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GYMNASTICS www.usa-gymnastics.or

MARCH 99 • VOLUME 19 • #3

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FEATURES Why Gymnastics? ........ .. ... .... .... ............. .. ......... .. ........ .. ....... .. ... .. ....... ...... .... ..... ...... ..... 5

Luon Peszek

Talent Identification & Selection In Sport ......... ................. ............. .... ... ........ .. ... ...... .. ... 1 6


Teaching Tots: How To Keep Their Attention ........ ..... .. ....... ........ ...... .... .. ......... .. ..... ... ..... 26

Lion Cottrell USA GYMNASTICS BOARD OF DI RECTORS CHAIR: Sandy Knopp; PRESIDIHl: Bob Colaros~; PRESIDENT EMERITUS: Mike Donohue; AMATEUR ATHLmC UNION: Mike Stonner; AMERICAN SOKOL ORGANIZATION: Jerry Milan; USA TRAMPOLINE & TUMBLING: Ann Sims; AMERICAN TURNERS: Betty Heppner, JEWISH COMMUNITY CENTERS: Lori Katz; COLLEGE GYMNASTICS ASSOClATION-M: Roy Johnson; NATIONAL ASSOOATION OF COLLlGIATE GYMNASTICS COACHES FOR WOMEN: Gail Davis; NATIONAL ASSoaATiON FOR GIRLS AND WOMEN IN SPORT: Mori~n Showrnidge; NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF WOMEN'S GYMNASTICS JUDGES: Yvonne Hodge; NATIONAL COLLlGIATI ATHLmC ASSOCATlON: Carolyn Lewis, Tom Dunn; NATIONAl FEDERATION OF STAT! HIGH SCHOOL ASSOCIATIONS: Susan True; NATIONAL GYMNASTICS JUDGES ASSOCIATION: John Scheer; NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL GYMNASTICS COACHES ASSOOATlON: John Brinkworth; SPECAL OLYMPICS, INC_: Kate Fober·Hidtie; U.S. RHYTHMIC GYMNASTICS COACHES ASSOCIATION: Suzie DITullio; U_S. ASSOCIATION OF INDEPENDENT GYM CLUBS: lnnce Crowley; U.S. EUTE COACHES AsSoaATiON FOR MEN'S GYMNASTICS: Fred Turoll; U.S. EUTE COACHES ASSOCIATION FOR WOMEN'S GYMNASTICS: Gory Anderson, Roe Kreulzer; U.S_ MEN'S GYMNASTICS COACHES ASSOCIATION: Marc Yancey; U.S. SPORTS ACROBATICS FEDERATION: Bonnie Davidson; U.S. COMPmTlVE SPORTS AEROBICS FEDERATION: Howard Shcwortz; YOUNG MEN'S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION OF THE USA: Vomnt; USA GYMNASTICS NATIONAL MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORS: MEN'S: Roy GUIO, Jim Holt; WOMEN'S: Undo Chencinski, David Holcomb; RHTTHMIC Alia Svirsky, Tomoro Gerlock; ATHLnE'S ADVISORY COMMITTEE: Chris Woller, choir; Vanessa Vander Piuym, vice choir; Joir Lynch, Mihoi Bogiu, Wendy Hilliord, Kim lmesko!, Tanya Service{hoplin, Amanda Borden. USOC ATHLnE REPRESENTATIVE: Mich~le Dusserre-Forrell. USA GYMNASTICS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE CHAIR: Sandy Knopp; PRESIDENT: Bob Colorossi; SECRnARY: Mark Glohom; Via CHAIR WOMEN: Joon Moore Gnor. Via CHAIR MEN: TIm Doggett; Via CHAIR RHTTHMIC Wendy Hilliord; FIG EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: Joy Ashmore; FIG WOMEN'S TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: Jackie Fie; FIG RHTTHMIC TECHNiCAl COMMITTEE: Andreo Schmid-Shapiro; FIG MEN'S TECHNICAL COMMITTEE: George Beckstead; AT LARGE MEMBERS: Peter Vidmar, Susan True; ATium DIRECTORS: Tanya Service Choplin; Rhythmic 180; Chris Woller, USOC ATHLITE REPRESENTATIVE: Michelle Dusserre-Forrell; PRESIDENT EMERITUS: Mike Donohue. CHANGE OF ADDRESS AND SUBSCRIPTION INQUIRIES: In order to ensure uninterrupted delivery of TECHNIQUE magazine, notice of change of address should be mode eight weeks in advance. For fastest service, please endose your present moiling label. Dired all subscription moil to TECHNIQUE Subscriptions, USA Gymnasti", 201 S. (opitol Ave., Ste. 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225. POSTMASTER; Send address changes to TECHNIQUE c/o USA Gymnosti", S. (opitol Avenue., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225. TECHNIQUE(lSSN 074B·5999) (USPS 016B72) ~ publ~hed monthly except Sept/Od and NovlDe< by USA Gymnasti", Pan Annericon 300, 201 South (opitol Avenue, Indionopol~, IN 46225 (phone: 317-237·5050) or v~it online @ vvv · usa ' gym nasti cs· org Periodical postage paid at Indianapolis, IN 46204. Subscription prices: U.S.-$25 per year; (onodo/ MexicI>-S48 per year, all other foreign (ountries-S60 per year. If available, bock issue single copies S4 plus postoge/hondling. All reasonable core will be token, but no responsibility can be assumed for unsolicited material; enclose return postage. (opyrightl998 by USA Gymnosti" and TECHNIQUE. All rights reserved. Printed by Sport Graphics, Indianapolis, IN.

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Unless expressly identifiea to the (ontrary, all Or/ides, statements ana views printea herein are al/ributea solely to the author and USA Gymnastics expresses no opinion ana assumes no responsibility thereof.

Code of Points For Gymnastics Marketing .... ............ ... ..... ... ............... ......... ....... .. ....... . 32


9 9 . VOLUME 19· #3







President's Message .... .. .. ... .... .... .. ... ..... ... 4

1999 National Congress .. ............... ..... 23

Three New USA Gymnastics ..... .... ..... .. 20 Member Club Benefits

National Gymnastics Day ........... ..... ... .24

National Health Care and Sport Science Referral Network ...... ... ....... .... 28

KAT Workshop Schedule ............. ,.. .. ... .27

What's New ......... ... .. ...... ..... ... .. ..... ... ..33 Classifieds .. .......... ... .. ............. .. , .. ... .... 46


Women's Program Update ..... ......... ... ... 35 General Gymnastics' Update .... ....... .. ...36

Event Schedule ............. ... .. .... ........ ...... 47

Men's Program Update ... ............... ..... .37

Safety Certification Schedule .. ... ......... ..48

Future Stars Program Update #4 ..........38



BOB COLAROSSI Planes, Trains and Automobiles. I just returned from a three day trip that encompassed the Rhythmic Challenge in Colorado Springs, the Winter Cup in Las Vegas, and the American Classic/Pan American Trials in Los Angeles.

-z -



I had not attended a U.S Rhythmic competition since the 1995 Nationals Championships. I was truly impressed with the quality of the performances, increase in difficulty and spirit of cooperation among the coaches. The competition was very close and was a good experience for the athletes to compete at high altitude. It was the first major competition of the season and the athletes were ready. The Challenge was the selection competition for the Four Continents event this summer in Jacksonville as well as for international assignments this spring. A sold out Men's Finals, a beautiful venue complete with three large screens, and hospitality from another world, were just a few of the things that made the Winter Cup Challenge an extraordinary event. Dusty Ritter and his booster organization took care of every detail imaginable right down to the Elvis impersonator singing the national anthem. This competition was the selection meet for the World University Games this summer in Spain, and also added three members onto the men's senior national team.

SCATS are to be commended for their excellent work in organizing the competition. There was an impressive and vocal crowd assembled on Sunday to support the athletes in their quest to qualify to the Pan Am Team. The competition was very close as only .15 separated the second, third and fourth place finishers. At USA Gymnastics we continue to strive to provide more support for the clubs. This is our base and our development system and we must do everything we can to help grow the numbers of children participating in the sport. Working together we can spread the message that gymnastics is a good sport and a positive experience for children. It is incumbent among all of those who own gymnastics schools to see that they don't just make a profit, but they also make a difference. National Gymnastics Day is an event that can provide such an opportunity. We're currently seeking volunteer coordinators to help staff sites in their communities (see page 24). This is a great business building opportunity and a chance to help increase the exposure of the sport. I ask each and every one of you to try to block time on Saturday, July 31 to participate. Working together we can make a difference! â&#x20AC;˘

The American Classic also served as the Trials for the Pan American Games which will be conducted this summer in Winnipeg, Canada. Don Peters and the parent group from

Robert V. Colarossi USA Gymnastics President

TARNISHED RINGS? by Sandy Knapp, USA Gymnastics Chairman of the Board Many of you have probably read or heard something about the d iffic ult times th e Olympic movement is fa cing. Negative stories about Salt Lake City, Utah; Sydney, Austral ia; Nagano, Japan; the International Olympic Committee and allegations of impropriety have dominated the news media in the last several months. How does this affect us in the sport of gymnastics? USA Gymnastics and the United States Olympic Committee have a singular mission-preparing American athletes for their challenges and the chance to win. This mission hasn't changed and the integrity of our athletes has never been questioned. In my role as a member of the USOC Board of Directors and one of five National Governing Body Council Members to serve on the USOC Executive committee, I' m fortunate to see first-hand how the USOC is handling the situation . I'm pleased with the USOC's proactive approach and ability to keep its focus on the athletes! It's important to remember that each of us as gymnasts, coaches, judges, parents, administrators and fans ARE the American Olympic Movement-oll of us together. We stand side by side to support our athletes, and we must support each other in difficult times. As any competitive athlete understands, progress often comes with growing pains. In the same way I feel that the outcome of all of this will be a stronger, better, more effective Olympic Movement! â&#x20AC;˘

By Wm A. Sands, Ph.D. Motor Behavior Research Laboratory Department of Exercise and Sport Science University of Utah

Gymnastics is an activity of ancient ongllls and modern tensions. Most large and medium size cities and to~ns have a private gymnastics school or offer gymnastics activities via a park district, public school, Turners, Sokol, or YMCA.

Media attention to~ard gymnastics has

continued to grow, making gymnastics one of th e top television-audience dra~s. Gymnastics at the top levels continu es to dra~ attention.

It has developed a large and vigorous "fan" follo~ing, as ~ell as and developed some controversy as it has undergone modern gro~ing pains.

Little information has been offered regarding the benefits of

gymnastics to those ~ho are headed for Olympic glory and those not destined to reach such levels. People may justifiably ask:

What are the benefits of gymnastics?

I would like to organize the benefits and limitations of gymnastics in several categories for ease of understanding: (a) physical, (b) psycho-social, and (c) miscellaneous. I would like


I hope to provide an even treatment of gymnastics so that parents, gymnasts, and coaches may better understand what gymnastics can and cannot do.

1. Gymnastics is an anaerobic sport. Anaerobic means "without oxygen." Gymnasts tend to have middling levels of aerobic (with oxygen) capacity (13). However, gymnasts are among the strongest and most flexible of all athletes (27, 38). Gymnastics performances usually last under 90 seconds. The level of intensity of the activities is too high for long-term performance such as seen in endurance sport long duration events like the marathon. (ca ll till lied on page 6)

----~( TE CH N I QUE â&#x20AC;˘ VO LU ME 19 â&#x20AC;˘ # 3


to balance m y treatment of benefits with appropriate discussion of some of the limitations of gymnastics participation. In this way,

WHY GYMNASTICS (continued fro m page 5)

Most sports are anaerobic in nature. Only the long term endurance sports such as cycling, swimming, and running are largely aerobic. Gymnastics is an "acyclic" sport which means that the same movements are not repeated over and over (6). There are numerous benefits to cyclic, long-term endurance sports but variety is generally not one of them. One of the major benefits of gymnastics activity is that it subjects the gymnast's body to a wide variety of stimuli. Repeating the same movement patterns over and over has recently been questioned (57). And, the generally assumed superiority of aerobic training has been shown to be illusory for many areas of fitness, particularly with regard to weight loss (5, 60). 2. Gymnasts are among the strongest, pound for pound, of all the Olympic athletes. Gymnasts are strong in what is termed "relative strength" (48). Gymnasts demonstrate their strength by being able to move their bodies through a myriad of positions. Their strength is high when expressed relative to their body weight. "Absolute strength" is the term sometimes applied to strength that is expressed by moving some object or opponent. For example, football lineman and shot putters have large absolute strength while gymnasts and martial artists have large relative strength (43). One of the major determinants of absolute strength is physical size. Large people tend to be strong in absolute terms, while smaller people are less strong. Strength is one of the major redeeming characteristics of gymnastics. Gymnasts tend to develop upper body strength more than many other sports (7,38,47,58). 3. Gymnasts are among the most flexible of all athletes. Gymnastics emphasizes flexibility due to the need for gymnasts to adopt certain specific positions in order to perform skills. The flexibility demands of gymnastics are probably the most significant and unique aspects of gymnastics that serves to separate gymnastics from most other sports (54).

It is believed that flexibility can be an effective aid to the reduction of injury, preventing athletes from forcing a limb to an injurious range of motion (24, 27-29, 34). Flexibility can also be overdone when a gymnast relies on an increased range of motion in inappropriate positions, particularly the spine (8, 10, 35, 64,


66,68). However, the research on gymnastics' contribution to spine disorders and disc degeneration has been mixed (69). Care should be taken to ensure that gymnasts develop flexibility in appropriate postures (30), and that appropriate and planned progressions are used in developing new ranges of motion (50, 51, 55) . 4. Gymnasts are very good at both static and dynamic balance. Gymnastics has an entire event for women devoted to the concept of balance-the balance beam. The men also have an event that requires extraordinary balance abilities-pommel horse. Of course, handstands are probably the single most recognized balance skills. The still rings in men's gymnastics is an underrated balance event which requires the gymnast to continuously keep the movable rings under himself. Gymnasts learn to balance on their feet and their hands. Interestingly, gymnasts tend to develop a higher tolerance for imbalance or disturbances to their balance. Gymnasts do not react with as large a "startle response" to sudden imbalances as nongymnasts. This probably means that gymnasts can tolerate larger disturbances to their posture because they have become more familiar with these positions and do not consider them to be such a threat (7, 11, 26). 5. Gymnasts learn early to fall without injuring themselves (16,49). Because gymnastics is performed on mats, the gymnast learns to fall and roll to spread the forces of impact over a larger area and time. Considerable effort is expended in the early teaching of gymnasts to roll-partly as a skill in itself and partly as a prerequisite to other skills. Learning to fall helps the gymnast avoid injury. Fall-training can help prevent injuries in most sports. Gymnasts acquire a very "cat-like" ability to right themselves and to fall without being hurt (3,53). 6. Gymnasts are among the smallest and lightest of athletes (33). Gymnastics is somewhat unique in that it provides competitive opportunities for the smallest and lightest athletes. Many sports are clearly biased to prefer athletes who are tall and / or big. Sports that cater to smaller athletes usually involve weight classes which limit the number of small athletes who can participate (i.e., one per team) (76). Smallness is actually beneficial for gymnasts in performing better and avoiding injury (4,59).

TECH N IOU E â&#x20AC;˘ VO lU ME 19 â&#x20AC;˘ #3 ) f - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Being small and light can be taken to extremes that are clearly unhealthy. The issue of eating disorders and the unbridled attempt to reduce body weight at all costs has plagued some gymnasts (1, 17, 22, 32, 36, 37, 40-42, 45, 46, 65, 70). However, gymnastics is not alone in this problem. Moreover, gymnastics is neither necessary nor sufficient for the development of eating disorders.

The distinction between predisposing, enabling, and reinforcing factors versus causative factors is essential to understanding disordered eating and the role that gymnastics may play. Many sports that involve female athletes and exercisers also suffer disordered eating problems (18, 23,25,31,36,39, 63, 67, 73-75). And, disordered eating is prevalent in many sub-groups of females from high school students (61 , 62) to (continued on page 8)

In eating disorders, there are a constellation of factors that contribute to

a behavior, but these can be classified into 3 areas: (a) predisposing, (b) enabling, and (c) reinforcing. Predisposing factors might be: low self esteem, neuroticism, narcissism, obsessive/compulsive behavior, depression, and a predominantly external locus of control. These do not meet the criteria for causation, however. Excessive exercise and athletic participation may be enabling factors for the expression of these negative personality traits and not a cause of these behaviors. Daily exposure to the general milieu of athletics, coaches, parents, etc. may provide the reinforcing factors necessary to sustain the negative personality traits. (12, emphasis mine)

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WHY GYMNASTICS (continued froll1 page 7 medical students (21). Finally, disordered ea ting is also becoming more prevalent among male athletes (2, 72). 7. Gymnastics is a reasonably safe sport. Although there are numerous sources of information on injury in sport, the Consumer Product Safety Commission is one of the best. Table 1 shows the number

TABLE 1. SPORT/ACTIVITY I. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. II. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23.

Basketball Bicycling (including mountain biking) Football Baseball Skating (roller, ice, and in-line) Soccer Track and field (including exercise equipment) Snow Skiing Trampolines Other sports and cheerleading Hockey Swings and swing sets Fishing Monkey bars and playground climbing equipment Volleyball Swimming pools (exclud. diving boards & other equip) Horseback Riding Weight lifting All-terrain vehicles Slides and Sliding boards Wrestling Golf (excluding golf carts) Snowboarding


25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41.


Dancing Powered trail bikes and minibikes Swimming (activity only) Sleds Playground equipment (excluding swings and climbing) Martial Arts Bowling Tennis Bleachers Go carts Guns (gas, air or spring-loaded) Guns (BB or pellet) Grills (all types) Snowmobiles Amusement rides and attractions Water skiing Squash, racquet ball, paddle ball


of people visiting hospital emergency rooms in 1997 (56). Note that hunting injuries are not included. In some cases, injuries caused by using equipment are separated from the activity, such as swimming. The number of people visiting emergency rooms is listed after the equipment / activity and the percentage of patients admitted to a hospital is shown in parentheses.



644,921 567,002 334,420 326,569 201,150 148,913 140,756 84,190 82,722 78,694 77,492 73,923 72,598 71,828 67,340 62,812 58,709 56,724 55,400 45,767 39,829 39,473 37,638

(O.6) (3.6) (l.4) (l.l )

(2.6) (I.l) (3.l) (5.5) (3.0) (O.8) (O.9) (2.0) (O.8) (3.5) (O.5) (3.8) (9.0) (1.2) (7.5)

(V) (l.7)

(2.3) (2.5)



30,378 28,677 27,681 26,067 25,374 24,123 23,317 22,294 19,443 18,497 17,923 16,148 16,088 12,676 11 ,768 10,657 10,438

(2.l) (5.l) (l.4) (3.6) (l .5) (l.5) (l.5)

(3.5) (1.2) (3.9) (2.0) (2.8) (3.l) (l2.0) (2.9) (2.8) (1 .8)

TECHNIQUE¡ VOLUM E 19 â&#x20AC;˘ #3 )\-- -- - - - - - - - - - - - -

Note that the table indicates only those sports that recorded 10,000 or more injuries. There are numerous ways to interpret the information above. For example, trampohnes are ranked number nine, but the trampolines in question are primarily the backyard-type trampoline. Horseback riding is ranked seventeenth, but the hospitaliza tion rate is nine percent. One can probably assume that the reason for the moderate incidence of injury, but relatively higher rate of hospitalization is that the rider falls quite a distance from the top of a horse. Gymnastics ranks 24th in the list, placing it near the middle of surveyed activities. Gymnastics ranks somewhat above average in hospital admissions. Of course, this information represents all of gymnastics, including injuries that occur in the yard while doing cartwheels or from striking the furniture while performing in the living room. In competitive gymnastics, particularly the highest levels, the injury rate is higher. Unfortunately, there is little reliable information on the national extent of the highest competitive level injuries (9). Those competitive gymnasts who are injured severely enough to

require an emergency room visit are likely represented in Table 1. However, those who are injured less severely may never visit an emergency room and deal with treatment via simple first-aid or a visit to their personal physician. Of course, without a "denominator," we cannot know the rate of gymnastics injury. In order to fully understand gymnastics injury, we need to know the number of injuries that occur relative to the number of participants who are exposed to a potential injury. There are a number of figures indicating the total participants in gymnastics that are widely varying from approximately 50 thousand to nearly a million (15). Most research on gymnastics injury at the highest competitive levels has shown that injury rates are comparable to football and wrestling (9). Any number of reasons can be cited for the relatively high injury rate of gymnasts at the highest levels. Certainly, these athletes are more visible than athletes at lower levels, are studied more frequently, and are also subjected to higher numbers of repetitions while performing the most difficult skills. (continued on page 10)

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WHY GYMNASTICS (continued froll1 page 9) The gymnastics community has reacted strongly to the problem of injury by both regulatory and environmental means. When skills are identified as being particularly injury prone, these skills are subject to much greater scrutiny and are sometimes restricted in their use (44,52). Restrictions occurred with the Yurchenko vault and 1lj2 forward somersault. Moreover, the increasing use of foam pits, soft landing mats, and attention to conditioning have done much to keep pace with the "space-age" skills of the modern gymnast. Surely, more work needs to be done in this area, with this author particularly committed to rooting out the issues related to injury, studying them, and producing effective means of prevention.

Psycho-Soda I Gymnasts tend to do very well in schoo!. The College Gymnastics Association has kept

From our stronghold in the arena, we have successfully broadened our programs to include about every event imaginable, from festivals to athletic competitions. We have risen to the top through hard work and vision. And we stay on top with determination strong execution.

track of men's gymnastics teams' average GPAs. Table 2 shows the top 20 GPAs by rank in men's gymnastics. There are a number of ways to interpret GPA information. Particularly relevant are the athletes' academic majors. Short of this complete information, the GPA data shown below still indicates that gymnasts are serious about their education. Scholastic All-America Teams in women's NCAA gymnastics are ranked in Table 3 below. There are 64 NCAA Division I women's gymnastics teams. Assuming 12 scholarships per team, that places the opportunities for female gymnasts at approximately 768 scholarships. Moreover, there are a number of Division II teams that also offer scholarships. Each scholarship is worth approximately $15,000 per year depending on a variety of factors such as the particular school and local cost of living. Clearly, the potential for a university education at reduced cost is one of the primary benefits of all sport participation. Gymnastics is a unique and exciting way of going to college.

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Table 2. Academic Teams - Men's NCAA Gymnastics UNIVERSITY GPA 1. MIT .............. 3.553 2. Illinois .......... 3.306 3. Ohio State ... .3.273 4. Nebraska ...... 3.159 5. Iowa ............3.151

UNIVERSITY GPA 6. BYU ................3.144 7. Michigan ..........3.130 8. Oklahoma ...... 3.115 9. Syracuse .......... 3.107 10. California ........3.098

UNIVERSITY GPA 11. Michigan State ....3.039 12. Army ..................3.070 13. William & Mary ..3.033 14. Massachusetts ...... 2.989 15. Navy ..................2.959

UNIVERSITY GPA 16. Air Force ........2.919 17. Minnesota ...... 2.915 18. III-Chicago ......2.880 19. Vermont... ....... 2.854 20. New Mex ....... 2.809

Table 3. Academic All-America Teams - Women's NCAA Gymnastics UNIVERSITY 1. Winona State 2. Southern Utah 3. lousiana State 4. SE Missouri State 5. UAlaska-Anchorage 6. UWisconsin-laCrosse 7. Central Michigan 8. George Washington 9. North Carolina 10. Utah

GPA 3.716 3.549 3.505 3.482 3.452 3.430 3.400 3.399 3.396 3.390

Gymnastics is a complex sport with many dramatic and subtle nuances. Educational experiences in gymnastics reach from physics to the appreciation of cultural diversity. One of the most important benefits of gymnastics activity is that the gymnast can experience a variety of things rather than just read about them. For example, physicists discuss the principle of conservation of angular momentum while the gymnast experiences it. The physics teacher may discuss moment of inertia and its relation to angular momentum, but the gymnast can see and feel it while performing skills. The richness of such experiences goes far beyond reading about them in a book. Recently, a National Science Foundation grant has used gymnastics as a means of teaching fundamental physics to students. Gymnastics shares with other sports the opportunity to learn about teamwork, sportsmanship, fair play, dedication, and so forth. Sometimes these character traits may be considered old-fashioned, but gymnastics does provide a terrific opportunity for teaching these characteristics. Because gymnastics is so very difficult to perform, the learning time is long when compared to most sports (6, 50). The long time required to attain mastery of the fundamental skills requires patience, dedication, perseverance, and planning. Gymnastics helps people learn to work hard for objectives that can take years to achieve. In the modern -----------------«

UNIVERSITY 11. Alabama 12. Penn State 13. North Carolina State 14. UIllinois-Champaign 15. Kent State 16. Bowling Green State 17. Yale 18. Seattle Pacific 19. Univ Pennsylvania 20. Nebraska

GPA 3.384 3.360 3.350 3.350 3.334 3.330 3.322 3.300 3.290 3.286

world of quick-fixes, instant communication, instant hamburgers, and instant entertainment, there still needs to be a place for young people to develop their character. Although it may sound corny, gymnastics is a perfect activity for such development. Gymnasts of even modest ability can compete in local, state, and regional level competitions. These competitions afford the opportunity for travel, meeting people of varied and diverse backgrounds, and seeing places that would normally be bypassed. The recent dramatic increase in participation by gymnasts in "General Gymnastics" serves to emphasize a newly developed outlet for training and competition that does not emphasize Olympiclevel pursuits. Group exhibition-type displays involving tumbling, acrosports, balance, and music can be an exciting and rewarding activity for young gymnasts. The General Gymnastics area of USA Gymnastics has developed competitions for these displays, and the groups travel both nationally and internationally. Education is perhaps the most important part of gymnastics. When an activity can be naturally orchestrated to provide participants with unique and valuable experiences, it serves the participants more than any book, television show, or website. (continued TECH N' QUE • V0lUM E 19 • # 3


page 13)

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USA Gymnastics Junior Olympic Program

WHY GYMNASTICS (continued from page 11) Gymnastics provides a unique and valuable social education and experience. The most successful female gymnasts pursue success rather than avoid failure, and have the highest selfesteem when compared to other members of the senior national team (20). Although pursuit of success versus avoidance of failure may seem like a subtle difference between groups of gymnasts, pursuit of success indicates a "healthier" outlook on competition. High self esteem indicates that the gymnasts are pleased with themselves, can function independently, and are self-reliant. The quotation below was unsolicited from a parent of a gymnast. The quotation appeared on the USA Gymnastics WEB site.

Not only do the gymnast [sic] acquire the ability to focus on an activity while blocking out what's going on around them, my daughter learned valuable time-management skills that carried over into all her activities and school.

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The focusing ability helped her at a musical competition when a quartet started in the next room at a totally different tempo and loud enough so that she had a difficult time hearing her accompaniest [sic] . The adjucator [sic] came out and congratulated her on her ability to continue her piece the way it was supposed to be instead of letting the other music bother her. As to time-management skills-we can all use some of this [sic]! Now as a college student she is able to finish her work (as an architecture major) as required despite having to fit in 20+ hours of practice a week. This helped her all through high school when she was on a school and a club team and managed to maintain a 95 cumulative average with AP and honors courses while juggling two sets of workouts and multiple meets a week. During HS season her grades actually improved! Focusing and time-management are the two main advantages I give parents for the sport. This is over and above the self-satisfaction, self-esteem, team building abilities, and other obvious reasons for the sport. (c.

Hill, Sunday, November 15, 199803:46 PM)

The cultural and social identity of the gymnast offers an unambiguous role for the young person. Recent experience with elite track and field has shown that athletes and coaches are acutely aware of the fact that females in track and field are faced with a role conflict by being a ''bigger than average" woman in a society that prefers a petite and slender female. Female gymnasts particularly enjoy being among the petite and slender females that are often socially most acceptable. Although gymnasts can be tiny, late maturing, and so forth; the public usually has a misconception about how young (continued 011 page 14)

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WHY GYMNASTICS (continued from page 13) gymnasts really are. Moreover, the gymnast's small size might be a limitation in most sports, while gymnastics allows the petite girl to excel. The male gymnast sometimes faces a misunderstanding relative to the masculinity of the sport, but experience has shown that other athletes realize how difficult gymnastics is and do not question that athleticism of the male gymnast.

Miscellaneous Drug abuse in gymnastics, while not unknown, is extremely limited (19). Drug abuse was common in the former Eastern Bloc, particularly East Germany (14). Drug use and abuse among gymnasts in the West has been extremely limited, and until recently almost unknown. Athletes in many sports have experimented with drugs. Perhaps fortunately, gymnasts do not enhance their performance by the typical anabolic steroids, stimulants, and other drugs that can assist other athletes for a short period. Gymnasts do not require an all-out strength or power-but power under control. Gymnasts do not require an all-out endurance-but

endurance under control. When a drug interferes with control (as most do), their benefit to gymnasts is highly questionable. Gymnastics has developed a Code of Ethics that is a position statement to which all members of USA Gymnastics must adhere (71). Gymnastics has done a good job in policing its ranks by banning participation and membership of those people who behave in an unethical manner. At the current time, many former coaches have been banned from participation in USA Gymnastics events due to previous unethical behavior.

Conclusion Gymnastics is a terrific sport for young people. Many people have grown up in and by gymnastics to become doctors, lawyers, teachers, business people, professors, police officers, nurses, scientists, and many others. Gymnastics provides an outstanding way for young people to test their mettle against themselves and others. Gymnastics can provide opportunities for physical development, character development, and education that are hard to find anywhere else .•

REFERENCES 1. AMERICAN ANOREXIA/BULIMIA ASSOCIATION INC. Beware the shrinking Olympic gymnast. American Anorexia/Bulimia Assoriation, Inc. Newslelfer Spring: 8, 1994. 2. ANDERSEN, A. E. Eating disorders in males: a special case? In: Eating, body weight and per· formance in athletes, edited by K. D. 8rownell, Rodin, J., and Wilmore, J. H. Philadelphia, PA: Lea & Febiger, 1992, p. 1n 188. 3. BAILEY, B., AND N. DUKE. The bail·out sys· tern. In: NAGWS Guide Gymnastics, edited by M. B. Alphin, and Grace, C. Washington, DC: AAHPER, 1980, p. 26·31. 4. BALE, P., AND J. GOODWAY. Performance variables associated with the competitive gym· nast. Sports Med. 10(3): 139·145, 1990.

Epidemiology of Sports Injuries, edited by D. J. Caine, Caine, C. G., and lindner, K. J. Champaign, Il Human Kinetics, 1996, p. 213·246. 10. CIULLO, J. V., AND D. W. JACKSON. Pars interarticularis stress reaction, spondylolysis, and spondylolisthesis in gymnasts. Clin. Sports Med. 4(1): 95·110,1985. 11. DEBU, B., AND M.WOOLLACOTT. Effects of gymnastics training on postural responses to stance perturbotions. J. Mot. Beh. 20(3): 273· 300, 1988. 12. DIPIETRO, l., AND N. S. STACHENFElD. The female athlete triad. Med. Sci. Sports Exer. 29(12): 1669·1670, 1997.

1·4, 1985. 18. HAMILTON, l. H., J. BROOKS·GUNN, M. P. WARREN, AND W. G. HAMILTON. The role of selectivity in the pathogenesis of eating prob· lems in ballet dancers. Med. Sri. Sports Exer. 20(6): 560·565,1988. 19. HENSCHEN, K., AND W. A. SANDS. Drugs and gymnastics. Technique 6: 8·9, 1986. 20. HENSCHEN, K., WA. SANDS, R. GORDIN, AND R. MARTINEZ. Psychological differences between Olympic gymnasts and the remainder of the senior national team. Technique 10: 4· 5, 23, 1990.

13. FOX, E. l. Sports physiology, 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: WB. Saunders, 1979.

21 . HERZOG, D. B., M. PEPOSE, D. K. NORMAN, AND N. A. RIGOTTI. Eating disorders and social maladjustment in female medical students. 1. Nerv. and Ment. Dis. 173(12): 734·737, 1985.

6. BOMPA, T. O. Theory and methodology of training, 2nd ed. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1990.

14. FRANKE, W. W., AND B. BERENDONK. Hormonal doping and androgenization of athletes: Asecret program of the German Democratic Republic government. Clin. Chem. 43: 1262·1279, 1997.

22. HICKSON, J. E, AND K. KISH. Eating attitude and nutritional intake of adolescent female gymnasts. J. App. Sport Sri. Res. 3(2): 48·50, 1989.

7. BOSCO, J. S. The effects of gymnastics on various physical fitness components: Areview. Int. Gym. 15(1): 26·27, 1973.

15. GARRICK, J. G., AND R. K. REQUA. Epidemiology of women's gymnastics injuries. Amer. Jour. Sports Med. 8(4): 261 ·264, 1980.

23. HOlDERNESS, C. c., J. BROOKS·GUNN, AND M. P. WARREN. Eating disorders and substance use: a dancing vs a non dancing population. Med. Sri. Sports Exer. 26(3): 297·302, 1994.

8. CAINE, D. J., K. J. LINDNER, 8. R. MANDEL· BAUM, AND W. A. SANDS. Gymnastics. In: Epidemiology of Sports Injuries. Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics, 1995, p. In Press.

16. GILMORE, K. Developing body awareness. In: USGF gymnastics safety manual, 2nd ed., edited by G. S. George. Indianapolis, IN: U.S. Gymnastics Federation, 1990, p. 79·80.

24. HUBLEY·KOZEY, C. l., AND WD. STANISH. Can stretching prevent athletic injuries. 1. Musculoskel. Med. 7(3): 21·31 , 1990.

9. CAINE, D. J., K. J. LINDNER, B. R. MANDEl· BAUM, AND W. A. SANDS. Gymnastics. In:

17. GLOBUS, S. Dancers and gymnasts: a common challenge. Sports·Nutr. News 4(3):

25. JOHNSON, M. D. Disordered eating in active and athletic women. In: Clinics in sports medi·

5. BLlX, G. G. The role of exercise in weight loss. Behav. Med. 21 : 31·39, 1995.



TECHNIQUE • VOLUME 19· #3 )}---


cine: the athletic woman, edited by R. Agostini. Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Sounders, Vol. 13(21, 1994, p. 355-369. 26. KIOUMOURTZOGLOU, E., V.DERRI, O. MERTZANIDOU, AND G. TZETZIS. Experience with perceptual and motor skills in rhythmic gymnastics. Perc. Mot. Skills 84: 1363-1372, 1997. 27. KIRBY, R. l., F. C. SIMMS, V.J SYMINGTON, AND 1. B. GARNER. Flexibility and musculoskeletalsymptomatology in female gymnasts and age-matched controls. Amer. Jour. Sports Med. 9(31: 160-164, 19B1. 28. KNAPIK, J. J., C. l. BAUMAN, B. H. JONES, 1. M. HARRIS, AND l. VAUGHAN. Preseason strength ond flexibility imbalances associated with athletic injuries infemale collegiate athletes. Amer. Jour.Sports Med. 19(1): 76-81 , 1991. 29. KNAPIK, J J., B. H. JONES, C. l. BAUMAN, AND 1. M. HARRIS. Strength, flexibility and athletic injuries. Sports Med. 14(5): 277-288, 1992. 30. KOLT, G. Gymnastics injuries- why they occur. Gym. Safe. Upd. 7(31: 1-2, 1992. 31. LEON, G. R. Eating disorders in female athletes. Sports Med. 12(4): 219-227, 1991. 32. LOOSlI, A. R., J. BENSON, D. M. GILlIEN, AND K. BOURDET. Nutrition habits and knowledge in competitive adolescent female gymnasts. Phys. Sportsmed. 14(B): 118-130, 1986. 33. MALINA, R. M., C. BOUCHARD, R. F. SHOUp, A. DEMIRJIAN, AND G. LARIVIERE. Age at menarche, family size, and birth order in athletes at the Montreal Olympic Games, 1976. Med. Sci. Sports 11: 354-35B, 1979. 34. MCCANN, C. Young gymnasts: Injury prone, less flexible. Phys. Sportsmed. 7(1): 23-24, 1979. 35. MICHELI, l. J. Back injuries in gymnastics. (/in. Sports Med. 4( 1): 85-94, 1985. 36. NATTlV, A., R. AGOSTINI, B. DRINKWATER, AND K. K. YEAGER. The female athlete triad, disordered eating, amenorrhea and ostroporosis [sic). In: 1994 Congress, USA Gymnastics Proceedings Book, edited by S. Whitlock. Indianapolis, IN: USA Gymnastics, 1994, p. 37-41. 37. NATTlV, A., AND B. R. MANDELBAUM. Injuries and special concerns in female gymnasts. Phys. Sportsmed. 21(7): 66-67,70,7374,79-B4, 1993. 3B. NELSON, J. K., B. l. JOHNSON, AND G. CON SMITH. Physical characteristics, hip flexibility and arm strength of female gymnasts classified by intensity of training across age. l. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 23: 95-1 01 , 1983. 39. O'CONNOR, H. Eating disorders in athletes. Sport Health 9(4): 33-35, 1991. 40. O'CONNOR, P.J, R. D. LEWIS, AND E. M. KIRCHNER. Eating disorder symptoms in female college gymnasts. Med. Sci. Sports Exer. 27(4): 550-555, 1995. 41. PETRIE, T. A. Disordered eating in female collegiate gymnosts: Prevalence and personality/ ottitudinal correlates. J. Sport Exer. Psy. 15: 424-436, 1993.

42. PETRIE, T. A., AND S. STOEVER. The incidence of bulimia nervosa and pathogenic weight control behaviors infemale collegiote gymnosts. Res. Quar. Exer. Sport 64(2): 238-241 , 1993. 43. POLIQUIN, C. Training for improving relotive strength. S.P.D.R. T.5. 11: 1-9, 1991. 44. PREVOST, l., J. ALDRIDGE, G. GEORGE, AND K. RUSSEll. Sofety in gymnostics: An international panel. In: Diagnostics, treatment and analysis of gymnastictalent, edited by T. B. Hoshizoki, Salmela, 1. H., and Petiot, B. Montreal, Canada: Sport Psyche Editions, 1987, p. 4-18.

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45. REG IANNI, E., G. B. ARRAS, S. TRABACCA, D. SENAREGA, AND G. CHIODINI. Nutritional status and body composition of adolescent female gymnasts. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness 29: 285-288, 1989. 46. ROSEN, l. w., AND D. O. HOUGH. Pathogenic weight-control behaviors of female college gymnasts. Phys. Sportsmed. 16(9): 140-144, 1988. 47. SALE, D. G. "Strength"; Mechanical properties of muscular contractions, neuromuscular mechanisms, and applications to gymnastics performance and training. In: The advanced study of gymnastics, edited by J. H. Salmela. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 1976, p. 218-232. 48. SALE, D. G., AND R. W. NORMAN. Testing strength and power. In: Physiological testing of the elite athlete, edited by 1. D. MacDougall, Wenger, H. A., and Green, H. J. Ithaco, NY: Mouvement Publications, 1982, p. 7-38.















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49. SANDS, B. Beginning gymnastics. Chicago, Il: Contemporary Books, 1981 . 50. SANDS, B. Coaching women's gymnastics. Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics, 19B4. 51. SANDS, W. A. Physical readiness. In: USGF gymnastics safety manual, 2nd ed., edited by G. S. George. Indianapolis, IN: U.S. Gymnastics Federation, 1990, p. 63-6B. 52. SANDS, W.A. Science puts the spin on somersaulting. RIP 2(2): 1B-20, 1991.

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53. SANDS, W. A. Spatial orientation while somersaulting. Technique 11(1): 16-19, 1991. 54. SAN DS, W.A. Physical abilities profiles 1993 Notional TOPs testing. Technique 14(8): 15-20, 1994. 55. SANDS, W.A.The role of difficulty in the development of the young gymnast. Technique 14(3): 12-14,1994. 56. SIEGEL, l. Trampoline injuries soaring. Salt Lake Trih.(5 November): B1-B2,1998. 57. SIFF, M.c., AND Y. V.VERKHOSHANSKY. Supertraining. Johannesburg, South Africa: The School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Witwatersrand, 1993. 58. SINGH, H., R. S. RANA, AND S. S. WALIA. Effect of strength and flexibility on performance in men's gymnastics. In: World identification systems for gymnastic talent, edited by B. Petiot, Salmela, J. H., and Hoshizoki, T. B. Montreal, Ca nada: Sport Psyche Editions, 1987, p. 118-l2l. (cont inu ed 0/1 page 39) and visit us at

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By Robert M. Malina, Director, Institute for the Study of Youth Sports; Michigan State University ost parents would like to see their child/ children experience success in sport. Some may even want to see their child excel at more elite levels, and perhaps attain national and international recognition. The progression from initial youth sport experiences to more elite levels is complex. It involves some degree of identification and selection of talented individuals at virtually all levels of youth sports. However, the process may also involve more formal identification and selection of individuals who presumably have the skill, physical, and behavioral requisites for success in a given sport.


Community-Based Youth Sports Programs Youth sports programs in the U.S. are traditionally community-based and encourage mass participation in sports

in a wholesome, enjoyable and safe environment. Age and willingness to participate are the criteria for inclusion, and a decision by the parent and child is involved. Very often, choice of a youth sports program is based on convenience. Within specific programs, local officials and coaches commonly sort youngsters by age and skill level (and body size in some sports) in order to ensure an equitable distribution of talent across teams in a league, and thus equalize competition and reduce the risk of injury. As some programs become more competitive and specialized, identification and selection of talented youngsters occurs both informally (e.g., observing youngsters in game situations and noting those

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who are more skilled and inviting them for a specific, select team) and formally (e.g., regular tryouts). Many elite athletes have emerged over the years from community-based programs in the U.S. However, there are some in the U.S. who are interested in and who call for programs that identify and select individuals for specific sports at relatively young ages.

Elite Programs Some programs emphasize the elite and

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have as their objective the identification and subsequent training of youngsters with potential for success in regional, national and / or international competition-the so called high performance sports. The identification and selection process often begins early, is rather systematic, and is done in some sports long before the child is capable of making a decision, or is allowed to make the decision whether or not to partici-

The initial identification and selection for several sports, e.g., gymnastics, diving, swimming, and figure skating, occurs between 3-8 years. Secondary selections, i.e., retention for further specialized training, varies with sport, e.g., 9-1 0 years for gymnastics, figure skating and swimming, and at 1 0-1 5 years for girls and 1 0-1 7 years for boys in other sports.

pate in the spo". * The identification and selection process for high performance sports may take several forms . It has been very systematic in several Eastern European countries, former members of the Communist bloc, although the viability of such programs has been questioned in light of the relatively recent changes in the political and economic climate. These Eastern European practices have been extended, with modification, to some sports in Western countries, and have been incorporated into those of other countries, with Cuba and China, perhaps, the most visible examples. Unfortunately, only the

incredibly small number of successful athletes who have gone through these systematic sport selection programs are highlighted in the national and international sporting media. The vast majority who are not successful are rarely if ever mentioned. One wonders if they still participate in sport after having failed in the selection process.

It is also not uncommon in the U.S. for some parents to take a potentially talented youngster to a gymnastics, tennis or figure skating center to seek the advice of an elite coach. The coach is essentially being asked to evaluate the potential of

the child, and if the child meets the criteria of the coach, he or she is essentially identified and selected.

Eastern European Selection Programs Although there is variation by sport, the general pattern of identification and selection refined in many Eastern European countries is often highlighted by the media as underlying the success of athletes from these countries in Olympic competitions. (continued 011 page 18)

TALENT IDENTIFICATION AND SELECTION IN SPORT (continued from pnge 17) These identification and selection programs include initial evaluation of motor (skill), physical (size, body build), and behavioral (coachability) characteristics of large numbers of children, very often in state-run schools. The timing of evaluation varies by sport and the process involves several stages. For example, the initial identification and selection for several sports, e.g., gymnastics, diving, swimming, and figure skating, occurs between 3-8 years. Secondary selections, i.e., retention for further specialized training, varies with sport, e.g., 9-10 years for gymnastics, figure skating and swimming, and at 10-15 years for girls and 10-17 years for boys in other sports. Potential rowers, basketball players and weight lifters are generally not selected until after puberty. Ballet, though considered primarily as an art form, also has rigorous, selective anatomical criteria that rival those of some sports. Emphasis is on linearity and thinness. Obviously the physical, motor and behavioral requisites vary among sports. Selection is based on the assumption that the requisites for a given sport can be identified at a young age and subsequently perfected through specific training. The process of selection is ongoing as the youngster adapts to the instructional and training programs, as well as the social and emotional demands of the special programs. The success or failure of a talent identification and selection program is dependent upon the balance between the child's ability and the demands of the sport and the sports system. Ability is dynamic, changing as the

child grows, matures and develops. Quite often, however, the sport and sports system are rather rigid and do not readily adapt to individual differences in normal growth, maturation and development.

Problems with Selection Programs Identifying and selecting the potentially talented young athlete is the first step in a relatively long term process, leading to the perfection of talent. The youngster must adapt to the physical, social and emotional demands of the coaches, training programs, and competitions. The process also involves several forms of social manipulation, e.g., long hours of practice, modified school schedules, preferential treatment, differential access to resources, separation of a child from family and peers and extensive travel. Selection programs have problems related to decision making. Does the child have a voice in the selection process? Are parents involved? Accounts in the electronic and print media often highlight parents who are seemingly more interested in their child's success than is the child. Are decisions made independently by coaches or other sports authorities? What kind of guidance is available for the child, or parents, when hel she is selected? What are the implications of being labeled "talented" for individual and parental expectations? Selection programs are exclusionary. They initially involve the elimination of many individuals and subsequently cutting of others as competition becomes more specialized and rigorous. The merit of selection programs is usually cast in the context of the number of suc-


arents of children labeled as talented may develop a false sense of the potential for their child's success in sport either in the form of a college scholarship or a professional career. Some parents even invest considerable sums of money in early sport training for their children. It must be emphasized, however, that the numbers are many ~ and the probability of success is minuscule.




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cessful athletes (often gold medals). Little, if anything, is ever indicated about the individuals who do not make it through the process, and they are by definition the vast majority. Some selection programs often involve economic discrimination. This is especially apparent in sports such as gymnastics, swimming, tennis, figure skating, club soccer, and ice hockey. In these sports, and perhaps others, parental ability to pay for enrollment in a club, for private lessons, and for coaching, eliminates many potentially capable young athletes. On the other hand, some select programs offer scholarships for talented youngsters whose parents do not have the necessary resources. Selection practices in many sports also include discrimination along maturationa 1 lines. Boys advanced in biological maturity status tend to perform better than those who are later. In contrast, differences in the performances of girls of contrasting maturity status are not marked, and in some tasks better performances are attained by girls who mature later. Two groups are often excluded and are thus not represented among those who experience success in sport: (1) the late maturing male who is generally at a size and strength disadvantage in most sports which favor the larger, stronger, early maturing boy; and (2) the early maturing girl whose physique and body composition may be a limiting factor in performance and who may not be given an opportunity to try a sport. Both extremes of the normal biological maturational continuum are essentially socialized away from sport, perhaps by the sports system. Opportunities need to be made available for youngsters at the extremes of the maturation continuum.

Early Identification and Success in the Future Early identification of "talent" is no guarantee of success in sport during childhood, let alone during adolescence and adulthood. There are simply too many intervening variables associated with normal growth, maturation and development, and with the sports system. In some cases, individual characteristics and the sports system interact. In

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age group swimming, for example, it is not uncommon for a child to be successful in one age group only to be relegated to a low position in the ran kings when he! she moves to the next age group. Similarly, changes associated with puberty in young girls often lead to changes in self concept which may influence performance. It is at such transitions that many children realize that there are other things in life in addition to sport. Such transitions are also noted by sport officials, and it has even been suggested that some gymnastics coaches fear puberty more than the young female gymnasts. Parents of children labeled as talented may develop a false sense of the potential for their child's success in sport either in the form of a college scholarship or a professional career. Some parents even invest considerable sums of money in early sport training for their children. It must be emphasized, however, that the numbers are many and the probability of success is minuscule.

A recent report from the National Center for Educational Statistics (Owings and Burton, 1996) investiga ted participation in intercollegiate sports by the 8th grade class of 1988. A national sample of 8th graders was surveyed in 1988 and then followed-up on three occasions about their participation status in high school and intercollegiate varsity sports. The third follow-up was completed in 1994. Of the approximately 3 million 8th graders in 1988, only about 5% (52 per 1000) reported participation in intercollegiate sports. Limiting observations to NCAA Division I schools, only about 2% (22 per 1000) reported participation, and the number is reduced even more when only those who received athletic financial aid is considered. In 1992-93, only about one-half (48 %) of all NCAA Division I athletes received athletic aid, i.e., scholarship support. Clearly, the probability of obtaining a college scholarship for sport is quite small. The statistics are even more remote when the probability of a career in professional sport is considered . •

Suggested Reading Bompa TO (1985) Talent identification. In Sports Science Periodical on Research and Technology in Sport. GN-1. Ottowa: Coaching Association of Canada. Gilbert D (1980) The miracle machine. New York: Coward, McConn, Geoghegan. Hartley G(1988) Acomparative view of talent selection for sport in two socialist states - the USSR and the GDR - with particular reference to gymnastics. In The Growing Child in Competitive Sport. Leeds: The Notional Coaching Foundation, pp. 50-56. Hamilton WG (1986) Physical prerequisite for ballet dancers: Selectivity that can enhance (or nullify) a career. Journal of Musculoskeletal Medicine 3:61 -66. Karascony I (1988) The discovery and selection of talented athletes and talent management in Hungary. In The Growing Child in Competitive Sport. Leeds: The Notional Coaching Foundation, pp. 34-49. Owings J, Burton B(1996) Who reports participation in varsity intercollegiate sports at 4-year colleges? Nationa l Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Deportment of Education, NCES 97-9 11 . Regnier G., Salmela J. Russell SJ (1993) Talent detection and development in sport. In RN Singer, MMurphey and LK Tennant (editors): Handbook of Research on Sport Psychology. New York: Macmillan, pp. 290-313.

rents of Elite Young Athletes Talent identification and selection for sport is not inherently wrong. Concerns commonly focus on how the selection program is used, how the sport system treats the young athlete once he/she is identified as talented, unrealistic expectations, decision making, progression with age, and related issues. Parents of talented young athletes need to be aware of these considerations, and perhaps others. Several suggestions for parents of elite young athletes follow: • Let your child participate in the decision making process. Also, provide your child with an opportunity to remove herself or himself from a select program if she/he wishes. • Select a coach who, on one hand, will challenge and improve the abilities of your child, but who, on the other hand, will still keep the sport fun. • Some youngsters may make remarkable progress as they enter an elite program so that the child, parent, and/or coach would like to accelerate movement within the sport. Parents and coaches need to recognize problems associated with moving up too fast in a sport. • Monitor the environment of the elite training program. Observe coach behaviors and listen to the feedback given by the coach to the young athletes. Is it instructional, or demeaning and threatening? Are there pressures related to diet, weight regulation, weight training, and conditioning regimens that may be inappropriate for the child and potentially harmful? Do the young athletes have any say about when and how much they practice and compete? Participation in sport should be fun and enjoyable; it should not be a job. • Be careful of over-involvement in your child's athletic training and aspirations. Is it the child's dream of success or yours? • Give consideration to potential life style consequences for both the young athlete and the family.

Remember, sport should be fun. Listen to your child!


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In the ongoing effort to increase the level of communication between USA Gymnastics and the clubs which form the foundation ~ ~.. t:1 BROADCAST of our success, USA Gymnastics is offering Member Clubs the opportuFAX/EMAIL nity to receive Broadcast Fax/EmaiL ~_.J



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USA Gymnastics will send Member Clubs information that may be passed on to the clients in their gym. The first fax/ email featured information about the television broadcast of the Reese's Gymnastics Cup. USA Gymnastics' goal is to provide more up-to-date information in a timely fashion.


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USA Gymnastics, in conjunction with John Hancock, recently conducted a survey with gym club owners designed to get a better understanding of the issues facing these small businesses. The survey was designed to help highlight some of the fiscal issues that are most pressing to gym club owners today. The findings should be useful in assessing how your own business concerns and plans for the future compare with others in this industry.


If you would like to have a free copy of the results, contact Loree Galirnore at USA


Gymnastics at 1-800-345-4719 ext. 340, or Scott Anderson at John Hancock at 617-5724709 for the local contact name and number in your area.



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welcome kit when you become a USA Gymnastics Member Club or when you renew. The Athlete Wellness Packet includes short items/ articles that you can pass out to parents, publish in newsletters or keep on file. The articles cover the following areas: nutrition, sport psychology, parenting athletes, and eating disorder resources. We hope this new benefit helps assist you in providing valuable information to your clientele which will in turn lead to a health enhancing experience for all participants in the sport.

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TECH N I QUE • VOlUM E 19 • # 3 ) f - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -






Boost enrollment with UCA All-Stars and keep a full house all summer long!

A All-starS UC Let


When you initiate a UCA All-Star Program at your gym, you can


increase student enrollment and retention during the summer. And you get to work with the experts in cheer instructionUCA. We wrote the book on safety, and our All-Star camps offer competition- and performance-level instruction from the most knowledgeable staff in the country. From personalized routines and comprehensive training to our exclusive Coaches Program and participation in nationally-televised events, UCA All-Stars outshine the competition!

. in the National

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Find out how you and your students can join the UCA All-Star cast. Call 1-888-CHEERUCA or visit us online at .

Portable Gymnastic Pits

1999 NATIONAL CONGRESS INFORMATION DATES: Thursday,August 26 - Saturday, August 28

ADD-ONS: Wednesday,August 25 and Sunday, August 29

LOCATION: Sacramento, California

VENUE: Sacramento Convention Center

HOTELS: Various-The official Congress Hotels will be announced in an upcoming issue of Technique magazine and on USA Gymnastics Online. Watch for more information about hotel reservation procedures in order to take advantage of our discounted rates.

Practice Balance Beams

, Competition - Landing Mats

CHAMPIONSHIPS: The National Congress is held in conjunction with the 1999 John Hancock U.S. Gymnastics Championships (MW).

Contact Tiffin for all of your mat needs. Whether you need a single mat for home use, or enough mats to set up an entire gym - quality mats at affordable prices. Visit us on the web -

A special John Hancock U.S. Gymnastics Championships ticket order form for registered Congress attendees will be available soon in Technique magazine.



USA Gymnastics is

pleased to announce initial plans lor a new national promotion debuting til is summer. .

~ ~ ~ "National Gymnastics Day" is an activity to promote participation in gymnastics and the benefits it offers, as well as encourage enrollment in gym clubs. Aussie Hair Care Products, a division of Clairol, is the first presenting sponsor secured for the event so far. Aussie is pursuing a national retail partner and promotion around the event and will place national ads to further support and promote the event. National Gymnastics Day is currently planned for Saturday, July 31, 1999. It is designed to occur during the club sign-up period as well as the back-to-school shopping period for potential marketing tie-ins. Similar to the Mall Tours in 1995 and 1996, shopping malls around the COWl try will be utilized as the venue. USA Gymnastics will help secure the sites as well as provide signage, a suggested schedule of events and activities, national marketing, and tips on generating local publicity. It's our intention to secure volunteer local event coordinators to interface with the mall, other local clubs, the media, etc. In fact, it's very likely that this coordinator will form an organizing committee and involve other local club personnel. Our first step is to identify potential coordinators in each city. If you have any interest in • .' this volunteer assignment, please fiI I P • • out and return the form by • March 20, 1999. •

' 0

r---------------------, VOLUNTEER COORDINATOR Name ____________________________________ Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ City, State, Zip _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Phone _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Fox ___________________________________ Email ___________________________________ Club Affiliation _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Closestlo(al Shopping Moll _ __ _ __ _ _ _ ___

Brief description of your gymnastics and administration background

Please send to: USA Gymnastics, Attn: Properties, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225. Fax 317-237-5069 L _____________________ ~




30' 40' 50' 60'

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can learn perfect technique on skills in a fraction of the normal training time. Multiple repetitions are easy on the body. Train multiple forward and backward tumbling skills on the bed or with landings in a portable pit. The Powertrac速 can be permanently stationed or easily tipped on its side for storage. It's constructed of strong durable steel, and is available in custom lengths The metal frame is finished with a high gloss safety blue enamel coating. All floor contact points are cushioned by tough rubber-like plastisol covered feet. Frame padding is 1.4"xI3" Trocellen foam wrapped in our best 18 oz. vinyl.

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How To Keep Their Attention By Cynthia Wain There are special challenges to teaching gymnastics to young children. One in particular is how to keep them focused, since following a class structure is relatively new for them. How do we make it a successful experience for both the teacher and the students?

hands. "How many have a tummy ache?" More hands. "How many have a sore throat?" Many hands. "How many have donkey ears?" Several hands went up, and I rolled over in an exaggerated laugh. One girl told us alt "No one has donkey ears!" I was laughing, so were they and suddenly I had everyone's attention. I changed course and instead of the planned stretch, I called out, "Everyone tuck and roll/' knowing that was a favorite. We were on our way!

Set the tone from the beginning. Begin each class in the same Attitude, attitude. Always remember that you expect the chilplace, on carpet squares, on a line, or in a certain area. If the dren to listen to you. If they don't, expect it anyway. Pursue the group loses focus as you move on to activities, say "Let's go back to the starting place." This gives you a ,----------'---~=-"'C'''' attitude with calm persistence. Tell the children to listen, but don't say it harshly. Your chance to reestablish a sense of order. steady belief in how the class should behave Begin new class with an announcement, will be the guide. You won't have to demand "One rule in this class is that everyone needs respect when you learn to command respect to follow the group. Would it be okay to wanby your very nature. der away by yourself?" (Shake your head.) Remember, this is a learning experience. "No, stay with us." Children are not born knowing how to follow Watch your pace. There are times to speed up, a teacher around and do what they are told! and times to slow down. When everyone is When a child strays, separate yourself for a paying attention and trying hard, let the moment. It is very important not to get peraction roll. Offer several skills to try; don't sonally caught up in a child's misbehavior. make good listeners wait in line. Keep yourTake a breath and remember that this is norself in motion at these times, move between mal. Immediately bring the child back, withthe children and speak with excitement. As out criticism. Learning occurs with consistent, attention wanders, slow down and regroup. positive encouragement. When parents come Don't stay in action all of the time; brief perito you saying they wish their child would ods of calm, with explanations, and slowing behave, or perform skills better, remind them the motion will enhance the activities. their child is there to learn. The whole purpose of preschool gymnastics is to learn and have fun! • Use humor. One class of 4 year aIds came in at 2:30, many of them coughing or sniffing, some rolling on the floor, some wandering around, giving messages that they were not up to their usual listening. I asked, "How many people don't feel well?" I raised my hand as an example and said, "Raise your hand." All of them raised their hands. "How many people are sad?" Several raised their


Cynthia Wain operates a mobile gymnastics program in Eugene, Oregon. Cynthia has taught tots and young children for 12 years. Cynthia Wain's Gymnastics currently serves 10-12 schools and daycare centers, with 100+ students/week. Cynthia can be reached at 541-485-2952.


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USA GYMNASTICS KAT WORKSHOP SCHEDULE (pre-registration required)

For more information about the workshops, contact Pot Warren at 317-237-5050 ext. 337 or email at:

MONTH April April April April April April April May May June October

DATE 10 11 17 18 24 24 25 16 22 5 2

LOCATION Hiliiard, OH Medford, NJ Spring, TX Toms River, NJ Tupelo, MS Kennebunk, ME Champlin, MN Canyon Country, CA Woodstock, GA Ruidoso Downs, NM Hazleton, PA

EVENT/ CLUB Fliptastic! Gymnastics Will Moor Gymnastics Basel's All-Star Gymnastics &Cheer Tumble Tots and Teens Tupelo Academy of Gymnastics Kennebunk Gymnastics Twin City Twisters Fun &Fit Gymnastics World of Gymnastics Ruidoso Gymnastics Assn. Faberge Follies




NATIONAL HEALTH CARE AND SPORT SCIENCE REFERRAL NETWORK USA Gymnastics National Health Care Referral Network is comprised of health care practitioners with proven experience working with athletes. These professionals have met the criteria in their field set by the National Sport Science alld Health Care Board of Consultants and expressed an interest in partnering with local gJjmnastics programs to provide health care services for athletes. * The following list is the Spring '99 update with individuals from the fields of Nutrition, Sport PsychologJj Consultant, Clinical Psychology, Primary Care Sports Medicine, Athletic Training, Sport Science, Psychiatry, and Orthopaedic Sllrgen;. There is also a separate categonj of fonner gJjmnasts in various health care professions. Anyone interested in knowing more about the National Health Care Referral Network or the Athlete Wellness Program can contact Nancy Marshall, Athlete Wellness Program Manager at (503)585-4641 (Oregon) or

REGISTERED DIETITIANS Dan Benardot, Ph.D., R.D., LD. Department of Nutrition and Dietetics Laboratory for Elite Athlete Performance Georgia State University College of Health Sciences University Plaza Atlanta, GA 30303-3083 (4041 651-1560 (phone) Jackie Berning, Ph.D., R.D. University of Colorado at Colorado Springs Department of Biology 1420 Austin Bluffs Parkway Colorado Springs, CO 80933 (3031 593-3078 (phonel Ruth Carey, R.D., LD. 4121 SW 43rd Ave. Portland, OR 97221 (503) 203-8991 (phonel Nancy Clark M.S., R.D. SportsMedicine Brookline 830 Boylston Street, Route 9 Brookline, MA 02167 (617) 739-2003 (phone) Christine Doolittle, M.S., R.D., CD.E. Lifestyles for Health 506B McNight Park Dr. Pittsburgh, PA 15237 (412) 367-7321 (phone) Michelle Dusserre Farrell, M.B.S., R.D.*** 8455 Ilex Drive Colorado Springs, CO 80920 (719) 260-7513 (phone) (719) 260-6994 (fax)

Phyllis Kennel Krozos, M.S., R.R., LD.N. 48 Par La Ville Rd., Suite 295 Hamilton, HM 11 Bermuda (441) 236-5717 (phone and fax) Johnna Kudlac MS, RD. LD RR 4 Box 554M. Sanger, TX 76266 (940) 482-6652 (phone) Kim LaPiana, M.S., R.D."* 609 1/2 Acacia Ave. Corona del Mar, CA 92625 (949) 851-1610 (phone) Rick Lewis, Ph.D., R.D. Department of Foods and Nutrition The University of Georgia Dawson Hall Athens, GA 30602 (706) 542-4901 (phone) (706) 542-5059 (fax) Melinda Manore, Ph.D., R.D.** Professor of Nutrition Box 872502 Arizona State University Dept. of Family Resources and Human Development Tempe, AZ 85287-2502 (602) 965-6935 (phone) (602) 965-6779 (fax) Mildred Mcinnis Cody Ph.D., R.D., LD. Department of Nutrition and Dietetics Georgia State University Atlanta, GA 30303-3083 (404) 651 -1105 (phone) (404) 651-1235 (fax)



Karen Reznik Dolins, M.s., R.D., CD.-N. 250 E. Hartsdale Hartsdale, NY 10530 (91 4) 725-5703 (phone) (914) 725-6220

Larry Nassar, D.O., A.T.C.** Michigan State University Sports Medicine 2900 Hannah Blvd., Suite 104 East Lansing, MI 48823 (517) 336-4520 (phone)

Patti Tveit Milligan, M.s., R.D."* Corporate Wellness Dietitian Henry's Marketplace 9320 Fuerke Dr., Suite 105 La Mesa, CA 91941 (619) 460-3032 ext. 727 (phone)

Auriela Nattiv, M.D.** UCLA Division of Family Medicine Room 50-071 Center for the Health Sciences 10833 LeConte Ave. Los Angeles, CA 90024-1683 (310) 206-6458 (phone)

Claudia Wilson M.S., R.D. Sports Nutritionist/ Clinical Dietitian University of Utah Nutrition Clinic Division of Foods and Nutrition HPR-N-239 Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (801) 581-5417 (phone) (B01) 585-3874 (fax) Medical Doctors/Primary Care Cindy Chang, M.D. University of California University Health Service Tang Center, 2222 Bancroft Way Berkeley, CA 94720 (510) 643-3627 (phone) (510) 643-9790 (fax) Katherine Dec, M.D. Sheltering Arms Physical Rehabilitation Center 206 Twinridge Rehabilitation Richmond, VA 23235 (804) 323-1421 (phone) (804) 320-7711 (phone) John DiFiori, M.D. UCLA Division of Family Medicine, Ste. 220 200 UCLA Medical Plaza Los Angeles, CA 90024 (310) 206-9713 (phone) Steven A. Giles, M.D. Moreland Family Medicine Assoc., S.C 717 W. Moreland Blvd. Waukesha, WI 53188 (414) 542-9100 (phone) Brian Halpern, M.D., FAAFP Sports Medicine New Jersey Baron Plaza, 10 Route 520 East Marlboro, NJ 07746 (908) 946-2100 (phone) Suzanne S. Hecht, M.D.*** UCLA Dept. of Family Medicine 50·071 CHS, Box 951683 Los Angeles, CA 90095-1683 (310) 206-1299 (phone) (310) 206-5351 (fax) (current elite judge) David Herzog, M.D. Director, Eating Disorders Unit Massachusetts General Hospital 15 Parkman St., ACC 725 Boston, MA 02114 (617) 726-2724 (phone)

Margot Petukian, M.D., FACSM Pennsylvania State University Center for Sports Medicine 1850 E. Park Ave., Suite 112 University Park, PA 16803 (814) 863-7803 (phone) (814) 865-3566 (fax) mxp Sami Rifat, M.D. Rochester Knee and Sports Med., P.C 2055 Crooks Rd. Rochester Hills, MI 48309 (810) 853-2300 (phone) Alan R. Stockard, D.O. Division Chief of Primary Care Sports Medicine, Sports Medicine & Rehabilitation of Texas 3600 W. 7th St. Fort Worth, TX 76107 (817) 377-3422 (clinic phone) (817) 735-9034 (dinic fox)

MEDICAL DOCTORS/ ORTHOPAEDIC SURGEONS James R. Andrews, M.D. Alabama Sports Medicine and Orthopaedic Center 1201 11 th Ave. South, Suite 200 8irmingham, AL 35205 (205) 939-3000 (phone) (205) 918-0848 (fax) A. Jay Binder, M.D., M.P.H. Director of Sports Medicine Center The Sports Medicine Center 4720 1-10 Service Rd., Suite 301 Metairie, LA 70001 (504) 885-8225 (phone) (504) 885-7642 (fax) Quinter Burnett II, M.D. K. Valley Orthopedics, P.C and The Southwestern Michigan Sportsmedicine Clinic 315 Turwill Lane Kalamazoo, MI 49006 (616) 343- 8170 (phone) (616) 382-8490 (fax)

VOLUME 19 • # 3 ) f - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Patricia C Chamberland, M.D. The Hughston of Colorado, P.C 214 E. Denver Ave. Gunnison, CO 81230 (970) 641-43455 (phone) (800) 351-1994 (phone) (970) 641-0377 (fax) Walton W. Curl, M.D. Wake Forest University School of Medicine Medical Center 80ulevard Winston-Salem, NC 27157-1070 (910) 716-4207 (phone) (910) 716-6286 (fax) Hamilton Easter, M.D., Ph.D. Tooze & Easter 720 South Queen St. Dover, DE 19904 (302) 735-8700 (phone) David Fischer, M.D:' Minneapolis Sports Medicine Center 701 25th Ave. South Minneapolis, MN 55454 (612) 672-4800 (phone) (612) 672-4560 (fax) Robert Frederick, M.D. Professor of Orthopaedic Surgery Emory University School of Medicine The Emory Clinic, Inc. Sports Medicine Center 2165 North Decatur Rd. Decatur, GA 30033

(404) 778-4325 (phone) Corlos Guanche, M.D. Minneapolis Sports Medicine Center 701 25th Ave. South Suite 400 Minneapolis, MN 55454 (612) 339-7734 (phone) (612) 339-7434 (fax) Jeffrey l Halbrecht, M.D. Private Practice 2100 Webster St., Suite 331 San Francisco, CA 9411 5 (415) 923-0944 (phone) (415) 923-5896 (fax) William Hayes, M.D. Houston Northwest Orthopaedic & Sports Medicine Center 13635 Michael Rd. Tomball, TX 77375 (281) 351-7261 (phone) (281) 351-2515 (fax) Mark Hutchinson, M.D. University of Illinois at Chicago Department of Orthopedics (Ml844) 209 Medical Science S., 901 Wolcott Chicago, Il 60612 (312) 996-7161 (phone) (312) 996-9025 (fax)

Douglas Jackson, M.D. Southern California Center for Sports Medicine 2760 Atlantic Avenue long Beach, CA 90806 (562) 424-3441 (phone) (562) 427-1235 (fax)

Thomas N. Lindenfeld, M.D. Cincinnati Sportsmedicine and Orthopaedic Center 121 15 Sheraton lane Cincinnati,OH 45246 (513) 671 -031 1 (phone)

David M. Joyner, M.D., F.A.CS. 4750 Lindle Road Suite 365 Harrisburg, PA 171 11 (717) 561-5265 (phone) (717) 561-5264 (fax)

Mary lloyd Ireland, M.D. Kentucky Sports Medicine Clinic 601 Perimeter Dr. lexington, KY 40517 (606) 268-0268 (phone) (606) 268-4519 (fax) KsportsMed@AOl.COM

Thomas P. Knapp M.D. Santa Monica Orthopedic Sports Medicine Group 1301 Twentieth Street Suite 150 Santa Monica, CA 90404 (31 0) 829-2663 (phone) (31 0) 315-0326 (fax) Peter Kurzweil, M.D. Southern California Center for Sports Medicine 2760 Atlantic Avenue long Beach, CA 90806 (562) 424-6666 (phone) (562) 427-1235 (fax)

Mark A. lundeen, M.D., P.C OrthopaedicAssociates Fargo 2301 25th Street South, Suite A Fargo, NO 58103 (701) 237-9712 (phone) (701) 237-0922 (fax) Bert Mandelbaum, M.D:' Santa Monica Orthopedic Sports Medicine 1301 20th St., Suite 150 Santa Monica, CA 90404 (612) 339-7734 (phone) (612) 339-5391 (fax) Robert J. Meislin, M.D. Phoenix Orthopedic Group 2620 North 3rd St., Suite 100 Phoenix, AZ 85004 (602) 277-1558 (phone) (continued


page 30)

NATIONAL HEALTH CARE AND SPORTS SCIENCE REFERRAL NETWORK (con tin lied from pllge 29) Bill Mitchell, M.D.**/ *** SportsMedicine Brookline 830 Boylston St., Suite 112 Brookline, MA 02167 (617)731-6300 (phone) (617) 731-9640 (fox) Terry Francis Reardon, M.D. Orthopedic Associates of Middletown 51 South Main St. Middletown, CT 06457 (860) 347-7636 (phone) Yvonne E. Satterwhite, M.D. Kentucky Sports Medicine 601 Perimeter Dr. Lexington, KY 40517 (606) 268-0268 (phone) (606) 268-4519 (fax) Robert A. Stanton, M.D. 325 Reef Rood Fairfield, CT 06430 (203) 255-2839 (phone) (203) 254 3685 (fax) John Steubs, M.D. Minneapolis Sports Medicine Center 701 25th Avenue South #400 Minneapolis, MN 55454 (612) 339-7734 (phone) (612) 892-1800 (phone) (612) 672-4560 (fax) Kevin M.Supple, M.D. Greensboro Orthopaedic Center, P.A. 1401 Benjamin Parkway Greensboro, NC27408 (91O) 545-5000 (phone) (910) 545-5020 (fax) Douglas P.Tewes, M.D. Lincoln Orthopaedic Center, P.C 6900 AStreet P.O. Box 6939 Lincoln, NE 68506 (402) 436-2000 (phone) (402) 436-2099 (fax) John W. Uribe, M.D. 5000 University Drive, Suite 3320 Coral Gables, FL 33146 (305) 669-3320 (phone) (305) 669-3324 (fax) David L. Walden, M.D. Southern Colorado Orthopedic Clinic 2233 Academy Place, Suite 101 Colorado Springs, CO 80909 (719) 570-7272 (phone) (719) 570-9030 (fax) George J. Zambetti, Jr., M.D. 343-345 West 58th Street New York, NY 10019 (212) 765-2260 (phone)

ATHLETIC TRAINERS Dwight Adsit, AlC 4010 Donalbain Spring, TX 77373 (281) 351 -6300 (phone) James Beitzel, AlC Health South Rehabilitation 297 W. 63rd St. Willowbrook, IL60514 (630) 789-9506 (phone) Marnie Lynn Brown, AlC, P.T. Sinai Samaritan Medical Center Sports Medicine Institute 19601 W. Blue Mound Rd. Brookfield, WI 53045 (414) 821 -4460 (phone) (414) 821 -4464 (fax) David Burchuk, P.T., AlC Lighthouse Physical Therapy 150 Gosling Rd. Portsmouth, NH 03801 (603) 431-0277 (phone)

J. Rigo Carbajal, AlC 11829 44th Dr. Phoenix, AZ 85021 (602) 548-9882 (phone) (602) 548-0228 John Christiansen, P.T., A.T.C Health South Rehabilitation 297 W. 63rd St. Willowbrook, IL 60514 (630) 789-9506 (phone) Randy Craig, P.T., AlC PRO REHAB 12660 Lamplighter Square, Suite E St. Louis, MO 63128 (314) 842-2990 (phone) Katherine I. Dieringer, AlC., L.AlC Texas Woman's University Intercollegiate Athletics PO Box 425349 Denton, TX 76204-5349 (817)898-2378 (phone) Albert J. Ducker, AlC HealthSouth Sports Medicine 121 15 Sheraton Cincinnati, OH 452116 (513) 346-3110 (phone) (513) 346-7290 x3501 (voice mail) (513) 346-3113 (fax) Kathleen Hickey Kane, P.T., AlC Valley Physical Therapy & Sports Medicine 6 Progress Dr. Cromwell, CT 06416 (860) 635-9622 (phone) (860) 828-6303 (fax) Kathleen M. Laquale, Ph.D., L.AlC, 1290 Wampanoag Trail East Providence, RI 02915 (410) 437-1977 (phone)


Ron Linfonte, AlC Director of Sports Medicine St. John's University Alumni Hall Jamaica, NY 11439 (718) 990-6055 (phone) (718) 990-2198 (fax) Janice Loudon, Ph.D. P.T., AlC, S.CS. The University of Kansas Medical Center Assistant Professor 3901 Rainbow Boulevard Kansas City, KS 66160-7601 (913) 588-6914 (phone) (913) 588-4568 (fax) Timothy McLane, AlC./L. M.B.A. 5975 Orchard Pond Drive Orange Park, FL 32073 (904) 308-7741 (work phone) (904) 269-9737 (home phone) (904) 269-8099 (home fax) Dennis Miller, P.T., AlC:* Purdue University Mackey Arena West Lafayette, IN 47906 (317)494-0102 (phone) Larry Nassar, D.O., AlC:* Michigan State University Sports Medicine 2900 Hannah Blvd., Suite 104 East Lansing, MI 48823 (517) 336-4520 (phone) (517)332-4576 (fax) Don Rackey, AlC. 7331 E. Osborn Rd. #190 Scottsdale, AZ 85251 (602) 892-2121 (phone) Melanie T. Seaman, PJ, AlC Healthsouth 6767 -8 South Yale Tulsa, OK 74136 (918) 492-3639 (phone) Kevin Shanahan, P.T., AlC Health South Rehabilitation 297 W. 63rd St. Willowbrook, IL 60514 (630) 789-9506 (phone) Linda Tremain, P.T., AlC Health South Rehabilitation 297 W. 63rd St. Willowbrook, IL 60514 (630) 789-9506 (phone) Debbie A. Von Horn, M.S., AlC P.O. Box 576 Crested 8utte, CO 81224 (970) 349-5371 (phone) James Zachazewski, P.T., AlC Newton-Wellesley Hospital 2014 Washington St. Newton, MA 02162 (617)243-6000 (phone)

TEe H N 10 U E • VOLUME 19 • #3

SPORT SCIENCE CONSULTANTS Dennis Caine Ph.D. (Epidemeiology and Anthropometry) Dept. of Physical Education, Health and Recreation Western Washington University Bellingham, WA 98225 (360) 650-3529 (phone) (360) 650-7447 (fax) Robert M.Malina, Ph.D. Professor and Director Institute for the Study of Youth Sports Department of Kinesiology Michigan State University 213 1M Sports Circle East Lansing, MI 48824-1049 517 -355-7 620 (phone) 517 -353-5363 (fax) Jessica Smith, MS (Bioengineering)*** 636 E. 1300 S. Salt Lake City, UT 84105 (801) 487-9349 (home phone) (801) 269-4038 (office phone) Jeni McNeal, M.e., CS.CS. (Exercise physiology/ strength and conditioning)*** Department of Exercise and Sport Science University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (801) 272-9748 (home phone) (801) 581-5430 (office phone) (801) 585-3992 (fax) Jennifer Kilgore, M.S. (Applied Sport Psychology)*** Department of Exercise and Sport Science University of Utah Salt Lake, City, UT 84112 (801 ) 581-5430 (office phone) (801) 585-3992 (fax) William A. Sands Ph.D. ** Department of Exercise and Sport Science University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112 ( 801) 581-4728 (office phone) (801) 581-5430 (lab phone) (801) 581-5580 (fax) Mel Siff, Ph.D. (8iomechanics/Training Theory) 7434 S. Cherry Court Littleton, CO 80122 (303) 221-3336 (phone)

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SPORT PSYCHOLOGY CONSULTANTS Gloria Balague, Ph.D." UIC Psychology Department 1007 W. Harrison St. Chicago, Il 60607 (312) 996-8681 (phone) (312) 413-4122 (fax) Gloriab@uicedu Karen D. Cogan, Ph.D.*" Counseling and Testing Center University of North Texas PO Box 310968 Denton, TX 76203 (940) 565-4798 (phone) (940) 565-4376 lewis Curry, Ph.D. Associate Professor, Department of Health and Human Performance Director, GRIZ Sport Counseling and Performance Enhancement Resource Center 220A & BMcGill/HHP Dept. The University of Montano Missoula, MT 59812 (406) 243-5242 (office phone) (406) 728-6252 (fax) Joan Duda, Ph.D." Purdue University Department of HKlS West lafayette, IN 47907 (317) 494-3172 (phone) Richard D. Gordin, Ed.D. Department of HPER Utah State University logan, UT 84322 (435) 797-1506 (phone) (435) 797-3759 (fax)

Wayne Hurr, Ph.D. Georgetown University Counseling & Psychiatric Services One Darnall Hall 37th & "0" Streets NW Washington, DC 20057 (202) 687-6985 (phone) Joseph Massimo, Ph.D. Newton Public Schools 100 Walnut St. Newton, MA 02160 (781) 891 -6769 (home) (781) 893-2009 (gym) Linda Petlichkoff, Ph.D. Professor, Department of HPER Boise State University 1910 University Drive Boise, ID 83725 (208) 426-1231 (office phone) (208) 426-1894 (fax) James P. Reardon, Ph.D. Consulting Psychologist Worthington Woods Office Condominiums 7550 Pingue Drive Worthington, OH 43085 (614) 436-9985 (phone) (614) 436-0256 (fox) Mark Thompson, Ph.D. Inner Edge 3514 Clinton Parkway Box A-285 lawrence, KS 66047 (785) 749-2888 (phone)

CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST Polly Rost, Ph.D. (Private Practice) 807 South George St. York, PA 17403 (717) 843-6561 (phone) (717) 845-6941 (fax)

PSYCHIATRY CONSULTANTS Antonia Bourn, M.D. George Washington University Dept. of Psychiatry, 8th Floor 2150 Pennsylvania Ave. N.W. Washington D.C. 20037 (202) 994-2908 (office) (202) 994-6377 (fax) psyalb@gwumcedu

Desiree Jansen, R.D., L.D. Hillcrest Medical Center Hillcrest Exercise and Lifestyle Programs 1265 S. Utica Ave., Suite. 200 Tulsa, OK 74101-4964 (918) 579-4959 (phone) Kyra Miller, M.S., R.D. 1388 Glenover Way Marietta, GA 30062 (770) 321-0041 (phone/ fax)

Ronald Kamm, M.D. 257 Monmouth Rd. Building A. Suite 5 Oakhurst, NJ 07755 (732) 517-0595 (office phone) (732) 531-6493 (fax)

Mary Sowa, R.D. CNSD Sports Nutritionist 18 Wadsworth Irvine, CA 92620 (949) 857-8364 (phone) (949) 857-8324 (fax)

David Herzog, M.D. Director Eating Disorders Unit Massachusetts General Hospital 15 Parkman SI., ACC 725 Boston, MA 02114 (617) 726-2724 (office phone)

Jennifer Whinery, M.A. Therapeutic Recreation Dynamite Academy of Gymnastics 327 Franklin Ave. Rockaway, NJ 07866

FORMER GYMNASTS IN HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONS Alison Arnold, Ph.D., Uc. Head Games Professional Sport Psychology 812 N. 2nd Ave. Phaenix, AZ 85003 (602) 462-1607 (phone) Jennifer Fasanello, M.S., R.N., B.S.N. 4411 SW 34th St., #902 Gainsville, Fl32608 (352) 336-0819 (phone) Darcy Heath, M.A., MFCCI Marriage and Family Counselor 2530 Silvercrest Ct. Pinole, CA 94564 (510) 223-1855 or (800) 596-8945 (phone)

The United States Olympic Committee has established a Notional Rehabilitation Network (USOC-NRN) and the Notional Dental Referral Network. listed on these Networks are clinics and schools with Sports Medicine programs who have agreed to provide health core to adive elite athletes under the USOC elite athlete program. For questions about this network coli /-800-638-/604. , Fees for services provided determined by health care proditioner. .. Indicates member of the USA Gymnastics National Sport Science and Health Core 800rd of Consultants. "' Indicates qualifying health care proditioners who are also former gymnasts. The Athlete Wellness Program has been partially funded by gifts from the Notional Gymnastics Foundation.

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Jeff Lulla is a member of the USAG Preschool Advisory Board and co-author of the Kinder Accreditation for Teachers (KAT) course. He is also a USAG NatiC1nal Safety Instructor, an industry consultant, and is a seminar presenter for th e USAIGC , and USA Gymnastics. He owns two successful gyms in Southern California.

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Gymnastics Malr"keting By Michael A. Taylor In the "Gymnastics Marketing Code of Points," value part of "A" would be given to black and white descriptive brochures and business card institutional ads placed inside church newsletters. A "B" value includes professionally-produced color brochures and newspaper advertising. Regularly appearing advertising in special interest magazines, strategically placed TV ads, and Yellow Pages box ads warrant a "C" value. The highest value, "E," of course, is awarded to positive wordof-mouth fro m happy customers! This article will focus on internet web sites, which generally receive a "C" value-but a "D" value is possible with a quality designed site. USA Gymnastics went "online" in February 1996 and by now many of you have probably accessed the web site at http ://ww w• usa - gymnast i cs· arg o If you were one of these people, perhaps you were looking up a professional or athlete membership number. Maybe you checked the results of a recent competition or the

Safety Certification Course schedule for a class in your area. For whatever reason you went to USA Gymnastics Online, you experienced how valuable a web site can be. Checking the web site probably gave you the information you were looking for and saved you the time of making a telephone call. You may have even sent an immediate email message to the USA Gymnastics staff rather then sending a letter. You were probably impressed with the incredible number of features available and explored some of the various highlights of the site. Many gym owners, directors, and gymnastics entrepreneurs have recognized the value and cost-effectiveness of a web site. Web sites give legitimacy to their businesses, are accessible 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 365 days a year and can contain more information than any television or print advertisement. Web sites can be dynamic, with the ability to change content almost immediately. (Good luck trying to change your Yellow Page ad after it has been published.) To achieve "full value" for your web site, with no deductions for execution errors, is a skill indeed. First of all, answer for yourself the WHO, WHAT, WHEN, WHERE and WHY for your web site. WHO will you be targeting with your pages? You probably want to attract new customers, current customers you wish to keep informed, parents and children. WHAT do you want to say to those individuals visiting your site? You probably want to tell them how to find you, what you have and what you've done. WHAT type of site do you want to create? Your choices are a couple of pages of simple information or a comprehensive site (USA Gymnastics has more than 3,000 pages) complete with user interactivity and response forms.


TEC H N IOU E • VOLUME 19 • #3 ) l - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -




........ .. .' For more gymnastics business-re lated articles, become a Member Club and receive the Member Club News (formerly ca ll ed Gymnastics Network News or GNNj . This newsletter comes out quarterly and featu res topics such as employee manu als and contracts, lesson plans, client and student retention, employee incentives and more.

WHEN do you plan to maintain your site? On a regular basis or only occasionally? WHERE will you host your site-on one of the J/freeJ/ sites (cheap but limited in options and cluttered with third-party advertising), as a virtual domain on someone else's server (i.e. www.gym.netlyourgym) or as your own domain (i.e. . Another important WHERE to answer is WHERE will you promote your site? Creating a web site is only the beginning. You must also include your web address in all correspondence and advertising and register with all available search engines and web directories. Try to link/ return link with other gymnastics sites and do everything possible to announce your web address. Finally, WHY you create a web site is important as well. Rarely are web sites, in and of themselves, revenue-producing. If you have realistic expectations for your internet presence you will be much happier. WHY you should design a web site is to stay current and remain competitive. I believe that we are on the verge of another communication revolution in our society and that, just as every business now has a telephone, every business will, within the next five years, have an internet web site. Hopefully after reading this you will go back to the USA Gymnastics Online site and read more about creating a web presence for your gym (http://www . usa· gymnastics. org/mogo) or check out some of the many resources available. We have evolved from two-piece switch phones to rotary dial phones (remember party lines?) to touch tones, faxes and cell phones. In the very near future we will all communicate via the internet. If your competitor is working on their "D" marketing skills, you need to as well. It's almost an event requirement with an up to .20 deduction for failure to include the internet in your marketing routine .•

Michael A. Taylor is a former gym owner and currently the director of the 1800- student Menlo Park Gymnastics program in Menlo Park, Calif. He is a USA Gymnastics National Safety Instructor, a USA Gymnastics KAT Instructor, an ASEP Coaching Principles Leader Level In structor, and owner of Gym.Net-a Gymnastics Professional's Network that includes web site creation and design services. He has written numerous web sites including,,,, and www· illusionsactivewear ·com as well as other non-gJjmnastics related sites. USA Gymnastics Member Clubs receive a 40% discount on website design. Email coacht@gym. net for more information. - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - j ( TECH N' QUE •

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Contact Loree Galimore at 317-237-5050 ext. 340 for more information.




continued on page 34

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INSURANCE: Clarifications----As of August 1, 1999 the insurance company for USA Gymnastics sanctioned events is: Benefit Design Associates, Inc. 1003 High House Rd, Suite 203 Cary, NC 27513 Phone: 919-460-5700 Fax: 919-460-5991 When needed, this is the company from which you request certificate of insurance. This is also the company that receives the accident report form when an athlete is injured at a sanctioned event. If you have an accident claim on an athlete's injury that

occurred prior to August 1, 1999, contact: K & K Insurance 1712 Magnavox Way, P.O. Box 2338 Fort Wayne, IN 46801 Phone: 1-800-648-6404 The insurance coverage is only in effect at a Sanctioned Event.



Therefore, it is extremely important that all rules and regulations are followed . An important aspect of our Risk Management Program is that all athletes are registered Team Members and all coaches and judges are currently Safety Certified and maintain a USA Gymnastics Professional Member number.


Athlete Team Member: Secondary Medical Insurance Must be a competitor in that specific event and have a valid Team Member number issued by USA Gymnastics. This insurance coverage is in effect for injuries that occurred at that sanctioned competition. An accident report form must be completed and signed by the appropriate people, then sent to Benefit Design Group.

Professional Member: Coaches/Judges/Meet Directors No medical insurance. The insurance is for liability insurance only.

Club Insurance: You may select the insurance company that meets your needs. You may call USA Gymnastics for the phone numbers of our Industnj Members who are in that field or you may contact companies in your local area for assistance.

For insurance-related questions you may also contact USA Gymnastics Insurance representative: Patrick O'Connor City Securities Corporation 2200 First Indiana Plaza 135 N. Pennsylvania St. Indianapolis, IN 46204-2462 Phone: 317-972-7109 Fax: 317-972-7142


CHANGE IN STANDARD MILEAGE RATES ccording to the USA Gymnastics Judge's Compensation Package for Women, as found in the Rules and Policies, mileage will be reimbursed at the standard IRS rate.


The IRS has recently announced that the new standard mileage rate will be 31 cents per mile, EFFECTIVE APRIL 1, 1999.

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The sanction approval must be given by the Member Services Department at USA Gymnastics prior to the event. Requests for sanctions are to be received at the USA Gymnastics office a minimum of 30 days prior to the event. Events may not be sanctioned after the fact. All requirements must be in place in order for the event to be sanctioned. All rules and regulations must be followed for the sanction to remain in effect. Violations may result in a sanction being voided. If this takes place then the insurance coverage is no longer in effect and the scores can not count towards qualification.


Competition Requirements: Every coach/judge/official on the floor at a USA Gymnastics Sanctioned event must be a professional member and SAFETY CERTIFIED with USA Gymnasti cs. They may sign up for a safety course to receive their professional membership. BUT they must have attended the course and have a professional membership to be on the floor at USA Gymnastics sanctioned events. This policy of certification and membership is one of the most important components of our Risk Management Program.

TEe H N IOU E • VOLUME 19 • #3 ) ) - - - - -- -- - - - - - - - --

club represented by that individual has no other coaches present who are professional members, then their athletes will not be allowed to compete in that meet. Entry fees for that competition will not be refunded under these circumstances. Motion-R. Sandoz Second-G. Grainger PASSED


If an individual either attempts to coach without a professional membership or falsifies their membership number at a USA Gymnastics sanctioned competition, a warning will be sent to the individual and to the club for which this person coached.

Form letters to report such incidents will be sent to the Meet Director with the Sanction forms. A copy of the letter will be sent to the State Chairman and to USA Gymnastics Member Services.

I. ROLL CALL Meeting was called to order at 8:00 p .m . by WAB Chairman Jan Greenhawk. Members Present: Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 Region 4 Region 6 Region 7 Region 8 Women's Program Director Members Absent: Region 5 Elite Program Comm. Chair Jr. Olympic Program Comm. Chair Athlete Representative: Women's Technical Comm. Chair Jr. Olympic Program Manager

Tma Preston (for Denise Porrazzo) Ruth Sandoz Cori Rizzo George Grainger Kathy Ostberg Lynn Perrott Deb Kornegay Kathy Kelly Kathy Koeth-Shufflin Roe Kreutzer Tom Koll Tanya Service Chaplin Cheryl Hamilton Connie Maloney

II. NON路MEMBERS AT USA GYMNASTICS SANCTIONED MEETS Recommendation that if an individual without a current professional membership attempts to act as a coach on the floor of a USA Gymnastics sanctioned competition, that individual will be removed from the meet (field of play) by the Meet Director. If the

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III. STATE/REGIONAL COMPETITION AND/OR CLUB FEES Recommendation to add a clarification to the Operating Code, pps. 158-159, under duties of the Regional Chairman: The Regional Chairman may determine and collect competition and/or club fees for the purpose of raising operating funds for the Region with the approval of the Regional Board. All fees will be retained in the Regional account for use as decided by the Regional Board. Recommendation to add a clarification to the Operating Code, pps. 159-160, under duties of the State Chairman: The State Chairman may determine and collect competition and/or club fees for the purpose of raising operating funds for the State with the approval of the State Board. All fees will be retained in the State account for use as decided by the State Board. Motion-K. Ostberg Second-C. Rizzo PASSED


Approved by Bob Cola rossi, President November, 1998 (More Women's Program Update on page 45)



GENERAL GYMNASTICS ADVISORY PANEL CONFERENCE CALL Tuesday, Febrllary 2, 1999 Call initiated at 11:00 a.lI1. EST

I. ROLL CALL David Moskovitz, Leader Dean Capelotti, Member Lori Laznovsky, Member Steve Whitlock, USA Gymnastics

GENERAL GYMNASTICS ADVISORY PANEL CONFERENCE CALL Friday, November 13,1998 Call convened at 11:00 a.m. EST

II. GROUP LEADER MEETING - DALLAS Moskovitz reviewed the agenda he prepared for GGAP meeting in Dallas prior to the WG Group Leader Meeting. Laznovsky will contact David Leopard (security) and Tim Southwell (communications equipment) to arrange a dinner meeting prior to Sa turday'S meeting.

I. ROLL CALL David Moskovitz, Leader Dean Capelotti, Member Lori Laznovsky, Member Steve Whitlock, USA Gymnastics

III. GGAP MEETING IN DALLAS Moskovitz initiated discussion of items to be covered at the Sunday GGAP meeting following the WG Group Leader Meeting. It was agreed that the following items would be included on the agenda:

II. WORLD GYMNAESTRADA YOUTH CAMP Moskovitz asked for approval of th e fina l two applications received by USA Gymnastics. Whitlock read briefly from the application. Both applications were approved. Whitlock described the announcements and mailing that have been distributed to date regarding the Youth Camp and World Gymnaestrada participation. Bulletin #3 from the WG / OC included the first preliminary schedule of events. Whitlock was directed by the panel to update and post the announcements for the Youth Camp.

• 1999 Na tional GymFest • 1999 Na tional Congress: CongressFest; GG Presentations; TeamGymn exhibitions • TeamGymn rules modification for '99-'00 season - It was agreed that the TeamGymn rules modification be presented formally at the Na tional Congress and then printed for distribution.

• 1999 GG Camps • Schedule/ Sites for 2UUU, 2001, 2002

III. USA GG YOUTH CAMP Laznovsky reported on her work developing the Youth Camp concept. Discussion followed . Whitlock asked the panel to consider several options for dates and locations of camps. Discussion followed. The panel approved the following preliminary dates and locations for General Gymnastics Youth Camps:

IV. NATIONAL GYMFEST Whitlock informed the Panel of changes occurring at the national office regarding the selection of event sites and the bid process. • Capelotti's "Johnny Appleseed" proposal- Discussion followed.

A. September 3-5, 1999. Austin, Texas, in conjunction with the GAT convention. B. October 22-24,1999. Baltimore, Maryland.

It was agreed that GGAP members are to be prepared to discuss potential candidates for the "Johnny Appleseed" program at the next GGAP meeting.

Whitlock will work on communication with GAT personnel. Laznovsky will make contacts within the Baltimore area.



• Whitlock asked Moskovitz to follow-up with the Swedish contact for videos on TeamGymn and General Gymnas tics events. • Moskovitz thanked Whitlock for completing and posting the agenda items for the WG Group Leader Meeting to be held in Dallas, February 20, 1999.

Moskovitz reviewed the current calendar month-by-month. Discussion followed. Whitlock updated the schedule. Moskovi tz began a discussion regarding new efforts to advertise and promote GG activities. The panel agreed to work on the development of the following new, color brochures: • What is General Gymnastics? (information brochure) • General Gymnastics Youth • Camps • TeamGymn • National GymFest The panel also recommended the use of the USAGO/GG webpage to alillounce and describe events.

The call concluded at 1:00 p.m. EST Respectfully submitted, David Moskovitz, Leader General GYll1nastics Advisory Panel

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• Moskovitz presented a specific timetable for the agenda. It was agreed that agenda items be categorized by importance and content. Based on the categoriza tion, each meeting time block will include at least one major item. Moskovitz will revise the timed agenda and distribute to the Panel. • Whitlock expressed the need to compile the necessary information from the group leaders regarding Large Group Performances, English Speaking Na tional Evening, and the Closing Ceremony. • Whitlock will present these areas at the appropriate time during the meeting.

The call adjourned at 1:05 p.lI1. EST Respectfully submitted, David Moskovitz, Leader, February 4, 1999 • VOLUME 19 • #3

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II. APPROVAL OF MINUTES FROM 12/16/98. Motion-Mark Williams Second-Chris Waller PASSED 6-0

III. MEN'S 2000 OLYMPIC GAMES SELECTION PROCEDURES Three proposals for the selection of the athletes for the Olympic Ga mes were brought to the MPC from the selection committee. These three proposals will be sent to the U.S. Olympic Committee for approval. A final selection procedure will be adopted by the MPC after the 1999 World Championships. Proposed options: 1) Top five gymnasts rank order and one gymnast selected by the MPC to help augment the team's performance. 2) Top four gymnasts rank order and the fifth gymnast based on a five score total and the sixth gymnast based on a four score total. 3) Top six gymnasts rank order.


I. ROLL CALL Meeting called to order at 11:10 a.m. EST by Chair, Marc Yancey.

Approve three versions of the 2000 Olympic Selection Procedures.

Members Present: Marc Yancey

Chair MPC & Jr. Coaches Rep.

George Beckstead

FIG Rep.

Greg Corsiglia

Jr. Coaches Rep.

Tim Daggett

Vice-Chair for Men

Mark Williams

Sr. Coaches Rep.

Barry Weiner

Sr. Coaches Rep. (absent)

Motion-Chris Waller Second-Greg Corsiglia PASSED 6-0 Motion to adjourn-Tim Daggett Second-Greg Corsiglia

Chris Waller

Athlete's Rep.

Ron Galimore

Men's Program Director (voice, no vote)

Dennis McIntyre

Men's Program Manager (voice, no vote)

Peter Kormann

National Team Coordinator (voice, no vote)

Meeting adjou1'l1ed at 11:35 a.m. EST. Submitted by Mark Wells Williams, secretary, USA Gymnastics Men's Program Committee.

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FUTURE STARS PROGRAM UPDATE #4 This document will serve as the clarifications/changes document for the 1999 Junior Developmental Team Program and the Future Stars Nationals. This document contains several significant changes to the Future Stars Program and should be reviewed carefully. New or modified areas are underlined. This update contains 011 changes ond clarifications for the Future Stars program including those listed in updates #1, #2 & #3. Questions regarding

this update or the program should be addressed to Dennis Mcintyre, Men's Program Manager ot USA Gymnostics.

GENERAL CHANGES: 1. In 1998 the Junior Notional Coaching Stoff developed on 8-9 year old Future Stars Division. The 8-9 year old division routines are attached. The evaluation rules for the 8-9 yeor old division are the some as for the 10-11 and 12 year old divisions. The 89 yeor old division will porticipate up to the Regional level. Quolifying procedures and regional evoluotion format for the 8-9 year old division will be set by each region. 2. The Future Stars Chompionships will be divided into two age groups. The two oge groups, the number of athletes who will be named to the 10-11 Notional Development Team and the number of othletes who will be invited to the Development Team camp are: Age Division 10-11 year olds 12 year old

# To Team 30 20

# To Camp 15 10

The oge determining dote and rules will remoin the some. 3. The qualifying scores to Notional Future Stars Championships will be 74 points for both the 10-11 and 12 year old divisions. 4. On pommel horse & vault the routines/evaluations will be different for the 10-11 and 12 year old divisions as indicated in this document. 5. At the Notional Future Stars Championships only, 011 events will now begin with a bose score of 9.7 with on additional 0.3 to be awarded in Virtuosity Bonus. Virtuosity bonus will only be given for flawless execution which clearly exceeds the required performance criteria.


POMMEL HORSE: 1. In the 10-11 division, a tope line will be placed across the horse at 16 inches from the end of the horse. This tope line will indicate when the gymnast has finished his 3/3 longitudinal travel. In addition, please moke the following changes to the 10-11 pommel horse routine. A. Port #1 change to: Facing the end of the horse, jump to forward 3/3 longitudinol travel in 6 circles or less. B. Delete part #2 - backloop C. Delete part #3 - bock loop Explonotion: The othlete must now complete the longitudinol trovel ond begin the 1/4 Spindle in six circles (6) or less. The longitudinol travel will not be evoluoted os complete until both honds hove crossed 0 tope line (finishing edge)ploced ot 16 inches from the end of the horse. The number of circles between the completion of the 3/3 travel and the beginning of the spindle does not motter os long os the entire trove Ito spindle sequence is done in six circles or less. 2. In the 10-11 pommel horse routine, part #8, either 0 partiolloop with 1/4 turn or 0 full loop with 1/4 turn will be occepted. This should end the confusion for both the cooches and evoluotors concerning when the f10ir octuolly ends ond the loop begins. 3. The text for the 10-11 Division pommel horse routine is inconsistent with the officio I video tope. In the video tope port #9, the side support circle, hos been omitted. The text is occurote.

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4. In the 10-11 Division, the deduction for not ottempting port #1, 3/3 longitudinol trovel, is 2.0 points. 5. The routine for the 12 yeor old division ot pommel horse hos been chonged ond is ottoched to this document in the form thot the routines oppear in the Junior Notionol Teom Progrom monuol.

STILL RINGS: 1. The text for the Still Ring routine is inconsistent with the official video tope. In the video tope port #6, inlocote, hos been omitted. The originol printed text is occurote and there ore two inlocotes in the exercise. 2. The Still Ring routine should be chonged to reflect the follOWing: A. Port #3 should be chonged to: lift legs to l support - hold B. Port #4 should be chonged to: Bent orm stroddle press to hondstond - hold (note: straight arm press - potentiol virtuosity bonus ot Notionol Evoluotion) C. Add Port #9A: Dislocote. Speciol Performonce Criterio: Shoulders obove the rings (note: The end of the routine will now read - #8.1mmediotely roll bockword below the rings to dislocate, #9. dislocate, #9A. dislocate, #10. dislocote "through" hondstond, releose rings and lond in 0 stond.!

VAULT: 1. 10-11 Division - no chonges. 2. The voult for the 12 yeor old division will be 0 hondspring vault. The height/rise requirement in the post flight will be thot the gymnost must show 0 hip rise of 1/3 of body height. The landing distonces will be evoluoted the some os for the Closs Iand II Technical Voult.

PARALLEL BARS: 1. For both divisions, the deduction for not attempting port #3, giont swing to support , is 2.0 points. 2. In port #3, if the cooch physically spots the othlete in ony woy there will be 0 1.0 spotting deduction token plus ony execution errors. As with ony skill if, in the evoluator's opinion, the spot given is so greot as to constitute" doing" the skill for the othlete, the entire volue of the skill moy be token.

HORIZONTAL BAR: 1. In port #1, cast (stem) with 1/2 turn to mixed grip, the gymnost moy go to support (bockuprise) in the stem without deduction. 2. The text for the Horizontol Bor routine is inconsistent with the officiol video tope. The video tope is accurate. Pleose correct the text by odding: part #3A, Front giont. The routine will now reod, ...Forword swing in mixed grip ond chonge to double undergrip ot the top of the swing, front giant, front giont, 3/4 front giont and hop to double overgrip ... 3. In port #9 please chonge the text to read: Bock giant, bock giant (note: the result is that two gionts now precede the flyawoy dismount)

STRENGTH: 1. Pleose change the Still Ring Strength Sequence to reflect the following: A. Chonge #4 to: Press to tuck planche (tight or open tuck on planche) 3 second hold B. Change #5 to: Return to l sit - 3 second hold C. Chonge #6 to: Stroight orm straddle press to handstond D. Add #7: Hondstond hold - 3 seconds E. Add #8: Straight orm lower to stroddle l hold - 3 seconds F. Add #9: Move to support and lower to mot with controlled landing 2. Pleose chonge the Porollel Bor Strength Sequence to reflect the following: A. Chonge #2 to: Dip swing bockword to straddle l- hold two seconds. There is no height requirement prior to the straddle l. B. Add #2A: Press to stroddle plonche - hold 2 seconds.

(continued on page 42)

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60. STEFANICK, M. l. Exercise and weight con· tral. In: Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, edited by 8. Halloszy. 8altimore, MD: Williams &Wilkins, Vol. 21 , 1993, p. 363·396.

69. TSAI, l., AND 1 WREDMARK. Spinal pos· ture, sagiNal mobility, and subiective rating of bock problems in former female elite gym· nasts. Spine 18(7): 872·875, 1993.

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62. STRIEGEL·MOORE, R. H., P. A. CONNOR· GREENE, AND S. SHIME. School milieu charac· teristics and disordered eating in high school graduates. Int. 1. Eating Disorders 10(2): 187· 192, 1991.

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74. YEAGER, K. K., R. AGOSTINI, A. NATTlV, AND B. DRINKWATER. The female athlete triad: disordered eating, amenorrhea, osteoporosis. Med. Sci. Sports Exer. 25(7): 775·777, 1993.

65. TEITZ, C C Sports medicine concerns in dance and gymnastics. Pediat. Clinics. N. Amer. 29(6): 1399·1421 , 1982. 66. TERTTI, M., H. PAAJANEN, U. M. KUJALA, A. ALAN EN, 1 T. SALMI, AND M. KORMANO. Disc degeneration in young gymnasts. Amer. Jour. Sports Med. 18(2): 206·208, 1990. 67. THORNTON, J. S. Feast or famine: Eating disorders in athletes. Phys. Sportsmed. 18( 4): 116·l22, 1990.

Junior OlYlDpic Educational Dance Workout ProgralD The Junior Olympic Educational Dance Workout Program is designed specifically for the devel· opmental gymnast. The narrator and demonstrator in the Workout]-3 Video, Mary Faulkenberry, was previously a member of the USA Gymnastics National Team Coaching stoff. The program consists of a textbook for Workouts ]·5, as well as videos and audio casseHe topes. For Workouts ]·3, there is a video which can be played in front of the closs, using Mary Faulkenberry as the "teacher." There is also a video for the coach that explains the typicol mistakes and how to correct them. The advanced Workout 4 and 5is for those athletes who are ready to perform more complex dance exercises. This program is designed to be performed on the Floor Exercise mat. It can be used os a specif· ic dance closs or as a warm·up routine for each practice. If you wont to create beHer, stronger, safer and more elegant gymnasts by providing a sound basis for proper alignment, good bal· once and correct dance technique, this terrific program is for YOU! #2170 USGF Junior Donee Workouts Book ].5.. .............................................. $10.00

75. ZUCKER, P., J. AVENER, S. BAYDER, A. BROTMAN, K. MOORE, AND J. ZIMMERMAN. Eating disorders in young athletes. Phys. Sportsmed. 13(11): 89·106, 1985.



-== I! -_II[,{:,•

76. ZUMMERCHIK, J. Acrobatics. In: Encyclopedia of Sports Science, edited by J. Zummerchik. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster Macmillan, 1997, p.3·25.

0 .. •


COLLEGIATE VAULT CHANGES The following changes were made to the collegiate vault table which was published in the January 1999 issue of Technique on page 37.

Group 1: Handsprings, Yamashitas & Cartwheels 1.202 1.205 1.206

Handspring Yamashita 1/2 on

1 /1 1/1 1/ 1

9.2 9.3 9.1

#2171 Junior Dance Workout]·3 Video ........................................................ $15.00 #2172 Junior Dance Workout 4·5 Video ........................................................ $15.00 #2173 Junior Donee Workshops ]-3 Video (Coaches) ...................................... $15.00

Group 4: Round-off Entry (Yurchenko) 4.315 S4.323 4.415 54.421 4.501

RO, FF 1/1 RO, FF RO, FF 1/1 RO, FF RO, FF

Handspring 1/ 1 1 1/ 2 Twist off Back Tuck 2/ 1 Twist off Double Back Tuck

9.7 9.5 9.9 9.9 10

#2175 #2176 #2177 #2178


Junior Donee Music CasseHe levels ]·2 ........... ..................... $ &.00 Junior Dance Music CasseHe level 3.................................................... $ &.00 Junior Dance Music CasseHe level 4.................................................... $ &.00 Junior Dance Music CasseHe level 5i~ $

. . . ·. . . . ·. . . ·. . . . . . . . & 'i

Order aR page 40 DR CALL





The Art of Sport The Art of Sport is a unique book which celebrates the beauty and excitement of competitive Gymnastics through the medium of photography. In addition, it is a book which invites those from within the sport - gymnasts, coaches and judges - to express their views and feelings about what Gymnastics means to them and what it hos given to their lives. The worldwide appeal and popularity of the sport is reflected in these pages and it is hoped that the book will become a valued souvenir for all who love Gymnastics.

USA GYlDnaslic::s

Cloc::~ 12" c::Ioc::~ ~il" USA GYlDnaslic::s


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Order an page 40 DR CALL GENERAL GYMNASTICS 1998 Texas State

GymFest Opening & Group Performam:es The event began with a march-in and introduction of all the athletes, each team was represented by its own banner. Eight teams performed during the day, comprising 160 participants. Before the Awards Ceremony, there was a 30 minute Texas fun dance to "God Bless Texas," this was a fun way to bring all the clubs together. During the Awards Ceremony, each club was brought before the audience to receive its special team trophy as well as individual trophies. Running time: 45 minutes

evaluation of this compulsory/optional level. Also included is a script of the shorthand, deductions ond scores, as evaluated by the Women'sTechnical Commillee.

selected routines from the All-Around competition. There are approximately 100 routines shown. Running Time: 1hour 34 minutes

#2195 .................................... $19.95

#2128 ..................................$15.00

1991 World Championships

1998 European

["ent Finals This tape features all the Event Finalist routines from World Championships. Men's Horizontal Bar is also featured. Running Time: 49 minutes

Championships Senior Women All-Around and Event Finals - All routines from the Senior Event Finals and selected routines from the All-Around Competition. Running Time: 1hour 34 minutes

#2123 ..................................$15.95 1998 rican Classic

These videos contain most of the routines from the Junior and Senior International competition at the American Classic that was held in Orlando. Running Time: 2 videos of 2 hours each

#2603 .................................. $15.95

#2124 .................................. $24.95

Mat is General Gymnastics This video has several examples of different kinds of General Gymnastics displays-for those who have small groups to groups with several hundred participants. The video has a "voice over" description of the aclivities shown and serves to help answer the question, "What is General Gymnastics"? Running Time: 35 minutes

1998 Women's Visa

#2606 .................................. $10.00

WOMEN'S World Championships Team Finals and A.A. Finals This tape features the Team Finals competition with most of the USA routines and selected routines from the top six countries that qualified to Team Finals. In addition, this tape also has selected routines from the AA Competition. Running Time: 1 hour and 49 minutes #2122 ..................................$15.95

A.merican Cup Finals This video has all the Women's Finals routines at the Visa American Cup with a few of the Prelims Uneven Bars routines. Running Time: 49 minutes #2125 ..................................$15.95 1998 International

Team Meet This video contains all the Senior Women's routines and some of the Junior routines (mostly USA Juniors). Running TIme: 1 hour and 32 minutes #2126 .................................. $15.95

Incorporating leg Swings into your WorL.outs This new video by Tammy Biggs &Dr. Larry Nassar shows how to properly prepare the gymnast for skills such as front handsprings and leaps by training the gymnast to perform an efficient and dynamic leg swing. Leg flexibility and strengthening drills are also included. #2127 ..................................$20.00

le~el1 Women's

Judges' Training Video Two hours of Level 7 routines, in regular speed ond slow motion, to assist the judges and coaches in understanding the proper

t-800 - 34~ - 47t9

1998 European

Championships Junior Women All-Around and Event Finals - All routines from the Junior Event Finals and

#2129 .................................. $15.00

How to Train a Front Handspring Safely This video by Tammy Biggs & Dr. Larry Nassar offers the coach many strength and flexibility exercises, as well as leadup drills to safely teach this skill. #2498 .................................. $20.00

Gheza Pozsar's Ballet Bar Training for Gymnasts Gheza Pozsar created this tape which demonstrates a Ballet Bar training session designed especially for gymnasts. This tape was requested by the National Team Coaches as a guideline for training gymnasts. Running Time: 16 minutes

MEN'S 1991 World Championships

From the World Championships in lausanne, Switzerland, this video tape contains routines from Competition I, Team Finals, All-Around Finals and the Individual Event Finals. This video tape, taken by camcorder from the stands, includes approximately six hours of competition featuring the top gymnasts from all over the world. #2270 .................................. $24.95 1991 Russian National

Championships Videotaped from the stands in Moscow's Olympic Stadium, this video tape includes all sessions of the 1997 Russian National Championships. Video taped sessions include All-Around Preliminary, All-Around Finals and Individual Event Finals. Features such athletes as Alexi Bonderanko, Yuri Kurkov, Evegeni Pogorny and standout junior athlete Egor Grebenkov. Agreat two hour educational video tape! #2271 .................................. $19.95 1998 Visa A.merican Cup

#2365 (3 Topesl. ...............$24.95

This two-hour video tape features both the Individual Event and All-Around Finals from the 1998 Visa American Cup in Fort Worth. The 1998 Visa American Cup hosted an incredibly strong men's field. Video includes American's Blaine Wilson, John Roethlisberger, Jay Thornton and Yoichi Tomita along with international athletes such as Alexi Bondarenko, Dimitri Karbanenko, Wei Yang, and Sergi Fedorchenko.

Sr. All-Around

#2272 .................................. $19.95

#2961 .................................. $10.00

RHYTHMIC 1998 U.S. RJ.ytlnnic

Nationals Sr. Indh'idual E't'enls #2364 (3 Tapes) ................ $24.95 Jr. Indi't'idual E't'enls

#2366 ..................................$15.95

Jr. All-Around

1998 European

Group Preliminaries and Finals

Championships This six-hour video tape includes both the Junior and Senior Divisions of the European Championships.

#2368 .................................. $15.95

#2273 .................................. $24.95

#2367 .................................. $15.95

PLEASE NOTE *AII USA Gymnastics videos are designed to be used for educational purposes by gymnastics coaches and judges. All videos we re produced with commercial equipment by amateur videographers unless otherwise stated. Our Olympic technical videos are presented from one camera angle and show the entire exercise without cuts, close-ups or other effects and enhance-

ments. Except for women's floor exercise. the videos do not have sound.The Adanta Technical videos are available for purchase to USA Gymnastics members only.

6. Cut left leg forward, cut right leg bock, cut left leg bock, cut right leg forward

FUTURE STARS PROGRAM UPDATE #4 (con tinued from page 38)

3. The plonche position will be evoluated in the following monner: • Planches held with < 45° hip bend and/ or < 45( deviotion from horizontol deduct as per FIG. • Planches held with > thon W , but < 90° hip bend - deduct FIG + 1.0. • Plonches held with > than 90° hip bend or more thon 45° deviotion from horizontal will result in non·recognition 4. The manna position will be evaluated in the following manner: • Held < 180°, but > 135° - deduct as per FIG • Held < 135°, but > 90° - deduct as per FIG + 0.5 • Held < 90°, but > 45° - deduct as per FIG + 1.0 • Held < 45° - deduct 2.0 Example: Manno held at 115°: Deduct 0.2 (medium FIG for 20° from position) +0.5 =0.7

FLEXIBILITY: 1. Port #3, the pancake position, should now be executed in a 90° center split position. The athlete will move from a 180° center split position in port #2, to a 90° split position for the pancake position in #3. 2. For all levels - Add port #3A: From 90° pancake split position, slide legs backward and through to a straight body prone position, then move immediately to (port #4 left forward split).


7. Scissor left, 8. Scissor right, 9. Cut left leg forward to 2 and 1/2 circles, 10. Move left hand to right pommel (1/2 Stockli B) to 1/3 longitudinal travel to end of horse finishing in rear support, 11 . Two loops facing out, 12. 1/2 bock loop to stand facing out longitudinally.


The Junior Notional Coaching Stoff urges all coaches to make safe use of trampoline to increase airsense, body position, flipping and twisting skills. As 0 port of this education process, the Junior Stoff is evaluating trampoline routines, for all three age divisions, for future inclusion in the Future Stars program. Please watch for educational materials aimed at trampoline development in the coming months. In addition, if you have any comments or suggestions regarding trampoline and the Future Stars program, please contact the men's program at USA Gymnastics or any Junior Notional Coaching Stoff member.

Stand at point Afacing C A

B ~.





Note: All arm positions are optianal except where specified.

On Pommel Horse set at 32" ± 1" minimum: Note: This routine is written for clockwise circle performance - the exercise may be reversed.


Special Performance Criteria


1. Rise on toes while circling arms upward and forward to run and hurdle to roundoff bock handspring,

Fully extended in bock handspring showing good turnover

Special Performance Criteria

1. From stand in the middle with hands on the pommels, jump to Czechkehre (moore) finishing in rear support

2. Bock handspring - rebound.

2. Two and 1/2 circles,

3. Immediately execute a straight arm bock roll through handstand and pike down to stand facing A.

3. Kehre out to end of horse,

4. 1/2 circle, Kehre in to rear support in the middle, 5. 1/2 circle, Simple Swiss (Cut left leg forward while moving the left hand to the right pommel. Then move the right hand bock to the left pommel finishing in a stride support facing the opposite direction.)

I...4-=-=-2-- - -- -- - - -- - ----i(

Must pass through handstand position

4. Run, hurdle, front handspring, two foot toke-off front handspring (bounder), rebound 5. Immediately step forward, with either leg, and kick through a handstand, straight arm rollout to forward Stalder roll to handstand.

Momentary handstand hold after Stalder roll

6. Pike or step down to stand. TEe H N I QUE· VO LUME 19 •

#3 )}.-- -- -- - - - - -- - - --

II. 8·9 POMMEL HORSE On Pommel Horse set at floor height with no pommels (or pommel horse with mats stacked horse height): Note: These circles may be performed in either direction.

( I,


IDescription Sequence #2 1. On parallelles on the floor, from handstand bail to prone (body flat) position on 8" skill cushion

Show extended hollow position on bail.

Special Performance Criteria


1. 3 circles in cross support rearways on end (3 back loops)

From hang in straps



Special Performance Criteria

1. 3 forward and 3 backward swings

Swing is to show turnover technique • chest should remain down with turnover from the chest on each side of swing • there should be no shoulder rise, the body will swing to a "candle stick" position in front and a similar but reversed position in back

IDescription 1. Generate 3 to 5 basic swings demonstrating hollow-arch-kick technique on forward swing to:

Special Performance Criteria After 5 preliminary swings the coach may assist the gymnast to start giants, if needed, with a 1.0 deduction/ giant.

2. 3 back giants

The back giant should showgood hollow-arch-kick technique and, at the top of the swing, show an extended hollow body position with the head neutral

3. 3 front giants

In the front giant the body should be straight and extended in the down swing phase. At the finish of the front giant the body should be straight and extended with head neutral

IV. 8·9 VAULT Onto skill cushions stacked waist high for the gymnast:


Special Performance Criteria

1. Run, hurdle and punch board to a straight body jump arriving in a straight body stand on the stacked mats.

• Must use under arm swing technique in hurdle • legs must remain straight throughout straight jump • Gymnast should finish with straight body and legs with arms overhead • Board must be set a maximum of 12 inches from the stacked mats.


IDescription Sequence #1 1. From support, 2 or 3 swings

Special Performance Criteria

Special Performance Criteria All swings should show complete extension with: • shoulders remaining over the hands and head neutral throughout the swing. • the chest should be open at the bollom of the swing. • Maximum required swing height hips at horizontal.

2. Backward swing and hop with both hands to support

On front swing before the hop the hips should be at horizontal. Hop is to travel backward slightly.

3. 1 or 2 swings to stutz dismount finishing in a prone position on mats stacked even with the bar.

Hand to contact mat prior to feet, finishing in a prone (pushup) position.

4- Coach should assist the athlete to a controlled stop.

8·9 STRENGTH SEQUENCE # 1 STILL RINGS From a support position on the rings: (coach may assist athlete to support)


Special Performance Criteria

1. Straight body support with rings turned out- hold

3 second hold Arms straight and rings turned out

2. lift legs to tucked planche position (tight or open tuck) - hold

3 second hold Shoulders to hips should be horizontal with rings turned out

3. Straighten to support with rings turned out - hold

3 second hold Arms straight and rings turned out

4. Slowly lower down through muscle up positions (a muscle "down") to hang 5. Drop to floor



page 44)

- - - - - - -- - - - - - - -- {( TEC H N IOU E • VOLUME 19 • #3 ))----------------:4:-:3~1

FUTURE STARS UPDATE #4 (continued from page 43)


Special Performance Criteria

8. Finish in pike sit position - hold

Body vertical, arms horizontal and shoulders down


From support at the end of the bars facing in I Demiption

Special Performance Criteria

1. From "l" hold support, execute a straight arm, straddle press to handstand - 3 second hold

• Medium deduction for 1 second hold on l support or handstand • large deduction for no hold on l support or handstand • On the l hold the hips should be between the hands and the chest should be up with the shoulders open.

2. lower to straddle "l" support- hold

3 second hold


Special Performance Criteria

1. 15 second handstand against the wall

Upper chest, hips and feet should be against the wall


VII. 8-9 FLEXIBILITY Flexibility will be evaluated an a minimum of a 4 foot x 8 foot mat. Each static position will be held for three seconds and the gymnast will move directly from one static position to the next in a continuous and fluid motion. Toe point will be evaluated globally.


Special Performance Criteria

1. Begin in a right forward split- hold

Body vertical, arms horizontal and shoulders down

2. Center split- hold

Body vertical, arms horizontal and shoulders down

3. Pancake position with 90° center split (prone position in 90° center split) - hold

Stomach against a wall with arms shoulder width and hands a maximum of one inch from the wall


Special Performance Criteria

1. 5 second lunge

• Feet are in 4th position about 2 feet apart • Hips and shoulders are square to the front • legs are turned out from the hip causing the feet to be turned out also • Front knee is bent, back knee straight, both heels on the floor, with most of the body weight on the front leg.

Arms shoulder width on floor over head

• Back is in a straight line (no arch) with your head a part of that line. Torso will tilt forward slightly.

3A. From 90° pancake split position, slide legs backward and through to a straight body prone position, then move immediately to 4. left forward split - hold

Body vertical, arms horizontal and shoulders down

5. Bring back leg forward and dose legs to pike sit position and move to a bridge position - hold

Arms shoulder width and legs together and straight

6. lower down from the bridge and move arms back to shoulder flexion stretch position - hold

Arms shoulder width, head neutral, legs straight and together

7. Sit up to pike sit position and then execute pike forward bend (trunk flexion position) - hold

Arms on floor reaching past feet

I...-,-4-.".4- - -- - - - - - - - - - - - - j (

• Arms parallel and overhead, elbows straight with palms turned in. Head is in a neutral position between the arms.

2. Weight transfer to back Tendu hold 5 seconds

• SLOWLY transfer the weight completely to the front leg by straightening the front knee and pushing the bock foot to an extended point with the knee straight. This will happen at the same time. • Arms open to horizontal.

TECH N 10 UE • VOLUME 19 • #3

)>--- - - - - -- - -- - - --

r I


Note from USA Gymnastics women's program staff: Ultimately, it is the coach's responsibility to test the music system; however, since most J. O. meets do not provide enough time to check all of the tapes, the following suggestions were made:


1. Use music between 1:15 and 1:25 in length to insure that it will meet the time constraints even if the tape deck is playing fast or slow.

Meeting was called to order at 12:00 noon Eastern time by Tom KoH, Chairman. Present: Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 Region 4 RegionS Region 6 Region 7 Region 8 WTCC JOPM Sr. WPD

Neil Resnick Laurie Reid CheryI Jarrett Don Houlton John Geddert Larry Goldsmith Mike Milchanowski Tim Rand Cheryl Hamilton Connie Maloney Kathy Kelly

Absent: EPC WAB

Roe Kreutzer Jan Greenhawk

Recommendation by USA Gymnastics President Bob Colarossi to the WTC: For the Jr. Olympic Program, to consider allowing ± 5 seconds variance before a deduction for undertime or overtime is taken. This issue will be addressed at the WTC meeting on March 5-7.

V. MEETING WAS ADJOURNED AT 1:20 PM. Nex t meeting of the Jr. Olympic Program Committee will be Monday, May 17 follOWing the J. O. National Championships in Austin, TX.

Approved by USA Gym11astics Preside11t Bob Co/arossi February 9, 1999

II. PURPOSE OF THE CALL In order for Tom Koll to better represent the Jr. OlympiC Program Committee at the upcoming Women's Technical Committee meeting, the WTC agenda items were presented by C. Hamilton. The regional chairs voiced their opinion, concerns and suggestions regarding various issues. The committee was also instructed to obtain feedback from their region in regards to several agenda items for the May JOPC meeting, such as difficulty and vault requirements for JO Nationals (and possibly Regionals), reevaluation of the twisting vaults and use of plywood under the mounting board for bars and beam.

III. ADDITIONAL MATTING ON FLOOR EXERCISE Recommendation, that effective immediately, two (2) additional mats (skill cushions-each a maximum thickness of 8"/20cm) will be allowed to be placed separately on the Floor Exercise area. If the skill cllshion is 8" in thickness, it mllst be a minimum of 5' x 10'. A sting mat may also be placed on top of each of the up to 8" skill cushions. Motion-L. Reid Second-C. Jarrett PASSED

IV. FLOOR EXERCISE MUSIC CONCERNS D. Houlton presented concerns regarding the differences in the playback time of audio cassette tape machines at competitions. Often exercises that are normally within the allowable time limit of 1:10 to 1:30 have received an overtime deduction. Houlton suggested that the national office investigate the pOSSibility of producing a "calibration tape" which can be played prior to the start of the meet to verify the accuracy of the machine.


2. The coach should time the music prior to the meet for those exercises that are very short or long (1 :26 - 1:30). If there is a problem, it should be brought to the attention of the Meet Referee (as per R &P).



embers of the USA Gymnastics Hall of Fame Selection Committee are appointed to four-year terms with possible renewal for only two consecutive terms. Mr. John Brinkworth, Chairman of the Awards and Recognition Committee on the USA Gymnastics Board of Directors, announces two immediate openings on the Hall of Fame Selection Committee. Two additional terms will expire at the end of 1999 and the committee will be looking to fill those openings as well.

The Hall of Fame Selection Committee is responsible for annually reviewing nominations and choosing eligible inductees into the USA Gymnastics Hall of Fame. Any Lifetime Achievement honor is also selected and the induction ceremony is planned by the committee. Current members of the Selection Committee include: Dick Aronson, Linda Chencinski, Carolyn Bowers, Abie Grossfeld and Fred Turoff. Jay Ashmore and Jack Beckner's first terms expired at the end of 1998.

If you would be interested in serving on this committee, please send a letter of interest, including a copy of your resume with your gymnastics background/career, by MAY 15, 1999, to:

Kim Clayton, USA Gymnastics 201 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300 Indianapolis, IN 46225 317-237-5069 fax

TECH N IOU E • VOLUM E 19 • #3 ) } - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 4 : : c::::-.1


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• COMPETITIONS ROSE CITY GYMNASTICS presents the 5th Annual Freedom Festival Invitational Meet. We invite athletes from across the U.S. to visit beautiful Windsor, Ontario. Freedom Festivel is a 14 day cultural and musical celebration hosted by Windsor-Detroit as on oct of friendship between our neighboring cities. The meet hosts 500+ athletes (men and women), with pre-camp through notional stream, masters, team, tumbling and mixed pairs competitions. So where the heck is Windsor Ontario? Come visit and find out for yourself!! Call Rose City Gymnastics (519)972-1619 by March 28 for info.

POSITION AVAILABLE CAMP WAYNE: Cooed children's comp in Northeast Pennsylvania (2\/2 hrs from NYC). If you really enjoy gymnastics and wont to teach children (ages 6-16) we are looking for a Director, on Assistant Director and instructors for Gymnastics, Aerobics, Dance and Cheerleoding. We oHer a coring, funloving environment, rm./bd. + salary. Write: 12 Allevord St., lido Beach, NY 11561 or coli 1-800279-3019. Fox #: 516-897-7339. WORLD CUP GYMNASTICS is looking for a highly qualified girls team coach and recreational instructors. Strong spotting skills and good coaching qualifications a must. Beginner through Elite. Appliconts should be professional, energetic, and have strong organization, and managerial skills. This position is best suited for person wishing to pursue, long-term career in coaching. World Cup Gymnastics, Chappaqua, NY 10514, phone: (914)238-4967 ext. 23. fox: (914)238-3568. Email: HIRING HEAD COACH, INSTRUCTORS. Lakeside Moine summer compolive with, core for, teach girls age 7-16. Complete gym, Nissen equipment. Beginning students through advanced. Consistent, doily instruction. Gymnastics shows. Program's compulsory, optional skills promote development, measurable advancement, interest. Knowledge of USAG fundamental, optional skills; practical knowledge of compulsory levels; ability to spot, demonstrate; desire to teach children. Ability to put children's need before your own essential. College sophomores & up. Internships available. Opportunity to teach other athletics, arts, waterfront activities. 6/19-8/ 26. Non-smokers. Kippewo, Box 340, Westwood, Massachusetts 02090-0340;; (781 )762-8291. HAVE AN AMAZING SUMMER ADVENTURE! Prestigious coed sleep away comp in beautiful Western Massachusetts seeks skilled, coring, motivated college students & grads who love kids! Gymnastics Instructors (Dance, Aerobics, Fitness and other specialties) are needed. Join our dedicated, fun team for a rewording and enjoyable summer. June 19-August 19. Competitive salaries + travel + room + board. For information and on application call Camp Taconic: 1-800-762-2820. COME TO NEW HAMPSHIRE FOR THE SUMMER: Gymnastics & Cheerleoding Head & instructors/ cobin counselors (19+) for outstanding girls' sports camp. Excellent large gymnastics facility with top-quality equipment. Camp Robindel (one mile from two boys' camps) is located on the LARGEST NEW ENGLAND LAKE (22 miles long) just

south of NH's White Mountains, 2 hours north of Boston, 1\/2 hours from Moine coast. Must have warmth and love children. Most transportation paid; additional allowances. June 20-August 19. Write 1271 Mill Rood, Meadowbrook, PA 19046; Phone 888-860-1186; Short-form application at GIRLS TEAM COACH AND CLASS INSTRUCTORS NEEDED. Beam and floor coach needed to join young and enthusiastic stoH. level 6 and optional levels, some closs teaching required. PreSchool and closs instructor positions also available. Metroplex Gymnastics has hod competitive teams since 1975. Top pay plus excellent benefits. Call (214)343-B652. Fox (214)343-6129 or send resume: Bryon Streeter, Metroplex Gymnastics, 9858 Chortwell, Dallas, TX 75243. GYMNASTICS COACHES: Gymnastics at Brentwood Commons is seeking professional, experienced and enthusiastic coaches for preschool and recreational programs. We have a progressive program. Preschool or elementary education and Safety Certified a plus. Full and Port TIme positions available. Compensation commensurate with experience. Send resume to Gymnastics at Brentwood Commons, 112 Crowley Falls Rood, Brentwood, NH 03833. Call 603-642-7200 or Fox 603-642-3077. GYMNASTICS COACH/PROGRAM DIRECTOR NEEDED FOR SUMMER CAMP. locoted outside of Houston, TX. TEXAS SPORTS RANCH is seeking stoff for its summer program; both men and women-all experience levels needed. TSR runs weeklong residential camps for 11 weeks in our State-of-the-Art, 85,000 sq. h. Facility. We need staH for 1week terms or the entire summer; room and board included. Also, seeking program coordinator for the entire summer. Major emphasis is that the campers learn good gymnastics and have fun. Contact Rod Gorman at Ph (888)GYM-CAMp, Fox (218)328-5953 or Email: and WOMANS HEAD COACH - The lehigh Volley Sports Academy is a new modern 16,000 sq. h. facility in eastern PA with on inground pit and the latest equipment looking for a highly qualified girls team coach/ instructor. Strong spotting skills and previous experience a must. Compulsories through 10/ elite. Appliconts should be professional, energetic and have strong organizational skills. This position is best suited for a person willing to grow with a new program. Salary based on experience. Please call or fox your resume: 610-2642208 or fox 610-882-3833. AMERICAN EAGLES GYMNASTICS is looking for enthusiastic, motivated individuals for all levels of our program. Pre-school and recreational through competitive girls teams. Applicants should be professional, energetic with positive attitudes. Knowledge of compulsories, ability to spot, with desire to work with children. Must be able to put children's needs above your own. Must be positive with parents and stoH. Team player! Solory/benefits commensurate with experience/ availability. Call or send resume: American Eagles Gymnastics Inc. 754 Old St. Rt. 74/ Suite C, Cincinnati, Ohio 45245 (513)752-2003. FULL TIME HEAD COACH: Immediate opening for on outgoing person interested in living in a

--14."....,6--------- -- -- --l(

beautiful location and doing what you lovegymnastics! Our program is expanding and we are looking for a full time team coach levels 4-Elite. 11 ,000 sq. foot facility includes inground bungee pit, tumble trak, full spring floor and all boys/ girls apparatus. Appliconts must be professional, enthusiastic, have strong spotting skills, and be safety certified with previous coaching experience. Great benefit package. Salary commensurate with experience. Send resumes with salary requirements to: Family YMCA of the Desert, 43-930 Son Pablo Avenue, Palm Desert, CA 92260 or fox to: 760779-9651 , Attn: Kris Sanders, Associate Executive Director. SEEKING HEAD COACH-CHICAGO-S.W. AREA. Endless potential for the right person. Your character traits will include the follOWing: Enthusiastic, Energetic, Motivating, Positive, Responsible and Strong Spotting Skills. Good coaching qualifications, a must! Should have strong organizational/managerial and "people" skills. Position requires knowledge of Women's USA Optional/ Compulsory fundamentals and routines through level 10 and safety certificotion with a good track record. Position best suited for those who are "long term career minded." Wonderfully dedicated students and parents. 15,000 sq. h. facility is ideally located for any lifestyle and only 20-30 minutes from fabulous downtown Chicogo, all its' amenities and the lake. Send resumes to 773-239-8944, attn. Cathy Fox. Starting salary commensurate with experience. Phone: 773-881-7775.

FOR SALE SCORE MASTER, the most widely used score keeping system in the U.S. This score keeping system is very eosy-to-use and has on on-line tutorial. Supports: womens/ mens, individual/team, artistic/ rhythmic, comp/ optionol competitions. The most flexible reporting available. Comes with a step-by-step user guide and a 90 day unconditional money bock guarantee. For more info contact: Mark Mahoney, POB 31421, Charlotte, NC, 28231 -1421, (704)523-1815 or web site: (sohwore demo, info guide and user listing on web site). BALANCE 2000 BY AKADA SOFTWARE. Managing Studios since 1994. Windows based program. Tracks unlimited students, accounts and classes. Account and student moil codes, family discount tuition option, accounts receivables, one touch posting. Supports 10 locations/ sessions, multi coaches. Includes 150 different reports, print attendance lists, student lists, moiling labels and

more. No extra charge for multi user/ network version. Call for FREE full working demo 800-2863471. GymNerd2000 - GYMNASTIC SCHOOL MANAGEMENT SOFTWARE. Maintains database of student accounts, classes, tuition, and payments. Features sophisticated tuition engine, automatic multicloss discounts, automatic reenrollment with memorized invoices. Keeps track of payments, automatic late fees, woitlists, tuition prorating, closs switching and dropping, trial dosses, makeups, Pro-Shop and events scheduling. At your fingertips are closs rosters and attendance sheets, closs openings, instructor schedules/ ottendonce, invoices/ statements, mailing labels. Password protected managerial revenues reports sorted by revenue types. Easy to learn, intuitive, user friendly. Contact: MossDoto Database Systems. Phone: (617)923-9977. URl: Email: GYMNASTICS EQUIPMENT FOR SALE: mots, skill shapes, unevens, beams, vault, vault boards, pommel horse, rectangular folding trampoline, much more! Perfect as low cost additions to existing equipment. Will discount substantially for entire package. Great opportunity for new gym to keep start-up costs low! For price list, coli 914-725-6041. CAll NOW! This ad has generated a HUGE response. GYM FOR SALE. Excellent opportunity for right person wonting a small community lifestyle on the beautiful Oregon Coast. Established preschool-USAG level 8 team. looking for a highly motivated, dedicated, professional with the desire to own their own business. Expansion possibilities are very real for this 100+ student facility. Nearest gym is over 100 miles away. This gym is a very prominent member of the community and needs a great leader to continue its success. Call (503)325-0155 or (503)7552616 for further information. Ask for Cheri.

SEMINARS GET CONTROL OF YOUR BUSINESS: Gain 23 years of business experience in 4\/2 days at the GymClub Owners' 800T CAMP. learn secrets why some clubs perpetually grow but why many perpetually linger in mediocrity. Following the BOOT CAMP strategy, my club has grown for 23 years straight! I GUARANTEE it will be worth your effort to pick up the phone and coli me to receive a FREE portfolio including testimonials and agenda. For All size clubs including those "in planning." Great for Managers too. JEFF MffiGER: (513)489-7575. Next comp: March 18-22,1999.

To place a classified ad: $75 every 90 words. Deadline is the 10th of each proceeding month for the next published issue. For example, the May Technique deadline is April 10th. Send payment to: USA Gymnastics, Classifieds Ads, Pan American Plaza, Suite 300, 201 South Capitol Avenue, Indianapolis, IN 46225. Ads submitted without payment WILL NOT BE ACCEPTED. USA Gymnastics reserves the right to vary format. Technique is received by more than 13,000 USA Gymnastics professional members, advertise your open position, product, service or competition here for great results! Caliluan Peszek at 317-237-5050, ext. 246.

NOTE: Beginning with the September/ October 1999 issue of Technique magazine, we're teaming up with our webSite, USA Gymnastics Online, to advertise your praduct, service or competition. Far ane low price, 5100 per 90 words, your ad will be published in Technique magazine and posted on USA Gymnastics Online for 30 days. Your ad will reach oppraximately 13,000 readers of Technique magazine plus thousands of viewers an the web.

TEe H N IOU E • VOLUME 19 • #3 )}---


SCHEDULE R=Rhythmic GG =General Gymnastics

W=Women M=Men

TR =Trampoline TU =Tumbling

3-5 15-18 9/ 20-10/ 3 24-26 9/ 28-10/ 3 9/ 30-10/ 3

NOTE: Dates and events subject to change or cancellation.





Pontiac International Team Championships (M/W Srs/ Jrs) Richmond, VA Level 10 State Meets (W) Various Sites

APRIL 9-10

Austin, TX Kansas City, MO Sun City, RSA Portland, OR Osaka, JPN Oakbrook, IL

Artistic World Championships (M/W) FIG Extraordinary Congress Pacific Ocean Basin Games (M/W/ R) USA Gymnastics Region VI Congress FIG Medical Technicol Symposium USA Gymnostics GG Youth Camp U.S. Olympic Congress National TOPs Testing-West (W) USA Gymnastics Region VII Congress

TIanjin, CHN TIanjin, CHN Santiogo, CHI New York, NY TIanjin, CHN Baltimore, MD Colorado Springs, CO TBD Hunt Valley, MD


MARCH 26-27 27-28

GAT Convention World Championships Team Trials (M/W) World Championships & Age-Group Games (TR/TU) USA Gymnastics Region II Congress 23rd Rhythmic World Championships (R) USA Gymanstics Region VCongress

J.~ .

10 10

National Championships, Individual & Group Competition (R) NCAA Regionals (W) NCAA Regionals-Eost (M)


NCAA Regionals-West (M)

15-17 16-18 18 22-24

USA Gymnastics Collegiate Championships (M/W) Level 9/ 10 Regional Chompionships (W) USA Gymnostics Nationallnvitationol Tournoment (W) NCAA Notional Championships (W)


NCAA National Championships (M)

24-25 24-25

Level 10 Regional Championships (W) Level 9 Championships (R)

Syracuse, NY Various Sites U. of IllinOiS, Champaign, III. B.Young Univ., Provo, UT New Haven, a Various Sites Philadelphia, PA U. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT U. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE Various Sites Concord, CA

8-16 13-14 13-24 14-17 15-16 22-24 24-26 29-31 29-31

NOVEMBER 5-7 12-14 Nov. TBD Nov. TBD

National TOPs Testing-East (W) USA Gymnastics Executive Committee/ Board Meetings Future Stars National Championships (M) Cooches Workshops (M)

DECEMBER 3-5 8-12 9-12

USA National Gym Fest (GG) PAGU Jr. Interclub Championships (M/W) National TOPs Camp (W)

MAY 4-9 6-9 7-9

PAGU Training Camp (W) J.~. National Championships (M) Level 9 East/West Championships (W)

8-9 10 14-16

Rhythmic Eastern Open (R) World Cup (lR) J .~. (Levell O)National Championships & World University Games Trials (W) World Cup (lR) Rhythmic Western Open & Elite Group Competition (R) USA Gymnastics Executive Commil1ee/ Board Meetings FIG/PAGU Coaches Informotion Course (GG) 1st World Age-Group Teom Trials (lR/TU)

St. Petersburg, RUS San Rafael, CA Indianapolis, IN Miami, FL Knoxville, TN

Four Continents (R) U.S. Challenge (W) USA Gymnastics Region IV Congress U.S. Rhythmic National Championships (R) Special Olympics World Games

Jocksonville, FL TBD Oshkosh, WI TBD Raleigh, NC

USA Gymnastics Region VIII Congress World Gymnaestrada (GG) World University Games (M/W) National Championships/lst Sr. Team Trials (lR/TU) USA Gymnastics Region III Congress Pan American Games (M/W/ R) PAGU Congress 2nd Sr. Team Trials/ Final World Age Group Team Trials (lR/TU) PAGU Children's Interclub Championships (M/W/ R)

Atlanta, GA Giiteborg, SWE Palma de Mallorca, ESP Anaheim, CA Northglenn, CO Winnipeg, CAN Winnipeg, CAN TBD

15 15-16 21-23 28-30 28-30

Houston, TX Houston, TX Eost-Springfield, MA West-Seattle, WA Atlanta, GA Dessau, GER Austin, TX

JUNE 10-13 16-18 18-20 25-27 6/ 26-7/ 4

JULY 1-3 2-10 2-13 5-11 9-11 7/ 24-8/ 8 7/29-8/ 1 7/ 31-8/ 1 TBD

Cordoba, ARG

AUGUST 6-8 14-15 19-23 25-28 26-28 26-28

U.S. Classic/ National Gymnastics Festival (W) 3rd Sr. Team Trials (TR/TU) J.D. Nat'l Team Training Camp (W) John Hancock U.S. Gymnastics Championships (M/W) USA Gymnastics Nationol Congress USA Gymnastics CongressFest (GG)

Rochester, NY TBD Colorado Springs, CO Sacramento, CA Sacromento, CA Sacramento, CA


USA Gymnastics GG Youth Camp

Austin, TX

TBD Indian opolis, IN TBD TBD




Tempe, AZ Curitiba, BRA Tulsa, OK



Reese's Gymnastics Cup (M/W/ R)

New Orleans, LA

FEBRUARY 9-12 12-13 19 TBD

USA Gymnastics Winter Cup Challenge (M) Rhythmic Challenge (R) Olympic Test Event (TR) American Classic (W)


Visa American Cup (M/W) International Competition (R) International3-on-3 Gymnastics Championships (M/W/R) American Challenge (W)

Orlando, FL TBD Orlando, FL TBD

J.~ . National Chompionships, Individual & Group (R) Sr. Pacific Alliance Championships (M/W/ R) Level 9 East/West Chompionships (W) USA Gymnastics Collegiote Championships (M/W) USA Gymnastics Nationallnvitationol Tournament (W)

TBD Christ Church, NZL TBD TBD TBD

J.~ .

National Championships (W) Rhythmic East/West Championships (R) USOC Olympic Media Summit (M/W/ R) Rhythmic East/West Championships (R) USA Gymnastics Executive Committee/ Board Meetings J.D. Notional Championships (M) Mall Tour (M/W/ R)

TBD TBD Houston, Texas TBD Indianapolis, IN TBD TBD

U.S. Challenge (W) USA Gymnastics National Gym Fest (GG)


U.S. Clossic/ Notional Gymnastics Festival (W) John Hancock U.S. Gymnastics Championships (M/W/ R/TR/TU)

Tulsa, OK St. Louis, MO

Youth and Coaches Camp (GG)

St. Louis, MO TBO

MARCH 2-4 4 5 TBD

APRIL 15-16 20-25 28-30 TBD TBD

MAY 5-7 6-7 11 -15 13-14 19-21 TBD May-Sept.


JULY 7-9 26-29


J.D. Notional Championships (lR/TU)

- - -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - j( TEe H H I QUE· VO LUM E 19 • #3 »)---------------~4=-:7=--1

The Safety Sthedule is updated weekly on our website 21

1 999 Safety Certification Schedule February 11, 1 999 LATE REGISTRATIONS ARE NOT GUARANTEED ABOOK OR ADMISSION TO THE (OURSE. Monday, (by 5:00 p.m. Eastern Standard TIme) is the last day registrations will be attepted for tourses being tonducted the following weekend. Registrations reteived after that time or on site will be tharged an additional $25.


Minimum age for Salety Certifi,ation


is J8 years.


Buffalo Grave, IL; 10:00 a.m.-2:00 p.m.; course mk032199il Buffalo Grove Gymnostics; 1362 Barclay Blvd. Local contact: Teri Crumley 847-459-8842 Instructor: Monte Kimes 773-586-6015 Louisville, KY; 1:00-6:00 p.m.; course ss032199ky St Xovier High School; 1609 Poplar Level Rd; 502-637-4712 Instructor: Steve Schoenbaechler 502-458-8094 Decatur, GA; 9:00 a.m. - 1:00 p.m.; caurse cc032898ga Varsity Gymnastics; 2617 BTalley Street Instructor: Chris Calvert 404-687-9911



Mukilteo, WA; 5:30-9:30 p.m.; course kd040999wa Gymagine Gymnastics Instructor: Kelly Donyes 425-513-8700

20 Newington, CT; 2:00-6:00 p.m.; course Ic032099ct New England Gymnastics Express; 136 Day Street Local contact: Maureen Chagnon 860-953-0101 Instructor: Liz Cornish 860-585-7968 II 20 Scottsdale, AZ; 3:00-7:00 p.m.; course dw032099az Scottsdale Xtreme Gymnastics Instructor: David Wehr 602-596-3543

Union Town; OH; 1:00-5:00 p.m.; course bf0411990h North Canton YMCA Gym Center Local contact: Colleen Eckel 330-699-1776 Instructor: Bobbi Montanari-Fahrnbach 614-538-0954

Bloomingdale, IL 9:00 a.m.-l :00 p.m.; course mk060699i1 Central Dupage Hospital Medical Offices @ Stratford South; 245 S. Gary Ave Local contact: Monique Zodicka 630-602-1600 x 3078 Instructor: Monte Kimes 773-586-6015 19 Columbus, OH; 1:00-5:00 p.m.; course bf0619990h Universal Gymnosts, Inc.; 4555 Knightsbridge Blvd Instructor: Bobbi Montonari-Fahrnbach 614-457-1279 30 Dunwoody, GA; 5:00-9:00 p.m.; course cc063099ga Crown Plaza Ravinia Instructor: Chris Calvert 404-687-9911

SEPTEMBER 18 Columbus, OH; 3:30-7:30 p.m.; course bf0918990h Universal Gymnasts, Inc.; 4555 Knightsbridge Blvd Instructor: Bobbi Montanari-Fahrnbach 614-457-1279

r----------------------------------------------, SAFETY CERTIFICATION IS REQUIRED FOR PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIP PRE·REGISTRATION FORM (Minimum age for Safety Certifitlltion is 18 years) Name: Sac. Sec. #

Birth Date


* You must have your USA



Telephone: (H)

Zip: (W)

Course Director: Course City/ State:


Organization represented: Professional or Instructor #: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Current Safety Exp. Date: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ Form of Payment:

COST: Pro-Member with Current Safety Certification wishing to recertify .......................................................... no charge Pro-Member with Expired or New Safety Certification ............ S 50.00 Instructor Member ................................................................ S 50.00 Non-Member or Associate Member ........................................ S 100.00

o VISA o MasterCard o Discover o American Express

Payment Amount: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __

Gymnastics number or date applied for on the registration form in order to qualify for the discount.

YOU MAY NOT REGISTER FOR A (OURSE TO RECERTIFY ANY EARLIER THAN 6 MONTHS PRIOR TO YOUR EXPIRATION DATE. Monday, (by 5:00 p.m. Eastern Standard Time) is the last day registrations will be accepted for courses being conducted the following weekend. Registrations received alter that time or on site will be charged an additional $25.

• All materials (including the Safety Handbook) for 4th Cycle courses are provided at the course and are part of the course fee. • Certification is valid for four years. • To achieve Safety Certification, the participant must be at least 1B years of age at the time of the course. Please make checks payable, in ful" to USA Gymnastics Safety Certification

Mail registration form and payment to: USA Gymnasti(s Member Services __ Pan Ameri(an Plaza, Suite 300 GYMNAS~TI"CS Number: - - - - 201 South Capitol Avenue . / S' t . Indianapolis, IN 46225 PREFERS VISA· L E______________________________________________ xp. Date. ___ ___ Igna ure. or Fax to 317-692.5212 Name on Card: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __



Technique Magazine - March 1999  
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