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USJTF “Special Warfare” Corps

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United States Joint Task Force “Tip of the Spear” Battle Drill Training Manual V 1.0 (2013)


What is this manual? This USJTF manual provides a doctrinal framework on how the United States Joint Task Force trains using standardized “Battle Drills� on the Airsoft field. It also addresses administrative issues for training and the layout of the USJTF Battle Drills in sequential order. Content discussions include principles for Airsoft Training, tactics, techniques, procedures, terms, and standardized training that apply to all USJTF Airsoft MILSIM Units Worldwide. This manual is not intended to be a stand-alone publication. To fully understand operations of the United States Joint Task Force, leaders must have an understanding of all aspects of operations, organization, and doctrine encompassing the organization. The primary audiences for this manual are Infantry, Reconnaissance, and Special Warfare Company Commanders, Executive Officers, Strike Group Leaders, Strike Team Leaders, and Individual Enlisted members. Secondary audiences include Corps, Division, Brigade, and Battalion Commanders and Executive Officers in the Senior USJTF Command Structure to include Sergeant Majors. Training cadre of the USJTF Training Schools and their appointed administrative staff are also directed to teach doctrine from the USJTF Battle Drill Manual. USJTF leaders must understand this manual before they can train their units using USJTF Battle Drill training. They should use this manual as a set along with the publications listed in the references. The version number (Current Version Number1.0) identifies the current copies from the previous editions. Although these changes include lessons learned from training and USJTF operations all over the United States and the world, they are not specific to any particular area on the planet. They are intended to apply across the entire spectrum of the USJTF MILSIM Airsoft Organization.

The proponent for this publication is USJTF Headquarters. The preparing agency is the Senior Command Staff (USJTF). You may send comments and recommendations for improvement of this manual by e-mail, or telephone. Point of contact information follows: E-mail: Staff@usjtf.org Phone: 785-365-9815 This publication applies to all members of the United States Joint Task Force (USJTF) unless otherwise stated. Teams are encouraged to print a hard copy of this manual for review and reference. Unless otherwise stated, whenever the masculine gender is used, both men and women are implied.

Bradley Crawford Bradley Crawford Major General, USJTF


USJTF Battle Drill Training Manual V 1.0 (2013)

Table of contents What is a Battle Drill? How to conduct USJTF Battle Drill Training USJTF Task 1: Move as an Operator of a Strike Team USJTF Task 2: Perform Individual Camouflage USJTF Task 3: Control Movement of a Strike Team USJTF Task 4: React to Contact (Strike Group) USJTF Task 5: Prepare for and conduct a Combat Mission USJTF Task 6: Conduct a Point Ambush USJTF Task 7: Issue a Warning/Operations Order USJTF Task 8: Conduct a Reconnaissance USJTF Task 9: Airsoft Short Range Marksmanship USJTF Task 9 (Annex): ASRM Range Setup USJTF Task 10: Send in a SALUTE Report USJTF Task 11: Set up a USJTF Command Post USJTF Task 12: Standardized Communications Procedures USJTF Task 13: USJTF Standardized Hand and Arm Signals


What is a Battle Drill? Battle drills are "A collective action rapidly executed without applying a deliberate decision-making process" and make things much easier to understand when the BB's are flying. Also since we all operate the same in the USJTF we can tackle these problems regardless of Airsoft Team we are part of or worldwide location due to our training and knowledge of handling problems on the airsoft Battlefield through the "13" USJTF Battle Drills.

So why do we conduct Battle Drills in the USJTF? -They apply to Strike Group or smaller units -They require minimal leader orders to accomplish and are standard throughout the USJTF -Sequential actions are vital to success in combat or critical to preserving Airsoft Combat Power. -All USJTF Teams Train the Same way regardless of location by the Battle Drills -They identify key actions that leaders and soldiers must perform quickly. -They provide for a smooth transition from one activity to another; for example, from movement to offensive action to defensive action. -They provide standardized actions that link soldier and collective tasks at the USJTF Strike Group level and below. -They require the full understanding of each individual and leader, and continual practice -They are trained responses to enemy actions or leader's orders. -They represent mental steps followed for offensive and defensive actions in training and combat.

So why are these drills important? A USJTF Units ability regardless of size to accomplish its mission often depends on USJTF Members and leaders to execute key actions quickly. All USJTF Members and their leaders must know their immediate reaction to enemy contact as well as follow-up actions. Drills are limited to situations requiring instantaneous response; therefore, USJTF Members must execute drills instinctively. This results from continual practice. Drills provide small units with standard procedures essential for building strength and aggressiveness. The format for USJTF drills discussed in this posting includes the title, the SITUATION that would cue the unit or the leader into initiating the drill, the REQUIRED ACTIONS in sequence, and supporting illustrations. When you fight with a group of people who know how to fight like you do…not only do you know how they will fight and react on the airsoft battlefield, you can also work jointly with them regardless of world location due to the fact that your training is the same training they use.


How to conduct USJTF Battle Drill Training • Action: learn how to use the USJTF Battle Drills and make them into a training event • Conditions: Online Presentation • Standards: Be able to conduct USJTF Battle Drill Training with Company, Battalion, or Brigade elements in the USJTF.

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The purpose of Battle Drills? • The goal of training is to produce combat ready units that respond to known or suspected enemy activity and defeat the enemy. Drill training is a key factor in achieving that goal. It describes a training method for small units. This method requires training individual tasks, leader tasks, and collective tasks before the conduct of critical Airsoft missions. Leaders should tailor training to realistic, challenging, and attainable goals while increasing the difficulty of conditions as the unit becomes more proficient. A battle drill is a collective action executed by a Company or smaller element without the application of a deliberate decision-making process. The action is vital to success in combat or critical to preserve combat power. The drill is initiated on a cue, such as an enemy action or simply a leader’s order, and is a trained response to the given stimulus. It requires minimum leader orders to accomplish and is standard throughout the USJTF Regardless of location or Unit.

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Advantages Drills have the following advantages (1) They are based on unit missions and the specific tasks, standards, and performance measures required to support mission proficiency. (2) They build from simple to complex and focus on the basics. (3) They link how-to-train and how-to-fight at small unit level (Strike Team). (4) They provide an agenda for continuous coaching and mentoring. (5) They develop leaders and build teamwork and cohesion under stress. (6) They enhance the chance for individual and unit survival on the battlefield.

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Training Guidance

Train battle drills using a talk-through, walk-through, and run-through method. You, of course, must be a master of the drill to be trained. You may wish to periodically talk your Operators through the drill--explaining each Operators’s role and then have them go through it slowly, on open ground, correcting any mistakes as they go.

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USJTF Battle Drills The following drills are available for training effective (6 SEP 11) USJTF Task 1: Move as a Operator of a Strike Team USJTF Task 2: Perform Individual Camouflage USJTF Task 3: Control Movement of a Strike Team USJTF Task 4: React to Contact (Group) USJTF Task 5: Prepare for and conduct a Combat Mission USJTF Task 6: Conduct a Point Ambush USJTF Task 7: Issue a Warning/Operations Order USJTF Task 8: Conduct a Reconnaissance USJTF Task 9: Airsoft Short Range Marksmanship USJTF Task 10: Send in a SALUTE Report USJTF Task 11: Set up a USJTF Command Post

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How to use a USJTF Battle Drill sheet The sheet is broken down into three parts: 1) Task, Conditions, Standards and Admin Data 2) Performance Steps (What needs to be taught) 3) Evaluation Standards (What Operators must do to pass the Training) To use: Brief the members training by reading part one, Train by teaching the information in part two, and evaluate your training with the practical exercise in part three. Super Simple! “Tip of the spear�


Methods of training To use the USJTF Battle Drills in training there are many methods One on one: Training a specific task to a small group of Operators (Example: Teaching one USJTF Battle Drill) Round Robin Training: Training a specific task to a small group of Operators (Example: Teaching one USJTF Battle Drill)

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One on one Training Requirements Manpower: 1 instructor per 10 Students Time: 1 Hour per Battle Drill Trained Classes that can be taught: No more than (3) a Day Set Up: 1 Table, Chairs, Dry Erase Board, Courseware Instructor reads task conditions and standards to students and teaches the courseware based off the performance standards and graphic aids to help learning. Students are evaluated off a practical exercise by GO or NO-GO as stated on the score sheet.

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Round Robin Training Requirements Manpower: 1 instructor per station, 1 senior instructor (To monitor) Station attendance (Students): 5-10 at each station Time: 1 Hour per station on each Battle Drill Trained Classes that can be taught: No more than (5) a Day Set Up: 1 Table, Chairs, Dry Erase Board, Courseware per station Students are split up in equal groups and assigned to “Training Stations” These stations teach for an hour at a time. A flowchart and schedule is provided to show the trainees where they go to next. Instructor reads task conditions and standards to students and teaches the courseware based off the performance standards and graphic aids to help learning. Students are evaluated off a practical exercise by GO or NO-GO as stated on the score sheet. After the Hour is up students move to the next training station in the “Round Robin” until all stations are complete.

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“Example” Round Robin Training Session Group 1: 5-10 Students

Station 2 USJTF Task 2: Perform Individual Camouflage 1 Instructor

Station 1 USJTF Task 1: Move as a member of a Strike Team 1 Instructor

Group 5: 5-10 Students

Station 5 USJTF Task 10: Send a SALUTE Report 1 Instructor

Switch groups Every Hour in a clockwise direction

Group 2: 5-10 Students Group 4: 5-10 Students

Station 3 USJTF Task 4: React to Contact (Group) 1 Instructor

Group 3: 5-10 Students

Station 4 USJTF Task 6: Conduct Point Ambush 1 Instructor

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Summary • A battle drill is a collective action executed by a Company or smaller element without the application of a deliberate decision-making process. • The goal of training is to produce combat ready units that respond to known or suspected enemy activity and defeat the enemy. • Go over all classes with a brief summary explaining the key points of the class

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Task: Move as a Member of a Strike Team USJTF Task 1 Effective Date: 2011 AUG 26

Enlisted and Officer: All levels

STP: USJTF Troop Manual STP 7-11B1-SM-TG

Conditions: In a designated position (other than Strike Team leader) in a moving Strike Team. Standards: Reacted immediately to the Strike Team leader's example and performed the same actions of the Strike Team in the designated position within the formation. Performance Steps 1. Strike Team formations describe the relationship of the Operators in the Strike Team to each other. Standard Strike Team formations are the wedge (Figure 1), modified wedge (Figure 2), diamond (Figure 3), and file (Figure 4). a. Strike Team wedge (Figure 1). This is the basic Strike Team formation. It has the following characteristics:

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Is easy to control. Is flexible. Allows immediate Strikes in all directions. Provides all-round local security.


Performance Steps b. Modified wedge (Figure 2). When rough terrain, poor visibility, or other factors reduce control of the wedge formation, the sides are closed up to (almost) a single file. When moving in less rugged terrain and control becomes easier, Operators resume their original positions. The modified wedge can also be used for extended periods when traveling on roads or trails. It has the following characteristics:

(1) Is easier to control in reduced visibility or rough terrain. (2) Provides less security to flanks than a wedge but more than a file. (3) Masks Strikes initially to the front and rear for the majority of the Team. c. Strike Team diamond (Figure 3). This formation is a variation of the wedge. It is most often used when the Strike Team is operating alone or is the lead security element (point) for a column or file. It has the same characteristics as a wedge except there is--

(1) Reduced frontage. (2) Increased security to the rear. (3) Immediate Strikes in all directions, but one man's Strikes are always masked.


Performance Steps d. Strike Team file (Figure 4). When the Strike Team is not using a wedge or diamond formation, it uses the file. The characteristics of the file are as follows:


Performance Steps (1) Provides maximum control. (2) Provides minimum frontage. It is the easiest formation to use in close terrain or vegetation. (3) Facilitates speed of movement. (4) Is less flexible than the wedge or diamond. (5) Provides immediate Strikes to flanks, but it masks most soldier's Strikes to the front and rear. 2. The distances between Operators in the formation depend on the terrain, visibility, and control factors. The normal interval in daylight is about 10 meters. Formations should not be held rigid, but should vary according to the factors of METT-TC. a. The interval is increased in open terrain. b. The interval is decreased when underbrush, terrain, darkness, smoke, or dense fog limits visibility. c. The normal interval is resumed as soon as conditions permit. Evaluation Preparation: SETUP: This task will be tested during a Strike Group or larger tactical exercise. The fully combat-equipped Operator will move as part of a Strike Team, operating as part of a Strike group conducting a dismounted movement to contact. The Operator may act as any duty position except Strike Team leader. BRIEF Operator: Tell the Operator that he or she is a member of a Strike Team moving within the Strike Team formation; must use proper movement techniques within the formation as dictated by terrain and visibility; and must follow the Strike Team leader's instructions or signals. Performance Measures

GO

NO GO

1. Kept relative distance within the formation.

_____

_____

2. Maintained visual contact with the Strike Team leader.

_____

_____

3. Performed the same action as the Strike Team leader while maintaining relative position.

_____

_____

4. Maintained the appropriate interval within the formation based on visibility, terrain, and the Strike Team leader's instructions and signals.

_____

_____

5. Assumed the proper position within the formation as the formation changed.

_____

_____

Evaluation Guidance: Score the Operator GO if all performance measures are passed. Score the Operator NO-GO if any performance measure is failed. If the Operator scores NO-GO, show the Operator what was done wrong and how to do it correctly. Certifications Required: None

Supporting Individual Tasks: None.


Task: Perform Individual Camouflage USJTF Task 2 Effective Date: 2011 AUG 26

Enlisted and Officer: All levels

STP: USJTF Troop Manual STP 7-11B1-SM-TG

Conditions: Given grass, bushes, trees, shadows, Mulitcam Uniforms, pieces of Lightweight Camouflage Screen System (LCSS), skin paint, charcoal, and/or mud for camouflage, load carrying equipment (Blast Belt), Ball cap with Mulitcam camouflage, and an individual weapon. Standards: Camouflage yourself and your individual equipment to prevent detection by visual, near infrared, infrared, ultraviolet, radar, acoustic and radio sensors Performance Steps 1. Identify critical camouflage considerations, incorporating an analysis of the following considerations: a. Movement. Note: Movement draws attention. The naked eye and infrared/radar sensors can detect movement. (1) Minimize movement, remembering that darkness does not prevent observation. (2) Move, slow and smoothly when movement is necessary. b. Shape. (1) Use artificial materials to break up shapes, outlines and equipment. (2) Move, staying in shadows. (3) Disguise or distort the shape of your helmet and body with artificial materials when conducting operations close to the enemy. Note: Gloss or shine caused by light reflecting from smooth or polished surfaces will attract attention. Remember moonlight and starlight can be reflected as easily as sunlight. c. Cover or remove the following items with tape or spray paint to eliminate light reflection. (1) Mess kits. (2) Mirrors. (3) Eye glasses. (4) Watch crystals. (5) Plastic map cases. (6) Starched uniforms. (7) Clear plastic garbage bags. (8) Dust goggles worn on the top of helmets. (9) Cigarettes and pipes. (10) Red filtered flashlights. Note: Flashlights - replace all red filters with blue-green filters. d. Color. Blend individual camouflage with the surroundings; or at a minimum, objects must not contrast with the background.


Performance Steps Note: When moving from one area to another, change camouflage as required. What works well in one location may draw fire in another. 2. Camouflage your skin. Note: Exposed skin reflects light. a. Cover your skin oils, even if you have very dark skin, using paint sticks. Paint sticks cover these oils and provide blending with the background. Note: Do not use oils or insect repellant to soften paint sticks. This defeats the purpose of paint sticks by making the skin shiny. Operators applying paint should work in pairs because self-application may leave gaps, such as behind the ears. b. Use the following table when applying paint on the face: c. Paint exposed skin on the back of the neck, arms, and hands with an irregular pattern. CAUTION MUD CONTAINS BACTERIA, SOME OF WHICH IS HARMFUL AND MAY CAUSE DISEASE OR INFECTION. MUD SHOULD BE CONSIDERED LAST AS A FIELD EXPEDIENT PAINT. 3. Camouflage your Mulitcam. a. Roll your sleeves down and button all buttons. b. Attach leaves, grass, small branches, or pieces of LCSS to your uniform, gear , and hat. These items will distort shapes and blend colors with the natural background. Note: The USJTF Multicam Battle uniform provide visual and near infrared camouflage. c. DO NOT starch Mulitcam; this counters the infrared properties of the dyes. d. Replace excessively faded and worn Mulitcam because camouflage effectiveness is lost. 4. Camouflage your personal equipment. a. Cover or remove shiny items. b. Secure items that rattle or make noise when moved or worn. Evaluation Preparation: SETUP: Ensure that all materials required in the conditions statement are available to the Operator. The buddy system should be used when applying paint to the face. BRIEF OPERATOR: Tell the Operator, in preparation for unit defense, he or she is to identify critical camouflage considerations, camouflage himself or herself or a buddy's exposed skin with paint sticks, and camouflage his or her individual equipment. Performance Measures 1. Identified critical camouflage considerations. a. Movement. (1) Minimize movement. (2) Move slowly and smoothly. b. Shape. (1) Break up shapes and outlines. (2) Distort shapes and outlines. c. Covered or removed the following items, eliminating light reflection: (1) Mess kits. (2) Mirrors. (3) Eye glasses. (4) Watch crystals. (5) Plastic map cases. (6) Starched uniforms. (7) Clear plastic garbage bags. (8) Dust goggles worn on the top of helmets. (9) Cigarettes and pipes.

GO

_____

NO GO

_____


Performance Measures (10) Red filtered flashlights. d. Color. (1) Blend camouflage with the surroundings. (2) Objects should not contrast with the background.

GO

NO GO

2. Camouflaged your skin. a. Used paint sticks to paint your face in accordance with the face camouflage chart. b. Used paint sticks to paint exposed areas of your neck, arms and hands with irregular patterns. c. Explained why mud should be considered last as a field-expedient paint.

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3. Camouflaged your Mulitcam Uniform. a. Rolled down your sleeves and button all buttons. b. Attached leaves, grass, small branches, or pieces of LCSS to your uniform, gear, and hat c. Do not wear starched Mulitcam. d. Do not wear excessively faded or worn Mulitcam.

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4. Camouflaged your personal equipment. a. Cover or remove shiny items. b. Secure items that rattle or make noise when moved or worn.

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_____

Evaluation Guidance: Score the Operator GO if all performance measures are passed. Score the Operator NO-GO if any performance measure is failed. If the Operator scores NO-GO, show the Operator what was done wrong and how to do it correctly. References: USJTF Troop Manual Certifications Required: None

Supporting Individual Tasks: None.


Task: Control Movement of a Strike Team USJTF Task 3 Effective Date: 2011 AUG 26

Enlisted / NCO: Strike Team Leader (CPL-SSG)

STP: USJTF Troop Manual STP 7-11B1-SM-TG

Conditions: As a strike team leader, while moving in a tactical environment, given specific instructions by the strike group leader as to the movement technique to be used, the route to the overwatch position, and the actions to be taken there. Standards: 1. React immediately to all of the strike group leader's orders or instructions. 2. Keep the interval between strike teams (10 to 20 meters between each team) appropriate to the given movement technique and to the terrain. 3. Move to the overwatch position and use the terrain to provide cover and concealment for the strike team. 4. Recognize the strike team operators' use of the following (and correct them when necessary): a. Camouflage, cover and conceal. b. Individual interval appropriate to terrain and visibility, while keeping all strike team members in sight. c. Noise and light discipline. d. Security measures (Operators are alert and ready to act). e. Response to leader's lead-by-example actions. f. Sectors of fire covered in all directions at all times NOTE: Corrections may be made orally or with arm-and-hand signals.


Performance Steps 1. Thoroughly understand the mission. Know-a. The destination of the strike team. b. The route the strike team will use. c. The actions to take when the strike team arrives at the destination. d. The location of the group leader. e. The location of the over watch strike team. 2. Inform the team members of the mission. 3. Be proficient in battle drill techniques, and apply the Group leader's instructions: a. Use camouflage, cover, and concealment techniques. b. Keep individual intervals. c. Maintain noise and light discipline. d. Take security measures. e. Respond to lead-by-example actions. f. Respond to hand signals. 4. Maintain a visual or radio contact with the group leader. 5. Use the lead-by-example technique to control the strike team. a. Control the desired interval (normally, it should be 10 meters between individuals) between the fire teams and team members. This may vary depending on terrain, visibility, and movement techniques. b. Make quick visual reconnaissance of the next overwatch position designated by the group leader, and lead the strike team through the terrain that offers the best cover and concealment available. Evaluation Preparation: SETUP: At the test site, provide all equipment and information given in the task condition statement. BRIEF STRIKE TEAM LEADER: Using the instructions and information given by the group leader, tell the strike team leader the route to the over watch position; tell him or her that the movement technique and the actions to be taken will be given to him or her. Performance Measures

GO

NO GO

1. Understood the mission. a. Know where the team is to move. b. Know the route to use. c. Know the action to be taken upon arrival. d. Know the location of the group leader. e. Know the location of the over watch strike team.

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_____

2. Informed the team members of the mission.

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_____

3. Used the proper battle drill techniques. a. Use camouflage, cover, and concealment. b. Control the individual intervals. c. Enforce noise and light discipline. d. Enforce security measures.

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_____


Performance Measures e. Use arm-and-hand signals.

GO

NO GO

4. Maintained visual or radio contact with the group leader.

_____

_____

5. Used the lead-by-example technique. a. Control the desired interval between the strike teams and Operators (normally 10 meters between individuals). b. Lead the strike team through the terrain that offers the best cover and concealment. c. Stay within 50 meters of the designated route.

_____

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Evaluation Guidance: Score the Operator GO if all performance measures are passed. Score the Operator NO-GO if any performance measure is failed. If the Operator scores NO-GO, show the Operator what was done wrong and how to do it correctly. References: USJTF Troop Manual

Certifications Required: Pass USJTF Tasks 1 and 2

Supporting Individual Tasks: None.


Task: React to Contact (Group) USJTF Task 4 Effective Date: 2011 AUG 26

Enlisted and Officer: All levels

STP: USJTF Troop Manual STP 7-11B1-SM-TG

Conditions: Given a Strike Group that has just encountered an enemy position. Standards: 1. Fixed the enemy with all available suppressive fire. 2. Assaulted the enemy's flank, rear, or other weak points, using fire and movement and all available cover and concealment. 3. As a Strike Group leader, took appropriate action to maneuver the Strike Group in order to prevent serious injuries or casualties to Task Force Members. Performance Steps 1. Act on contact. When unexpected contact is made with an enemy, locate and exploit his weaknesses without needlessly exposing the Strike Group to his fire. When contact is made, DEPLOY (Figure 1a), SUPPRESS, and REPORT (Figure 1b). Lead Strike Teams DEPLOY into positions from which they can fire, observe, or move to defeat the enemy. If elements in contact receive direct fire, they immediately SUPPRESS enemy weapons. If the enemy is located, but fire is not received, hold fire until friendly elements are in the best position to engage the enemy. Immediately REPORT the enemy contact to the USJTF Company commander in as much detail as is available, and continually update reports.


Performance Steps

2. Determine enemy location, disposition, and strength. The Strike Group gains information, not revealed by the initial contact, by careful maneuver against the enemy to determine his flanks or weak points (Figure 2). This process of fighting through enables the Strike Group to continue to advance against the enemy without undue risks. If the initial contact reveals that the enemy is clearly superior, the Strike Group does not risk moving toward him. Instead, it holds in place, returns fire, and serves as a base-offire for the Company until reinforcements arrive.

3. Choose a course of action. The Strike Group leader must decide whether to assault the enemy or to hold in place and return fire. Of course, he may be given another course of action by the Company Commander. 4. Fix the enemy. To close with the enemy, the assaulting force must suppress the enemy's fire (Figure 3). This is done by blocking the enemy's vision by smoke, or by shooting at him with enough accuracy and volume of fire to drive him from his firing positions. Once the enemy is suppressed, the assaulting


Performance Steps force can maneuver toward his positions without a lot of casualties. The assaulting force always tries to concentrate against the enemy flank, rear, or other weak points. The enemy is normally aware of weak points and will reinforce them when he realizes that they will be assaulted. Suppressive fire will fix the enemy so he cannot reinforce these weak points. However, smoke and direct fire will not keep him from redeploying along interconnecting trenches. To stop this from happening, the use of airburst indirect fires is required (Airsoft mortars or M203 rounds). Each situation will be different. Remember that the enemy must be FIXED BY SUPPRESSIVE FIRE.

5. Fight the enemy. a. Open terrain. On open terrain, there are no significant natural or manmade features that restrict the fire or movement of the Strike Group. For example, in a sparsely vegetated area, a Strike Group or USJTF Company may assault using FIRE and MOVEMENT. Elements of the Strike Group and USJTF Company use alternate roles as fire support and assault elements while they close with the enemy. b. Restrictive terrain. Restrictive terrain has significant natural or manmade features that will restrict the fire or movement of the Strike Group. Examples include fortified areas, areas fenced with barbed wire, mined areas, built-up areas, and extremely rugged ground. In restrictive terrain, USJTF Companies and Strike Groups normally organize by task into: (1) An assault element, to close with and destroy the enemy. (2) A support element, to suppress and fix the enemy by fire. (3) A breach element, to clear or mark a path through enemy obstacles or to (Simulate) blowing holes in walls for the assault element.


Performance Steps 6. Use assault techniques. The Strike Group moves forward as rapidly as possible by crawling, by making a series of short rushes, or by making a single rush. The Strike Team Leader chooses a movement technique based on the situation. The strike team members follow his example, using every advantage offered by the terrain.

a. Crawling (Figure 4) may be required when the strike team faces intense enemy fire and has little cover. Individuals use either the low or high crawl, depending upon their particular situation and the requirement for speed. This method is slow, but reduces exposure to enemy observation and fire. Individuals must place fire on the enemy to suppress him when they are not moving forward. If necessary, the members of the Strike Group may advance all the way into and through enemy positions using the crawl method.

b. The Strike Group uses rushing fire by standing up and moving directly to the enemy position as quickly as possible. This does not mean a parade field-dress-right-dress formation, but rather a staggered line with enough lateral clearance between men to allow them to deliver effective fire to their front. Movement must be rapid and it must be accompanied by a heavy volume of fire. The assault should be conducted over a short distance that can be covered quickly. It must be concentrated where the enemy's defense may be quickly overrun. (1) Short rushes may be used when cover is available (Figure 5). Fire and movement can be conducted using this method. Assaulting fire teams or individuals may advance by making a series of short (three- to five-second) rushes to avoid accurate enemy fire.

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Performance Steps (2) A single rush is rarely used. It should be used only-( a) When the Strike Group is receiving indirect fire, in which case immediate decisive movement is necessary to prevent the Strike Group from being destroyed completely. ( b) When the Strike Group is receiving direct fire and the lack of cover and concealment leave no other course of action. 7. Control fire. It is vital that fires be heavy enough to suppress the enemy. It would be fatal, however, to allow this suppressive fire to use all of a Strike Group's ammunition before an assault is made or before a possible counterattack is dealt with. Fires must be rigidly controlled to ensure that a steady rate of fire is maintained throughout the assault. Maximum use should be made of supporting fires such as Airsoft artillery, mortars, and M203 rounds. Ammunition should be quickly redistributed on the objective to help a Strike Group fight off a counterattack or continue an attack on order. 8. Use teamwork and control. A Strike Group without teamwork and control is nothing more than a small mob with weapons. Success depends on a high level of teamwork and control within the Strike Group. Methods of control are normally established by SOP. These may include arm-and-hand signals, oral commands, whistles and other sound devices, pyrotechnics, and "do as I do" techniques. Once methods are established, training and practice will develop teamwork. This training should cover reaction to as many different battlefield situations and conditions as possible. If a member of the Strike Group loses contact with his Strike Group leader and Strike Team Leader, his or her intense training will remind him or her of what they taught to do. It is the Group leader's responsibility to maintain the control and teamwork of his or her Group in all situations. Evaluation Preparation: SETUP: At the test site, given the information in the task condition statement. BRIEF LEADER: Tell the Strike Group Leader to use his or her 2 strike teams to fix and assault. Set in an OPFOR force of 3-5 members in a defensive area. The leader must take appropriate action to maneuver the element in order to prevent serious injury or casualties to personnel. The leader will be given the enemy situation. Performance Measures

GO

NO GO

1. Acted on contact.

_____

_____

2. Determined enemy location, disposition, and strength.

_____

_____

3. Choose a course of action.

_____

_____

4. Fixed the enemy.

_____

_____

5. Fought the enemy.

_____

_____

6. Used assault techniques.

_____

_____

7. Controlled fire.

_____

_____

8. Used teamwork and control.

_____

_____

Evaluation Guidance: Score the Strike Group Leader GO if all performance measures are passed. Score the Strike Group Leader NO-GO if any performance measure is failed. If the Strike Group Leader scores NO-GO, show the Strike Group Leader what was done wrong and how to do it correctly. Certifications Required: Group Leader.


Task: Prepare for and conduct a Combat Mission USJTF Task 5 Effective Date: 2011 AUG 26

NCO/Officer: Strike Team Leader (CPL-SSG) Strike Group Leader (SFC-1LT) Company Commander / First Sergeant / XO

STP: USJTF Troop Manual STP 7-11B1-SM-TG

Conditions: In a combat environment, given a Strike Group or Strike Team, an area of operations, and a mission to conduct a security patrol. Standards: 1. developed a plan that included routes, key terrain, fire support, formations, control measures, and requirements for subordinates. 2. Conducted preparations, to include cleaning and test-firing weapons, maintaining equipment, and resupplying ammunition or needed equipment. 3. Used the designated formation and proper movement techniques. Detected any threat in sector, and reported all detections to the Company Command Group. Performance Steps 1. PLAN a. Receive the mission from the company command. b. Make a tentative plan. c. Start preparations. d. Conduct reconnaissance. e. Develop the final plan. 2. PREPARE a. Request supplies. b. Receive supplies. c. Conduct rehearsals. d. Conduct final inspection of all gear and weapons. 3. CONDUCT a. Depart the friendly lines. b. Cross danger areas (Enemy lines) c. Occupy surveillance/vantage points and report all intelligence info to command d. Move to re-entry point. All information is given to all patrol measures. e. Conduct re-entry of friendly lines.


Evaluation Preparation: SETUP: At the test site, provide the leader with the materials and information according to task condition statement as well as the mission given by the company command. A radio is required for the patrol and the role-player acting as the company command. Evaluator will set up a “Patrol Route” with a map given to the Patrol leader. A 2-3 man OPFOR force will be active in the patrol area. BRIEF LEADER: Tell the leader that he will receive a mission that specifies departure and return times and exact locations to reconnoiter. Performance Measures

GO

NO GO

1. Planned for the mission.

_____

_____

2. Received the mission.

_____

_____

3. Set up sand table for brief.

_____

_____

4. Stated which special skills personnel must go on the patrol, and who assigns them to the patrol.

_____

_____

5. Stated the principal consideration for selecting personnel for the patrol.

_____

_____

6. Conducted PCC/PCI’s (Inspections of gear and weapons) prior to movement.

_____

_____

7. Reported any enemy activity to command accurately during patrol

_____

_____

8. Conducted patrol and returned back to the Start point

_____

_____

Evaluation Guidance: Score the Leader GO if all performance measures are passed. Score the Leader NO-GO if any performance measure is failed. If the Leader scores NO-GO, show the Leader what was done wrong and how to do it correctly.

Certifications Required: Strike Team or Strike Group Leader.


Task: Conduct a Point Ambush USJTF Task 6 Effective Date: 2011 AUG 26

NCO/Officer: Strike Team Leader (CPL-SSG) Strike Group Leader (SFC-1LT) Company Commander / First Sergeant / XO

STP: USJTF Troop Manual STP 7-11B1-SM-TG

Conditions: As the leader of an ambush element, given sufficient personnel to accomplish the mission, suitable terrain and weapons. Organization and preliminary coordination for the mission has been accomplished. Standards: Eliminate or captured the enemy, or forced him to withdraw. Performance Steps 1. Plan the ambush. a. Conduct map reconnaissance. b. Reconnoiter ambush site (by air or ground if possible). c. Plan indirect fire support (Airsoft mortars and Airsoft M203’s). d. Issue order.

2. Supervise ambush preparations. a. Order, receive, and distribute needed ammunition, supplies, and equipment. b. Ensure soldiers get all the rest the situation allows. c. Rehearse actions. (1) En route to and from the ambush site.


Performance Steps (2) Chance engagement (If you are spotted moving there). (3) Crossing a danger area (Into enemy territory). (4) At the ambush site. d. Maintain all equipment and weapons. e. Inspect. f. Control movement to the ambush site. 3. Set up ambush area a. Move to Ambush position b. Set out 2 members on each of the flanks as security c. Set members spaced out on a battle line at the ambush site d. Camouflage individual members and assign sectors of fire e. Emplace Airsoft claymore mines and pressure mines f. Radio command when set g. Take weapons off of SAFE and prepare for contact


Performance Steps 4. Execute the ambush. a. b. c. d. e.

Security team alerts main force of incoming enemies Initiate the ambush with a casualty producing weapon when the enemy enters the kill zone Lift or shift fire. Assault through the position after enemy has been eliminated Search enemy casualties for intelligence.

5. Withdraw to objective rally point. Give any intelligence to all Task Force members. Evaluation Preparation: SETUP: Provide the ambush leader with the equipment, personnel, terrain, and information listed in the task condition statement. Provide a map with a location for the leader to set th the ambush in and provide an OPFOR force 1/4 of the size of the ambush force to walk into the ambush. A radio is also required for both the Ambush leader and the role-player for higher command to simulate a Higher HQ for the Ambush Force. BRIEF LEADER: Tell the leader to place the ambush element in the designated position, so the enemy cannot see it. Use a casualty-producing device to initiate the ambush, to lift or shift fires, and to withdraw from the ambush site. Reassemble the ambush element and occupy the objective rally point, then move to a prearranged location to disseminate information. GO

NO GO

Performance Measures 1. Planned the ambush.

_____

_____

2. Supervised ambush preparations and setup following all steps.

_____

_____

3. Executed the ambush losing less than 15% of his or her force.

_____

_____

4. Withdrew to objective rally point and gave any intelligence to Command.

_____

_____

Evaluation Guidance: Score the leader a GO if all performance measures are passed. Score the leader a NO-GO if any performance measure is failed. If the leader scores a NO-GO, show the leader what was done wrong and how to do it correctly. Certifications Required: Strike Team Leader or Group Leader

Supporting Individual Tasks: USJTF Task 2 (Camouflage and concealment)

Supported Drills: None.


Task: Issue a Warning Order USJTF Task 7 Effective Date: 2011 AUG 26

NCO/Officer: Strike Team Leader (CPL-SSG) Strike Group Leader (SFC-1LT) Company Commander / First Sergeant / XO Brigade / Division / Corps Commanders

STP: USJTF Troop Manual STP 7-11B1-SM-TG

Conditions: Given a Task Force operation order (OPORD), a map and an overlay of the operational area, pencil and paper, and a requirement to develop and issue an order to subordinates that support the higher unit's intent and concept and allow accomplishment of the mission. Standards: Developed a clear and concise oral order and issued it to unit members within the time allotted. Issued the order so all individuals understand their assigned tasks and coordinating instructions and in the standard OPORD format. Performance Steps 1. Apply troop-leading procedures. Develop an order that supports the commander's plan and allows accomplishment of the mission. The troop-leading procedures are: a. Step 1. Receive the mission. b. Step 2. Issue a warning order. c. Step 3. Make a tentative plan. d. Step 4. Start necessary movement. e. Step 5. Reconnoiter. f. Step 6. Complete the plan. g. Step 7. Issue the order. h. Step 8. Supervise. NOTE: You use troop-leading procedures (TLP) each time you receive a mission. Troop-leading procedures are a series of eight interrelated, overlapping processes that are often accomplished concurrently and do not follow a rigid sequence. Leaders use the procedures as outlined, if only in abbreviated form, to ensure that they leave nothing is left out of planning and preparation and to ensure that soldiers understand the mission and prepare adequately. The detail of the order varies with the time available to prepare it. Standing operating procedures complement the order and serve as a quick reference for reoccurring tasks. The TLP sequence helps organize the order. 2. Issue the situation paragraph. a. Enemy forces. Provide available information on disposition, composition, strength, capabilities, and most probable course of action. b. Friendly forces. Give available information concerning the missions of next higher and adjacent units. c. Attachments and detachments. Give information concerning any friendly units that have been


Performance Steps attached or detached to or from your unit. 3. Issue the mission paragraph. Issue a clear, concise statement of the task to be accomplished and the purpose for doing it. a. Situation paragraph. (1) Enemy forces: Provide available information on disposition, composition, strength, capabilities, and most probable course of action. (2) Friendly forces: Give available information concerning the missions of next higher and adjacent units. (3) Attachments and detachments: Give information concerning any units that have been attached or detached. b. Mission paragraph. The mission paragraph contains a clear, concise statement of the task to be accomplished and the purpose for doing it. c. Execution paragraph. Provide information about the operation, if available. d. Service support paragraph. Provide all known instructions and arrangements supporting the operation. e. Command and signal paragraph. Designate the succession of command if it differs from the unit SOP. NOTE: Warning orders involving movement should state the time of movement. 4. Issue the execution paragraph. a. Given the concept of the operation, explain in general terms how your unit, as a whole, will accomplish the mission. b. Address each unit member by name and assign specific tasks they are to accomplish. c. Describe the plan for the fire support to synchronize and complement the scheme of maneuver. Address priority of fires, priority of targets, and any restrictive control measures on the use of fires. d. State the concept of employment of any combat support attachments--which will have priority of their use, how they are to be used, and how long they will be controlled. 5. Issue the service support paragraph. a. Provide instructions and arrangements supporting the operation that are of primary interest to your unit (location of and routes to casualty/POW collection points), including changes to established SOPs. b. Provide information on classes of supply that are of interest to your unit. c. Provide any administrative instructions that affect your unit, such as maintenance or destruction of supplies. 6. Issue the command and signal paragraph. a. Give the location of the higher unit command post. Designate the succession of command if it differs from unit SOP. b. Provide communications instructions to include visual signals, radio frequencies, and call signs. Evaluation Preparation: SETUP: Provide the Leader with the material listed in the task conditions statement (unit OPORD should be written). BRIEF LEADER: Tell the soldier to use the written Task force orders and develop an operations order at their level of command. Tell the Leader upon completing the order; he or she will give the order orally.


GO

NO GO

Performance Measures 1. Developed a clear and concise OPORD, using the standard OPORD format: a. Situation. b. Mission. c. Execution. d. Service Support. e. Command and Signal.

_____

_____

2. Issued the order in a clear and concise manner, and clarified questions.

_____

_____

Evaluation Guidance: Score the Leader GO if all performance measures are passed. Score the Leader NO-GO if any performance measure is failed. If the Leader scores NO-GO, show the Leader what was done wrong and how to do it correctly. Certifications Required: Strike Group or Strike Team Leader

Supporting Individual Tasks: None.

Supported Drills: None.


Task: Conduct a Reconnaissance USJTF Task 8 Effective Date: 2011 AUG 26

NCO/Officer: Strike Team Leader (CPL-SSG) Strike Group Leader (SFC-1LT) Company Commander / First Sergeant / XO

STP: USJTF Troop Manual STP 7-11B1-SM-TG

Conditions: Given a Recon Strike Group-sized element occupying an objective rally point (ORP) and a requirement to conduct final preparation for the unit’s reconnaissance mission and actions at the objective. Standards: The reconnaissance confirms the best covered and concealed routes, avenues of approach, overwatch positions, threat positions, surveillance points, and other mission-essential requirements for the Task Force. Performance Steps 1. Upon occupying the ORP (Objective Rally Point) and establishing security, the Strike Group leader conducts his map reconnaissance and prepares to conduct the reconnaissance Mission. The Strike Group leader tells the Operator in charge of the ORP: a. Who will be going with him. b. How long he will be gone. c. What to do if he fails to return. d. What to do if the reconnaissance party makes contact with the enemy. e. What to do if the ORP makes contact with the enemy. When do recon units shoot?


Performance Steps 2. The Strike Group leader takes a compass man and the Strike team leaders with him or her on the leader's reconnaissance of the objective.

3. During the leader's reconnaissance, the Strike Group leader points out the objective and picks the positions for the Strike Group members to observe the assigned area. He or She determines the best covered and concealed routes and avenues of approach. He selects overwatch positions and surveillance points to set them in during the mission. He or she determines threat positions, and gets any other information that can be used to report intelligence information to the Task Force. 4. After the reconnaissance is completed, everyone returns to the ORP. There the Strike Group leader shares the information obtained with the higher USJTF Command Staff. Evaluation Preparation: SETUP: This task should be evaluated during a field training exercise. Otherwise, assign an objective to watch and an ORP (Start Point) and provide troops to be Strike Group and Strike team leaders. Assign on a map and give a mission to the Reconnaissance Strike group to gain any and all intelligence information in the assigned are and report back to the Start point once complete. th Assign an OPFOR force 1/4 of the size of the Recon team and place them in the Objective area conducting activities. A radio is required for the patrol and the role-player acting as the company command. BRIEF LEADER: Tell the Reconnaissance Leader to conduct a reconnaissance of the assigned objective. Issue an operation order containing the information that would have been provided when the mission was assigned. Performance Measures

GO

NO GO

1. Updated the map reconnaissance.

_____

_____

2. Selected the personnel to accompany you on the reconnaissance.

_____

_____


Performance Measures 3. Moved to the objective, set in, and reported any enemy activity.

GO

NO GO

_____

_____

4. Evaluated each of the following using METT-TC. a. Covered and concealed routes. b. Avenues of approach. c. Overwatch positions. d. Threat positions. e. Surveillance points.

_____

_____

5. Returned to the ORP.

_____

_____

6. Shared information.

_____

_____

7. Completed the plan.

_____

_____

Evaluation Guidance: Score the Leader GO if all performance measures are passed. Score the Leader NO-GO if any performance measure is failed. If the Leader scores NO-GO, show the Leader what was done wrong and how to do it correctly. References: Certifications Required: Group Leader, Executive Officer, and Team Commander.

Supporting Individual Tasks: None.


Task: Airsoft Short Range Marksmanship USJTF Task 9 Effective Date: 2011 AUG 26

NCO/Officer: ALL Levels

STP: USJTF Troop Manual USJTF Task 9

Conditions: The procedures and techniques for implementing the USJTF rifle marksmanship training program are based on all Operators understanding common firing principles, being proficient marksmen, and being confident in applying their firing skills in Airsoft combat Standards: Conduct Short Range Marksmanship according to the USJTF rifle marksmanship training

program Performance Steps

Learning Step 1. Perform Preliminary Marksmanship Instruction for Short Range Marksmanship INSTRUCTOR STATES: Short range marksmanship instruction consists of Three components: Phase I, reflexive firing training (blank fire day and night); Phase II, target discrimination (blank fire day and night); Phase III, marksmanship qualification (day and night live fire. Because of time constraints, we will only be conducting: Phase I, reflexive firing training (blank fire day); Phase II, target discrimination (blank fire day); Phase III, marksmanship practical exercise (day live fire).

1. PRELIMINARY MARKSMANSHIP INSTRUCTION As with all other forms of marksmanship training, PMI must be conducted to establish a firm foundation on which to build. Task Force Operators must be taught, and must understand, the fundamentals of SRM. Dry fire drills are conducted to ensure a complete and thorough understanding of the fundamentals as well as to provide the trainers with valuable feedback as to the level of proficiency of each Operator. It is important during this training to emphasize basic Airsoft play issues such as muzzle awareness and selector switch manipulation. Task Force Operators must be drilled on these areas to ensure that future training and performance during Airsoft combat situations is done in the safest manner possible. The risk of fratricide

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or noncombatant casualties is greatest during SRM. Preliminary marksmanship instruction should include, at a minimum, the following tasks. a. Weapon Ready Positions and Firing Stance. Ensure that each Operator understands and can properly carry his or her weapon. b. Moving with a Weapon. Ensure that the Operator can move at a walk and run and turn left, right, and to the rear as well as move from the standing to kneeling position and the kneeling back to the standing position with their assigned gear on. c. Weapons Malfunction Drills. Ensure Task Force Operators instinctively drop to the kneeling position, clear a malfunction (Dropping Mag clearing the Mag Well of BB’s and reinserting a new mag), and continue to engage targets. This drill can be performed by issuing each Operator a magazine loaded with six to eight rounds of Airsoft ammunition fired till empty and a fresh mag to reload with. d. Target Engagement Drills. These drills teach Task Force Operator to move from the ready position to the firing stance, emphasizing speed and precision movements. Task Force Operators must be observed to ensure that the finger is outside the trigger well and that the selector switch remains on the “safe” position until the weapon is raised to the firing position. This is a safety issue and must be drilled until all Task Force Operators can perform to standard.

2. FUNDAMENTALS OF SHORT-RANGE MARKSMANSHIP During Short Range Marksmanship (SRM), there is little or no margin for error. Too slow a shot at the enemy, too fast a shot at a noncombatant, or inaccurate shots can all be disastrous for the Operator. There are four fundamentals: proper weapon ready positions and firing stance, aiming technique, aim point, and trigger manipulation. Mastery of these fundamentals is key to the Operator’s ability to survive and accomplish his mission in close quarters. All SRM related training should begin with a review of the principles of safe weapon handling assume the weapon is always loaded and never point the weapon at anything you do not intend to Eliminate. a. Firing Stance and Ready Positions. Regardless of the ready position used, Task Force Operators must always assume the correct firing stance to ensure stability and accuracy when engaging targets. The two weapon ready positions are the high ready and low ready. (1) Firing Stance. The feet are kept approximately shoulder-width apart. Toes are pointed straight to the front (direction of movement). The firing side foot is slightly staggered to the rear of the nonfiring side foot. Knees are slightly bent and the

2


upper body is leaned slightly forward. Shoulders are square and pulled back, not rolled over or slouched. The head is up and both eyes are open. When engaging targets, the gunner holds the weapon with the butt of the weapon firmly against his shoulder and the firing side elbow close against the body. (2) High Ready Position. The butt of the weapon is held under the armpit, with the barrel pointed slightly up so that the top of the front sight post is just below the line of sight but still within the Operators’ peripheral vision. The nonfiring hand grasps the handguards toward the front sling swivel, the trigger finger is outside of the trigger well, and the thumb of the firing hand is on the selector lever. To engage a target From the high ready, the Operator pushes the weapon forward as if to Point at the target and brings the butt stock firmly against the shoulder as it slides up the body. This technique is best suited for the lineup outside of a building, room, or bunker entrance. (3) Low Ready Position. The butt of the weapon is placed firmly in the pocket of the shoulder with the barrel pointed down at a 45-degree angle. The nonfiring hand grasps the handguards toward the front sling swivel, the trigger finger is outside of the trigger well, and the thumb of the firing hand is on the selector lever. To engage a target from the low ready, the Operator brings the weapon up until the proper sight picture is achieved. This technique is best suited for movement inside of buildings. (4) Movement Techniques. Task Force Operators must practice moving with their weapons up until they no longer look at the ground but concentrate on their sectors of responsibility. Task Force Operators must avoid stumbling over their own feet. The low ready method is the best method to use when moving or turning. To execute a left turn the Operator places his firing foot forward, shifts all his weight to the firing foot, and pivots, bringing the non-firing foot forward to complete the turn. To turn to the right the firing foot is to the rear, the weight is evenly distributed between the feet, and the body pivots on both feet. To turn to the rear, the firing foot is forward, the weight is placed on the firing foot and the body pivots similar to the drill movement “rear march.� (5) Kneeling Position. Although short-range engagements generally take place from the standing position an Operator may be required to engage targets from the kneeling position. The kneeling position is generally used when correcting a weapons malfunction. b. Aiming Techniques. Four aiming techniques are used during Short Range Marksmanship. Each has advantages and disadvantages and the Operator must understand when, how, and where to use each technique.

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(1) Slow Aimed Fire. This technique is the slowest but most accurate. It consists of taking a steady position, properly aligning the sight picture, and squeezing off rounds. This technique should only be used to engage targets in excess of 25 meters when good cover and concealment is available or when the need for accuracy overrides the need for speed. (2) Rapid Aimed Fire. This technique utilizes an imperfect sight picture. When using this technique the Operator focuses on the target and raises his weapon until the target is obscured by the front sight post assembly. Elevation is less critical than windage when using this technique. This aiming technique is extremely effective on targets from 0 to 15 meters and at a rapid rate of fire. (3) Aimed Quick Elimination. The aimed quick Elimination technique is the quickest and most accurate method of engaging targets up to 12 meters. Experienced Task Force Operators may use the technique at greater ranges, as they become familiar with it. When using this technique, the Operator aims over the rear sight, down the length of the carry handle, and places the top 1/2 to 3/4 of an inch of the front sight post assembly on the target. (4) Instinctive Fire. This is the least accurate technique and should only be used in emergencies. It relies on instinct, experience, and muscle memory. The firer concentrates on the target and points the weapon in the general direction of the target. While gripping the handguards with the nonfiring hand he extends the index finger to the front, automatically aiming the weapon on a line towards the target. c. Aim Point. Short-range engagements fall into two categories based on the mission and hostile threat. Most short-range engagements will be decided by who hits his target with the first round first. During this type of engagement it is more important to knock the enemy Operator out of the fight as quickly as possible. During this type of engagement Task Force Operators must aim at the “elimination zone” (center mass) of the target as in regular rifle marksmanship. Although shots to the center of the target may prove to be eventually fatal they may not immediately incapacitate the enemy. During SRM a shot that does not immediately (at times during a miss) hit the enemy may be no better than a clean miss. Because of this, and the possible presence of military equipment, Task Force Operators must be able to not only engage Task Force Operators in the “Elimination zone” but also to engage them with “First Round Hit” shots.

(1) Elimination Shot Placement. The Elimination zone of the target is center mass between the waist and the chest. Shots in this area maximize the hit probability of the round. Due to the nature of SRM, Task Force Operators must continue to engage targets until they call themselves out.

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d. Trigger Manipulation. Short-range combat engagements are usually quick, violent, and allow you no time to react. Due to the reduced reaction time, imperfect sight picture, and requirement to effectively place rounds into threat targets, Task Force Operators must fire multiple rounds during each engagement to survive. Multiple shots may be fired either through the use of a controlled pair or automatic weapons fire (4-8 round burst). (1) Controlled Pair. A controlled pair is two rounds fired in rapid succession. The Operator fires the first round and allows the weapon to move in its natural arc without fighting the recoil. The firer rapidly brings the weapon back on target and fires a second round. Task Force Operators must practice the “controlled pair� until it becomes instinctive. Controlled pairs should be fired at single targets until they go down. When multiple targets are present the Operator must fire a controlled pair at each target, then reengage any targets left standing. Rapid, aimed, semiautomatic fire is the most accurate method of engaging targets during SRM. (2) Automatic Fire. Automatic weapons fire may be necessary to maximize violence of action or gain fire superiority when gaining a foothold in a room, building, or trench. When properly trained, Task Force Operators should be able to fire six rounds (two three-round bursts) in the same time it takes to fire a controlled pair. The accuracy of engaging targets can be equal to that of semiautomatic fire at 10 meters with practice. The key to firing a weapon on burst or automatic is to squeeze the trigger, not jerk it. (a) For the majority of Task Force Operators, fully automatic fire is rarely effective and can lead to unnecessary noncombatant casualties or friendly casualties. Not only is fully automatic fire inaccurate and difficult to control, but also rapidly empties ammunition magazines. An Operator who finds himself out of ammunition with an armed, un-hit enemy Operator during SRM will become a casualty unless a fellow Operator intervenes. (b) Controlled three-round bursts are better than automatic fire but they are only slightly faster and not as accurate or effective as rapid, aimed, semiautomatic fire. (3) Failure Drill. To make sure a target is completely neutralized, Task Force Operators should be trained to execute the failure drill. A controlled pair is fired at the Elimination zone of the target, then a single shot to the head area (when required). NOTE:

Conduct a check on learning and summarize the learning activity.

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2. Learning Step 2. Perform Reflexive Fire Techniques

REFLEXIVE FIRE TRAINING Reflexive fire training provides the fundamental skills required to conduct shortrange marksmanship. It involves the practical application of all three of the fundamentals of SRM. All Task Force Operators must receive a go on the task Conduct Reflexive Firing, before proceeding with training. Reflexive firing should be conducted as refresher training as often as possible to insure that Operator’s skills are always at the highest possible level. This is a perishable skill that must be constantly reinforced. a. Reflexive Firing Targets. Targets can be locally purchased (FBI style) or manufactured by civilian companies (bowling pin targets). E-type silhouettes may be painted. They can also be downloaded below in this segments section as attachments. b. Range Setup. The range must be at least 25 meters in length with identification marks at the 5-, 10-, 15-, and 25-meter distances. Each lane should be marked in a way that prevents cross firing between lanes. A lane safety-coach is assigned to each lane to observe and evaluate the Operator’s performance as well as ensure the safe conduct of firing. All firing cues are given by the tower or line safety. c. Conduct of Training. Each Operator will conduct a dry-fire exercise prior to conducting the live-fire exercise. The dry-fire exercises will give the Operator the repetition needed to successfully engage targets quickly and accurately. Task Force Operators start at the 25-meter line at the low ready facing the targets. The Operator is then told the engagement position (for example, facing left, turn right) and, once in position, is given the cue to fire with the instructor stating “Target Front”. The Operator must, on cue, assume the proper firing position and stance, place the selector lever on semi, use the correct aiming technique for the target’s distance, and engage the target. After engaging the target the Operator will continue to cover the target to reinforce firing until the threat is eliminated. Rounds fired after the time standard will be scored as a miss. The number of rounds fired after the time standard will be subtracted from the total number of hits the Operator has scored. The Operator will be evaluated on a “GO/NO GO” basis based on the standards in the training (80% Accuracy required) and scoring table. Task Force Operators must complete a dry fire iteration before being allowed to live fire.

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(1) Each Operator will identify and engage the proper targets at ranges from 5 to 25 meters from the stationary position, while turning and walking. Task Force Operators must score a GO to qualify. NOTE: All rounds must impact on the E-type silhouette. Hits are defined as being in the Elimination zone (bowling pin). NOTE: If the Task Force Operators will be engaging targets with lasers, optics, or scopes, they should complete all steps using the same equipment. Do not have the Operator’s familiarize with iron sights and then fire the live exercise while using other optics or system to familiarizes with during training. Conduct of the Reflexive Fire Range The instructor calls out the following targets on the range during the live fire portion: Operators line up behind the Ready Line behind one target Instructor States “Operators Ready!” Operators Respond with “ready!” Instructor: Straight ahead 25 Meters Single shot “Target Front” Instructor: Straight ahead 10 Meters Single shot “Target Front” Instructor: Straight ahead 15 and 5 Meters Single shot “Target Front” Instructor: Straight ahead 25 Meters Controlled Pair “Target Front” Instructor: Straight ahead 10 Meters Controlled Pair “Target Front” Instructor: Straight ahead 15 and 5 Meters Controlled Pair “Target Front” Instructor: Facing left; turning right 25 Meters Controlled pair “Target Front” Instructor: Facing right; turning left 25 Meters Controlled pair “Target Front” Instructor: Straight ahead walking 10, to 15, to 20 Meters Controlled pair “Target Front” (Note: Operators must maintain a straight line with each other while walking stopping at the 20 meter target) Instructor: Transition to sidearm 25 Meter Target Single Shot until ammo is expended “Target Front”

Instructor: Weapons on safe! Mags out! NOTE:

Conduct a check on learning and summarize the learning activity.

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3. Learning Step 3. Perform Target Discrimination

TARGET DISCRIMINATION TRAINING Target discrimination is the act of distinguishing between threat and non-threat targets during SRM. During SRM, there is little or no margin for error. A shot at a noncombatant or friendly Operator, or slow inaccurate shots can all be disastrous. Target discrimination is an inescapable responsibility and must be stressed in all situations regardless of mission. It is essential that this training be aimed at instilling fire control and discipline in individual Task Force Operators. The first priority is always the safety of the Operator. a. Target Discrimination Targets. Target discrimination is best taught using two or more E-type silhouettes with bowling pins painted on each side of the silhouette (such as brown side and green side). The instructor calls out a color for the shooter to identify on the command “READY, UP” or at the “whistle blast.” The shooter quickly scans all targets for the color and engages using a controlled pair. This is the standard that all Task Force Members train to. It will effectively train Operators to accomplish missions under the expected Rules of Engagement. The OPFOR will wear distinctive uniforms during force-on-force training, which will prepare Operators to eliminate threats based on enemy uniforms and reduce the chances of an Operator hesitating and becoming a casualty. Using realistic targets displaying threat and nonthreat personnel is another variation. (1) Alternative methods include using multiple E-type silhouettes with different painted shapes (squares, triangles, and circles). The instructor calls out a shape for the firers to identify. On the command “READY, UP,” or at a whistle blast, the shooters quickly scan all three targets searching for the shape and engage using the controlled pair technique. This is repeated until one shape is mastered. Subsequently, a sequence of shapes are announced, and the firers engage accordingly. (2) Another variation is to paint a series of 3-inch circles on the E-type silhouettes. The instructors call out which circle to engage (for example, top left) and firers react accordingly. Marksmanship is emphasized using this technique. (3) Another technique for training is to use pop-up targets (electrical or pull targets). (4) A good technique for teaching Task Force Operators target discrimination is to have them focus on the target’s hands. If a target is a threat, the first and most obvious indicator is a weapon in the target’s hands. This is also the center of the uniform, which Task Force Operators should focus on. The Operator must mentally

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take a “flash picture” of the entire target because an armed target could possibly be a fellow Operator or other friendly, which is why Task Force Operators train on uniforms (green or brown silhouettes). This level of target discrimination should not be trained until Task Force Operators are thoroughly proficient in basic SRM tasks. b. Range Setup. The range must be at least 25 meters in length and each lane should be at least 5 meters wide. Each lane should have target holders and should be marked in a way that prevents cross firing between lanes. A coach/safety is assigned to each 2 lanes to observe and control the Operator’s performance. The lane safety, or senior instructor gives all firing commands. c. Conduct of Training. Each Operator must complete a dry-fire exercise. Regardless of the type of target used, the following method will be used to conduct training. The Operator will begin all engagements facing away from the target, which requires the Operator to identify and discriminate, and reinforces skills used during reflexive firing training. The Operator will be given a target description and, on the command “READY,” begins to scan for the target. On cue (“Up,” voice command, or whistle blast), the Operator will turn toward and engage the target. (1) Instructors should vary commands and targets so that the Operator does not fall into a pattern. Intermixing “no fire” commands will add to realism.

Conduct of the Target Discrimination Range (Color and Shape or Target) The instructor calls out the following targets on the range during the live fire portion: Operators line up behind the Ready Line behind one target Instructor States “Operators Ready!” Operators Respond with “ready!” Instructor: Straight ahead 20 Meters Single shot “Color and Shape or Target” Instructor: Straight ahead 20 Meters Single shot “Color and Shape or Target” Instructor: Straight ahead 20 Meters Controlled Pair “Color and Shape or Target” Instructor: Straight ahead 20 Meters Controlled Pair “Color and Shape or Target” Instructor: Facing left; turning right 20 Meters Controlled pair “Color and Shape or Target” Instructor: Facing right; turning left 20 Meters Controlled pair “Color and Shape or Target” Note: Add “Target Front NO FIRE” to add to realism. If an Operator shoots they are a “NO GO”. Also the instructor can add a pistol transition if necessary. Instructor: Weapons on safe! Mags out! NOTE: Conduct check on learning for the exercise

9


Evaluation Preparation: SETUP: This task should be evaluated during a field training exercise. Set up A range with targets (1 target for every 2 Operators) staggered at 25, 20, 15, and 10 Meters with 5 meters between each lane. Make a ready or “Start Line” with spray paint or engineer tape (This will be the “Standing line”. 1 Instructor will man every two lanes with a senior instructor observing.

BRIEF OPERATORS: Tell the Operators the standards/Safety/Fire Commands of the range, show them a practical demonstration, and have them line up with the Shooting Operator in front and the second Operator 5 meters behind the firing operator. GO

Performance Measures

NO GO

1. Gained an understanding of SRM

_____

_____

2. Demonstrated proper weapons stances, Fighting positions, malfunction drills, and target engagement drills

_____

_____

3. Demonstrated knowledge of Single shot, controlled Pair, and automatic fire and explained their use and roles as well as safety considerations

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

_____

5. Showed proper weapons handling and finger to trigger placement

_____

_____

6. Adapted to Fire Commands by instructors and conducted actions stated in a timely fashion (Concentration and focus skills)

_____

_____

4. Live Fire Portion a. Achieved proficiency in Dry Fire Drills b. Achieved 80% accuracy at the Reflexive Fire Range c. Achieved 80% Accuracy at the Target Discrimination Range d. Did not hit Non-combatant or friendly Targets e. Hit 60% of the Colors and Shapes or Targets Correctly

Evaluation Guidance: Score the Operator GO if all performance measures are passed. Score the Operator NO-GO if any performance measure is failed. If the Operator scores NO-GO, show the Operator what was done wrong and how to do it correctly. References: USJTF Troop Manual/USJTF Task 9

Certifications Required: None all USJTF Operators of ALL Ranks are Riflemen first

Supporting Individual Tasks: None

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USJTF Task 9 (Annex): ASRM Range Setup

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Example one: Range Set up Target Production

25 Meters to target

Mock M4 Airsoft Range

100MPH Tape (Ready Line)

Head Area Cardboard Nailed into 2X4

Chest Area Cardboard Nailed into 2X4

Wood 2X4

Ground Instructor Student Waiting

Student Shooting

4 Inch pipe(Wide) 8 inches long (Height) sledgehammered into ground 6 feet from target to left, 25 Meters away from ready line

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Example two: Clearing Barrel ALL Weapons firing this direction

20 feet across

30 feet across

Pickets or tent stakes

100 MPH Tape

Ground

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Task: Send in a S.A.L.U.T.E Report USJTF Task 10 Effective Date: 2011 AUG 26

Enlisted / NCO / Officer All Levels

STP: USJTF Troop Manual USJTF Task 10

Conditions: As a Task Force Member moving in a tactical environment with a Map, Pen or Pencil, and a Radio, Operators are able to record and call in enemy movements to the USJTF Chain of command in a uniformed fashion by radio that is understood by all USJTF Forces. Standards: Operators are able to send the S.A.L.U.T.E (Intelligence Report) to the Higher command 3 minutes or less from the time the enemy is observed.

The S.A.L.U.T.E Report a. SALUTE is an acronym for: Size (of enemy force), Activity (of the enemy), Location (of the enemy), Unit (the type of military unit or their uniforms), Time (of observation), Equipment (that the enemy has). b. When an Operator observes enemy activity, he or she is obligated to make a "SALUTE report" (referring to the enemy being "spotted") and present it in SALUTE format to his or her commanding officer. c. The purpose of a SALUTE report is to convey the most vital information regarding enemy activity in order to elicit professional discussion in the determination of a military strategy. d. USJTF Regulations state that a SALUTE report must be given to the chain of command within 3 minutes of observing enemy activity. e. The standardized SALUTE format is designed to train the Operator to quickly and thoroughly compile vital pieces of information in an organized manner. This efficiency in reporting also results in greater precision and detail of information. Performance steps 1. Identify enemy activity. Determine whether observed activity is friendly or enemy. If unable to make determination, report activity as unknown. 2. Record information in an intelligence report, using the SALUTE format. a. The SALUTE report is a report containing information for which speed of transmission is essential to the passing of critical enemy information to higher headquarters.


The SALUTE acronym (1)S-Size. Report the number of personnel, vehicles, aircraft, or size of an object. (2)A-Activity. Report detailed account of actions, for example, direction of movement, troops digging in, artillery fire, type of attack, Enemy activity, etc. (3)L-Location. Report where you saw the activity. Include grid coordinates (Off of the USJTF Map system) or reference from a known point including the distance and direction from the known point. (4)U-Unit. Report the enemy's unit. If the unit is unknown, report any distinctive features, such as uniforms, patches or colored tabs, headgear, vehicle identification markings, etc. (5)T-Time. Report the time the activity was observed, not the time you report it. Always report local or Zulu time. (6)E-Equipment. Report all equipment associated with the activity, such as weapons, vehicles, tools. If unable to identify the equipment, provide as much detail as you can so identification can be made by higher headquarters. (c)Remarks. Include any information not included in the SALUTE format.

3. Provide spot report to chain of command. Evaluation Preparation: Position two to four personnel (dressed in aggressor uniforms if available) where they are observable with the naked eye (or binoculars if available). Direct the aggressors to perform some type of activity such as setting up camp, cleaning weapons, working on a vehicle, or studying maps. Provide the Operator with a USJTF Grid Map of the test area. If you require the Operator to write the report, provide paper and pen or pencil. If you require the Operator to radio the report to someone else, provide two radios and an Instructor to monitor the Radios. BRIEF OPERATOR: Have the Operator write or radio the report of activity to the chain of command. Performance Measures 1.Recorded observations of enemy activity in a SALUTE report which included:

GO

NO GO

----------

-----------

---------

------------

a.Size. b.Activity. c.Location. d.Unit. e.Time. f. Equipment.

2. Reported all information to the USJTF chain of command within three minutes of observation.

Evaluation Guidance: Score the Operator GO if all performance measures are passed within five minutes. Score the Operator NO GO if any performance measure is failed. If an Operator scores a NO GO, show him or her what was done wrong and how to do it correctly.


Set up a USJTF Command Post USJTF Task 11

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Terminal Learning Objective • Action: Learn how to set up a USJTF Brigade or Higher command post to support USJTF members in the field at a Major USJTF event or Operations around then world. • Conditions: Online Presentation • Standards: Be able to effectively deploy, set up, and maintain the USJTF Command post to support USJTF Airsoft Forces at big games and events with planning areas, and on the field intelligence.

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Reasons for a Command post • The USJTF Command post Setup gives teams the ability to plan pre Airsoft game maneuvers, set up high tech computer systems such as the USJTF Battle-Net, and to track both friendly and enemy troops in one facility. • Pre Airsoft Game operations such as briefings and planning require such a facility for units to be effective for the Operation or event they are attending. • Gives the Officer in Charge (OIC) a centralized hub for command and control.

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Locations The USJTF Command Post Can be set up in a variety of locations Airsoft Operations Airsoft Skirmish Games USJTF Hosted Operations USJTF Training Locations USJTF Training Games During (CPX) Command Post Exercise Drills (Training sessions that focus on how to use the command post with the staff and the commander moving simulated troops)

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The USJTF Command Post (Set up the same way)

UAV Feed USJTF BattleNet (Intel)

CP KEY

Briefing Comp

Light

EXT Space for charger's Computer

INTEL Side

Map Board

Briefing Room

Chair Table Power Supply

Friendly force Tracker USJTF BattleNet (OPS)

Generator

Guard shack

Wire (Power) Walls/Camo net Projector

Operations Side Generator 100ft from USJTF Command post

Screen for projector Only Entrance Guard Shack Sand Bags 10X10 Pop UP

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Items needed • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Tables (6 Foot) (12) Chairs (Lawn) (19) Easy pop up Canopies (10X10) (4) Computer, Laptop (Intel) MIN (1) MAX (2) Computer, Laptop (Operations) MIN (1) MAX (2) CAMO Net by location terrain camouflage (60X60) Projector Screen and projector (1 of each) Power Supply with four ports and grounding plug (5) Cord Electrical 100 Feet (6) Cord Electrical 25 feet (12) Map (Area of operation 5 by 5 feet) (1) Lights, Car 100V (Hung up in ceiling ) (5) Generator: At least a 4,400 Watt 120V Rated system Sandbags (To mask generator noise) (100)

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Roles of the Command post • • • • • • • •

Act as the nerve cell for all USJTF Operations Collect and distribute vital information to USJTF Units Collect enemy intelligence information Collect friendly intelligence information Provide conference rooms for Senior staff meetings Provide briefing areas for field commanders Store and operate USJTF Digital Computer Systems Provide map boards for tracking of friendly and enemy elements

• Most important: Provide coffee and goodies to staff (J/K)

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Pre Game Functions • The USJTF Command Post is configured to not just host battlefield command and control, as it holds many roles. Briefings: Briefings are held in the command post for all events and operations. The command post provides a safe and secure area (To the enemy) to converse in. Brigade commanders should brief all company commanders before every operation. Divisions should brief Brigades and so on.

Meetings: Senior Staff and Senior commanders can host meetings in the Conference rooms on request.

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Duties of the Command post (guard shack) • Strike Team Element in shifts are the security for the USJTF Command post at major Games and events. • Limits entry to USJTF Members only by the rank designated by the (OIC) Officer in charge or other designated members by Pass (This is briefed to the SNCO Senior Sergeant of the guard shift by the OIC). Also Salutes Senior Officers when passing into the command Post (COL-LTG) are required. • Patrols outer perimeter for enemy listeners. NO NON USJTF Entry or listening permitted unless authorized by the OIC of USJTF Forces for the event! • Usually manned by a Strike Team (Min three members with a USJTF NCO) • Senior security NCO Reports all breaches of security to the USJTF(OIC) Officer in Charge Security force mission: To keep USJTF Plans and operations secret!

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Duties of the Command post (Commander) • Oversee USJTF Command post operations and work with the Intelligence and Operations Officer on all duties. •

Check Enemy and Friendly situations, reports, and intelligence and make a feasible command decision on where and how to move forces

Ensure any updated intelligence or Movement orders by the staff are immediately passed to friendly units

Work with Battlefield commanders keeping constant communications with USJTF Units Post up a guard roster for the USJTF Command post for all USJTF Teams at the event to follow and brief the guard force to your requirements to entry to the command post.

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Duties of the Command post (Operations Officer) • Track current update of all friendly units in the Airsoft Area of operations by either map with Unit Markers or Digitally VIA computer using the USJTF Battle-net system •

Ensure commander is updated with accurate friendly forces information

Ensure any updated intelligence or Movement orders by the commander are immediately passed to friendly units

Update and track Friendly forces losses and situation reports

Move forces VIA Radio around the battlefield on order of the commander

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Duties of the Command post (Intel Officer) • Track current update of all Enemy units in the Airsoft Area of operations by either map with Unit Markers or Digitally VIA computer using the USJTF Battle-net system •

Ensure commander is updated with accurate Enemy forces information

Ensure any updated intelligence or Movement orders regarding the enemy are immediately passed to friendly USJTF units

Update and track Enemy forces losses

Receive SALUTE Reports from friendly units and log them into either the battle board of the USJTF Battle-net system

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Task: Standardized Communication Procedures USJTF Task 12 Effective Date: 2011 NOV 6 Enlisted / NCO / Officer All Levels

STP: USJTF Troop Manual USJTF Task 12

Conditions: As a Task Force Member moving in a tactical environment with a Map, Pen or Pencil, and a Radio, Operators are able to record and call in enemy movements, talk with each other in code, and relay radio traffic in a standardized uniformed fashion that is understood by all USJTF Forces. Standards: Operators are able to use the radio with all procedures and have a general understanding of all reports and use of call signs and code words given over the radio by ALL members of the USJTF. ENGLISH is the only official language that can be used on USJTF radio network except for members of the Fifth Division. Fifth Division members CAN use their local language outside the United States when working in their home countries but must use English when working with USJTF forces in the United States.

How to work a Radio Follow the four golden rules of Radio conversation. Clarity: Your message should be clear enough. Speak slower than normal speed so that people can understand you better, do not shout. Simplicity: Your message should be simple for everyone to understand. Brevity: Your message should be precise and to the point (give max info in a short period of time). Security: Follow the security procedures; do not transmit confidential information on the radio. Important: Remove all roger beeps, check all batteries before use, carry extra batteries for your radios, and wear a headset if possible to eliminate noise (If you can’t silence them to the most minimal noise possible). All radios MUST BE CHECKED for full power, working order, and silencing methods BEFORE exiting the start AREA! Using the radio is not like talking on the phone, it is a two-way communication, meaning you cannot speak and listen at the same time or break into the conversation. NEVER interrupt if you hear other people talking. Patiently wait until their conversation is finished unless it is an emergency, in which case you must inform the other parties that you have a very urgent emergency message. Do not respond to others' calls if you aren't sure it is for you. Never transmit sensitive or confidential information in a radio communication, it could be heard by anyone on the same frequency.


SUPPORTING TASK ONE: Memorize the phonetic alphabet BELOW as you will have to use it in your conversations. Following is a table showing the international phonetics used for the alphabet.

Example: If you spelled AIRSOFT over the radio it would sound like Alpha, India, Romeo, Sierra, Oscar, Foxtrot, Tango. Use this to code or make messages more clear in sending. SUPPORTING TASK TWO: Team Call-Signs In wartime, monitoring an adversary's communications can be a valuable form of intelligence. Consistent call signs can aid in this monitoring, so in wartime, military units often employ tactical call signs and sometimes change them at regular intervals. In peacetime, some military stations will use fixed call signs in the international series. Tactical call signs, when used properly by well-trained and practiced operators, can prevent confusion, save a great amount of time, and also aid in making a net or operation run smoothly and efficiently BY IDENTIFYING THE UNIT OR PERSON THAT NEEDS TO BE CALLED OR WHO IS CALLING. When used improperly, or with poorly-trained and inexperienced operators, they will usually cause delays and confusion. The USJTF uses MODIFIED radio procedures adopted by the U.S. Army. All USJTF Teams are required to use the same series of call-signs to relay radio traffic in a standardized and uniformed fashion. Examples of the Team call-signs procedures are the following:

COMMAND ELEMENT (Example here: Viper is the Team Name SUB your company name to complete yours) VIPER 6 - VIPER TEAM COMMANDER VIPER 6R (SIX ROMEO) – VIPER TEAM RADIO OPERATOR VIPER 5 - VIPER TEAM EXECUTIVE OFFICER VIPER 7- VIPER TEAM FIRST SERGEANT


FIRST STRIKE GROUP VIPER 1 – STRIKE GROUP LEADER VIPER 1S (ONE SIERRA) – STRIKE GROUP SERGEANT FIRST STRIKE GROUP - ALPHA TEAM VIPER 1A (ONE ALPHA) - ALPHA TEAM LEADER VIPER 11 - RIFLEMAN VIPER 12 - DESIGNATED MARKSMAN VIPER 13 - SUPPORT GUNNER FIRST STRIKE GROUP - BRAVO TEAM VIPER 1B (ONE BRAVO) - BRAVO TEAM LEADER VIPER 14 - RIFLEMAN VIPER 15 - DESIGNATED MARKSMAN VIPER 16 - SUPPORT GUNNER

SECOND STRIKE GROUP VIPER 2 – STRIKE GROUP LEADER (2LT) VIPER 2S (TWO SIERRA) – STRIKE GROUP SERGEANT (SSG) SECOND STRIKE GROUP - ALPHA TEAM VIPER 2A (TWO ALPHA) - ALPHA TEAM LEADER VIPER 21 - RIFLEMAN VIPER 22 - DESIGNATED MARKSMAN VIPER 23 - SUPPORT GUNNER SECOND STRIKE GROUP - BRAVO TEAM VIPER 2B (TWO BRAVO) - BRAVO TEAM LEADER VIPER 24 - RIFLEMAN VIPER 25 - DESIGNATED MARKSMAN VIPER 26 - SUPPORT GUNNER


Important point: More Strike Groups can be added to the UNIT by adding “3 or 4” in front of the callsigns however they will hold the same configuration. Call signs will be used at all times. No “handles, nicknames, or real names” are authorized on the battle net at any time. Higher ranking formations such as Brigades, Divisions, and the USJTF also use call-signs to identify themselves on the radio such as (EXAMPLE: USJTF 6 “USJTF Commander” and USJTF 7 “USJTF Command Sergeant Major”). They hold the same numerical standards as Company leadership above.

SUPPORTING TASK THREE: USJTF radio reports Communications between land and air forces of the USJTF are critical in the coordination of both large and small groups of airsoft forces. All USJTF teams will follow the standard guidelines below for

radio reports. The formats are the following and can be used at the individual to command level:

1) SITUATION Report: Called by your unit or higher to determine what you have available by a percentage or by individual leaders to tell higher what they have available. This gives leaders a key indication of their strengths in troops, weapons, and ammunition. Situation Report Example (You in black (VIPER 1), person receiving (VIPER 6R) in red) (DO

NOT SAY LINE used for reference)

LINE 1: VIPER 6 ROMEO this is VIPER 1 SITREP Follows, OVER

LINE 2: Roger, VIPER 1 Send your traffic, OVER

LINE 3: Roger, Location GRID G4, Personnel Green, Equipment Green, Ammo Green, OVER

LINE 4: VIPER 1, this is VIPER 6 ROMEO, Roger I copy, Continue mission, OVER

LINE 5: This is VIPER 1, Roger, OUT Status Symbols your strength in each subject by percentage Green (100-75%), Yellow (74-50%), Red (49-25%), Black (24-00%)


2) SALUTE Report: When reporting any intelligence information to Headquarters or other USJTF Units the S.A.L.U.T.E. format should always be used. This will ensure all information is accurate and complete.

S=SIZE of enemy force. Actual numbers if possible. A=ACTIVITIES of the enemy. (If moving, give direction and method of transportation. Take your time. Be specific. Include small details, even if they seem insignificant.) L=LOCATION. Use the USJTF Map Grid Coordinates, or clear description. U=UNIT IDENTIFICATION. (Markings, symbols, uniforms, vehicles, or Team Patches. Don't give up until you are sure about this one...) T=TIME and DATE of sighting. Give the current Military 24hr time or am/pm. E=EQUIPMENT carried by the enemy. (To include: type weaponry, webgear, electronics, night vision, body armor, vehicles, tents, etc.) SALUTE Report Example (You in black (VIPER 1), person receiving (VIPER 6R) in red) (DO NOT

SAY LINE used for reference)

LINE 1: VIPER 6 ROMEO this is VIPER 1 SALUTE report follows, OVER

LINE 2: VIPER 1, this is VIPER 6 ROMEO, send your report, OVER LINE 3: Roger,(Size), (Activity) (Location),(Unit)(Time),(Equipment),OVER LINE 4: This is VIPER 6 ROMEO, I copy, continue mission, OVER LINE 5: This is VIPER 1, roger, OUT

IMPORTANT: Before you send the SALUTE message write it all down so it is clear, sent fast through the radio, and has all the information desired. Also on line 3 do not stop sending unless the receiver asks you to repeat a certain segment of information.


3) Contact Report: You have made contact with the enemy and you need to call back your report to higher headquarters (DO NOT SAY LINE used for reference) Contact Report Example (You in black (VIPER 1), person receiving (VIPER 6R) in red)

LINE 1: VIPER 6 ROMEO this is VIPER 1 contact report, engaging troops north of Grid Bravo six, Over!

LINE 2: VIPER 1 this is VIPER 6 ROMEO, roger, OUT

During the fight you will send further details when you can to the command on the following 1) Number of troops in area and location (Enemy) 2) Your situation and progress 3) Report if you are breaking contact or need backup After the firefight send a SITREP to command to tell them your Units status.

SUPPORTING TASK FOUR: “FLASH” Traffic FLASH is designated for commanders of Companies and above. When “FLASH, FLASH, FLASH” is called on the net all USJTF radio traffic will stop to listen to the message until complete. This is for Command Broadband communications ONLY!

SUPPORTING TASK FIVE: USJTF Alternate and contingency signals Although we rely primarily on radio communications, all USJTF members must be prepared to institute alternate and contingency signal methods. The USJTF SOP states the following alternate and contingency signals. Alternate Signals: Hand and arm signals designated by the team SOP Whistle blasts Use of TAC lights, chemlights, and signal mirrors for signaling Contingency Signals: Challenge and passwords, Verbal communications.


Whistle Blasts: While in contact, the order for shift fire is 1 whistle blast, lift fire is 2 whistle blasts, fall back is three whistle blasts In an ambush position, the contingency signal for commencing fire is 1 whistle blast, 2 whistle blasts to assault through, and three whistle blasts to fall back.

Verbal Communications: While in contact, the order for shift fire is “Shift fire Left, Right”, lift fire is “lift fire”, and fall back is “Orange” When flanking right, the order “Flank BLUE” is given. When flanking left the order “Flank RED” is given In an ambush position, the contingency signal for commencing fire is “commence fire”, assault through is “Assault through”, and to fall back is “Orange”.

TAC Lights and Chemlights: When necessary, members will use their TAC lights to signal friendly elements and inform them of their positions. This will be sent by flashing the individual once, and the receiver will confirm with two flashes Chemlights will be used at night in the same fashion. This will be sent by flashing the individual once with the chemlight, and the receiver will confirm with two flashes of the chemlight.

Challenge and Password: The enemy may come from any direction, especially when you are engaged in Airsoft operations and might try to mix and intermingle with your group to try to sneak in friendly lines. Keep watch in all directions at all times. Halt and identify personnel you do not know or have a definite indication that they are friendly before they are close enough to be a danger to you. This precaution is even more important at night and during periods of poor visibility such as heavy fog. A challenge and password is two words that DO NOT relate to each other (Example BLUE, MOON) and will be given to you by your chain of command for games and events. DO NOT FORGET THE TWO WORDS! To use the challenge and password if you are the challenger you say in this example BLUE, if the person you are responding to is friendly in this case he or she will say MOON. If you are being challenged you will hear the word BLUE which you respond by saying MOON. Use challenge and password at any time when you cannot identify if the person is enemy or friendly!


Performance steps 1. In a classroom setting teach the students the four golden rules of Radio conversation and silencing/Operations procedures. If necessary teach them how to use team radios. 2. Memorize the phonetic alphabet with the students until understood. 3. Review and if necessary adopt Tactical call signs by USJTF SOP for your team until understood. 4. Review and practice all three USJTF Radio Reports until understood. 5. Review and practice Alternate and Contingency Signals until understood. 6. Review Challenge and Password procedures until understood.

Evaluation Preparation: Set up two tables one for the operators (2) using the radios and one for the receiving end out of earshot acting as higher using radios. If you require the Operator to write the reports provide paper and pen or pencil. Talk through all radio procedures as in real time and then have the operators explain USJTF alternate and contingency signals. BRIEF OPERATORS: You will now go through the testing phase of USJTF Communications procedures. Performance Measures

GO

NO GO

1. Operator has a full understanding of the four golden rules of the Radio

_______

_______

2. Operator has a full understanding of silencing procedures and operation

_______

_______

3. Operator has a full understanding of the phonetic alphabet

_______

_______

4. Operator has a full understanding of the USJTF Call-sign Format

_______

_______

5. Operator has a Conducted a full SITREP Report successfully

_______

_______

6. Operator has a Conducted a full SALUTE Report successfully

_______

_______

7. Operator has a Conducted a full CONTACT Report successfully

_______

_______

8. Operator has a full understanding of the alternate and contingency signals

_______

_______

9. Operator has a full understanding of “Flash� Traffic

_______

_______

10. Operator has a Conducted a full Challenge and Password successfully

_______

_______

Evaluation Guidance: Score the Operator GO if all performance measures are passed. Score the Operator NO GO if any performance measure is failed. If an Operator scores a NO GO, show him or her what was done wrong and how to do it correctly until shown that the Operator can accomplish the task.


USJTF Hand and Arm Signals

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Terminal Learning Objective • Action: Hand and Arm Signals • Conditions: With a USJTF Unit Worldwide • Standards: Conduct Basic Hand and Arm Signals • Source: Citadel (USMC/USN) Officers Academy

• USJTF Directive: All hand and Arm Signals will be conducted the same in the USJTF regardless of location

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USJTF STANDARDIZED HAND AND ARM SIGNALS

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Three Types of Signals 1. WHISTLE

- EXCELLENT FOR SMALL UNIT LEADERS. - FAST TRANSMITION TO A LARGE GROUP

- PREARRANGED AND UNDERSTOOD - REDUCED BY BATTLEFIELD NOISES

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Three Types of Signals 2. SPECIAL SIGNALS - SPECIAL METHODS AND DEVICES - FLAG - PYROTECHNICS - GROUND-TO-AIR SIGNALS

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Three Types of Signals 3.

HAND AND ARM SIGNALS - RAPID TRANSMISSION

- PRE ARRANGED - SHORT DISTANCE - SILENT

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DECREASE SPEED

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CHANGE DIRECTION OR COLUMN

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ENEMY IN SIGHT

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RANGE

One Finger per 100 Meters (1.25 Football Fields)

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COMMENCE FIRING FASTER/SLOWER

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CEASE FIRING

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ASSEMBLE

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FORM COLUMN

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ARE YOU READY? I AM READY

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ATTENTION

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SHIFT Formation

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ECHELON LEFT (RIGHT)

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SKIRMISHERS OR ON LINE

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WEDGE

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VEE

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STRIKE TEAM / STRIKE GROUP

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Calling USJTF Company!

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CLOSE UP / OPEN UP

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DISPERSE

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LEADERS JOIN ME

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I DO NOT UNDERSTAND

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FORWARD / ADVANCE

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HALT / FREEZE

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DISMOUNT, DOWN, TAKE COVER / MOUNT

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DISREGARD PREVIOUS COMMAND

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RIGHT / LEFT FLANK

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INCREASE SPEED, DOUBLE TIME

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HASTY AMBUSH RIGHT / LEFT

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OBJECTIVE RALLY POINT

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DANGER AREA

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HEAD COUNT

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PACE COUNT

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Usjtf battle drill training manual v 1 0 (2013)  
Usjtf battle drill training manual v 1 0 (2013)  
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