme

Energy use

Climate

Modern function

Green wall Ground floor = front yard

--

+

+

-

-

-

0

-

+

Densify Keep heritage options

++ --

++ --

++ 0

People Social addition can stay

++ +

0 +

+-

Community Apartments

10

REDEVELOPMENT OPTIONS FOR REDEVELOPMENT Costs Waste renewal

++

++ 0

+ -

Target Energygroup use

same --

same +

middle + income

Appearance Climate

-

-

Modern function

0

-

Green wall Water roof

Densify options

Social addition

Waste

• Partition, individuality • Details, subtle • Depth: parts & material

--

+

1++

Target group

same

• Same facade • Usual for valuable heritage

--

+

++

same

Current situation • Same facade -

+

Appearance Suitable Solar panels

Su

Not (D,Same E, F, I, J,style M)

as A Middle income (G, H, K) Climbing plants

(D, E

(G, H

A, C

• Same facade • Usual for valuable heritage

A,

D, E, F, I, J, M

D, E

L

L

50m

A, B, C middle M back side (2d) +1. B: renovated + outside; extension income 2. A: renovated outside; with balcony (2b / 2a)

• Same facade • Extend building on back side

• Extend building on back side

0

No

• Partition, individuality • Details, subtle • Depth: parts & material

A, M

3. A: renovated outside (2b)

2. Renovate outside 0 ++ 0 2.a. Mimic old

+

2.b. Pragmatic Apartments (2) 10 - (practical, ++ cheap) + rent + Social Climbing plants (de Loods)

-

-

0

0

0 --

--

++ +

++ -

0 +

+

same +

same +

-

-

0

0

2.c. Change style ++ 0 (aesthetic)

+

+

0

--

++ +

0 +

same +

+

0

style- 2.d. Change 0 and shape

+

+

+

0 -

0 +

+ -

middle + income

+

+

++

-

++

0

0

--

same ++ / change

-

++

--

4. C:closely renovated • Keep to the oldoutside situation (2b) • Or even go further back: re-introduce 5. glass Newpanels apartments, 5 stories, the Original design

• Total change, no space for personalization, flat, barely partition, thick frames, dark colors

--

• Different facade • Sustainable materials • Modern look

--

Bestaande Wijk van Morgen

+

+

same

7. New apartments, 3 stories, green wall (3d) 8. New buildings, •1-2 stories (3a) Lighter,

more 9. Shops, renovated inside (1a) A, C partition, E, F, I, J, M more like - 10. Community + + apartments, same 4D,stories (3d) before

11. Existing buildings inside project area 12. Existing buildings outside project area 13. Green wall

+

+

• Totally green facade

same

Quai Branly Museum

3. Demolish & build 0 0 3.a. Refer to old (same density, DAT) - 3.b. Refer - to old + (higher density, DAT)

++

3.c. Radically new 0 (same density)

++

--

3.d. Radically new -- (higher -density) +

-

++

++ -

0-

+ --

change ++

Prêt-à-Loger, home with a skin

0

+

+

• Copy materials, horizontal lines and partition • Loss of details

0

--

Design DAT

-

++

++

middle income

same / change

• Copy materials, horizontal lines, partition and sloped roof

0

--

change

• Keep closely to the old situation • Or even go further back: re-introduce the glass panels

M

6. New houses, 3 stories, green wall (3d)

• Add extension at top, back or front

0

A, C

green wall (3d)

A, C

D, E, F, I, J, M

• Lighter, more partition, more like before

A,

• Different facade • Sustainable materials • Modern look

• Totally green facade

A,

Bestaande Wijk van Morgen

Quai Branly Museum • Add extension at top, back or front

++

++

++

++

-0

++ --

0

0-

--

+ --

same/ ++ change

change ++

++

++

++

++

• Something totally new • Low buildings

0

0

--

D, E

D, E

A,B M H

Prêt-à-Loger, home with a skin

A, B, C

• Copy materials, horizontal lines and partition • Loss of details

A, B, C

• Copy materials, horizontal lines, partition and sloped roof

A,

Design DAT

Previous design DAT

++

M

• Total change, no space for personalization, flat, barely partition, thick frames, dark colors

A,B, C M H

A,

Original design

A,

Previous design DAT • Recycled materials, climate resilience

same/ change

A, B, C

• Something totally new • Low buildings

• Recycled materials, climate resilience

A,

Present in ‘t Ven

Boschveld

Present in ‘t Ven

Boschveld

• Something totally new • High densities possible

• Modern, sustainable

A, B, C

• Something totally new • High densities possible

• Modern, sustainable

A,

Quai Branly Museum

G, H, K. (L)

Quai Branly Museum

G, H

++

DAT Noord Brabantlaan

0

--

change

DAT Noord Brabantlaan


COLLECTIVE HOUSING COMMUNITY Waste. A biproduct and downfall of the linear economy. A model that is embedded throughout the western world; A terrible consequence of a system that evolved into being and was never designed. Nature does not produce waste.We must learn from it and flip the established cultural norms around waste- from an unsightly topic to an untapped resource. This alternative idea is known as the circular economy and the Netherlands are among the leaders in its implementation. Located in Smeetsland, Rotterdam, the hub of the circular movement, this project strives to integrate circular principles throughout its design. Starting with recycled design: steel structure, glass facades, plastic window frames, timber interior lining, concrete flooring, carpet, and insulation from suppliers around the Netherlands. The design recognises the importance of elevating the circulatory system beyond the material level to a day to day experiential one. Therefore, the collective housing community hosts facilities such as repair workshops, producer labs and markets , where upcycled objects can be repaired, crafted, bought, and sold within the local and wider community. In addition to this, art and exhibition space will provide

34

a platform to start conversations around waste in a positive light. These deeper levels of engagement with the circular economy will allow the project to move beyond the superficial, material influence on the users, toward a cultural shift. The second major theme of the collective housing community is to counteract the growing loneliness epidemic with collective living. Loneliness is now considered more harmful than obesity or smoking. Despite, or perhaps because of the digital connectedness of this technological age, social isolation is rising at alarming rates (prior to COVID 19). With 61% of adults and 73% of young workers feeling sometimes or always lonely, action needs to be taken to counteract this trend. Much of the world is currently living through the intense mental and physical consequences of social isolation due to the COVID-19 outbreak. Increasing the need to find innovative solutions to enhancing connection in an increasingly physically disconnected world. This housing development is centred around the idea of collective living which creates a community around shared spaces, items, facilities, and company.


On a macro-level this design has integrated a public park, a shared housing complex and a large permaculture garden into the site. The public park, wrapping around the site perimeter, creates a central green, gathering space within the local suburb. The 550 dwellings in the shared housing complex are designed to minimize private space by providing better equipped shared spaces than private residences would usually have access to. Some of these shared facilities include: kitchens, dining areas, social spaces, and study/work areas. The permaculture gardens make up the interior space of the circular complex design. Including greenhouses (blue roofs) for annual food production, orchards, flower fields, permaculture outdoor gardens and cultural hubs (pink roofs). These cultural hubs aim to foster community throughout the complex. Acting as opportunities for intergenerational socializing, with programs such as eateries, childcare, games rooms, active spaces, movie rooms, bars, the maker labs and repair workshops. A weekly market, in the circular outdoor events space to the South, will provide a place to interact through the sale of local products and produce. Finally, the social interactivity of play is implemented through children’s playgrounds and sports courts to the South. The four typological floor plans exemplify the main design concept - minimizing private space and maximizing shared spaces. The open-plan design allows natural light from both ends to penetrate throughout the apartment. The apartments in the flexi-plan floor layout (top) are able to be adjusted in multiple ways due to the structure being constrained to each end of the apartments. De-constructible partition-walls will allow every new resident to ‘design’ their own apartment.The grated floors along Year 28, number 61 - November 2020

the edges of the circulation, allow complete flexibility of front door placement and light penetration from the glass roof. The shared living and dining spaces are still situated throughout this floor segment. Providing the private – public dynamic that is central in this concept. The mixed typology floor layout (bottom) combines the single, elderly, and couple typologies into one repeatable segment.This enhances the sense of community between generations, strengthened by the three shared living spaces (for socializing or quite reading) and the one shared dining space. In conclusion, this project primarily explored the boundaries of public and private space on several scales. The smaller private apartments are supplemented by a great variety of shared spaces and facilities to promote day-to-day social life and thereby enhance mental and physical wellbeing. This experimental housing project is situated in the centre of the Netherlands and integrates the country’s circular vision through its avant-garde material design and carefully designed program and spaces. Through these two driving concepts, this experimental housing project has aimed to set a new precedent, not only in the suburb of Smeetsland but in the city of Rotterdam as a whole. While this design is speculative and will require refinement, it places these emerging ideas at the forefront. In hope of initiating conversations and new radical ways of thinking to begin to restructure the current broken yet ingrained linear systems and culture. Guy van der Wildt

35


Graduation project

VERHOOGD VERTRAAGD Today we live in an urban society that is mostly characterized by acceleration, fast dynamic networks and a strongly increasing degree of social pressure. Stress, burnouts and depressions are examples of mental health complaints that are not strange in our everyday society; they are the result of an individual’s inability to escape from external, overwhelming stimuli within an urban context. However, this inability to escape excessive urban stimuli is not only a problem characteristic for urban life in the 21st century; it is also something to which individuals have been subjected to for at least 100 years (Simmel, 1903; Rosa, 2016). To find a solution for this urban problem that has only grown over time, the main question of this graduation studio called “The Aesthetics of Deceleration - Spaces of Slowness, between intermediate size and intermediate time” (TU/e 2019-2020) – is whether it is possible to link the design of intermediate spaces to the concept of slowness. This makes sure that, through the application of architectural and urban physical-spatial design elements including the mental experience of these – an individual can escape the overwhelming stimuli in an accelerated urban context: the inner city of the metropolis of Rotterdam. To find out whether there are already physicalspatial places of slowness perceptible in the current urban context of Rotterdam – in other words, places where individuals already can experience slowness in a fast-oriented urban environment – the project “VERHOOGD VERTRAAGD” (or in English “HEIGHTENED DELAYED”) started with ‘wandering through the city’ as a subjective research method.

36

Striking from this search for slowness, the result was that places of slowness are scarce in the city center of Rotterdam. Actually, the city is characterized – or dominated – by acceleration, high dynamics, and the large scale highrise developments in the inner city of this metropolis. Should a new, elevated layer in the city be developed to implement this experience of slowness in the future city center of the metropolis Rotterdam; including the possibility that an individual can break free from the daily, dynamic, and accelerated city? Based on a critical reflection of the current and future high-rise developments, accompanied by the need to develop slowness in the inner city of Rotterdam, “VERHOOGD VERTRAAGD” has produced a utopian-realistic design proposal for the development of a second ground level in the future city of Rotterdam. The main concept is to implement a new layer at the height of 70 meters in particular (the current high-rise boundary in Rotterdam), consisting of a network of continuous, elevated, and layered public domains that must enable individuals to distance themselves from all overwhelming urban stimuli. Thereby, these public domains should also stimulate the metropolitan man in the experience of slowness within the accelerated urban context. In this graduation project, the concept is, on the one hand, developed as an urban strategic masterplan at the level of the city center of Rotterdam. In this masterplan, the newly designed high-rise buildings are – together with the already existing high-rise and the future high-rise developments as proposed by the Municipality of Rotterdam – divided


into six different clusters. The idea is that the new layer in the city center will function as a continuous network of elevated, multi-layered public domains per cluster. This design approach based on ‘cluster operation’ is appropriate to the size and scale of Rotterdam; differently than the already existing continuous public networks known in Hong Kong or Tokyo for example. On the other hand, the concept is also developed as a physical-spatial urban and architectural design, elaborated at the level of a chosen cluster out of the masterplan: the cluster “Coolsingel-Blaak”.The design of the cluster consists of nine new high-rise towers (varying in heights from 70 to 250 meters) that function as a fundamental basis in the development of the second ground level. The idea is that within and around these high-rise towers (or on the roof of the existing buildings in the cluster), multiple public spaces (such as squares, terraces, roof gardens, plateaus, platforms, viewpoints, etc.) are located at different heights.

“VERHOOGD VERTRAAGD” can be seen as a project that raises new and critical questions and that – due to the chosen utopian-realistic design approach that is elaborated in a deliberately applied abstract realistic-surrealistic way – opens a discussion about the application and design of elevated networks of public domains in future high-rise cities. Because, how do we deal with the design and layout of the public domain in the high-rise city of the future? And besides, to what extent do we take the mental health of city dwellers into account while designing public domains in a future and on high-rise based metropolitan urban context; creating the experience of slowness? Jolien Hermans Simmel, G. (1903) - The metropolis and the mental life; Rosa, H. (2016) Leven in tijden van versnelling Zalmhaven I, II, III

Erasmusbrug

De Rotterdam

Coolzicht Rotterdam

Together with various physical connections (such as bridges, lifted walkways, cable cars, ecoducts, etc.) between these indoor or outdoor public spaces in which the experience of slowness is central, a continuous and meandering network of elevated public domains is created; functioning as a horizontal and vertical pendulum within the cluster. Within the cluster design for the second, elevated public layer, an indication of the design for the public domain has been elaborated. This elaboration is based on an abstract-surrealistic visualisation to express the experience of slowness in the future high-rise city of Rotterdam.

Zalmhaven I, II, III

Plateau 2-bee | Bijenkorf Rotterdam

Year 28, number 61 - November 2020

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STREET SPACE:TIME TO COLUMN AND REVISE RETHINK Crises have been used many times in the past as a factor to accelerate changes in the public space. The increased use of the vehicle since the 50’s and the 60’s of the 20th led to dramatic changes in the urban environment. Demolishing entire neighborhoods to make space for motororized traffic and transferring city squares into parking areas.These changes have also taken a heavy toll on human life. In 1971 alone, there were 3300 deaths from road accidents, of which 400 were children under the age of 14. Protest movements arose and called to stop the “Child Murder” (“Stop de Kindermoord”) and demanded safer streets for children. Cooperation between the bottom-up activists and the top-down policies led to a series of actions that had a great impact on the public space. During the current global crises of the COVID-19 virus, the example of the Dutch case has been mentioned many times by policy makers, planners and urban activists. Whether the instructions were total lockdown or ‘stay in place’ – People all over the world faced dramatic changes in their way of life.The limitations of indoors and crowded places, working and studying from home and the concerns of people from using public transportation and shared mobility systems – were bringing upfront questions about the quality of the public spaces in the cities. How many green areas including ‘pocket parks’ spread in the city and in what areas. Is there enough space to walk on the streets in your city to keep the social distance regulations and what are the additional ways of safe transportations that the city has to offer besides relying on vehicles? Questions that were mainly discussed in professional and academic discourse became more apparent in the general public discussion.

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Many Cities around the world reacted to the changing reality and the new guidelines by using tools of Tactical Urbanism. A term that describes fast and cheap interventions in the built environment. These changes are usually temporary but may become also permanent. Germany implemented pop-up bike lanes in more than 100 cities to react to the new patterns of transportation that increased dramatically during the pandemic. The Mobycon company published a guide that gives practical advice and guidelines on how to plan safe and temporary cycling infrastructure that can be implemented in only 10 days. In Milan, the “Strade Aperte’’ (Open streets) program was launched at the end of April, to widen sidewalks and paved bicycle lanes to encourage the return

of traffic and activity to the main streets. This also includes limiting vehicles to 30 km/h in some areas. In New York City more than 160 km(!) transferred temporarily to open streets, a street that is closed for vehicle traffic during the day (except for emergency vehicles and limited local traffic), to have enough space for pedestrians and cyclists near the “new” attractions such as parks. The city also implemented major programs to help the restaurant business to recover and return to activity. By filling out an online form, close to 9500 business owners have received permission to convert the parking area into a seating area for the restaurant’s customers. Most of these measures that were (and still are) taken during the pandemic in public space were highlighting an important topic: Our street space. How are the streets designed in different cities and countries? How much space is given to each of the street’s users. Is the planning approach more car centric or pedestrian and cyclist oriented? The pandemic highlighted the need for a spacious and unbaling public space on the short term period: in order to maintain the 1.5 to 2 meter of social distance on the streets, to create an alternative mode of mobility and to enable businesses to operate under the instructions, but we should not forget the long term. The temporary solutions that were promoted all over the world by tactical urbanism strategies, to limit the speed and movement of the vehicle from central areas in cities and change the hierarchy of the street space design to become more dominant by cyclist and pedestrian, showed an alternative to distributing the street space. A way that promotes sustainable mobility and turns the streets space into a lively and active public space, where people are welcome to stay and not just pass by. This way priorities values of health, environment, air quality, accessibility and inclusiveness. So, if we want that the changes that started during the crises will stay here for the long term and will not fade when the pandemic will be over – we should pay more attention to how our street space represents our values and priorities. Sara Siegel University Lecturer of Urban Design Unit at the TU/e


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viaVIA 61 Contours of a new Decade  

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