VOEE: Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships

Page 1

February 2023

Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1 INTRODUCTION 3 Table of Contents APPRENTICESHIPS IN THE UNITED STATES 4 Structure of Registered Apprenticeships 5 Youth Apprenticeships 5 CONCLUSION 19 DATA & METHODS 6 Limitations 6 APPENDIX 21 Demographics 9 Apprenticeship Program Sponsor Structure 12 Registered Apprenticeship Sponsor Industries and Occupational Groups 15 Apprenticeship Participation by Region 18 VIRGINIA’S REGISTERED APPRENTICESHIP PROGRAM: AT A GLANCE 8

Executive Summary

In the 2022 legislative session, the Virginia Office of Education Economics (VOEE) at the Virginia Economic Development Partnership (VEDP) was asked to provide data analysis on registered apprenticeships in Virginia. This was a two-step process. The first step was contained in budget item 364,1 which directed the Office of Registered Apprenticeship at the Department of Labor and Industry (DOLI) to provide VOEE with its existing data on registered apprenticeships by December 31, 2022, and to update those data quarterly thereafter. The VOEE and DOLI teams decided to use the federal Registered Apprenticeship Partners Information Database System (RAPIDS). Data is updated in the RAPIDS system once a year, so an annual pull from this database will fulfill the first step. The second step, House Bill 718 (Filler-Corn)/Senate Bill 661 (Lucas) directed the Virginia Board of Workforce Development to collaborate with DOLI, the Department of Education, and the Secretaries of Labor, Education, and Commerce and Trade to review the performance of current apprenticeship programs in meeting high-demand industry needs. 2 VOEE was tasked with analyzing the DOLI data. This paper serves as the deliverable for the second charge. While the full paper provides data on youth apprenticeships and apprenticeships by region, this executive summary focuses on the findings that emerged from data analysis on registered apprentices statewide.

Below is a summary of registered apprenticeship in Virginia for Fiscal Year 2021.

■ 11,781 active apprentices

■ 1,598 apprenticeship completers

■ 3,960 new apprentices

■ 1,614 apprenticeship sponsors

■ 119 distinct apprentice occupations (by Standard Occupational Classification)

■ Median starting wage: $14.25

■ Over 80% of active apprenticeships fall within occupations most traditionally associated with skilled trades:

Construction and extraction-related (6,581)

Installation, maintenance, and repair (1,934)

Production (1,062)

Our examination of statewide demographic data on registered apprentices revealed the following:

■ While the most common age of a new apprentice was 19, substantial numbers of workers began apprenticeships later in their lives. Among active apprentices in FY21, the median starting age was 26, and a quarter of apprentices were 32 years of age or older. Only 12% began apprenticeships after the age of 40.

■ Regarding racial composition, registered apprentices appear to roughly mirror Virginia’s population, although data on race is not available in the RAPIDS dataset for 11% of registered apprentices in the state. Of those who reported on race/ethnicity, 68% identified as White, 18% as Black, 8% as American Indian or Alaska Native, and 2% as Asian.

■ The majority (76%) of registered apprentices were high school graduates.

■ The majority (86%) of registered apprentices were male.

■ Veterans were represented among Virginia’s registered apprentices at a somewhat lower rate (6%) than they were represented in Virginia’s overall adult population (10%).

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Notes

1 Budget item (Chapter 2) Item 364 2022 Special Session 1, State Budget, Legislative Information System (LIS), Virginia General Assembly, Commonwealth of Virginia, https://budget.lis.virginia.gov/item/2022/2/HB30/Chapter/1/364/

2 2022 Virginia Acts of Assembly ch. 699 and 700 https://law.lis.virginia.gov/uncodifiedacts/2022/session1/chapter699/, https://law.lis. virginia.gov/uncodifiedacts/2022/session1/chapter700/

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In the 2022 legislative session, the Virginia Office of Education Economics (VOEE) at the Virginia Economic Development Partnership (VEDP) was asked to provide data analysis on registered apprenticeships in Virginia. This was a two-step process. The first step was contained in budget item 364,3 which directed the Office of Registered Apprenticeship at the Department of Labor and Industry (DOLI) to provide VOEE with its existing data on registered apprenticeships by December 31, 2022, and to update those data quarterly thereafter. The VOEE and DOLI teams decided to use the federal Registered Apprenticeship Partners Information Database System (RAPIDS). Data is updated in the RAPIDS system once a year, so an annual pull from this database will fulfill the first step. The second step, House Bill 718 (Filler-Corn)/Senate Bill 661(Lucas) directed the Virginia Board of Workforce Development to collaborate with DOLI, the Department of Education, and the Secretaries of Labor, Education, and Commerce and Trade to review the performance of current apprenticeship programs in meeting high-demand industry needs.4 VOEE was tasked with analyzing the DOLI data. This paper serves as the deliverable for the second charge. While the full paper provides data on youth apprenticeships and on apprenticeships by region, this executive summary focuses on the findings that emerged from data analysis on registered apprentices statewide.

It should be noted that the Virginia Board of Workforce Development’s Access and Equity Committee released a white paper on November 10, 2022, entitled, “Recommendations to Improve Virginia’s Utilization of Registered Apprenticeships in the New Virginia Economy,” which is the primary product for the General Assembly charge.5

Terms Used in this Report

Several terms are used throughout this report and in the supplemental data file. Their definitions are as follows:

Active apprentices: Individuals who are engaged in a registered apprenticeship program as of the reference date (when reporting active apprentices by year, the reference date is the final day of the fiscal year, September 30).

New apprentices: Individuals who began an apprenticeship during the reference period.

Completed: Individuals who successfully completed an apprenticeship during the reference period.

Fiscal Year: In alignment with the federal government’s reporting structure, fiscal years in this report refer to the federal fiscal year (October 1–September 30).

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Introduction

Apprenticeships in the United States

Apprenticeships are long-term, paid, work-based learning opportunities that combine educational curricula with hands-on experience in an occupation. They offer a mutually beneficial approach to workforce development for employers and workers. Apprenticeships benefit employers by allowing them to train workers to their specifications while those workers contribute work time to the company. For workers, apprenticeships offer an opportunity for concurrent education and paid work. Workers who complete a registered apprenticeship program can expect to earn more than the median wage in their region, and employers that sponsor apprentices earn significant returns on their investment.6 Despite the documented value of apprenticeships, the United States falls far behind its competitor nations in using them to train workers for in-demand, middle-skill jobs.7 This section looks briefly at the history and structure of registered apprenticeships and addresses the calls to expand opportunities for apprenticeship in the United States and here in Virginia.8

Registered apprenticeships, the focus of this report, are approved and vetted for quality and rigor by either the U.S. Department of Labor’s (U.S. DOL) Office of Apprenticeship or a state apprenticeship agency.9 In Virginia that is DOLI. Registered apprenticeships must meet federal requirements to assure quality, safety, wage standards, and relevance to industry. These standards include progressive wage increases during the course of the apprentice’s 2,000 hours of on-the-job training, an appropriate amount of classroom-style instruction, and employer-provided mentorship. As is discussed in more detail below, registered apprenticeships are initiated and led by employers; state agencies such as DOLI simply provide support and structure. While traditional trades such as construction and manufacturing dominate apprenticeship activity in the United States, strides have been made to increase registered apprenticeships in industries such as healthcare and information technology. In fact, Virginia has already taken some steps toward expanding apprenticeships beyond traditional industries into areas like IT/cybersecurity, hospitality, water treatment, and early childhood and education.10 There are some youth and adult apprenticeship experiences that offer quality structured education and work experience but are not registered. Youth apprenticeships will be looked at in more detail below.

Apprenticeships have a long history in the United States. They are governed by the National Apprenticeship Act of 1937, which was enacted during the Great Depression by Franklin D. Roosevelt. This act codified registered apprenticeship as a national strategy for workforce development.11 In February 2021, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the National Apprenticeship Act of 2021, which, if enacted, would reauthorize the law for the first time.12 The 2021 bill outlines the creation of new apprenticeship opportunities and establishes federal standards for youth apprenticeship programs. Registered apprenticeships are also a major component of the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act that was signed into law in November 2021.

Scholars and policymakers have called for both the adaptation of apprenticeship programs for today’s economy and the expansion of apprenticeships in the education and training system.13 A 2017 report by Fuller and Sigelman at the Harvard Business School showed that apprentices are employed in just 27 occupations, primarily in the skilled trades. They argue that apprenticeships could be expanded as pathways to at least 21 occupations that typically do not require a bachelor’s degree and 26 occupations that commonly require a four-year degree but use skills that can be attained without one.14 The Youngkin administration has made calls here in Virginia for expanding the industries and occupations that use apprenticeships for training.15

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Structure of Registered Apprenticeships

Depending on the industry, registered apprenticeships can range in length from one to six years. They include at least 2,000 hours of on-the-job training and 144 hours of technical instruction for every 2,000 work hours. Apprenticeships are flexible and meant to be tailored to an employer’s needs. Thus, they can be delivered in one of three approaches to suit the needs of each employer: time-based, competency-based, or both time- and competency-based. These structures exist to help employers meet their needs, but programs must meet these minimum qualifications to become registered apprenticeships.

In time-based apprenticeships, apprentices must complete a minimum number of hours of on-the-job learning and related technical instruction. The amount of time and instruction is determined by the employer. Progress through the apprenticeship is measured only by the number of hours completed in a set of work process categories.

In competency-based apprenticeships, apprentices must demonstrate that they have achieved a set of competencies identified by the employer. Progress is measured only on the attainment of required competencies, which are verified by the employer. As such, time in the apprenticeship can vary, and employers are not required to track the amount of time it takes apprentices to learn these skills. Time- and competency-based apprenticeships marry these two structures.

Youth Apprenticeships

Youth apprenticeships are apprenticeships that occur during high school. They are largely underutilized in the United States, but in recent years, national interest in these programs has been growing. In Virginia, youth registered apprenticeship provides young people with career opportunities while completing their high school education and is aligned with the Virginia Department of Education’s High-Quality Work-Based Learning schema. Part-time student apprenticeship is available to students in local public school divisions that have established programs.

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Data & Methods

In response to House Bill 718 (Filler-Corn)/Senate Bill 661 (Lucas), VOEE was directed to provide a report on the state of registered apprenticeship in Virginia. In approaching this task, VOEE developed a series of research questions to guide its inquiry. These are as follows:

1. How many workers have registered for apprenticeships in Virginia since 2019 (the first year for which comprehensive federal data are available)?

■ How many apprentices are currently active?

■ How many workers completed apprenticeships during this time-frame?

2. Which industries (categorized by the North American Industry Classification System, or NAICS) sponsor the most aligned apprenticeship programs in Virginia?

3. Which occupations (characterized by the Occupational Information Network, Standard Occupational Classification, or O*NET SOC) have the most new and active apprentices? Which occupations have the most completions?

4. Which employers/organizations are the top sponsors of apprenticeships in Virginia?

5. How are apprenticeship completions distributed geographically among Local Workforce Development Areas (LWDAs)?

6. What are the demographics for apprentices in terms of gender, race, age, and educational attainment?

7. What percent of registered apprenticeship programs are classified as youth apprenticeships?

8. What percent of registered apprentices are veterans?

To address these questions, VOEE utilized the U.S. DOL Employment and Training Administration’s public use files on registered apprenticeships. Primary data collection for this dataset in Virginia is managed by DOLI. VOEE also met with DOLI’s Division of Registered Apprenticeship to better understand the structure of Virginia’s registered apprenticeship programs and how apprenticeship data are collected and reported.

Limitations

This report is based on publicly available data on registered apprenticeships from the U.S. DOL’s RAPIDS dataset. This system does not fully reflect Virginia apprentices and apprenticeship programs until the third quarter of FY19 (April 2019). Unless a year is specified, the data in this report refers to federal Fiscal Year 2021 (October 1, 2020–September 30, 2021).

Additionally, the registered apprenticeships managed by DOLI and reported to the U.S. DOL’s Employment and Training Administration contains only data on apprenticeships that are registered within Virginia through DOLI. This means that the RAPIDS data analyzed in this report will not contain information on unregistered

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apprenticeship programs functioning at companies within the state or on apprenticeship programs registered either at the national level or registered within other states but functioning within Virginia. This reality means that the RAPIDS dataset analyzed in this report provides only a partial picture of how apprenticeship as a workforce development and work-based learning model is currently functioning in Virginia. It is important that readers understand this limitation when using this report’s analysis of RAPIDS data to interpret and make decisions regarding how apprenticeship exists within the Commonwealth.

Readers should also be cautious about their interpretation of time and completion of apprenticeships in the data. It is important to understand that registered apprenticeships vary in time and structure but typically take between one and six years. While the data contain a system-generated completion date for each apprentice, this date may not directly predict when the apprentice will complete their program and should not be interpreted as a goalpost. Time to completion can be impacted by a number of factors: first, the apprenticeship’s structure — whether it is competency-based or time-based. Further, the pace of apprenticeship is individualized, and apprentices progress at different rates. Apprenticeships can also participate part-time. Completion time can also be affected by pauses related to the needs of the employer or by a local, national, or global event (pandemic, natural disaster, etc.). Additionally, it is important to keep in mind that because apprenticeships are employer-led, the Commonwealth cannot change the pace at which they progress.

Much of the RAPIDS data examined for this report covers the pandemic period, and like many things related to schooling and work, participation in registered apprenticeship programs was greatly impacted during this time. This varied by company, industry, and occupation. On-the-job training stalled for many occupations, creating a pipeline of delays in apprenticeships and completions. During this time, DOLI provided registered apprenticeships with extensions of up to 12 months so that they could continue to completion.

Finally, there are data holes and challenges in the RAPIDS data. RAPIDS data are reported by apprentices and employers in a voluntary manner, so there are some data elements missing in some cases. Voluntary data points include Race/Ethnicity, Veteran Status, and Education. Some level of error in the data can also be expected.

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Virginia’s Registered Apprenticeship Program: At a Glance

As noted, Virginia’s registered apprenticeship program combines on-the-job training with related technical instruction across diverse occupations and industries. By registering apprenticeship programs with DOLI, sponsors obtain guidance from its consultants and provide data on their apprenticeship to both state and federal governments.

Registered Apprenticeship Summary for Fiscal Year 2021:

■ 11,781 active apprentices

■ 1,598 apprenticeship completers

■ 3,960 new apprentices

■ 1,614 sponsors of apprenticeships

■ 119 distinct apprentice occupations (by Standard Occupational Classification)

■ Median starting wage: $14.25

■ Over 80% of active apprentices fall within occupations most traditionally associated with skilled trades:

Construction and extraction-related (6,581)

Installation, maintenance, and repair (1,934)

Production (1,062)

Note: Data for FY22 was provided by DOLI, as RAPIDS public use data only covers the first two quarters of FY22.

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FY21 FY20 FY22 2000 6000 10,000 4000 8000 12,000
Completed Active New
Figure 1 Registered Apprenticeships by Fiscal Year
14,000 0

Demographics

While the most common age of a new apprentice is 19, a substantial number of individuals begin apprenticeships later in their lives. Among active apprentices in FY21, the median starting age for apprentices was 26, and a quarter of apprentices were 32 years of age or older when they began their programs. Only 12% began apprenticeships after the age of 40. In terms of racial composition, registered apprentices appear to roughly mirror Virginia’s population, but the RAPIDS dataset is missing data on race for 11% of Virginia registered apprentices. An analysis of apprentice ethnicity is not included in this report as a majority of apprentices did not report ethnicity. Figures 2 through 5 summarize these demographic data.

White

Do not wish to answer Black or African American Multiple Race Selected

N/A Asian

Note: Fewer than 1% of apprentices identified as American Indian, Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian, or Other Pacific Islander.

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0 200 400 100 300 500 700 1000 600 800 900 Median Average 31 16 46 36 21 51 41 26 56 61 66 71
Figure 2 Apprentices by Age at Start, FY21 Figure 3
68% 18% 8% 3% 2% 1%
Apprentices by Race, FY21

Apprentices by Education Level, FY21

High school graduate (including equivalency)

Some college or associates degree

GED

Participant did not self-identify

Not high school graduate

Bachelor's degree

Note: Fewer than 1% of apprentices had a master's or a doctorate degree.

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Figure 4
76% 9% 7% 4% 2% 2% Male Female
Figure 5
83% 17%
Apprentices by Gender, FY21

Veterans Status

Veterans are represented among Virginia’s registered apprentices (6%) at a somewhat lower rate than in Virginia’s overall adult population (10%). Unsurprisingly, Virginia veterans begin apprenticeships later in their lives compared with those who are not veterans, with an average age at start of 33 and a median age at start of 31. Figures 6 and 7 summarize these data.

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No Not provided Yes 91% 6%
3%
Figure 6 Apprentices by Veteran Status, FY21 Figure 7
0 5 15 10 20 30 45 25 35 40 31 16 46 36 21 51 41 26 56 61 66 71 Median Average
Veteran Apprentices by Age at Start, FY21

Youth Apprenticeship within Virginia

Within the larger registered apprenticeship framework, Virginia tracks youth registered apprenticeships for high school students who work as apprentices part time while working toward a high school diploma. These apprenticeships are structured in the same way as the adult model. The related technical instruction component may be delivered by the high schools’ career and technical education (CTE) departments or independently through the apprenticeship sponsor. The RAPIDS dataset does include information on youth apprentices, but the field that flags their status is not included in the public use file. The data VOEE reported on for youth apprenticeship uses membership data provided by DOLI combined with the RAPIDS public use file. DOLI recently began tracking youth apprenticeship as a form of state-recognized work-based learning, and Virginia is one of the few states in the nation that is formally measuring this category of apprenticeship participation. At the time of this report, youth apprenticeship is designated as either a Youth Apprentice (which means that the instructional needs of the program are delivered by the school’s CTE Division) or Work-Based Learning–Registered Apprenticeship (RA) Apprentice (which means that the technical instruction is delivered outside of the CTE curriculum as specified by the employer/sponsor). These two tracks of youth apprenticeship are aligned with the Virginia Department of Education’s High-Quality Work-Based Learning schema. For the purposes of this report, Youth Apprentice and Work-Based Learning–RA data have been combined into a single measure representing youth apprenticeship in general. Figure 8 presents combined youth apprenticeship participation from fiscal years 2019 through 2022.

Note: The two largest areas of youth apprenticeship participation are within construction and extraction and installation maintenance and repair occupations. These areas contain the majority of occupations that are more commonly recognized as the skilled trades. Table 1 provides the youth apprenticeship breakdown for federal Fiscal Year 2021 as provided by DOLI.

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Figure 8
50 0 100 200 350 150 250 300 FY22 FY19 FY20 FY21
Youth Apprentices by Fiscal Year
New Active
FY21 FY22
Data provided by VA Department of Labor and Industry, as RAPIDS public use file does not track youth registered apprenticeship.

Apprenticeship Program Sponsor Structure

According to apprenticeship.gov, any employer, association, committee, or organization may operate (“sponsor”) a registered apprenticeship program.16 The sponsor assumes the full responsibility for administration and operation of the apprenticeship program. Sponsors can be a single business or a consortium of businesses. They can also be a workforce intermediary, such as an industry association or a labor-management organization. Community colleges and community-based organizations can also serve as sponsors of apprenticeship programs.

Sponsors design and execute apprenticeship programs, provide jobs to apprentices, oversee training development, and provide hands-on learning and technical instruction for apprentices. The programs operate on a voluntary basis and receive support from DOLI and by collaborating with community-based organizations, educational institutions, the workforce system, and other stakeholders.17

Within the RAPIDS dataset there are four apprenticeship program types for categorizing sponsors of registered apprenticeship within Virginia. These are defined as:

Individual Non-Joint: One employer is responsible for managing the apprenticeship program, and no union is involved.

Individual Joint: The apprenticeship program is managed by a joint apprenticeship committee representing both employees and a union with one employer.

Group Joint: The apprenticeship program is managed by a joint apprenticeship committee representing both employees and a union with multiple employers involved.

Group Non-Joint: No Union is involved in the management of the apprenticeship program, but multiple employers are involved.

13 Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships | 2023 SOC Major Group (Occupation) Active Apprentices Construction and extraction occupations 90 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 75 Architecture and engineering occupations 3 Production occupations 3 Food preparation and serving-related occupations 2 Transportation and material-moving occupations 2 Computer and mathematical occupations 1 Educational instruction and library occupations 1 Management occupations 1 Personal care and service occupations 1 Table 1
Active Youth Apprentices by Occupation (SOC Major Group), FY21
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Figure 9 presents the number of active apprentices by each of the four sponsor program types for fiscal years 2019 through 2022. Table 2 presents the count of registered apprenticeship programs that were active during those same fiscal years. Figure 9
non-joint
N/A Individual
Apprenticeship Type FY19 FY20 FY21 Group joint 21 21 18 Group non-joint 4 6 5 Individual joint 19 19 19 Individual non-joint 1,652 1,660 1,502 N/A 1 69 Total 1,696 1,707 1,613
Apprentices by Sponsoring Program Type Group Group joint Individual joint
non-joint
Table 2
2000 6000 10,000 14,000 4000 8000 12,000 0 FY19 FY20 FY21
Apprenticeship Programs by Sponsor Program Type

Registered Apprenticeship Sponsor Industries and Occupational Groups

Table 3 shows the self-reported industries of sponsors of active registered apprentices in FY21. A sponsor of registered apprenticeships may sponsor apprentices across several occupational groups, even if the apprentices’ occupations are not directly related to the core activities of the sponsor’s industry. For example, many sponsors in the educational services sector are community colleges or school systems that sponsor apprentices in a wide range of occupations that are unrelated to education or instruction.

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Table 3 Registered Apprentices and Distinct Occupation Count by Sponsor Industry Sectors, FY21
NAICS Sectors Active Apprentices Distinct Occupations w/ Active Apprentices Construction 3,194 22 Other services (except public administration) 2,748 15 (Not reported) 2,608 53 Manufacturing 1,730 45 Educational services 400 21 Public administration 368 35 Healthcare and social assistance 227 10 Utilities 163 17 Professional, scientific, and technical services 120 11 Wholesale trade 88 10 Retail trade 49 2 Administrative and support and waste management and remediation services 27 6 Finance and insurance 26 2 Accommodation and food services 12 2 Information 9 2 Mining, quarrying, and oil and gas extraction 5 4 Agriculture, forestry, fishing, and hunting 2 1 Arts, entertainment, and recreation 2 1 Transportation and warehousing 2 2 Real estate and rental and leasing 1 1

Some sponsors do not declare an industry when reporting their registered apprenticeship program’s activity. Table 4 reports the occupations associated with these undeclared sponsors. Construction and extraction occupations are the largest occupational category where sponsors have not declared an industry.

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Table 4
SOC Major Group Active Apprentices Construction and extraction occupations 1,161 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 678 Production occupations 377 Personal care and service occupations 187 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 92 Architecture and engineering occupations 44 Transportation and material-moving occupations 27 Educational instruction and library occupations 23 Office and administrative support occupations 11 Computer and mathematical occupations 5 Life, physical, and social science occupations 2 Business and financial operations occupations 1 Total 2,608
Registered Apprentices in Major Occupation Groups Where Program Sponsor Has Not Declared an Industry, FY21

Table 5 presents the distribution of registered apprenticeship activity by occupation and active apprentices for Fiscal Year 2021. Over 80% of active apprentices fall within occupations most traditionally associated with skilled trades: construction and extraction-related; installation, maintenance, and repair; and production occupations.

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Table 5
SOC Major Group Active Apprentices Distinct Occupations w/ Active Apprentices Construction and extraction occupations 6,581 17 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 1,934 20 Production occupations 1,062 25 Personal care and service occupations 959 6 Architecture and engineering occupations 530 12 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 213 2 Computer and mathematical occupations 94 6 Healthcare support occupations 94 1 Office and administrative support occupations 73 5 Educational instruction and library occupations 55 4 Food preparation and serving-related occupations 55 3 Transportation and material-moving occupations 50 2 Life, physical, and social science occupations 29 3 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 18 2 Business and financial operations occupations 17 5 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 5 1 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 5 2 Protective service occupations 4 1 Management occupations 3 2 Legal occupations 0 0 Military-specific occupations 0 0 N/A 0 0
Registered Apprentices and Distinct Occupation Count by Major Occupation Group, FY21

Apprenticeship Participation by Region

Registered apprentices work throughout the state, although they are concentrated in the population and economic centers of Hampton Roads, Virginia’s Capital Region, and Northern Virginia. Table 6 presents the geographic breakdown of apprentices by each of the 15 LWDAs within Virginia and where the sponsor of the apprentices’ program is located. Generally, the LWDA corresponds to the apprentice’s place of employment and residence, but sponsors may work with apprentices who work at multiple sites across multiple regions. A small number of sponsors register their program in Virginia despite being headquartered in neighboring states. Apprentices could be looked at using a variety of different geographic schemes. LWDAs were chosen for this report, because the primary audience is the Virginia Board of Workforce Development.

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Table 6
Region Active New Completed Hampton Roads 3,160 434 1,031 Capital 2,543 411 818 Northern 2,476 335 800 Shenandoah Valley 966 103 324 Blue Ridge 583 57 292 Out-of-state 593 31 199 Piedmont 432 42 80 Central 328 31 106 Bay Consortium 202 24 87 New River/Mount Rogers 123 59 73 Crater 158 14 60 Alexandria/Arlington 80 28 40 South Central 47 21 15 West Piedmont 56 5 21 Southwest 34 3 14
Count of Apprentices by Local Workforce Development Area, FY21

This paper provides a brief look at the current state of registered apprenticeship in Virginia in response to House Bill 718 (Filler-Corn)/Senate Bill 661 (Lucas). The VOEE teams hopes this analysis will be useful to the Virginia Board of Workforce Development, DOLI, the Department of Education, and the Secretaries of Labor, Education, and Commerce and Trade in their review of registered apprenticeships in the Commonwealth.

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Conclusion

Notes

3 (Chapter 2) Item 364 2022 Special Session 1, State Budget, Legislative Information System (LIS), Virginia General Assembly, Commonwealth of Virginia, https://budget.lis.virginia.gov/item/2022/2/HB30/Chapter/1/364/ 42022 Virginia Acts of Assembly ch. 699 and 700 https://law.lis.virginia.gov/uncodifiedacts/2022/session1/chapter699/, https://law.lis. virginia.gov/uncodifiedacts/2022/session1/chapter700/

5 A copy of the workforce board’s report to the General Assembly is available at https://rga.lis.virginia.gov/Published/2022/SD10

6 Robert Lerman and Felix Rauner, “Apprenticeship in the United States,” in Work and Education in America: The Art of Integration, eds. Antje Barabasch and Felix Rauner (Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer, 2011), 175–193, https://www.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-2272-9_10

7 Melissa Johnson and Katie Spiker, Broadening the Apprenticeship Pipeline: Pre-Employment Training and Affordable Childcare are Key to Access and Retention in Work-Based Learning Programs, (Washington, D.C.: National Skills Coalition, August 2018), https://nationalskillscoalition.org/ wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Broadening-the-Apprenticeship-Pipeline_web.pdf; Heather McKay, Justin Vinton, James Boyle, and Michelle Van Noy, Lessons from European States: Policy and Practice in Career and Technical Education, (New Jersey: Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Education and Employment Research Center and CORD, September 2021), https://www.preparingtechnicians.org/wp-content/ uploads/Lessons-from-the-European-States.pdf

8 Annelies Goger, Chenoah Sinclair, and Aaliyah Dick, An Apprenticeship FAQ: What Employers Need to Know About Talent Development, (Washington, D.C.: Brookings, March 1, 2021), https://www.brookings.edu/research/an-apprenticeship-faq-what-employers-need-to-knowabout-talent-development/

9 Annelies Goger and Chenoah Sinclair, Apprenticeships are an Overlooked Solution for Creating More Access to Quality Jobs, (Washington, D.C.: Brookings, January 2021), https://www.brookings.edu/blog/the-avenue/2021/01/27/apprenticeships-are-an-overlooked-solution-for-creating-more-access-to-quality-jobs/

10 Virginia Department of Labor and Industry, "Registered Apprenticeship Works (DOLI Apprenticeship Brochure),” 2018, www.doli.virginia. gov/wp-content/uploads/2018/10/2018-DOLI-Apprentice-Brochure.pdf

11 Lerman and Rauner, “Apprenticeship.”

12 House Committee on Education and Labor, “Fact Sheet: National Apprenticeship Act of 2021 (H.R. 447).”

13 Goger and Sinclair, Overlooked Solution

14 Joseph B. Fuller and Matthew Sigelman, Room to Grow: Identifying New Frontiers for Apprenticeships, Burning Glass Technologies and Harvard Business School, November 2017, https://www.hbs.edu/managing-the-future-of-work/Documents/room-to-grow.pdf

15 David Ress, "Youngkin Plans Major Reform of Virginia's Workforce Development Efforts," Richmond Times-Dispatch, August 25, 2022, https://richmond.com/news/state-and-regional/youngkin-plans-major-reform-of-virginias-workforce-development-efforts/article_4da658d0e4c7-509f-9e62-4ffe764920fc.html

16 ApprenticeshipUSA, "Registered Apprenticeship Program," U.S. Department of Labor, accessed December 28, 2022, https://www.apprenticeship.gov/employers/registered-apprenticeship-program

17 ApprenticeshipUSA, "What is an Apprenticeship Program Sponsor?" U.S. Department of Labor, accessed December 28, 2022, https://www. apprenticeship.gov/help/what-apprenticeship-program-sponsor.

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Appendix: Apprentices by Occupation and Local Workforce Development Area

21 Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships | 2023
Table A1 Registered Apprenticeships, Alexandria/Arlington, FY21 Major Occupational Group Active Completed New Architecture and engineering occupations 0 1 0 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 0 0 0 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 0 0 0 Business and financial operations occupations 0 0 0 Computer and mathematical occupations 1 1 1 Construction and extraction occupations 20 5 8 Educational instruction and library occupations 0 0 0 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 0 0 0 Food preparation and serving-related occupations 0 0 0 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 1 1 0 Healthcare support occupations 0 0 0 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 12 7 0 Legal occupations 0 0 0 Life, physical, and social science occupations 0 0 0 Management occupations 0 0 0 Military-specific occupations 0 0 0 NA 0 0 0 Office and administrative support occupations 0 0 0 Personal care and service occupations 36 10 27 Production occupations 10 3 4 Protective service occupations 0 0 0 Transportation and material-moving occupations 0 0 0 Total 80 28 40
22 Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships | 2023 Table
Major Occupational Group Active Completed New Architecture and engineering occupations 6 0 3 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 0 0 0 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 0 0 0 Business and financial operations occupations 0 3 3 Computer and mathematical occupations 0 0 0 Construction and extraction occupations 60 4 18 Educational instruction and library occupations 3 0 0 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 0 0 0 Food preparation and serving-related occupations 0 0 0 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 11 1 3 Healthcare support occupations 0 0 0 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 65 1 22 Legal occupations 0 0 0 Life, physical, and social science occupations 0 0 0 Management occupations 0 0 0 Military-specific occupations 0 0 0 NA 0 0 0 Office and administrative support occupations 0 1 0 Personal care and service occupations 50 12 32 Production occupations 7 2 6 Protective service occupations 0 0 0 Transportation and material-moving occupations 0 0 0 Total 202 24 87
A2 Registered Apprenticeships, Bay Consortium, FY21
23 Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships | 2023 Table A3 Registered Apprenticeships,
Major Occupational Group Active Completed New Architecture and engineering occupations 29 3 2 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 0 0 0 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 0 0 0 Business and financial operations occupations 0 0 0 Computer and mathematical occupations 0 0 0 Construction and extraction occupations 250 34 86 Educational instruction and library occupations 0 0 0 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 0 0 0 Food preparation and serving-related occupations 0 0 0 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 15 2 7 Healthcare support occupations 94 0 117 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 146 10 52 Legal occupations 0 0 0 Life, physical, and social science occupations 0 0 0 Management occupations 1 0 1 Military-specific occupations 0 0 0 NA 0 0 0 Office and administrative support occupations 0 0 0 Personal care and service occupations 43 6 25 Production occupations 4 2 1 Protective service occupations 0 0 0 Transportation and material-moving occupations 1 0 1 Total 583 57 292
Blue Ridge, FY21
24 Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships | 2023 Table A4 Registered Apprenticeships,
Major Occupational Group Active Completed New Architecture and engineering occupations 42 12 18 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 0 0 0 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 5 3 1 Business and financial operations occupations 3 1 1 Computer and mathematical occupations 6 0 6 Construction and extraction occupations 1,461 152 438 Educational instruction and library occupations 13 2 0 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 10 0 4 Food preparation and serving-related occupations 30 12 6 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 25 1 6 Healthcare support occupations 0 0 0 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 548 121 160 Legal occupations 0 0 0 Life, physical, and social science occupations 20 13 5 Management occupations 0 1 0 Military-specific occupations 0 0 0 NA 0 0 5 Office and administrative support occupations 0 0 0 Personal care and service occupations 247 67 128 Production occupations 106 17 23 Protective service occupations 4 8 0 Transportation and material-moving occupations 23 1 17 Total 2,543 411 818
Capital, FY21
25 Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships | 2023 Table A5 Registered Apprenticeships, Central, FY21 Major Occupational Group Active Completed New Architecture and engineering occupations 3 0 0 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 0 0 0 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 0 0 0 Business and financial operations occupations 0 0 0 Computer and mathematical occupations 0 0 0 Construction and extraction occupations 116 8 39 Educational instruction and library occupations 0 0 0 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 0 0 0 Food preparation and serving-related occupations 0 0 0 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 10 0 1 Healthcare support occupations 0 0 0 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 95 11 36 Legal occupations 0 0 0 Life, physical, and social science occupations 0 0 0 Management occupations 0 0 0 Military-specific occupations 0 0 0 NA 0 0 0 Office and administrative support occupations 0 0 0 Personal care and service occupations 27 2 20 Production occupations 77 10 10 Protective service occupations 0 0 0 Transportation and material-moving occupations 0 0 0 Total 328 31 106
26 Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships | 2023 Table A6 Registered Apprenticeships,
Major Occupational Group Active Completed New Architecture and engineering occupations 2 0 1 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 0 0 0 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 0 0 0 Business and financial operations occupations 0 0 0 Computer and mathematical occupations 0 0 0 Construction and extraction occupations 103 9 42 Educational instruction and library occupations 0 0 0 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 0 0 0 Food preparation and serving-related occupations 0 0 0 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 5 1 3 Healthcare support occupations 0 0 0 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 10 0 4 Legal occupations 0 0 0 Life, physical, and social science occupations 0 0 0 Management occupations 0 0 0 Military-specific occupations 0 0 0 NA 0 0 0 Office and administrative support occupations 0 0 0 Personal care and service occupations 16 3 8 Production occupations 22 1 2 Protective service occupations 0 0 0 Transportation and material-moving occupations 0 0 0 Total 158 14 60
Crater, FY21
27 Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships | 2023 Table 7
Major Occupational Group Active Completed New Architecture and engineering occupations 97 46 27 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 0 0 0 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 0 0 0 Business and financial operations occupations 10 2 3 Computer and mathematical occupations 2 0 0 Construction and extraction occupations 1,676 168 513 Educational instruction and library occupations 0 0 0 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 8 0 1 Food preparation and serving-related occupations 25 0 0 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 59 26 36 Healthcare support occupations 0 0 0 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 373 38 133 Legal occupations 0 0 0 Life, physical, and social science occupations 9 5 2 Management occupations 0 0 0 Military-specific occupations 0 0 0 NA 0 0 1 Office and administrative support occupations 34 9 25 Personal care and service occupations 168 55 112 Production occupations 680 85 178 Protective service occupations 0 0 0 Transportation and material-moving occupations 19 0 0 Total 3,160 434 1,031
Registered Apprenticeships, Hampton Roads, FY21
28 Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships | 2023 Table A8
Major Occupational Group Active Completed New Architecture and engineering occupations 1 0 0 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 0 0 0 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 0 0 0 Business and financial operations occupations 0 4 0 Computer and mathematical occupations 0 0 0 Construction and extraction occupations 21 5 7 Educational instruction and library occupations 0 0 0 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 0 0 0 Food preparation and serving-related occupations 0 0 0 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 17 2 11 Healthcare support occupations 0 0 0 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 21 2 1 Legal occupations 0 0 0 Life, physical, and social science occupations 0 0 0 Management occupations 0 1 0 Military-specific occupations 0 0 0 NA 0 0 0 Office and administrative support occupations 0 0 0 Personal care and service occupations 21 9 14 Production occupations 42 36 40 Protective service occupations 0 0 0 Transportation and material-moving occupations 0 0 0 Total 123 59 73
Registered Apprenticeships, New River/Mount Rogers, FY21
29 Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships | 2023 Table A9 Registered Apprenticeships, Northern, FY21 Major Occupational Group Active Completed New Architecture and engineering occupations 32 3 8 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 0 0 0 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 0 0 0 Business and financial operations occupations 4 2 4 Computer and mathematical occupations 77 7 52 Construction and extraction occupations 1,882 244 497 Educational instruction and library occupations 0 0 0 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 0 0 0 Food preparation and serving-related occupations 0 0 0 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 31 8 15 Healthcare support occupations 0 0 0 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 230 24 79 Legal occupations 0 0 0 Life, physical, and social science occupations 0 0 0 Management occupations 2 0 2 Military-specific occupations 0 0 0 NA 0 0 0 Office and administrative support occupations 28 1 31 Personal care and service occupations 186 46 106 Production occupations 4 0 6 Protective service occupations 0 0 0 Transportation and material-moving occupations 0 0 0 Total 2,476 335 800
30 Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships | 2023 Table A10 Registered Apprenticeships,
Major Occupational Group Active Completed New Architecture and engineering occupations 13 0 0 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 0 0 0 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 0 0 0 Business and financial operations occupations 0 0 0 Computer and mathematical occupations 1 0 0 Construction and extraction occupations 209 18 29 Educational instruction and library occupations 5 0 0 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 0 0 0 Food preparation and serving-related occupations 0 0 0 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 7 2 2 Healthcare support occupations 0 0 0 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 121 10 9 Legal occupations 0 0 0 Life, physical, and social science occupations 0 0 0 Management occupations 0 0 0 Military-specific occupations 0 0 0 NA 0 0 0 Office and administrative support occupations 0 0 0 Personal care and service occupations 64 11 38 Production occupations 12 1 2 Protective service occupations 0 0 0 Transportation and material-moving occupations 0 0 0 Total 432 42 80
Piedmont, FY21
31 Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships | 2023 Table A11
Major Occupational Group Active Completed New Architecture and engineering occupations 294 54 148 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 5 0 5 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 0 0 0 Business and financial operations occupations 0 0 0 Computer and mathematical occupations 5 0 0 Construction and extraction occupations 164 10 36 Educational instruction and library occupations 21 5 13 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 0 0 0 Food preparation and serving-related occupations 0 0 0 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 23 4 12 Healthcare support occupations 0 0 0 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 282 13 60 Legal occupations 0 0 0 Life, physical, and social science occupations 0 0 0 Management occupations 0 0 0 Military-specific occupations 0 0 0 NA 0 0 0 Office and administrative support occupations 11 0 0 Personal care and service occupations 73 12 34 Production occupations 81 5 15 Protective service occupations 0 0 0 Transportation and material-moving occupations 7 0 1 Total 966 103 324
Registered Apprenticeships, Shenandoah Valley, FY21
32 Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships | 2023 Table A12
Major Occupational Group Active Completed New Architecture and engineering occupations 9 9 7 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 0 0 0 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 0 0 0 Business and financial operations occupations 0 0 0 Computer and mathematical occupations 2 4 2 Construction and extraction occupations 18 5 4 Educational instruction and library occupations 0 0 0 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 0 0 0 Food preparation and serving-related occupations 0 0 0 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 1 0 0 Healthcare support occupations 0 0 0 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 3 1 0 Legal occupations 0 0 0 Life, physical, and social science occupations 0 0 0 Management occupations 0 0 0 Military-specific occupations 0 0 0 NA 0 0 0 Office and administrative support occupations 0 0 0 Personal care and service occupations 6 1 1 Production occupations 8 1 1 Protective service occupations 0 0 0 Transportation and material-moving occupations 0 0 0 Total 47 21 15
Registered Apprenticeships, South Central, FY21
33 Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships | 2023 Table A13 Registered Apprenticeships, Southwest, FY21 Major Occupational Group Active Completed New Architecture and engineering occupations 0 0 0 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 0 0 0 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 0 0 0 Business and financial operations occupations 0 0 0 Computer and mathematical occupations 0 0 0 Construction and extraction occupations 2 0 0 Educational instruction and library occupations 13 0 2 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 0 0 0 Food preparation and serving-related occupations 0 0 0 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 3 1 2 Healthcare support occupations 0 0 0 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 1 0 0 Legal occupations 0 0 0 Life, physical, and social science occupations 0 0 0 Management occupations 0 0 0 Military-specific occupations 0 0 0 NA 0 0 0 Office and administrative support occupations 0 0 0 Personal care and service occupations 12 2 10 Production occupations 3 0 0 Protective service occupations 0 0 0 Transportation and material-moving occupations 0 0 0 Total 34 3 14
34 Analysis of Virginia Registered Apprenticeships | 2023 Table A14
Major Occupational Group Active Completed New Architecture and engineering occupations 2 0 0 Arts, design, entertainment, sports, and media occupations 0 0 0 Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance occupations 0 0 0 Business and financial operations occupations 0 0 0 Computer and mathematical occupations 0 0 0 Construction and extraction occupations 11 0 11 Educational instruction and library occupations 0 0 0 Farming, fishing, and forestry occupations 0 0 0 Food preparation and serving-related occupations 0 0 0 Healthcare practitioners and technical occupations 5 1 3 Healthcare support occupations 0 0 0 Installation, maintenance, and repair occupations 22 3 4 Legal occupations 0 0 0 Life, physical, and social science occupations 0 0 0 Management occupations 0 0 0 Military-specific occupations 0 0 0 NA 0 0 0 Office and administrative support occupations 0 0 0 Personal care and service occupations 10 0 2 Production occupations 6 1 1 Protective service occupations 0 0 0 Transportation and material-moving occupations 0 0 0 Total 56 5 21
Registered Apprenticeships, West Piedmont, FY21
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