Page 1

July 1994

Vol. 14, #7

Inside Hold Your Next Meeting on USA Gymnastics Online!

Eating Disorders

Teaching Cartwheels to Preschoolers

Flexibility: A Reasonable Perspective

1994 Congress

1994 Gymnaestrada

Teaching the Forward Handspring

Teaching Visua lization Skills

Educational Materials



q'l"" eoacl. LEVEL 4 PresenledBy·

The Gym Coach Video Series 1-Pre-novice and Novice

Helping Athletes With Eating Disorders Ron A. Thompson, PhD. and Roberta Trallner Sherman, PhD.

1993 • Hard Cover • Human Kinetics • 194 pages Item # 3631 $25.00

The Minster Partnership

1993 0 NTSC/SP 0 1:30 Item #2190-$29.95

Eating disorders are a problem among athletes, we all know it, but how can we identify, manage, treat and preven t these disorders effectively and senSitively? Unfortunately, most of us don't have the knowledge to provide our athletes with an effective management program, Look no further! Authors Ron Thompson and Roberta Trattner Sherman, team together to bring all sports professionals and staff the first book that presents a practical, sensitive and therapeutic approach to treating athletes with eating disorders: Helping Athletes With

The Gym Coach, Series 1 video was produced in Great Britain to help coaches and gymnasts develop essential shapes and skills for the pre-novice and novice levels. British author, illustrator, coach and international judge, Meg Warren, needs no introduction to U.S. coaches as she has contributed numerous articles to Technique magazine. In this video, Meg works with the talented Midlands Gymnastics coach from Great Britain, Richard Kearns, to provide coaches and gymnasts with a straightforward, no nonsense, approach to getting the most out of gymnastics. Charles Minster directed this video in an easy-tofollow manner with index numbers in the top left corner of the screen.

Eating Disorders, While much of today's eating disorder research and literature focuses only upon statistical information of individuals affected, this guide offers an exclusive management strategy that is both practical and comprehensive.

1994 TOPs Training Camp Video Activities: 2·tapes 0 NTSC!SP 0 4:00 0#2160-$24.95 Coaches Clinic: 2·tapes • NTSC/SP 0 4:00 0#2161-$24.95

Helping Athletes With Eating Disorders, identifies three major eating disorders that specifically are common among athletes: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified (NOS) ,

The TOPs Training Camp Activities videos document actual instruction sessions conducted by the Women's National Coaching Staff with the TOPs participants in this 2-tape package.

It thoroughly examines all aspects of eating disorders in athletes, from diagnosis to education and prevention. You'll learn how to identify the athletes who need help, refer them to treatment, maximize their recovery and prevent future problems.

The TOPs Training Camp Coaches Clinic videos document a session conducted for attending coaches where the Master Clinicians reviewed their primary teaching goals, objectives for the sessions which they had conducted with the athletes, and their philosophy of building sound basics.

Item #






This book definitely will prove to be a valuable addition to your personal resource library!

To order any of these books, or other educational materials and videos presented in this issue, please complete this order form.

USA Gymnastics Order Form Name __________________________________________________ Address _________________________________________________

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Send orders and moke checks payable to:


USA Gymnastics, Merchandise Dept., PO Box 5562, Indianapolis, IN 46255·5562 • 317-237·5060 July 1994


(over: USA Gymnastics Photo © Dave Black

Publisher Editor Production Graphic Design Men's Program Director Women's Program Director Rhythmic Program Director

Kathy Scanlon Stephen W. Whitlock Luan Peszek Julie T. Jones Ron Galimore Kalhy Kelly Nora Campbell

USA Gymnastics Board of Directors Chair: Sandy Knopp; President: KathySconlon; Presidentlmeritus: Mike Donohue; Amateur Athletic Union: Stan Atkinson; American Sokol Organization: Jerry Milon; American Trampoline & Tumbling Association: Wayne Downing; American Turners: Belly Heppner; Jewish Community (enters: Courtney Shonk.n; Notional Association 01 Collegiate Gymnostics Coaches lor Men: Abie Grossleld; National Association 01 Collegiate Gymnostics Coaches lor Women: Gail Davi,; Notional Association for Girls and Women in Sport: Dr. Mimi Murray; National Association of Women' s Gymnastics Judges: Yvonne Hodge; Notional Collegiate Athletic Association: Jone Bells, lou Burkel; National Federation of Stole High School Associations: Suson True; Notional Gymnastics Judges Association: Harry Bjerke; National High School Gymnastics (oaches Association: lohn Brinkworlh; Special Olympics, Inc.: Kate Fober-Hickie; U_S_RhythmicGymnostics Coaches Association: Suzie DiTullio; U.S. Association of Independent Gym Clubs: lance Crowley; U_S. llite Coaches Association for Men's Gymnastics: Peter Kormonn; U.S. Elite (ooches Association for Women's Gymnastics: Tony Gehman, Roe Kreutzer; U.S. Men' s Gymnastics Coaches Association: Marc Yancey; U.S. Sports Acrobatics Fed e ra ~ tion: Bonnie Davidson; Young Men's Christian Association of the USA: Rick Dodson; USA Gymnastics National Membership Directors: Men's: Jim Holt, Ray Guro; Women' 5: Jim Archer, Julio ThomplOn·Aretz; Rhythmic: Alia Sviflky, Ule Alt· Carberry Athlete Directors: Wendy Hilliard, choir; Chri, Woller, vice choir; Michelle DUSlerre, se,; Tanya Service Choplin, Sheryl Dundas, Karyn lyon Glover, Peter Vidmm, Conrad Voorsonger; USOC Athlete's Advisory Council: Kevin Dovi,.

USA Gymnastics Executive Committee Choir: Sandy Knopp; Presiden t: Kathy Scanlon; Secretary: Mike Milidoni,; Vice Choir Women: Noney MOflholl; Vice Chair Men: Tim Doggell; Vice Choir Rhythmic: Ilarmo Zobko; FIG Women's Technical Commillee: Jockie Fie; FIG Rhythmic Technical Commillee: Andrea Schmid·Shopiro; FIG Men's Technical Commillee: Bill Roetzheim; At Large Members:Jim Hartung, Joon Moore; Athlete Directors: Michelle DUSlerre, Wendy Hilliard, Peter Vidmar; Presidentlmeritus: Mike Donohue. Associate Content Editors Sports Science Advisory Committee Sports Advisory Commillee: Bill Sand" Ph.D., Choir. Iducation Sub-cammillee: Polly Hocker, Ph.D., Choir Laision: Steve Whitlock Unless "preSlly idenlified 10 Ihe conlrary, off orlieles, ,'o'emen', ond views prmted herein are attributed solely to the author and USA fle~enoatics expresses no opinion and assumes no responsibility

CHANGE OF ADDRESS AND SUBSCRIPTION INQUIRIES: In order 10 ensure uninte rrupted deli very of TECHNIQUE magazine, notice of change of address should be made six to eig ht weeks in advance. For fastes t service, p lease enclose your present mailing label. Direc l all subscription mail to TECHNIQUE Subscriptions, Pan American Plaza, 201 S. Ca pito l AVt:::., Su it ~ 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225. TECHN IQU £ (ISSN 0748-5999) is publis hed 10 limes per year by USA Gymnastics, Pan American Plaza, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225 (phone: 317-237-5050). Third cl ass postage pa id a t Indianapolis, IN. Subscription price: $25.00 per yea r in United Sta tes; all o ther coun tries 548.00 per yea r. If available, back issue sing le copies $4.00 plus $1.00 postage/ handling. All reasonable care w ill be taken, but no responsi bi lity can be assu med for unsolicited ma te rial; enclose ret urn postage. Copyrigh t 1994 by USA Gy mnastics and TECHN IQUE. All rights reserved . Printed in USA.

Contents Telecommunications Hold Your Next Meeting on USA Gymnaslics Online!


Nutrition Eating Disorders


Preschool/Movement Education Teaching Cartwheels 10 Preschoolers


Coaches Education ASEP Coaching Principles Course Professional Development Program PDP II-Grandparenting Application Summer Coaches Workshops

14 28 30 31

Conditioning Flexibilily: AReasonable Perspective


1994 Congress General Information Schedule More On Congress Pre-registrotion Form 1994 Coca-Cola National Championships Ticket Information Congress Add-ons Registration Farm

19 20 21 22 23

General Gymnastics Gymnaeslrada


Tumbling Teaching Ihe Forward Handspring


Sport Psychology Teaching Visualization Skills




41 Pommel Horse Reporl on the Pommel Horse: World Championshipsc8risbane 1994


Rhythmic Minutes Meetin{L date, place


Men's Minutes Men's Program Committee Meeling, 5/ 21/94, Phoenix, Arizona Men's Program Committee Conference Call, 5/26/94 12:00 EST

44 46

Wrillen by a former gymnast, this article on eating disorders can help coaches and gymasts understand and deal with this very serious problem_

Palli Komara shows how to teach a cartwheel to children ages two to five by using visual cues and imaginative drills_



July 1994

Because of increased emphosis, more athletes are pursuing forward tumbling skills. Wm. A_ Sands, Ph_D_ shares the progressions he was tauglt by his former coach, Mr_ Ken Allen_





.A 4


PLEASE NOTE: The videos listed in this magazine are provided for educational and historic purposes. While every effort is made to produce videos of the highest quality, it should be noted that some of the videos are produced at events utilizing handheld cameras from vantage points in the stands by non-professional volunteer teclmicians. Only limited editing and production enhancements are utilized in order to provide a timely product at a reasonable cost to the USA Gynmastics membership.

To order any of these videotapes, use the USA Gymnastics order form on page 2.


1 99 4

2:00:00) Nassau Co., NY, U~! b and last half o! boop (SP 2:00:00) 1. R?pe'h IUf ~f Hoops, Ball Rib F~n, Is (SP, 2:00: 00 ) 2. First a . I and Event ma , Fma s <2n 95 3. AII·around #'l30b J 7. \\em .' _4-tape set YSenior (ompetltlons SP 2:00:00) O Nassau ., ~all, Clubs, 1/2 of ~~b:; ~ ribbon, .(SP, 2(:~~:~~J8:00) . R e cont., HooP, d Event Fmals, ' 00 ) d (SP 1:30: 2. op 3 'bbon routines an 3. Last (I (BS of AII·aro un , ' 4 Live feed from S39 95 . \\em # 2307 .


J 99' MEN'S TEAM COMPETITION J B Indianapolis, IN. 1st-6th teams. Part I: FX, PH, SR. (1:49) Part II: V, PB, HB. (1:27)(1991)




Indianapolis, IN. BUL. GER, ESP, AUS. (2:00)(1991)



, 99' WOMEN'S ALL·AROUND ',NALS-PART J Competition II: Indianapolis, IN. Part I: V, UB, FX. (1:34)(1991)


Competition II: Indianapolis, IN. Part 2: BB. (0:54)(1991)

516.95 516.95

'992 MEN'S ',NALS AND SEMI·',NALS Paris-Berey, France. Korobchinski, Scherbo, Pae, (soUany, You, L~ Voropaev, Misutin, Krahberg, Hibbert, O'Neil~ Sohn, Hanks, Dimas, and others. (1992)


, 99' MEN'S OPTIONAL EVENT ',NALS Indianapolis, IN. (1991)






, 99 J WOMEN'S OPTIONAL EVENT ',NALS Indianapolis, IN. Competition ttl: V, UB, BB, FX. (0:56)(1991)


#2181 #2183




Indianapolis, IN. HUN, FRA, PRK, KOR. (2:00)(1991) Indianapolis, IN. URS, (HN, ROM, USA. (2:00)(1991)





Indianapolis, IN. Part I: FX, PH, SR. (2:00) Part II: V, PB, HB. (2 tapes-I:31)(1991)



Indianapolis, IN. 7th-12th teams. Part I: FX, PH, SR. (1:55) Part II: V, PB, HB. (1:36)(1991)



R~~o~competitions-3HtapeS s(~p


Paris-Berey, France. Imeska~ Okino, Onodi, Boguinskaia, Milosovic~ Li and others. Also includes excerpts from the opening ceremonies. (1992)

#2 168


'992 WOMEN'S SEMI·',NALS Paris-Berey, France. Dawes, Strug, Tchusovitina, Lisenko, Lu, Gutsu, Mitova, Pasca and others. (1992)





Paris-Berey, France. Selected performances. (1992)



'993 MEN'S ALL·ROUND ',NALS AND INDIVIDUAL EVENT ',NALS Birmingham, Great Britain, April 1993. Scherbo· 56. 174 (BLR), (harkav- 55.625 (RUS), Wecker-55.450 (GER), Ivankov-55.425 (BLR), Karabananko-55.275 (RUS), Liukin-55.225 (KIK), Belenki-55.225 (UNA), Korobchinski-55.100 (UKR), Keswick-54.875 (USA). (1993)


%ifo~do, FI, Mareh 24-r:.~~!' C.OMPEr/,.~:kOR AND S35.00

roullnes. (Three lapes, SP)

1994 RHYJ'. levelll' I. 'HMIC .I 0 11



level a lincol. h' #2304 . ns Ire, II- April 23-24 1 S24.00 ' 994. (Two lapes}(1994) Group. lineal. h' ns Ire, f~'2t;il23-24, 1994. (/994) #2305


'993 WOMEN'S INDIVIDUAL EVENT ',NALS Birmingham, Great Britain, April 1993. Vault: Piskum-9.762, Bars: Miller-9.88!, Beam: Milosovici· 9.850, Floor: Miller-9.787. (1993)


, April 23-24, ;99/ (T 'HAMPIONSHIP'S S 4.00 . Wo lapes}(1994)

InCO nShir''2



'993 WOMEN'S ALL·AROUND ',NALS Birmingham, Great Britain, April 1993. Miller·39.062 (USA), Gogean-39.055 (ROM), Lisenko-39.011 (UKR), Dawes-38.830 (USA), Fabrichnova·38.630 (RUS), Galieva-38.586 (UIB), Piskun-38.554 (BLR), Milosoviri-38.392 (ROM). (B, 0:00)



'993 MEN'S PRELIMINARY ROUNDS Birmingham, Great Britain, April 1993.






he USA Gymnastics online service, USA Gymnastics Online!, is a boon for people who hold meetings. Groups can gather in the CONFERENCE area for live computer conversations at a fraction of the expense of driving to a central meeting, or flying there.

The Conference system is set up just like any conference center at a convention hall or large hotel. There's a "lobby" which is where you are when yo u first enter the Conference area. You can then choose to go to a "room" where a meeting is being held. You can go from one room to another as you wish, or have your own room where you're the host. You can even have a room with the door locked where visitors must either be invited in, personally, or know a "password" in order to get inside. Most Tuesday nights at 9:00 pm EDT, USA Gymnastics Online! features an" open conference". Anyone who wants, can join in. It's like going to a social event at the annual USA Gymnastics Congress! Just a big room full of p eople who share an interest in gymnastics, all talking among themselves in the same manner as at any gathering or party. How do you" conference" with others? How would one hold a live nationwide meeting online? Read further! When you are at the main menu of USA Gymnastics Online, one of the items is CONFERENCE. To enter the Conference Area just type the first three or four letters CON or CONF. You'll enter the " Conference Area Lobby" . Here in the lobby you can find out who's online at the moment, who is in conference, and in what rooms. Do this by typing /WHO and you'll see a screen that might look like this: GROUP LIST : 21 :00 :00 7} USAG ROOM USGFTEST , JGREENHAWK, RANDY99 9} TEXAS STATE BOARD MEETING TXUSGF , JOPCCHMN , MARYJ , SAMMY , LONESTAR , REG3DIR , JONES 11} GYMNASTICS TRIVIA Wo rd Game PLAYER , JUDYK , GO_USAG , JOHN143 , BILBDARN - idle LUANP , JULIE , XGYMNAST AVAILABLE LIST : () = in conference ZOYA , (USGFTEST) , (JGREENHAWK) , DIRECTOR , (TXUSGF) , (JOPCCHMN) , (MARYJ) , (SAMMY) , (LONESTAR) , (REG3DIR) , (JONES) , (PLAYER) , (JUDYK) , HOUSEMAN , (GO_USAG) , (JOHN143) , (BILBDARN ) , (LUANP) , (JULIE) , (XGYMNAST) -- [20 in this areal CONFERENCE )

This screen shows you WHO is online, and WHO is in the conference area. There are 3 rooms created: The USAG ROOM, the TEXAS STATE BOARD MEET I NG, and another room where a GYMNASTI CS TRIVIA game is probably going on. The people listed at the bottom are in conference if the us ERNAME is in parentheses. Those whose USERNAMES are not in parentheses are people who are somewhere else in USA Gymnastics Online! other than conference.

How to hold a group meeting online While at the conference menu, the first person arriving should "start a room". This m eans yo u type JOIN <roomname> . For instance, lets hold the Florida State Board Meeting. The first person July 1994


USA GYMNASTICS ONLINE! Jan Claire, Delphi address: USGF Steve Whitlock, Delphi address: USGFTEST

online for the meeting would typ e JO I N FL ST BD MTG . This would create a" room" of the same name. Now those who are on the Florida State Board know where to congregate. Those joining the board meeting would then type / JOIN FL ST (the first few characters will generally do) and would immediately be transferred in to live conference in the room designated. Merely typing your comments will then appear on screens of everyone in the room once you hit "ENTER." You'll also see THEIR comments as well.

If the Florida group wants the room to be "private" for a closed meeting, the word " Private" should be in the name. This prevents anyone else from joining the room unless they are invited by being paged. A room can be declared private by someone inside the room entering the command / GPRIVATE. Cancel this command with / NOGPR I VATE. Once the private meeting has started, someone needs to be designated to watch (with the / WHO command) for late arrivals who should be in the room, so they can be invited in with the / PAGE <Use r name> command. The person accepts by typing / ACCEPT. The person would have to be at the conference m enu in order to type / ACCEPT and enter the private room.

Password only rooms It can get to be a bother, continually typing jWHO to find out if a late arrival has shown up. We liken this to having to run to the front window to look out and see if an y new cars have pulled up! There' s another way to protect the privacy of a meeting online: the / PASS <password> command. Here's how it works. If it's the Florida State Board Meeting, the Florida state chairman-through a letter, a phone call, or even advance electronic mail, can send a secret "password" to those w ho w ill be attending the live online meeting. Let's say the password is "BEACHES". The first person" opening" the room w ith the / JOIN FL ST BD MTG command would, upon entering, typ e / GPASS BEACHES . Th en, each person attending the m eeting would type / PASS BEACHES before joining the group . TECHNIQUE


Whispering at the party

Don't retype minutes!

Sometimes, when you' re at a party or gathering, you want to have a short" one on one" conversation with someone in the roomwithout everyone else hearing. The same concept carries into CONFERENCE.

One other benefit to online m eetings: someone-like the leader of the discussion or meeting-can "capture" all the dialog to disk and later print out verbatim "minutes" of the meeting easily! This saves the time of having a secretary taking notes, then re-typing the substance of the meeting. Anyone with one of the captured conference files and a word processor could turn out minutes in minutes!


When you're in a / ROOM during open conference, you can send a private, one-line message to someone by issuing the / SEND <use r name> command. Here' s an example:


On Steve's screen (he's USGFTEST) he would hear a beep and see the message:



/ SEND USGFTEST Hey Steve! What time is it in Indianapolis right now?

OLDGYMNAST> Hey Steve ! What Indianapolis right now?





By having h eard the beep, Steve knows this is a private message and he can answer: / SEND OLDGYMNAST It ' s 9 : 30 p . m. here . on Cent r al Daylight Time?

Are you

And on and on . .. Experienced chat or conference users can often carryon extensive conversations in this manner, all the while participating in the general "public" discussion that's going on as well! It's an art, and it takes practice, but online chatting is all the rage, and in the case of USA Gymnastics Online! it can save huge expenses on travel by allowing committees, groups, and others to have their meetings online.

The proto(ol of "Onlinedom" Talking, live, in real time, online is a great pastime! You can meet people from all over the world withoutleaving your computer. But, there are some "unwritten" rules to talking/ty ping online. 1. Never fear joining in or interrupting a p ublic room. You're always welcome. 2. Be prepared that people don't type like they talk. You can' t see smiles on their faces, or frowns, so they have other ways ofletting you know how they feel. Emoticons are one way: : ) is a smiling face [tilt your head to the left]. : ( is a frowning face. O ther instant drawings often let you know how a person feels, and they're quick to type. You may think a person is serious when he says, Wha t a dumb thing to say -But if it's followed with a smiley face : ) you know the person's kidding you. Online oldtimers will ju st type <GRIN> or <g> ! You can also wink ; )

3. DON'T TYPE IN CAPS! This is the most universally offensive thing you can do online. It means you' re SHOUTING ! If you leave your caps-lock key on and type a line in caps, someone is sure to challenge yo u to "quit shouting!"

If you ever need help while in conference on USA Gyrrmastics Online! just type / HELP and a listing of conference commands will be displayed. If you'd like to capture all the help information to your printer or disk file, just type / HELP ALL. If you want to be a bit less formal, or have another reason, you can change your name or handle. For example, If Steve wanted people to recognize him by name instead of his Delphi handle (USGFTEST) , he would type / NAME STEVE w. - from this time on, any comments he makes in the conference would be preceded by his name, for example: .STEVE W. Hey all , I just changed my name! In one of the state board meeting rooms, it might be helpful for the officers to have their titles listed. JGREENHAWK could become / NAME CHAI RMAN JAN. Note: this procedure doesn't change your Delphi handle; it is just a temporary change during the conference used to add clarity or just for fun! There are other more sophisticated possibilities in conference, such as designating a Moderator to manage the conversations- you will become familiar with these with a bit of experience. The hints that we have given you should get you well on your way to active conference fun!

All the (ommands dis (US sed in the above artide: / ROOM ( Roomname)

Starts a "room" where others may meet.


Lists those online and in conference with () .

/ JOIN <Roomname >

Enters you into a public room.


Makes a room "private" enter when paged.


Cancels the privacy attribute.

/ PAGE <Use r name >

Allows u ser to /ACCEPT and join the room.


Allows user into room after being /PAGEd.


Sets room to password-only entry .


/ PASS <password> qualifies you to join a room which is password protected. Next, typing / JOIN <roomname ) would gain entry.

4. Know your abbreviations: BTW


By The Way




Be Right Back

GA = Go Ahead (holdover from the CB days)



Laughing Out Loud

IMHO = In My Humble Opinion


Long Time No See

5. If you are responding to the comment of just one person in the room, use their name in your reply : Gymdude , you're right. It IS a great move for level 10 ' s!

/ SEND <Username ) <Message ) Sends a private " whispered" message. / NAME <New name )


Permits the u ser to change his/her online name.

JOIN USA GYMNASTICS ONLINEI USA GYMNASTICS has joined with DELPHI in a great new partnership. USA Gymnastics Online! is the new DELPH I Custom Service offering you the world of gymnastics through your computer and modem.


In addition to USA Gymnastics Online!, you can access DELPHI itself, and explore the Internet. Join USA Gymnastics Online! now and get 5 hours of evening or weekend access to tryout the Internet for free!



Use DELPHI's Internet mail to exchange messages with over 10 mil li on people at universities, companies and other online services such as CompuServe and MCI Mail. Download programs and f il es using FTP or connect in real-time to other networks using Telnet! It's all yours w hen you "hook up" to USA Gymnastics Online and Delphi . It 's easy to sign up, and even easier to get on line once you've signed up, through more than 600 local access telephone numbers nationwide . Explore it all from the comfort of your own computer. Get USA Gymnastics Online! and access to DELPHI and The Internet. You'll be amazed by what you discover !

5-HOUR FREE TRIAL! Dial By Modem 1-800-365-4636 Press Return 3 or 4 times At Password, enter GYMNASTICS Free time must be used on evenings and/or weekends Some restrictions app ly. Comp lete details are provided during the toll-free registration

Questions? Call 1-800-695-4005. USA Gymnastics' online address for electronic mail is USGF .


he following article has been written by a former gymnast in an effor t to help coaches and gymnasts deal with this very serious problem. In a letter accompanying the article she described the problems she suffered as a gymnast. The letter said, in part,

like a sculptor's clay. It is a vehicle for self-expression.




A 8

"I hope that if they are too scared to seek help, they will be able to get some reliefby taking up the suggestions offered, and that they will feel less alone knowing that other people share thei r problem and tha t there is a way out." Just thinking about sitting down and writing this article made me feel tense and anxious. I even contemplated bingeing to relax myself before starting. But now, since I am on my way out of bulimia, such a regression would have been a disappointment to myself. Also, writing this puts me in a position where I feel responsible to set a positive and encouraging example. In the last ten years or so, anorexia nervosa and its sister eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, have been sensationalized and glamorized by the media; with film, TV, music personalities, and Princesses coming out of the closet in plagues. Nonetheless, the majority of us are still ignorant as to what eating disorders mean to those who suffer.

EATING DISORDERS Girls often become extremely self-conscious of their physiques at adolescence and compare their 'fatness" to that of their peers. Standing around the gym with one's body exposed in a body-hugging leotard can make one feel quite self-conscious.

First, there is nothing remotely glamorous about either sets of behavior- both are selfdestructive and miserable. Second, the majority of people with eating disorders appear to be average, everyday people. You have probably walked past them in the street or they may even be your best friend , sister, or daughter.

result in death) . Similarly, nine out of ten of those affected anorexics are female. Anorexia nervosa typically afflicts girls from the onset of puberty on into the late teens. By contrast, bulimia usually develops from the late teens and onward into the early twenties. Nonetheless, these age categories are by no means absolute.

Anorexia and bulimia are predominantly female disorders. Bulimianervosa (bingeingj purging behavior) affects five to six percent of the teenage population. Nine out of ten bulimics are female. Seven percent of all teenagers develop anorexia nervosa (self-induced starvation that can

So what is the relevance of all this to gymnastics? Well, one obvious fact is that girls and you ng women within th e vu lnerable age groups are participants in gymnastics clubs. Adolescence and yo ung adulthood can be a

vul ne rable, confu sing a nd painful time, particularly for those with low self-confidence. This is a time w h en yo ung people are forging their sense of identity, a time of uncontrollable physical changes, and a time for coming to terms wi th one's sex u ality. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia are ways of coping with these stress changes and the accompanying pain, stress, and confusion. The emphaSis that society and the news media place on women to be beautiful and thin hardly needs articulation. It stares at us from every magazine stand and every TV advertisement. The physical form is


Gymnastics is a sport in which the body is also the instrument of self-expression. Girls often become extremely self-conscious of their physiques at adolescence and compare their "fatness" to that of their peers. Standing around the gym with one's body exposed in a bodyhugging leotard can make one feel quite self-conscious. We all recognize, however, that wearing a leotard without the accompanying baggy t-shirt is important for safety and observation andcorrectionoftechnique. The gym is one place, among others, where girls may become sensitive to their body weight and may, after judging themselves "too fat," embark on a self-styled weight reduction program. Those who develop eating dis orders ty pically feel bad about themselves-they suffer from low self-esteem. Because they feel fat and ugly, they may want to lose weight as a way of feeling good about themselves or as a way of m aking themselves happy. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia have little to do with food. They are both primarily about control.

ANOREXIA NERVOSA This is the more serious of the two disorders because of its potential threat to life. The anorexic or self-starver diets to the extreme. Anorexics typically lose 25 percent of their body weight and cease menstruation if they have already begun. Anorexics derive a sense of achievement from their weight loss. One reason for their fierce resistance to attempts at weight gain is that putting on weight deprives them of the perpetual fear of losing control of their rigid eating patterns. Eating for the anorexic often becomes a highly ritualistic and protracted affair. Anorexics become preoccupied with food and may fantasize endlessly abou t eating. Like the starving Somalians and refugees in the Balkans, anorexics


are hungry. They frequently watch other people eating, and even cook and prepare food for others. Anorexics often become obsessive exercisers-even in bed they may swing a leg or arm or fle x their toes in order to burn calories. Anorexics typically develop a distorted body-image. While appearing severely underweight to others, the anorexic perceives herself as "fat." Personality change also often accompanies weight loss. She may become withdrawn and solitary, may spend a lot of time alone in her room, and lose her spark and enthusiasm for life. Also, she may become domineering, demanding and can appear irrational and temperamental. These changes are partly the result of starvation. Other observable changes include weakness; sensitivity to light, noise and cold; insomnia; and the growth of fine, downy body and facial hair. Having anorexia nervosa is like living in a beam of light encased in darkness. In the beginning when you are standing at the source of the light, it is at its thickest and the surrounding darkness is minimal. As yo u progress with your weight loss, you progress forward with the beam-the beam becomes narrower and narrower so that in the end, yo ur whole of life's focus is on food and losing weight. Here the darkness is at its maximum. By this stage you are overwhelmingly self-centered and are hardly aware of the existence of life outside of food and weight loss. Anorexia is most obviously detectable by weight loss. The anorexic may appear to be eating normal sized meals but often is only be pretending to eat (e.g., by swishing cereal and milk around in her breakfast bowl, throwing out her lunch, feigning sickness, or claiming to h ave ~aten previously at a friend's place or in town in order to avoid eating in front of others). It is difficult to encourage anorexics to eat against their will. They frequ ently deny weight

loss or even that they are dieting. For successful long-term recovery, anorexics must cooperate in the weight gain process. If weight gain is forced (which means submitting to someone else's control), they will only conspire to lose it again as soon as they are free. Furthermore, weight gain is no indication of true recovery. While weight gain may only take six months or so (or even less), mental and emotional recovery may take up to tlu'ee or four years. It is vital that ex-anorexics is given emotional support and that eating behavior is monitored for a long time after initial weight gain, as up to 50 percent of anorexics go on to develop bulimia nervosa. As a coach, if you suspect that one of your gymnasts is anorexic, it is probably best to bring it to the attention of the girl's parents. Parents are often the last to realize the severity of their daughter's weight loss because human perceptions make comparisons rather than absolute levels of measurement. Week to week weight loss is less evident than the weight loss seen in before and after shots. It is also essential to encourage the parents to consult their GP for referral to a psychologist or psychiatrist. Eating disorders are like icebergs-the disorder itself is only one tenth of the problem. Underlying psychological problems are typically responsible. Anorexia nervosa h as been afflicting women (and som e men) since medieval times . However, the motives behind self-s tarvation have changed with the times. Anorexia, like hunger-striking, is also thought to be a form of protest. An emacia ted figure in a society of abundance can't be ignored. It says, "Look at me." The anorexic is also often referred to as a overconformist. She seeks approval. But in our society, emaciation offends our val ues of health and well-being. Consequentl y the anorexic's extreme weight loss is met with disapproval and horror. The anorexic feels bad for the disapproval that her state elicits. Like all of us, people w ith

eating disorders just want to be accepted.


NERVOSA Bulimia nervosa was first identified in 1979. Unlike the anorexic, the bulimic is usually at the normal body weight or above; however, her weight may fluctuate frequentl y . Bulimia nervosa refers to binge-eating and is almost always accompanied by purging. Lik e the anorexic, the bulimic is fearful of getting fat. The bulimic starts on a diet, but unlike the anorexic, her resolve weakens and the diet is broken by an eating binge. Bulimia stems a Greek word meaning" greed," "animal hunger" or "appetite of an ox" depending on its interpretation. A binge refers to the consumption of a large amount of food over a short period of time. This a between-meals snack taken to the

extreme. Binge-eating is like having a hit-the rapid consumption of food gives the p erson a rush. It is temporary escape. The effect is an immense feeling of relief and release. In the course of a binge a person m ay consume, for example, 500 mls of ice cream, 3 king-sized Mars bars, a family-sized block of chocolate and 3 bowls of breakfast cereal. Binges may be larger or smaller, but typically occur in private. The real problem is how out of control the individual feels about the quantity of food eaten. After a binge the bulimic feels guilt, self-hatred, and self-disgust. She/he panics over the number of calories consumed. To rectify this loss of control, the bulimic typically gets rid of the food by self-induced vomiting, by taking emetics, laxatives or

In our society emaciation offends our values of health and well-being. Consequently the anorexic's extreme weight loss is met with disapproval and horror. The anorexic feels bad for the disapproval that her state elicits. Like all of us, people with eating disorders just want to be accepted.







other institutions usually h ave counselors that can assist. Those with eating disorders may feel ashamed, disgu s ted and/ or scared to seek help, but counselors and psychologists are often ve ry sympathetic and h elpful. If the athlete doesn't hit it off with the first person seen, she / he can always switch to another counselor.

diuretics, or by excessive exercise. Purging adds to the sense of relief, however, bingeing may occur wi thout proceeding to purging . Depression frequently follows a binge-purge episode.




Th e indiv idu a l beco m es caught in a vicious circle of diet, binge, guilt and self-hatred, purge, diet, and so forth. Bingepurge behavior may occur as infrequently as once a week or month or as frequ ently as two, three, or more times p er day. Bulimia is an extrem ely distressing and debilitating problem at its wors t. Binge-purge behavior and the chaotic eating pattern that often accompanies it are physically and mentally tiring, and even cumoying. Binge-purge behavior h as mcu1Y physical sid e effects. For females, loss or irregularity of periods may occur. Self-induced vomiting can cause the knuckles to become callused, red and raw from repetitious vomiting. Pressure from vomiting brings flu id to the face so that the salivary gland s become swollen cu1d the small red capillaries around the eyes may burst. The acidic and partially d iges ted foo d from vomiting dissolves tooth encunel and can cause gum problems. Laxative use, erratic eating, and vomiting upse t the biochemical balance of the body, resulting in a depletion of the elements potassium, chloride cu1d sodium. Th ese elem ents are electrolytes and their depletion can cause muscular weakness, constipation, tingly sensations in the hands and feet, depression, heart irregularities, and even sudden death. Attempts to rectify potassium loss by the use of potassium tablets CCU1 be dangerous as excess consumption can result in death. It is preferable to eat potassium rich foods such as tomatoes an orcu1ges as natural supplements. The bulimic often experiences stomach soreness cu1d discomfort after bingeing. Sometimes a bulge in the up per abdomen becomes visible. While purging relieves guilt, it is ra ther ineffective. Vomiting only gets " ... rid of 30 percent of consumed calo-

ries .. . because food is absorbed quickly in the digestive tract" (Pierre Beaumont, Professor of Psychiatry, Sydney University, Aus tralia). Laxatives are ineffective and dangerous. They act low in the bowels where almost all the calories have already been absorbed . Chronic use of laxatives result in continued bowel problems. In the event of frequent weight fluctuations, the body begins to breakdown protein and muscle tissue and replace it w ith fat-the result is flabbiness. As with anorexia, bulimia is merely a symptom of an underlying problem or problems. Bulimic behavior is an attempt a t self-h el p or self-cure, bu tit is an ineffective and self-destructive way of cop in g. Unlike the anorexic, who is in control of h er eating, the

bulimic feels out of control. She/ he is aware that her eating pattern is abnormal and fears being unable to stop eating voluntaril y. H ence the bulimic often seeks h elp in order to regain control. The bulimic also feels ashamed and disgusted by his/ her behavior and may also feel safe in the binge-purge behavior and, therefore, be reluctant to change despite the distress. These days the majority of GP's are sympathetic to bulimia and can provide referrals to a psychologist or psychiatrist. Selfhelp and support groups cu'e also available in many cities. Selfhelp groups can help end feelings of isolation and provide acceptance, support cu1d advice, as well as friendship. Help CCU1 also usually be obtained from psychology departments of most universities . High schools, colleges, universities, and many

After a binge the bulimic feels guilt, self-hatred, and self-disgust. She/he panics over the number of calories consumed. To rectify this loss of control, the bulimic typically gets rid of the food by selfinduced vomiting, by taking emetics, laxatives or diuretics, or by excessive exercise. July 1994 TECHNIQ UE

For those feeling hesitant abou t the idea of seeking professional help, there are numerous self help books written specifically for people with eating disorders. If they are not on the shelves they can easily be ordered . Books on eating disorders are available at locallibraries, by interlibrary loan, and can be found or ordered at local book stores. I tell the athletes that if they feel apprehensive about buying a book that has, When Eating is Everything written all over it, this discomfort and embarrassment w ill only lasts 60 seconds or so. Furthermore, the sales person is probably taking no notice-they are probably daydreaming about their latest love or what to give the cat for dinner. It is worth enduring this brief discomfort for the relief they will feel afterwards and for the help obtained from the book. Below are a few suggestions that have worked for me. I recommend these to athletes with eating disorders:

1. Make bingeing your choice Before you binge say to yourself, "This is m y choice. I can choose to binge and that is okay, but it is my choice."

2. Delay your binge If it is 10:05 a. m . when yo u feel like bingeing put your binge off until 10:15 a.m. or so. You will often find that by this time the feeling has passed or you may have decided to sit the binge-feeling out. You may also choose to binge after your delay time, i.e. at 10:15 a .m. as in the excunple above. This is okay as well.

3. Set a time limit for your binge If you usually sp end one hour bingeing, limit it to 30


7. Sit down when eating

minutes. If yo u normally devote 35 minutes to your binge limit it to say 15-20 minutes.

4. Try not vomiting, taking laxative or exercising madly after a binge

8. Keep a food diary Recor d the time of yo ur m eals and binges, what yo u ate, w here you were and what your were feeling before you binged and how you felt afterwards . In this way yo u w ill be able to identif y what triggers you r binge-eating.

You won't put on ten pounds overnight and having all that food in your stomach means that you are less likely to binge again two hours later.

S. Keep busy and plan other activities Although you may feel as if your whole day is ruined because you have binged, it doesn't have to be. Rather than feeling miserable for the rest of the day go out shopping, to the movies, to your friends place, for a walk, or keep working on whatever. That way your binge is less likely to lead to a second, third, etc. binge.

12. Plan your day the night before

Si t rather than walking around or standing at the refrigerator or cupboard.

9. Keep a diary of your feelings This is a nondestructive way to vent your emotions.

10. Substitute You cannot expect to eradicate a behavior unless you have an alternative to replace it. Next time you feel like bingeing go shopping instead, buy a magazine and real it, have a bath, go to the movies, phone a friend, paint (even if the result onl y looks worthy of a kindergarten display board), and so forth.

If yo u binge at certain times (e.g., after school, after gym training, after dinner), plan an alternative activity al,ead of time.

II. Eat regularly

6. Eat slowly (yes, slowly!)

Eat three meals a day and include a mid-morning and afternoon snack. This makes resisting binges easier.

Savor every mouthful. This takes quite a bit of self-restraint but is a remarkably effective way to stop a binge.

Be sure to exclude binges in your plan!

13. Imagine that people are watching you when you binge. This is extremely effective if you are willing (and remember) to do it.

14. Be kind to yourself Say it is okay to binge rather than bombard yourself with a litany of self-deprecating thoughts. One of my friends says to herself, "It's okay, 1'm only looking after myself."

I S. Think positively Learn to accept a healthy and normal body weight for your age and height. Each morning under the shower say to yourself, "My body is beautiful the way it is."

16. Don't punish yourself It is okay if you forget or choose not to employ any of the above tactics. It is scary and strange to employ these tactics at first and you may feel resistant to doing so because it is much easier and safer to stick to your old behavior. No one is perfect. There are still plenty of times

w hen I binge d espite my kno w ledge of a ll of the above. This is okay. I could go on and on with my list of advice if I had the space. But, it is sufficient for those w ith eating disorders to realize that they do have the power to take charge of their eating w hether it be to put on weight or to stop bingeing and/ or purging. The above tactics help make those with eating disorders responsible for their eating behavior. The suggestions help give the athlete control if they are willing to take responsibility. I tell the athletes, "No one can take away your eating disord er for yo u. Others can suffer support and care but ultimately its resolution up to you. It is a difficult and slow process-unbearable at times. Getting over an eating disorder is like taking two steps forward and one step back. Recovery is possible and the journey is worth it. I have faith in you. YOU CAN DO IT!" Reprinted by permission h'om The Australiall GYll1 llast, Spring 1993, pp. 15-18.

If you would like to learn more about eating disorders, you can purchase "Helping Athletes with Eating Disorders" through USA Gymnastics Merchandise on page two.

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Preschoo1fMovement Education

rying to teach children ages two to five a cartwheel can be an exasperating task. But if you use vis u al cues and some drills with cute imaginative names, it can become fun and producti ve for both the student and the teac her .


., I

.A 12

The use of visual (rather than verbal) cues is the key to teaching all tumbling to preschoolers. Visual cues such as hand prints and footprints lead the student visually to d o what their body parts need to do to accomplish the skill. You can use anything as a visual cue- rubber targets, rubber dots, handprints and footprints, and chalk on the floor. With this technique the student is more self-directed, displaying a stronger feeling of selfesteem and accomplishment. There is relatively little spotting on the teacher's part and this makes for a win-win situation in class-empowering the student and freeing the teacher's time. Listed below are some fun new ways to teach cartwheels and the explanations. • Elevated Hula Hoop Place a hoop on a trapezoid block or stacked panel mats. Tell the children to put their hands in the hoop and kick their feet around to the other side. • The Wheel Create the spokes of a wheel by placing one cone in the middle and stretching four ropes out placing the ends of the ropes in the tops of the cones. Have the students place their hands on a target over the

The Wheel


Permission to edit and reprint this article has been given by the author and Dance Teacher Now, July / August, 1993, 33-37.

Illustrations by Ron Torres

Higher and Higher with the Rope



rope and kick their feet around. Continue around the wheel. • Between the Walls Create walls of m ats standing on end. Challenge the children to kick high enough so they don't knock over the walls. • Down an Incline Mat (Wedge) Start at the top and perform the cartwheel going down to create more air time for kicking the leg around. Also use a large incline and have them do two cartwheels in a row. Put two hoops in a row to cue them. • Higher and Higher with the Rope Attach a jump rope to a trapezoid block or under a pile of mats. Have the student place their hands on the mats and kick their legs up. As the teacher raises the rope higher students are forced to kick their legs to the vertical. • Yellow Brick Rope Place a large cloth rope (like a tug-of-war rope) in a snaillike fashion. Have the child start in the middle and place their hands down. As the snail's circle gets bigger the child has to kick their legs up higher and higher. • Carpet Strip Go to a carpet store and get a sample strip. This should be

approximately 12" by 3' long. With chalk draw X's where you want the children's hands and feet to be placed. • Floor Beam By having the students place their hands on the beam and kicking around to the other side, you can work at least three students at once. It's also elevated to give them air time for a proper landing. • Alley of Cones Create an area between two lines of plastic traffic cones connected with plas tic jump ropes. Use five cones on each side and two or three hoops inside to indicate the correct hand placement. • Smiling Clock face With chalk on the mat draw a clock face. Tell the student to

Yellow Brick Rope

place their hands on "2" and "4" and kick their legs around. Also h ave them work on "8" and "10" to develop cartwheels on both sides. This can also be used for handstands by placing the hands on "5" and "7". Parents love this drill because so many clocks these days are digital that the children don't become familiar with a clock with hands and a face. • Frosty the Snowman (This is d one for a" right" cartwheel and can be done with the w hole group working at the same time.) If you have six students, spread the carpet squares evenly apart. Place a hoop in front of and to the right of each carpet square. Have three foam cubes for each child . Ask them if they've ever built a snowman before. Tell them to place on foam cube in front of the carpet square. That's Frosty's body. Have them place their hands in the hoop and kick their feet over Frosty's bottom layer. To encourage them to kick higher to achieve their cartwheel, build the snowman and see if they can kick all the way over Frosty. This is extremely successful because it's fun, it keeps their attention, and it allows all students to work simultaneously.



July 1994 TECHNIQ UE



• Hoop Holders Instead of always placing the hoop on the floor, use a Styrofoam h oop holder. Purchase or make one by buying a Sty rofoam circle 2" by 8" and

Alley of (ones

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> preschool & school cutting it in half. Make a cut at the rounded side and place the hoop in it. • Mancino Cartwheel Mat For about $30, you can purchase a mat with printed hand prints and footprints in the proper place for three- and four-year-olds to learn cartwheels. Many gyms have at least six of these so that groups of preschoolers can work their cartwheels all at once. I suggest that you first teach tumbling in a" cross mat" fashion, not " down the mat." Rainbow colored panel mats, with every fourth panel a different color-red, yellow, blue, and green-are a tremendous aid in teaching cartwheels to preschoolers. The different colors allow you to instruct your students to spread out by merely saying "Everyon e, get behind a red mat. " The "Tumbl e b ear Square" has a set of stairs that goes to a middle block then fans out to three small incline mats. It's fabulous for running a group of children through cartwheels and forward and backward rolls . Trying to determine whether a child does their cartwheel to their left or right can be a challenge. One of the best ways is to have the child place their hands on the mat and kick up like a "horsy kick. " Watch their feet.

the leg they would put in front to starttheir cartwheel. After determining their cartwheel leg, place a stamp or mark on that foot (and the same hand) so they can practice at home. Emphasize to the parents that at-home practice is critical that week to reinforce the cartwheel action. Tell the parents to be sure to have plenty of space and a home mat or nice soft carpeted area where their child can practice. Spotting this skill isn't necessary. If the child remembers with which foot to start, they can safely practice each day until their next lesson. Teaching cartwheels to preschoolers can be fun and effective when approached with a sense of imagination. Using visual cues is the key to allow the children to feel the skill by themselves and experience self-gratification. Take the challenge and teach those cartwheels!

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Coaches Education





Successful completion of this course fulfills one requirement for PDP Level II Accreditation.

Use the form below to pre· register for the course of your choice. To guarontee your registration, a completed form must be received by USA Gymnastics three weeks (21 days) prior to the published course date.

JULY 9 8:00 am-5:00 pm Aipken Senior & (ommunity (enter, 17800 Redwood Rd., (astra Volley, CA (near Oakland) (ourse Oir.: Susan Robinette 1510) 481-9460



AUGUST 24·25


Wed.: 8:30 om-9:00 pm, Thurs.: 2:00-5:00 pm Nashville, TN 1994 USA Gymnastics (ongress (ourse Oir.: TBA (317) 237-5050

Time: TBA, Pierre Marquette Hotel, Peoria, Il (ourse Oir.: Norbert Bendixen (70B) 949·776B (708) 949·USGF

COACHING PruNOPLES To more accurately refiecttheir current programs and future efforts, ACEP is now ASEP, Americon Sport Education Program. In addition, the Sport Science Course is now titled" Coaching Principles Course." USA Gymnastics feels this is a positive change which indicates more specificolly the content areas covered in this comprehensive course curriculum.

(ourse Oir.: Ed Gibson (219) 736-2723

This course is to be held in coniunction with Illinois Stote Congrell.

AUGUST 28 9:00 om-7:00 pm Nashville, TN 1994 USA Gymnastics (ongress (ourse Oir.: TBA (317) 237-5050

AUGUST 3·5 Mon. & Tues.: 9:00 om-12 noon Wed.: 9:00 om-l 0:30 am (amp Woodward, Woodward, PA 18360 (ourse Oir.: Oove Moskovitz (317) 237-5050

JULY J5 9:00 am-12 noon, !:00-5:30 pm Oak (reek (amp, Sunbury, OH (ourse Oir.: Oove Moskovitz (317) 237-5050


To be held in coniunction with Summer Workshop.

To be held in coniunclion with Summer Workshop.



Fri.: 6:00-9:00 pm, Sot.: 9:00-4:00 pm Helen Poesler School, Rm. #1, 9308 Foirbonks ln, Raleigh, N( 27613 (ourse Oir.: (hristine Kennedy (919) 469-5462 locol (ontoct: Gymcorolino Gymnastics (919) 848- 7988

Fri: 5:30 pm-9:30 pm Sot: 8:00 om-12:00 noon St. louis, MO, Host Hotel (ourse Oir.: Kevin Scott (314) 842-2620 This course is to be held in conjunction with the Region IV Mini·Congress.

9:00 om-7 :00 pm Nashville, TN 1994 USA Gymnastics (ongress (ourse Oir.: TRA (317) 237-5050

9:00 om- 5:30 pm Holiday Inn Airport Indianapolis, 2501 S. High School Rd., 46241

This course is to be held in conjunclion with the Region V Mini·Congress.

OCTOBER TBA Time: TRA Richmond, VA (ourse Oir.: Oove Moskovitz (317) 237-5050 local (ontoct: linda Johnson (410) 721 -5853



9:00 om-5:00 pm Eostgote Holiday Inn, 4501 Eostgote Blvd., Cincinnati, OH 45245 (ourse Oir.: TBA locol (ontoct: Vicki Hoggard (513) 489-7575

This course is to be held in coniundion with the Region VII Mini·Congress.

USA Gymnastics-ASEP Coaching Principles Course- Registration Form

Fill in the following form as completely and accurately as possible. please print or type.


Birthdate______ Age __ (min. age is 18 years)



Zip _ _ __

Phone #: Home (_) - _

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Social Security No. _ _ - __ - _ _ USAG Professional No. _ _ _ _ _ __ Safety Certification Status: Are you currently Safety Certified? D Course Information:

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Course Instructor( s) __________________________________________________ Course Information

1. The textbook for the Coaching Principles course is Successful Coaching. The textbook is included in the course fee . Preregistered participants will receive their materials at the course. 2. The course fee is $80. USAG Professional Members may register at the reduced rate of $70. 3. Successful completion of this course fulfills the Sport Science requirement for PDP Levell! Accreditation . 4. Send completed form with payment to: USA Gymnastics, Pan American Plaza, 20 1 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225 Payment:


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ome flexibility or joint range of motion (ROM) exercises and particular gymnastic skills elicit forces contrary to the anatomical design of related human joints. The use of such maneuvers exploit joint integrit y and are contraindicated. Resulting complications originate from repetitive stresses, predisposing the joint to articular laxity. Although these maneuvers can assist in fulfilling compulsory and optional exercise requirements, joint stability is reduced. Included here are suggested guidelines designed to provide a sensible approach to fulfilling gymnastic performance requirements, while improving or maintaining physical well-being.


Guidelines for ROM and Performance 1. Use a general, comprehensive warm-up for all athletes and consider the individual when stretching. 2. Use strength exercise for all joints, through a total range of motion, and consider particular focus on joints demonstrating excessive ROM. 3. Select gynmastics skills and stretching exercises that accommodate normal anatomical ROM.

Consider the Individual (Guideline #1) An irony exists in stretching programs. Too little ROM can hamp er gymnastics performance, yet too much can limit joint stability. Guideline # 1provides a reasonable approach to accommodating individual differences among gymnastics participants. A thorough, general warm-up is necessary in preparing gymnasts for stretching, strenuous workouts, and for competitive meets. Thorough stretching is not, however, necessary for all gymnas ts. Although stretching has a necessary place in the gymnastics workout, the extent to which

each gynmast needs to increase ROM varies.

Warm-up and the individual A general warm-up prepares the soft tissues for strenuous physical activity by raising tissue temperature (Sapega et ai., 1981). Warm-up activity may be sufficient for some gymnasts, with little or no stretching included. It is quite possible for an individual to be too flexible; hence, stretching exercise can lead to further joint instability, resulting in predispOSition to injury and reduced control at the joint. COlmective and muscular tissues can lose positive strapping characteristics when this individual participates in a comprehensive fle xibility regime. Flexibility exercise is particularly needed, however, when the gymnast possesses limited ROM. The individual with limited fle xibility is well served by using a combination of general warm-up and subsequent connective tissue stretching. This will tend to produce a viscoelastic tissue behavior, providing the proper relative proportion of plastic and elastic deformation. Sapegaet ai., (1981) suggests this procedure elicits more perman ent soft tissue lengthening when the microstructure of collagen reaches 104 degrees, is stretched to a point of tension (low stretch magnitude), and is held for 10 to 60 seconds.

Muscular Strength and the Joint (Guideline #2) Higher levels of ROM is of little value in gymnastics performance unless muscular strength is at a complimentary level. Consequently, a strength program is essential by augmenting the multifaceted benefits of flexibility. Muscular strength enhances ROM by improving joint integrity tlu'ough amplification of the stabilizing force component and the concomitant angular force component (Cornelius, 1989; Kreighbaum and Barthels, 1990). These derivatives of muscular strength represent the resultant force and are essential in July 1994

the manipulation of a body segment during gymnastics performance. As gynmastics movements place particularly high stresses on the human joint during swing, proper levels of ROM and strength are essential in achieving both control and amplitude. The shoulderjointis particularly susceptible to stresses as the gymnast hits the bottom of the swing and experiences the full extent of gravity's pull on the body. A gymnast with excessive shoulder ROM can lack joint integrity and is more susceptible to injury. The athlete w ith abnormal joint laxity is at risk for sudden traumatic injury when the activity places extreme d emands on the shoulder complex. Common mechanisms for rota-

musc ular strength program . Guideline # 2 is not meant to minimize the importance of flexibility, but to address the need for joint integrity. The force produced from adequate muscle tension, by way of the musculotendinous attachment ac ross a joint, provid es a beneficial strapping effect on the joint. A resulting line of pull from muscle contraction issues improve joint stability, particularly at smaller angles of insertion. The stabilizing force component represents the part of the resultant vector that is directed into the joint (Arnheim and Prentice, 1993; Cornelius, 1989; Kreighbaum and Barthels, 1990) . Strength simply adds to the ability of the joint to provide an axis abo ut


REASONABLE PERSPECTIVE Dr. William Cornelius tor cuff strains, for example, are the result of an explosive pull to the arm, excessive segment rotation, tearing or tendinous tiss ue rupture (Arnheim a nd Prentice, 1993). Consequently, there is a need for maximum muscular strength gains, along with diverse ROM, tlu'ough a full range of motion (Arnheim and Prentice, 1993) .

which the body segment rotates; consequently, joint stability is a crucial link in effectively using higher levels of ROM.

Addressing joint integrity

There are gy mnastics skills and combinations, as there are s tretching exercises, tha t can produce complications in the grow th and d evelopment of yo ung gymn asts. Some movem ents or positions place particularly high stress loads on human joints and related connective tissu es . Body positions should be avoided that are contrary to normal ana tomical joint design. Although gymnas tics ac tivities offer wonderful diverSity in movement p atterns and provide the gymnas t

Guideline #2 can provide a frameworkforall gynmasts, but has particular relevance for those possessing hyperflexibility at one or more joints. Joint integrity is altered when a gymnast possesses excessive ROM and has a low level of muscular strength . This can result in limited joint stability and a predisposition to injury and reduced ski ll acq uisiti on . Co n sequently, all gymnas ts w ith h yp ennobile joints would be well served in a broadly based TECHNIQUE

Accommodating Normal Anatomical ROM (Guideline #3)



sential in gymnastics performance, but certainly all could lead to predisposing the athlete to injury.

Questionable gymnastics moves

USA Gymnastics Photo Š Dove Block

with an opportunity to illuminate human motion to a level beyond what most sports can render, there can be significant pitfalls unless motor skill and physical exercise selections are appropriate.

Questionable stretching moves Not all stretching exercise is beneficial. There are some questionable choices. The exercise must be in consort with joint behavior by applying stretch along an appropriate plane of motion and around the axis fitting to normal rotation. Stretching exercise should be specific to the desired task and consigned to the health and well-being of the gymnast. The hurdler's stretch is an example of a questionable choice because itcansubjectthe medial collateral and medial capsular ligaments (primary medial stabilizing complex) of the bent knee to undue stress. Although the knee joint is anatomically designed to possess medial stability and can withstand reasonable valgus (inward) force magnitudes, repeated use of the hurdler's stretch can be contraindicated. This s tretch applies a torque about the anteroposterior axis, particularly at the medial aspect of the knee joint. The resulting valgus force opens the medial portion of the knee joint, placing inordinate stress on the medial stabilizing complex. This simply decreases joint integrity by s tretching medial knee supporting structures

to an end point that can result in excessive knee joint laxity. The tibia is also abnormally torqued around the longitudinal and mediolateral axes in the hurdler's stretch. This contraindication is assured by virtue of the abducted foot at the subtalar joint, and the outwardly rotated (nearing 90 degrees) and hyperflexed (beyond the normal 135 d egrees) tibia, to positions along side the femur. The knee joint is not designed to allow the tibia to assume this position. Both the anterior portion of the medial collateralligament taut throughout normal ROM, and the anterior cruciate ligament normally assist in preventing excessive outward rotation about the longitudinal axis (Arnheim and Prentice, 1993) . Furthermore, the anterior cruciate limits anterior opening of the knee joint during flexion. The hurdler's stretch, therefore, predisposes the knee joint to injury because it encourages laxity in these ligaments. The compilation of all these stresses simply results in reducing joint stability by placing undue, excessive stress on the knee joint. Hyperextension of the lower arm at the elbow joint and hyperextension of the tibia at the knee joint are additional examples of detrimental stretching exercises. The harm derived from these exercises results from movement into positions contrary to normal joint manipulation. None of these stretching exercises and associated segment movements would be esJuly 1994

Some gymnastics moves create an active stretch at a particular joint that is often inappropriate to the way in which the joint normally functions. Although most gymnastics skills and combinations are safe and germane to positive growth and developmen t, some moves force particu1ar joints to function unsuitably. Some argue that front and back walkovers fit in to this category through excessive stress and continuous overloading on the vertebralcolumn.*(Leach,1977) The female gymnast s particularly susceptible because walkovers are often used with floor exercise and balance beam routines in order to fulfill FIG requirements. Trauma can be created tlu'ough single or repetitive walkovers causing an excessive anterior angle between lumbar vertebra. This results from hyperextension of the vertebral column. Significant curvature of the spinal column subjects intervertebral disks to abnormal compression near the posterior border. This is particularly stressful as the body weight creates a load on the joint. A rather daunting consequence can be excessive anterior herniation and posterior soft tissue deterioration of the intervertebral disks. Further complications result from exposing associated ligaments to repeated anomalous tension.

* Editor's note: Most gymnastics coaches would argue that the problems discussed concerning the performance of front and back walkovers are mitigated tlu'ough proper skill teclmique, training practices, and appropriate conditioning. It is certainly likely that some skills are questionable just as some flexibility exercises may be detrimental to human performance and general well-being. Training teclmiques must follow a precarious balance between what is developmental and that which w ill permit perceived artis tic performance. A TECHNIQUE

h igh level of ROM is a necessity for the gymnast, however, it is essential that this standard be within normal anatomicallimitations appropriate to the particular joint involved.

Too Much or Too Little Flexibility Inappropriate levels of ROM can have far reaching implications to physical well-being and can affect the outcome of a gymnastics performance. It is possible to possess too little or too much flexibility at one or more joint(s). Flexibility testing can provide the gymnast with impOl'lant information concerning whether an appropriate ROM level has been reached. Harris (1969) indicates that fle xibility is specific to a joint. Therefore, it is not appropriate to generalize a single ROM measure to the entire bod y. Consequently, a Single fle xibility measurement, such as the commonly used Sit-Reach Flexibili ty Tes t, is primaril y limited to trunk or hip fle xion. In order to develop a more useful evaluation of ROM, all the major joints should be individually tested to provide a flexibility profile that addresses the movement diversity inherent in gymnastics activity.

Hypoflexibility Reduced gymnastics performance and an inability to reach full expression is often the resul t of a lack of flexibility ~1ypoflexi­ bility). This appears to stem from not being able to manipulate body segments tlu'ough a full range of motion. It is quite probable that an incapacity to align the upper arm with the trunk, pelvis, and lower body is why many gymnasts have difficulty in performing a straight handstand position. Less control is possible when flexibility prohibits body segments from being maintained directly above the base of support. Therefore, limited shoulder flexibility can result in moving the line of gravity outside the base of support. The gymnast will often sacrifice technique by moving the pelvis into forward tilt in order to maintain static equilibrium. This pelvic alignment promotes hyperex-


tension of the lumbar vertebra; thus, technique is relinquished due to hypoflexibility.

Hyperflexibility Less control in movements and greater frequency of injury may result when joint stability does not accompany normal ROM. This can be the result of excessive ROM (hyperflexibility) . Repercussion will occur when the joint is not properly supported. Adequate strapping through various connective tissue Goint capsule, tendon, ligament, and fascia) is particularly important, when anatomical bone structures permit greater joint instability, and when associated muscular sh'ength is lacking. A constructive physical wellness program enhances tissue health and assists in maintenance of joint stability. It is possible to have too much ROM. The gymnast needs desirable levels of both flexibility and stability at the various joints in order to move through a full range of motion with control. Consequently, some gymnasts need greater emphasis on improving strength and joint integrity, others need focus on increased ROM, while some gymnasts need a balanced approach to ROM and strength. All individuals do not need the same conditioning program.

structure and the amount of soft tissue, within and around the joint, create higher levels of stability. This individual simply has an inability to maneuver bony segments through normal ROM. Consequently, it is quite plausible this joint condition can influence performance. It would be advisable for the tight jointed gymnast to begin all workouts with a general warm-up and subsequent comprehensive stretching program. Ending the strenuous workout with a sh'etching session will limit the pooling effect of metabolic byproducts and reduce soreness. It is particular Iy important tha t effective stretching procedures be a part of this regimen, such as modified Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF) stretching techniques. PNF techniques have been found superior for improving ROM when compared to conventional flexibility techniques (Cornelius, 1990; Prentice, 1983; Sady et al., 1982).

Loose jointed A loose jointed gymnast may need to spend less time on ROM exercise and more time on improving muscular strength. The loose jointed individual is particularly susceptible to injury and can be associated with lack

of control during performance. This genetic characteristic can be associated with abnormally high levels of ROM and a predisposition to joint instability. Consequently, ROM exercise should vary by individual. It may be quite possible for a loosejointed individual to reach acceptable ROM levels through general warm-up and gymnastics performance, rather than supplementing with fle xibility exercise. It is quite possible the loose-jointed individual need s to supplement gymnastics workouts with resistance exercise, not a comprehensive stretching program.

Summary It is indeed imperative that an intelligent approach be used in developing ROM. There can be a double edged consequence when the particular needs of the individual are not considered. All individuals do not need a comprehensive stretching program. A balance between flexibility and joint stability, however, is essential in controlling probl ematic circumstances . ROM problems can be created or accentuated when decisions are made purely on the basis of group or team needs.

Joint Characteristics The extent of flexibility possessed by an individual is dependent on a number of considerations and can range from quite limited ROM to near carte blanche. Flexibility is solely based on how much or the type of stretching exercise performed; rather, genetic factors such as tight and loose joint characteristics provide a great deal to the outcome (Cornelius, 1988). These inherited attributes, coupled with inappropriate conditioning practices, can exacerbate joint abnomalies.

Tight jointed The tight jointed individual exhibits a particularly taut musculotendinous and ligamentous arrangement across the joint. Additionally, the bony



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References Arnheim, D.D. & Prentice, W.E.

(1993) . Principles of Athletic Training (8th ed.). St Louis: Mosby Year Book, Inc. Cornelius, W.L. (1988). Flexibility misconceptions . Technique, 8(3-4):18-19. Cornelius, W.L. (1990). Modified PNF stretching: improvement in hip fle xion. National

Strength and Conditioning Association Journal, 12(4): 44-46. Cornelius, W.L. (1989) . Muscle force: the stabilizer. Technique, 9(3):16-17. Harris, M. (1969). A factor analytic study of flexibility. Re-

search Quarterly, 40:62-70. Leach, R.E. (1977). Disc disease, spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis. Athletic Training, 12(1):13-17. Sady, S.P., Wortman, M., & Blanke, D. (1982) . Flexibility training: ballistic, static or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation? Archives of

Physical Medicineand Rehabilitation, 63 :261-263 . Sapega, A.A., Quedenfeld, T.c., Moyer, R.A ., Butler, R. A. (1981). Biophysical factors in range-of-motion exercise. The

Physician and Sports medicine, 9(12):57-65,106.

1994 Congress

CONGRESS COSTS PROFESSIONAL MEMBERS Pre-registration: (received prior to Aug 1) $150



i~ 18


USA CONGRESS AND USA CHAMPIONSHIPS IN ONE COMBINED WEEKEND! For the first time, the USA Gymnastics National Congress and the men's and women's USA Champio nships will be conducted on the same weekend!

THE RIGHT TIME! You have been asking for a change in the annual dates of the National Congress from September to August-in 1994 it is going to happen!

THE RIGHT PLACE! Nashvilie- the home of country music, downhome food, and good times, Opryland Hotel-one of the premier visitor and convention centers in the United States,

THE BEST OF BOTH! The USA Gymnastics Congress committee and the Events staff have been working closely to ensure that participants get the bestofboth! Information packed Congress sessions, the opportunity to watch the best gymnasts in the United States, and a GREAT time in one exciting weekend,

THE FACTS HOST C ITY Nashville, TN CONGRESS D ATES Pre-Congress Sessions August 24-25, 1994 Congress Sessions August 25-28, 1994 CONGRESS HOTEL Opryland Hotel 2800 Opryland Drive

NON-MEMBERS $2 10 Congress Registration forms will be included in this issue on page 21 ,

Nashville, TN 372 14 Ph, 615-889-1000 Fax 615-87 1-6942 HOTEL RATES Traditional

Gorden View

Single/double $109 $139 Triple/quad $125 $155 Reservation cut-off date is July 24, 1994, Please inform the hotel that you are port of the USA Gymnastics room block.

EXHIBITION HALL The Exhibit Hall will provide participants the opportunity to see the newest and best equipment, apparel, supplies and services, Discuss your needs, compare services and prices and make deals!

CONGRESS PROGRAM Please note: at the print deadline for Technique magazine, all Congress time slots and presenters were not yet finalized, A complete schedule will be provided in the Congress Proceedings Book. You may rest assured that once again the USA Gymnastics Congress will set the standard for program offerings presented by leaders in gymnastics, sport, club business, movement education, and sport science,

CONGRESS TOPICS The following list is not complete, but it will give you a good idea of the kinds of topics that have been submitted by our 1994 Presenters: PRESC HOO L/ MOVEM EN T EDU C ATION Once again, a full program will be offered in these important areas featu ri ng outstanding movement education specialists,

Topics include: Recycle, reset. rethink, reuse · Never too young . Preschool round table · Identification of learning styles and appropriate teaching approaches · Flex· ibility development and maintenance ' Understanding the developmental stages of the preschooler ' Preschool strategies for the 90's , The Australian Gym Kit program . Using music during preschool classes: activity songs and background music . Two to three year olds listening and social skills · Developmentallyappropriate movement and music activities . Let's teach real gymnastics to preschoolers . Exploration, guided discovery. and the direct approach: asampling of developmentally appropriate teaching styles, BUSINESS AND LEGAL Experts and entrepreneurs will assist gym club ownersand managersin a wide range of business offerings, focusing on utilization of new technologies to make your business more efficient and profitable, Topics include: Positioning your business today for 1996 . Ten keys to successful marketing".from outside the sport of gymnastics . Planning for success: how to define and achieve your business ob· jectives . Capitalizing on the Atlanta Olympics . Planning, designing, financing. and building your dream facility · If I build it. they will come . Three principles for retirement planning . Performance based compensation plan . Staff manuals and beyond: a how and why to staff procedure · Newsletters:yourgym'smost valuable marketing tool , Your best defense against lawyers and other reptiles· Fundraising and promotions · Office efficiency and communication · The coach as a business owner: protecting your assets . Handling parent problems . Handling team gymnasts problems, SPORT SCIENCE Dr, William Sands, Chairman of the USA Gymnastics Sport Science Advisory Committee, will coordinate the 4th annual Sport Science Symposium, Sports Scientists interested in presenting at the Symposium should contact the Education Dept, for more information and submission forms, Topics include: Testing a gymnast's un· derstanding of correct techniques for skill completion · Creating rapport,discipline, and dealing with fears . Biomechanics: banishing Newton, Achieving peak per· formance: adding a missing link , Overcoming mental blocks . Psychology of

July 1994 TECHNI Q UE

burn-out: symptoms and strategies . The female athlete triad · TOP's research resuits · Olympic Training Center programs· Human performance techniques for improving coaching methods . Mental preparation prior to competition . Nutrition concerns for young gymnasts . Conditioning, care, and training · Sports psychology: mental training· Energy deficits and their effects on body composition . Three to get ready", sports psychology, sports nutrition, and conditioning ' Factors associated with optimizing gymnastics experience . and others! WOMEN'S PROGRAM OFFERINGS Topics include: Developing uneven bar progressions . Conditioning on bars . Stage presentation . Junior national pro· gram . Conditioning for body alignment , You asked for it: the good, the bad,and the ugly · TOP's program update · Basic vaulting drills . Balance beam progressions for beginners . Vaulting progressions for beginners . Basic bar progressions for beginners . How to create a floor routine from scratch · Level 5-7 JO compUlsory: stylization vs, text · Committee reports ' and more! MEN'S PROGRAM OFFERINGS

Topics include: Whip·back and whip tumbling (for men and women) . Ring strength and conditioning . JO program updates · Otherspecialized sessions for all men's events, RHYTHMIC PRO G RAM OFFERINGS Nora Campbell is hard at work on the RSG program offerings, Topics include: Conditioning for Rhythmic . Judging RSG ' Cross-training · Level 3·4 Program, As usual, the Congress sessions will focus on important RSG needs and be designed to permit rhythmic coaches and judges to also participate in sport science and related sessions, JUDGING TRAC TS Sessions will include: Practice judg· ing sessions, theoretical sessions, and reo lated sessions, The artistic men 's and women's as well as rhythmic areas are currently developing these sessions, In addition, Sunday sessions will include women's artistic judging certification ex· aminations, Sign-up for the women'sjudg· ing certification examinations will be conducted "on·site," COAC H ES ED UCATION Besides the Congress "Add-on"

1994 Congress

sessions on Wednesday and Sunday, several Congress sessions will be devoted to: The explanation of the Professional Development Programs (PDP) and discussion of the future of PDP and Safety Certification, Of interest: The explanation of future attention to Certification programs in alternative areas such as preschool/developmental movement education, cheerleading, aerobics, and so forth,

MISCELLANEOUS Topics include: . Teaching effectiveness in the gymnastics setting . How to use Tumbl-Trak . Creativity and innovation in non-competitive gymnastics . School-aged classes need special attention too! . Satellite programs· One-stopshop: a complete children's center . Gymnastics games . Sexual abuse in the clubs· and more!

, 994 CONGRESS AND NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS SCHEDULE Note: The following schedule is tentative and subject to change, It is offered here to illustrate how these two exciting events will be coordinated






All day

"Golf Scramble" outing Various Congress "Add-on" Sessions (PDP I & II, Safety Certification, Skill Evaluator Exam, Meet Director Exom, and so forth)

9:00-12:00 2:00-4:30 7:00-9:00

Jr. Women's Compulsory Meet Jr. & Sr. Men's Compulsory Meet Sr. Women's Compulsory Meet


11 :00--6:00 9:00-12:30 2:00-5:00

Congress Exhibit Hall Open Congress Sessions 1, 2, and 3 (Special Groups Sessions "A" & "B")


Jr. Women's Optional Meet Jr. & Sr. Men's Optional Meet

ALTERNATIVE PROGRAMS USA Gymnastics' social Club '94 10:00-1:00 Topics include: Aerobics activity ses- ! - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 sion (presented by Reebok on Friday FRIDAY, AUGUST 26 morning) . Competitive aerobics: the 10:00--6:00 Congress Exhibit Hall Open 8:30-12: 15 Congress Sessions 4, 5, and 6 FIG-new kid on the block · SpecialOlympics programs . Challenge by choice: 12:15-1:45 -Lunch Breakwall climbing' Trampoline activities· 1:45-5:30 Congress Sessions 7, 8, and 9 Implementing a swim program · Cheer7:00-10:00 Sr. Women's Optional Meet leader gymnastics: lucrative assets . The Return to Opryland Hotel and 1O:00-? Or. .. stay and enjoy Nashville's 1O:00-? future of cheerleading for gymnastics downtown social activities! enioy the activities! club owners· A cheerleading conditioning program· General Gymnastics:what SATURDAY, AUGUST 27 9:00-1 :00 Congress Exhibit Hall Open is performance gymnastics? . LeI's go to 8:30-12:00 Congress Sessions 10, 11, and 12 Germany: 1995 Gymnaestrada in Berlin . Round table discussion on satellite pro1:00-3:00 Sr. Men's Event FINALS 1:30-4:30 (Special Groups Sessions "C" & "D") grams . and more! 6:00-8:00 Sr. Women's Event FINALS Congress Party Nashville-style! 9:30- 1:00 As you can see, Congress 1994 (Plenty of food, festivities, dancing, offers more exciting, significant, and entertainment) and important presentations USA Gyrnnastics Ceremony of Honors 10: 15-10:45 than anyone delegate can Presentation of the new Notional Teams possibly attend! There are up to 10 presentations offered at SUNDAY, AUGUST 28 Morning Various "Add-on" Sessions- PDP I & II, one time! Plan ahead-bring Safety Certification, Skill Evaluator Exam, sufficient staff to take notes in Meet Director Exam, and so forth) all sessions of interest! If you NOTE: Before your departure, you could: OR ... can't bring a full staff of noteSpecial Groups Sessions "A, B, C, and D" are provided to Sleep late and then partake in the takers, don 't worry, once again groups desiring to conduct meetings, such as the State bountiful Opryland Sunday Brunch Directors, Regional Boards, or the H.S. Coach's the USA Gymnastics Congress Play a round of golf at the beautiful Association. Committee will prepare the Opryland Spring Hill PGA golf course, Because these Special Group Sessions conflict with or trade some exchanges at the Congress Proceedings Book competitions, no regular Congress presentations will be Opryland tennis courts that will include session outlines scheduled at these times. Toke the family to Opryland and manuscripts that, at the Regular Congress sessions inciude those numbered 1-12. Theme Park least, will provide you with core Enjoy breakfast or lunch cruise on information on most of the sesthe paddle boot General Jackson sions, This year, we also plan to Tour the Opryland Museum and other videotape several of the sesNashville landmarks sions which will be available for Or arrange any number of fun purchase through the Meractivities through the Opryland chandise Department at a Visitor's Center nominal cost, 7:00-9:30

July 1994


1994 Congress






1994 ........., USA GYMNASTICS

PRESENTERS There is no other Congress, miniCongress, workshop, or clinic in the world that brings together a similar gathering of gymnastics and sport professionals! To date, our presenters include: David Adlard, Artur Akopyan, Sue Ammerman, Vladimir Artemov, Harry Barth, Esq" Dr. Dan Benardot, Tammy Biggs, Ron Brant, Donna Bronstein, Kathy Brym, TomBurgdorf, Nora Campbell, Vanessa Celestine, Jan Claire, Sarah Jane Clifford, Stephen Cook, Charlie Cotter, Michael Crowe, Barbara Davis, Rod Davis, Dr. Joan Duda, Steve Elliott, Terry Exner, Kate Faber-Hickie, Kathy Feldmann, Jackie Fie, Darla Franz, Ron Galimore, Jennifer Gallahue-Lee, Ron Ganim, John Geddert, Nicki Geigert, Joy Gibney, Esq" Dr, Alan Goldberg, Steve Greeley, Muriel Grossfeld, Dr. Patty Hacker, Patty Hannan, Paula Hilliker, Bill Hopkins, Cheryl Jarrett, Kathy Kelly, Thelma King-Thiel. Sandy Knapp, Tom Koli. Patti Komara, Raymond Kurshals, Tom Lenzini, Peggy liddick, Jeff Lulla, Dr, Eric Malmberg, Dr, Joe Massimo, Jeannie McCarthy, Dr, Robert McKelvain, Jeff Metzger, Hideo Mizoguchi, Dave Moskovitz, Jim Nance, Dr, Larry Nassar, Dr, Aurelia Nattiv, Paul O'Neill. Rae Pica, Geza Pozar, Bill Roetzheim, Dr. Bill Sands, Kathy Scanlan, Brenda Scharlow, Sharon Scherr, Dr, Andrea Schmid, Kevin Scott, Lisa Shuck, Gary Thibodeau, "Cricket" Bucaro, Doug VanEveren, Gary Warren, Mas Watanabe, Mike West, Steve Whitlock, John Wojtczuk, Graciela Yanes, and others!

In order to assist you with decisions for the 1994 Congress and Coca-Cola National Championships, we are including some information that may be of assistance,

AmericanAirlin~s路 Something special in the air.

SPECIAL AIRLINE DISCOUNTS USA GymnastiCS has selected Opryland International Travel (01T) to be your official travel agency for this years Congress Opryland International Travel: , Is conveniently located in the Opryland Hotel. Offers 10 percent off all fares on American Airlines, Provides each traveller with $2CO,croflight insurance at no cost, Gives you FREE AIRPORT SHUTILE service ($13 savings per person) when youbook your flight with OIT, o



BONUS: Every Attendee who purchaces their airline ticket from OIT, regardless of airline, will have a chance to win a round trip ticket on American Airlines,

Call OIT at 1-800-677-9526 from 8am-5pm (Monday-Friday) and 9am-4pm (Saturdays) central time or FAX 1-615-871-5794 AIRPORT SHUTTLE Shuttle service is available to/ from the Opryland Hotel. The cost is $13 round trip or $9 one way, The Opryland Hotel is within 10 minutes of Nashville International Airport, Note: if you make your travel arrangements through Opryland International Travel, you will receive FREE shuttle seNice,

BY CAR Opryland Hotel, the site for all of the Congress activities, is located approximately 20 minutes from the Nashville Municipal Auditorium, the site of the competition , The directions from Opryland Hotel to downtown: South on Briley Parkway to 1-40, or West on Briley Parkway to 1-65South o o

There is no charge for parking at the Opryland Hotel, but you will need to park in one of the municipallots near the auditorium if you plan to attend the event,

The parking costs will be $3 to $5, Budget Rent-A-Car is the official rental agency for the Congress, You will receive an informational coupon from Budget with your Congress Registration packet, BUS SERVICE USA Gymnastics will be providing round trip bus service for the Championship Competition on Thursday, Friday, and Saturday, The costfor thisservice will be $12 payable at the Congress Registration Desk, If you are interested in this transportation, please call Tina Sunier, Cathy Allen or Kathy Brown at the USA GymnastiCS office (317-237-5050), This is not for registration purposes-merely to insure that we have an adequate number of buses, If you are not renting a car, this bus service might be an attractive transportation alternativeparticularly on Saturday, At the end of the Women 's final competitions, buses will be ready to transport you back to Opryland in time to be first in line for the Congress Banquet festivities! WATER TAXI For those with a bit more time, Nashville is instituting a Water taxi from Opryland to the downtown area (about 5 blocks from the Auditorium), A boat leaves approximately every 30 minutes (the boats have a capacity for 100 passengers), The cost will be $8$10 one way,


pate in the Wednesday golf outing, tee time is scheduled for 8:00 AM. The Springhouse Golf Club is located only a few minutes from the Hotel, Complimentary shuttle service is provided, Golf registrants will receive more information about this in their packets, CONGRESS EVENINGS Wednesday, August 24, you are on your own, Thursday, August 25, USA Gymnastics will offer Congress Club 1994 at Opryland Hotel featuring games, give-aways, contests, dancing, and your favorite refreshments, Friday, August 26-once again, you are on your own, Saturday, August 27-After the Women's competition, the annual Banquet festivities begin at 9:00 PM, This will NOT be the traditional sit-down dinner, but a "down-home, Nashville-style" evening filled with food, fun, conversation areas, dancing, music, and surprises, Be sure to bring your boots or clogging shoes and other country clothing-formal attire is not required! At 10:00 pm, we will all pause for about 30 minutes for the Ceremony of Honors-a very special presentation of awards for outstanding contributors to our sport and the presentation of our new National Artistic Teams, At the conclusion of the Ceremony of Honors, the festivities continue until 1:00 AM with all of the 1994 Coca-Cola National Championships competitors, their families, and coaches,

NASHVILLE NIGHTS Nashville offers a number of opportunities for evening dining and Below: Map of Nashville en t e r t a i n men t, r-""'T'--..J.,-r-"'j"-r--~~tr:='-r' Opryland Hotel has several restaurants and bars, live entertainment. and dancing, Also nearby is Opryland Park, the paddleboatGeneral Jackson, and the Grand Old Opry, Downtown Nashville offers many exciting _____,l;< opportunities inc lud- ~=.-...,-: ing the new Horseshoe Saloon, "~iP-'-,,",Q1 '-""'~f'>:4h..Jl

GOLF SCRAMBLE If you plan to partici- L:=:::t.:::::;lii.ii:l~~UJ...~~::"'::::...l::'...J.--I


1994 Congress 路 August 25-28 路 Nashville, Tennessee

CONGRESS COSTS PROFESSIO NAL M EMB ERS Pre-registration: (prior to Aug 1) $150



Name __________________________________________________________ Social Security No. ___________________________________________________ USAG Pro#________________________________

Exp. Date ___________

Mailing Address ___________________________________________________ City ____________________________


Zip _____________

Name of Club Program ______________________________________________ Day Phone ___________________

Night Phone ______________________

Check (I ) appropriate: Program:


Men's Program

0 Women's Program

0 RhythmicProgram






0 Club Owner



Minimum age for Congress registration is 16 years.





Amount Enclosed Charge to:



L - -_ _ _ _- - - - '






Card No. _________________________________ Exp. Date ________________________________ Signature (required) ___________________________




Please return this registration form to : USA Gymnastics Congress Pan American Plaza, Suite 300 20 1 S. Capitol Avenue Indianapolis, IN 46225 T794

July 1994


Fee includes: 1Credential for entrance to regular Congress sessions, master clinics, and demonstrations on Thursday morning through Saturday,

N O N - MEM BERS $2 10



Free entrance to the Exhibit Hall featuring the industry's finest products,

1 Ticket to the Final Congress Party "Nashvillestyle." (Additional banquet tickets for spouses/ guests are $40 eachavailable at registration). 1 Ticket to the annual Ceremony of Honors.

Priority seating locations are being held for Congress attendees in the floor, mezzanine, and balcony levels for those desiring to purchase tickets to the 1994 CocaCola National Championships.

$3 per ticket discounts are available to Congress attendees for the balcony seats for the final three sessions (regular price is $10).

TO ORDER TICKETS TO THE COCA-COLA NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS, PLEASE USE TH E FORM ON THE NEXT PAGE. Note: You must register separately for the PDP Coaching Accreditation courses, Safety Certification course/ exam, Skill evaluators exam, and so forth. Forms will be available beginning with the April issue ofTechnique magazine.

., 9



1994 Coca-Cola National Championships • August 24-27 • Nashville, Tennessee





.A 22

• Each Congress participant may request a limit of four (4) Coca-Cola National Championships tickets with their Congress registration in the special prime seating blocks. • Priority locations are being held for Congress attendees in the floor, mezzanine, and balcony levels (all sessions). • On Friday and Saturday, balcony seats (for registered Congress attendees) are $7.00 - the general admission price for balcony seats on these two days is $ 10.00. No discounts will be available for any floor or mezzanine level seats. Seating will be assigned on a "1 st come-l st serve" basis until the reserved blocks have been filled. Subsequent seating requests will be on a "next-best-available" priority. All other requests for Championships tick ets will be processed through TicketPro outlets for this event. Reserve tickets at 291-5000 (local) or 1-800-834-5678 (outside Nashville).

FOR CONGRESS ATTENDEES The 1994 Congress has been designed with special attention to permit Congress attendees to enjoy one of the most important competitions of the 1994 season-the Coca-Cola National Championships for men and women,

This ticket request for priority seating must be accompan ied by a Congress registration form and be postmarked by August 1st. After August 1st, unsold priority seats will be released for sale to the general public.


Phone #

Social Security No,



Noof Tickets










Jr./Sr, Men Comp, 2:00 PM





WED,8/ 24 Jr, Wom, Comp,


Sr, Wom, Comp,

7:00 PM





THURS, 8 / 25 Jr, Wom. Opt,

2:00 PM





Jr./Sr, Men Opt,

7:00 PM





FRI,8/ 26 Sr, Wom , Opt,

7:00 PM





SAT,8/27 Sr, Men Finals






Sr. Wom Finals

6:00 PM









_$_ _ _ _----'


Card No, _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Charge to:



o Mastercard

Exp, Date _ _

Signature (required) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Please return th is registration form to: USA Gymnastics Congress, Pan American,Plaza, Suite 300, 201 S, Capitol Avenue, Indianapolis, IN 46225 T794




1994 Congress • August 25-28 • Nashville, Tennessee

, 994 CONGRESS ADD-ONS REGISTRATION FORM COMPLETE ONE FORM PER PERSON-PLEASE PHOTOCOPY FORM FOR ADDITIONAL REGISTRATIONS Name ____________________________________________________________ Social Security No. _____________________________________________________ USAG Pro#_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___

Exp. Date ___________

1994 CDNIiI


Mailing Address _____________________________________________________ City __________________________ Day Phone _____________________

State _____

Zip _ _ _ _ _ __

Night Phone _________________________ Promember


Wednesday, 8/24, 1:00 pm-5:30 pm



Sunday, 8/28, 10:30 am-3:00 pm



Check (I ) appropriate:



o o



Levell Video clinic Wednesday, 8/24, 8:30 am-11 :30 am





USA Gymnastics/ASEP Coaching Principles Courses (Note: Course enrollment is limited to!iJ per course. First come, first seNe basis. You MUST pre-register for these courses. NO ON-SITE REGISTRATION.)

o o

Wednesday, 8/24, 9:00 am-7:00 pm



Sunday, 8/28, 9:00 am-7:00 pm





ASEP Coaching Principles LTS


(This "Instructor's' course is 13.5 hours in duration. Note: Course enrol/mentis limited to 35. First come-first seNed basis. You MUST pre-register for these courses. NO ONSITE REGISTRATION.)



Part One: Wednesday, 8/24, 8:30 am-9:00 pm Part Two: Thursday, 8/25, 2:00 pm-5:00 pm





(Criteria: USA Gymnastics Pro-membership. Safety Certification and submission ofa resume indicaiing minimum of four years of coaching/administrative experience.)




Level 1·4 Skill Evaluator's Examination Sunday, 8/28, 9:00 am-11 :00 am






Use this form to register for any of the 1994 USA Gymnastics Congress tests, examinations, certifications, accreditations, etc. in which you plan to partiicpate,

Wednesday, 8/24, 8:00 am-12:30 pm Springhill Golf Club

$60 + $4.95 tax

(First come-first seNed. 72 person limit)

Total Amount Enclosed



$ __________----'


Card No. ____________________________

Charge to:



Exp. Date _ _

Signature (required) _____ _ _ _ _ __ _

Minimum age for Congress registration is 16 years.



GYMNASTICS Please return this registration form to: USA Gymnastics Congress Pan American,Plaza, Suite 300 201 S. Capitol Avenue Indianapolis, IN 46225 T'l4

July 1994


General Gymnastics

Merchandise information

Tvent Coordinator: AmyOler USA Gymnastics, Pan American Plaza, Suite 300 201 S. Capitol Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46225 (317) 237-5050

J{ost J{oteL-

Right to participate in Team/Club display Entry into all event sessions


.. .9i.wards:

Palm Sprin gs Hilton Hotel 400 East Tahquitz Canyon Way Palm Springs, CA 92262 (619) 320-6868 ~ed

Rate inform ation to follow

.9i.cfc[itiona{ J{ote[S: Information will be provided upon receipt of entry

Participation Jee(s): Basic fee - $20 per participant. This includes: Gymnaestrada T-shirt .

Accreditation card/badge


PaCm Springs LocaC Organizing Committee (LOC) ana ill.9/. (jymnastics The City of Palm Springs participated in a competitive bid process to be considered as the "host city" for the 1994 Gymnaestrada. USA Gymnastics is excited to award this event to Palm Springs and is confident that the City and the lOC will do everything possible to make this truly a memorable and enjoyable experience for all participants! The lOC includes city representatives, hotel participants, the Convention and Visitors Bureau, local gymnastics clubs, as well as local sponsors and celebrities. All participants can be assured of fantastic hospitality and VIP treatment in 1994! The lOC also reminds USA Gymnastics of their beautiful setting, enviable climate, and outstanding tourist attractions and amenities.

PaCm Springs 'Desert Museum Open daily 10am-4pm, Fri. Ipm-8pm, Closed Mon. $5 Adults, $2 Children 617yrs., $4 Seniors 62+ yrs. Art Galleries

erfie Living 'Desert (Wildlife & Botanical Park) Open daily 9am-5pm General Admin. $7, group rates avail. for 15+ w / adv. reservations

Natural Science Galleries

Guided and self-guided tow'S avail.

Performing Arts Galleries (Annenberg Theater)

Colorful gardens, rare exotic animals

hosts world class dance, theater & musical performances

15 miles East of Palm Springs, 11/2 mi.. S. of Hwy. 111 at 47-900 Partola Ave., Palm

Desert,CA Mesquite (jolf & Country CCUD 'Dream ~Cigfits 18 hole championship golf course

Putting & chipping greens, driving range & pro- shop Snack bar & restaurant

(Hot Air Balloon Adventures) Group rates available by quote.

'iVn IS Cafe/Bistro Open Tue.- Sun.

All the features of a private country club & open to the public.

Dinners from $8.95-13.95 plus tax

In the heart of Palm Springs, 2700 E. Mesquite A ve., just off Farrell Dr.

Located: 68-369 E. Palm Canyon, Cathedral City, CA 92234

July 1994


The USA Gymnaestrada is NOT a competition, however, the LOC will present some special "fun " awards. In addition, every credentialled participant will receive a Participation Certificate, a Gymnaestrada T-shirt, and other sponsor give-aways.

CredentialS: All registered participants will receive a credential permitting entry to all Gymnaestrada events and activities as well as other "bonus" values to be announced by the LOC.

rrickf-tSa{es: The LOC will sell tickets to the general public for selected

Inaian Canyons Open daily 8am-5pm $5 Adults, $1 Children 612 yrs., $2.50 Seniors 62+ yrs. Group reservations, and guided tours available Beatiful canyons, hot springs, hiking trail, birdwatching

WaCCy IS 'Desert erurtCe Open for dinner 7 days & lunch,onFri. Continental Cuisine Dinner & Nightly Entertainment Entrees from $16.50-30.75 Located: 71775 Hwy 111, Rancho Mirage, CA 92270

General Gymnastics

Cjenera{ Scfiecfu{e NOTE: This tentative schedule is subjec t to change. Wa tch for notification in fu ture issues of Technique.

%ursaay Daytime 1:00 PM Evening

J"riaay Daytime

4:00 PM 5:00 PM 5:30 PM 9:00 PM

For "early arrival" groups Tours and other socialization and fun! Golf Outing-Mesquite Golf Club. Tee-time at 1:00 PM. Info will be provided to all who complete the form on page 26. Gymnaestrada groups will be featured guests and performers at the downtown Palm Springs "Village Fest". More information to follow. Groups arrive in the morning. Practice times will be available. Special educational workshops are planned. Early "Tee-time Gymnaestrada Golf Scramble" for the adults. Tours and special activities planned for the youth participants. Official Group check-in Opening Ceremonies Workshop sessions Social activity for all participants

Saturaay 8:00- noon 1:00-4:00 5:30-6:30 6:30-8:00 9:00

Group rehearsals and workshop sessions Group performances and workshop sessions Rehearsal for Gala Showcase Gala Showcase Dress Rehearsal Performance Social activity

Sunaay 8:00-noon 12:00-1 :30 1:30-2:00 2:00-4:00 Evening


Mass display training and workshop sessions Lunch Preparation for Gala Showcase Gala Showcase performance Departures for some groups ... Social activity Departures for remaining groups

performances to be announced later.

1{ost airfine: To be announced.

Peiformance Parameters 1. Performance area-one (1)

42' x 42' competition-type spring floor will be provided centered in a basketball floor. There will be a" stage-front". The" stage-back" area will be draped. Groups w ill be able to utilize the floor areas to stage right and left of the spring floor. 2. Performance length (time)-Displays are to be a maximum of 15 minutes. This includes entrances/ exits and the placement/ re-

All other equipment and props must be supplied by the Groups. (Remember that you w ill need to get all of this on and off stage quickly !) In General Gymnastics (GG) "equipment" might include traditional artistic gYl1mastics equipment as well as nontraditional equipment such as ladders, chairs, parachutes, and so forth. 6. Theme-Please focus on A m erican and regional themes in the selection of yo ur program music and characteristic movementchoreography. This even t is somewhat of a selection opportunity for Groups desiring to represent USA Gymnas tics at the 1995 World Gymnaestrada in Berlin, Germany. All groups w ho plan to attend the World Gynmaestrada should focus on showcasing American themes or unique regional themes . 7. Staging-Prior to each group's performance, they w ill be pro vide d wi th a warm-up and staging period just prior to their performance.

moval of any additional equipment or props. 3. Number in group-Suggested number is 10 or MORE per group, but groups of 6 or more will be accepted. 4. Music-Each group must provide a cassette to the LaC and an individual who can direct and assist the A V personnel. 5. Equipment-the LaC w ill provide the basic spring floor, and sound system. At this time, the member LaC gymnastics clubs have agreed to provide additional equipment (skill cushions, landing mats, etc. -please advise us of your needs so that we can begin work on this!) July 1994

(jymneastraaa Showcase (ja[a Peiformance(s) The Gala Performances w ill be open to the public. All registered groups w ill participate. In order to keep the Gala Showcase within a 1.5-2 hour time-frame, groups should be prepared for a fi ve minute presentation. This can either be an excerp t from the 15 minute program or a program that is specially choreographed for the Gala. If possible, US Gymnastics would appreciate receipt of a videotape of your group when you register. This does not need to be your Gymnaestrada performance piece, but just something that TECHNIQUE

gives us an idea of w h at you do! This will assis t us in form. ing the program for the Gala A ll participating groups participate in the Opening Ceremonies and the Gala March-in. Based upon the review of the videotapessentto USA Gym nastics, some groups may be asked to provide a longer pro gram for the Gala- this will be a tthe discretion of the LaC an USA Gymnastics.

What is (jenera[ (jymnastics ana the (jymnaestraaa? General Gymnastics is the term used by the FIG to describe that aspect of gymnastics that is leisure-oriented and offers a range of exercise programs. The Gymneastrada is the world event conducted every four years by the FIG where nations come together to celebrate ten days of gymnastics perfor mances and exhibitions. The FIG has given permission for na tional Federations (like USA Gymnastics) to use the term Gynmaestrada w hen conduct ing one (1) nationally organized event each year.

What are the OGjectives of the (jymnaestraaa Showcase? To promote the value and diversity of gymnastics to public community. To increase participation in gymnastics irresp ective of age, gender, or ability. To provide an incentive and motivation for recreational gynmasts to display their talents. To provide an opportunity for sharing of knowledge, ideas and new developments. To assist in the general and technical education of coaches.





l1ijonnatL-lÂĽrtJ'orm To be a "stepping stone" toward s p a rticip a ti on in a World Gymnaestrada.

P[ease acM my name or (jroup to tfie (jymnaestraaa I)v[aifing List Conloel name _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

What 1\incfs of Performances (e?(hioitions) are Permissio{e?

Tille _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Cily _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Slole _ _ _ _ _ __

Zip _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Phone: Doy _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Nighl _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Organizalion you represenl _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Cily _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Slale _ _ _ _ _ __


Zip _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Please {ill out and return to:

I GYMNASTICS Attn: Amy Oler, USA Gymnastics, Pan American Plaza, L ______ 2~. Capitol, Suite 300, Indianapolis,!!:46225_ _ _ ~

Almost anything! Large and small group d isplays. Artistic gynmastics, educa tional gymnas tics, d a nc e, rhy thmic, aerobics, clown, and m any other possibilities exist. Group participants may be male, fe male, or mixed groups of all ages- children to seniors. This can be a fantas tic activity for many of your Club members w ho don't get the chance to travel and otherwise participate in USA Gymn as tics Junior Olympic programs. The participants don' t need to be high level competitive athletes! Involve your total

grou p in this activity, even the parents! This is "Gynu1astics for All! " Each group that responds to the accompan ying Inform ation Form, will receive a free v ideotape to them an idea of the wide range of possibilities. Interested groups may purchase addi tional videotapes through USA Gymnastics Merchand ise of previous World Gymnaes trada events. (see attached listing)

Yes, we are interestea! What shouM we ao ne?(t? Don' t procras tinate. Use the fo rm on this page to add your G r o up's name to ou r Gymnaestrada m ailing list to receive additional info rmation. If you have a computer and a mod em, join USA Gymnas tics Online! to receive up-to-theminute information regarding GG and the Gy mnaes trada.

Everyone Is A Winner With CROWN TROPHY 12" Marble Base Gymnastic Trophies

21/4" Solid Diecast Medals



1000 pieces & up 10-99 .... ... . ..... $1.79 100-499 .. ... ..... $1.49 500-749 . . ..... .. $1.39 750-999 .... ..... $1.09 1000 & up ........ .. ... 99

$5.95 under 100 Everyone at your event deserves a fitting symbol of their achievement. That's why we at Crown Trophy have made top quality medals and For trophies more affordable than ever!

Free catalog of trophies, plaques & medals


One Odell Plaza, Dept. GA4S, Yonkers, NY 10701

800-227-1557InNY914-963-0005 July 1994


t-ielp The U~f3~A -=ill ()ut Thi~ Check!!

Attend the 1~~4- U'A t;Ymna§tic§ (:unar-e§§ ~a§hville~ T~

Auau§t ~(j

- ~7

Coaches Education









(olher Ihon your current employer)

/ -- / --





A. 28











State (night)

Phone (day) Safety Certification:



Relationship exp. date _ _

D Yes


PDP Amedication: 0 level 1 Completion date _ _ __

Phone _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Job Description

C » " • •• A

(pleole prinlor Iype)



<0 •0 • • • • • "•••, ..,


3:0 •::z::: •• ::z::: ........ I~

" o


Position _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Relationship _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

I coach and/ or teach the following: «heck olllh'l 'pply)

o o

Mom &Tot Cheerleading

0 Preschool 0 Tumbling

0 Developmental

0 levels 1-4

0 levels 5-7 0 Elite

Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Phone _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


o Men:

levels 8-10

0 Class 5·7

Rhythmic: 0 Levels 1-4 o levels 8-10


Class 1·4



0 Levels 5-7


--~~~---------------~ Name _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

0 Elite Position _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ 0 No 0 Yes

«heck ,lIlhol opply)

Relationship _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

If yes, list number per year. o Local



Name _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___

Do you actively coach at competitions?



Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


Upon completion of this form send to: USA Gymnastics 201 S. Capitol Ave. Suite 300 tndianapolis, IN 46225 Attn: PDP

0 State _ _ _ __


0 National _ _ __

Additional information (certifications, courses completed, etc.)

Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Phone _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Employer's Verification

(pleole prinl or Iype)

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ , acknowledge that this information is true and accurate for the period which the above listed coach has been employed _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___


Signature _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ July 1994 TECHNIQ UE

date - - -

Coaches Education






<5> @Q






Address City


Phone (day)


Birthdate / / Safety Certification: PDP Level Accreditation: ACEP Sport Science Course: Please select:


o o o

No No No O Mens

o o o o

Yes Yes Yes Womens


USAG Professional No. expo date site/date site/ date o Rhythmic

Educational Background Inst

Grad Yr.



Major Area

HS Univ. Grad.

Coaching!Administration Experience From


< ... r-



Position Description

# of Athletes/Boys or Girls


Team Coaching Year

Upon completion of this form send to: USA Gymnastics 20 I S. Capitol Ave. Suite 300 Indianapolis, IN 46225 Attn: PDP


Additional Information (certifications, courses completed, additional experience, etc.) (please print or type)


July 1994


Coaches Education

1994 USA

amination. The course will follow the new USA Gymnastics


ASEP Coaching Principles (formerly ACEP Sport Science) - The eight-hour course follows the textbook Successful Coaching. This video-directed course will ask participants to consider key concepts in coaching and discuss critical issues in small work groups. This course fulfills one requirement for PDP Level II Accreditation.

Safety Handbook.

SUMMER COACHES WORKSHOPS eginning this summer we will expand our general work shop format to include several week-long workshops. These extended programs will offer all the recognized PDP sessions and safety certification, but will significantly expand the lecture, clinic and practical coaching sessions. We look forward to offering this new, exciting format as one opportunity to preview PDP Level III components.


Lecture /Demonstration These clinics will focus on key skill progressions. Various apparatus and training stations will be used to focus coaches' attention on specific drills and sequences.

WORKSHOP HIGHLIGHTS Certification/ Accreditation Level I Video Clinic-the three hour video clinic will be presented for those coaches needing to complete this requirement for PDP Level I Accreditation. USA Gy mnast ic s Safety Certification-NEW COURSE! Participants will discuss safety issues will the National Safety Certifier, complete group exercises, and take a written ex-

Practical Sessions Workout! Training sessions will be organized for coach/ participants to get some hands-on experience. Clinicians will focus first on the drills presented in the lecture, then move on to specific questions and requests from the participants.

one will workshop clinicians. Specific questions, problem areas, and " What do I do if ... " are some of the topics that will be covered in the evening sessions.

Accommodations Housing and meals will vary depending on site. Please contact USA Gymnastics for more information.

Athletes At se lected workshops, coaches will have the opportunity to bring along 2-3 of their own gynmasts. Remember, this is a coaches' clinic, not special training time for your athletes. Participant gymnasts will be expected to demonstrate skills, participate in spotting clinics, and keep the coaches motivated! Athletes must pre-register. Don't miss this great opportunity. Register today!

Evening discussion

Ook Creek, Sunbury, OW July 14-17 Woodward Camp, Woodword, PA July 31 -August 6

Special sessions and activities will be scheduled to allow participants to interact one-on-

"7his workshop will include 1.5-2 days of lecture/demo/practical sessions

1994 USA Gymnastics Summer Coaching Workshop Coach's Registration Form Name ___________________________________________

Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Please indicate all programs for which you are registering: Pro-member Non-member Fees Fees $100 $125 Coaching Workshop $60 $85 *Oak Creek only

City _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Safety Certification



PDP Levell Video Clinic



ASEP Coaching Principles



Social Security Number _________________________________

State _ __

Zip _ _ _ __

Daytime phone ____________________ USA Gymnastics Pro Member 0 Yes 0 No Pro # _ _ _ _ _ _ __ o Do you want information on athlete attendance? (othletes must pre-register) o Oak Creek, Sunbury, OH-July 14-17* o Woodward Camp, Woodward, PA-July 31-August 6 Return this Registration form to:

IrISA T794


USA Gymnostics Summer Coaches Workshop Pan American Plaza, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300 Indianapolis, IN 46225

July 1994


Total Fee Enclosed Payment

Make checks payable to USA Gymnastics Paying by credit cord: o Visa 0 MasterCard Card # _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


lig"""" - - - - - - - - - - -


Exp. date _____________


Tumbling ~------------------






Oepartmen t of Exercise and Sport Science UniversihJ of Utah

he forward hand spring has become increasingly important due to changes in the current Code of Points. The increased emphasis on forward tumbling has resulted in many more athletes pursuing forward tumbling skills to achieve the requisite difficulty requirements. This has not always been the case. Forward tumbling has not been emphaSized historically but ap-


which involved two important components of skilled performance. He often discussed the idea of the quality of a skill versus the quantity of a skill. This is a very important idea with regard to for ward tumbling and specifically the forw ard handspring and variations. The quality of the forward handspring and other similar forward tumbling skills is a "kip to a bridge." This quality is the essence of the forward handspring. If the athlete can p erform the quality of

It is interesting that, although it appears that

learning to tumble forward is easy to do at the beginning stages, tumbling forward is quite difficult to do well at the advanced stages. pears to become stylish in a cyclic way. Moreover, the current Code of Points offers considerable scoring rewards for tumbling forward effectively. It is interesting that, although it appears that learning to tumble forward is easy to do at the beginning stages, tumbling forward is quite difficult to do well at the advanced stages. In li ght of this, I would like to share some of m y exp eriences w ith teaching forward tumbling. I would also like to offer some of the progressions I was taught by m y forme r coach, Mr. Ken Allen . Mr. Allen taught me a very important skill teaching concept

the skill (i.e., the kip to a bridge), then the athlete need only increase the quantity (i.e., force and sometimes direction) of the skill components to enhance the skill, transform it, and so forth. It was Mr. Allen's opinion that if the athlete could perform the quality of the skill well, then all that was necessa r y was adequate conditioning to increase the qu a ntity of / the skill (i.e., ex plosiv e ness, power, etc.) to make _ _~

Mojority of weigh I should be IUpported on Ihehonds ondshoulders.

Figure 1

ing this skill should be a careful evaluation of the gymnast's bridge or backbend . The gymnast should be able to lower to a backbend and rise from a backbend to his/her feet. This is a prerequisite for beginning work on the forward h andspring. The athlete who cannot do this will be at a serious disadvantage in learning the forward handspring and should continue work on the bridging action (both forward and backwardslowly) before proceeding to any of the drills / skills lis ted below. See Figure 1.

Step 2-Kip to bridge

The second step in the learning of the forward handspring involves direct practice on the essence of the skill -the kip to a bridge. A kip is a violent hip extension from a piked position. Mojorityof orch isin upperbmkcnd The gymnast beshoulders. â&#x20AC;˘ b I --~k---\--_ _ _-""':~:!.lOiIIL- gms y ying on his / her back on the skill more useful. The other the floor or skill cushion, the side of this idea was that if the gymnast then rocks backward quality of the skill suffered, al- as if starting a piked backward most no amount of quantity roll. As the gymnast achieves a could make up for the loss. This tight pike position, the gymnast is a simple, yet extremely pow- then places his / her hands on erful idea. You can probably the floor next to his / her shoulthink of many skills that h ave a ders as shown in Figure 2. The specific quality or essence that is gymnast then does an explosive merely modified somewhat by hip extei'lsion and then pushes the stronger, more fle xible, or from his / her hands to arri ve in a more explosive gynmast to make bridge position. The direction of the skill virtuous or transform the kip is mostly forward, just slightly up and the push from the skill to another variation. the hands is slightly delayed. A typical mistake for the young gymnast is to direct the kip too Step I-Backbend or bridge high. You can also instruct the The forward handspring be- gymnast to rock backward to gins from a kip to a bridge. The his/ her hands, and then as the first step in the process of teach- gynmast begins to rock forward

Steps in Teaching


Gymnoslmustkeep kneesslroighl during Ihe kip phose.


Figure 2


Figure 3

back to the ward his/her back before bebridge in ginning the hip extension and this step of pushing with the arms. Finally, the learn- again it is important that the ingprocess gymnast look at his/her hands is the rea- throughout the bridging and Gymnasl kipshord Th'gymnasllh,nfolis son why rising to a stand. If the gym,noughlhollh, bock 10 her honds. relurning 10 bridge. hondsleovelh,mol. gymnasts nast should fail to produce need to be enough force to rise to his/her familiar feet, then the gymnast should rewithbridg- turn to the bridge position. See (thus lowering the hips), he/ she position. It is importantthatyou ing skills both forward and back- Figure 6. begins the kipping action. It is do not allow the gymnast to ward before beginning this teachBefore leaving the kip and also important that the gymnast stand up during this period. ing progression. headspring skills, I would like arrive or land in the bridge posi- Some will try to arrive on their to offer a simple drill that will tion. Some gymnasts will per- feet and not fall back help the gymnast learn these form the hip extension and wait to the bridge. They will Figure 4 actions, particularly the rise to a w1til their feet touch before push- often squat in order to ing from the hands to the bridge do this. See Figure 4. A or back bend position. It must be squat is a very serious emphasized that the gymnast mistake, indicating perform the kip and the push not just different perfrom the arms in sequence with fOt路mance, but essenthe direction mostly forward. tially opposite perforTypi(ol Error: Gymnosl does nol exlend hipscompielely.londingisinosquol mance. A squat and a Steps 3 and 4-Kip to bridge with position. Head is out ofolignment. bridge are considered flight opposite skills for this After the gymnast has had teaching approach. Of plenty of practice in kipping to stand. See Figure 7. The drill course, you can encourage the Step 5-Headspring a bridge, the gymnast should be simply involves using a panel The headspring is a gymnast to kip harder and able to demonstrate ease in arharder so that he/ she almost slightly more advanced skill mat and a skill cushion draped riving in the bridge position at than a kip over the mat and down to the the end of the kip. The essence through a bridge floor. Raising the gymnast's of the skill has been performed to a stand. Al- starting position offers a signifithough gym- cant advantage in allowing the Figure 5 nasts often re- gymnast to arrive on his / her feet KiPIOOhi9her pOSilji n beforerelurninglolhe port that this following the kip ping motion. bridg,. skill is easier Of course, the height of the panel than the kip, it mat can then be reduced sysTh'gymnaslkips is important tematically as the gymnast bemore and more explosively. that you do not comes more comfortable with let them do the the motion until he/ she can do . .~~--------~--------------~~------------~~~------ headspringun- the skill on a flat surface. The til they have mastered the kip to skill can also be spotted, alin Step 2 . Step 3 involves add- rises to a stand but never quite a stand. The primary difficulty though that has been largely ing quantity to the quality. See makes this stage (i.e., he/ she with this skill has appeared to unnecessary during this drill Figure 3. In other words, the always returns to the bridge pobe the necessary out-of-balance because the gymnast usually gymnast kips harder and pushes sition). See Figure 5. Of course, position required to make the from the hands harder. The es- when you are satisfied that the kip through to the bridge prosence of the skill cannot change gymnas t has learned the essence cess more effective. The gymhowever. The gymnast must al- of the skill, then you can allow nast must be falling slightly toways pass through a bridge po- them to kip all the way to a sition and sometimes land in a stand. Finally, it is impor- Figure 6 Kip from bridge position. The basic idea tant that the gymnast at- Heodspring: pikedheodslondlhrough is that the gymnast now kips tempt to look at his/her bridgeloslond. and pushes harder so that there hands during the bridging is a little flight from the lying process . The gymnast position to a landing on the feet. should not be allowed to After landing on the feet, the drop chin-to-chest and gymnast descends back to her thereby destroy the arch in hands and finishes in the bridge the upper back. Falling Gymnast muslkeep

kneesslroighlduring Ih'kipphase.




Figure 7

makes the completed skill quite easily.

Adrill lor leorning Ihe kip 10 bridge ond kip loslond

Step 6-Handspring bounce to bridge



.A 34










Panel mol






Following the heads pring and related skills, the gymnast is ready to begin handspring type skills. The first skill/ drill includes a lunge, handstand bounce off the hands, land on the hands again, and tip over to a bridge. See Figure 8. The gymnast - should attempt to perform a ------~- small period of flight from the initial hand contact to the second hand contact as shown in Figure 8. Upon arriving on the hands, following the flight phase, the gymnast then lowers to a bridge position by

stretching in the upper back and shoulders. The skill / drill is competed when the gymnast lands in the bridge position. At this stage your attention should be devoted to the lunge, handstand shoulder position, kick of the leg, and so forth to ensure that the gynmast does not collapse during hand placement or distort body alignment in some other way. Although this skill/ drill is somewhat artificial, it affords the coach ample time and opportunity to scrutinize the entry to the forward handspring. A run-up should not be allowed because the run up usually disguises technique problems due to the availability of extra force that may not result from correct teclmique .

Step 7-Handspring land in bridge

Figure 8 Handspring: Bounce all hands, land in bridge

Panel Mats Bounce all hands

land an honds ond 101110 bridge.

Figure 9 Handspring: Bounce all honds, london leel-Iall back 10 bridge.


Skill Cushion

Panel Mats Bounce all honds


landanleellhen loll back 10 bridge.

The next step is to remove the second hand contact of the "bounce" skill/ drill presented previously in Step 6. The gymnast does a typical handspring approach (absolutely no run up) and instead of two hand contacts, the gymnast bounces off his /her hands and lands directly on the feet. See Figure 9. However, the gymnast does not stand up. The gynmast will land on the feet and then fall back to the bridge. This skill/ drill allows the gymnast to perform all of the ingredients of the complete handspring except the final phase. The reason for being dogmatic about this step in the learning process is that the gymnast will often begin to seek "standing up" as the goal while completely destroying the essence of the skill which is the kip (or kick in this case) through a bridge. By forcing the gynmast to always fall back to the hands, the gymnast cannot squat or move the head far from alignment without failing to be able to complete the skill-thus being self-defeating. Of course, as the gymnast kicks harder and harder , pushes harder and harder from the hands and


shoulders, he/ she may stand up by accident. This is perfectly okay but should not be encouraged until the gynmast fully appreciates the habit that he/ she must develop the bridge position while rising to a stand.

Figure 10 forward hond\pring


Step 8- The complete forward handspring The completed handspring is really just a slight modification of Step 7. The gymnast will often perform a complete handspring by accident, particularly if the skill cushion is relatively soft. The completed handspring should m aintain the stretched and slightly arched position throughout the "s tand up " phase of the skill. Moreover, the gynmast should attempt to over rotate the landing; a stuck handspring should be discouraged. The gymnast should have plenty of force left over upon landing that causes him/ her to continue to go forward, perhaps running several steps to recover balance. The gymnast should be forced to continue to look at his/her hands during the rise to a stand. The gymnast may tend to regress at this point and neglect the correct body position by pulling the chin-to-the-chest. Finally, I recommend doing the handspring at first as pictured in Figure 10. The use of a runway of panel mats and a skill cushion allows the gymnast to take-off and land at the same level, without much danger due to the soft landing surface. Be sure that the skill cushion is sufficiently large so that the gymnast carmot miss it by over-rotating. A run-up should not be allowed during the early attempts of this learning step.

Take-off from the forward handspring The take-off from the forward handspring has been difficult to analyze for most people. It has been called a "thorax-thrust" which is descriptive but not en-

Gymnoslmoinlainsorch posilion. Head remains in alignment

Panel Mats

tirely accurate. The take-off from Figure 11 for a take-off to an a forward handspring is not re- elementar'y dive roll. I found that ally a jump, and often feels quite gymnasts figured out these awkward to the gymnast at first. variations with extreme ease A typical jump take-off consists once having completed the long of hip and knee extension dur- and painstaking progressions ing propulsion. During the take- shown above. From the take-off from a front off from a forward handspring, the jump does utilize knee ex- handspring: tension, but interestingly the hip 1. Do a dive cartwheel, then performs reduction of hyperexan aerial cartwheel; tension or flexion rather than handspring front with a extension. Although this feels half step out. and looks awkward at first, it is really quite powerful. The gym- 2. Do a dive cartwheel, then a dive round off, then a dive nast should learn that the arch aerial round off ; handposition that he/ she obtained as spring front with a half a result of the handspring serves (barani). as the beginning position for the take-off from the forward hand- 3. Do a dive walkover spring. Although the take-off (mounter), then try to make may not look like a typical jump, your foot beat your hands the resul ts are very similar'. Years to the mat making the skill ago, I had the pleasure of working with so m e very good forward tumblers, so let me try to describe for you our approach ar1d thinking process to capitalize on the take-off me ch a nic s from the ,-----~~--~--~ front handspring. See I July 1994 TECHNIQUE

Skill Cushion

a dive aerial walkover; har1dspring layout front step out. 4. Do a dive roll, then do a dive roll with a full twist. 5. Tuck ar1d simply somersault. In conclusion, let m e emphasize the importance of following this long and strict progression from beginning to end . Forward tumbling can be an enormous asset for most gymn as ts. I used to require the gymnasts to learn to tumble forward before learning to tumble backward. I found that once going through all of these drills, they were so familiar with bridging, landing on the hands going backward, and so forth, that backward tumbling was much easier to teach. Best of luck.

Figure II Toke路oll lar dive roll

Sport Psychology



.A 36

"Does sh e like me?" "What s h ou ld I wear tom orrow?" Th oughts totally unrelated to sp ort often creep into athletes' minds w hile they' re waiting in drill lines or sitting out during a competition. If only you could keep them focused and better their skills at the same time! Teach your a thle tes visualization (also called imagery, or mental practice) to help them learn and improve physical skills and mentally prepare them for competition and life situations, says Dan Gould, Ph.D., professor of exercise and sport science at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. "Visualization is creating an object or event in your mind that occurred in the past or hasn' t yet occurred," Gould says. " It isn' t just visual. It uses all the senses and involves feelings and emotions." The images athletes form depend on both individ ual preference and the athletic situation. "Coach es should introduce different types of visualization and let the athletes pick w hich they like best," Gould says. Athletes can u se imagery to recall a coach's demonstration, to " preplay" a skill, to figure out strategy, to create an analogy of h ow they want to perform ("My legs are like springs"), to focus or relax, to remember how a good performance felt, and to p ractice copin g with and correcting errors. "Visualization is an important choice on a menu of psychological skills."

Visualization program Visualization, like physical skills, needs to be practiced every day, Gould says. After an initial time investment in teaching athletes about visualization, coaches can easily incorporate it into practice. "You may use visualization 45 times during practice by having athletes picture a situation, skill, or scen ario w ith brief three- to five-second images such as 'See yourself exploding off the vaulting horse.'" Re printed by permission from The Conches' Conch, Springl994, Vol. 8, No.1. Published by the America n Sport Educa tion Program (ASEP), P.O. Box 5076, Champaign, IL 61825-5076. Phone 1800-747-5698.

TEACHING VISUALIZATION SKILLS Dawn Roselund Gould recommends a sample program to help coaches teach and reinforce visualization skills.

Introduce visualization with a group talk Sit down for 20 minutes or so, explain the basics of visualization, and discuss how athletes think it could help them individually.

Teach athletes the basic skills Gould recommends sp ending h alf an hour every other d ay for two weeks to lead athle tes throug h vis ualiza tion . "Have them lie down in a dark room and talk them through the process, teaching them to use all of their sen ses. For example, to create an image of stickin g a landing, I might say, 'See the a pparatus; h ear the sounds of the crowd; sm ell the gym , feel yo ur legs absorbing the landing, etc.'" A good start is to h ave athletes recreate a drill from that day's practice. Progress to other skills, m eet situations, and emotions, giving a thletes a choice of images.

Begin to transfer skills Once athletes can visu alize w ith their eyes closed, have them stand up and begin to create images while holding equipment or standing in position. If they have been picturing themselves in slow motion, tell them to bring their images closer to "real time." Gould says, "By the end, they sh ould be mentally performing a skill at the same pace as in competition."

Integrate visualizations into practice Gould says prac tices offer m any great opportunities to use visualization . "If athletes are

learning an entirely new skill, it helps to vis ualize themselves doing it before they actually try it; they can picture themselves performing a skill successfully while they are waiting in the drill line. Then, if athletes make mistakes, the coach can h ave them do a quick visualization before trying the skill again. And one of the best ways to use visualization is with injured athletes who CaJU10t p ractice. H ave them watch practice and visualize themselves in their roles. It helps keep their heads in the sport so they don't get mentally rusty," Gould says .

Integrate visualization into video sessions " Imagery can be effective here if coaches stop the video after something goes wrong and have the athletes visualize completing or correcting the miskake." Gould also says that videos of an athlete's best performance of a skill are better than images of elite athletes. "The elite athletes may have different body types and their techniques m y not be right for your athletes."

Visualization before competition Be careful here, Gould says, because everyon e preps differently. Some athletes may prefer to imagine themselves in the

compe titi o n or performing skills. For others, such immersion is too stressful and they need a calm, quiet time to overcome their nerves. Don' t force a particular type-let athletes choose. Go uld does recommend, however, that coach es suggest experimenting w ith different precompetition routines, especially with younger athletes, to see which works best for them. Another way athletes use v isualization before competition is to practice coping with mistakes, correcting them, and continuing to compete. "Th e key to this type of prac tice is the order in w hich it is d on e," Gould says. "Don't have athletes spend the entire night before a competiti on focusing on coping. Maybe embed it a few days before (,What would you do if ... ?') and get more positive as the competition gets closer ('Picture yo urself catching the release move')." Gould also recommends d elaying the introduction of problem solving to athletes' imagery until they can successfully perform a skill in their minds under ideal conditions.

Carryover value What carryover value w ill visualization have for the rest of the a thletes' lives? "None," Gould says, "un less the coach teaches th em how! " Go uld strongly believes that athletes will not automatically make connections between visu alization and their everyday lives . "Sit down w ith them and ask, 'When could you use visu alization outside of gymnastics?'" Answers could range from giving a speech or taking a test to asking someone for a date. Visualization is an excellent skill that athletes can apply in both competitive situations and those far beyond the sports arena.

Athletes can use imagery to recall a coach 's demonstration, to "preplay" a skill, to figure out strategy, to create an analogy of how they wan t to perform, to focus or relax, to remember how a good performance felt, and to practice coping with and correcting errors.


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RSG JUNIOR OLYMPIC DEVELOPMENTAL PROGRAM '992·'96 USGF RHYJ'HMle eOMPULSORY BOOK The text and flaor pafferns lor the 1992-'96 Junior Olympic Rhythmic Gymnastics campulsory program. The three ring binder book includes the routines lor Levels 5-8 and a glossary 01 rhythmic gymnastics terms. Routines are wriffen lor rhythmic floor exercise, rope, hoop, ba/~ clubs and ribbon.



'992·'96 USGF RHYI'HMle GYMNASI'IeS LEVEL 5 & 6 VIDEO Companion to the compulsory book, the video shows the six Level 5 routines performed Irom both a Iront and rear viewpoint. The Level 6 routines are also shown in phrases.



'992·'96 USGF RHYI'HMle GYMNASI'IeS LEVEL 7 & B VIDEO Companion to the compulsory book, the video shows the six level 7 routines and the level 8 RFX Irom two viewpoints.



'992·'96 USGF RHYJ'HMle GYMNASI'IeS LEVEL 5 & 6 eASSEI'I'E I'APE The music lor the twelve routines in the Level 5 & 6 Compulsory program.



'992·'96 USGF RHYJ'HMle GYMNASI'IeS LEVEL 7 & B eASSEI'I'E I'APE The music lor the six Level 7 compulsory routines and the Level 8 Rhythmic Floor Exercise compulsory routines.



POSTERS BILL OF RIGHI'S FOR YOUNG AI'HLEI'ES 1984, AAHPERD Display this colorful poster in your waiting and/or gym areas to emphasize the importance your Gym Club places on the students. Use the list of 12 important rights 01 athletes as a topic 01 discussion with parents, coaches and the athletes themselves.






UNII'ED SI'AI'ES I'EAM '92 POSI'ER Includes all '92 Olympians.

USA Gymnastics




Thompson, R.A. and Sherman, R. T•• 1993 • Hard Cover. Human Kinetics. 194 pages. The authors provide a book that presents a practical, sensitive and therapeutic approach to treating athletes with eating disorders. This guide thoroughly examines all aspects 01 eoting disorders in athletes, from diagnosis to education and prevention.



eOAeHES GUIDE 1'0 NUI'RII'ION AND WEIGHI' eONI'ROL 1990 • Eisneman • paper· 192 pp • Good nutrition allows athletes to maintain energy levels during training and safely regulate their ratio 01 fat and lean weight_ A practical sports nutrition guide that translates the sciences 01 physiology, bio-chemistry and nutrition into eosily appliced informotion. Includes an excellent chopter on the signs of eating disorders.



Rhythmic Minutes ----------------~

I. Roll Call Region 1 Tamara Dasso Region 2 Jan Williamson Region 3 Perryne Thompson (substituting for Gwen Hilliard) Region 4 Susie DiTullio Region 5 Kim Wickham Region 6 Cindy Stone Coaches Rep. lydia Bree, Tracey Callahan Molnar (sharing one vote) Athletes Rep Karyn Glover Coaches Assoe. Annemarie Fairhurst (non·vot· ing) Rhythmic Program Nora Compbell (non·voting) Meeting was called to order at 7:25PM, Friday, Jun e 17, 1994. II.

Purpose and function JOPC, RPC, AND RYC N . Campbell reviewed the function of each of these committees for the benefit of new members. The Junior Olympic Program Committee is responsible for the Junior Olympic Levels 5, 6, 7 & 8. III. USA Gymnastics Report Campbell reported on several items including: · Rhy thmic program has grown slowly but steadily in the number of programs and athletes registered wi th USA Gymnastics. • USA team won the first team gold medal a t th e Four Continents Championships in Seoul, Korea. • The membership department has a member club program of which a few rhythmic programs are taking advantage. · A plan is being developed to introduce rhythmic gymnastics at the national meeting of High School Federation Athletic Directors in 1995. · Training materials currently being developed include the translation of a book previously published in Spanish and a training video for group even ts. These materials w ill be available by late 1994 or early 1995. · A museum ex hibit for children called "SPORT" includes a station dedicated to subjective sports. Visitors judge routines from four different diSCiplines including rhythmic gymnastics. The ex hibit is currently on display in Detroit, Michigan. · A new USA Gymnastics Club Program is avai lable to gymnasts w ho are not competitive athletes. IV. USA Group Campbell outlined the USA World Cha mpion ship s Group su mm er training sched ule. The athletes will trai n at the USOTC in Colorado Springs, perform in exhibition at the

Olympic Festival, undergo extensive ph ys ica l testing with Dr. Dan Benardot, train the remainder of the summer in Macon, GA, and at the USOTC in Lake Placid. The group will then begin an international competition schedule culminating at the World Championships. V. Meet Organization A chapter outlining meet organization strategies will be reinh'oduced into the 1994-1995 Rules and Policies. This chapter w ill include a number of suggestions that have been made with regard to the new program. Topics to be covered include gym set-up and placement of judges, judge feedback sessions, clu'onological checklist and follow-up responsibilities. VI. Region Structure At the 1993 JOPC meeting the number of rhythmic regions was changed from eight to six. The original 1993 proposal moved Ohio and Kentucky to RegionS; but Ohio and Kentucky were allowed to remain wi th Region 3 for one year (1994) . The addition of Ohio and Kentucky to Region 5 will add much needed resources as well as give athletes more opportuni ties for success. Motion to align OH & KY with Region 5 for the 1994-1995 competitive season. Situation will be reevaluated after one year. Motion - C. Stone Second - T. Molnar PASSED - 7-1 VII. Safety Certification Reminder that all coaches and judges at rhythmic Regional meets and above must be safety certified beginning in 1995. VIII.

1995 Rules and Policies

Chapler 5-Sanction Policies Campbell reviewed the FIG guidelines for inter-federation events. These guidelines will be added to the Rules and Policies for 1995. A policy regarding violations of sanctions is being developed for inclusion in the USA Gynmastics Rules and Policies.

Chapler 7-lndividual Program The rotation of events is designed to give the most well-rounded, comprehensive program for developing athletes. Hoop and ball are nahtral for group wo rk and are easier for new choreographers to create optional routines. 1995 Program L6,7 ,8 - RFX, rope, hoop, ribbon J.0.Group-4balls 1996 Program L6, 7,8- RFX, ball, clubs, ribbon J.O. Group - 4 hoops (see ac tion below) July 1994

"'ope :MEETING ~


Los Angeles, CA June 17-18, 1994 Levels 5&6 The Level 6 floor patterns will be republished for clarification. See Sept/Oct 1993 issue of Technique magazine for correct versions of LevelS floor patterns. The meet director should work closely with the meet referee to insure proper competition order and placement of judges, especially for Levels 5 and 6.

Level 7 Optional routines must be grouped for competition; Level 8 requirements for the optional (same as current rules) Motion to designate hoop as the Level 7 optional event for the 199495 season. Motion - C. Stone Second - K. Glover PASSED - 8-0 Motion to designate ball as the Level 7 optional event for the 199596 season. Motion - K. Glover Second - C. Stone PASSED - 8-0 Motion to designate hoop as the JO Group event forthe 1995-96 season. Motion - C. Stone Second - T. Dasso PASSED - 8-0 Duets are recommended to be used as a training tool and as an option to group. Format and rules w ill be decided upon wi thin each region.

Junior Olympic Group Competition Discussion regarding the exclusion of Level 10 athletes from participation in J.O. group. Motion to expand eligibility for JO group to include athletes of all age divisions, levels, and citizenship. Motion - L. Bree Second - J. Williamson PASSED -7-0 Discussion regarding the designation of ca tegories w ithin the J.O. group program to avoid direct competition between athletes of advanced skill levels (9,10) and lower skill levels (6,7). Motion to divide participants in the 1994 Group Championships into 2 categories as follows: Novice Group (majority of athletes of indiTECHNIQUE

A. vidual skill level 6&7), Advanced Group (majority of athletes of individual skill level 8,9&10). Designation of the appropriate group division will be left to the coach's discretion. Motion - K. Glover Second - P. Thompson PASSED - 8-0 For J.O. Group Championships, a team consists of 5 athletes; 4 competing, 1 alternate, all 5 being eligible to receive awards. Motion - K. Glover Second - C. Stone PASSED - 8-0

Qualifying Procedures/Scores Discussion regarding the im portance of in-house or city w ide local meets. For a Level 6 gymnast to enter a State Meet, she must have competed in at least one local meet. Motion - T. Molnar Second - S. DiTullio PASSED -5-3 Motion to mandate a national qualifying score from state to regionals for Levels 6 through 8. Motion - J. Williamson Second - P. Thompson PASSED - 8-0 Motion to set the qualifying score from State to Regionals for L6 at 13.00. Motion - C. Stone Second - P. Thompson PASSED - 8-0 Motion to set the qualifying score from State to Regionals for L7 at 17.00. Motion - S. DiTullio Second - C. Stone PASSED - 8-0 Motion to set the qualifying score from State to Regionals for L8 at 19.00. Motion - P. Thompson Second - K. Wickham PASSED -8-0 Qualification to the J.O. Championships w ill remain the same as 199394 for individuals. There will be no g roup competition at the J.O. Championships.


Rhythmic Minutes



A. 40

Chapter Ten-Rules for Rhythmic Competitions

keep the length of state meets manageable.

No gym may open before 7:30AM on the day of competition. Motion - L. Bree Second - P. Thompson PASSED - 8-0 An ad hoc committee was created to investigate different types of fl oor padding. Co m m ittee m emb ers (AKA-The Carpet Commission): K. G lover (c h air), S. DiT ull io, J. Williamson. A written report w ill be submitted to the Rhythmic Program Director by September, 1994.


Chapter Eleven: Apparatus and Attire Regulations If tights are worn (as allowed in the

FIG Code of Points), they may be worn inside or outside of the leotard. Motion - K. Glover Second - C. Stone PASSED -8-0

Chapter Twelve: Stote Championships Meet Meet directors are encouraged to include some type of team award competition w ithin the states and regions. The committee also suggests limiting the number of state meets a gymnast may atten d in an effort to

A new competition entry form w ill be created for the 1994-95 season. The new form w ill allow a team to list all athletes on one sheet, therefore reducing the paperwork for coaches and parents.

IX. 1997·2000 Program The JOPC agreed by consensus to retain the current J. O. program tluough the nex t millennium. Research regarding small changes to choreography and specific elements will be conducted by the committee. Recommendations w ill be given to choreographers for considera tion. As a starting point recommended changes were submitted by L. Bree.

X. J.O. Training Camp The 1994 developmental training camp is currently on hold. Without approval for space at the Olympic Training Center, the cost of organizing an alternative camp would be prohibitive for the athletes.

XI. 1995 Event Schedule The Junior Olympic Championships are tentatively set for the first week-

end in May. Regionals may be held March 31-Apri12 and /or April 7-9. State meets must be scheduled three weeks prior to the Regional Championships. Bids for the J.O. Champion ships must be sub mitted to Campbell as soon as possible.

XII. 1994 USA Gymnastics Congress · Campbell asked the regional chairmen to submit a list of regional service award winners to be presented at the Congress. • The rhythmic track w ill include a heavy emphasis on group training as well as sp ecial sessions on plyometrics and Pilates training. • Rhythmic professional members are encouraged to attend general sessions dealing with business, motivation and general fitness which may not be specifically designated as rhythmic session s.

XIII. JO Program Committee Chairman Campbell asked members to address the issue of electing a JOPC Chai rman. The role of the chair would be to serve as a communicator between committee members and as liaison to Campbell.

Nomination of Susie DiTullio for posi tion of Chair of JOPc. Discussion regarding conflict of interest between Coach's Associa tion andjOPC. Nomination declined. Motion for nomination of J. Williamson to serve as acting chair for the JOPC for 1994-95. Position will be voted on at next year's JOPC meeting. Mo tion - L. Bree Second - P. Thompson PASSED - 7-1

XIV. Awards Ammendment to the Rules and Policies for L9-10 awards: If there are three or fewer gymnasts in any division, all-around medals only will be given to all competitors (no event awards). If there are four or five competitors, event awards are presented to the top half of all competitors; all-around medals are given as written. Motion - K. Wickham Second - K. Glover PASSED - 8-0

Meeting adjourned at 6:40PM on June 18, 1994.

JLnnouncing ...

%e 1st 1\ftytlimic (jymnastics (jroup Cliampionsliips to ve heM in conjunction with the 1994 gymnaestraaa Event:

J{oop Junior O[ympic Competition 2(u[es 4girrs pergroup


Pa[m Springs, CJl

Preliminary Competiton:

:Friaay, Octover 28, 1994

Final Competition:

Sunaay, Octover 3Q 1994

Entry Fee:

$100 pergroup 'Entry fee entit[es group participants to attena a[[ gymnaestraaa events ana participant activities

Entry deadline:

Septemver 1, 1994

For further information and entry form call or write Nora Campbell at USA Gymnastics July 1994



Connie Israel Named Vice President1994 Goodwill Games COlmie Israel has been named Vice President of International Operations for the 1994 Goodwill Games. Israel was the operations manager for the U.S. Gynmastics Federation and she also was the Vice President of Administration for the 1991 World Gynmastics Championships in Indianapolis, Ind . She has held numerous event related positions including the 1984 Olympic Games and many Olympic Festivals.

Two World Champions Elected to Gymnastics Hall of Fame Judy Wills Cline and Dan Millman, World Trampoline Champions from 1964, were elected to the Gynmastics Hall of Fame on April 21, 1994 in Lincoln, Neb. Also inducted were Don Holder and Jolm Draghi along with four posthumous elections

which included Paul Krimmel, Otto Steffan, Joseph Oszy and Rudy Hradecky.

Honor Society, the '93-'94 Mortar Board and among the Dean's List at OSU.

Chari Knight Receives Award

Cheers to Imperial Palace Hotel and Casino

Former USA National Team Member and current Oregon State gynmast Chari Knight received the American Award at the 1994 NCAA Championships in Salt Lake City, Utah, April 23. The award is presented to the outstanding senior gymnast, based on athletic success, academics, leadership and sportsmanship. Knight, a seven-time AllAmerican, advanced to NCAA individual finals on both beam and floor her senior year. She was named Pac-10 Gynmast of the Year for the second time and has scored a perfect 10.0 eight times in her collegiate career. Knight was a member of the 1991 World University Games team and won bronze medals on bars and in the all-around. Academically, Knight is a GTE/CoSIDA Academic AllAmerican and has a 3.58 grade point average. A three-time Academic All-American, Knight is a member of the Phi Kappa Phi

Thanks to the Imperial Palace Hotel and Casino, dreams will be transformed into reality this July 31 through August 7, when top-ranked gymnasts from arou nd the nation assemble for the Olympic Development Program Junior National team Camp.

The Imperial Palace agreed to sponsor the training camp which was canceled due to a policy change at the Olympic Training Center this summer. The Imperial Palace will donate all of the rooms and meals necessary to house the athletes, s taff and personal coaches throughout the week. In addition, the hotel will make available many of the other exciting amenities to supportthe athletes, such as the world-famous Impe-

rial Palace Antique and Classic Auto Collection and "Legends in Concert" production show.

Men's Regional Qualifier Locations July 30 & 31 Gold Cup Gymnastics

Albuquerque, NM

Ron Howard 505-822-2139


Los Angeles, CA

Art Shurlock 310-206-6338

Rockwall High School

Rockwall, TX

More Yancey 214-475-2020

International Gymnastics

East Stroudsburg, PA

Bruno Klaus 717-629-0244

University of Minnesota

Minneapolis, MN

Fred Roethlisberger 612-625-9567





This new item is designed to introduce rhythmic gymnastics to the general public. The four-minute video illustrates for parents and club owners alike both the fun side of rhythmic gymnastics and the competitive possibilities. Images range from preschool movement classes to international elite competitions.


Adding rhythmic gymnastics to your curriculum? Remember that parents and coaches alike are generally unfamiliar with the sport. The promotional video can be used to educate your clientel and to promote the development of new rhythmic classes. Turn on the video machine in your lobby and let the pictures do the talking!





The video is set to music and includes voice-over narration. Call USA Gymnastics Merchandise at 317路237-5060 to order your copy. (Item # 1 341 )








Pommel Horse




A. 42

Unusual for the same T.A., this was a second World Championship. At the previous Worlds in Birmingham, I had used conventional Judges' notation of B, C, D and E. A super-quick disc ussion while awaiting the scores had allowed me to comple te longhand notes as to which actual elements had been performed. Rarely indeed could either the Controller, Bill Roetzheim, or myself remember which element that D in the middle (etc.) had actually been. However, the scores had a distressing tendency to arrive too soon. By the end of the competition, I was using certain symbols as a rapid aid. Especially /V\ and similar notation for cross support walks. I used this system, still largely just capital letters, for local and international competitions all year. This worked, but was manifestly NOT capable of the repaid reconstruction of all the elements; which I needed in order to write this report properly. A further problem was the vastly increased amount of complex one pommel work. A new system was needed.

Further analysis of the problem The vast majority of skills on the Pommels rated D and E are made by putting together relatively few basic building blocks, typically B or C elements, in varying combinations. As the gymnast star ts to create, it is not possible for a judge to know how many will be used, or when a new combination is to start. The only effective system must record each block as it appears, and find the difficulty level afterwards, by reading back. An excellent analogy would be that of a typist to whom words are being spelled out letter by letter, with no spaces between word s. After the sentence had been fully written, it may easily be read. In this Worlds, a total of 384 Ds and Es were recorded. Only 27 of these were sing le sk ills, namely 19 Tong Feis and 8 single pommel Russian wendeswings.


Technical Assistant In addition 10 Mogiln ys were seen written in an unsplittable manner. In all other cases, the writing starts as the first building block is executed; there is no wait for the whole sequence to finish.

The solution My analysis of the routines cannot be separated from my symbols, since several skills are realistically unwriteable except in symbolic form.

Writing a Pommel Horse routine The symbols suggested here allow the routine to be written in real time, as the gymnast circles. They may be read back for a full reconstruction to check difficulty and special requirements.

Cross support steps and walks; loops and Stocklis. Symbol


/ \-


Any single step, up, down, or ocross, in circle or floir Full Mogyor wolk-up, down, up, down


o o

;lL'1 ; "from cross support circles facing inwards on the end, step up onto the pommel, two circles in cross support, Russian wendeswing on the pommel to finish in side support circles on the original end. " Even the shorthand of "step up, two loops, Russian to the end" is too long for use in real time. The key is the use of sloping and horizontal lines to represent cross support steps, with little scoops to suggest visually steps over a pommel, in addition, lower case letters are used for specific skills .. . lower case since we wri te them faster than capitols. The letters chosen conform to normal English practice. I would suggest that each gymnastics nation adapt to conform to their own usage. Handstands are a special case, using an h. with superscript to indicate type. This is easy when the handstand is a dism.ount, since there is a second or two to write. Handstands in the middle of a routine can be ponderous to record ... any ideas are gratefully received.


Any forword wolk, missing the middle-up, step ocross to end, or Bilozerchev


Bilozerchev to side support


Any step over 0 pommel

o o o o

Mogyor wolk-stepping over eoch pommel Sivodo wolk-up, down, up, down Sivodo wolk-stepping over each pommel Sivodo-hond on pommel middle, pommel


Breok into floir

t S

Go bock to circles, legs together.


L ()


Direct Stockli Bfrom side support or from cross support on one pommel


... from cross support-stort 0 step, chonge to Stockli


Pommel loop (Circle in cross support) Outword loop ( Foce out on end)

Even these few symbols allow well over half the difficulty seen in Brisbane to be recorded. e.g. /SSl\/\" "'" 0 + Bwithin a 0, + C. Bonus +0.3


Pommel Horse

Spindles and etc. Symbol




Note that it is assumed that handstands go up with legs apart unless otherwise recorded. The letter values are obtained by using the rules clearly stated in the Code.



Circle in side support, hands either side of one pommel


Two circles, hands outside both pommels

Bor C

Any half spindle

oor C

Full spindle (0 in two circles)





Any handstand


From reverse Stockli


From direct Stackli


With piroueHe


With legs together on the way up


Fram a reverse hop


To continue, straddle or front scissor


To continue, assumed in flair, however if the hwas t, assume in circles (+3)



Full spindle in one circle


Indicates that the elements underlined have been within a cross support or full end-to-end reverse trovel, (A pig to spot!) I

e.g. ~

B+C+C within a 0 +0.2 bonus. Note: the half spindles were not linked.

The remaining symbols, except handstands Symbol






Meaning Swiss hop ... invariably on the end Chaguinian


oor etc.

Russian wendeswing from side support or crass suppart on one pammel

Cor etc.

Russian to step back, not swing forward


Russian on the end-write the angle to give the leHer


The most common finish

value (720째 =0, etc.) Note: J1

B+ C

There is 90 degrees less turn into


I V!

B+ 0

the Russian when done from cross support

)L "I

B+ E

than for side support

The challenge is to read routines, then to be able to write them. Please note that the system is not meant to be complete. It is meant to be usable in the vast majority of cases. To achieve completeness would, I believe, sacrifice conciseness and clarity. I will nonetheless, look forward to seeing others refine and extend this system. I make no claim to perfection ... just a claim to being first!

tf YrUj


Tong Fei








Czech or Stockli, hands down on leather

The symbols suggested here allow the routine to



Any scissor

be written in real time, as the gymnast circles.



Scissor half turn or hop

They may be read back for a full reconstruction to



Scissor full turn



Indicates a hop

Ron Smith 5/13/94

check difficulty and special requirements.


MEN'S PROGRAM COMMITTEE MEETING May 21, 1994, Phoenix, Arizona

FLIPOVER You'll flip over USA Gymnasticsl This magazine covers important national and international events leading up to, and including, the 1996 Olympic Games. Get to know the gymnasts through interviews, profiles and competition results. USA Gymnastics gives comprehensive gymnastics coverage in six, full color issues for only $15.00. Foreign subscriptions $32.00. Don't miss what USA Gymnastics has to offer!

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Address _____________________________________ Ciry ___________________________________ State _______ Zip _________ Phone ____________ D Gymnast / age_ D Coach

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Pan American Plaza, Suite 300, 201 S. Capitol Avenue T794 Indianapolis, IN 46225

Members Present:

Bill Roetzheim

Chairman, FIG/MTC Member Tim Daggett Vice路Chairman Fred Roethlisberger Sr. Coaches Rep. Francis Allen Sr. Coaches Rep. Dennis Mcintyre Jr. Coaches Rep. Kevin Mazeika Jr. Coaches Rep. Chris Woller Athletes Rep. Mas Walanabe Men's Tech. Director (Voice no vote) Ron Galimore Men's Program Dir. (Voice no vote)



Chairman, Bill Roetzheim gave a review of the Congress in Geneva and gave changes that would take place after 1996. Com pulsories - Roetzheim started by saying that compulsories would b e dropped from Olympic and World Championships after 1996. The U.S. delegation was one of the few who were in favor of keeping compulsories after 1996.

Name ________________________________________

Check one:

Meeting Called to order 8:10 PM by chairman Bill Roetzheim.


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ........J

July 1994

Competition Format- It was voted to have a full program (All- around, Individual event and Team championship) in the odd years after the Olympic games and team size was reduced to 6-5-4. This means that after 1996 we will go back to a six man team, competing 5 with 4 scores TECHNIQUE

counting. Keep in mind that the 7-6-5 format w hich will be used in Dortmund and Sabae was voted away before it was even tried. Roetzheim did say that the FIG would still be trying to reduce the competitors number for the Olympics in 1996. Team Concept-All countries would be competing compulsories as teams at the World Championships in Sabae and Dortmund. This is a change from the original concept of having gymnasts divided into each s ub-division. FIG/MTC Position-The U.S is a little behind the other countries who are already positioning their candidates for the FIG Technical position. Roetzheim talked about how some of the other candidates attended the FIG congress in Geneva and were very visible in front of the committee w ith very well organized presentations. Roetzheirn showed the MPC a video tape that had been produced by an Hungarian candidate on how to teach a spindle on pommel horse. Bill mentioned that a tape, had been produced for each event. New Code-Chairman Roetzheim talked a little abou t the new code of points that H. Fink of Canada is working on and our need to

Men's Minutes

make comments soon before it is approved.

Roethlisberger started off the discussion wi th a review of his proposal for the 1995 competitive season. Watan abe talked about why W inter Nationals should be reinstated on Jan. 28, 1995.

Galimore spoke a little abou t his experience in Gen eva and Brisbane. Ch air m a n Roetzheinl. communicated that the Execu tive Board sent a list of names and a criteria to the MPC to be u sed when considering the person for this position. This was to give the MPC an opportunity to reconsider any names tha t may have been left o ut.

Motion to reinstate Winter Nationals.

Motion to reconsider the candidate.

Motion - T. Daggett Second - D. McIntyre FAILED

Motion - F. Roethlisberger Second - C. Waller FAILED

Rational: a) Top Athletes need dow n period;

The MPC confirmed it's recommendation of Beckstead for the FIGjTC position .



b) Jr. need more skill development getting ready for 2000; c) Too close to World Championships. \t1otion that the Pan Am Games Team comes from top 7 (rank order) gymnasts Compulsoryj Optional including Senior and Juniors. Motion - F. Roethlisberger Second - D. McIntyre PASSED



Th e MPC were honored to have Jackie Fie, president of Women's Technical Committee, and Andrea Schmid, member of Rhythmiq Technica l Committee, v isit the meeting during the discussion about our candidate for Men's Technical Committee. Roe tzheim started out by saying that the Executive Committee d is cu ssed, a t length, the endorsement of the MPC because of a great deal of r ebuttal about a member of t h e gymnastics communi ty w h o's name was '.ot recommended. Fie and ,Jchmid spoke about the importance of this position to the Men's program a nd some of the things tha t took place a t th e recen t FIG congress .



Wa ta n a b e talked about the tour and the importance of our gymnasts gaining experience abroad. Roethlisberger mentioned tha t most of the coach es h e h ad spoken to would not support the tour for various reasons. Galimore stated that if the tour is something good for our gymnasts we need to support it in a positive way to the e ntir e gro up . McIntyre stated that at this p oint any plan that was not supported by all was n o t a good plan. Motion to tour Europe. Motion - R. Roethlisberger Second - D. McIntyre FAILED



McIntyre gave an overview of the grant proposal he had prepared . The applica tion forms, compliance and amount of funding were talked about. There was discussion. There was talk about being on the approval committee and being able to apply for a grant. It was mentioned that you could be on the committee and when applying for a grant, you would not have a vote. Motion to approve grant program and use by Championships of USA. July 1994

Motion Second - D. McIntyre PASSED Comm ent: Marc Yancey (guest) mentioned that we need to show grant to J. Swarbrick, legal counsel, to m ake sure that everything is in order. McIntyre and Waller will be part of the Steering Committee.

VIII. REGIONAL BIDS Galimore reported that three bids h ave been received at this point but more could be in the office because of the May 20th deadline. USAG will set up confe rence call to m ake final decision as to where the regional meets will be held .



Mazeika reviewed his proposal to modify the way we distribute Team 96 fun d s. He mentioned that the top 8 gymnasts wo uld all r eceive the sam e amount, w h ich is a percentage of the total funds, and the remainder would b e u sed as a bonus for how the team performed at the next World Ch a mpionship or Olympic games. The amount of bonus received wo uld be based on the pl aceme nt of the team. Roe thlisberger mentioned one modification should be that the ex tra money not given to a gymnas t because of NCAA eligibility sh o uld go back into the pot to be dis tri buted as part of the team bonus. Motion to except the redistribution of team 96 fund, with Roethlisberger's modification. Motion - T. Daggett Second - C. Waller PASSED



There was discussion about the JI. developmental and JI. Elite automatically qualifying into Championships of the USA. Motion that no elite developmental or Jr. Elite qualify automatically into U.S. Championships in '94 and only 14 Senior elite National Team members automatically qualify into U.S. Championships in 1995. Motion - D. McIntyre Second M. Mazeika PASSED (25 sp ots w ill now be available) TECHNIQUE


Roethlisberger opened discussion about the selection of team coaches. The head and assistance coach should be selected by consen sus of the team m embers coaches. The coaches should get together and develop a game plan to include possible training camps, lineu p , travel dates, camp location, training plans, personal coach policy, discipline, etc., and when this is complete to select a head and assis tant coach to head the plan. Rank order mayor may not be considered at the coaches' and technical director's discretion. Motion to accept the proposal put forth with addition that in the case of a disagreement it would be put to a vote and the majority rules with the Men's Technical Director having a vote. Motion - F. Roethlisberger Second - C. Waller PASSED



Roethlisberger talked about the possibility of a gymnast being petitioned onto a World Champion ship team by vote of MPC. TABLED

Meeting Adjourned 12:16 a.m. Submitted by Ron Galimore Men's Program Director Additional Comments: Sh ortly after the minutes went out it was discovered that members of the MPC had misinterpreted the motion on item VI. Therefore, the "Team 96" funding distribution w ill be placed on the agenda for the next meeting w hich will take place before USA Ch ampionships.





Men's Minutes







Present on Call:

Bill Roefzheim

Chairman, FIG/MTC Member TIm Daggeff Vice路 Chairman Fred Roefh)isberger Sr. Coaches Rep. Francis Allen Sr. Cooches Rep. Kevin Mazeika Jr. Coaches Rep. Dennis Mdnfyre Jr. Coaches Rep. Mas Wafanabe Men's Tech. Dir. (Voice no Vofe) Men's Program Dir. (Voice Ron Galimore no Vofe) Meetil1g called to order 12:20 pm.



Allen reviewed the sp ecial requirements (dated 12/ 15/93) that were used at Winter Na tionals and m ade sugges tio ns on parts that needed to be deleted : Deductions for Missing" additional Special Requirements": Less than 0.5 bonus points attempted Each missing release attempted

delete the three fli ght elem ent attempted requirement. Motion to except the special requirement deleting the parts that Francis suggested and no three release requirement. Motion - B. Roetzheim Second - F. Allen PASSED USAG w ill distribute New Special Requirements to coaches and judges.


McIntyre talked about the Olympic Festival and the breakdown for team selection should be different in 95 because of a heavy schedule. Motion for 4 seniors, 4 Senior Developmental and4Jr. Elites (with the senior selection starting at 11th place and going to 14th). Motion - D. McIntyre Second PASSED



Galimore talked about the five bids that were received from different parts of the country. Interest to host the qualifiers came from New Mexico, Los An geles, Texas, Ohio and Minnesota. Galimore reviewed the bids and the committee approved the bid from Texas. There was discussion a bout the use of Nation al Appara tus Leaders (NAL) being u sed to help make sure the qualifiers are the sam e as USA Ch ampion ships an d Winter Nationals . The committee also wanted the commun ity to know tha t the new ly amended special requirements for optional and com pulsory wo uld be used. Motion to accept all bids based on stipulations (getting NAL's and being able to run the competitions as

close to the format of USA. Championships as possible). Motion - B. Roetzheim Second - F. Roethlisberger PASSED



Daggett talked abou t his concern of how we should p erform certain compulsory parts. Watanabe w ill re-work all documents w ith MPC. The May 13, 1994 compulsory clarification document was ap proved. It was decided that the new flo or pattern (finishing down the side) was the accepted one to use.



Clarification that the top 14 Nation al Team m embers automatically qual ify to Cha mpi on ships. This would m ake at leas t 24 spots available. Regarding a compe ting athlete representing the Athlete Council and being able to vote, the USAG w ill loo k into this m a tter. It was d ecided that non-competing athletes m ay NOT work out 0 equipm ent used for a competition . USAG w ill police future situations.

Meetil1g adjourned 1:25 PM Submitted by R OI1 Gaiimore


..~./"'. . ...


0.2* 0.2

Bonus Points: 路 Minimum required bonus points come from skills and connections only. 路 Additional bonus points for sticking '0' and 'E' dismounts do not fulfill the 0.5 minimum bonus requirement. General Guidelines: 路 Defining "attempted" There was more discussion abou t the flight elements. Itwas decided to

The 1 994 Edition of the USA Gymnastics Safety Handbook is now available. The Handbook is the required text for use in coni unction with all 3rd Cycle Safety Certification Courses. The Handbook is included as part of the Safety Course registration fee. All course participants will receive the book at the beginning of their course.

NOfE: All recent participants who have taken a designated 3rd Cycle Course using photocopies of the Handbook will receive their new book within the next four weeks. The Handbook is also available for purchase from the USA Gymnastic~i Merchandise Department. (Please use the order form on page 2 of this, magazine).

To order, use the USA Gymnastics Merchandise order form on page 2. #6001 519.95 July 1994 TECHNIQUE

Calendar Dote

Days Discipline







10 10 10 14 15 15 16 16 17 19 -22 22 23 23 23 23 27 24 24 29 29 29 29 31 31 31

1 1 1 4 3 2 1 1 1 2 3 1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 7 1 8


Safety Certification (9:00 a.m.-l :00 p.m.) Broadcast U.S. Olympic Festival Safety Certification (12:00 noon-5:00 p.m.) USAG Summer Coaching Workshop (indudes SafelY Certification and ASEP) 2nd Elite Regionals ASEP Coaching Principles (Fri: 5:30-9:30 p.m., Sal.: 8-12 noon) Safety Certification (1:30 p.m.-5:00 p.m.) Safety Certification (1 :00 p.m.-5:00 p.m.) Safety Certification (10:00 a.m.-2:00 p.m.) Safety Certification (7:00 p.m.-9:00 p.m.) National Gymnastics Festival (Elite) ASEP Coaching Principles (9:00 a.m.-5:30 p.m.) Goodwill Games Safety Certification (1 :00 p.m.-5:00 p.m.) Safety Certification (9:00 a.m.-12:00 noon) Safety Certification (1 :00 p.m.-4:30 p.m.) Broadcast Goodwill Games Safety Certification (9:00 a.m.-l :00 p.m.) Safety Certification (9:00 a.m.-l :00 p.m.) ASEP Coaching Principles (times TBA) Safety Certification (1 :00 p.m.-5:00 p.m.) Women's State Chairmen's Workshop Safety Certification Course (2:00 p.m.-5:30 p.m.) USAG Summer Coaching Workshop (indudes Safely Certificalion and AS EP) Safety Certification (8:00 a.m.-12:30 p.m.) ODP 10-11 Age Group Devel. Camp

Hanford, CA CBS Denver, CO Sunbury,OH Various Sites St. Louis, MO Deerfield, MA Gainesville, FL Maryland Heights, MO Indianapolis, IN -Colorado Springs, CO Indianapolis, IN St. Petersburg, RUS Port Jervis, NY Indianapolis, IN Latham, NY TBS/ABC Uniontown, OH Augusta, GA Peoria, IL Peoria, IL Indianapolis, IN Indianapolis, IN Woodward, PA Colorado Springs, CO Las Vegas, NV

Jeffrey Lulla Julie Bejin Betsy Sprague Amy Oler Kathy Kelly Kevin Scott Steve DiTullio Linda Bennett Cindy Dave Moskovitz Kathy Kelly Ed Gibson Allison Melangton Rick Palumbo Barry Dubuque Bob &Jo Pieher Julie Bejin Bobbi Montanari Mike Goodale Norbert Bendixen Garry Denk Kathy Feldmann Amy Oler Amy Oler Richard Ashton Ron Galimore

818-845-0700 317-237-5050 303-373-2797 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 314-842-2620 508-263-9306 904-378-8711 314-291-7664 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 219-736-2723 317-237-5050 914-856-8326 812- 473-3232 212-957-1963 317-237-5050 614-457-1279 706-738-6678 708-949-7768 708-272-9511 617-784-5830 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 719-598-6863 317- 237-5050


lO. National Team Camp ASEP Coaching Principles (M&T: 9-12 noon, Wed.: 9- 10:30 a.m.) U.S. Classic Nationals ASEP Coaching Principles (Fri.: 6-9 p.m., Sal.: 9:00 a.m.-4:00 p.m.) Safety Certification (10:00 a.m.-3:00 p.m.) Safety Certification (1 :00 p.m.-5:00 p.m.) Safety Certification (10:00 a.m.-4:00 p.m.) Age Group Devel. Camp Commonwealth Games Broadcast Hilton Challenge Safety Certification (9:00 a.m.- 3:00 p.m.) Safety Certification (1 :00 p.m.-5:30 p.m.) National Congress Coca-Cola National Championships Safety Certification (1 :00 p.m.-5:30 p.m.) ASEP Coaching Principles (W: 8:30 a.m.-9:00 p.m., Th: 2-5:00 p.m.) Broadcast Coca-Cola National Championships ASEP Coaching Principles (9:00 a.m.-7:00 p.m.) Broadcast Coca-Cola National Championships Safety Certification (1 :00 p.m.-5:30 p.m.) XII Olympic Congress

Colorado Springs, CO Woodward, PA Palm Springs, CA Raleigh, NC Madison, AL Sparks, NV Raleigh, NC Colorado Springs, CO Victoria, B.C., CAN ABC Penfield, NY Nashville, TN Nashville, TN Nashville, TN Nashville, TN Nashville, TN NBC Nashville, TN NBC Nashville, TN Paris, FRA

Ron Galimore Dave Moskovitz Kathy Kelly Gymcarolina Gymnastics Kelly Hughes Derrick Moellenbeck Jean Davis Ron Galimore Galimore/Kelly Julie Bejin Sarah Jane Clifford Amy Oler Steve Whitlock John Kirchner Amy Oler

Julie Bejin Amy Oler Becky Riti

317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 919-848-7988 205-837-7395 702- 355-7755 919-790-9400 317-237-5050 317- 237-5050 317-237-5050 716-388-8686 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317- 237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317- 237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050


3 3 4 12 12 13 14 16 18 20 21 24 24 24 24 24 27 28 28 28 29

13 3 4 2 1 1 1 8 11 1 1 1 4 4 1 2 1 1 1 1 6

Julie Bejin


10 11 16 20 27 29 30 30 30

2 1 3 5 7 2 1 1 3


Golden Sands Varna, BUL Safety Certification (9:00 a.m.-l :00 p.m.) Burbank, CA ODP Regional Evaluation Various Sites Pan Am Gymnastics Cup Monterey, MEX TOP National Testing TBA ASEP Coaching Principles (PDP II)(Th: 5-9 p.m., F: 9 a.m.-l p.m.) Cincinnati, OH Safety Certification (9:00 a.m.-l :00 p.m.) Cincinnati, OH ASEP Coaching Principles (9:00 a.m.-5:00 p.m.) Cincinnati, OH Region VMini-Congress Cincinnati, OH

Galimore/Kelly Jeff Lulla Ron Galimore

317-237-5050 818-845-0700 317- 237-5050

Kathy Kelly Vicki Haggard Vicki Haggard Vicki Haggard Vicki Haggard

317- 237-5050 513-489-7575 513-489-7575 513- 489-7575 513-489-7575


Rhythmic International Invitational ASEP Coaching Principles (time: TBA) Asian Games

Nora Campbell Linda Johnson Galimore/ Kelly

317-237-5050 410- 721-5853 317-237-5050



1 15

-tentative Ju ly 1994


TBA Richmond, VA Hiroshima, JPN





Non-profit Organi za tion U.s. Postage PAID Permit No. 7867 Indianapolis, IN





Denver, CO 12:00 noon-5:00 pm SS Gymnastics Course Dir.: Betsy Sprague (303) 373-2797 Hanford, CA 9:00 am-l :00 pm United Gymnastics, 505 W. Fihh St., 93230 Course Dir.: Jeffrey lulla (818) 845-0700 local Contact: 8ecky Delcamp (209) 582-4140 Sunbury, OH 1:00 pm-5:00 pm Oak Creek Camp 1994 USA Gymnastics Summer Cooching Workshop Course Dir.: Dave Moskovitz (317) 237-5050 Deerfield, MA 1:30 pm-5:00 pm Five Star Gymnastics Camp (at Eagle Creek Schooi), Pine Nook Rd., 01342 Course Dir.: Steve DiTullio (508) 263-9306 local Contact: Steve DiTullio (413) 772-0575 (only from july 10-23)

Gainesville, Fl 1:00 pm-5:00 pm Sun Country Gymnostics, 4010 NW 27th lane, 32605 Course Dir.: D.J. Milem (904) 641-9966 local Contact: linda Bennett (904) 378-B711


This course is to be held in conjunction with the YMCA Greot Lakes Aone Gymnastics Clinic.

1920 Indy School of Gymnastics 7:00 pm-9:00 pm (both days) Indianapolis, IN Course Dir.: Dave Moskovitz (317) 237-5050 23 Port Jervis, NY 1:00 pm- 5:00 pm Team USA Gymnastics Camp Course Dir.: Ken Miller/ Bob Beach local Contact: Rick Palumbo (914) 856-8326 Indianapolis, IN 9:00 am-12:00 noon Holiday Inn Airport Indianapolis, 2501 S. High School Rd., 46241 Course Dir.: Borry Dubuque (812) 473-3232 latham, NY 1:00 pm-4:30 pm World Class Gymnastics Academy 630 Columbia Street Ext., 12110 Course Dir.: Paul Spadaro (212) 957-1963 local Contact: Bob & Jo Pieher (51 B) 785-34Bl 24 Uniontown, OH 9:00 am-l :00 pm North Canton YMCA Gymnastics Center 12005 Cleveland Ave. NW Course Dir.: Bobbi Montanarri


Augusta, GA 9:00 am-l :00 pm Augusta YWCA Course Dir.: Mike Goodale (706) 738-6678 Indianapolis, IN 2:00 pm-5:30 pm local Contact: Amy Oler (317) 237-5050 Peoria, Il 1:00 pm-5:00 pm Hotel Pere Marquette, 501 Main St., 61602 Course Dir.: Gerry Denk (708) 564-3420 local Contact: Gerry Denk (708) 272-9511

Name: Mr./Mrs./Ms . _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Soc. Sec. # _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Address: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ City:. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ State: _ _ __ Zip._ _ _ __

(W),_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


Woodward, PA-Time: TBA USA Gymnastics Summer Coaching Workshop Course Dir.: Dave Moskovitz (317) 237-5050 Colorado Springs, CO 8:00 am-12:30 pm Stars National Gymnastics Village Course Dir.: Betsy Sprague (303) 373-2797 local Contact: Richard Ashton (719) 598-6863



Madison, Al 10:00 am-3:00 pm 30

Burbank, CA 9:00 am-l :00 pm Fun & Fit Gymnastics Center, 1919 W. Burbank Blvd., 91506 (ourse Dir.: Jeff lulla (BI8) B45-0700 Cincinnati, OH 9:00 am-l :00 pm Eastgate Holiday Inn, 4501 Eastgate Blvd., 45245 Course Oir.: TBA local Contact: Vicki Haggard (513) 489-7575 This course is to be held in conjunction with the Region VMini-Congress.

All courses are3rd Cycle courses.


1 I I

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Southern States Gymnastics, 106A Castle Dr., 35758 Course Dir.: Ricky Garcia (205) 970-0496 locol Contact: Kelly Hughes (205) 837- 7395 Sparks, NV 1:00 pm-5:00 pm Gymnastics Nevada, 225 lillard, 89434 Course Dir.: Derrick Moellenbeck (702) 355-7755 Raleigh, NC 10:00 am-3:00 pm North Raleigh Gymnasitcs, 7221 Becky Circle, 27615 Course Dir.: Donald Davis (919) B34-9380 local Contact: Jean Davis (919) 790-9400 Penfield, NY 9:00 am- 3:00 pm The Gymnastics Training Center of Rochester Inc. 2051 Fairport Nine Mile Point Rd., 14526 Course Dir.: Sarah Jane Clifford (716) 3B8-B6B6 Nashville, TN 1:00 pm-5:30 pm 1994 USA Gymnastics Congress locol (ontact: Amy Oler (317) 237-5050 Nashville, TN 1:00 pm-5:30 pm 1994 USA Gymnastics Congress local Contact: Amy Oler (317) 237-5050


Please make checks payable J infuU to USA Gymnastics Safety I Certification I Mail Registration Form and I Payment to: USA Gymnastics I Safety, Pan American Plaza, \ Suite 300, 201 S. Capitol, India- I napolis, IN 46225

Organization Represented: _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __





Course Location: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Date:. _ _ _ __

ExpiratIOn Date:



Course Director:. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __

If USA Gymnastics Member, List Type and N umber_ _ _ _ _ _ __


This course is to be held in conjunction with the Illinois Stote Congress.

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Participation Registration Form

Telephone: (H),_ _ _ __ _ __

(614) 457-1279 local Contact: Martha Miller (614) 385-8105

Maryland Heights, MO 10:00 am-2:00 pm Olympiad Gymnastics, 2675 Metro Blvd., 63043 Course Dir.: Ray Overmann (314) 291-7745 local Contact: Cindy (314) 291-7664



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All materiaJs (including the new Safety Handbook) for 3rd Cycle courses are provided at the course and are part of the course fee. Certifica tion is good for 4 years. The course / examina tion is $100 USA Gymnastics Profession; Members and recertification b $75. Retest cost is $25. FOI' groups of at least 10, contact the USA GymnastiCS Department of EducationaJ Services and Safety_

Technique Magazine - July 1994  
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