Technique Magazine - April 1998

Page 1


• Safety Certification Requirement • 1998 Gym Corps to Africa

• 1998 CONGRESS INFORMATION • Alternative Abdominal Conditioning • Cure Conflicts Before They Corrupt Your Productivity • Hop Pirouette - Parallel Bars

Dr. Michel Leglise, Chair of the International Gymnastics Federation Medical Commission, discusses issues relating to elite level gymnastics.

• Women's Rules & Policies Update • Gymnastics Network News




APRIL 98 • VOLUME 18 • #4



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on official publication of USA Gymnastics PUB LI S HER

Kathy Scanlan E DITOR

FEATURES Safety Certification Requirement - Deadline August 98 ............ ...... .. .... ........ ... .. ... ............ 5

Luan Peszek

Limits on Young Gymnasts' Involvement in High ·Level Sport .. .... ...... .. ..... .. ... ...................... 8


Alternative Abdominal Conditioning .. .. .. .... .......... ...... .......... ............. .. ............. .. .... ...... 18

Lion Cottrell

1998 USA Gymnastics Congress ................................ .. .. ...... ...... .. .. .......... .... ..... .... ..... 23 USA GYMNASTICS BOARD OF DIRECTORS (HAIR: Sondy Knopp; PRESIDENT: Kothy Sconlon; PRESIDENT EMERITUS: Mike Donohue; AMATEUR ATHlnlC UNION: Mike Stonner; AMERICAN SOKOL ORGANIZATION: Jerry Milon; USA TRAMPOLINE & TUMBLING: Woyne Downing; AMERICAN TURNERS: Beny Heppner; JEWISH (OMMUNITY (ENTERS: Lori Katz; (OIllGE GYMNAlnCS ASSOOATION·M: Roy Johnson; NATIONAL ASSOOATION Of (OIllGIATE GYMNAlnCS (OACHES fOR WOMEN: Goil Dovis; NATIONAL ASSOOATION fOR GIRLS AND WOMEN IN SPORT: Marilyn Slrowbridge; NATIONAl ASSOGATION Of WOMEN'S GYMNAlnCS JUDGES: Yvonne Hodge; NATIONAL (OIllGIATI ATHlETIC ASSOOATlON: Chris Voelz. Tom Dunn; NATIONAl FEDERATION Of STATE HIGH SCHOOL ASSOCIATIONS: Suson True; NATIONAl GYMNASTICS JUDGES ASSOCIATION: John Scheer; NATIONAL HIGH SCHOOL GYMNASTICS (OACHES ASSOCIATION: John Brinkworth; SPECIAL OLYMPICS, INC.: Kote fober-Hickie; U.S. RHYTHMIC GYMNAlnCS (OACHES ASSOCIATION: Suzie DiTullio; U.S. ASSOCIATION Of INDEPENDENT GYM (LUBS: [nnce Crowley; U.S. EUTE (OACHES ASSOCIATION fOR MEN'S GYMNAlnCS: Mork Willioms; U.S. EUTE (OACHES ASSOOATION fOR WOMEN'S GYMNASTICS: Gory Anderson. Roe Kreutzer; U.S. MEN'S GYMNASTICS (OACHES AsSOOATlON: Morc Yoncey; U.S. SPORTS ACROBATICS FEDERATION: Bonnie Dovidson; U.S. (OMPnITIVE SPORTS AEROBICS FEDERATION: Howord Shcwortz; YOUNG MEN'S (HRllnAN ASSOGATION Of THE USA: Rick Dodson; USA GYMNASTICS NATIONAL MEMBERSHIP DIRECTORS: MEN'S: Roy GUIO. Jim Holt. WOMIN'S: Undo Chendns~. Dovid Holcomb; RHYTHMIC: Alia Svi"ky. Tomoro Dosso; ATHlITI'S ADVISORY (OMMITTEE: Tonyo Service Cho~in, choir. Chris Woller, vice choir. Kristen Kenoyer Woodlond, sec, Wendy Hilliord. Vanessa Vander Pluym. Peler Vidmor, Conrod Voorsonger, Kim lmaskol; USO( ATHlITI REPRESENTATIVE: Michelle Dusselle-follell. USA GYMNASTICS EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE (HAIR: Sondy Knopp; SPECIAL ADVISOR TO THE CHAIRMAN Of THE BOARD: Roe Kreutzer. PRESIDENT: Kathy Scanlon; SECRnARY: Mike Mi1idon~; Via CHAIR WOMEN: Joon Moore Gnot. Via CHAIR MEN: TIm Doggett; Via CHAIR RHYTHMIC Condoce feinberg; FIG ExECUTlVE (OMMITIII: Joy Ashmore; FIG WOMEN'S TECHNiCAl (OMMITTEE: Jockie fie; FIG RHYTHMIC TECHNICAL (OMMITTEE: Andrea Schmid-Sho~lO; FIG MEN'S TECHNICAL (OMMITTEE: George Becksteod; AT LARGE MEMBERS: Jim Hartung, Susan True; AmITE DIRECTORS: Tonyo Service Choplin, Wendy Hilliord. Peter Vidmor; USO( ATHlITI REPRESENTATIVE: Michelle DussellefOllell; PRESIDIHT EMERITUS: Mi,e Donohue. CHANGE Of ADDRESS AND SUBSCRIPTION INQUIRIES: In order to ensure uninte rrupted delivery of TECHNIQUE mogozine, notice of chonge of oddress should be mode eight weeks in odvonce. for fastest service, please enclose your present moiling lobel. Direct all subscription moil to TECHNIQUE Subscriptions, USA Gymnastics, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Ste. 300, Indionopolis, IN 46225. TECHNIQUE (lSSN 0748·59999) is published 10 times per yeor by USA Gymnastics, Pan American PiolO, Suite 300, 201 South Copitol Avenue, Indionopolis. IN 46225 (phone: 317·237·5050) or visit online @ www . usa' g ym n Applicotion to moil ot periodical postoge rote is pending ot Indpls., IN. Subscription prices: U.S.-525 per yeor; Conodo/Mexic(}--54B per yeor; 011 other foreign countries-560 per yeor. If ovoiloble, bock issue single copies 54 plus postoge/hondling. All reosonoble core will be token, but no responsibil· ity can be ossumed for unsolicited moteriol; enclose return pastoge. Copyright 199Bby USA Gymnostics ond TECHNIQUE All rights reserved. Printed by Sport Grophics, Indionopolis, IN.

Unless expressly idenlified 10 Ihe conlrory, all orlicles, slole' menls and views prinled herein are ol/ribuled solely 10 Ihe oUlhor and USA Gymnoslics expresses no opinion and assumes no responsibililY Ihereof.

Meet the Staff: Events and Marketing Department ........... .......... .. ............ ..................... 30 Cure Conflicts Before They Corrupt Your Productivy .. .. ... .. ..................... ....... ...... .. ......... 32 Hop Pirouette - Parallel Bars ........... ................. ... .... ... ..... ................... .......... ......... .. ... 34


• VOLUME 18·








President's Message .......... ... .. .... .. ..... .... 4

1998 Gym Corps to Africa ............ .. .. .. .. 6

USA Gymnastics Education Programs .... 14

Women's Rules & Policies Update ........ 15

Athlete Well ness Course ................. .. ..... 17

KAT Certified List .. .................. .. .... .. .. .. 21

What's New ....... ....... ... .. ...... ... ... ....... 28

Gymnastics Network News ...... .. .. .. .... .. 33

Classifieds .. .... ... .. .... .... .... .. .. ...... .. ....... 46

Women's Technical Committee Meeting .... 36

Event Schedule .......... .. .. .... ......... .. .... . 47

GGAP Conference Call ...... .. .. ........ .. .... 44

.. . 48

Rhythmic Program Committee Meeting .. .. 45

Safety Certification Schedule COVER PHOTOGRAPH Of KRISTIN MALONEY:






s you've probably heard, Kathy Scanlan has submitted her resignation as President of USA Gymnastics effective September 25, 1998, when she will become President of the Seattle Bid Committee for the 2012 Olympic Games. Kathy will perform fully the functions of the Presidents' position until her resignation is effective. Given that timetable I will wait until a later opportunity to reflect on Kathy's extraordinarily effective leadership of this organization. My purpose in this message is to brief you on the process we will use to find Kathy's successor. I also want to take the opportunity to encourage qualified candidates to apply for this position.

A Sandy Knapp

The search process for the new President who will lead us into the 21st century has already begun. By beginning the process now we hope that the search will be completed prior to September 25 so there is a seamless transition in leadership. With the approval of the Executive Committee, we will be using the same process as was used in the 1994 search and I have appointed Peter Vidmar, 1984 Olympian and a member of the USAG Board of Directors and Executive Committee, to Chair a Search Committee. Peter will bring his immense knowledge of, and genuine commitment to, gymnastics to bear on this important task. Serving on the Search Committee with Peter will be:

Kathy Scanlan

Jay Ashmore

FIG Executive Committee member

Joan Moore Gnat

Vice Chair for Women

Tim Daggett

Vice Chair for Men

Candace Feinberg

Vice Chair for Rhythmic

Michelle Dusserre-Farrell

USOC Athlete's Advisory Council

Roe Kreutzer

USAG Board of Directors Elite Coaches Association

Jim Morris

National Gymnastics Foundation Director

The Search Committee is charged with soliciting applications, interviewing and recommending the best candidate as President to me, the Executive Committee and the Board. They will conduct a nationwide search to find an individual who is a recognized leader in the world of business and sport and has the ability to manage a multi-faceted, membership based organization that continues to excel both on the competition floor and in the increasingly complex world of television and sponsorship.


If you, or someone you know, is interested in applying for this position, resumes can be sent to USA Gymnastics, PO. Box 441100, Indianapolis, IN 46244. Be assured that this process will be conducted with the utmost respect and confidentiality for all candidates. If you have questions or comments, please contact me through the USA Gymnastics Office. With all of us working together I am confident we can once again manage this transition and emerge from it an even stronger organization.

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TECH N I QUE • VO LUME 18 • #4 )f---- - - - - - - - - - -- - -

~ memo As of August 1998,

Lml• .t¥iiflj""'A"f§·Q for USA Gymnastics

For more information, call Member Services at

1.800 345.4719.

ut! If your Safety Certification has expired or you have never been Safety Certified

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• VO lU ME 18 • #4

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Once again USA Gymnastics is working with the African Gymnastics Union and will jointly carry out Phase 2 of the Gym Corps to Africa. Just as with this pioneer program in 1997, we are again hoping to send six artistic gymnastiCS coaches to Africa for the summer of 1998 to assist African Nations in developing their gymnastics programs. Participants will travel in pairs (a men's coach and a women's coach). USA Gymnastics will provide air transpol1ation, and the host African countries will provide room, board and a small per diem. No salary will be offered.

1lP.n:"i1,'J:lt.~jor Participants: The jollowing are the minimum requirements jor participation in this program: • At least 21 years of age byJune 1, 1998 • AUnited States citizen, with a valid passport • Professional Member of USA Gymnastics • Safety Certified through USA Gymnastics • PDP I Certified through USA Gymnastics • Provide proof of health insurance and complete all necessary shots prior to departure for Africa • file a weekly report to USA Gymnastics on experiences in the host country.

To obtain an application form . contact: USA Gymnastics - Gym Corps Becky Riti. 20 1 South Capitol Avenue. Suite 300 Indianapo lis. IN 46225 Phone: 317-237-5050 x 223 • Fax: 317-237-5069

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TECH N IOU E • VOLU ME 18 • #4



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Dr. Michel Leglise Member of the Executive Committee of the FIG Chair of the FIG Medical Commission Medical Officer, European Gymnastics Union Report presented at the International Gymnastics Federation Scientific Symposium, Oct. 22¡23, 1997 in Berlin

In the light of recent, extensive work and research on the physiologtj, psychologtj and pathologies of sport in general and gymnastics in particular, and in response to certain controversies, many of them sparked by media sensationalism and totally devoid of any scientific basis, we shall try to take a rational look at the effects of intensive training on young gtjlnnasts. We will cover not just the positive and beneficial aspects, but also the dangers, and so identiftj the limits and reservations-in short, define the conditions, and theJj are strict ones, which apply in this area.


...... espect for childhood and children themselves, for their mental and physical health and their future must be our only concern; . . . . . psychological and medical experience are obviously important, but reason and ethics must also guide, direct, restrict and even, if necessary, lead to a ban on this kind of sporting activity, which is actually limited to a very small group of exceptional young people who sometimes defy the physiological and psychological norms and whose very special talents will be amply demonstrated and constantly scrutinized. Although general criteria can be used to identify the limits of these talents, individual and specific factors must also be taken into consideration .

Everything we say will center, of course, on the main thing which characterizes this stage in life, that is growth. This is an eminently favorable time for learning and for taking up many activities which depend above all on psycho-motor skills. It is a well-known fact that the things we learn in childhood are learned far more easily and better, and are less likely to be forgotten, than the things we learn as adults. Indeed, some things can only be learned at a very early age-after that, "late" can soon become "too late." Virtuoso musicians always start on their scales very young, and the same is true of prima ballerinas taking their first steps, or brilliant linguists first setting out to master the subtleties of another language. It is certainly a favorable time, but it is also a time when things are being built and therefore a time of fragility, instability and

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of physical and psychological upheaval. We know that the consequences of simply engaging in a physical or sporting activity are nearly always beneficial in the short, medium or long term. But choosing the activity, and deciding on its level, frequency and intensity become a far heavier responsibility, even though our scientific knowledge, ethical sense and reason can guide us, once we know that any activity embarked on in childhood or adolescence can affect adult life, sometimes deeply. Whether the effects are favorable or unfavorable depends on the quality of the activity and on the way in which it is pursued. The title of this paper introduces two concepts, which call for fuller definition, those of high-level gymnastics and age.

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THE CONCEPTS OF HIGH-LEVEL TRAINING AND GYMNASTICS THE IISTATUS" OF HIGH-LEVEL SPORT "High-level" must not be defined simply in terms of time spent training in the gym, the quantity and quality of the effort involved, the technical level of the performance or the results achieved in competition. "High-level" must cover not only the athlete's relationship with gymnastics, but also the whole environment surrounding the discipline, on which success often depends. High-level sport is also a way of life. The notion of an elite indicates, as I have said, that we are dealing with exceptional people, who have passed through a process of medical, physical, psychological, technical and ethical selection (sometimes, alas, natural selection as well). All the mistakes, accidents, interrupted or broken careers, and even tragedies come from forgetting, underestimating or refusing to accept this fundamental idea. Very few young gymnasts can reach this high level, and their progress towards it should be based on extremely rigorous and constantly verified criteria; far too many of them, however, are driven and pushed by unscrupulous or incompetent coaches (sometimes, alas, doctors too), or even by irresponsible parents, although ------1rthey lack the qualities and even the environment and conditions needed to engage in sport at this level.


. I

Paradoxically, age is of very limited and debatable interest when it simply denotes chronological age, or the age shown on official documents. The latter is, in fact, of very little use in measuring a gymnast's

level of maturity against a standard yardstick, comparing several gymnasts, classifying them and organizing categorybased competitions (seniors, juniors, etc.). There can be surprisingly wide differences and discrepancies in pubescent maturing, and principally muscle power, between competitors of the same legal age, and especially between young people from different population groups or parts of the world, since, as we shall see, many environmental factors can encourage these disparities in development. Physiological age would be a much fairer and more logical basis for comparing individuals and enabling them to compete on equal terms; this would entail referring to a wide range of criteria and carrying out various tests: somatic tests (age in terms of stature), clinical tests (determination of the stages in pubescent development), biological tests (hormone level), x-rays (bone age, etc.). These tests are very useful in keeping a regular check on the maturing process, but do not always indicate physiological age with sufficient accuracy to determine competition categories, since findings and standards are open to exceptions, when the subjects themselves are exceptional.

It is also vital to bring in the concept of "psychological age," here again, the criteria need to be placed in the same kind of environmental context.

GROWTH FACTORS These are mainly endocrinous; the nervous system and especially the hypothalamus, the cerebral command structure, restrain or stimulate the secretion of hormones - principally the growth hormone GH, the thyroid hormone, sex hormones (androgens and oestrogens), cortisol and




glucocorticoids, insulin, somatomedins (ILGF) and other factors . These hormones are secreted by different glands and each one has a specific target (bones, cartilage, nervous system, etc.). Many very up-to-date studies clearly show changes in secretion of these hormones which are directly linked with exercise and also connected, over a period, with the accumulation of physical effort and training pressures. Some studies have focused specifically on gymnastics, but the sport seems to have no distinctive effects in this area; the organism does not "recognize" it as having any special hormonal effects, which means that all the criticism leveled at this sport-particularly by the media, are totally unfounded. Before they say anything, the critics should thus substitute the general term, "practice of sport" for "gymnastics" and stop making our sport their target. When we think strictly of hormones, "physical activity in general" is the only meaningful concept, whereas, when we come to consider pathology, and particularly osteo-articular pathology, we shall describe things which are indeed specific to our sport. Nevertheless, we should briefly note that every effort leads to an inunediate increase in the circulating growth hormone, associated, depending on its duration, intensity and repetitiveness, with a rise or fall in the level of somatomedin (IILGF), one of the essential hormone regulators. The hypothalamus may also react by reducing the secretion of male hormones (testosterone) and female hormones (LH and FSH), especially if certain negative factors, such as nutritional deficiency or unfavorable environmental conditions, are present as well. (col1til1ued 011 page 10)




There is, therefore, a quantity of effort above which certain secretions are reduced and growth may slow down, the latter being reflected in objective signsthe subject'S being behind in bone age, size, the clinical stages of puberty, delayed onset of menses or menstrual disorders, etc. Fortunately, all the research clearly shows that, with very rare exceptions, a "catching-up" process always remedies these delays or disorders, either during rest periods or at a later stage which is why we have to give serious thought to the scheduling of training and rest periods in the short and medium term. These are the genetic factors. They may be important additional criteria among the many on which gymnasts are selected and ~INTERNAL" recruited. Very little is yet NFLUENCES known about these genetic N GROWTH factors; we do know, of course, that children of small parents are far likelier to be small themselves-so why blame small stature, as some people do, on sinister manipulation or the harmful effects of gymnastics! But apart from size and a few minor criteria, we still do not know a great deal in this area. We can take it that the incredible progress made in genetics will very soon be contributing to the selection process, but we shall have to stay vigilant to prevent abuses and firmly reject certain "projects" which still lie within the realm of science fiction, but may one day become realities.


Genetics can save mankind, and can help sportsmen and sport, but genetics can also destroy. In sport, unscrupulous genetic manipulation gives us good reason to fear the worst. These are many and various and have powerful effects on development; climate, and particularly exposure to sunshine and light. A young South American or Central African girl matures far earlier than a young girl living in the far north of Europe, all exceptions proving the

HIGH-LEVEL ATHLETES DO, HOWEVER, DISPLAY VARIATIONS FROM THE NORM OF THE DELAYED PHYSIOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT TYPE; these are linked to the external and internal factors previously described, but the main cause seems quite simply to be intense and repeated physical effort. In the absence of intercurrent illness, these disturbances and delays should be seen as variations in development and not disorders. This indeed is an issue which certain media, educationalists and doctors who lack a proper scientific grounding are quick to seize on for polemical purposes, although the few simple points we have made above provide ready answers. Questions repeatedly asked include the following:

Q. Does the specific lind intensive practice of gJ)mnastics limit growth, and therefore IIdult height?


No, artistic gymnastics does not stunt growth, any more than competitive rhythmic gymnastics stimulates it, although height differences between the practitioners of each are considerable. The explanation lies simply in genetics, natural or organized selection and the spontaneous and logical success of the morphologies best adapted to one sport or the other. It is certainly true, as we have seen, that intensive training in general, and not only in gymnastics, may slow growth, but the catching-up process, which is more or less constant, always cuts in at some point, whether in the short (rest periods), medium (holidays) or long term. Growth is normal, but spread over a longer period.

Q. But doesn't the practice of gJ)mnllstics cause certain disorders, such liS delayed bone structure development, Illte menstrulltion, menstrulIl disorders, etc.?

A. No, there are no disorders

which can be specifically ascribed to gymnastics. The fact is, that any form of intensive physical exercise can reduce the growth-rate, slow down maturing of the bones and so delay puberty. I repeat, growth goes on for a longer period. More and more frequently, too, the specific environmental factors such as diet, climate, travel, stress and various psycho-social factors which affect many gymnasts are found to apply equally to people who lead entirely sedentary, sport-free lives. A balanced diet and physical and mental hygiene are at least as important as good training and are necessary to reach the "catching up" phase, when these irregularities are completely corrected with no after-effects.

rule. This has nothing to do with physical exercise, but is simply due to a natural time lag. The growth rate is normal in both cases, but the time-span differs. This alone shows how hard it is for an international institution like ours to take legal age as its sole criterion for harmonizing, comparing and bringing groups of young people together to compete with one another, when their qualities and capacities are so dissimilar. Since we have mentioned sunshine, light and their stimulating effects on growth, we might as well make the point here that some gymnasts spend too much time



shut up at home, in school and in the gymnasium, and need these things vitally too. Sunshine and light are essential to their development and health: the synthesis of Vitamin D, through the action of ultra-violet rays on the skin, plays a vital part in building bone calcium. Illness, especially chronic illness, also interferes with healthy growth. The negative influence of certain social factors can also be mentioned : certain psychoaffective disorders linked with family or training or certain environmental conditions (lifestyle, fa mily habi ts, school


boarding, etc.), and nutrition (the disastrous effects of certain deficiencies on growth are well-known). On the other hand, physical activity in general is recognized as being a very favorable external factor.

THE PHYSIOLOGICAL GROWTH PROCESSHOW IT CAN GO WRONG A number of thoroughly objective and quantifiable criteria, which are influenced by external and internal factors, can be used to monitor the growth process. Thus we follow somatic development (height/weight), the development of bone structure (bone age provides a useful indication of the general development staget of cartilage and of muscle volume; we follow psycho-motor development, the subject's relations with others, the onset and evolution of menstruation and particularly the appearance of secondary sex characteristics (the development of pubic hair, breasts and external genital organs) which, if they are regularly checked and the results compared between examinations, pro vide an excellent indication of the rate and quality of hormonal secretions.



PRACTICAL CONDITIONS AND LIMITS OF HIGH-LEVEL TRAINING FOR CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS These conditions and limits are physical and, obviously, psychologicat but must always include an ethical factor as well. To benefit from and enjoy any sport, one has to accept the risks, incidents and accidents which may go with it. That is the rule, the moral contract common to all sports, and indeed life itself, although gymnastics is well down the list of sport statically classified as dangerous by insurers. Young gymnasts are not always fully aware of the risks involved, although they are the ones who take them. Coaches, parents, organizers and doctors must always remember that the moral responsibility they bear is considerable, since it is, in fact, delegated. The physicat physiologicat psychological and ethicallirnits must be based on accurate, ongoing assessment of the

individual's capacities, measured against the demands and constraints of the activity, always remembering that the organism involved is in full process of development and therefore vulnerable. These are questions for the doctor, the coach and indeed the psychologist, who must all work together in pursuing just one aim, the child's self-fulfillment. One must guard against the unhealthy complicities which can develop in this area, where doctors are sometimes exploited as hostage, pretext or rubber stamp, and unduly influenced by coaches, or where, even more dangerously coaches regard themselves as medically competent and act accordingly. Respect for the child's specific physiology is the necessary basis of all action. Children have natural abilities which they can and must be allowed, and indeed encouraged, to use. But they are also naturally incapable, physically and biologically, of meeting certain demands. There are many examples,

and if recovery, healing and rehabilitation periods are not respected. This is true of fractures affecting mainly the fertile zone, growth cartilage. ln certain conditions, the consequences of resuming training too soon and too intensively can be disastrous (i.e., shortening of a limb by angulation of the bone caused by growth deficiency). The second risk is chronic pathologies: these include so-called fatigue fractures (or fissures) affecting legs, feet, hands and vertebrae. Properly treated, wounds can heal and bones knit with no after-effects. These fractures are sometimes discovered by chance and are probably but not always, due to excessive training (isthmic lysis). Other causal factors include certain diet deficiencies, decalcification and often a reduction in bone density. These deficiencies must be corrected as quickly as possible, since they may contribute to or aggravate osteoporosis in the very long term.

RESPECT for the child's specific physiology is the necessary basis of all action. Children have natural abilities which they can and must be allowed, and indeed encouraged, to use.

but one will suffice: the level of myoglobin, an oxygen-carrier which fuels the muscle fibers, is highest in the muscles at the end of puberty. Work which relies on pure strength is thus incompatible with the subject's physiology and so all but impossible. Exercises to develop speed and agility would be more appropriate. This example shows the need for a good knowledge of the physiology of growth, and many others could be cited. There are some things that a child's physiology and psychology will not let him or her do yet. This should be accepted. In the case of osteo-articular pathology, there are two types of risk. The first is of accident-caused injuries, such as sprains, dislocations and fractures, which may have serious and lasting effects, especially if they are neglected

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TECH N' 0 U E • VO LUM E 18 • #4

The growth-related articular diseases, such as osteochondrosis, can affect all the joints. Statistically, they affect young people engaged in high-level sport slightly more often than those who go in for leisure sport or are sedentary. There is, however, one fundamental difference: they must be watched far more closely in the case of young high-level athletes, since the accumulation of pressure-stretching-rotation phases and of various micro-traumatisms can lead to complications, and especially permanent after-effects, if they are not treated by a doctor and/or the coach fails to obey the doctor's instructions. Coaches would be wise to adjust training to reduce pressure on the affected joint, or even interrupt it for a short or longer (continued on page 12)

) f - - - - - - - -- -------=':-:':-JII

LIMITS ON YOUNG GYMNASTS' INVOLVEMENT IN HIGH-LEVEL SPORT (continued from page 11) period, as advised by the doctor. If these rules are followed, these conditions should right themselves spontaneously in 80% of cases. We have painted a less optimistic picture of os teo-articular pathologies than we did of hormonal disturbances: the catching-up process does not apply here, but after-effects can be avoided almost invariably if coach and doctor work well as a team. Because they are often less spectacular, less visible, more insidious and longer lasting, psychological disorders can be very dangerous, interfering with the child's gymnastics career and leaving permanent scars in later life. Here again, prevention depends on common sense and on the sense of responsibility both of parents, who too often try to fulfil themselves through their children's exploits, and of coaches, who are too often in a hurry to "manufacture" champions. Parents, coaches and federations must take care that gymnastics does not become the child's sole center of interest, avoiding both saturation (a gymnast's career starts early and is a very long one) and dependence either on gymnastics itself or on the coach. The danger with coaches is that children may develop a fixation on them, expecting to be told all the time what to think and what to do. All too often, the gymnast/coach relationship, especially in women's gymnastics, is one of subjection/ domination. Child athletes must not be robots in their coaches' hands, but

must have as much freedom of expression as other children of their age, so that their personalities can develop fully; their performance will be all the better for it. Everything we have said so far points to the coach as the key person; constantly present, he/she sometimes becomes the gym, st's first "family." Overall, and

We must endeavour to protect CHILDHOOD ... that wonderful period of human life which child athletes need to experience fully to "build up memories," like other children of the same age. depending on his/her qualities or shortcomings, the coach is one of those most responsible for all successes or failures. From a technical, physical, psychological, ethical and social point of view; the golden rule is to treat children or adolescents as such and employ methods which are specially designed for them, and not just derived from those used with adults. A child is not a miniature adult, for whom training programs are simply scaled down. A child is not a smaller, weaker adult, but a special being who requires special treatment. The coach must be willing to adapt the program constantly to the

child's capacities at any given moment, and even suspend or abandon it completely if there is the slightest risk or doubt. He/she must ensure that every exercise and movement is carried out below the pain threshold: pain is a useful warning signal that danger lies ahead (some painful stretching movements too often result in damage to tendons and bones). Take your time. This is the key, even when you have commitments or want to prove yourself quickly. Lasting results are never achieved overnight; real champions mature slowly-hence the importance of a long-term career plan, covering training, rest, general education, leisure and competition phases. We must endeavour to protect childhood, that wonderful period of human life which child athletes need to experience fully to ''build up memories," like other children of the same age. If children are artifically turned into adults too soon, a whole period f waking to the world, maturing psychologically and gathering experience, which is vital to future stability, is simply wiped out. Children and adolescents must not be cosseted or indeed idolized because they are champions, but they must be shielded from the stresses, constraints and problems of adulthood for as long as possible. This is difficult, since there is a discrepancy between the child's psychology, aspirations and needs and the demands made on him/her in an environment (competitions, media, travel, etc.) largely created by and for adults. In short, parents, coaches, the media and organizers should let children and adolescents be just that-and not use them as a means to personal glory or power.

THE RULES ON ADMISSION TO The FIG rules make the minimum age for admission to its competitions 16 for male and female seniors and 15 for competitive rhythmic gymnasts, 14-18 for male juniors and 13-15 for female juniors, and 12-14 for competitive rhythmic.

For information, here are the average ages recorded at: The 1995 World Championships in Sabae

Men Women

22.73 years 16.57 years

The 1997 World Championships in Lausanne

Men Women

22.81 years 17.43 years

These figures are illuminating and provide the answer to media allegations that female top-performers are being allowed to enter our competitions at an ever-earlier age. The figures show the contrary. These age rules are needed, of course, even if they naturally take account only of chronological age in grouping competitors in categories. As we have seen, this is far from being fair in an international context, because of the wide variations in maturing from one country to another. Nevertheless, the rules do have the advantage of respecting average norms in a majority of the Federation's member countries. Perhaps some continental unions or groups could adapt them to their real situations, i.e. to early or later maturing, for their own competitions. r . - = - 1 - = 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - j ( TEe H N IOU E • VOLUME 18 • #4

)r-- - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Junior competitions raise a real problem, and a simple age limit is not enough to separate them clearly from the spirit and the physical and technical difficulties of adult competitions, which is the aim in all forms of sport. This age limit remains totally artificial if no qualitative or quantitative limits are imposed on the level of involvement. We know that juniors are perfectly free to train with the aim of presenting a program far superior to, "riskier" than, the one presented by any senior champion in the previous competition. And so everything depends on the coach's sense of ethics and responsibility. Junior competitions are fine as long as precise limits are imposed. There is no question of returning to rigid, compulsory exercises, which are tedious and lacking in media appeal, but it should be possible to come up with a program in which the difficulties are controlled and adapted to the age of the competitors, leaving them free to link and choreograph the different elements, and paying more attention to the technical quality of the performance-in short, to adopt a new philosophy.



The quality of the equipment used is vital, in terms both of basic design, which can help to reduce the accumulation of microtraumatisms, and of the safety and protective features which can be added. Teaching aids should be used throughout the learning period. It would also be a good thing if the excellent laboratories which test and approve our equipment spent far more time on tests carried out directly on gymnasts (measuring the physical stresses on joints, muscles and tendons) . It would seem more important to monitor gymnasts and the stress to which their muscles and joints are subjected when using the equipment, than simply to monitor the equipment and mats when subjected to the gymnast's weight, and to verify the qualities involved in carrying out the exercise and completing it as perfectly as possible. Although both types of research are useful and complementary, one must never forget that a young gymnast's joints and cartilage are being built up and are therefore fragile, and must be protected all the time against shocks and their accumulated effect. (continued


page 14)

Lifestye Time-use must ensure a healthy balance between family, school, leisure, relaxation and gymnastics. Managing these timetable elements harmoniously and wisely is not easy, but it makes for success; the slightest imbalance, too much emphasis on one area, and particularly a real obsession with training, rocks the boat dangerously. Many federations have set up special sport/study-type programs for young elite gymnasts, cutting out time-loss on things like travel from school to training center, and devoting considerable time to school work. The ideal situation is one where family, leisure and rest factors are respected too. Leisure activities should include other sports, games and activities which are suited to children and adolescents and which they enjoy. Families have a vital part to play. Ideally, they should be close at hand, in regular contact or represented, if necessary, by a host family at the place of training-but they should not be omnipresent and should not be allowed to interfere overmuch, as they sometimes do, in technical areas of which they know nothing. With very few exceptions, parent-trainers cause serious problems and pose a real threat to the child's equilibrium; "projec-


matter of managing everyday life outside the gymnasium. These cover things like stress-control, sleep, problems linked with travel, time differences, climate variations, etc. and, above all, DIE' .

DIE' is a vital question for young athletes, and getting it right in practice is not always easy for a whole variety of reasons: children are torn between their natural liking for (mainly) sweet things and the restrictions imposed by their sport and trainer. Reasonable diet control, essentially based on physiological principles, should be relied on to reduce episodic bulimia and real excess weight, which is unsightly, a handicap and even potentially dangerous, particularly when doing acrobatics. Aserious effort must be made to stamp out unacceptable aberrations, based on unfounded, unrealistic, physiologically unsound, highly dangerous and always restrictive principles, which result in extremely serious deficiencies (in water, minerals, vitamins, glucides, protides and lipids). They interfere with growth, somatic development and the normal hormonal processes and can lead to anorexia nervosa, a psychosomatic pathology which is hard to control and sometimes fatal. This terrible illness has nothing whatsoever to do with gymnastics; it turns up wherever the physiological diet rules and processes are ignored, and specific psychosomatic conditions apply. On the contrary, sport and gymnastics can, under reasonable and qualified supervision, be an excellent means of prevention and therapy. Our own code makes it our duty to protect gymnasts against such deprivations and deficiencies, which are hardly compatible with high-level sport and may even be dangerous. are sometimes necessary. They must be kept at a low level and be justified by deficiency risks which food alone cannot wholly overcome (iron deficiency in particular). Here, too, aberrations are possible, and doping-or practices which are not called doping to start with, but soon adopt its philosophy and principlesmay become a temptation; apart from being __--lL..~:------,..-:::'7 deplorable in terms of sports ethics and education , the dangers of using certain doping substances are multiplied when young people are concerned. Even more serious is the use of hormone products to slow down or accelerate the growth processes for purposes of sport only. This is a criminal offense and a matter for the courts, even if we ourselves have an important part to play in the area of prevention and in providing information. Another vital point is the need for rest periods and plenty of sleep. Children need far more sleep than adults; this must be taken into account not only in daily life, by avoiding late training sessions, but also by avoiding early morning qualifying sessions and evening competitions.


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18 • #4 )}----------------=1:-:3;:-]11

USA GYMNASTICS EDUCATION PROGRAMS KAT-Kinder Accreditation for Teachers PDP I-Professional Development Program I PDP II-Professional Development Program II Safety Certification Program

o o o o

For more information or a list of courses in your area on the Kinder Accreditation for Teachers program, the Professional Development Program I or II or the Safety Certification program, call USA Gymnastics Member Services: 1-800-345-4719 or check the programs in which you are interested in receiving information and mail or fax to:

USA Gymnastics Member Services Pan American Plaza 201 S. Capitol Ave., Ste. 300 Indianapolis, IN 46225 Fax: 317-692-5212


MEDICAL SUPERVISION This involves monitoring the various factors which contribute to the child's equilibrium and make for balanced practice of the sport, and detecting any sign of excessive training or effort as early as possible. Such monitoring is necessary and compulsory, and indeed the basic condition for children's involvement in sport. It must be stringent when children are embarking on high-level training programs or, even better, at the preparatory stage, when they are being recruited and selected for such training. After that, they must be monitored very regularly throughout their sporting career. As far as medical confidentiality allows, practical information gleaned from every check-up should at once be passed on to coaches.

_eJlltIJJIIBJleJII Because some of the qualities needed by gymnasts can be acquired at a very early age, and because professional, social! affective and leisure demands soon make themselves felt, leaving them with little time or inclination for inevitably long and sometimes tedious training sessions, gymnastics, or at least its artistic,

Note: See page 48 for the Safety Registration form and list of courses.

rhythmic and aerobic disciplines, attract young people even at a high level.

ments and supports the other two, and all are equally strong. I am thinking of the doctor, coach and parents, each bearing part of the weight and all providing general support.

Although gymnastics is often singled out and accused of encouraging maturing disorders, it has no special characteristics in this area, as compared with other sports. Like them, too, it generally has a very favorable effect on development in the long term. But so many precautions, warnings and restrictions are needed! There is no room for improvisation when young people are engaging intensively in gymnastics. The responsibility must be shared between structures and people who combine common sense, specialized training and an impeccable moral and ethical sense, even if the coach remains the one person on whom the child's sporting, and indeed general, future, depends to a very large extent. Coaches' skills and their respect for the special people they are training are factors in success. Their own proper training is the basis of every development program run by any national or international federation which has a real sense of its responsibilities.

All forms of sporting activity are worthy of respect. •

The coach is the main person in the process, but not the only one. One can think of the gymnast's vital balance as being sustained on a kind of three-legged stool. Each of the three legs comple-

(Published by Council of Europe-Committee for the Development of Sport-Protection of Young People Involved in High-Level Sport 1997. Translated by Becky Riti.)


In some civilizations, children are sacred. And the moral and physical welfare of children who engage in sport should be sacred to us. If we stay vigilant, stop the few unscrupulous sorcerer's apprentices from getting away with their malpractices, and respect the basic rules of physiology and ethics, our children and adolescents will-if they prove to have the right abilities-be "winners" in terms both of sport and of health, and make the most of their youth in the process. There is no basic incompatibility between the two. And if our gymnasts lack the necessary skills, if there is the slightest risk to their health, then they must be able, without any sense of having failed, to switch to a more suitable level of activity, or a different activity altogether.

TEe H N I QUE' VOLU ME 18 • #4 ) } - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Page x

Update to the

lfOnten ~ RuieJ ana PoiicieJ March 12, 1998 Please make the following changes to your Rules and Policies book.

Directory of officers: Page viii Administrative Board Chairman is now Jan Greenhawk

Region VI SC: RI - add Donna MacRae 163 Calderwood Dr., Warwick, RI 02886 (401) 737-4149

Page xi Region VII RC - elections in process. Call Jan Greenhawk. SC: MD - Lynn Perrott change Email: Region VIII REPC - Ray Gnat Gym Phone & FAX# 407-831-7807 RTOPCo. James Linderholm change FAX# to 205-883-7500

(see Region VII RC) Region I: RTC - Pam Bileck Add FAX# 650-596-3808 RTOPCo. - Derick Moellenbeck new address: 895 W. Patriot Blvd. Reno, NY 89502 Phone (702) 823-9800 FAX# 702-823-9755

Page xii Judges Certification: Sue Ammerman change area code to 973 Page 4, III. B. 4. Delete (Beginning August I, 1998, coaches must be

PDP certified in order to register as a Professional Member)

Page ix: Region II REPC - Brad Loan change area code to 253 RJOPC - Laurie Reid Add Email: SC: AK - Tammy Monette add FAX# 907-563-1441 SC: HI - Pam Zak add FAX same as work phone # SC: MT - Wally Price add FAX# 406-259-5568 SC: WA - Patti Gable change area code to 425 Region III REPC - Russ Ward add FAX - same as phone #

Supennatch Gymnastics Ribbon add 20C el.


Dept. GA48


Page 19: Jr. Olympic Entry Requirements #3: Change Level 7 or below to Level 6 or below Page 28: top: #3. D. Event Requirements for Level 7: Beam - delete "element close to the beam" Floor: change 360 0 turn to 540 0 turn on one foot Page 51: III. B. Third sentence. Delete and 1/2 on-Repulsion off Page 90 #7. B. 4) If a one judge panel is used: a) Change to read: A minimum of a Level 5/6 certification is required, with a minimum of one year's experience.•

The Official Reebok® USA National Team Replicas. Only from Alpha Factor Aerials. The USA National Team won the Gold in uniforms like these. Only Alpha Factor Aerials can give your athletes the chance to wear them. Make the call - and make their dreams come true.

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are registered tradema rks of Reebok.

The Athlete Well ness Course will be held in conjunction with the 1998 USA Gymnastics Congress in Indianapolis.

USA Gymnastics

Athlete Wellness Program

The Athlete Wellness curriculum includes topics such as: 1) Nutrition and Gymnastics Success - How to reduce nutritional risk to improve performance and development. 2) Successful Motivational Environments - How to structure an environment to encourage development and success in the sport. 3) Stress - How to identify and manage stress in the athletic environment.

4) Child Development - Emotional and physical makeup

of the adolescent as it relates to involvement in gymnastics.

5) Coach and Athlete Burnout - Symptoms, Prevention and Intervention . 6) The Female Athlete Triad - What is it? Why gymnasts may be at increased risk. What are the possible long term implications? Signs to look for that identify a problem and what to do if you suspect a problem. Faculty is still being determined for the course in Indianapolis. The faculty will present topics in their areas of expertise. This year the course will not be an add-on but rather part of the Congress Sessions. Anyone registered for Congress may attend one or all of the lectures. However, if you would like to receive course materials, credit, and a certificate for taking the course, you must register, pay a nominal fee, and attend the four Athlete Well ness lectures scheduled at Congress.

To register for the Athlete Well ness Course, see page 26. For more information contact Jennifer Lee at 317-237-5050

ext. 237.


~Ll "LtL '-; t!L~ G

Abdominal Conditioning TYPICAL CRUNCH - FIGURE 1

by Wm A. Sands, Ph.D. Motor Behavior Research Laboratonj Department of Exercise and Sport Science University of Utah

Abdominal muscles have received considerable media attention in recent years. Although much of the attention has been in the pursuit of the "six pack" (the indentations of the abdominal muscles due to the tendon intersections between the segments of the rectus abdominus) and for cosmetic purposes in reducing the size of a "pot belly," there are important reasons to condition the trunk flexors. In acrobatic sports the abdominal muscles assist trunk stability and hold the shape of the body through acrobatic movements (3, 10, 11). Due to the nature of acrobatic skills, forces must be applied to the body while the body is in particular shapes. The athlete's body also applies forces to the apparatus, board, floor, and so forth, and the body must adopt a particular shape while applying the force. Failure to shape the body appropriately results in less efficiency in the transfer of force and momentum and therefore a decrease in the magnitude and the direction of the applied force and resulting momentum (4). The inappropriate shape of a body is often seen when the athlete attempts a back somersault by "throwing the head back," and arching (hyperextending) the spine. The excessively arched body shape results in much of the resultant force being directed to rotation rather than height resulting in fast somersaulting but less time in the air to complete a difficult maneuver (4). Gymnasts and divers require extra strong abdominal muscles and trunk flexors to avoid the problem described above when somersaulting backward. The traditional approach to training trunk flexors has been to perform an exercise affectionately referred to as a "crunch" (Figure I),

The crunch exercise is usually performed on the floor. The arm position has been frequently discussed with some argument as to whether the athlete should grasp the head. Although grasping the head and pulling with the arms is probably not a safe method of performing this exercise, by placing the rl-=-1-=a---------------i(

TE CH N I 0 UE • VOLUME 18 • #4 ) f - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

arms near the head the resistance is increased and the crunch exercise is made more difficult. The primary problems with the crunch exercise for high level athletes are the exercise is: (a) too easy, (b) too slow, and (c) uses too little range of motion. All of these problems are due to the special needs of athletes and the principle of specificity (9). It is not uncommon to find fit athletes able to perform hundreds of crunches while their sporting activity may consist of only a few to a few dozen trunk flexion movements. The crunch is performed fairly slowly when compared to even the simplest of acrobatic trunk flexions such as occurs in the beginning of a front somersault, the upswing of a giant swing, or the quickness with which one achieves a tuck. Finally, the crunch exercise moves from a straight position to a slightly flexed position due to the athlete usually performing the movement on the floor. Rarely do athletes actually perform trunk flexion without beginning a slight arch or hyperextended trunk position. The trunk flexion of an athlete from a slightly arched to a slightly flexed position can be seen in a snap-down in tumbling, the front somersault take off from a front handspring, a tap swing on the horizontal bar or uneven bars, and the quick movement from a layout position (i.e., slightly arched) at take off to a pike or -tuck position to increase the speed of the somersault (5-7). The crunch exercise was promoted for a very good reason. When performing the hip flexion phase of a sit up type exercise, a muscle called psoas major serves to flex the hip and pull the lumbar spine (i.e., low back) forward. The psoas major serves a very valuable role in swinging the free leg forward during walking and running, and is usually very well developed (1, 2). If psoas major is the dominant muscle performing the trunk movement during a sit up type exercise, such as a V-Up, then one can usua lly see the athlete bend the trunk as shown in Figure 2. The crunch exercise was developed to avoid the positions shown in Figure 2. The first means of doing this is to avoid all flexion of the hip. The second means of avoiding the problems contributed by psoas major is to flex only the upper


trunk. In circumstances involving people of low fitness, general conditioning, people with a history of back problems, and so forth; the crunch exercise is an appropriate and relatively safe means of conditioning the abdominal muscles and the trunk flexors. However, failing to involve the entire trunk, slow speed, ease of performance, and small range of motion make the crunch exercise less than ideal for acrobatic athletes.

The principle of specificity indicates that exercises should be similar to the demands of the sport skill that one is trying to enhance. Similarity in this case involves: (a) using the entire trunk, (b) higher speeds, (c) larger range of motion, and (d) increased resistance. The entire trunk is used in athletics, not just the upper trunk. Therefore, the entire trunk must be conditioned in movements that are similar to those encountered in the sport. High speed movements must be possible, although one may not always perform the exercises at high speeds. Increasing the speed of an exercise usually follows a considerable period of preparatory conditioning that is designed to enhance strength while not

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - { ( r EC H N IOU E •

va lU ME

18 • # 4


emphasizing speed. As the athlete reaches elite status, the speed of exercises becomes paramount and the ability to perform an exercise at high speed is crucial to enhancing sport skill performance at high speeds. Athletes usually begin a trunk flexion movement from a slightly hyperextended or arched trunk position. This can be seen in the "windup" prior to a throw, the movement from an arch to a pike or tuck in somersaulting, and a "tap" swing on the apparatuses. Finally, the resistance of the trunk flexion must be increased so that the athlete is sufficiently challenged that he/she increases strength, speed, power. It is astonishing that exercise prescription for every other muscle group in the body usually ranges from 6-12 repetitions per set. However, the abdominals are usually trained with 100s of repetitions per set. The primary reason for this discrepancy is that the resistance used in a traditional crunch is body weight which is not sufficiently large to cause the athlete to fail in a dozen or less repetitions (8, 12, 13). The crunch resistance can be augmented by holding a weight plate on the chest or behind the head, but this is often awkward, particularly with child

(continued on page 20)

) f - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -'--:9:-111

the approach of dozens to hundreds of repetitions used in the typical crunch. However, when resistance is increased so that athletes are seriously challenged to complete 10-12 repetitions then trunk flexion exercises can be approached on a hard day I easy day format. Always supervise the athletes during trunk conditioning exercises because as the athletes fatigue they often resort to inappropriate postures and movements. When the athlete fails to hold the proper body position or move with proper technique, the exercise should be halted .•





REFERENCES 1. ANDERSSON, E. A., J. NILSSON, Z. MA, AND A. THORSTENSSON. Abdominal and hip flexor muscle activation during various training exercises. Ellr. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 115-123,1997. 2. ANDERSSON, E., L. ODDSSON, H. GRUNDSTROM, AND A. THORSTENSSON. The role of the psoas and iliacus muscles for stability and movement of the lumbar spine, pelvis and hip. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 5: 10-16,1995.



3. FLINT, M. M., AND B. DIEHL. Influence of abdominal strength, back extensor strength, and trunk strength balance upon antero-posterior alignment of elementary school girls. Res. Quar. 32(4): 490-498, 1961. 4. GEORGE, G. S. Biomechnnics of wOll1en's gyll1llnStics, 1st ed. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1980. 5. MILLLER, D. l. What the biomechanics researcher tells the diving coach and what the coach tells the researcher. In: Biomechanics in Sports, edited by J. Terauds. Del Mar, CA: Academic Publishers, 1983, p. 31-34.


athletes, and still may not cause the athlete to fail in a small number of repetitions.

Figure 3 shows three alternative abdominal/trunk flexion exercises. The mushroom is an apparatus that is often found in male gymnastics training facilities where it is used for pommel horse. The mushroom places the athlete in a slightly arched starting position. The athlete then performs a crunch and a small V-Up only as high as hel she can without placing the lumbar spine in the position shown in Figure 2. The Med Ball abdominal conditioning exercise shows the athlete leaning backward over a medicine ball or other object similarly shaped and performing a crunch while holding a weight plate. The medicine ball helps support the lower back so that the athlete cannot misuse the lumbar spine. Finally, the Table Abs exer-

cise shows the athlete resting on the legs while the trunk is hanging off the table. A partner is necessary for this exercise to prevent the athlete from slipping off the table. The goal of the Table Abs exercise is to touch the elbows to the bottom of the table. The athlete should not be allowed to "swing" the trunk during the Table Abs exercise. The Table Abs exercise is quite difficult to do well, and promotes the ability of the athlete to achieve a tight pike position by training the extreme range of motion of the piking action. Trunk flexion exercises should be a part of every athlete's conditioning program. Before prescribing trunk flexion exercises the coach and athlete should assess the speed, resistance, and range of motion required for the athlete's skills and then prescribe exercises by exceeding the typical speed, resistance, and range of motion by about 10%. Trunk flexion exercises can be trained every day under

12."..O-=----------------{( ....

6. MILLER, D. I., E. HENNIG, M. A. PIZZIMENTI, I. C. JO ES, AND R. C. NELSON. Kinetic and kinematic characteristics of lO-m platform performances of elite divers l. Back takeoffs. lIS.B. 5: 60-88, 1989. 7. MILLER, D. I., AND C. F. MUNRO. Body segment contributions to height achieved during the flight of a springboard dive. Med Sci. Sports Em. 16(3): 234-242, 1984. 8. PAMPUS, B., K. LEHNERTZ, and D. MARTIN. The effect of different load intensities on the development of maximal strength and maximal endurance. Leistungssport 4: 5-10,1987. (Translated by J. Major, University of Utah) 9. SALE, D., AND D. MACDOUGALL. Specificity in strength training: A review for the coach and athlete. Can . J. Appl. Spt. Sci. 6(2): 87-92, 1981. 10. TESH, K. M., S. J. DUNN, AND J. H. EVANS. The abdominal muscles and vertebral stability. Spine 12(5): 501-508, 1987. 11. TESH, K. M., J. SHAW DUNN, AND J. H. EVANS. The abdominal muscles and vertebral stability. Spine 12(5): 501-508, 1987. 12. WATHEN, D. Load assignment. In: Essentials of strength tmilling and conditioning, edited by T. R. Baechle. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1994, p.435-446. 13. WATHEN, D., AND F. ROLL. Training methods and modes. In: Esselltials of strengtli tmillillg alld conditionillg, edited by T.R. Baechle. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics, 1994, p. 403-415 .

TEe H N' 0 UE • VOL UME 18 • #4 )}-- - - - - - - - -- - - - - -

Congratulations to the following individuals who are now KAT (Kinder Accreditation for Teachers) certified:

Congrat~lation6! •

If you're serious about • gymnastics, you nee d • se rious • gymnastics sofhNare •

Charlaine Polak ........ AK

Brenda Butcher .. ......IN

Randy McCoy ... .... ... AZ.

Christine LaFollette ... .IN

Jody Baer .. .. ...... ... .. .CA

Jeanine Schilling ...... KY

Suzanna Flournoy .... CA

Kristi Kelley .. .. ...... .... LA


lisa Gaitero ......... ... CA

Tina Cote ............. ...MA

Joanne Harned ... .. ...CA

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John Hayes .. ...... ......CA

Sally Poveromo ........ MA

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Kimberly Palm .......... CO

Molly Lenard .......... ..ME

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Cheri Lambrix .. ........ MI

Leigh Grund ..... ..... .. ..Fl

Stacey Palmer .......... NC

Rachael Bommicino .. GA

Randy Kopenhaver .. NJ

Tim Courtwright .... ..GA

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Scott Dearborn ..... ... GA

Joyce Theodore ...... ..NJ

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Trisha Guinn ... ......... GA

Sally Wovkulich ... ..... NJ


Susan Haldeman .. .. ..GA

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Caren Martin ..... ... ..GA

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Laura Mikszan ........ GA

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Robin Mirabal. ... ...... GA

Mindi Smith ...... .... .. OH

Gwyneth Puckett .... ..GA

Kay Brown ... .. ...... ...TX

Lori Strickland .......... GA

Laura Laughter .. .. ......TX

Maureen Gamble ...... IA

Megan Rodriguez ....TX

Kathleen Howeth ...... IL

Lorna Spellman ....... .TX

Jamie Lapke ......... ..... IL

Kim Stafford ..... .... ...TX

Beth McCloskey .... ....IL

Karen Weaver .. ....... .TX

and judges for

• Manages gyms, meets, sessions, gymnasts, judges. • A system of hardware and software modules.

9Y25 Replace th ose clumsy flip displa ys and runners!

For the life of your gym.



With each consignment package, you will receive a new assortment of prints and solids from our variety collection, shown on pages 22 thru 24 of the GK catalog. Your packages are specifically tailored to your gym's needs, such as quantity, sizes and styles.

Our consignment program ha s already helped hundred s of pro shops across the country become successful and profitable. Why not choose the GK consignment program for your pro shop and start earning extra profits with .. .

For more information on how you can get started on our consignment program, just call our customer service department at 1.800.345.4087.

No Investment! and ... No Risk! Our consignment program offers packages for:

Pro Shops Meets Summer Camps

AND ... Since you only pay for what you've sold and you may return the rest of the package there is...

No Investment! and ... No Risk! PLUS ... In addition to receiving consignment merchandise at wholesale prices , you'll be ab le to purchase all GK products including team apparel at our low wholesale prices too.

P.O. Box 16400 Reading, Pennsylvania 19612 Phone: 1.800.345.4087 Fax: 1.610.376 .9633 E-mail: Web site: www.gk-elitesportsweaLcom OFFICIAL



USA Gymnastics Junior Olympic Program

Congress Rates and Registration Dates USA GYMNASTICS


. $175 Pre-registration $200 On-site Non-Members $275


Indianapolis, Indiana


Wednesday, August 19 (ALL DAY) Indianapolis Convention Center


August 20-22, Indianapolis Convention Center

POST-CONGRESS ADD-ONS: Sunday, August 23 (IN THE MORNING) Indianapolis Convention Center


1 998 John Hancock Gymnastics Championships August 19-22 • Market Square Arena

Wed.8/19 1:00-3:30 pm 7:00-9:00 pm Thurs.8/20 1:00-3:30 pm 7:00-9:00 pm Fri. 8/21 7:00-9:00 pm Sat. 8/22 1:00-3:30 pm 7:00-9:00 pm

Competition (Jr. M) Competition (Sr. M) Competition (Jr. W) Competition (Sr. W) Competition (Sr. / Jr. M) Competition (Jr. W) Competition (Sr. W)

See page 27 for ticket order form Transportation/Travel Arrangements

The above hotels are a very short walk from the Indianapolis Convention Center and a short walk (5 blocks) from Market Square Arena. Taxi service from the airport to downtown is approximately $20. Hotel parking: TBD at both hotels Ross & Babcock is the Trovel Agency of Choice for USA Gymnastics. Call the USA Gymnastics Travel Desk (317·237·5050, ext. 259) now to make your reservations for the 199B USA Gymnastics Congress. Ross & Babcock is a full-service trove I agency and can arronge for all of your trovel needs. Presentations

Sessions will be conducted at the Indianapolis Convention Center providing a modern, elegant, and flexible environment for Congress. Sessions will feature informative speakers discussing dub business, technique and sport science, preschool/developmental, judges troining, as well as men's, women's, rhythmic, and general gymnastics topics. Exhibition Hall

The Exhibit Hall, located in the Indianapolis Convention Center, will provide Congress ollendees with the opportunity to see the latest and best in equipment, apparel, and services. Generol Gymnastics groups and dubs will have the opportunity to do exhibitions in the Exhibit Hall. If you ore interested in information about this, contact Steve Whitlock (317-237-5050, ext. 236) or email at e due ate @usa - g ymn a s tic s - 0 r 9 Special Assistance

For any Congress allendees with needs requiring special assistance, please contact Steve Whitlock at USA Gymnastics (317-237-5050, ext. 236) no later than July 24.

No pre-registration after July 24 (registrations must be postmarked by July 24). After July 24, you must register on site.

Offidal Co-Headquarter Hotels for the 1998 National Congress The Westin Hotel, Indianapolis 50 S. Capitol Avenue, Indianapolis, IN 46204 317 -262-8100 The cut-off date: July 17, 1998 (You must pay a deposit equal to the room rate for one night.) Check-in time: 3:00 p.m . Rates: $100 for single; $111 for double; $131 for triple; and $151 for quad.

Reservations are made directly with the Reservations Department (317-262-8100), or through the Central Reservations Department (800-228-3000).

Hyatt Regency Indianapolis At State Capitol One South Capitol Avenue Indianapolis, IN 46204 317 -632-1234 The cut-off date: July 18, 1998 Reservations after this date will be accepted on a space and rate availability basis. Check-in time: 4:00 p.m. Rates: $85 single through quad occupancy. An $85 deposit of each of the confirmed rooms will be due 14 days after confirmation (but no later than the cut-off date). These are refundable if canceled seven days or more prior to arrival date.

Reservations made directly with the Hotel (317-632-1234). It is important that you identiftj your group as the "USA Gymnastics Nationa l Congress" when making reservations. SCHEDULE


pnge 25

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - { ( r EC H NIOU E • VOLUME 18 • #4 ))-----------------=2:-::3:-J11




Professional or Instructor Members Pre-registration $ 1 75

Pre-Registration Form



Your Professional Address] (Listed in the USA Gymnastics Pro-Member Data Base) will be used for all correspondence.

(postmarked by July 24)

On-site $ 200 Non-Members $275

Complete one Congress form per person - you may photocopy for additional Congress Registrations. Minimum age for Congress registration is 16. Name ..... .................... ............... ................................_ Date of Birth ................ ............... .... ...... ...................... .................. ......

Social Security No . .... USAG Pro or Instructor # ...


........ .......... ............. ............._ Exp. Date ...


Mailing Address ... ................................................................................. .............................................. ............................................................................................................. State .


Name of Club Program Day phone ... . ........................................... ....... . . . . _ Night phone



Make Check/Money Order Payable To USA Gymnastics



Amount Enclosed ...$ _ _ _ _ _ _...

o o

Visa Mastercard

o o


Congress Costs (Fee includes:)


• One credential for entrance to Congress sessions and master clinics on Thursday morning through Saturday afternoon .

American Express Discover

• Entrance to the Exhibit Hall featuring the Industry's finest products and services.

Card No.

• One ticket to the Congress Banquet (Addtional Banquet tickets for spouse/guests are $50 eachavailable at the registration desk.)

Exp. Date ............................................. _ . ............................... ........................................................... _...... Signature _....


...... _....

a.;(~re..;.qu_;r_ed..;.l_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.....

Registration is non-refundable after July 24 No Pre-Registration after July 24 After July 24 you must register on-site

Sorry No Exceptions! --1--".2-=4---- - -- - -- - - - - - {(

TEe H N' QUE' VOLUME 18 • #4

• The annual Ceremony of Honors. please return this registration form to:

USA Gymnastics Congress Pan American Plaza, Suite 300 201 S. Capitol Avenue Indianapolis, IN 46225 To order tickets to the John Hancock U.S. Gymnastics Championships, use the order form on page 27.



)f----- - - -- - - - - - - - -

Tentative Schedule for 1998 USA Gymnastics National Congress During the 12 Congress Session Rounds, there will be simultaneous presentations in the following topic areas: women's artistic gymnastics, men's artistic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics, general gymnastics, sport science, business, preschool movement education, women's judging, alternative activities, and other special topics. NOTE: not all of these topic areas will be presented during each round . A more detailed listing of presentations will be posted at a later date.

Tuesday, August 1 8 5:00-7:00 pm

Friday, August 21 Registration Desk open

7:30 am-6:00 pm 7:00-8:00 am 8:15-9:30 am 9:30 am-5:30 pm 10:15-11 :30 am 1:00-2:15 pm

Congress Registration (site TBD) 3:00-4:15 pm

Wednesday, August 1 9 7:30 am-8:00 pm 8:00 am-8:00 pm

12:00-8:00 pm 1:30-4:30 pm 7:00-9:00 pm

Congress Registration (at tile Indianapolis Convention Center) "Add-ons" and various meetings - Safety Certification, PDP I, PDP II (ASEP), KAT Workshop, Athlete WellnessCourse, Skill Evaluator exam, CPR/First-aid course, etc. CONGRESS EXHIBITION HALL SET-UP John Hancock U.S. Gymnastics Championships (Junior Men) John Hancock U.S. Gymnastics Championships (Senior Men)

4:30-5:30 pm 5:30-6:30 pm 7:00-9:00 pm

9:00 am-3:00 pm 7:00-8:00 am

8:15-9:30 am 9:30 am-3:00 pm

7:00-8:00 am 8:00-11 :00 am 8:45-10:00 am 10:15-11 :30 am 10:30-11 :30 am 11 :30 am-5:00 pm 1:00-3:30 pm 1:00-2:15 pm 3:00-4:15 pm 4:30-5:30 pm 7:00-9:00 pm







Congress Registration (at Indianapolis Convention Center) Various meetings Congress Exhibition Hall set-up (Exhibitors only) Round 1Congress Sessions - followed by a 15 min. break Round 2 Congress Sessions - followed by a 90 min. break Exhibition Hall Preview (Gym Club Owners Only!) CONGRESS EXHIBITION HALL OPEN TO ALL REGISTRANTS John Hancock U.S. Gymnastics Championships (Junior Women) Round 3 Congress Sessions - followed by a 45 min. break Round 4 Congress Sessions - followed by a 15 min. break Various meetings John Hancock U.S. Gymnastics Championships (Senior Women) - - --

Round 6 CongressSessions - followed by a 90 min. break Round 7 Congress Sessions- followed by a 45 min. break Round 8 Congress Sessions - followed by a 15 min. break Meetings PROPOSED Hall of Fame reception (at Market Square Arena) John Hancock U.S. Gymnastics Championships (Top 36 Men - Jrs. and Srs.)

Saturday, August 22

Thursday, August 20 7:00 amIOO pm

Various meetings Round 5 Congress Sessions- followed by a 45 min. break CONGRESS EXHIBITION HALL OPEN TO ALL REGISTRANTS

10:15-11 :30am 1:00-3:30 pm 1:00-2:15 pm 3:00-4:15 pm 4:30-5:30 pm 7:00-9:30 pm 9:30 pm 9:45 pm 10:00 pm 10:15 pm 11: 15 pm-1 :30 am

Congress Registration Desk open Various meetings Round 9 Congress Sessions - 45 min. break CONGRESS EXHIBITION HALL OPEN TO REGISTRANTS AND GENERAL PUBLIC Round 10 Congress Sessions - 90 min. break John Hancock U.S. Gymnastics Championships (Junior Women) Round 11 Congress Sessions - followed by a 45 min. break Round 12 Congress Sessions - followed by a 15 min. break Various meetings John Hancock U.S. Gymnastics Championships (Senior Women) Banquet Hall Opens - videos and finger-food Food service begins Year in Review Videa Welcome to Ceremony of Honors and Congress Banquet/Party Congress Party

Sunday, August 23 9:00-1 :30

- - - - - - - {( TEe H N 10 U E • VOLU ME 18 • #4

Congress Add-ons and various meetings Safety Certification, judging exams, etc.



'998 Congress Add·Ons Registration Form

Your Professional Address (Listed in the USA Gymnasti(s



Name ......................................................... _..... Social Security No. ................................................ ............ . .......... ........ ...... ................... . ........... ............ ........... ................................. ............................................. . .......... Date of Birth . USAG Pro or Instructor #


.Exp. Date

Mailing Address .

.............................................................................. 0 THIS IS A NEW ADDRESS

........ . ....................... . . .................................................................... . . . ...... ...... . . ............. . . . .............. ..... . . ................................. ............ . . ................... State... Name of Club Program Day phone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ _ Night phone ....... . . . _ CHECK V' APPROPRIATE

WOMEN'S PROGRAM COURSES (Must Bring (ompulsory J.O. Book) Skill Evaluator Examination

SAFETY CERTIFICATION COURSES (Must Pre.Reglster) Minimum age for Safety Certificotion is 18.


Wednesday, 8/19, 1·5 p.m.



For Ihose who are recertifying(MUST be curren~y safely certified AND a Pro Member! For Ihose who are not already safely certified or safely has expired








For Ihose who are recertifying(MUST be curren~y safely certified AND a Pro Member) For Ihose who are not already safely certified or safely has expired


Women's Gymnastics Judges Certification Exams


Payment & lorm must be Sunday morning - Registration form sent to NAWGJ by August 10 available in NAWGJ National Newsletter





Sunday, 8/23, 9-11 a .m. Written test for all levels




Note: (omplete Schedule of rhythmic judging courses will be in the May issue.

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS (PDP) (Must Pre-Register) Level 1 Video Clinics

o o

Sunday, 8/23, 9-10:30 a .m.


Sunday, 8/23, 9·1 :30 p.m.




Course #1-Wednesday, 8/19, 1-4 p.m. Course #2-Sunday, 8/23, 9-12 noon


$10 $10

$10 0 $100



1..-2-=-6-=--- - - - - -- - - ------i(


Exp. Date Signature (required) . .......... ..... ........................... . . . ........ ...... . ................ ............................. .............. .......... . $140

$160 0

Registration is non-refundable after July 24 No Pre-Registration after July 24 Sorry No Exceptions!


$5 0 0


$5 5 0

ATHLETE WELLNESS COACHES COURSE (No On-Site Registration) Note: Minimum age is 16. (ourse enrollment is limited. First come, first serve basis. You MUST pre-register. o Wednesday, 8/19, 2-9 p.m.



(hosted by local American Red Cross)

o o


0 Discover 0 American Express

Card No. $70

Sport Safety Training (Combination CPR & First Aid) Note: (ourse enrollment is limited. first come, first serve basis. (Must Pre-Register) Wednesday, 8/ 19, 10 a .m.-4:30 p.m. Adult CPR & First Aid Wednesday, 8/ 19, 10 a .m.-6:00 p.m. Adult/ child CPR & First Aid


Charge to: 0 VISA o Mastercard

Kinder Accreditation for Teachers (KAT) Workshop Note: Minimum age is 16. (ourse enrollment is limited. first come, first serve basis. (Must Pre.Register) Wednesday, 8/ 19, 9 a .m.-7 p.m.



USA Gymnastics/ASEP Coaching Principles Course Note: (ourse enrollment is limited to 50. first come, first serve basis. You MUST pre·register. Wednesday, 8/19, 9 a.m. -6 p.m.


Use this Form to register For the 1998 USA Gymnastics Congress tests, examinations, certifications, accreditations, etc. please return this registration Form to: USA Gymnastics Congress Pan American Plaza, Suite 300 20 I S. Capitol Avenue Indianapolis, IN 46225


$10 0

TEe H N 10 UE • VO l UME 18 • #4


)>-- - - - - - - - - - - - - --


John Hancock

For Congress Attendees: The 1998 ticket packages have been designed with special attention paid to the Congress attendees. By doing so, USA Gymnastics invites you to enjoy one of the most important competitions of the 1998 season - the John Hancock U.S. Gymnastics Championships for Men and Women. This ticket request for special prices and priority seating must be postmarked by July 24, 1998. Ticket orders will be processed in the order in which they are received. Don't wait - buy your tickets now! If you wish to be seated with another group or person, please put your total order on one form . Indiana Sports Corporation will not coordinate separate forms.









Wednesday, August 1 9 Jr. (M) AA & Event Finals








Sr. (M) AA & Event Finals


$ 23






Jr. (W) AA & Event Finals








Sr. (W) AA & Event Finals









$ 23






Jr. (W) AA Finals


$ 10





$ 23






Sr. (W) AA Finals

All (M) Events







All (W) Events





All (M&W) Events





Thursday, August 20

Friday, August 21 (M) AA Finals

Saturday, August 22 x

Strip Tickets




x + $4.00

Service Charge

All ticket purchases are non·refundable! Do not send this form to USA Gymnastics! Not valid with any other coupons or ticket programs.

Grand Tolal

Fill out all information on this form, make check payable to Indiana Sports Corporation and mail to: Indiana Sports Corpopration • 201 S, Capitol Avenue • Suite 1200 • Indianapolis IN 46225 • Phone: 1-800-HI-FIVES

EiJAYMENT Amount Enclosed








Card No . .



Exp. Date ..

,~ .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. Phone

Social Signature .... (required)

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - i ( TEe H H I QUE· VOLUME 18 • #4

)l--- - -- - - - - - - - - - - : 2=-=7=--1

•• • • •• •• • • •• •


••• ••••••• • ••


1998 USA Gymnastics National Gym Fest AUSTIN,


A qualifying event for the USA Delegation to the 1999 World Gymnaestrada. The Gym Fest is .

held in conjunction with the 1998 GAT Convention.

DATES: September 5-7, 1998

• •

•• •••••••• •• ••

•• • •

The History of USA Gymnastics: the early years through 1991

The book is available through USA Gymnastics: Item: #3603 Price: 525.00 (all Member Services at 1-800-345-4719

Afternoon: Group rehearsal opportunity Evening: Opening Ceremony

Sat. 9/6

Daytime: Evening:

Sun. 9/7

by Brian Schenk

"Brian Schenk brings the gymnastics past to the here and now, from the very beginningsfrom GutsMuth, Jahn, and ling over 200 years ago when gymnastics was physical education-to the decline and demise of many high school and university programs of the recent past. Anyone who has competed or coached in the sport of gymnastics will find at least one episode from the past, either an event or a persona ity' that will trigger a bit of nostalgia. The focus is on the historical development of the USGF, with emphasis on the people, the places, the events. Brian does a great job in bringing the many facets of gymnastics in the USA into focus." Dr. Darlene Schmidt

Fri. 9/5


Mon. 9/8 9-10 am: 12-2pm:

Gym Fest Group Performances, GG workshops, and clinics Texas Fair Party (With GAT attendees) GymFest Group Performances, GG workshops, and clinics Large Group Performances Gym Fest Gala Showcase

SITE: Renaissance Austin Hotel REGISTRATION: $75 per person- Two Group Leaders are FREE with each club registration



: ,

~ ~ ~"



For more information, schedules, registrations forms,

# " , and the 1998 Gym Fest Performance Guidelines, con-






tact Steve Whitlock at: 317-237-5050, ext. 236 (ph), 317-237-5069 (fax), (email), or visit the USA Gymnastics website at

CORRECTION In the article entitled, "Lower Extremity Functional ProgreSSion: Back to Tumbling and Stuck Landings After An Injury" published in the January 1998 issue of Technique, pages 6-13, a reference was out of place. The Dynamic Drills listed on page 12 including Single Leg Hops, Square Hops Forward and Backward, Square Hops Side to Side and Five Point Star should be referenced to number 4 (Sedory).

www.unitedathletic.com1-800-877 -5294 CURRENT SPECIALS!!! 4'x8'x1-1/4" Tumbling Mat. ...... $119 12cmx7.S'x12' Landing Mat. ... $499 8"xS'x10' Training Mat. ............ $289 Sting Mat. ................................... $99


usf. itCi§pUrl

Grip orders received by 2 p':m'.'central time ship the same daylll

~':;;wr~ ATAr AMERICAN

~~ 1250 Reflex Beam


The World Trade Center - Dallas, Texas

c• (J) •

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::tJ rt1 (J) (J)

Join the Decision Makers of Sport. Connect with 1.000 Olympic movers and shakers. Participate in the only conference to focus exclusively on the Olympic movement from the Games to the grass roots . #~~OSl" ~~


I~" ~ ~U

~~ o


S A'll 'i.


~t;.()()C)"1 ~ " 01-'i::.){Yt 01-

The U.S. Olympic Congress ';,~~~_ ",,,p'~:' ~~~co~.1£° brings together those commit.~ ted to the Olympic movement' . from across the U.S. to provide information to a wide variety of sports organizations; to assist civic groups interested in developing grassroots sports programs in their communities; to interact with those is the sports marketing and media businesses; and most importantly to honor and applaud our great Olympic athletes. This year's event will take place in Phoenix, Ariz., Oct. 11-14. We are busy lining up an exciting workshop agenda complete with tracks on Marketing, Grass Roots Development and Basic Business Practices in the world of sport and the Olympics. Our keynote speaker and motivational general session are a draw to one and all. This year, the 8th annual conference plans to add its inaugural golf tournament to its line-up of special events. To request a brochure (available in June), send us your name, company, address, business phone and fax and your e-mail address: can 9 res s@usoc . or 9 or call the Olympic Congress Hotline: (719) 578-4711.•

- ...



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•• • ••

• ••

• ••

Our Events Services Manager is responsible for making each event enjoyable and memorable for the delegation. Darcy and Wendy ensure that all travel for the delegation is commu••••••••• nicated to the travel agent, for doing site surveys and •• bids on the host hotels, planning all group meals, •• • social events such as welcome dinners and final banquets, coordinating all local transportation, ordering gifts and credentials and managing the reg~~ istration room on site. In each city, we ask our Local ,,"'Organizing Committee to find businesses to host our <if\.~ opening and closing dinners and donate items for our ~"\~" ' goody bags and volunte", to 'tuff th, goody bags


n' \)\)~ \. \

USA Gymnastics staff members are here to help you-the members of our organization. In the next few issues of Technique we'll introduce each of the departments that make up USA Gymnastics. We'd like to introduce the staff behind the phones so that you can put a face with a name. We'd also like to tell you a liHie about our departments so that you may take advantage of what we have to offer. Last issue we introduced the Women's Program Department, this issue we'd like to introduce the Events and Marketing Department.

he Events and Marketing department consists of: Jeff Olsen, Director of Events and Marketing; Darcy Atkins, and Wendy Mertz who share the Events Services Manager position; Linda Barclay, Events Operations Manager; Chris Sanders, Broadcast Sales and Sponsorship Manager; and Sara Swindell, Events Marketing Manager.


As the director, Jeff is responsible for the department, which annually conducts and produces as many as six nationally televised events, including the Reese's Gymnastics Cup, Visa American Cup and International 3-on-3 Championships, International Team Championships, John Hancock U.s. Gymnastics Championships, World Team Trials, Goodwill Games and the Olympic Trials. The staff is responsible for every step of the event, from site evaluation and selection through contract negotiation, to pre-event marketing, advertising and promotion and local sponsorship development, to television production, venue operations and the presentation and production of the entire competition. In addition, the Events and Marketing department also arranges all delegation travel and housing, event hospitality and tends to the needs of USA Gymnastics' national and international guests. Also, the department works very closely with the Broadcast Sales and Sponsorship department on the servicing of sponsors at our events, and the implementation of sponsor promotions. Furthermore, this department is responsible for the bid process for those cities that are interested in hosting USA Gymnastics events.


Th, Ev'nt Op,mtioru; Manage';'; n"ponrubl, fo, planning and implementing all event operations within the arena. Linda's responsibilities include everything from set-up and takedown of the podium and equipment to coordinating with television, determining the entertainment and lighting, and coordinating the volunteers needed for the event. In addition, Linda is responsible for the planning and implementation of all event operations, including event scoring systems and scoreboards, floor management, and event production.

Our Broadcast Sales and Sponsorship Manager assists in the corporate sales and sponsor development and fulfillment, the sale of television rights to USA Gymnastics events and the management of USA Gymnastics' relationship with Jefferson Pilot Sports. In addition, Chris is involved with the planning and implementation of all event marketing, promotions, advertising, and ticket sales for each event hosted by USA Gymnastics. Chris and other Events and Marketing staff are very active in getting USA Gymnastics sponsors more involved at the club and grassroots level. The department is initiating programs that will benefit the entire membership as well as athletes on the National Team. Examples of these programs include mall tours, club exhibitions at sponsor retail locations, pre-paid phone and affinity cards and club sale programs. Sara Swindell is the Events Marketing Manager at USA Gymnastics. She is responsible for the planning and implementation of all marketing, promotions, advertising and ticket sales for each event hosted by the Events and Marketing department of USA Gymnastics. She also promotes programs which benefit our USA Gymnastics membership as well as enhance the sport of gymnastics. The Club Ticket Sales Program is an example of a promotion specifically created for the gymnastics community. With this program, gymnastics clubs obtain the best seats at the lowest price for USA Gymnastics events and have the opportunity to win equipment from American Athletic, Inc. The success of USA Gymnastics events depends on the support of our gymnastics community. It is always our objective to involve as many local gymnastics clubs in the area as possible to assist with these events in volunteer positions. The Events and Marketing department is devoted to increasing the involvement of the gymnastics community, from tumbling tots to the elite level. •

TEe H H 10 UE • VOLUME 18 • #4 ) ) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Wendy Mertz Events Services Manager

Chris Sanders

Sara Swindell

Braadcast Sales & Sponsorship Manager

Events Marketing Manager

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Cure Before They Corrupt Your

Productivity hen a conflict rears its ugly head, there's usually a reason for it. Use the opportunity to create something positive. Here are some tips for how to go about it:


1. Don't tn) to determine who "started it." This is a thankless, unproductive task. Instead, work on finding a solution. 2. Don't attack people. Always focus on the problem that needs to be changed, not on personalities.

How Do You Deliver Criticismt 3. Effective criticism depends heavily on how it is said. Never, never start a sentence with "You always." That is too accusatory, and too impossible to answer. When you cause the person to react in a defensive manner, it's just the same as closing the employee's ears and ensuring that he or she will repeat the offending behavior. 4. Don't look for a winner and a loser. When you have successfully resolved a conflict between staffers, it should be viewed as a win-win resolution for both parties. No one should walk away feeling that his or her side of the dispute was ignored or given short thrift. 5. Don't focus on the past. It's not constructive to list past grievances. Instead, focus on the future and how to make things better.

Listen Up, Keep Your Focus 6. Listen closely without making snap judgments. In the heat of conflict, the

real issues can be buried. Even if they're out in the open, people can be deaf to them. Instead, look for a common ground that both sides can agree on.

7. Don't flail around. Know what your objective is. If you feel things slipping out of control in an argument, keep this objective in mind. For example, what exactly is it you want the other person to do? How do you want his or her behavior to change?

Don't Feed Into The Anger 8. Don't be negative. As the mediator, you have to keep the larger picture in mind. Once you have clarified and stated the problem, follow up with a positive way to solve it. 9. Don't be disrespectful. Namecalling never solved any conflicts. 10. Don't aggravate angn) personalities. Some people may be "cruising for a bruising." Don't give it to them. These workers may have a gripe that you can handle before conflict erupts. So talk to them and see if there is a reason for their anger. 11. Don't pick a bad time. If you need to "have it out," pick a time and place where the atmosphere is conducive to quiet discussion. This may not be the moment that the conflict first surfaces .• Reprinted from the Belter-Work Supervisor; November 24, 1997, published by Clement Communications, Inc.


TECH N' 0 Uf • VOLUME 18 • #4 ) } - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Gymnastics Network News! Did you know that Member Clubs are fea tured in Gymnastics Network News, a quarterly newsletter that goes to Member Clubs. Inside GNN is a section called Club Close-Up which features gymnastics clubs from around the country that have achieved business success. Thus far GNN has featured the following gymnastics clubs and owners:




American Twisters

Pompano Beach , Florida

Tim and Toni Rand


Apple Valley, Minnesota

Julia Thompson Aretz and Greg Aretz


Rockville, Maryland

Gary and Bonnie Anderson

Byers Gymnastics Center

Sacramento, California

Karl and JoAnne Byers

Tulsa World of Gymnastics

Tulsa, Oklahoma

Linda and Wayne Bradshaw

If you would like more information on becoming a Member Club and receiving GNN. contact Loree Galimore at 317-237-5050 ext. 240 .




by Mas Watanabe n the Code of Points, the hop 3/ 4 pirouette in arm support swing is one of the most commonly used D moves on parallel bars. This skill is relatively easy to learn even for younger gymnasts and has good potential for connecting with other skills for additional bonus. Before a gymnast tries to learn hop 3/4 pirouette, he should learn, or at least have a good grasp of, how to execute a simple hop pirouette. The hop pirouette is a good foundation for any other variation of hops on parallel bars.

PrB-..~GJ~~SION rp(lfou~fTE 1. Swing to hop handstand a. This is a very importan asic drill that all gymnasts nee to learn first. During the backward swing up toward the hand tand, the body should be in an arohed position from the upper chest and the heels should be driven up until the hop is initiated. b. The shoulders must be shrugged through the bottom of the swing to ensure a good push off during the hop.

e. The hop should occur as the upper chest goes into an arched to hollow position very rapidly.

13:::-=4----------------1( ....

TEe H N 10 UE • VOLUME 18 • #4 ) } - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


•• •

•• •••

•••••••••• • •

d. The shoulders should be vigorously extended as the hop occurs. It is very crucial that the shoulders are fully extended as the gymnast finishes the hop in handstand.

Note : The most common fault during this drill is to initiate the hop too early and the mid-section of the back is lifted instead of the upper chest. Lifting of the mid-section of the back does not give a full extension of the shoulders. However, lifting to a hollow position in the upper chest region will ensure full shoulder extension at the end of the hop.

2. Swing to reverse pirouette a. The reverse pirouette should be done without excessive arch. The moment that both hands are on the single rail, the chest should be elevated upward as the second half of the pirouette is initiated.


b. When the reverse pirouette is learned well, it is a good idea to extend the pirouette to a full pirouette instead of just a half pirouette. An additional half turn should be added on the single rail.

3. Hop pirouette with a spot A hop pirouette should be initiated as a reverse pirouette hopping backward instead of forward . In other words, the shoulders going forward should not initiate the hop pirouette. If a gymnast can make a hop pirouette in the same spot on the bar, or can release his hands simultaneously, the hop pirouette is done well.


() -

~ 3/4


1. Swing hop handstand

Make sure that the each hop is done correctly with the proper body position.

2. Hop 1/4 turn to single bar in mixed grip with a spot. a. This is a simple drill but an important one. The hand of the axis arm should be turned to an under grip and the other hand is in over grip when hopping to a single bar. b. The shoulders must be well extended and the rest of the body is straight over the shoulders.

3. Hop 1j4 turn to single bar in mixed grip then, 1j2 turn with a spot. a. Simply add the 1/2 turn after the first hop 1/4pirouette. The second 1/2 pirouette should be initiated after the straight body position is secured in the mixed grip position on the single rail. b. There should be a slight hesitation prior to the second pirouette. Once consistency is achieved, the pause between the first 1/4 hop pirouette and the second 1/2 pirouette should be shortened. c. When the above drill becomes consistent, the first hop 1/4 turn pirouette should be caught almost with the one shoulder of the under grip arm. That will require slightly more shoulder extension of the axis arm in order to put all the weight on one shoulder. Then, complete the 1/2 turn on the axis shoulder. This is a very delicate transition period. The shoulder extension of the axis arm and the straightness of the body is absolutely necessary. d. A spotter should assist less as consistency improves. It is important to note that checking the technique of the basic swing hop drill should be done throughout this progression. A typical problem of hopping with a shoulder angle and/or a too early hop can be corrected by doing the swing hop handstand well. •

TECH H I QUE • V0LU ME 18 • #4 )f----------------~



Motion: C. Bunge Second: C. Hamilton PASSED



I. ROLL CALL: Meeting was called to order at 9:00 AM WTC Chairman Present: Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 Region 4 Region 5 Region 6 Region 7 Region S JOPCC EPC NAWGJ NCAA JO Program Manager WPD Absent:

by Marilyn Cross,

Pam Bileck Linda Mulvihill Carole Bunge Linda Thorberg Char Christensen Kathy Ostberg, proxy for Cindy Sielski Cheryl Hamilton Marian Dykes Tom Koll Roe Kreutzer (Fri.) Yvonne Hodge Pat Panichas Connie Maloney Kathy Kelly (Fri.)

Motion that when determining the maximum allowable number of judgments per day, the meet director must conform to the following, EFFECTIVE AUGUST I, 1998: • the maximum number of judgements PER SESSION as printed in the R & P and also • the time parameters of : - warm-ups scheduled no earlier than 8:00 AM and - competition scheduled to be completed by 10:00 PM and - athletes on the floor (warm-up & competition) no longer than five hours. Therefore, the maximum number of judgments per day will be dictated by the number of sessions conducted within the above time parameters, which includes break time for judges between sessions (minimum of 30 minutes after every 3112 to 4 hours of judging is recommended) . Motion: A. Schweyer Second: C. Christensen PASSED Recommendation that whenever meets are conducted with more than one level in a squad, that the athletes of the same level compete consecutively. When moving to the next event, the first competitor of a level would be dropped to the last spot. Example: Squad of 8 (4 level 8's 101-104, 4 level 9's -201-204) Rotate as follows: Vault

















Motion to change/add the following deductions to the Level 4/5/6 Handspring Vault, EFFECTIVE AUGUST I, 1998:









Delene Darst Jan Greenhawk


• Support phase • Support Phase

#2. Too long in support-up to 0.50 (delete failure to leave horse by vertical) Add as # 3 Angle of repulsion (point at which gymnast leaves the horse) Up to 1.00 (use the angle deductions printed in the WTC minutes, page 43 in Technique Volume 17, #10 (October, 1997).





















In the case of a team invitational, all teams in the squad would compete their level S's, then the leveI 9's, in the team order drawn for that event.

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F. LEVEL 7 VAULT: Motion to add the following deductions for Level 7 Vault EFFECTIVE AUGUST I, 1998, to be used in addition to the optional deductions found in the FIG Code of Points:

The committee discussed the problem of voiding exercises at Level 7 and S. Motion for Level 8 that EFFECTIVE AUGUST I, 1998, the following will VOID the exercise:

Too long in support

Up to 0.50

Angle of repulsion

Up to 1.00 ( use the angle deductions printed in the WTC minutes, page 43 in Technique Volume 17, #10 October, 1997) .

• all D or E acrobatic mounts, dismounts or elements performed on Beam or Floor • a D or E mount, dismount or release element on Bars would void the exercise. All other D or E elements performed would receive a 2.00 penalty (each) and all appropriate execution/amplitude deductions would be applied. Motion: M. Dykes Second: L. Thorberg PASSED Motion for Level 7 that EFFECTIVE AUGUST I, 1998, all event requirements must be fulfilled by performing A or B elements only. If an A or B element is performed with such great amplitude or timing that it results in the performance of a C element, there would be no penalty. However, if an element that is listed only as a C is performed (examples on FX: Schushunova), then a 2.00 penalty would be applied. The performance of DIE elements will void the exercise. Motion: M. Dykes Second: C. Bunge PASSED (Uneven Bar exceptions: The following C elements are allowed at Level 7: Cast handstand with 1/2 turn, Clear hip handstand with 1/2 turn, back uprise to clear hip circle to handstand (counts as two B elements) . A straddle back to handstand is not allowed at Level 7.

V. LEVEL 7 CONCERNS A. Questions & Answers from Technique, Vol. IS, #2 Beam #13 In reference to the switch-leg leap being used as the isolated Large leap requirement: EFFECTIVE AUGUST I, 1998, the switch-leg leap cannot be used to fulfill the requirement of a large leap with 1S0° leg separation. If the only isolated leap with 1S0° leg separation performed is a SWitch-leg leap, then the athlete will receive a 1.S0 deduction for omission of the requirement. However, a switch-leg leap may be used as part of the gym series and/ or as an additional isolated leap. There would be no penalty if the gymnast exceeds the split requirement of the B switch-leg leap and performs the C leap 060-1S00}. B. LEVEL 7 BEAM AND FLOOR: Reminder that chasses and assembles are not considered as A elements and may not be used to fulfill requirements (gym series). If the isolated leap requirement is follow ed by a chasse, there is no penalty since the chasse is not considered as a value part. Note: This also applies to levelS, 9 & 10.

C. There is no flashing of start values at level 7. D. LEVEL 7 BEAM: The flight element must be performed entirelyon the beam (not as the mount or dismount element). It may, however, be used in the dismount series. (Example: flic-flac to back salto stretched dismount series will fulfill both the acro flight and salto / aerial dismount requirements.) E. LEVEL 7 BARS: Kip mount requirement clarification: As a mount, a Glide, straddle cut, glide kip will be allowed to fulfill the A or B kip mount requirement and will be considered as one element. If the straddle cut is followed by a kip or long hang kip within the exercise, it would be considered two elements.

Motion: M. Dykes Second: A. Schweyer PASSED Clarification: If the gymnast performs a vault different than the vault announced (or flashed), each judge takes the 0.2 deduction for performing the wrong vault.

VI. FIG CODE OF POINTS UPDATE AND THE JR. OLYMPIC PROGRAM The committee reviewed the changes made for the Elite program per the FIG Code of Points Clarification and Update from December 1997. This was printed in the previous issue of Technique (Vol. IS, #3- March 1995). The following decisions were made for implementation for the Jr. Olympic program, EFFECTIVE AUGUST I, 1998: General o

The JO program will not use the compositional deduction of 0.05 for performing more than 2 similar elements from the same structure group.


A-elements may be used to fulfill SpeCial Requirements, whether listed in the FIG Code or commonly recognized (ie., comparable to a listed A-element). Note: A hitch-kick is listed on Beam as #2.110 (Scissors leap with straight or bent legs). This would also apply to Floor #1.116 cat leap, since the hitch kick can be considered as a cat leap with extended legs.

Optional Vault Change the following deductions: • Prescribed longitudinal axis turn begun too late Up to 0.50 (this was 0.30) Note: Delete Prescribed LA turn begun too early from Second flight phase deductions. This fault is considered under the repulsion phase-poor technique Up to 0.20 • Late open/extension of body before landing Up to 0.50 (this was 0.30) • Prescribed LA turn incomplete upon landing (remains up to 0.30) but is now under Landing Phase instead of Second Flight phase. In regards to the late open/ extension deduction, the WTC created the following guidelines for applying the up to 0.50 penalty: Saito vaults: Opening refers to the change in body shape from a tuck or pike position to an extended stretched position. If the gymnast achieves an open, but then pikes down to land, deduct up to 0.20 for body position error. To receive no deduction for late open, the gymnast must extend from the saito position by horizontal (3 0 ' clock). From horizontal to 45° below horizontal, deduct up to 0.30. If the open occurs past 45° below horizontal, deduct 0.40-0.50. The maximum penalty of 0.50 would be applied if there is absolutely no attempt to extend from the saito position. Non-Salto Twisting Vaults: Opening refers to finishing the twist by horizontal (3 o'clock) to show an extended stretched position before landing. From horizontal to 45° below horizontal, deduct up to 0.30. If the open occurs past 45° below horizontal, deduct 0.40-0.50. If the

(continued 011 page 38) - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - i ( TEe HN IOU E • VOLUME 18 • #4

) > - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- -:3::-:7=--1




(continued from page 37)

(EFFEC 8/ 98)

(EFFEC1 / 98)

B C (was D) D E


gymnast fails to complete the twist upon landing, deduct 0.50 for late open/ extension and an additional up to 0.30 gymnast fails to complete the twist upon landing, deduct 0.50 for late open/extension and an additional up to 0.30 for incomplete twist. New Vault: 2.502 Handspring on -Tucked saito forward with 1112 (540°) twist off-10.00 for JO Program (9.9-Elite) Optional Bars • All mounts with a saito or flic-flac may be used in a Special Connection for bonus

2.211 2.311 2.411 2.511

Optional Floor • Special Requirements: #4 Choice of one gymnastics series with three elements OR one mixed series with at least three elements (gym/acro/gym or acro/gym/acro) #5 and 6

• D + D (with or without flight or turn) will continue to receive +0.20 bonus for Special Connection. • C + D (D-element with or without flight or turn) will continue to receive +0.10 bonus for Special Connection • Specific Apparatus "Compositional" deductions: The deduction of 0.20 each for "uncharacteristic movement" has been eliminated. The following deductions will now apply to the JO Program: Squat on LB, with or without sole circle or with 112 tum to grasp HB


Swing forward with 112 turn under horizontal


Kip cast to under 45°


Swing backward under horizontal


• Special Connection principles #11.5.1 (Acro Indirect) and #11.5.2 (Acro Direct) may include saltos and acro elements with flight and without hand support (Aerials). Note: The inclusion of aerials applies only to the awarding of special connection bonus. Aerials are not considered as saltos and may not be used to fulfill acro series Special Requirements.

• New elements or changes in value: The JO program will adopt all new FIG values and changes with the exception of the Wolf hops (off one foot) Elite J.O. Wolf hop (off one foot) Wolf hop 112 Wolf hop 1/1 Wolf hop 1112 Wolf hop 2/1

Note: If a grip change is made on backswing, it breaks a connection and also receives 0.10 deduction.

(EFFEC 8/ 98)

(EFFEC1 / 98)


A* A B C D

1.117 1.217 1.317 1.417 1.517

1.117 1.117 1.217 1.317 1.417

'Value for USA Elite until clarified mj FIG

• New Elements: The JO Program will use the same values as found in the FIG update, with the exception of:


D (#5.405 for JO)

- 5.305 Jaeger saito tucked

Two gymnastics elements (minimum of 1 C and 1 B for Level 10, two B's for Levels 9 and 8), which may be a component of the gymnastics or mixed series.

• Indirect acro series with D-saltos in combination with A and/or B saltos, the order can be freely chosen, except when the A-saltos are the same, in which case they must be directly connected and precede the D-salto.

0.05 (more than one) Level 10 only

From hang on HB, swing forward, place feet on bar to stand and 112 tum

Wolf jump (off two feet) Wolf jump 112 Wolf jump 3/4 Wolf jump 111

- 5.408 Front giant in L-grip with 1/1 turn after HS to L or mixed-L grip (L-grip front giant to Healy) remains E for JO (#5.508)

K. Kelly brought forth the question of whether the WTC would like to have an FIG Technical liaison officially added to the USAG-WTC. The committee felt that if there is a specific need to have additional FIG input, that an invitation for the FIG liaison to attend a speCific meeting or conference call would be adequate.

Optional Beam


• Special Connection Bonus: Add to principle 10.5.1 (Two acro elements directly connected) C + C =+0.10

A judges educational experience addressing the Elite National Testing program will be offered prior to an International Training Camp to be held in May, 1998. A minimum of 24 judges will be invited to attend, with • one from each region recommended and funded by NAWGJ (with input from the Regional Elite board), • one from each region selected by the USAG Regional Elite board (WTC recommends that the RTC be invited to attend), and • eight selected by the National office-list of selected judges from the regions and NAWGJ must be sent to Kathy Kelly by April1S'h.

• Principle 10.5.3 now deals only with connections of two gymnastics elements or gym/acro connections. There no longer is a Special Connection bonus of +0.10 for Two acro flight (counter or front/side) of B + C. • New Elements or changes in element value-the JO program will adopt the new FIG values with the exception of: - 2.206 Straddle pike jump in cross C (add to #2.306) position with 1/4 tum

2.111 2.211 2.311 2.411

Wolf hop (off one foot) Wolf hop 112 Wolf hop 3/4 Wolf hop 1/1



(EFFEC 8/ 98)

(EFFEC1 / 98)


A* B* C* D*




A National Team Coaches summit was conducted in December for the purpose of strategic planning. Discussion was held in regards to the participation of athletes in Elite regional testing/meets outside of their home region. The WTC conveyed that the Elite clubs should be supporting their own regional Elite events.

'Value for USA Elite until clarified by FIG


IX. NATIONAL ELITE PROGRAM COMMITTEE REPORT R. Kreutzer informed the WTC of the success of the 1997 TOPS testing and addition of TOP athletes in the ClaSSic/Challenge. Jackets were presented to all participants at the 1998 American Challenge and Classic competitions. The U.s. Classic/National Gymnastics Festival will be held July 31-August 2,1998 in San Antonio.

To clarify the wolf hops and wolf jumps on Beam, the following values will be in effect AUGUST 1, 1998 for the JO Program:

(continued on page 42)


va lU MEl B •

# 4 ) } - - - - -- - - - - - - -- -- -




TIle following Membership Statement has been adopted by the Board of Directors of USA Gymnastics: Membership in USA Gymnastics is a privilege granted by USA Gymnastics. That privilege can be withdrawn by USA Gymnastics at any time where a member's conduct is determined to be inconsistent with the best interest of the sport of gymnastics and of the athletes we are servicing. The following former professional members have been terminated or have a lifetime ban with USA Gymnastics and/ or will not be allowed to renew their membership: Charles Theodore Bates Vince Brown Larry Dutch Matthew H. Erichsen William Alexander Etheridge Rick Feuerstein Joseph Fountain Roy Larry Gallagher Robert Allen Garner (Bob) Ricardo "Chico" Goddard Robert Dean Head Frank Hohman, Jr. Milos Hroch Steven L. Infante Dana Koppendrayer John S. Moore William Munsinger William M. Permenter John H. Row Steve Shirley Blake Steven Starr Mark Swift Freddie Eugene Tafoya, Jr. Jon Oliver Kenneth Thomas Brent Trottier Joel Velasquez David Paul Waage Steve Waples Lyf Christian Wildenberg


British Columbia Gymnastics Association Suspensions USA Gymnastics has been notified that the British Columbia Gymnastics Association has permanently suspended membership in the BCGA for the following individuals: John Henderson, Kamloops, BC Canada Donald Ray Mathey, Langley, BC Canada Wayne Andrews, Courtenay, BC Canada

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WOMEN'S MINUTES (continued from page 38) Recommendation to the Elite Program Committee that the decision to allow an athlete to attend a Regional meet outside of their own region be approved by both regions' Elite Program Committee Chairman, in consultation with both regions' Regional Technical Chairman and/or the Regional Chairman. (Refer to R & P, page 108 B. e.) Recommendation to the EPC that even though an athlete competing in another region's Elite meet may use the score to qualify to Challenge/Classic, they are not eligible for awards.

X. AFFILIATION OF JUDGES Reminder: Judges that are affiliated may NOT be assigned as Chief judge to a USAG qualifying meet if the team that the judge is affiliated with is competing in the meet to which the judge has been assigned. If meets is using one-judge panels, an affiliated judge may be assigned ONLY when there are not enough non-affiliated judges available and only with the approval of the RTC. If the RTC is the person involved, approval must come from the State Chairman.

XI. NCAA REPORT P. Panichas clarified that the NCAA Women's GymnastiCS Committee is in charge of Regional and Na tional competitions. The newly formed USAG Women's Collegiate Program Committee is charged with making recommendations to the NCAA WGC regarding the adoption of JO Rules. The Round-off entry vault is being allowed for the first time in NCAA competition.

In the 1999 season, the NCAA regions will be realigned, going from five regions to six and seeding the top twelve teams into the six regions.

XII. ELITE TECHNICAL REPORT A. Schweyer asked the committee to communicate to her in writing (by June 1) any concerns/recommendations regarding the evaluation of the Elite Testing. There was discussion regarding the definition of an "open tuck" salta position which is allowed at the National level. This refers to the athlete who performs a double salta backward without grabbing the legs.

Practice Balance Beams

XIII. NAWGJ REPORT Y. Hodge gave a written and oral report.

Competition Landing Mats

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The 1998 Federal mileage rate is $.32 per mile and is effective immediately.

XIV. OPTIONAL ELEMENT EVALUATIONS & CLARIFICATIONS GENERAL EFFECTIVE AUGUST 1, 1998 for the Jr. Olympic Program, that no bonus (extra DIE or Special Connection) will be awarded with a deduction of 0.30 or more. (This is a change from the present rule of a deduction of 0.20 or more negates bonus.) Motion: C. Hamilton Second: A. Schweyer PASSED ELEMENT EVALUATIONS: Add the following elements to the J. O. Supplement: BARS-EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY: • Bars: Long hang pullover - A element - Add to # 7.102 Motion: C. Hamilton, Second: C. Bunge PASSED • A tap swing-counterswing as performed in the Level 5 or 6 compulsory exercise is not considered to be an element and would be considered as an extra swing in an optional exercise (Level 7 and above).

BARS-EFFECTIVE AUGUST 1, 1998 for the J.O. Program: Change #7.202 to # 7.302 Clear hip hecht (also with Y2 turn) from Low bar to high bar (change from B to C) BEAM-EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY: Backward shoulder roll-A element-Add to # 6.104 Motion: C. Christensen Second: C. Hamilton PASSED

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When an element finishes with a backs wing showing maximum amplitude to handstand (within 20° of vertical for Jr. Olympic), then it is considered as only one element.

Examples: • Front giant with 1/ 1 turn to L or mixed L grip (Healy), continuing to within 20° of handstand = one element. • Front giant with 1/ 1 turn to L or mixed L grip (Healy), continuing to within 20° of handstand with a hop grip change with discernible flight = one element and may fulfill one of the two required flight elements for JO.

If the gymnast performs a front giant 1/ 1 turn Healy, continuing to within 20° of handstand and performs a 1/2 turn (Higgins roll), and swings back down, it is considered two elements. If the front giant 1/ 1 turn (Healy) continues circling to handstand and the body goes over the top of the bar with or without turn, it also will be considered as two elements.

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In all of the above examples, if the front giant Healy is followed by another C, D or E element, applicable bonus could be applied and no compositional deduction for a grip change on the backs wing would be taken. B.

Straight body cast to handstand, legs together = B Straddle cast to handstand =A However, once the handstand is achieved and a turn or hop grip is performed, it takes on the value listed for cast handstand with legs together. Examples: Straddle cast handstand with 1/2 turn = C Straddle cast with hop grip in handstand = C

Motion from the WTC to the JOPC to reconsider the use of hop grip change to fulfill the Special Requirement of flight element. Motion: C. Hamilton Second: A. Schweyer PASSED (7 in favor, 1 abstention) Reminder: Coaches and judges should use the correct chain of command to present technical questions (ie., first to your RTC). If the RTC does not have an answer, she will pursue through National Chairmen, etc.

me equipment truly chird-centered." -Jeannie McCarthy Gymlastics

Firt ~


xv. INCORRECT ATTIRE FIG Code allows stud earrings only. The judge should first warn the gymnast prior to competing and report the warning to the Meet Referee. If the gymnast proceeds to compete without removing the jewelry, then the judge will deduct 0.10 from the average score of that event.




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~~•. and to this

Jer has redefined the requirements for active status, in particular the practice judging requirements. Please see minutes from JCI's meeting in the upcoming May 1998 issue of

Technique. Reminder: Judges who had a rating from the past cycle must have re-certified with the new Jer exam. They no longer hold their old rating until they pass both parts of the new exam.

XVII. JR. OLYMPIC PROGRAM COMMITTEE REPORT T. Koll reported that the JOP Committee will be dealing with the age divisions for Levels 9 and 10. It was suggested that a survey regarding meet evaluation and qualification procedures be included in JO Na tional coaches' packets.

(con tinued on pnge 44)

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be a I-day event. A follow-up event is scheduled for July, site and date TBA.

(continued from page 43)

XVIII. CONGRESS PRESENTATIONS Ideas for judging sessions: Joint NAWGJ/JCI sessions Active status requirements What it's like to judge the World Championships or Olympic GamesRound-table Optional Vault - application of new deductions Gymnastics models & memories (Little girls need big girls to look up to) - the best of the best Chain of command/who answers what How to figure out the judges fee structure

XIX. LEVEL 7 AND 8 JUDGES TRAINING VIDEOS The WTC evaluated exercises for the production of a script for the new judges' training videos.

XX. RULES AND POLICIES UPDATE In this issue (April 1998) of Technique, there is an errata section for the Women's Rules & Policies on page 15. Please update your book.

Meeting adjourned on Sunday, March 8 at 1:00 PM. Next meeting to be announced.



USA Gymnastics Membership-Whitlock reported that there are currently 196 Professional GG Members. Discussion followed regarding the need to plan for GGPC elections. Whitlock expressed concern from the Membership Department regarding confusion between General Membership (currently 3,321) and General Gymnastics Membership. The panel agreed that General Gymnastics should be reserved for festival activities and other programs not related to the current Junior Olympic and Elite programs in Artistic and Rhythmic gymnastics. Sanctions-Whitlock expressed concern with the process of filing sanction reports and General Gymnastics event financial reports. 1999 and 2000 budgets-Whitlock has developed and submitted a 2-year budget plan. Whitlock urged the Panel to continue development of plans for the 1999 World Gymnaestrada. This event comprises a significant portion of the General Gymnastics budget for 1999. FIG Congress in Portugal-Whitlock reported that the meeting will take place April 18-25. It is likely that a PAGU/GG meeting will also take place. California Report (Capelotti)-Knott's Berry Farm GymPest was very successful (275 participants, 13 groups). A videotape will be available shortly. Disneyland GymPest will be Sunday, June 14. Cost: $45. Planning is under way to conduct four festivals this fall following the National GymFest. Las Vegas GymFest and General Gymnastics Mini-Congress-The event will take place July 10-12, in conjunction with a Rhythmic "Get It Going" clinic. Clinics will be available for coaches, group leaders, as well as partici pan ts. Pan American Gymnastics Union-Whitlock is preparing a report. PAGU member federations will again be invited to attend a General Gymnastics clinic in conjunction with the Na tional GymFest. Moskovitz was assigned to develop content for the clinic. General Gymnastics Calendar for the remainder of 1998

March 3, 1998, 12:00 p.m. EST

Hoosier GymFest, August 14


National Congress - GG performances in Exhibition Hall plus clinics / workshops

ROLL CALL David Moskovitz, Leader Dean Capelotti Lori Laznovsky Steve Whitlock, USA Gymnastics

II. REPORTS 1999 World Gymnaestrada (Whitlock)-An addition to the first Bulletin was distributed to the national federations. •

Registration update: 43 Federations; 22,249 participants. The organizing committee is expecting over 25,000 participants.

USA received an additional five group performance time slots (total of 10).

Na tional GymFest (at GAT), September 4-7 PAGU Clinic (at GAT), September 4-6

III. GENERAL GYMNASTICS PROMOTION AND EDUCATION, 1999,2000,2001 Whitlock expressed concern that we need to plan events for the upcoming year. The panel agreed that a special focus will be placed on development in the Northeast (Region 6) and the Southeast (Region 8). Representatives will attend each of the Regional Mini-congresses in those areas and present General Gymnastics topics, with the intention of developing regional fes tivals in 1999.

An additional field venue was designated for Large Group Performance. The English Speaking National Evening will be on Monday, July 5, at 9:00 p.m. USA will be a major component of the Closing Ceremony. Many federations applied, but only 10 are eligible. Federations must commit 150 participants to be eligible. Texas State GymFest-Whitlock and Laznovsky will attend. This will

IV. 1998 NATIONAL GYMFEST Whitlock and Laznovsky will be working on plans during their visit to the Texas GymFest.

V. GGAP MEETING The panel agreed to conduct a meeting April 10-12, with site to be

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determined. Moskovitz and Capelotti were assigned to develop potential sites for the meeting.

VI. 1998 NATIONAL CONGRESS, INDIANAPOLIS, AUGUST 20·23 Moskovitz was assigned to develop session topics and contact Jennifer Lee, Speakers Coordinator. The panel agreed that a booth space in the Exhibition Hall was necessary.

VII. 1999 WORLD GYMNAESTRADA The panel agreed to conduct another conference call to deal specifically with World Gymnaestrada.

Call concluded 2:15 p.m. EST Respectfully submitted, David Moskovitz, Leader

II. RHYTHMIC NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS The RPC overwhelmingly supported moving the Rhythmic National Championships to coincide with the Artistic Nationals. Due to bidding reasons this is to begin 2001. Kathy Scanlan will work with the USAG Events Department and see if it is possible to start in 2000 or 1999, in the cities who have previously been selected to host the Artistic Nationals. The Committee felt the sooner the better.

III. INTERNATIONAL CLUB INVITATIONS The RPC feels that independent clubs should not go to FIG in an attempt to get FIG Sanctions for their competitions, but instead this request should go through USA Gymnastics. The Committee also felt that USA Gymnastics should "encourage rather than discourage" independent clubs in hosting international events which give our athletes opportunities to compete. Gary Alexander is to contact the four clubs that currently host major international rhythmic events and see how USAG can assist with their event.

IV.ALLA SVIRSKY'S ACCEPTANCE TO DERIUGINA CUP Alia Svirsky can attend the Deriugina Cup permitted she ONLY represents her club and not USA Gymnastics. '


RHYTHMIC PROGRAM COMMITTEE MEETING FebruanJ 14, 1998, 7:00 p.m. Downers Grove, Illinois Present: Committee Members Andrea Schmid Candace Fp' .,berg Maureer Jroderick Lana Lashoff Catherine Yakhimovich Vanessa Vander Pluym USA Gymnastics Staff Kathy Scanlan Gary Alexander Cindy French

FIG Technical Committee VP Board of Directors Technical Committee Coaches Representative Coaches Representative Athlete Representative

President Sr. Vice President, Programs & Administration RhythmiC Program Assistant

Individual non-citizen athletes can compete at the 1998 National Championships but only as exhibition and only if they file a petition to compete and it is approved by the RPc. Non-citizen individual athletes, with permanent residence status, can petition to compete at the 1999 Rhythmic Challenge to pOSSibly make the national team, petition to receive USAG funding and be invited to compete in international competitions. Non-citizen athletes can compete at Group World Trials by following correct procedures in getting approval through USA Gymnastics. The athlete must be a bona fide resident of the United States and must have permission of USA Gymnastics, the Federation of citizenship, and the FIG Executive Committee. The process begins with the athlete sending proof of permanent residence in the United States to USA Gymnastics. For the 1998-1999 season top 4 seniors and top 3 juniors from 1998 Rhythmic Nationals will get funding. Amounts and methods are yet to be determined. Catherine and Lana are to prepare a proposal for the Committee.

VI. FOUR CONTINENTS A decision of the site ofthe 1999 Four Continents will be made by April 6, 1998. Jacksonville is deciding if it is financially capable of hosting the event.

VII. REPORT FROM GARY KARL ALEXANDER I. RHYTHMIC PROGRAM DIRECTOR The following committee was selected to act as the Search Committee for the USAG Rhythmic Program Director position. (Note: Kathy Scanlan has subsequently contacted each person and each individual accepted this assignment.) Susan True - Chair Kathy Scanlan

Member of the Board of Directors President, USA Gymnastics

Andrea Schmid Tamara Gerlack Alia Svirsky Vanessa Va nder Pluym Candace Feinberg Catherine Yakhimovich Suzie DiTullio

FIG Technical Committee Member of the Board of Directors Member of the Board of Directors Athlete Representative VP Board of Directors Coaches Representative J.O. Program Committee

(Non-voting member)

The Rhythmic Program will continue to function during the interim period between Program Directors. The rhythmic community is to contact the office with business as usual, however please be aware the turnaround time might be a bit longer than usual. Kathy Scanlan will contact Nora Campbell concerning the question of the status of Nora's Technical Director position with PAGU.

VIII. FIG REPORT IX. INTERNATIONAL ASSIGNMENTS WERE MADE X. MEMMEL LETTER The letter from Jeanelle Memmel was discussed and Candace was to answer that competition will continue as currently structured.

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Event DATE


Schedul e





NCAA National Championships NCAA National Championships 10_Championships

los Angeles, CA State College, PA Orlando, FL

NCAA NCAA Cindy French

913-339-1906 913-339-1906 317-237-5050


USA Gymnastics Executive CommiHee Meeting USA Gymnastics Boord of Directors Meeting 10_ National Championships 10. Championships Rhythmic World Championships Rhythmic Eastern Open Canadian Gymnaestrado Rhythmic Western Open Level 9 East/West Championships

Indianapolis, IN Indianapolis, IN BOHle Creek, MI SeaHle, WA Sevilla, ESP Tampa, FL OHawa, ONT, CAN Downers Grove, IL Lansing, MI/Austin, TX

Julie Bejin Julie Begin Dennis Mcintyre Connie Maloney Cindy French Cindy French Steve Whitlock Cindy French Connie Maloney

317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050


U.S. Rhythmic National Championships California Gym Fest (Disneyland) Region VIII Congress Region IV Congress Elite Regionals

Colo. Spgs., CO Anaheim, CA Atlanta, GA Sf. Paul, MN Various Sites

Cindy French Dean CopeloHi Marion Dykes Robin Ruegg Kathy Kelly

317-237-5050 760-728-8582 404·325-3745 612·681-9233 317·237-5050


APRIL 1998 16 16 18



MAY 1998


1 2 7 8 8 9 15 16 16

1 2 3 4 3 2 3 2 2

JUNE 1998 5 14 17 19 TBD

3 1 4 3


JULY 1998 10 10 10 11 15 15 18 30 TBD TBD

3 3 3 2 4 6 16 4


U.S. Challenge Senior Pacific Alliance Championships "Get It Going" - "Keep It Going" Workshop GG Coaching Congress and GymFesf PAGU Junior Championships Argimtona GymFest '98 . Costa del Maresme Goodwill Games US. Classie/National Gymnastics Festival Pan American Group Championships Elite Regionals (International Only)

TBD Winnipeg, CAN los Vegas Los Vegas Houston, TX Argimtona, ESP New York, NY TBD TBD Various Sites

Kathy Kelly Gary Alexander Cindy French Steve Whitlock Gary Alexander Steve Whitlock Mike Milidonis Kathy Kelly Cindy French Kathy Kelly

317·237-5050 317·237-5050 317·237-5050 317·237-5050 317·237-5050 317-237-5050 212-484·7640 317-237·5050 317-237-5050 317-237·5050


John Hancock U.S. Gymnastics Championships USA Gymnastics National Congress

Indianapolis, IN Indianapolis, IN

Jeff Olsen Steve Whitlock

317-237·5050 317-237·5050





....... §



c;So §

AUGUST 1998 19 20

4 3

... ... Q



SEPTEMBER 1998 4 5 11 18

3 3 3 3


USAG/PAGU General Gymnastics Instructor'sTraining Course USA Gymnastics Notional Gym Fest Region I Congress Region II Congress

Austin, TX Austin, TX Santa Claro, CA SeaHle, WA

Steve Whitlock Steve Whitlock Chere Crowhurst Ruth Sandoz


317-237-5050 317·237·5050 408-238·7245 503-246-0818





OCTOBER 1998 2 9 9 10 15

3 3 3 2 4



TOP National Testing -West TOP National Testing - East Region VII Congress 10. Group Championships Region VI Congress

TBD TBD Hunt Valley, MD TBD New York, NY

Gary Warren Gary Warren Steve Koss Cindy French Paul Spadaro

317·237·5050 317·237·5050 800-344-1574 317·237·5050 212·957·1963


USA Gymnastics Executive CommiHee Meeting USA Gymnastics Board of Directors Meeting Future Stars National Championships Coaches Workshop

Indianapolis, IN Indianapolis, IN TBD TBD

Julie Bejin Julie Bejin Dennis Mcintyre Dennis Mcintyre

317·237·5050 317-237·5050 317·237·5050 317·237·5050

National TOP Training Camp


Gary Warren


Reese's Gymnastics Cup

Phoenix, AZ

Jeff Olsen


USA Gymnastics Winter Cup Challenge Rhythmic Challenge American Classic

TBD Colo. Springs, CO THO

Ron Galimore Cindy French Kathy Kelly

317·237 -5050 317·237·5050 317·237-5050

VISA American Cup International 3 on 3 Gymnastics Chompionships American Team Cup Jr./Sr. Level 10 State Meets American Challenge

TBD TBD Richmond, VA Various sites TBD

Jeff Olsen Jeff Olsen Jeff Olsen Various Kathy Kelly

317-237·5050 317·237·5050 317·237·5050

NCAA Regionals 10. Championships

Various sites TBD

NCAA Cindy French

913·339·1906 317·237·5050

.So 3!:





1 2




JANUARY 1999 30


FEBRUARY 1999 10 13 TBD

4 2


MARCH 1999 4 7 26 27 TBD

3 1 2 2



APRIL 1999 10 10

1 2




1998 IA'IIY CIRII'ICAIION ICHIDUll 1998 Safety Certification Schedule March 9, 1998


*(Bold Courses, Notional Safety Certifiers are encouraged to offend in order to recertify for the new cycle.)


APRIL 16* Minot, NO; 4 p.m. Registrations; 4:30-8:30 p.m. course; (ourse code: RD041698NO; Holiday Inn 701-852-4585; Locol contact: Steve (arver 701-852-4585; (ourse Oir: Rolph Oruecke 414-782-3430 17 Tempe, AI; 6-10 p.m.; (ourse code: HF041798AI; ASU or host hotel (TBA); (ourse Oir: Hiroshi Fujimoto 408-373-1694 17 Hammond, LA; 10 a.m.-2 p.m.; (ourse code: (G041798LA; Southeastern University; Local contact: Bo Morris 504-6248310; (ourse Oir: (aesar Garcia 504-275-4210

Federal Way, WA; 7-11 p.m.; (ourse code: LE050198WA; Federal Way High School; (ourse Oir: Leigh Eaton 208-461-2044 Dyer, IN; 2-6 p.m.; (ourse code: MK0501981N; Patti's All American Gymnostics; 1530 Joliet St. (Rt .30); Locol contact: Patti Komara 219-865-2274; (ourse Oir: Monte Kimes 773-586-6015


JUNE 4 (olorado Springs, (0; 6-10 p.m.; (ourse code: -0604988CO; Location: TBA (in conjunction with Rhythmic Notionals); (ourse Dir: T8A

11 ,12,13 Minneapolis, St. Paul, MN; Time TBO; In conjunction with Minnesota Women's State (ongress; Location: TBO; (ourse Oir: Scott Goy 612-953-1911

13* Stroudsburg, PA; 2-6 p.m.; (ourse code: PF061398PA; Internationol Gymnastics (amp; Local contact: Bruno Klaus 717-629-0244; (ourse Dir: Phil Frank 609-786-3977

18 Montville, NJ; 8:45 a.m. registration, 9 a.m.-3 p.m.; (ourse code: CF091898NJ; North Stars; 2 (hangebridge Road; (ourse Oir: (athy Finkel 973-586-1808

17-20 Dunwoody, GA; Time: TBA; Region VIII (ongress; (ourse Oir: (hris (alvert 404-687-9911

26 Edison, NJ; 2:45 p.m. registration; 3-9 p.m.; (ourse code: CF092698NJ; Henderson's Gymnastics; 216 Tingley Lane; 908-769-8746; (ourse Oir: (athy Finkel 973-586-1808

19 Bloomington, MN; 3-8 p.m.; (ourse code SG061998MN; Days Inn - Mall of America; In conjunction with Region IV (ongress; (ourse Oir: Scott Goy 612-953-1 911


17 Livingtson, NJ; 8:45 a.m. registration; 9 a.m.-3 p.m. course; (ourse code: (F0041798NJ; Livingston Gymnastics Academy; 355 Eisenhower Pkwy; 973-992-8007; (ourse Oir: (athy Finkel 973-586-1808


30 Bath, ME; 6-10 p.m.; (ourse code: GB043098ME; Bath YMCA; (ourse Oir: Gerald Bellemore 207-443-3134, 207-395-4306

8* Stroudsburg, PA; 1-5 p.m.; (ourse code: PF080898PA; International Gymnastics (amp; Local contact: Bruno Klaus 717 -629-0244; (ourse Oir: Phil Fronk 609-786-3977

r--------------------------, Participation Registration Form (Minimum age for Safety Certification is 18 years)

Name: Soc. Sec. # _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Birlh Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Cily: __________Stale: _ _ _ _ _ Zip: _ _ _ _ __ Telephone: (H) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _(.W) Course Director: Course Cily/State: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Date:


Pro-Member with Current Safety Certification wishing to recertify _.. __ .. _.._.. _.. _.__ ._.. __.. _. __ ....__ .__ ..... _... _....... no charge Safety Certification .............................................. _............... S 50.00 Instructor Member _._..... __.. _..... _...___ .. _. __ ..._.. _._. ___ .__ ....... _......... S 50.00 Non-Member or General Member ....................................... _._S 100.00

• All materials (including the SaFety Hanclbook) for 4th Cycle courses are prOVided at the course and are port of the course fee. • Certification is good for four years. • To achieve Safety Certification, the participant must be at least 18 years of age at the time of the course.

Organization represented: Professional or Instructor #: ____________________ Currenl Safely Exp. Dale:_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

0 VISA 0 MasterCard 0 Discover 0 American Express

Payment Amount: ____________ __________ Nome on Card: _______________________

Please make checks payable, in full, to USA Gymnastics Safety Certification Mail registration form and payment to: USA Gymnastics Safety Pan American Plaza, Suite 300 201 South Capitol Avenue GYMNASTICS Indianapolis, IN 46225 PREFERS VISA· or Fax to 317-237-5069


Number: _ _ _ __

L __________________________ Exp. Dote: ___ / _ _ Signature: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Livingtson, NJ; 8:45 a.m. registration, 9 o.m.-3 p.m.; (ourse code: (Fll0698NJ; Livingston Gymnastics; 355 Eisenhower Pkwy; 973-992-8007; (ourse Oir: (othy Finkel 973-586-1808

* You must have your USA Gymnastics number on the registration form in order to qualify for the discount. (If obtaining your professional or instrudor membership at this time, please indicate date purchased) You may not register for a course to recertfly any earlier than 6 months prior to your expiration date. No on-site registration. You must pre-register no later than 10 days prior to the course.

Address: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Form of Payment:

19* Indianapolis, IN; Time: 1-5 p_m.; (ourse code: NS0819981N; National (ongress "Add-On"; Local (ontact: Tino Sunier 317-237-5050, ext. 238; (ourse Oir: Nationol Safety Staff 23*Indianapolis, IN; Time: 9 a.m.-l :30 p.m.; (ourse code: NS0823981N; Notional (ongress "Add-On"; Local (ontact: Tino Sunier 317-237-5050, ext. 238; (ourse Oir: National Safety Staff


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