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February 1994 Vol. 14, #2


Inside A Healthy 10! A Reference Guide For Gymnasts And Other Athletes Play's Hidden Purpose: Teaching Preschoolers Vaulting Vertical Displacement USA Gymnastics Online! RSG Level 1-4 ProgramFilling The Void The Pelvic Tilt 1994 Congress Gymnastics For Young Children Improving. Vault Scores Through Improved Running Technique Physical Abilities Profiles: U.S. Men 's National Team


Educational Materials

UlIA ~_________________~ __~ ~~TI~C~S________________~\ Psyching for Sport: Mental Training for Athletes

Ut>lI/uI1lnuWIf! fill" Ithlel(·.'i

My Book of Gymnasti(s: Health and Movement

Terry Orlick, Ph.D. University of Ottawa

Amanda Durrant 1993· "ord cover. 32pp· Thompson Leorning, New York, NY Item #3639-S19.95

1986· Paper· 207pp. Leisure p''''. Chompoign. IL Item #364O-SI6.00

Limber up, beginning gymnasts! Here's you r guide to the basics of this great sport. Easy-tofollow instructions and step-bystep photos take you through all the important routines.

Psyching for Sport will put you in your right mind! Athletes need more than physical skill to reach their goals-they need psychological skills, too.

Psyching for Sport: Mental Training for Athletes presents a complete psychological training program for developing mental skills. Athletes who follow this step-bystep program will learn to play better and enjoy competition more fully by controlling their thoughts and emotions. Sport psychologist Terry Orlick developed the m ental training program explained in Psyching for Sport through his work with the Canadian women's alpine skiing and speed skating teams, the canoeing and ski jumping teams, and national team members from a variety of other sports. His experiences as a collegiate gymnast and coach ensure the applicability of the concepts he presents. Since receiving his Ph.D. in 1972, Dr. Orlick has been a leader in the New Games movement, has written several books on youth sports and psychological training, and has traveled extenSively throughout the world making presentations to coaches, athletes, teachers, and parents.

_ _ Amanda"""",,

You'll s tart by mastering simple exercises like stretching, balancing, bending, and jumping. Then, you'll be introduced to the balance beam and vault and will learn floor exercises. You'll soon find that you have increased your skills and improved your posture and coordination. Gymnastics is the best way to keep your body fit, flexible, and strong-and you'll have fun doing it! Ms. Durrant has a diploma in Physical Education and Gymnastics from the Watford College of Education in England. She has appeared on radio and television to publicize her message tha t mobility training gives children an active, and therefore healthy, start to life.

This text has been recommended by Dr. Joan Duda for use by the U.S. Women's National Team.

Item #


IQuantity I

Toorder any of th"e book" or other educolionol moteriols and videos presented in thi' issue, pleose complete thi' order form. Price


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Signature: ___________________________________________________ Send orders and moke checks payable to: USA Gymnastics, Merchandise Dept., PO Box 5562, Indianapolis, IN 46255·5562 • 317·237-5060

Editor Production Graphic Design Men's Program Women's Program Director Rhythmic Program Director

Stephen W.Whitlock Luon Peszek Julie T. Jones Bill Meade

Contents Book Review AHealthy 10! AReference Guide for Gymnasts and other Athletes


Kathy Kelly

Preschool Gymnastics Play's Hidden Purpose: Teaching Preschoolers


Nora Campbell

USA Gymnastics Board 01 Directors Chair: Sondy Knopp; President Emeritus: Bud Wilkinson, Mike Donahue; Athlete Directors: Wendy Hilliard, choir; vice choir; Michelle DUlserre, sec; Sheryl Dundas; fim DoggeH; Karyn Lyon Glaver; Tonyo Service Choplin; Chris Woller; Conrad Voar"nger; Peter Vidmar; Kevin Davis, USOC Athlete's Advisory Council; Amateur Athletic Union: Stan Alkinson; American Sokol Organization: Jerry Milan; American Trampoline & Tumbling Association: Wayne Downing; American Turners: Beny Heppner; Junior Boys Gymnastics Coaches Association: Marc Yancy; Men's Elite (ooches Association: Peter Kormann; National Association for Girls and Women in Sport: Dr. Mimi Murray; Notional Association 01 Collegiate Gymnastics Men: Abie Grossleld; National Association 01 Collegiate Gymnastics Women: Gail Davis; Notional Association of Women's Gymnostics Judges: Yvonne Hodge; National Collegiate Athletic Association: Jane BeHs, Lou Burkel; National Federation 01 State High School Associations: Susan True; National Gymnastics Judges Association: Horry Bierke; National High School Gymnastics Coaches Association: John Brinkworth; Jewish Community (enters: Cou~ney Shonken; Rhythmic Coaches Association: Suzie DITullio; Special Olympics, Inc.: Kate Fober-Hickie; U.S. Association 01 Independent Gym Clubs: Lance Crowley; U.S. Elite (ooches Association for Women: Tony Gehman, Rae Kreulzer; U.S. Sports Acrobalics Federation: Bonnie Davidson; Young Men' s Christian Associalion: Rick Dodson; USA Gymnastics Notional Membership Directors: Men's: Jim Holt, Roy Guro; Women's: Jim Archer, Julio Thompson-Aletz; Rhythmic: Alia Svirsky, Ute AIt-Corherry. USA Gymnastics Executive Committee Choir: Sandy Knopp; Secretary: Mike Milidonis; Vice Chair Women: Honey Marshall; Vice Chair Men: fim DoggeH; Vice Chair Rhythmic: Harmo Zobko; FIG Women's Technical Committee: Jockie Fie; FIG Rhythmic Technical Committee: Andrea Schmid路Shopiro; FIG Men's Technical Committee: Bill Roetzheim; At large Members: Jim Ho~ung, Joon Moore; Athlete Directors: Michelle Dusserre, Wendy Hilliard; President Emeritus: Bud Wilkinson, Mike Donohue. Associate Contents Editors Sports Science Advisory Committee William Sands, Ph.D., Choir, Sports Advisory Committee PoNy Hocker, Ph.D_, Choir, Education Sub-committee Stephen W. Whnlock, Uoison

Unless expressly identified 10 Ihe conllOrY, all articles, s/o/emenls and views prinled herein ore oNrib.'ed",'e'y 10 Ihe oUlhorond Ihe Uniled States Gymnostics Federation expresses no opinion and assumes no responsibility Ihereof. CHANGE OF ADDRESS AND SUBSCRIPTION INQUIRIES: In order to ensure uninterrupted delivery of TECHNIQUE magazi ne, notice of change of address should be made six to eight weeks in advance. For fastest service, please enclose your present mailing label. Direct a Usubscription mail to TECHNIQUE Subscriptions, Pan American Plaz.:" 201 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225_ TECHN IQUE is published 10 limes per year by USA Gymnastics, Pan American Plaza, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225 (phone: 317237-5050). Third class postage paid at lndianapolis, 'N. Subscription price: 525.00 per yea r in United 3l'ates; all other countries $48.00 per year. H ava ilable, back issue single copies $4.00 plus Sl.00 postage/ handling. All reasonablecarewill be taken, but no res ponsibility ca n be assumed for unsoli ci ted material; enclose return postage. Copyright 1993 by USA Gymnastics a nd TECHNIQUE. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.

Sport Science Vaulting Vertical Displacement: Biomechanical Considerations Physical Abilities Profiles: u.s. Men's National Team

8 34

Rhythmic Gymnastics Rhythmic Gymnastics Level 1-4 Program-Filling the Void


Communication USA Gymnastics Online! It's Here!


Strength Training The Pelvic Tilt


1994 Congress General Information


Coaches Education Gymnastics for Young Children ACEP Leader Level Sport Science Course

20 26

Coaches Accreditation Professional Development Program


Technique Improving Vault Scores Through Improved Running Technique


Women's Minutes Women's Elite Program Comm., conference call, 12/23/93 Women's Program Comm., conference call, 1/ 10/94 Women's 1994 Elite Qualification Procedures

38 39 39

Announcements 40

Resources 1993 Index of Articles


By looking at what children do when they play, we can better learn how to best teach and work with them in nonplay settings.


This article describes new materials that have been developed to teach dance and gymnastics instructors how to teac. the very basic skills of rhythmic gymnastics.


The '994 Congress will be conducted at the Opryland Hotel in Nashville, Tennessee, August 25-28 in conjunction with the Men's and Women's Coca Cola National Championships.



PLEASE NOTE: The videos listed in this magazine are provided for educational and historic purposes. While every effort is made to produce videos of the highest quality, it should be noted that some of the videos are produced at events utilizing handheld cameras from vantage points in the stands by non-professional volun teer technicians. Only limited editing and production enhancements are utilized in order to provide a timely product at a reasonable cost to the USA Gymnastics membership.

Use the order form on page 2 to order any of these videotapes.



i General


1993 USA Gymnaestrada, Indianapolis, Indiana, October 8-10. Group Perfor#2771 $16.95 mances. Highlights from the Gymnaestradas ( in Herningand Amsterdam. (0:30) (1993) #2600 $5.00 Amsterdam Gymnaestrada. Amsterdam Gala. (1 991) #2705 $16.95 Amsterdam Gy mnaestrada. Opening ceremonies and other outdoor performances. (1991) #2702 $16.95 Amsterdam Gymnaestrada. USSR Gala performance. (1991) #2704 $16.95 Amsterdam Gymnaestrada. Various performances. (1991) #2703 $16.95 ~ How to tape an injured gymnast. This tape was prepared by Larry Nassar, ATC. (Part I = 1:55, Part II = 1:23 #2102 $19.95 PDP level I instructor's starter kit. For Levell Clinic Administrators. Includes #3609 $60.00 video and 15 Clinic Workbooks. Safety Video. Gymnastics 1st, 2nd, and always. #2601 $39.95 Back exercises for the gymnast. A video designed to lessen the problem of back pain in the gymnast. With use of a skeleton and gymnasts, L.Nassa r, ATC, d emonstrates how body positioning, flexibility, pelvic stabilization & muscular exercises are beneficial. (1 :20)(1992) #2410 $10.95





'1 ==




:> i

Men Basic Skills Achievement Program (BSAP) video. Demonstration of all of the skills. #52 $29.95 J.O. Compulsory Program (JOCP) video. Demonstration of all of the exercises. (Edited by class level) #2221 $39.95 J.O. Compulsory Program (JOCP) video. Demonstra tion of all of the exercises. (Edited by event) #2222 $39.95 Olympic Development Program (ODP) video-1992. Complete d emonstration. #61 $29.95 Goal setting and preparation for competitions. Sport Psychology session by Dr. K. McKelvainat92nat. team camp, Colo. Spgs. (2:00)(1992) #2273 $14.95 USGF Congress, Ana heim. Dieter Hofmann's lectures. Clinic for men's coaches. (2 parts: total time = 9 hrs in SLP)(1992) #2200 $39.95 Colo. Spgs. Coaches Seminar for Men's Gymnastics. TU: Liukin; V: Artemov; PB:Tomita; R:O'Neill; HB: Akopya n; Conditioning & Periodization: Sands; PH : Daggett; Watanabe. (2 tapes, SLP format, 5:43) (1993) #2253 $24.95

Preschool!elementary Preschool Workshop, Ft. Worth. Swedish gymnastics. Features Kajsa Murmark & Gun Stahl. #1/3 tapes includes: Introduction, Philosophy, and first group lessons. (2:00)(1991) #2130 $12.95 Preschool Workshop, Ft. Worth. Swedish gymnastics. Features Kajsa Murmark & Gun Stahl. #2/3 tapes includes: Ways to use apparatus, Day in the jungle, Bean bag activities, and Games. (2:00)(1991) #2131 $12.95 Preschool Workshop, Ft. Worth. Swedish gymnastics. Features Kajsa Murmark & Gun Stah l. #3/3 tapes includes: Games, Balloon activities, and final lessons. (2:00)(1991) #2132 $12.95

Rhythmic Levell & 2 Instructional video. (Accompanies Level 1-4 Program Instructor's Manuals) (1993) #2323 $10.00 Level 3 & 4 Instructional video. (Accompanies Level 1-4 Program Instructor's Manuals) (1993) #2324 $10.00

J.O, Compulsory Video levels 1-4. Companion to the compulsory book. #2105 $29.95 J.O. Compulsory Video levels 5-7 and 10. Companion to #2106 #29.95 the compulsory book. J.O. Dance Workouts 1-3 for coaches' tape. Explanation of the basic dance exercises. (2:00) #2173 $15.00 Roundoff vault training. Developed by T. Gehman for the Women's J.O. program. PrerequiSites, training tips, conditioning, and technique. #2107 $19.95 Talent Opportunity Program (T.o.P.), Indianapolis, IN. National Testing. This tape shows all of the physical abilities tests used at the Na tional Testing in Indianapolis. (1993) #2139 $14.95

55.450 (GER), Ivankov-55.425 (BLR), Karbanenko-55.275 (RUS), Liukin-55. 225 (KZK), Belenki-55.225 (UNA), Korobchinski-55.IOO (UKR), Keswick-54.875 (USA). FX: Misutin-9.400, Thomas-9.350, Scherbo-9.350. PH: Pae9.750, Wecker-9.425, Schupkegel-9.400. R: Chechi-9.625, Wecker-9.575, Ivankov-9.500. V: Scherbo-9.612, FengChih9.487, Yoo-9.418. PO: Scherbo-9.600, Korobch inski-9.525, Belenki-9.475. HB: C harkov-9.450, Gherman-9.375, Supola-9.350. #2295 $19.95 McDonald's Am. Cup, Orlando,FL. Prelims and Finals. Scherbo-56.950 (BLR), Ringnald-55.700 (USA), Wecker55.175 (GER), Sharipov-55.000 (UKR), Gherman-54.850 (ROM), Waller-54.650 (USA), Supola-53.700 (HUN), Centazzo (ITA), Curtis (USA), Umino (JPN), Thomas (GBR), Bravo (ESP), Pluss (SUI), Lopez (MEX), Keswick (USA), Dashuang (CHN) (1993) #2252 $19.95



Sr. National Team Spring Training Camp, Colo. Spgs, CO. Clinics and lectures. The focus of the training camp was Olympic compulsories. Mini-clinics: PH (Burch); R (O'Neill); V (Hamada); PB (Mizoguchi); HB (Furman). Lectures: Strength training (Major); Sport Psychology (McKelvain). (SLP format 6:00) (1993) #2280 $24.95 Sr. National Team Spring Training Camp, Colo. Spgs, CO. Sr. Men's Training Sessions. The focus of the training camp was Olympic compulsories. (SLP format4 :00) (1993) #2281 $24.95

Women Talent Opportunities Program (TOPs) National Training Camp, Birmingham, AL, May, 1993. Activities. Warm-up (Towson ), Va ult (Artemov), Tumbling (Elliott), UB Lioukin / Akopyan), BB (Grossfeld), FX (Pozsar), Dance (Towson), and Banquet. (A-SLP 4:56) (1993) #2150 $24.95 Talent Opportunities Program (TOPs) National Training Camp, Birmingham, AL, May, 1993. Lectures. TumbleTrax (Davis), Training (Dr.sands), Nu trition (Dr. Benadot), Coaching (Grossfeld), Taping (Nassar), and Sport Psychology (Dr. Duda). (A-SLP, 3:42) (1993)#2151 $24.95

(OMrITITIONS Men 93 World University Games, Buffalo, NY, 7/11&13/ 93. Men's All Around and Event Finals. (1:1 8) #2248 $14.95 93 World University Games, Buffalo, NY, 7/9/93. Men's Team Competition (1 :39) #2249 $16.95 Coca-Cola National Championships, Salt Lake City, UT, August, 1993. Junior and Senior Men's Compulsories, #2298 $16.95 Coca-Cola Na tional Championships, Salt La ke City, UT, August, 1993. Junior and Senior Men' s Optionals. Seniors: Roethlisberger-III.30, Umphrey-I 10.20, Keswick109.20, Waller-l 08.25, Hanks-l 07.25, Roth-106.50, Bagio105.90, Huston-105.85, Grace-I05.25, Simons-l04.85, Masucci-l04.75, Meadowes-I04.70, Durbin-104.60, Harrison-104.45, McCain-103.40, Stein-l03.35, Yee-103.20, Denucci-102.70. Iuniors: Bryan-99.15, Thornton-95.75, Klaus-94.05, Stibel-93.10, Kinison-91.05, Michel-89.40, Stein-86.05, Juguilon-81.45. #2299 $19.95 J.O. Nationals, Ann Arbor, MI, May 7-8. Event Finals, Jr. Elite I, Jr. Elite II (14-15) & 16-1 8), Class III. (2:00) #2279 $16.95 World Championships, Birmingham, GBR, April, 1993. Men's all-around finals and individual event finals. Scherbo-56.174 (BLR), Charkov-55.625 (RUS), Wecker-

Coca-Cola National RhythmicChampionships, Colo. Spgs., 1993. Junior All-around Finals. Sievers-69.90, Lim-69.40, Sieber-69.30, Fredrickson-68.75, Lee-67.20, Lacuesta-67.00. #2360 $16.95 (SP 1:14) Coca-Cola National RhythmicChampionships, Colo. Spgs., 1993. Senior All-around Finals. Levinson-73.45, Davis72.40, Hunt-71.90, Bushnell-71.60, Ward-71.50, Tucay70.05. (SP 1:34) #2361 $16.95 J.O. RhythmiC Championships, Colo. Spgs., 1993. Level 7 RFX, Rope, Hoop and Ribbon. (2 tapes)#2380 $24.95 Rh ythmic Championships, Colo. Spg.s, 1993. Level 8 RFX, Ball, Ribbon and Clubs. (2 tapes) #2381 $24.95


Coca-Cola National Championships, Salt Lake City, UT, August, 1993. Women's Junior and Senior Compulsories. #2198 $16.95 Coca-Cola National Championships, Salt Lake City, UT, August, 1993. Women's Junior and Senior Optionals. Seniors: MiIler-78.41 , Dawes-77.33, Strug-76.57, Borden75.145, Campi-74.95, Fontaine-74.09 Davis-73 .865, Beathard-72.485, Rochelli-72.34, Bhardwaj-72.305, Reid72.26, Muhleman-71.93, Arnold-71.915, Fitzpatrick-71.895, Gianni-71.74, Young-71.655, Ellsberry-71.655, Lichey71.635, E.Reid-71.415, Fry-71.27. Iuniors: J.Thompson74.70, Maiers-74. 38, Meduna-74.005, Teft-73 .765, D.Thompson-72.98, Lichey-72.925,Moceanu-72.895, Diaz72.895, Kinkaid-72.845, Kullikowski-72.60, Pickens-72.395, Martini-72.355. #2199 $19.95 Coca-Cola National Championships, Salt Lake City, UT, Augus t, 1993. Mens and Women's Individual Event Finals. #2197 $16.95 U.s. Classic, Austin, TX, 7/ 93. Women's Jr. & Sr. International Optionals. - Iuniors: Lichey-37.575, Meduna37.25, Pickens-37.075, Teft-36.95, Martini-36.675, Kulikowski-36.55, Maloney-36.025, Moceanu-35.925, Knox-35.90, Kinkaid-35.275, Demery-35.275 Seniors: Dawes-38.100, Campi-38.075, Beathard-36.925, Sommer36.925, Fontaine-36.80, Harriman-36.80, French-36.80, Reid-36.70, Muhleman-36.675, Fry-36.675. (SLP 4:45) #2125 $19.95 U.s. Classic; Austin, TX, 7/ 93. Women's Jr. and Senior Compulsory Practice Meet. Selected routines.-SP #2126 $14.95 U.S. Classic, Austin, TX, 7/93. Women's Jr. and Senior National Optionals. Selected routines. (SP) #2127 $14.95 World Championships, Birmingham, GBR., April, 1993. Women's all-around finals. MilIer-39.062 (USA), Gogean39.055 (ROM), Lisenko-39.011 (UKR), Dawes-38.830 (USA), Fabrichnova-38.630 (RUS), Galieva-38.586 (UZB), Piskun-38.554 (BLR), Milosovici-38.392 (ROM). (B) #2195 $16.95 World Championships, Birmingham, GBR, April, 1993. Women's individual eventfinals. VAULT: Piskun-9.762, Milosovici-9.737, Chusovitina-9.718. BARS: Miller-9.887, Dawes-9.800, Cacovean-9.787. BEAM: Milosovici-9.850, Dawes-9.725, Gogean-9.650. FLOOR: Miller-9 .787, Gogean-9.737, Bobrova-9.712. (B, 0:00) #2196 $12.95 McDonald's Am. Cup, Orlando, FL. Prelims and Finals MiIler-39.268 (USA), Strug-38.168 (USA), Piskun-37.837 (BLR), Xuemei-37.455 (CHN), Portocarrero-37.206 (GU A), Had arean-36.762 (ROM), Kosuge-35.798 (JPN), Galloway-35.173 (CAN), Dawes (USA), Borden (USA), Campi (USA), Stobvtchataia (UKR), Machado (FRA), Molnar (HUN), Hristakieva (BUll (1993) #2152 $19.95

Book Review

Did you ever think a book about health, fitness, nutrition and exercise could be entertaining? Fun to read? Funny? This book is all of this. Plus it's

A R efe"ence Gllidefin' GY1Jlna ... ts & Othe?' Athletes

full of good information which most of us don't reach for often enough. The title might lead you to believe this book is written just for gymnasts, but don't let that fool you. Any athlete can benefit from this book-including parents!






A HEALTHY 10! A REFERENCE GUIDE FOR GYMNASTS AND OTHER ATHLETES You may order this book through USA Gymnastics Merchandise Department. Use the Order Form on page 2 of this magazine.

Spencer are a Rice graduate in bio-chemistry and an athletic trainer specializing in gymnastics. A strong team for a book about health and fitness .


Do you have questions? They may be answered in this book:

St-w,LAT 01H2 째 poper 0187 pp 째 hem 13637 째 S16.95

The fact is, many of us start an exercise and fitness program without enough facts about our body, its possibilities and its limitations. Injuries happen to those who either know how to take care of themselves and don't or to those who deny they need to know. Jack Jensen, MD, board certified orthopedic surgeon and fellow of the American College of 'ports Medicine, has spent his .ife participating as an athlete, studying and treating Olympic gymnasts and a variety of other elite athletes. The co-authors, Linda Angela Day and Leslie

1. When should I go to an orthopedic surgeon? A podiatrist? A chiropractor? Who are other specialists who know about sports and sports injuries? 2. What kind of morph

amI? 3. Fat control vs weight control-what's the purpose and what's the difference? 4. What's my brand of muscle twitchiness? 5. What's a reasonable and balanced training program? 6. And, how do I minimize injuries?

Jack E. Jen se n. t\ JD L es li e Spen c e r. L!\T

Linda,An[!;c1a Day

"Every gymnast

book!" - Be/a Karolyi

Excerpts from the chapter on "Body Basics" will give you a flavor of the rest:

Injury: spine, knee and thigh, shoulder, elbow and wrist and leg, ankle and foot.

Did you know that bones are constantly changing their calcium? That some joints never move? That you'll never be able to control some muscles? That just because you can "move it" doesn't mean it "ain't broke"? No? Well, read on. This chapter willgiveyou the basic skinny about bones, muscles, ligamen ts , tendon s, plus the other stuff that keeps you . ..

Read this book cover to cover. Use it as a reference. Enjoy it and learn to enjoy your body and to develop it to its fullest capacity.

Really, this section should be titled the musculo-skeletoligamen to-tend eno-cartilagenoidalsystem, because it takes more than a skeleton and some muscles to make things work. Other chapters include nutrition, a chapter on training (30 pages of information with friendly figures illustrating stretching, conditioning and strength training). Then there's a chapter each on parts of the body that are most vulnerable to

February 1994 TECHNIQUE

The "Epilogue" completes this good book with some good advice. We hope you feel proud to be the owner of a genuine human body. It's an honor reserved for very few living creatures. You are in charge of an original oneand-only: your special version of this world's most intricate and wondrous creation. Treasure it. So what is the right goal? To be as much yourself as you can be. To express yourself as fully as possible, every minute. Don't dwell on the mistakes of the past. Don' t worry about the future. Work hard, practice your skills, develop your body and take care of it That's A HEALTHY 10!

Preschool Gymnastics





Where is the secret garden of children's lives in which they wonder, discover, create, experience and try to make sense of all that the big world they live in has to offer? That garden is found in play, where young children spend much of their time. According to a study done by the Institute forSocialResearch, University of Michigan, 1985, approximately four hours of every day of the three to five year old child's life is devoted to play com pared to a pproxima tel y two hours daily for the six to eight year old. Two important questions preschool coaches need to ask themselves are:


PuRPOSE: lEAClllNG PRESCHOOLERS Nicki Geigert, CEO Nicki's Gymnastics for Children 16612 226th Ave. N .E., Woodinville, WA. 98072

1. What takes place in the

actofplaythatweneed to be aware of? and 2. Are we more focused

on teaching tricks than on teaching preschoolers? By looking at what children do when they play, we can better learn how to best teach and work with them in non play settings. When playing, children act out adult roles (mommy, daddy, teacher, firefighter, doctor) , make sounds (trucks, cars, babies), and give life and meaning to the inanimate objects that they play with. They take risks, make choices, use their imaginations, pretend, problem-solve, and imitate older children and adults. When playing and learning, toddlers and preschoolers show that they do not learn linearly,

but are fragmented learners. They are easily distracted from a task, but then soon return to it. They use their senses to mentally sort, arrange, and rearrange the input they are taking in. All is subject to the "taste, touch, see, hear, feel, smell" test. Socially, young children begin life very self centered. They believe that the world revolves

around them, and that everything they succeed in doing is wonderful. "Watch me" isacommon imperative among preschoolers. The term cooperate is as foreign to them as nuclear science, for cooperation involves a planned and mutually acceptable cognitive outcome. By watching children at play, we can ascertain not only how

When playing, children act out adult roles (mommy, daddy, teacher, firefighter, doctor), make sounds (trucks, cars, babies), and give life and meaning to the inanimate objects that they play with. They take risks, make choices, use their imaginations, pretend, problem-solve, and imitate older children and adults. February 1994 TECHNIQUE

they best learn, but equally important, what teaching methodologies work best to facilitate that learning. When we look at a develop men tall y a ppropria te gymnastics motor development curriculum for young children, we must remind ourselves that the process must titillate the senses, be fun and must involve continuous activity with the instructor teaching in one of several ways: Guided Exploration and Discovery, Problem-Solv: ing, Teacher Directed Learning, and Free Exploration and Discovery.

Guided Exploration and Discovery In this style the instructor creates a learning environment that is relatively new to the child, relative to some very specific outcomes that the instructor wants the class to achieve. The focus of the lesson should be placed on the process of discovering the outcome, since the process is equally or more important than the outcome itself. For example, the focus of a lesson may be to have children discover the different locomotor movements which they can travel with. Asked to think of the special ways they can move on their feet, students usually come up with most of the eight locomotor movements we know to be possible, (walk, run, gallop, jump, hop, skip, leap, slide). They can then explore all the different ways they can do each of these movements and decide which to use as they move

Preschool Gymnastics

through an obstacle course . Through the process of discovering the outcomes for themselves, learning retention is greater; the children become aware of the locomotor movements, and have explored ways that each can be used. The teacher can maintain children's interest level during guided discovery by doing several things: • Use change of action words to create a new and different response from the children. • Ask the child whatthey are doing, rather than telling them what to do. • Use "who can .. " questions to help children determine the possibilities as well as limitations. • Encourage and reward children with praise when they take risks. When children respond "I can' t" to a challenge, get down to their level and reply, "Show me what you can't do." This will usually elicit a positive response!

The preschool gymnastics instructor plays an important role in the motor development of young children. The instructor is there to provide basic "building block" motor opportunities to explore movement options and develop body management skills that will be used in later life. "wrong" in problemsolving and discovery; only more efficient. • Keepinmindhowlong it would take students to come up with a solution; think in terms of building block concepts, not necessarily the end result.

Teacher directed This style is to be used when a skill is totally new to the child, when there is onl y one wa y to do a skill correctly, or when safety is a major factor. Many teachers use the teacher directed mode of

teaching heavily because it is easier to be a leader and have students follow and imitate, or because they are looking for end results and outcomes rather than focusing on the process. Restrict this method for when no other method will work effectively.

Free exploration and discovery This method can be frightening for a new teacher who may envision themselves being overrun with a totally out of control bunch of little people! Free exploration and discovery is similar to guided exploration in that

the instructor sets the stage for children to explore and discover possibilities, but it is different in that the goal is not to have every child discover the same outcome at the same pace. Free exploration also differs from free play in that the instructor has an active role in structuring the environment and determining what students may discover. For example, activity stations could be set up using a variety of mats, equipment, and apparatus and the children could be challenged to move freely from one station to another to discover many movement possibilities. Many times those children with less movement experiences will imitate those who appear to be braver and greater risk-takers. When using this style, it is important to remember these points: • Young children are sensory learners. Setup a stimulating environment that is appealing to the senses and will encourage children to explore. • Change direction, equipment, or parts of an activity station if children appear to be growing bored.


The preschool gymnastics instructor plays an important role in the motor development of young children. The instructor is there to provide basic "building block" motor opportunities to explore movement options and develop body management skills that will be used in later life.

The problem-solving style involves concen tra tion and thinking skills. The instructor acts as encourager and facilitater to that process. For example, you might say "Let's go to the floor beams." Rather than telling the children how to walk across without falling off, encourage them to discover w ha t they must do with their body parts to maintain balance. They will usually solve the problem in more ways than one. To help keep children's interest as they work in this style, try these tips:

Through the use of appropriate teaching styles in which preschool gymnastics instructors encourage children to move out of their comfort zones and take risks, we can begin to make a difference in the lives of children.

• If the solution is not readily apparent, give "hints" to help them solve it.

References: How Children Use Tim e. (1 985) Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Res tak, R. , MD; Th e Infll nt Min d. (1986) Doubleday and Co. Garden City, New York.

• Encourage children during the thinking process. Remember, there is no "right" or February 1994




A 7

Sports Science



A. 8

a ulting skills should be associated with outstanding vertical displacement (height). Projected vertical height appears to be one of the primary characteristics of high level gymnastics performance, particularly in vaulting. Proper execution of vaulting skills consorts with reaching a particular FIG standard in projection height. This performance characteristic may well be the primary means by which many performers are able to excel. Although outstanding vertical displacement is desirable, its acquisition appears to be quite elusive. There are several important means by which vertical displacement can be influenced and procured. Obtaining maximum vertical displacement is linked with both linear and angular movement. Kreighbaum and Barthels (1990) suggest that any change in movement must be associated with a force (F) or torque (T). Resulting movements depend on several scenarios: magnitude of the force application, inertial characteristic of the system, and the pathway available during flight (Kreighbaum and Barthels, 1990).

Figure 1


Movement Influences

William L. Cornelius


Associate Professor KHPR, University of North Texas, Denton, TX

Dramatic alterations in the vertical height of a gymnastics vault can be brought about by a particular F or T application. An increase in the magnitude and/ or the angle atwhich the ForTis applied is quite influential. When employed internal to the body, while the athlete is in contact with the gymnastics apparatus, this action results in an equal and oppositely directed external For T. This action-reaction phenomenon is based on Newton's Third Law of Motion. Newton suggested that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction. For example, an action F can result from angular movement of a single bod y segment about a joint axis, or from linear or angular motion of the entire body during one of the two vaulting flight phases

(preflight or postflight). When these ac tions succeed in contacting a support at a particular angle of application, the outcome is to receive a reactionF orT from the support. The reaction F or T, from the takeoff board or the vaulting horse, can then provide the means necessary to make changes in flight displacement.

Linear and angular momentum The initiation, increase, or decrease in linear and / or angular momentum can be secured from a support. Linear momentum (M) consists of the product of the gymnast's mass and linear velocity, while the gymnast's angular momentum (L) possesses the product of rotational February 1994

inertia (distribution of the mass) and angular velocity. Most gymnastics movements possess both linear and angular characteristics; vaulting performance is certainly an example. Seldom is there only one of these movement characteristics. Changes in M and/ or L can only be increased or decreased when an external F or T is applied. Consequently, both M and L can be changed attakeoff, horse contact, and landing. Effective technique used at these three points can produce the necessary quantity of Land M for a successful vault. Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the presence of linear and angular translations. TECHNIQUE

Approach and takeo" considerations Proper technique in approaching the takeoff board is crucial if vertical height in the two subsequent flight phases is to be obtained. Running and hurdle technique can produce a high M magnitude when the gymnast attacks the takeoff board. A part of the explosive, high linear M at board takeoff can be transferred to L (Figures la-b and 2a- b). Hence, preparation prior to board contact is important in producing a combination of M and L at takeoff. Flight quality is totally depend ent on the magnitude of these two mechanical quantities.

Sports Science

Initiating angular momentum at takeoH The gymnast has the opportunity to create L at the point of board takeoff because the system (body) is in transition from support to being free of support. Board contact can produce the action mechanism, resulting in an externalforce (reaction F) that produces the torque required to create L. Establishing L is necessary if the system is to effectively rotate around its total center of gravity (CG) from board takeoff to the completion of the vault. Angular momentum is optimized at takeoff when the gymnast moves the CG slightly forward of the base of support (Figure 1b or 2b). This allows the gymnast to incorporate an eccentric action F (angular impulse) behind the CG, through an explosive leg extension F at the hip and knee joints. In order to produce adequate reaction force attakeoff, it is beneficial to apply an underarm swing aimed at applying additional F into the board. The underarm swing technique creates greater F into the support surface, compared to other arm actions (Hinrichs and Cornelius, 1986). The angle of projection (trajectory) into preflight can now maximize M and L in the

There are several important means by which vertical displacement can be influenced and procured. Obtaining maximum vertical displacement is linked with both l(near and angular movement. Kreighbaum and Barthels (1990) suggest that any change in movement must be associated with a force (F) or torque (T). Resulting movements depend on several scenarios: magnitude of the force application, inertial characteristic of the system, and the pathway available during flight (Kreighbaum and Barthels, 1990). transi tion from the takeoff board to horse contact.

Horse contact The gymnast has a second chance to further enhance particular mechanical quantities at horse contact (Figures Id and 2d). The M and L contained in preflight plays a major role in facilitating greater postflight vertical displacement. In this case, a reduction in L and a change in the M components occur (Figures Ie and 2dd). The mechanism for change is the resultant reaction force from the

horse as it redirects the trajectory more vertical. This involves subtle changes from a very prominent L, where body segments rotate about the mediolateral axis, and a larger horizontal M component to an increased vertical component. Further exemplification of the horse reaction F is enacted by a well timed,quickshouldergirdle elevation action (repulsion) in Figures Id and 2d. Figures Id-e and 2d-e illustrate the dramatic increase in vertical displacement in the transition from preflight to postflight.

Figure 2

Inertial Charaderistic Inertia defined How resistant a gymnast's body is to moving through space depends on the inertial characteristic. Inertia deals with how resistant the body is to changing its state of motion (Kreighbaum and Barthels, 1990). No noticeable change in the vaulter's motion is apparent unless contact is made with the running surface, takeoff board, horse surface, or landing ma t. All these are considered to be support surfaces. An external force, therefore, can be applied at these points in order to overcome or change the particular state of motion. It may be that the gymnast needs grea ter velocity or a change in direction. For example, once off the takeoff board, the angle of projection and velocity are established (Figures Ib and 2b). This state of motion will continue until acted upon by an external force produced by the horse (Figures Id and 2d). A substantial change in the directionand velocity occurs from primarily horizontal to that which is more vertical (Figures Ie and 2e).

Using inertia Both linear and rotational inertia can be used effectively to assist in producing optimum vertical displacement during postflight. It is particularly important for the gymnast to utilize techniques that will increase linear and angular velocity and rotational inertia around the maximal inertia axis (mediolateral axis) at board takeoff. Consequently the gymnast is maximizing preflight M and L. By increasing the length of the body and maintaining a large, stable shoulder joint angle at horse contact, greater resistance to the prefligh t trajectory is incorporated. This can result in promoting significant change in the postflight trajectory at rebound.

Pathway Available Support to preflight The angle of projection from the takeoff board has a great deal to do with determining the subsequent path a body follows February 1994 TECHNIQUE



A. 9

Sport Science



.A 10

while in preflight. Therefore, it is imperative tha t all adjustments in body angle may be made during the last few steps and hurdle to the takeoff board. No meaningful adjustment in the angle of projection, or the angle at which the gymnast attacks the vaulting horse, is possible once free of support (airborne). Moving or changing the position of body segments after takeoff (preflight) does little to alter the pathway available, nor the M or L of the gymnast's CG. Internal muscle contractions that result in shortening a body segment, decrease rotational inertia, but increase angular velocity; therefore, no overall change occurs in L when free of support. There is only a slight alteration in the vertical and horizontal displacement components once off the takeoff board, relative to the pathway taken by the gymnast in preflight. An external force must act on the performer for these changes to occur. Even aerodynamic drag forces on the gymnast are minimal, particularly when a streamlined body position is assumed. Adjusting the position of body segments, however, can create some air turbulence and increase the resulting aerodynamic drag F. This can slightly retard the M, L, and path taken by the CG. The external gravitational force acting through the CG does nothing to affect L, but does slightly reduce M by resulting in a pathway closely resembling a parabola. Although these external forces do not significantly affect vaulting flight, the primary pathway available to the gymnast during preflight is determined at takeoff. The purpose of the preflight phase, therefore, is to transfer optimum M and L from the takeoff, by way of an ideal body position, into an attack mode for horse contact.

Rebound effect The preflight angle of approach to the vaulting horse (angle of incidence) particularly influences the rebound effect and the resulting pathway taken by the gymnast during postflight. The height of rebound (repul-

sion) is determined by the magnitude of pre-existing M and L. These mechanical quantities are transferred to postflight through aggressive hand contact, stabilized joints, and a large concomitant rotational inertia (stretched body alignment). Consequently, the resulting vertical and horizontal displacement (Figures 1ei and 2e-i) can be enhanced if the shoulder girdle (scapula and clavicle) is capable of resisting retraction (adduction and depression) at vaulting horse contact. Inertia produced during the approach and preflight will tend to cause the shoulder girdle to retract on horse impact. The effects of the blocking (repulsion) technique, designed for promoting rebound, will be reduced unless inertia can be controlled. In order for the horizontal displacement of the CG to be redirected, and an increased vertical flight pattern to result, the shoulder girdle must be protracted

degrees is the ideal projection angle (Figures Id-e and 2d-e) for an increased range in horizontal distance. This angle of projection from the horse support base provides a balance between the vertical and horizontal displacement components; thus, the gymnast meets both standards. Although a greater projection angle at rebound would provide more vertical displacement, the horizontal distance would be compromised. The primary purpose of the postflight phase is to accommodate the transfer of L and M from rebound, by way of repulsion, to optimized vertical and horizontal displacement.

Postflight interdependence Optimization of the postflight phase is dependent on force applications made at both board takeoff and horse contact. There is no further opportunity to significantly affect flight displacement until landing. This again

The gymnast must take full advantage of the ability to affect change while in the various supports. Support phases that can affect vaulting flight patterns are the running approach, takeoff board contact, hand contact with the vaulting horse, and landing. (abduction and elevation) and stabilized at vaulting horse contact. When the gymnast has sufficient shoulder girdle muscular strength and stability, greater vertical displacement (Figures Ie and 2e) and associated postflight time (hang time) provide added horizontal distance (Figures 1i and 2i). An effective blocking technique is set up by a 25 to 30 degree angle of attack (Figures lc and 2c). This lower angle of incidence, relative to the resulting angle of rebound, is essential for transforming a trajectory of explosive preparation, prior to horse impact, to one that stimulates an increased vertical component in postflight. Kreighbaum and Barthels (1990) suggest that slightly less than 45

focuses on the importance of using points of support for making adjustments and influencing vaulting displacement. Conservation of angular momentum can be implemented while free of support. This mechanical phenomenon can be helpful during postflight (Figure 2). It is particularly beneficial when lacking sufficient rotation in securing a successful landing. Flexion at the hip joint decreases rotational inertia while increasing the angular velocity (Figure 2e-f). Conservation of L can also be used indirectly in the process of facilitating vertical displacement. By transferring existing L and horizontal M from the preflight phase to greater verticalMin the postflight phase, conservationofLmaybeneeded

February 1994 TECHNIQUE

if there is too little L to secure a

proper landing. This mechanism, therefore, provides a needed increase in angular velocity and concomitant decrease in rotational inertia. Conversely, the large rotational inertia (straight body), maintained in Figure 1, mandates that greater L be produced at horse rebound in order that sufficient rotation take place during postflight. Greater vertical displacement during postflight is possible in the handspring associated with a smaller rotational inertia (Figure 2). The handspring utilizing a piked body position, versus a long body position, simply requires less L during postflight to successfully rotate to a proper landing. Therefore, more of the existing Land M can be transferred at horse contact to a vertical component, if the gymnast uses conservation of L around the mediolateral axis while free of support.

Summary Application of an external force is necessary if there is to be a change in preflight or postflight projection angles. The primary purpose of optimizing these projection angles is to obtain maximum flight during postflight. The gymnast must take full advantage of the ability to affect change while in the vari0us supports. Support phases that can affect vaulting flight patterns are the running approach, takeoff board contact, hand contact with the vaulting horse, and landing. Particular parts of a vault can be enhanced while at these points when the gymnast applies an action F. A resulting external reaction F enables the gymnast to follow the optimum pathway available.

References Hinrichs, R.N., and Cornelius, W.L (1986) . The importance of armswing during a fron t somersa ul t. International Gymnast, 28(6):4445. Kreighbaum, E., and Barthels, KM. (1990). Biomechanics: a qualitative approach for studying human movement (3rd ed .). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company.

Rhythmic Gymnastics



A. 12

USA Gymnastics has been supporting rhythmic gymnastics in the United States for 20 years. Recently the sport has enjoyed national exposure in several television commercials and live theater productions. In May, CBS will be televising the 1994 Coca-Cola Rhythmic National Championships. As more and more people are being introduced to rhythmic gymnastics, young girls are getting excited about the sport and are looking for instruction. Unfortunately, the vast majority of American dance and gymnastics schools do not offer rhythmic classes. Many club owners and coaches have expressed interest in starting rhythmic programs, but, until now, there has been a void of instructional materials to meet this growing need.



Assistant Rhythmic Director

To fill the void, a set of materials was designed to teach dance and gymnastics instructors how to teach the very basic skills of rhythmic gymnastics. These materials comprise the Rhythmic Gymnastics Level 1-4 Program.

and offer corrections almost immediately.

3. Combinations. Skills from the skill lists are choreographed to short pieces of classical music. (Music cassette also available.)

About the Materials Levels 1-4 are developmentally progressive and are split in two groups of materials: Level 1-2 and Level 3-4. Each group of materials consists of...

4. Glossary. Definitions

• Instructor's Manual • Instructional Video • Student Workbooks • Music Cassette

Instrudor's Manual The Instructor's Manual and Instructional Video are complementary pieces of the program and are designed to be used together . Included in the Instructor's Manual are the following: 1. Skill lists for Rhythmic

floor exercise, rope, hoop, ball, ribbon, and clubs grouped by skill type . Several experts, including National Team coaches and recreational program directors, colla bora ted to

BALL design a logical progression of skills. Students completing Level 4 will be able to move successfully into the Junior Olympic Competitive Program . (Clubs are included only in Levels 3-4.)

2. "What to Look For's ... " Notes for each skill on basic technique focus on the critical aspects of the movement. New instructors will be able to identify mistakes February 1994

and explanations of basic terminology and spatial directions complete with illustrations. Ballet terms are included for those unfamiliar with the dance aspect of rhythmic gymnastics.

5. General information. Questions such as, "What kind of equipment do I need?" , "How should I hold the ball?", "Can I make my own ribbons?", are all answered at the beginning of each equipment section.

Instrudional Video The Instructional Video follows the same format as the Instructor's Manual and shows all skills demonstrated by rhythmic gymnasts of various ages TECHNIQUE

and ability levels. Voice-over instructions give the rules of basic technique and hints for correcting common mistakes. Additionally, the skill combinations are performed to music specially arranged for the Level 1-4 program by Robert Stahnke, pianist for the Rhythmic National Team.

Student Workbooks Individual student workbooks allow students to chart their progress. All skills are listed as in the Instructor's Manual with space alongside to note each student's skill achievement with stickers or stamps. Also included are gymnastics illustrations to color and short exercises to familiarize students with basic terminology. Club 5}Wners and coaches are encoti'raged to buy copies of this book and sell or distribute the workbooks to registered rhythmic gymnastics students.

FilHng the Void Since the Rhythmic Gymnastics Level 1-4 Program ma terials were introduced, many exciting events have occurred. Girls Incorporated, a national organization for the development of girls, will include rhythmic gymnastics as part of its Sporting Chance program. Training for staffmembers of Girls Incorporated nationwide will be conducted based on the Level 1-4 material. This collaboration between USA Gymnastics and Girls Incorporated represents a major boost to the grass roots efforts. Directors of existing rhythmic programs have been using these materials to train new staff members and to open additional classes. AnneMarie Fairhurst is owner of AnneMarie's Dance Center in Ashland, Massachusetts. The rhythmic program at her studios currently consists of 80 class students and 19 competitive team members. AnneMarie prepares lesson plans from the Level 1-4 materials and spends 15 minutes each week reviewing the instructional video with her assistants. She is excited to ha ve ma terials in hand

Rhythmic Gymnastics

to train new teachers. Students at AnneMarie's Dance Center performed the combinations set to Christmas music for an inhouse holiday presentation. Parents said they "cannot believe how much the kids have learned!" Other program directors are currently revamping their classes to coincide wi th the Level 1-4 Program. Jody Hurlburt of Arcata Redwood Rhythmics, Arcata, Calif. sees the Student Workbooks as a good immediate reward system. She marks off accomplished skills and sends the books home after each class. "It really gives the kids a feeling of accomplishment." Developing recreational programs have begun working with the Level 1-4 materials and are showing strong basic technique. "This new program will provide dance and gymnastics people who have no previous rhythmic experience with the

As more and more people are being introduced to rhythmic gymnastics, more and more young girls are getting excited about the sport and are looking for instruction. Unfortunately, the vast majority of American dance and gymnastics schools do not offer rhythmic classes. Many club owners and coaches have expressed interest in starting rhythmic programs, but, until now, there has been a void of instructional materials to meet their needs. Toss the hoop hiah in the air!

tools to begin offering rhythmic classes," says Nora Campbell, Rhythmic Program Director for USA Gymnastics.

There are many different methods of instituting rhythmic gymnastics into currently existing dance or gymnastics programs. Club owners may choose to offer complete class programs

or simply to include rhythmic stations within the existing class structure. For more information on getting started in rhythmic gymnastics, call Nora Campbell at USA Gymnastics, 317-2375050.

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A. 14

through use of a VISA, MasterCard or American Express card billing. There may be other ways to join as well.

Jan Claire Director of Membership Steve Whitlock

Director of Educational Services and Safety USA Gymnastics Online! made its debut January 10, 1993, and already many users have signed up to use their computers to communicate. This system is the first of many future technological changes USA Gymnastics plans to make in order to bring our community and its leadership closer and closer together. As the world is becoming more computer-wise, so will USA Gymnastics. Welookupon the new online system, a custom service of Delphi, as just a raw beginning. It will grow, expand, and become more and more necessary to the daily functioning of gymnastics professionalsand even the gymnastics fansacross the country.

Getting Onnne If you have a computer and modem already, you' ll need to make sure your modem and our system are speaking the same language. Check out your software and make sure it's operating your modem in the standard "8-n-1" protocol:



Your computer access to the world of gymnastics. a DELPHI Custom Network

Signup process Set up your modem to dial 1800-365-4636. This is the online signup system on Delphi. Have your credit card handy. You'll also be asked to have a quick "username" by which you'll be known online. Once connected with Delphi, press your RETURN key 3 or 4 times, and when you are prompted to enter a Password, just enter "GYMNASTICS". You'll also be asked to create a "User Name" by which you'll be known online. (In CB language this is called a "Handle".) Once you have gone through the signup procedure, you'll be

given a local SprintNet number in your area you can call when connecting in the future. If there's not a local number in your town, yo.u 'll be given a listing of something closest to you. After you've completed the signup, give Delphi a day or so, then call them (voice phone) at 1-800-695-4005 and the customer service person will help you activate your account and answer any questions you might have. From that point on, you' re a member.

Payment plans Generally, the easiest way to establish a Delphi / USA Gymnastics Online! account is

8 Data Bits 1 Stop Bit No Parity You may also want to make sure some other settings are like these: VT-100Terminal Emulation Full Duplex Once this is accomplished at your own computer terminal, you' re ready to sign up!

As the world is becoming more computer-wise, so will USA Gymnastics. We look upon the new online system, a custom service of Delphi, as just a raw beginning. It will grow, expand, and become more and more necessary to the daily functioning of gymnastics professionals-and even the gymnastics fans -across the country. February 1994 TECHNIQUE

There are two plans under which you can join: 10/4 Plan is $10 per month, including four hours of use each month. Additional use beyond the initial four hours is billed at $4 per hour. 20/20 Advantage Plan is $20 per month, including 20 hours of use each month. Additional use beyond the initial 20 hours is billed at$1.80 an hour. There's a one-time entry fee of $19. If you wish to take ad vantage of the world-wide "Internet", this option costs an additional $3 per month under either plan.

Our recommendation is that you use USA Gymnastics Online! during evening and weekend hours when there is no extra charge as shown here: If accessing via SprintNet, no extra charge Monday-Friday 6pm - 7am or anytime on Saturday or Sunday. If accessing via Tymnet, no extra charge Monday-Friday 7pm - 6am or anytime Saturday or Sunday.

You can also direct-dial to (617) 576-0862 and pay regular long distance charges. (For those near Cambridge, MA this might be an alternative. This is "headquarters" of the system.) When you're given a SprintNet or Tymnet local number for access, you're actually using a nationwide network expressly for data systems called a "packet switch" network. If you're a real computer buff, you'll know of other packet networks with which you can probably gain entry into USA Gymnastics Online! / Delphi.


Downloading It's an awesome thing to consider when you're brand new at computing or modem communications, but the quickest way (and, therefore, cheapest) to read a file, is to either download it or do a "print screen" or "file save" through your software. Remember, when you 're online, the dollar clock is always ticking. There are many ways people have figured ou t to stay online the least amount of time while gaining the maximum of information. Communications software will nearly always allow you to print anything appearing on your screen with your "PRINT SCREEN" key (assuming, of course, you have a printer hooked up to your computer). These software packages also will allow you to commit anything appearing on your screen

to a disk file or "log file". That's another way. In the "LIBRARY" area of USA Gymnastics Online!, you can actually download direct from the system to your disk in a fraction of the time it would take to bring each page of information up onto your screen and "read" it online. Your communications software allows you to choose several methods of downloading: Xmodem, Z-modem, and on and on. To successfully download from any online system (including ours) you'll need to match your downloading method with what's available online. USA Gymnastics Online! / Delphi allows for all the commonmethods.OurfavoriteisZmodem because it does all the handshaking work for you. Tell yo u r soft ware you want to

download a particular file using Z-modem and zippo! It happens.

Some advice Find someone in your local town who already uses online systems. This may be a clerk at your local computer store, a friend who has and regularly uses access to online systems, or an instructor at a college or high school in your town. This would be the person you turn to when things botch up while you're online. Every new modem/computer / online user remembers those initial days of cold sweats, bewilderment and sheer terror when things don' t work out. It's hard to conceive that individual keystrokes from your computer travel at the rate of 2,400 keystrokes per second over telephone lines and satellite links,


back and forth to your computer-or 2,400 bits of data per second. Just do it. Keep on doing it. Make mistakes. Learn from your mista kes. Pretty soon, you'll become an online expert, confident, able to explore the world of online systems the world over. You'll not only be proud you've entered the worldwide "data highway" but you will have information on virtually any subject you can dream up, at your fingertips, at your own personal convenience. You just don't get much better than that!







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JOIN USA GYMNASTICS ONLINE! USA GYMNASTICS has joined with DELPHI in a great new partnership. USA Gymnastics Online! is the new DELPHI Custom Service offering you the world of gymnastics through your computer and modem . In addition to USA Gymnastics Online! , you can access DELPHI itself, and explore the Internet. Join USA Gymnastics Online! now and get 5 hours of evening or weekend access to tryout the Internet for free! Use DELPHI's Internet mail to exchange messages with over 10 million people at universities, companies and other online services such as CompuServe and MCI Mail. Download programs and files using FTP or connect in real-time to other networks using Telnet! It's all yours when you "hook up" to USA Gymnastics Online and Delphi. It's easy to sign up, and even easier to get online once you 've signed up, through more than 600 local access telephone numbers nationwide . Explore it all from the comfort of your own computer. Get USA Gymnastics Online! and access to DELPHI and The Internet. You'll be amazed by what you discover!

lELPiff Free t ime must be used on evenings and/or weekends Some restriction s apply. Complete detai ls are provided during t he toll-f ree registration.

Qu estion s? Call 1-800-695-4005 . USA Gymnasti cs' online address for electro nic mai l is USGF .

Strength Training


Meg Warren Association of British Gymnastics Coaches




I believe that this anatomical

Three key exercises

position is the most important in gymnastics. The following


exercises are based upon those suggested by James Major in his

Correct pelvic positioning during dance and beam training, etc. The correction of the hip position must be checked constantly by the coach or choreographer during dance and beam sessions.


The hip-up exercise with weights placed on the knees.

article "Pelvic Tilt", Technique,

~ .~ •

April 1992.


• This could be done on the floor, but once the thighs come past the vertical, the weights actually assist the lifting of the hips. Therefore, performing this exercise from a hang is more beneficial.

Q 3.

The abdominal crunch without the feet held down and with weights held near the forehead.


Note: the gljmnast will only rise to this sort of height. The middle of the back must press oo ;ntoth'fi ,.



The feet must not be held down. If they are, the gljl11nast is able to pull through the hip flexors and thighs as well as the calf muscles which stop the gymnast opening the knee angle as the hips shift backwards with the contraction of the hip flexors and thighs. Hips shift

This is not an exercise for the rectus abdominis.

February 1994


1994 Congress



HOST CITY Nashville, TN

There's no place else quite like it. Opryland Hotel. A tradition of comfort and space .

CONGRESS DATES Pre-Congress Sessions August 24-25, 1994

., I



Congress Sessions August 25-28, 1994

CONGRESS HOTEL Opryland Hotel 2800 Opryland Drive Nashville, TN 37214 Ph. 615-889-1000 Fax 615-871-6942


HOTEL RATES Traditional

Garden View

Single/double $109 $139 Triple/quad $125 $155 Reservation cut-off date is July 24 , 1994.

GROUND TRANSPORTATION Airport Transportation: (6:00 am-12:00 midnight) $13 round-trip $9 one-way The Opryland Hotel is within 10 minutes of Nashville International Airport. Hotel Parking: No Charge

SPORT SCIENCE RESEARCH AND APPLIED COACHING Dr. William Sands, Chairman of the USA Gymnastics Sport Science Advisory Committee, will coordinate the 4th annual Sport Science Symposium. Sports researchers from a variety of disciplines will present significant findings to the coaches. The goal is to make these sessions informative and coaching friendly.

JUDGES TRAINING AND THE CODE OF POINTS Sessions will be conducted to assist both judges and coaches in understanding and applying the Code of Points. Explanatory and practice sessions will be offered .

CONGRESS COSTS PROFESSIONAL MEMBERS Early Registration: (received prior to July 1) $125 Late Registration: (received after July 1) $150 NON-MEMBERS $210 Congress Registration forms will be included in the March issue of Technique magazine.

CLUB BUSINESS Experts and entrepreneurs will be available to assist the gym club owners and managers in a wide range of business offerings. The focus this year will be on utilizing the new technologies to make your business more efficient and profitable.

TECHNIQUE SESSIONS Informative sessions will be presented for coaches at all levels-beginner, intermediate, advanced and elite.


You can discuss your needs, compare services and prices and make deals! No other event offers the gym club owner a better chance to meet and greet the members of this important part of the gymnastics industry.

PROFESSIONAL DEVELOPMENT The PDP program will be offered at all completed levels: PDP I and II. The ASEP Sport Science course will be conducted as a pre-Congress session . Two Safety Certification courses will be offered- one on Thursday evening , and the other on Sunday morning.

Once again , a full program will be offered in these important areas featuring outstanding movement education specialists.

EXHIBITION HALL The Exhibit Hall will provide Congress participants with the opportunity to see the newest and the best in equipment. apparel , supplies and servic es. February 1994


It is a panorama of tastes and styles. You can find soft or lively moods, and finger foods, country music or jazz, black tie or casual dress, all presented with courtesy that's the standard for Southern hospitality. And all that is just the beginning. From The Old Hickory Room, and The Cascades Restaurant, where continental cuisine is classically served , to Rhett's, offering American regional favorites, the Opryland Hotel offers a dining experience for every taste. Each one features fine foods served with impeccable taste . For lighter fare, try Rachel's Kitchen, or the Pickin ' Parlorfor a late snack . Dancing, live entertainment and cocktails await in the Stage door lounge, or a relaxed drink at Jack Daniel's Saloon or the revolving Cascade Terrace Lounge. In the well-equipped and professionally staffed Fitness Center, guests may work out on equipment ranging from stationary cycles and treadmills to a multi-exercise machine. In addition , the hotel has six lighted tennis courts, with a tennis pro on duty, three adult pools and two wading pools. Below: The apryland Hotel displays a rock garden at the Magnolia entrance.



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Coaches Education

ducational gymnas tics is considerably different than Olympic gymnastics (Stanley, 1969; Burton, 1977; Logsdon e t aI., 1984; Siedentop et aI., 1984; Figley et aI., 1987;WallandMurray, 1989; Franck et aI., 1991; Graham et aI., 1993). These authors advocate edu cational gymnastics, not Olympic gymnastics, for young children because it focuses on generalized movement rather than the highly specific activities and "stunts" in Olympic gymnastics. For example, in Olympic gymnas tics, the forward roll is a beginning roll, wi th the backward roll next. In educational gymnastics, the forward roll is considered an advanced roll and the concept of the roll is taught first, along with many types of rolling. Educational gymnastics, like early dance, has as its main goal diversity and creativity in movement.


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Educational gymnastics and Olympic gymnastics appear to be completely opposite when looked at as a dichotomy, such as pres en ted in Figure 1. Ed ucational gymnastics emphasizes generalized kinds of movement (e.g., jumping and landing), while Olympic gymnastics stresses specialized movement (e.g., jumping to form a straddle toe touch and landing Olympic style). The former focuses on jumping basics with major shapes which include very thin (arrow or pin), wide, ball, and twisted shapes. The latter asks that the performer execute a definite, specific shape by imitating a standard and adherence to very clearly defined criteria, such as extended legs and toes. The first jumping is basic, while the second kind is advanced. Educational jumping asks the child to explore, to try a variety of jumps and landings, and to study what one can do. It is learning about jumping and landing. Olympic jumping adds more specific jumping and landing, comparing what the child did to a standard of excellence. Educational gymnastics can be a foundation for Olympic gymnastics and is planned especially for preschool and early school children.

Figure 1

Comparison Between Educational Gymnastics And Olympic Gymnastics Educational Gymnastics Foundotion Generalized movement Equipment supports movement Diversity and objectivity Explore, creative laban emphasized directly Versatile movement a goal Set own standards Individualized, child-centered

Olympic Gymnastics Advanced Very specific movement Equipment dictates movement learning set skills Execute precise, set moves laban, if used, is indirect Meet rigid requirements Meet set standards Society-centered, adult-imposed/ devised

Eight Aspects Of Educational Gymnastics 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Supporting and transferring weight Stationary and moving balance Balance Making step-like movements with hands and feet Rocking and rolling Taking the body in flight and landing Hanging and swinging-<limbing Sliding


Physical Education, Health & Sport Studies, Miami University, Oxford, OH

Aspects of Educational Gymnastics There are at least eight aspects of gymnastics (Logsdon et aI., 1984; Siedentop, Herkowitz, and Rink, 1984). These types of gyrnnastics skills are what makes gymnastics unique as a movement form. In fact, thinking of these skills, rather than the tendency to think in terms of equipment (horse, trampoline, bars), may help one understand more clearly what educational gymnastics is. In educational gymnastics, equipment is selected or built w hich (1) is developmentally appropriate and (2) has potential for enhancing that skill. In Olympic gymnastics, skills are selected which can be done FOR that piece of equipment and BY children with certain abilities. It is a subtle difference, but a real and important difference. February 1994

The eight 路 aspectsofeducational gymnas tics are not en tirely separa te from each other, but overlap. In any case, it is helpful to describe each of these briefly.

Sup~rting and

Transferring Weight Gymnastics can be defined as control in bearing and transferring weight. Weight transfer is moving one's weight from place to place with smoothness and skill, or even shifting one's weight moving it on the same base of support even though no locomotion occurs. Supporting TECHNIQUE

weight and weight transfer are often u sed simultaneou sly. While the movement emphasis may be on balance or rolling, the teacher is thinking about how the children are bearing weight and transferring weight.

Balance The improvement of balance is a goal in gymnastics. Balance is often included as part of the skill, just as when basic locomotor skills are included as part of

Coaches Education

ample, moving across the beam using hands and feet may be an appropriate task for a young child just developing confidence in balance. This is educational gymnastics and is easily discernible from specific beam skills in Olympic sequences. Moving on three, four, or more body parts is important to demonstrate body awareness for young children. Such movement can be used as a central part of a lesson or to transition between mats or equipment, or as linking movements in a sequence.

Rocking and Rolhng a dance lesson. Balance involves holding stationary body positions, as well as moving with balance. Otherwise, one loses balance. In educational gymnastics, one must purposely lose balance and then regain it in a smooth fashion. Instruction needs to focus on balance, concepts of balance, and how balance can be used. For example, relationships of center of gravity to base of support have implications for defensive stances and dodging in games. This is different from learning specific balances or stunts which may be challenging but are isolated balance tasks which do not contribute to the understanding of balance and its role in movement.

In these related gymnastics skills, one must lose balance in order to move into the rock or roll itself, or into a balance or another locomotion pattern. The task is to lose the balance (i.e., center of gravity) on purpose so that the loss of balance actually aids the performer in executing the next task, or the roll itself. Rocking involves transferring weight forward and backward or to and fro without locomotion horizontally. Rolling

Step-like Movements Step-like movements inch.@) traveling on the feet, including basic locomotors; combination movements like the gallop and skip; and folk dance steps. Steplike movements also include moving on body parts other than the feet or in combination with the feet. This has particular importance for very young children who may have more confidence with addi tional body parts being used for support. For ex-

is weight transfer with movement occurring in a horizontal direction. If one combines rolling with balancing and step-like movements, many gymnastics sequences are possible. Forward rolls are considered an ad vanced form of rolling (Logsdon, et aI., 1984). Rocking and rolling can be included in numerous lessons which precede instruction in forward rolling. The main concept in rolling is to transfer weight on curved body parts and do this sequentially and smoothly.

Fhght and Landings Taking the body into flight and landings are crucial aspects in gymnastics. Flight is more encompassing than jumping, but February 1994

includes jumping as very important. Becomingskillfulin taking off on one or two feet and landing on one or two feet with the many combina tions requires considerable instruction time. Much time is devoted to refining basic flight and landing abilities. Teachers need to understand developmental aspects and the process of preparation, take-off, flight, and landing (Robertson and Halverson, 1 9 8 4 ; Belka, 1990).

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Landings are force absorption skills which involve precise timing of bending in ankle, knee and hip joints. Controlled landings often are much quieter than less controlled landings. Three types of landings are possible: land and stop, land and roll, and land and move into another skill. In Olympic gymnastics, only the former is emphasized. In educational gymnastics, all three types of landings deserve attention.

Hanging and Swinging Hanging and swinging definitely are gymnastics skills. These activities use bars, rings, ropes, or other people as equipment aids. Pulling and pushing, swinging from a fixed bar or suspended rings, holding balances, and dismounting and landing carefully challenge children and give them satisfaction. Climbing overlaps with hangTECHNIQUE


A 21

ing and swinging in many natural activities, such as hiking, getting up in trees, and swinging from a rope.

Chmbing Jumping involves moving \. over, onto, down from, up to, and many other kinds of flight. After flight is achieved, there are always landings. To make the combination more challenging, shapes in the air can be added. A myriad of combinations is possible. Jumping is perhaps the most important aspect of taking the body into flight.


Climbing involves pushing and pulling and supporting one's weight while moving the body upwards or downwards. Ithasanelement of

hanging, but is a separate category. Young children are natural climbers beca use of their compact bodies and their lack of fear. Climbing is included in gymnastics and its purpose is simply to go up, to get somewhere because it's fun, challenging, and there's a different view.

Shding Sliding is skimming along a support surface. A very specific form of sliding is useful in baseball and softball play. Sliding in educational gymnastics is more general and focuses on what parts are possible to slide on and what purposes sliding might serve. Sliding can be useful in absorbing force after a fall. Of-

Coaches Education

velopmental levels. If the instruction is appropriate, teachers recognize and adjust to students' skill and fitness abilities. Some possible combinations of skills, or sequences, are:

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ten, sliding, like along a bench, is included in other gymnastics movement. Sliding is a part of gymnastics, but less significant than the other seven aspects.

Types of Equipment Used Both Olympic and educational gymnastics use work on the floor and with small and large apparatus. Equipment used in educational gymnastics is much different than that commonly associated with Olympic gymnastics. Children can jump over lines, or low obstacles such as hoops raised on wooden blocks or foam rubber forms. Climbing occurs with vertical ropes or with cargo nets. Jumping boxes, ramps, benches and other kinds of equipment, some described earlier, are designed appropriately for educational gymnastics with children's development as a guide.

Sequences in Gymnastics Sequences, often called routines, are comprised of combinations of movements. In educational gymnastics, the sequences are somewhat different from Olympic gymnastics, in which stunts or skills are linked together. In educational gymnastics, the child has the freedom to create a sequence based on individual skill and choice. Rikard (1992) reinforces the idea that teachers must know and use variations of skill sequences that match the children's experiential and de-

• Balance, roll, balance. • Balance, roll, jump, land and hold. • Move off the feet, roll, balance. Run and jump, land and roll, balance, travel, roll, collapse. These sample sequences allow the performers considerable freedom in choosing what individual skills to do. These sequences are open-ended and can be used to accommodate wide variation in skill performance. Rather than planning movements which have been shown and explained, the child must decide what to do and how to do it. In Olympic gymnastics, many of the skills are closed, with emphasis on careful precision to come as close to imitating the desired standard as possible. In educational gymnastics, the skills are not just more individualized, but also more open. Here, the child is expected to adjust to unplanned movement by varying the movement to complete the sequence with quality, but also with safety. Going over, onto, off of, across, and under equipment are incorporated into these sequences. It is important to emphasize that simply putting just any movement into a sequence is not enough. Neither is putting just any movement into a sequence of any performance quality. After exploration, children must select combinations, and then perfect these with many trials. Such practice to perfect a sequence is the

same kind of practice that is necessary in Olympic gymnastics. Another important point in educational gymnastics involves the child understanding, at least in a beginning way, the ideas of how force and speed affect his or her movement. These are part of a movement analysis system developed by Laban (Logsdon et ai., 1984; Graham et ai., 1993). There are other movement concepts in addition to force and speed, but these two are sufficient to illustrate that knowing why movement occurs is important in educational gymnastics. Thus, there is limited use of imitation in gymnastics, as well as in dance. Walking and moving like animals and pretending to be something are not emphasized much.The exception here for such use is to emphasize or teach a concept. Many elementary textbooks and preschool texts still include many imitation activities. Such use of imagery interferes with both understanding concepts and using one's creativity. Many professional education personnel consider educational gymnastics as most appropriate for young children who lack strength and perceptual skills required in advanced skills. Educational gymnastics suits the developmentallevel of these children better than highly specific gymnastics skills. This applies also to intense competition for preschoolers and early childhood. Educational gymnastics may meet the developmental needs of young children better than Olympic gymnastics. Such use provides a foundation for later Olympic gymnastics, is more appropriate developmentally, and may red uce burnout from overexposure beginning at young ages.

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February 1994 TECHNIQUE

References Belka, D.E. (1990). Why not jump in with both feet? Teaching Elementary Physical Education 1(3), 1213. Burton, E.C (1977). The New Physical Education for Elementanj School Children. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 440-453. Figley, G.E.; Mitchell, H .C; & Wright, B.L. (1987). Elementary School Physical Education: An Educational Experience. Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 202-244. Franck, M.; Graham, G.; Lawson, H .A.; Loughrey, T.; Ritson, R.; Sandborn, M.; Seefeldt,V.; (1991). Outcomes that define the physically educated student and benchmarks for K-12 physical educational programs. NASPE Outcomes Committee, Reston, VA: AAHPERD. Graham, G.; Holt / Hale, S.A. & Parker, M. (1993). Children Moving. (3rd ed.) Palo Alto, CA: Mayfield, 499-510. (See also #'s 17,18,21,22, and 23.) Logsdon, B.J .; Barrett, K.R.; Ammons, M.; Broer, M .R.; Halverson, L.E.; McGee, R. & Robertson, M.A. (1984). Physical Education for Children: A Focus on the Teaching Process. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. Rikard, G.L. (1992). Developmentally appropriate gymnastics for children, Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance 63(6), 44-46. Robertson, M.A. & Halvorsen, L.E. (1984) . Developing ChildrenTheir Changing Movement. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. Siedentop, D.; Herkowitz, J. & Rink, J. (1984). Elementanj Physical Education Methods. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 231-253. Stanley, S. (1969). Physical Education: A Movement Orientation. Toronto: McGraw-Hill, 104-135. Wall, J. & Murray, N. (1989). Children & Movement: Physical Education in the Elementary Schoo!. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C Brown, 338-438. NOTE: This article was published in its original form in Teaching Elementary Physical Educatiol1 4(2), March 1993. The revised version is presented here with permission of Human Kinetics Publishers, P.O. 5076, Champaign, IL 61825.


EDUCATIONAL PUBLICATIONS To order any of these publications, use the order form on page 2. To receive a Technical catalogue, call USA Gymnastics merchandise department at 317-237-5060.


ARTISTIC GYMNASTICS: ACOMPREHENSIVE GUiOE TO PERFORMING AND TEACHING SKILLS FOR BEGINNERS AND ADVANCED BEGINNERS • All of the skills covered in this text are A-level or easier. Each skill is presented with a description of how it should be performed, a short list of common problems, and teaching suggestions. Covers men's and women's events. 1991 , Turoff, paper, 413pp



CREATING GYMNASTICS PYRAMIDS AND BALANCES • Pyramid building is safe and fun with the thorough instructions and guidelines found in this guide. Choose from 268 carefully illustrated and explained formations. 1989, Fodera & Furblur, spirol, 120 pp

DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONDITIONING _ FAaORS IN ELITE GYMNASTICS • This booklet was originally developed for the men' s _ events, but also has broad ap- __ plicability to the women' s events. 1989, Hullner, paper



MEN'S1993 CONDITIONING PROGRAM • A comprehensive conditioning plan designed for the demands of men's gymnastics. The components ofthe plan include the Calisthenic Strength Program, the Flexibility Program, and Injury Prevention Exercises . Periodization charts and illustrations of all of the exercises are included. 1993; lands, el 01; paper, opprox. 25 pp, UIGF Publicolians #3632 S6.00

THE FIFTH EVENT • A comprehensive conditioning plan designed for the demands of women's gymnastics. The components of the plan include the Calisthenic Strength Program, the Flexibility Program, and Injury Prevention Exercises. 1992; lands, el 01; paper, 42 pp



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GYMNASTICS: AGUIDE FOR PARENTS AND ATHLETES • An excellent book for beginners as well as experienced gymnasts. Contains information to guide parents and athletes in choosing a gymnastics program that will best suit their needs. Provides pertinent information on safety, conditioning, and the guidelines of the sport. 1992, Feeney, paper, 171 pp #3612 moo I CAN DO GYMNASTICS: ESSENTIAL SKILLS FOR INTERMEDIATE GYMNASTS • The sequel to I Can Do Gymnastics: Essential Skills for Beginner Gymnasts. Intermediate skills and skill sequences for tumbling, vaulting, beam and low bar organized in progression. The "Advanced Supplement" provides the instructor with suggestions for skill development on other apparatus, such as: uneven bars, parallel bars, rings, and pommel horse as well as more advanced tumbling skills. Illustrated with nearly 250 drawings, the book also includes helpful "What to Practice" sections. Great for recreation classes! 1993, Hacker, el 01, paper, 179 pp, Moslers Press #3600


DARE TO DREAM • Tim Daggett's own account of his pursuit of a gymnastics dream. A positive, motivating and inspiring story. 1992, Oagg'", dOlh, 235 pp


JUMPING INTO PLYOMETRICS • How to develop a safe pi yo metric training program. Features 90 fully illustrated example plyometric exercises. 1992, (hu, paper, 88pp





PORTRAIT OF AN ATHLETE • This book emphasizes the ideals that make athletes successful in both sports and life. It features advice, motivation, and values that help young people understand what athletics can mean to their future . 1992, Ourbin, paper, 88 pp



FITNESS LEADERS HANDBOOK • For exercise leaders with little formal training but who are responsible for leading safe and effective fitness classes. Includes: evaluation, practical competencies, forms, helpful hints, injury prevention strategies, and much more. 1989, Fronks & Howl,y, paper, 276 pp

' 3619


ROPICS: THE NEXT JUMP FORWARD IN FITNESS • A great fitness program for all. Includes 34 basic to advanced rope techniques and variations. 1992, paper, 168 pp



MARKETING HEALTH/FITNESS SERVICES • A marketing guide showing how to enhance the business side of an operation and achieve optimal profit with minimal financial risk. It takes the readers step-bystep through writing and implementing a marketing/business plan. 1989, Gerson, doth, 136 pp



SENIORS ON THE MOVE • Selected exercises and health / fitness program for seniors. 1986, Rikkers, spirol, 256 pp

' 3620


COACHES GUIDE TO NUTRITION AND WEIGHT CONTROL • Good nutrition al- ..._ . _ - - - lows athletes to main- £ ......____ tain energy levels during training and safely regulate their ratio of fat and lean weight. Coaches Guide to Nutrition and Weight Control is a practical guide to sports nutrition which translates the sciences of physiology, biochemistry and nu trition into easily applied in-




formation . Includes an excellent chapter on the signs of eating disorders. 1990, Eisenman, paper, 192 pp



HELPING ATHLETES WITH EATING DISORDERS • This practical guide explains how sports medicine specialists, sport psychologists, sports nutritionists, and coaches can identify, manage, and prevent the three major eating disorders in athletes: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and eating disorder not otherwise specified. 1993, Thompson and Sherman, dOlh, 208 pp, Human Kinelics 13631


Coaches Accreditation


., I






Dave Moskovitz

Assistal1t Director Department of Educatiol1al Services and Safety

General USA Gymnastics, the National Governing Body for gymnastics in the United States, is committed to providing high quali ty programs and materials for coaches, judges, competitors, and gymnastics enthusiasts. The Professional Development Program (PDP) was designed and implemented as a step-level system of coaches education. As a developmental education, recognition, and accreditation program, the PDP provides coaches and instructors with resources to enhance their knowledge of teaching gymnastics skills successfully.

The following descriptions represent current requirements for accreditation. Coaches and administrators are reminded that these components represent MINIMUM standards and should not be viewed as definitive recognition of anyone coach's competence, experience, effectiveness, and /or limitations.

Levell Accreditation Objectives 1. Provide general and sport specific information critical for performance as entry level gymnastics coaches and teachers.

The step-level system begins with an introduction to teaching basic gymnastics skills and working with young athletes, and continues with more sophisticated information for training athletes moving into the competitive experience. A variety of courses, self tests, and verified experience is required to achieve accreditation. As the program develops, more comprehensive components will be included to address specific coaching and training concerns for the gymnastics coaching professional. Recognition, in the form of accreditation certificates and published name-recognition, is viewed as a primary step toward the development of gymnastics coaching as a profession. At each level in the program, coaches are encouraged to work beyond the minimum competency requirements and apply their knowledge at training camps, clinics, workshops, and seminars.

2. Offer program components that are cost efficient, flexible, and easy to implement and administer. 3. Develop a recognition system to acknowledge participation and program achievements. 4. Provide a general program for coaches and instructors of all gymnastics disciplines.

Component Requirements


opment of Lesson Plans are some of the topics covered in the Rookie Guide. To complete this component of Level I and receive a recognition certificate, coaches are required to read the book and successfully pass a short multiple choice examination.


This text was developed in conjunction with the American Sport Education Program (ASEP) and offers basic informa tion relative to teaching sport in general and gymnastics in particular. Philosophy, Communication, Class Organization and DevelFebruary 1994



This component requires the coach to attend a 2 Y2 to 3-hour clinic presenta tion cond ucted by a Level I Instructor. The video clinic provides the opportunity to summarize previous ma terial, present additional information, and participate in an interactive video + workbook + discussion format. No test is requiredcoaches complete an application form which is signed by the instructor and returned to USA Gymnastics. The components may be completed in any order. There is no time limit requirement for completion of the Level I components. Upon successful completion of all three components, the coach is entered into the USA Gymnastics coaching database and receives a certificate acknowledging "Successful Completion of All Requirements for PDP Level I Accreditation".

Level II Accreditation Objectives 1. Provide general and sport specific information critical for performance as recreational and competitive gymnastics coaches and teachers. TECHNIQUE

3. Develop a recognition system to acknowledge participation and program achievements.


Written by the USA Gymnastics Educational Sub-committee chaired by Dr. Patty Hacker, this book presents the gymnastics skill specific portion of the information provided to Level I coaches. Skills are presented in a progressive order and are grouped according to movementcategories. To complete this component of Level I and receive a recognition certificate, coaches are required to read the book and successfully pass a short multiple choice examination.


2. Offer program components that are cost efficient, flexible, and easy to implement and administer.

4. Design a program with attention to the special needs of coaches involved in the specialized gymnastics disciplines of women's artistic gymnastics, men's artistic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics, and preschool! developmental gymnastics.

Component Requirements



At Level II it is essential that coaches have membership in USA Gymnastics, the primary professional gymnastics organization. Professional Members receive Technique and USA Gymnastics magazines, the official publications of USA Gymnastics.



The importance of safety in gymnastics is well recognized. The USA Gymnastics Safety Certification Program is considered a standard in sport for the body of information provided by this program. Courses are offered nation-wide by a cadre of National Safety Certifiers; course schedules are published in Technique and USA Gyml1astics.



This 8-hour course focuses upon basic informa tion from the sport sciences. The text, Successful Coachil1g, was developed and updated by Dr. Rainer Martens. USA Gymnastics, in conjunction with ASEP, has trained gymnastics professionals as ASEP Instructors. USA Gymnastics sponsors courses throughout the country. Coaches who successfully complete the course and examination are entered into the


Coaches Accreditation

USA Gymnastics and ASEP coaching databases. Coaches should also provide USA Gymnastics with a photocopy of their ASEP certificate.



Basic information regarding previous and current coaching experience is obtained through a questionnaire. This requires verification by current or past employers or supervisors and a listing of at least three professional references.



Level I Accreditation is strongly recommended. The following additional components designate Level II Accreditation for Men's, Women's, or Rhythmic gymnastics coaches.



Written examinations assess familiarity with the competitive program (M, W, R) . Similar to the examinations for judges' certification, these exams focus upon information that is key to understanding program requirements, compulsory exercise content and judging concernsfrom a coach's pOint-of-view. Competitive coaches should have a complete and thorough knowledge of these areas. Further, recreational coaches should also have an understanding of the specialized needs of the competitive program in order to best design and implement programs and curricula that are necessary to adequately prepare Junior Olympic competitive athletes.


BASIC SKILLS The 1993 Technique Training Guides for Men's and Women's

Gymnastics supply the recreational and competitive coach with information regarding skill training, conditioning, and flexibility necessary for preparation of the intermediate to advanced level gymnasts. Information in these areas has been contributed by numerous authors to USA

Gymnastics publications such as Technique magazine. In addition, these publications provide a continual upda te of important technical information. Completion of this component for Men's and Women's coaches requires successful completion of a multiple choice examination. For Rh ythmic coaches, a workbook / examination is provided covering some of the technical material included in the Technique Guides as well as basic skills as described in the Rhythmic Gymnastics Levels 1-2 and 3-4 Instructor's Manuals and accompanying video tapes. Completion of this component for Rhythmic coaches requires the successful completion of the workbook/ examination.



SEQUENTIAL GYMNASTICS /I 1992, Hacker et ai, 108 pp. #3604


LEVEL IINSTRUaOR'S STARTER KIT 1992, USA Gymnastics (includes video and IS workbooks) #3609


LEVEL I CLINIC WORKBOOKS 1992, USA Gymnastics (1S / pack) #3610


1993 TECHNIQUE GUIDE TO WOMEN'S TRAINING 1993, USA Gymnastics, 190 pp. #3633



1993, USA Gymnastics

Attaining Level II Accreditation is a ONETIME effort-as long as acoach meets all theabove components, they will earn Level II "active" status. In order to MAINTAIN "active" vs. "inactive" sta tus, the coach must simply maintain those components which have renewa l requirements. It is expected that most Level

II coaches will continue their ongoing education by participating in PDP Level III and other educational activities.

Complements to PDP Accreditation 1. CPR certification



},O, COMPULSORY TESTS 1993, USA Gymnastics Men's, Women's, or Rhythmic lesls



Other Coaches Education Material DEVELOPMENTAL GYMNASTICS 1990, O'Quinn, 218 pp. ' 3605







2. First Aid training/ certification

1993, Hacker et ai, 179 pp.

3. Continuing ed ucation-clinics, workshops, training camps, seminars, etc.


4. Other certificationsstrength and conditioning, aerobics, cheerleading, etc.

1991 , Turoff, 413 pp.

5. University degree programs February 1994





To order any of these publications, use the order form on page 2, To receive a Technical catalogue, call USA Gymnastics merchandise department at 317-237-5060, TECHNIQUE





Coaches Education



.A 26

SA Gymnastics wUlbe sponsoring ACEP Sport Science courses at special rates for gymnastics professionals. Certified ACEP instrudors who are registered with USA Gymnastics wUl condud



these courses. Successful completion of this course fulfills one requirement for PDP Level II Accreditation. Use the form below to pre-register for the course of your choice. To guarantee your registration, a completed registration form must be

received by USA Gymnastics 3 weeks (21 days) prior to the pubhshed course date.

Saturda . 1:00 pm-4 :00 pm Sunday: 9:0 m-l :00 pm Yankton, South oto River (ity Gymnastic b canceled (ourse Dir.: Mik anner (402) 339- 24 local ( oct: luana Johnson (6 665-2202



Sunday: 8:00 am-6:00 pm Multnoma Atheletic (Iub 1849 SW Salmon Portland, OR 97205 (ourse Dir.: Dove Klein (503) 557- 1223 locol (ontoct: Metro Gymnostics (enter (503) 557-1223

MARCH' '-'2 Friday: 6:00 pm-9:30 pm Saturday: 9:00 om-6:00 pm leesville Middle School Raleigh, N( (ourse Dir. (hristine Kennedy

USGF-ACEP Leader Level Sport Science - Registration Form

Fill in the following form as completely and accurately as possible. please print or type.


Birthdate_ _ _ _ _ Age _




Zip _ _ __

- __

Work ( _ ) - _

- __

- _ _ USGF Professional No ..____________

Safety Certification Status: Are you currently Safety Certified? D Course Information:


phone # : Home ( _ ) - _

Social Security No. _ _ - _

(min . age is 18 years)

Yes D


Expiration date:


Date: _________ Location : _____________________________ Course Instructor(s) _______________________________

Course Information 1. The textbook for the Leader Level Sport Science course is Successful Coaching. The textbook is included in the course fee. Preregistered participants will receive their materials at the course. 2. The course fee is $80. USGF Professional Members may register at the reduced rate of $70. 3. Successful completion of this course fulfills the Sport Science requirement for PDP Level II Accreditation . 4. Send completed form with payment to: USA Gymnastics, Pan American Plaza, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225 Payment: Check No.____


Check (Payable to USA Gymnastics)


MasterCard or D VISA Card No.___________________ Exp. Date: _I_I_ Card Holder Name:____________________ Signature: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ T294

February 1994 TECHNIQUE

No investment! No risk! ELITE/GKWS CONSIGNMENT PROGRAM IS GREAT FOR: CAMPS • MEETS • PRO SHOPS Each consignment package offers you a new assortment of leotards and bike shorts from our variety print collection. Your package is specifically tailored to your gym's needs and includes merchandise manufactured especially for consignment. Since you only pay for what you sell and you may return what you don't sell, there is no

risk and no investment - EVER! And don't forget, with our consignment program you'll be able to purchase every item in our catalog at wholesale prices! For more information, call G K Customer Service, toll-free, at 1-800-345-4087.

1230 Spruce Street Reading . Pa. 19602




•••• ••






I ••••

Be watching Technique for the announcment of an upcoming book


•••• ••



WAN T ••

T 0



UTE ?•

We need you! Be thinking of ideas, and when the time comes, send them in! Sponsored by the Educational Subcommittee of USA Gymnastics

• ••••

Focus Please circle:






.... •




Name of game activity: _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ __ __ __ _ _


• ••


• ••

Purpose / goal of Game/ activity _ _ _ _ __ __ _ __ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __

Description of Game / activity: (Please include any illustrations you feel are necessary to make the activity more understandable. Please use additional paper if needed) .


Send ideas to: Patricia Hacker, 1814 22nd Ave. N, Brookings, SO 57006



t is often assumed that running speed is inna te, or inborn, and cannot be improved upon . While it is true that the percentage of fast glycolytic muscle fibers one inherits from his or her parents goes a long way toward determining one's foot speed, other factors such as mechanics, training, and flexibility also come into play. The primary purpose of this paper is to examine the biomechanica I aspects of running to which the coach can pay particular attention in an effort to improve scores in the vault through improved running speed. Secondarily, attention will be given to training components, drills, and equipment which may also be used to improve technique.






Biomechanically, there are two ways to improve speed: increase both stride frequency and stride length. It is assumed by many coaches that stride frequency is neurologically determined, and thus can only be improved neurologically. This is true, if one assumes that the athlete's technique is already beyond reproach. However, many athletes, gymnasts in particular, have very poor running technique which, if improved upon, can lead to an improvement in stride frequency. To do so, the athlete and the coach must first understand the arm:-Ieg connection. That is to say; one must understand that the arms and legs work together. As the back, or driving leg is brought forward during the stride, the opposite arm is also brought forward as a counterbalanceevery time. And since this occurs with every stride, rather than have the athlete concentrate upon the rapidity with which he or she can bring each leg forward during the run, why not have them concentrate upon increasing the rapidity with which the arms move forward and backward? Track coaches have long known that the faster one can move the arms, the faster the legs will move. The question then becomes, "How can we increase the speed, and thus the frequency with which the arms are moved during the run?" The

answer has to do with reducing the radius of rotation. Many gymnasts run with the arms extended, or nearly straight, at the elbow. This merely serves to lengthen the radius of rotation-the distance from the shoulder joint to the wrist-which serves only to slow the movement of the arms as they rotate about the shoulder. This reduction in the rapidity with which the arms may be moved in turn serves to slow, or red uce, the stride frequency. On the other hand, if the arms are flexed at the elbow, and remain flexed at approximately 90 degrees during the course of their movement, then the radius of rotation is reduced and the arms can be rota ted forward and back-

hip joint to the ankle. After the athlete pushes off the running surface with the rear, or driving leg, completely extending that leg, it must be quickly and fully flexed at the knee, allowing the foot to pass directly beneath and extremely close to the buttocks. The path that the foot takes to reach this position directly under the buttocks should be a straight line-a movement described as "lining the heels." The feet should not be allowed to describe a wide and high arc behind the runner after push-off because it merely lengthens the time it takes the foot to reach its mid-stride position. The shortest distance between two points is, of course, a straight line. This reduction in the radius of the leg, as with any reduction in the

length, and is often the result of poor mechanics of the arm action. That is, the legs are simply not forced to keep up with the movements of the arms. A third important factor in increasing running speed for the gymnast is correct posture. Posture must be studied by the coach in both the lateral and sagittal planes. In the lateral plane (the view from the side), the coach must first examine total body lean. Some coaches make the mistake of instructing their athletes to lean forward during the run, to help generate speed. Athletes often react to this instruction by ducking the head forward or by leaning forward at the waist. These two body positions are uncomfortable, and not .

IMPROVING VAULT ScORES THROUGH IMPROVED RUNNING lEUlNIQUE Dr. Tim Rademaker Department of Physical Education, Southeast Missouri State University

ward more rapidly. This improvement in the rapidity of the arm movement will lead to an improvement in the rapidity of leg movement since the legs are being forced to keep pace with the movement of the arms. The result should be an increase in stride frequency. Of course, it would be easier for the legs to keep pace with the arms, and for the athlete to increase stride length (the second factor which contributes to running speed) if the athlete pays particular attention to the proper mechanics of leg movement during the run. And again, the most important factor has to do with the reduction of the radius of rotation-the distance from the

radius of a rotating object, produces greater angular velocity by decreasing the moment of inertia of the leg, thus increasing the rapidity with which strides may be taken. An additional benefit, however, is that this also allows the thigh of the driving leg, which is now becoming the lead leg, to be brought up higher in front of the runner just prior to the foot of that leg striking the ground again. This high leg and knee lift during the stride not only provides greater striking power, but also allows the runner to lengthen the stride naturally. The low knee lift which many gymnasts display during the run simply decreases stride frequency, shortens stride

February 1994 TECHNIQUE

conducive to generating speed. Rather, the athlete should be instructed to simply "run tall" and with the best posture possible. Body lean should be from the feet, not the head or waist. It is totally determined by acceleration. If the athlete is accelerating, they will be leaning forward. The greater the acceleration, the greater the lean. If the athlete has reached top speed and is merely maintaining, they will be in an upright running position with little or no lean. If the athlete is decelerating, they will be leaning backward. The coach must make sure their gymnasts are running upright or with a slightly forward body lean. Considering the short approach to


If the arms are flexed at the elbow, and remain flexed at approximately 90 degrees during the course of their mauement, then the radius of rotation is reduced and the arms can be rotated forward and backward more rapidly. This imprauement in the rapidity of the arm mauement 'Will lead to an imprauement in the rapidity of leg mauement since the legs are being farced to keep pace 'With the mauement of the arms. which gymnasts are restricted to in the vault, these types of postures should not be difficult to attain. The athlete barely, if at all, has enough time to reach full speed in 80 feet. Part of correct running posture and total body lean, and which also must be examined in the lateral plane, pertains to the position of the hips during the run. Too often, sprinters run with a sway in the small of the lower back when instead they should be running with a "flat back." The flat back is achieved by tilting the lower ridge of the pelvic girdle forward . It may be an uncomfortable position until practiced to the point where it becomes second nature. The advantage of this posture is that it puts a stretch on the hip flexors. As is well known, the more a muscle is stretched before it is contracted, the stronger will be the contraction. This stretch is removed when the back is swayed, that is, when the upper ridge of the pel vic girdle is til ted forward. The flat back, through contributing to a more powerful contraction of the hip flexors, contributes to both a longer and faster stride. Also from the lateral plane, the coach must examine knee lift and foot placement. Knee lift must be high. But this does not mean that the thighs are lifted to a point where they are parallel to the ground, or at a 90 degree angle to a perfectly vertical posture. Even world class sprinters do not, and would not, want to achieve this exaggerated lift. Instead they achieve a knee lift that places the thighs at about a 70 degree angle to a vertical posture. With this type of knee lift, it is easier to bring the foot down . directly under the center of gravity and for the runner to continue to drive himself or herself

down the runway. If the athlete overstrides, or places the foot on the ground ahead of the center of gravity, it hinders forward movement, because the running surface then exerts a force in the direction opposite to that in which the runner is seeking to move. It is equivalent to "putting the brakes on." Finally from the lateral viewpoint, the coach must emphasize correct arm action. As previously discussed, this entails keeping the arms flexed at approximately 90 degrees to reduce the radius of rotation. But 90 degrees is not constantly maintained during the course of the arm action, especially at the beginning and the end of the range of motion. As the arms come forward, the loosely cupped fingers of the hand rise to approximately chin level, and the elbow flexes slightly beyond the point of 90 degrees in order to compensate for, or counter, the greater recovery action of the back leg. As the arm moves backward, the hand will pass barely beyond the hip and the arm will extend slightlyattheelbow.This straightening of the arm corresponds to, and counters, the longer leverage of the driving leg. The arms thus always counterbalance the opposite leg. This counterbalancing act performed by the arms can also be seen when standing directly in front of the runner and viewing the running motions in the sagittal plane. As the arms come forward the upper arm remains in the sagittal plane, but the lower arm and hand is brought up slightly across the chest to the midline of the body, in order to counterbalance the slightly eccentric thrust that is applied by the legs through the hips and the center of gravity. In order to be sure that such eccentric force is kept to a minim um, the athlete

must concentrate on contacting the running surface with each foot landing along the midline directly below the center of gravity. This can be practiced by taking the athlete out on a track and having them run on the lane lines, or by taping a line down the center of the approach to the vault. The coach must observe and correct foot placements tha t land either too far away from the midline or that cross over the midline thus producing excessive eccentric thrust. Finally, in regard to posture, the coach must emphasize relaxation. The athlete must run with a relaxed face, neck, shoulders, arms, and hands. Anything less than this produces a tightness in the hips and legs, and reduces both stride frequency and stride length. Foot contact should beatits briefest. The overall impression should be one of strength, quickness, and a lightness of touch. The athlete should look almost as if they are prancing. Running fast but relaxed is vital to the effectiveness of the approach. Also, vital to the effectiveness of the approach is how the athlete attacks it-both physically and mentally. Eighty feet is not enough distance for the gymnast to slowly build to full speed. It must be done quickly and as fast as possible. This makes the first three steps of the approach vital. These steps should begin with a rocker step, a step in which the athlete rocks backward and places the body weight onto one leg that is extended behind him or her. After the weight is accepted by the back leg, the gymnast explodes by aggressively pushing off of that leg and driving it into the first stride of the approach. It is a powerful, driving first step and is followed by two more identical strides before

February 1994 TECHNIQUE

the a thlete begins to settle in to his or her regular running stride and rhythm. The forceful action ofthe legs during this "power start" is matched by the forceful driving of the arms. The arms, not only counterbalance the actions of the legs in this start, but they serve to help produce a greater force that is extended through the feet against the running surface, which responds with an equal and opposite reaction, driving the gymnast down the runway. This type of start to the approach takes not only much practice, but an aggressive attitude as well. The mental approach of the gymnast during the run is as important as technique. Sport psychologists tell us that non-confident and unaggressive athletes can eventually become confident and aggressive through practicing correct body language and attitude. It becomes a self- fulfilling prophecy. Again, in regard to biomechanics, there are a variety of drills that mimic the subroutines of running that can be utilized to help produce and instill within the athlete the correct biomechanica I running technique. Following are four that can be done separately or combined into more complex drills:

High Knee Lift In this drill, designed primarily to help improve stride length and running form, the athlete runs in a tall and relaxed fashion with correct arm action, but concentrates particularly on lifting the knees to a point where the arms come parallel to the ground. It must be done with a slight total body lean from the feet. It can be done over a distance of 20-30 yards. The emphasis is on relaxation and knee lift. It is not on how fast the athlete can cover the prescribed distance.

Quick Steps The quick step drill is nearly identical to the high knee lift, but is done at a more rapid rate and a shorter distance. Again, good posture is imperative as the athlete very quickly and repetitively drives the knees up in front of himself or herself to a point where



A 31



.A 32

the thighs are parallel to the ground. The athlete quickly learns that the rapidity with which this can be done increases markedly as the radius of rotation of the arms and of the legs is reduced. Again, the athlete should not focus on how fast he or she can cover the prescribed distance, but on how fast and quickly the knee drives can be done as one covers that distance.

Skip Drill In this drill, the athlete takes off one foot and lands on the same foot while simultaneously driving the opposite knee up to a point where the thigh becomes parallel to the ground. This is immediately repeated on the opposite side. This drill helps the athlete work on lengthening the stride. In turn, the longer stride allows the athlete to work on correct arm action. The full range of the arm action can be achieved only if the stride is long enough.

lift and Reach (Goosestep) This drill is similar to the skip drill in that the athlete leaves the ground with one foot and lands on the same foot. Again, the opposite knee is driven high. Here, however, the athlete's focus of attention is on "lining the heels" and deeply flexing the drive leg during the recovery phase of the stride. This of course allows the athlete to practice reducing the radius of rotation of the recovery leg. After the knee is driven up, the lower leg is allowed to extend out in a relaxed manner before striking the ground again. This leg extension is what gives the drill the appearance of the goosestep.

Recovery DrUi (Butt Kicks) In this drill, the athlete runs on the balls of the feet without lifting the knees at all. The knees remain below the hips and the legs are flexed extensively as the heels come up behind the runner, nearly striking him or her in the gluteus. Again, this is a drill that allows the athlete to practice and feel the reduction in the radius of the recovery leg.

Une Runs Here, the athlete runs on the lanes of a track or on a taped line on the vault runway while the

coach stands directly in front of the runner. The athlete runs with the best possible form he or she can. The coach simply looks to see that the legs and the upper arms stay as close to the sagittal plane as pOSSible, and the foot strike is on the line directly below the midline of the body. Finally, in regard to training, coaches must consider the use of both resistance and assistance training techniques to give their vaulters the greatest possible speed down the runway. Resistance training involves the runner working against a force that retards his or her progress. This can be done in a number of ways. Possibly the easiest is to find a hill that has about a 30 degree inclination and have the vaulters run 60-70 yards uphill three times a week. The same type of training can be accomplished by having athletes run repeat sets of stadium steps. Some coaches display even greater creativity by putting their runners inshoulder harnesses and attaching mini-parachutes or auto tires which they then tow behind them. Or a running partner may provide the resistance. The idea of resistance training is two-fold: to increase leg strength, and to increase stride length by forcing the runner to concentra te on knee drive and arm action. Resistance training should be done during the pre-season. Assistance training involves running downhill along a slope of about a four degree decline, or putting the athlete in a shoulder harness, attaching a long piece of surgical tubing to the harness and the athlete at one end, and to a stationary object at the other end. In both cases, the athlete runs, covering about the distance of 60-70 yards either downhill or on the track pulled by the surgical tubing. Such training also accomplishes two things: it lengthens the stride in a natural way (easily and unforced), and it forces the athlete to turn over his or her legs at a more rapid rate (that is, it increases stride frequency) . The research on this training has proven that it is beneficial, but temporary. The carryover of greater speed to the vault run-

way lasts for about eight weeks, which actually would be a large part of the gymnastics season. A sensible assistance training program would last eight-I 0 weeks. The athlete would perform eight-IO assisted runs of about 60-70 yards three times per week. This program should be included as part of the competitive early and midseasons. The benefits should last through the championship season. In conclusion, while it helps to have a good genetic background, sprinting speed can definitely be improved upon if one is aware of the correct training procedures and correct mechanics. If stride frequency can be held constant and stride length can be improved upon, speed can be increased. However, if both stride length and stride frequency can be improved speed can increased to an even greater extent. But the coach must know what to look for. And that basically entails making sure that the radius of rotation for both the arms and the legs is reduced properly, the heels are "lined" from the take off to mid-stride, the knees are lifted high, and all motions are as close to the sagittal plane as possible. These mechanics combined with the correct use of resistance and assistance training should help the vaulter to generate greater speed-speed that will help them complete more difficult vaults correctly and with greater ease.

Bibliography Arnold, Malcolm. "Speed Training." Athletics Coach. 24:3-4, December, 1990. Costello, Frank. "Resisted and Assisted Training to Improve Speed." Track and Field Quarterly Review. 81:27, Summer, 1981. Dick, Frank W. "Developing and Maintaining Maximum Speed in Sprints Over One Year." Athletics Coach. 23:3-8, March, 1989. Dolan, John O. "What is Proper Sprint Form." Scholastic Coach. 58:28-29, January, 1989. Evans, Lee. "Some Suggestions for Improving Sprint Speed." Track and Field Quarterly Review. 90:22, Spring, 1990. Fernandez, Juan J. "Man, A Poor Runner in Comparison With the

February 1994 TECHNIQUE

Animals. " Olymic Review . 240:522-525, October, 1987. Guaga, E. "Sprint Reflections." Modern Athlete and Coach. 29:29-31, July, 1991. Goldrin, Aleksandr. "Development of Muscular Relaxation in Sprinting." Modern Athlete and Coach. 27:34-36, October, 1989. Henderson, Henry. "Sprints: Techniqueand Fundamentals." Texas Coach. 35:58-59, March, 1990. Homenkov, L.S. "Base Preparation of Sprinters." Soviet Sports Review. 23:123-127, September, 1988. Hoskisson, Jeff L. "Sprinting: A New Look." Track and Field Quarterly Review. 89:13-19, Spring, 1989. Hull, Brett C. "Improve Sprinting For Through the Use of Sprint Form Drills." Women's CoachingClinic. 11:1-6, January, 1988. Huntsman, Stan. "Sprinting." Texas Coach . 35:26-29, November, 1990. Lavrienko, A. "Non-Traditional Training." Modern Athlete and Coach. 28:3-5, July, 1990. McCarty, Mike. "Sprinting Drills and Exercises." Coaching Clinic. 20:609, March, 1982. McKown, Mark. "Six Segment Approach to PeakSprintingSpeed." Scholastic Coach. 61 :14-15, April, 1992. Mirkin, Gabe. " Increasing Stride Length or Frequency to Run Faster." Track and Field Quarterly Review. 92:45, Summer, 1992. Modern Athlete and Coach. "The A and Z of Sprinting." 30:23-26, April,1992. Roberts, Dick. "Sprint Drills and Workouts." Track and Field Quarterly Review. 83:24, Summer, 1983. Rosen, Mel. "Auburn University Sprint Training." Track and Field Qua rterly Review . 90 :16-17, Spring, 1990. Santos, Jim. "Sprint Assisted Training." Track and Field Quarterly Review. 91:36-37, Spring, 1991. Shaw, Tom. "How to Improve Sprinting Speed." Scholastic Coach. 59:112-114,January, 1990. Upperman, Ron. "Training for the Sprints." Track and Field Quarterly Review. 91:13-14, Spring, 1991. Van Coppenolle, H. "Technology and Development of Speed ." Athletics Coach. 23:82, March, 1989. White, Kevin M. "Ideas for Increasing Sprint Speed." Modern Athlete and Coach. 20:8-11, July, 1982.

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Sport Science





MAy 1993


W.A. Sands, J.A. Major, R.c. Irvin, L.S. Hauge Barber, R.L. Marcus, D.D. Paine, R.D. Cervantez, H.R. Ford, & J.R. McNeal

Motor Behavior Research Laboratory, Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Utah


nde,,'.nding athletic performance, devel oping training programs, and initiating sport science involvement to aid the development of athletes usually begins with profiling studies (Henschen, Sands, & Gordin, 1988; Kowalski & Grana, 1989; Adrian & Anjos, 1987). Profiling studies are used to assess the current status of athletes within a paradigm considered relevant to the sport. Identifying physical fitness characteristics that are specific to the sport is a useful first step in understanding athletic performance. A model of physical fitness, specifically for gymnastics, is an important adjunct to profiling studies. The model of physical fitness for this study was the following as proposed by Shultz and Sands (in press) (see Table 1). Based on the model in Table 1, the complete characterization of any athlete should involve all of these categories or types of fitness, unless other information disputes their relevance. A battery of tests is used to establish a specific profile (Fetz & Kornexl, 1978). The aerobic power and capacity categories have been shown to be of little practical use and possibly negatively related to gymnastics performance (Stone, Wilson, Rozenek, & Newton, 1984; Schmidtbleicher, 1992; Shealy, Callister, Dudley,

Table 1

Table 2

Physical Fitness Model

Field Testing Criteria

1. Strength 2. Power 3. Anaerobic Power 4. Anaerobic Capacity 5. Aerobic Power 6. Aerobic Capacity 7. Body Composition B. Flexibility 9. Skill

1. Testing should not, or only slightly, disturb the training and competition process. 2. Testing time should be minimized. 3. Testing dates should be based on the periodization plan of the athlete(s). 4. The testing should be performed with the greatest precision possible to maintain standardization. 5. The results must be compared across testings to determine change. 6. Over the long term, the athlete must appreciate that only his/her best efforts in testing can adequately assist the coach in designing and improving training programs.

& Fleck, 1992; Arnett, 1993; Montpetit, 1987; Montpetit, 1976; Hickson, 1980; Sands, 1985). Moreover, it has also been shown that anaerobic capacity may also be of limited use in gymnastics (Montgomery & Beaudin, 1982, Montpetit, 1987, Montpetit, 1976). Therefore, tests were selected to emphasize the categories of strength, power, anaerobic power, flexibility, and skill.

The profile testing of athletes usually involves field tests to ascertain the dominant characteristics of the sport (Adrian & Anjos, 1987). Field tests are those tests that are conducted outside of the laboratory and usually include items that are more closely linked to specific sport performance. Field testing of ath-

letes should follow the criteria as listed by Martin (1980) (see Table 2). Moreover, one should a ppreciate that field testing usually results in reduced precision and reliability. Testing performed without the tight investigative controls of a laboratory are often subject to variability that is unforeseen and reduces the reliability of the results. However, field testing may use tests that are more highly related to the actual tasks that the athletes perform and thereby reflect actual

February 1994 TECHNIQUE

sport performance more closel y, thus enhancing content and co nstruct validity (Carmines & Zeller, 1979). Ultimately, on e would prefer to use tests that ar e predictive of future gymnastics performance. The predictiv e abilities of any tests can be asce rtained by following athlete s through several testing sessions and correia ting these results with sport performance. The reade r should keep these delimitation s, limitations, and applications in mind while viewing the folio wing results. The purpose of this proje ct was to descriptively assess the men's national team members 0 n a battery of fitness tests that were chosen to reflect gymnastics per formance. A secondary purpos e was to begin database develop ment for future comparisons.

Methods Nineteen male gymnasts were tested in conjunction with a na tional team, compulsory routine training camp held at the U.s Olympic Training Center in Col0rado Springs, Colo. The partici pants were invited on the basis 0 f their performances in the previ oussixmonths' competitions. The training camp was held in Ma y 1993. The testing sessions too k place over two days with nin e tests completed on the first day (see Table 3) and 11 tests com pleted on the second day (se e Table 4). Two gymnasts did no t participate in the jumping tests due to previous injury. The tests were administered with the su pervision and assistance of th e national team coaches. In keeping with the fitnes s model shown in Table 1, th e strength area was tested via th e held leg lifts forward and sideward. Power was tested via the vertical jump, and medicine ball throws. The area of anaerobic power was tested via pullups, push ups, handstand pushups, three bounding jumps, 20 meter sprint, and piked leg lifts. Anaerobic capacity was tested via pommel horse circles. Flexibility was tested by the active shoulder, held leg lifts forward and sideward, inlocate and dislocate tests, and the left and right

Sport Science

, Table 6

Table 3

Table 4

Physical Fitness Tests

Physical Fitness Tests

5 May 1993

1. Vertical jump (em) 2. Pull-ups in 10 seconds (reps) 3. Handstand push-ups in 10 seconds (reps) 4. Piked leg lifts in 10 seconds (reps) 5. Push·ups in 10 seconds (reps) 6. Active shoulder flexibility (em) 7. !nlocate and dislocate distance (em) 8. Parallel bars (stiff/stiff) press (pass/foil) 9. Rings cross pull·out (pass/foil) 10. Rings -Maltese hold three seconds (pass/foil) em = centimeters, reps = repetitions

splits tests. Skill and strength were tested by parallel bar presses, cross pull-outs, maltese cross holds, parallel bar handstand push-ups,and the inverted cross. Body composition was not assessed. The protocols for the vertical jump, pull-ups in 10 seconds, handstand push-ups in 10 seconds, piked leg lifts in 10 seconds, active shoulder flexibility, three bounding jumps, medicine ball throw forward and backward, 20 m sprint, sideward leg lift, and forward leg lift have been presented previously (Sands, 1993; Sands, Mikesky, & Edwards, 1991). The inlocate and dislocate distance was determined as the smallest distance between the innermost fingers while holding a 91 cm dowel and performing the shoulder inlocate and dislocate motions. The remainder of the tests involved wellknown gymnastics skills. The parallel bars stiff-stiff press was a pass/ fail test involving a straight armand straight leg press to handstand. The cross pull-out test was pass/fail and involved the athlete beginning in a cross position on the still rings and adducting the arms to arrive in a support position. The five parallel bar presses test was also a pass/fail test and involved the


Descriptive StatisticsPhysical Fitness

6 May 1993

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Variable Mean Min Max S.D. Vertical jump (em) 65.0 6.5 53.3 78.7 Pull ups lOs (reps) 9.5 0.9 8.0 11.0 Push·ups lOs (reps) 15.0 12.1 1.3 9.0 Brood jump 1 (em) 231.6 23.0 180.3 274.3 Brood jump 2 (em) 276.6 236.2 302.3 18.4 Brood jump 3 (em) 288.8 26.0 243.8 327.7 Brood jump Total (em) 798.4 678.2 881.4 58.3 Med boll forward (m) 6.1 2.4 4.2 15.7 8.3 ' Med boll backward (m) 8.3 5.4 18.6 20 mdash (s) 3.1 2.9 0.1 3.3 8} 5 PB press hdstd (s) 3.1 5.4 18.8 PH circles (reps) 43.2 18.4 15.0 75.0 Leg lifts lOs (reps) 7.3 6.0 0.7 9.0 Active shld flex (em) 43.6 14.7 22.0 74.0 !nlocate/dislocate (em) 50.8 13.2 22.0 no Rt side leg lift (m) 6.9 1.5 4.0 10.0 Lt side leg lift (scr) 7.0 4.0 1.5 10.0 Rt forw leg lift (m) 5.3 1.1 4.0 7.0 Lt forw leg lift (m) 5.6 0.8 4.0 7.0 Split right (em) 11.4 8.1 0.0 26.0 Split left (em) 12.3 9.1 0.0 28.0 em . centimeters, reps = repetitions, m= meters, s = seconds, m = score 1·10 value.

3 bounding jumps (em) Medicine boll throw forward (m) Medicine boll throw backward (m) 20 msprint (s) 5 parallel bar press handstands (pass/foil) Sideward leg lift flexibility right & left (score) Forward leg lift flexibility right &left (score) Splits right & left (em) 5 Parallel bar handstand push·ups (s)

1O. Rings· cross hold three s (pass/foil) 11 . Rings -inverted cross hold three s (pass/foil) 12. Pommel horse circles (reps) m= meters, s = seconds, score = 1·10 value, reps=repetitions. athlete choosing any type of press to perform five times in a row. The still rings cross hold, maltese hold, and inverted cross hold were all pass / fail tests involving simply reaching the appropriate position and holding the position for three seconds. Pommel horse circles were done in the center of the horse with the athlete performing as many circles as he could. The five handstand pushups test involved the athlete performing five handstand pushups, without aid, on the parallettes while being timed. Each a thlete was allowed one "representative" trial at each test. A representative trial was considered an attempt that was free from obvious errors in perforTable 5

mance. A single trial was administered to reduce the time necessary to complete the entire field test battery and conform with the criteria of Martin (1980) . This was an exploratory project. Data were analyzed descriptively, reporting means, standard deviations, ranges, frequencies, and percentages. Pearson product moment correlation coefficients were calculated between all variables. Fi-

nally, discriminant analyses proced ures were calcula ted on rankings provided as an estimate of the "talent" of the athlete by the men's national technical director of USA Gymnastics. The talent definition was left to the discretion of the National Technical Director. Discriminant analyses based on competitive results were not undertaken due to the lack of participation of all athletes in recent competitions.



Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive Statistics-Athletes Variable Mean S.D. Age (yr) 21.2 2.1 Height (em) 168.8 6.4 Moss (kg) 66.0 7.2 yr = year, em = centimeters, kg = kilograms.

February 1994

Min 17.0 155.9 52.3


Max 24.0 177.8 78.6

The descriptive information of those athletes participating in the testing is shown in Table 5. Table 6 shows the descriptive statistics of the absolute values for each physical fitness test. Bilateral comparisons showed that the right split and left split values were not statistically

I 0



Sport Science

groups . Discriminant analyses were not performed on competition groupFrequencies ings due to a lack of uniform competiFail Variable Pass tion participation by 4(21.1%) 15 (78.9%) (ross pull-out these athletes . 16 (84.2%) 3 (15.8%) Maltese Moreover, one 6 (31 .6%) Press hdstd PB 13 (68.4%) should cautiously 12 (63.2%) interpret these re7 (36.8%) (ross hold 3s 17 (89.5%) suits because the 2 (10.5%) Inverted cross hold 3s high variable to subL--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _--r_ _ _---J ject ratio can result in distorted views. different (t (l OS) = -5.91,2 = .96). The discriminant analysis was Means of the side versus for- used to identify tests that may ward leg lifts were statistically be promising in further research different (1 (IS) = -5.91,2< .001). aimed at describing the perforThe means ot the left side versus mance abilities of male gymright side leg lifts were not sta- nasts. This information alone is tistically different (1 OS) = 1.02,2 not enough to justify the removal = .32). Frequencies analyses of of tests, because some of the tests the pass/fail data are shown in may be highly correlated with Table 7. each other and thereby distort The 19 athletes were divided the discriminant analysis. This into high and low groups based means tha t some tes ts ma y need on the ran kings provided by the to be retained due to theoretical men's national technical direc- reasons rather than simple distor. A discriminant function criminatory ones. analysis, using the direct method, was calculated to determine those test variables that This was the first men's naappeared promising for predicttional team training camp since ing group membership. The vari1989. The goals of the camp were ables and their standardized canonical discriminant function training the new compulsory routines, education in training coefficients indicative of group membership are shown in Table methods, and testing. The tests were chosen based 8. The size of the discriminant function coefficients, regardless on established physical abilities of sign, can be used to get an tests used with the women's proidea of the relative importance gram (Sands, 1993; Sands, of the variable's ability to dis- Mikesky, & Edwards, 1991) and criminate between the two suggestions from the National

Table 7



A. 36


Only 63 % of the athletes could hold a cross on rings , and 63% of the athletes could do only seven leg lifts in 10 seconds. The importance of national team level athletes' ability to perform these fitness tests remains open to question. It was somewhat surprising that "elite" male gymnasts could not perform many of the 'skill tests, and that these tests resulted in delayed onset muscle soreness. One might argue that conditioning should be increased and enhanced for these athletes. February 1994


Descriptive StatisticsPhysical Fitness Standardized, Canonical, Discriminant, Function Coeff. Variable -1.87 Age -4.94 Height 6.86 Mass Vertical jump (em) 8.90 -3.26 Pull ups lOs (reps) -2.42 Push-ups lOs (reps) Broad jump 1 (em) 5.89 Broad jump 2 (em) 0.77 Broad jump 3 (em) -3.14 Broad jump Total (em) not eligible -0.89 Med ball forward (m) -5.44 Med ball backward (m) 20 mdash (s) 6.99 not eligible 5 PB press hdstd (s) PH circles (reps) 3.02 Leg lifts lOs (reps) 1.35 Active shld flex (em) not eligible not eligible Inlocate/dislocate(cm) not eligible Rt side leg lift (scr) not eligible Lt side leg lift (scr) not eligible Rt forw leg lift (scr) not eligible Lt forw leg lift (scr) not eligible Split right (em) not eligible Split left (em) not eligible = The variable was not included in the analysis because it did not achieve the .05 level of tolerance for inclusion. em =centimeters, reps = repetitions, m=meters, scr =score 1-10 value.

verted cross hold), showed that less than half of the athletes could pass these skills. Only 63 % of the athletes could hold a cross on rings, and 63% of the athletes could do only seven leg lifts in 10 seconds. This may point to deficiencies in these athletes' conditioning programs. The importance of na tional team level athletes' ability to perform these fitness tests remains open to question. It was somewhat surpris ing tha t "eli te" male gymnasts could not perform many of the skill tests, and that these tests resulted in delayed onse muscle soreness One might argue that conditioning should be increased and enhanced for these athletes.

The tests tha appeared to dis criminate best be tween the two groups are shown in Table 8. The data on age, height, and mass were discrimi natory and may in dicate future tests should include an thropometric vari abies such as body composition. More over, the large range of body mass values I--_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-t-_ _ _---J may also indicate that body composi Technical Director and the men's tion assessments should be in eluded. All of the other variables national team coaches. The value tha t indica ted discriminatory caof these tests with male national pabilities were of the strength, team members was unknown. power, and anaerobic power and Interestingly, many of the gymcapacity categories. This may nasts complained of delayed indicate a bias on the part of the onset musele soreness. Many atrankings provided, or it may tributed the soreness to the testamplify the importance of these ing, which may have been novel variables over flexibility and skill to them. in discriminating the top U.s. Those tests requiring singu- male gymnasts from those of lar exceptional strength (Le., middle level qualifications. Incross pull-out, maltese, and in- terestingly, the skill variables did TECHNIQUE

Sport Science

Fetz, F., & Kornexl , E. (1978). Sportsmotorische tests, 2nd ed . Innsbruck, Austria: Inn-Verlaq. Henschen, K., Sands, B., & Gordin, R (1988) . Getting ready for '88. New Horizons of Human Movement III. Seoul Olympic Scientific Organizing Committee. 168169. (Abstract). Hickson, R C. (1980). Interference of strength development by simultaneously training for strength and endurance. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 45, 255-263. Kowalski, M. F., & Grana, W . A. (1989). A profile of the elite athlete . In W. A. Grana, J. A. Lombardo, B. J. Sharkey, & J. A. Stone (Eds.), Advances in Sports Medicine and Fitness: 2. Ad vances in sports medicine and fitness (Vol. 2, pp. 1-14). Chicago, IL: Year Book Medical Publishers. Martin D. (1980). Grundlagen der Trainingslehre Band II. (The foundations of training theory and methodology 11). Schorndorf, F.R.G.: Hoffmann. Montgomery, D. L., & Beaudin, P. A. (1982). Blood lactate and heart rate response of young female gymnasts during gymnastics routines. Journal of Sports Medicine and Phvsical Fitness, 22(3), 358-365. Montpetit, R R. (1976). Physioloqy of gymnastics. In J. H. Salmela (Ed.), The Advanced Study of Gymnastics (pp. 183-214) .

The U.S. male gymnast may need to concentrate more on peak strength and power rather than anaerobic power and capacity. not indica te good discrimina tory capabilities via the discriminant analysis. However, this was probably due to the large proportion of athletes who could not perform them at all. Future efforts of the men's international program should pursue investigations of conditioning approaches that emphasize singular explosive, and maximal strength and power efforts. It could be said of most sports that strength and power training and abilities are necessary for even the most mediocre performances. However, at the interna tionallevel it would seem that such abilities are critical.

Conclusions Implications from this early research should inform the men's program coaches and athletes that strength and power are extremely important for their performance. The U.s . male gymnast may need to concen-

trate more on peak strength and power rather than anaerobic power and capacity. Continued testing should involve these variables, and anthropometric information, to continue development of a physical fitness database and refinement of the test variables that discriminate among the top U.s. male gymnasts. This effort will be basic to the development of more objecti ve procedures for the improvement of the training process.

References Adrian,M.J., & Anjos, L.A. D. (1987). Profiling. In J. Terauds, B. A. Gowitzke, & L. E. Holt (Eds.), Biomechanics in sports (pp. 308312). Del Mar, CA: Academic Publishers. Arnett, M. G. (1993, (2)). A review of concurrent strength and endurance training. Science Periodical on Research and Technology in Sport, 13, 1-6. Carmines,E. G., &Zeller,R A. (1979). Reliability and validity assessment. Newbury, CA: Sage.

Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. Montpetit, R. R (1987). Physiological aspects of gymnastics training. In B. Petiot, J. H. Salmela, & T. B. Hoshizaki (Eds.), World Identification Systems for Gymn astic Talent (pp. 181-196). Montreal, Canada: Sport Psyche Publications. Sands, B. (1985). Conditioning for gymnastics: A dilemma. Technique, 5, 4-7. Sands, W. A., Mikesky, A. E., & Edwards, J. E. (1991, Sep 14) . Physical abilities field tests U.s. Gymnastics Federation Women's National Teams. USGFSoortScience Congress Proceedings, 1, 3947. Sands, W. A. (1993) . TOPs Testing Manual. Indianapolis, IN: USGF Publications. Schmidtbleicher, D . ( 1992) . Training for power events. In P.V. Komi (Ed.), Strength and power in sport (pp. 381-395). Oxford, England : Blackwell Scientific Publications. Shealy, M. J., Callister, R, Dudley, G. A., & Fleck, S.J. (1992). Human torque velocity adaptations to sprint, endurance, or combined modes of training. American Journal of Sports Medicine, 20 (5), 581-586. Stone, M. H., Wilson, D., Rozenek, R , & Newton, H. (1984). Anaerobic capacity. National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal,5 (6), 40, 63-65.






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February 1994


â&#x20AC;˘ A o


Women's Minutes

-the coaches for the committee to consider a change in the number of qualifiers to USA's from the Classic Meets. The coaches felt that the number should be raised because of the high demand placed upon the athletes by the competition calendar. After discussion, the following recommendations were made:





Recommenda tion tha t the number of Senior athletes qualifying to USA's from American Classic should be raised to 12.

Conference Call

December 23,1993

Motion Tim Rand 1.

Roll Call Region I

Julie Knight

Region II

Brad Loan

Region III

Kristi Krafft

Region IV

Mike Hunger

Region V

Gary Warren

Region VI

Byron Knox


Roe Kreutzer

Second Julie Knight


Audrey Schweyer



Kathy Kelly

Recommendation that the number of Junior athletes qualifying to USA's from American Classic should be raised to 10.


Region VII Gary Anderson (absent-vote given to KK) Region VIII Tim Rand

Kathy updated the committee on the discussion held by the National Team Coaches at the recent Training Camp regarding the 1994 schedule of activities and the request by



For more information, or to receive your license, call (800) 800-3162

Recommendation thatthe age for the International Senior Division be 13 years and over within the 1994 calendar year. (These athletes are age eligible for the 1996 Olympic Games). Motion Kristi Krafft Second Tim Rand PASSED III.

REMINDER-All Elite Competitions for the International levels will be scored according to the percentage of 60% Compulsory and 40% Optionals, including Regionals, Classics, and USA Championships. The percentage used for the National Level will be 40% Compulsory and 60% Optionalso

Motion Brad Loan Second Byron Knox PASSED

• Provides a SAFE and Progressive Teaching System • Sels ACHIEVABLE Goals • MOlivmes Parents and Students • Keeps Records of when Skills are Passed • Valuable for Measuring Teacher Efficiency • Currently Licensed 10 Over 50 Gyms Nmionwide

Plus an annual license fee of $100 • Posters .33 ea. • Award Certificates .28 ea. • Kindergym Cards .18 ea. • Progressive Cards .22 ea. • Eval ualion Cards .22 ea.



Upon ern-ollment every student receives a Poster TO TAKE HOME. Stars will be awarded to be placed on the poster. When the poster is full. the student is given a Certificate. a photo with the instructor(s). and the next level poster. The whole family can monitor the students progress and share in the excitement.

Guide instructors through the curriculum and provide a Standard criteria for passing skills. • Evaluation Card Video - $29.95 • Kindergym Levels 1 to 5 - $39.95 • Progressive Girls Levels 1 to 6 - $49.95 • Progressive Boys Levels 1 to 6 - $49.95 Complete Set of ALL 4 VIDEOS - $139.95

All material may be ordered as needed by calling a toll free 800 phone number! I

February 1994


Women's Minutes



Marilyn Cross


Roe Kreutzer




Kathy Feldmann (absent)

Athlete Rep. WPD

Michelle Dusserre Kathy Kelly

Conference Call Monday, January 10, 1994

The purpose of this meeting was to settle the differences between the JOPC and the Technical committee regarding the flashing of Start Value. The Program Committee made the following recommendation: That the flashing of Start Value be required at J.O. Nationals and that the State and Regional Boards decide on this issue for State and Regional meets. The WTC will establish procedures and guidelines in order that the meets are conducted efficiently. M. Cross Motion Second T.Koll Passed

WOl\1EN'S 1994 ELITE QUALIFICATION PROCEDURES International Seniors (13+ years)

International Juniors (10-14 years)

National Seniors (13+ years)

National Juniors (10-13 years)

Rules for Competition

FIG 111- U8, 88, FX (2D, 1C, 28) Vault - FIG 1b at Reg. FIG II at Classic/USA

FIG II (l D, 2C, 28, 1A) Vault - FIG 1bat Reg. FIG II at Classic/USA

FIG II (lD, 2C, 28, 1A) Vault - FIG 1bat Reg. and U.S. Classic

FIG II (l D, 2C, 28, 1A) Vault - FIG 1b at Reg. and U.S. Classic


60% Comp/40% Opt

60%Comp/40% Opt

40% Comp/60% Opt

40% Comp/60% Opt

Quarifying Score to Classic

72.00 AA

70.00 AA

69.00 AA

68.00 AA

At Classic

Top 12 AA -Am Classic Top 18 AA - US Classic (not including W.e. Team 93/94)

Top 10 AA -Am Classic Top 18 AA - US Classic

Clinic -Am Classic Top 20 Gym Fest - US Classic (opt only competition)

Clinic -Am Classic Top 20 -Gym Fest - US Classic (opt only competition)

USA Championship

60% Comp/40% Opt

60%Comp/40% Opt




60% (omp/40% Opt




Athletes on international assignment in the 1994 spring season prior to the American Classic are waived directly into the American Classic. February 1994 TECHNIQUE






RSG Announcements





Region 4: Suzie DiTullio has been elected to serve as Chairman of Rhythmic Region 4 to fulfill the term of Maureen Broderick who resigned because of relocation. J.O. Progra m Committee: Becuase of a tie vote, both Lydia Br ee and Tracey Callahan Molnar were elected to serve as the coaches represen ta ti ve to the Junior Olympic Program Committee. They will share one vote.

Add to directory: lydia Bree 5020 Steveann, Torrance, CA 90503 213-316-6505 Tracey Callahan-Molnar 1500 Almond Court, Downers Grove, Il 60515 708-852-0385

Rules and Policies Change of Address: Maureen Broderick 3034 Shalloweed lane,Chorlotte, NC 28277 704-541-1872 Cathi Schneider 31 Woonsocket Ave_,Shelton, a 06484 203-922-1332 Club Directory Addition Club Name TBD Contact: Julie Speisman Acacia Creek Apartments, Apt. 1013 7007 E. Goldust Ave., Scottsdale, AI 85253 Club Directory Change Coach Rhythmic ChicagoHarriett Slaughter Coach United Gymnastics AcademyIrina Tsygankova Ana Roche-Gymrhyth Star, 2029 W. 73rd., Hialeah, Fl33016 305-556-4015 Additions to Judges Ust Kathy Brym level 7/8 Mary Clark Provisional 7/8 Joyce Chaplin

USOC Sportswoman And Sportsman Of The Year Each USOC member organization selected a male and female athlete of the year for 1993_ These athletes were then placed on a ballot and voted on by members of the national media, USOC Board of Directors and the USOC Athletes' Advisory Council to select the overall winners.

Top 10 Sportswomen of the Year Rank

2 3 4 6 7 8 9 10

Top 10 Sportsmen of the Year






Gail Devers/Athletics Shannon Miller/Gymnastics Bonnie Blair/Speed Skating Jenny Thompson/Swimming Rebecca Twigg/Cycling Picabo Street/Skiing Mary Ellen Clark/Diving Becky Dyroen-lancer/Synchro Frances Strodtman/Shooting lisa leslie/8asketball

538 526 367 346 302 152 133 131 121 114

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Michael Jahnson/Athletics Bruce Baumgartner/Wrestling Wendel Suckow/luge Brian Shimer/Bobsled Pete Sampras/fennis lance Armstrong/Cycling Scott Shipley/Canoe Kayak Josh lakatos/Shooting Eric Namesnik!Swimming Darren Dreifort/8aseball

478 410 310 297 293 237 153 140 131 124






.~. ., '/. ,.




for use in conjunction with Safety Certification Courses

The USA Gymnastics Safety Handbook will be available very soon. This publication represents the ninth year of commitment by USA Gymnastics to provide the best and safest opportunity for individuals to participate in the wide variety of gymnasti"~ and other sport opportunities.

Produ,ed by: Department of Edu,ational Servi,es and Safety USA Gymnastlu Indianapolis, Indiana

Look for more information about this important handbook in the next issue of fecltnique. February 1994



1993 INDEX OF ARTICLES Technique, Vol. 13 Announcements 1993 Congress, Atlanta, GA. #4, 43. 1993 Congress, Atlanta, GA. #5, 1820. 1993 Congress, Atlanta, GA. #6, 1721. 1993 Congress, Atlanta, GA. #7, 1821. 1993 Congress, Atlanta, GA. #8, 1721. ACEP Leader Level Sport Science Course. #2, 7-8. ACEP Leader Level Sport Science Course. #3, 7-8. ACEP Leader Level Sport Science Course. #5, 7-8. ACEP Leader Level Sport Science Course. #6, 7-8. ACEP Leader Level Sport Science Course. #7, 6. ACEP Leader Level Sport Science Course. #8, 6. ACEP Leader Level Sport Science Course. #9, 8. ACEP Leader Level Sport Science Course. #10, 40. Announcements. #1, 6. (S udafed

Award to Miller; Artistic Worlds Update; Olympians retire; F.I.G. Bulletin; Election results of the Nat'l Representatives to the USA G Board of Directors). Announcements. #2, 28-32. (Exchanges Involving Foreign Athletes; Top Gymnasts at the 1992 McDonald's Am. Cup; Join Upl-Peak Club membership; Twenty-one Olympic gtjmnasts to appear in the Int'! Mixed Pairs; W's Elite Judges' Course Dates; Olympian Takes Center Stage at 1993 RSG Gymnastics Challenge; Height of the UB; Wom en's R&P Correction; USA G Intern s; New Code; USGF JOVT Table - Wi. Announcements. #4, 46. (RSG-JO Program; Coaching Information Survey; Petitions for WUG Trials. (W); Seeking Head Coach Position; New Safety Device-AAI BB Pad; Code-M; RSG). Announcements. #5, 46. (W's 19931996 Elite Compulsory Clinic; W's Code; Correction). Announcements. #6, 42. (RSG team event added to the 1996 Olympic Games; First U. S. Gymnaestrada). Announcements. #7, 37. (Nat' l Team Meeting; Adult competition;

RSG Judges Course; Meet Director Certification; RSG Code Clarifications; Corrections; Corrections to the FIG Code for W; Seeking gtpnnastics director/ coach). Announcements. #8, 37-39. (Corrections to FIG English Code, USGF Element Supplement, and 1993 JO Technical Handbook for Coaches and Judges; Club highlights;Safety Certification reminders; USGF M's Additional Special Req.'s). Attention all games enthusiasts. #10,38. (call for contributions to upcoming book; "Gym nastics Games: Activities for Kids"). Call for papers. #3, 33-34. (for the USA G Sport Science Symposium at the 1993 Congress) . Education /Event Calendar. #1, 47. Education/Event Calendar. #2, 47. Education/Event Calendar. #3, 47. Education/Event Calendar. #4, 47. Education/Event Calendar. #5, 47. Education/Event Calendar. #6, 47. Education/Event Calendar. #7, 47. Education/Event Calendar. #8, 47. Education/Events Calendar. #9, 47. Education/Event Calendar. #10, 47. NCAA Alert. #9, 40. (Discussion of issues rega rding prize money and eligibility.) Notice to membership. #1,33. (list of suspended and terminated members). Position Available. #9, 2. (Job description / announcement for USA Men's Program Director.) Safety Certification Courses. #1, 48. Safety Certification Courses. #2, 48. Safety Certification Courses. #3, 48. Safety Certification Courses. #4, 48. Safety Certification Courses. #5, 48. Safety Certification Courses. #6, 48. Safety Certification Courses. #7, 48. Safety Certification Courses. #8, 48. Safety Certification Courses. #9, 48. Safety Certification Courses. #10, 48.

Feeney, R. The press release. #8, 26-27. Gibney, J. Equipment liability and the coach: the vault and I. #10, 36-37. Holcomb, D.B. Express assumption of risk in youth sports. #10, 20-21. Jacki, M. Family and social trends: the new customers of the 1990's and beyond. #3, 40-42. Jacki, M. Family and social trends: the new customers of the 1990's and beyond. #4, 38-42. Jacki, M. The private gymnastics club: 1993 and beyond. #2, 4043. Jacki, M. USA Gymnastics: Objective 2000. #1, 39-41.


Moskovitz, D. PDP Level II-Skills Requirement. #6, 37-39.

Claire, J. The insurance jungle. #1, 32. Feeney, R. Planning an exhibition. #1,25-26. February 1994

(Gymnastics club in the '90's) . Juszczyk, M. Event Management. #6,34-35. Juszczyk, M. Site Selection. #7, 2223. Whitlock, S. Not enough time. #1, 19-20.

Coaches Education 1993 USA Gymnastics Summer Coaches Workshop. #3, 39. 1993 USA Gymnastics Summer Coaches Workshop. #4, 37. 1993 USA Gymnastics Summer Coaches Workshop. #5, 36. 1993 USA Gymnastics Summer Coaches Workshop. #6, 36. 1993 USA Gymnastics Summer Coaches Workshop. #7, 40. ACEP Instructors. #10, 28. Ebert, C. PDP Level I video clinic instructors. #8, 40. Moscovitz, D. Level I Accreditation Procedures. #2, 9. Moskovitz, D. PDP leads the way. #2,6. Moskovitz, D. PDP Level II sports science requirement. #1, 12. Moskovitz, D. PDP Level II: Skill components now available. #8, 42. Moskovitz, D. PDP Level II: What if I have experience? #3, 23-24.

(includes app.). Moskovitz, D. PDP Level II: What if I have exp erience? #4, 23-24.

(includes app.). (includes Grandparenting app.). Moskovitz, D. PDP-at a glance. #5, 37-39. (includes Level II


Grandparenting app.) . Moskovitz, D. Where do we go from here? #9, 30. Moskovitz, D. Where do we go from here? #10, 30. (includes su rVelj for PDP Level III

expectations). Moskovitz, D. and Whitlock, S. Coaching experience: Standards for evaluation. #4, 20-21 . (includes PDP Level II Experience Verification form). PDP Level II Experience Verification. #7, 41. PDP Level II Experience Verification. #8, 41. PDP Level II Experince Verification. #9, 14. PDP Level II Experience Verification. #10, 23. PDP Level II-Grandparenting Application. #7, 39. PDP Level II Grandparenting Application. #9, 15. PDP Level II-Grandparenting . Application. #10, 22. Tuffey, S. Coaching PhilosophyWhatis Success? #9, 22-23. USA Gymnastics Computer "Coaching Education Screen". #9,12.

Coaching Caster, F.J. Enhancement of coaching effectiveness in adolescent gymnastics. #10, 815. (coach ing survelj results). Cornelius, W.L. Strength and flexibility: a balance. #4, 9-11. Crawford, T. , and Flynn, C. Planning to win. #3, 9-11. Impact of Coaches. #8, 39. (an

ada ptation of Haim Ginott). Moskovitz, D . Coach-Teacher or Teach-Coach? #4, 19. Moskovitz, D. Difficulty vs. ability. #5, 10-11. .. Moskovitz, D. Performance evaluation. #1, 16-18. Murphy, S. Getting in the flow: what the coach can do? #2, 1314. Sands, W.A. On the training of youth. #7,35-36. Sedory, D.R. Hopping and jumping to gymnastics fitness. #7,13-15. Whitlock, S. Class skill progression lists. #6, 16. Whitlock, S. Coaching information survey. #3, 26-28.

., I

A 41


Whitlock, S. Readiness. #4, 15-17.


0 .A 42

Rhythmic). #8, 34.


Men-<ommittee Reports

1992 Index of Articles. #1, 43-46. (Index of articles; etc. appearing in 1992 USGF publications: Technique; USA G; 1992 Congress Publications; Vol. 2; and Safety Update). New name, new look, new home. #1,5. Rudd, S. A theory of athletic performance for artistic gymnastics. #8, 8-13. Sandmire, Y. Attention gymnastics club coaches!. #8, 36. (adding collegiate women's programs). Stephenson, J. and Stephenson, M. Artistic Gymnastics? #8, 32-33. (commentanj on the elimination of the prone landing from FIG Code). Whitlock, S. 1993 USA Gymnaestrada. #10, 5-7. Whitlock, S. General Gymnastics: World Gymnaestrada. #1, 7. Whitlock, S. USA Gymnaestrada Showcase. #8, 29-30.

JOPc. 2/15 /93, conference call. #3, 46. (Purpose: establishing a qualif!jing score for fa Nat'ls; Proposal "A" vs Proposal "B") . MPC. 2/ 7/ 93, Colorado Springs, CO. #3, 44-45. (Review of Ad Hoc Committee Actions; Reports; Athlete Assignments; Petitions; Team Leader Position; Election Strategtj for Board of Directors; New Business). MPC: extraordinary meeting. 4/ 30-5/2/93, Indianapolis, IN. #6, 45. (WUG trials; OTC update; Summer training plan update; New business). MPC. 8/26/93. Salt Lake City, UT. (Approval of forms, NAL program, 94 selection procedures, new competition rules, athlete funding, coach support, review summer competitions, FIG report, review strategic plan.) MPC. 9/ 9/ 93. Atlanta, GA. (FIG technical committee candidate, athlete assignments, strategic plan review, duel meet with Romania, compulsory exercises at Winter Cup.) MPC. 10/19/ 93, conference call. #10,46 . (Nat'! Apparatus Leader and Tech. Asst. positions; Grant requests; qualifications for Winter Cup; Worlds; and Goodwill; Critical Dates; Compulsories and Code Revisions; Proposals to the FIG/TC in Alicante; Spain;

Judging Code of Points. (Men, Rhythmic). #2,43. Code of Points. (Men, Rhythmic). #5,9. Code of Points. (Men, Women, Rhythmic). #6, 9. Code of Points. (Men, Women, Rhythmic). #7, 12. Code of Points. (Men, Women, Rhythmic). #8, 13. Code of Points. (Men, Women,

Coaches stipend policy; Qualif!jing meets to Winter Cup and Summer Nat'ls; New Business; MPC restructure). JOPc. 5/6&9/93. Ann Arbor, Ml. (Regional reports, Cumiskey Award nominations, 95 JO bids, age determination, dress code, specialists, JO National age divisions, fees for regionals.) JOPc. 9/10/93, Atlanta, GA. #10, 45. (Regional reports; 1994 fa Nat'l Bids; Strategic plan report; Frank Cumisketj Award; Alpha Factor/Reebok support for regional teams to Nat'!s; New business)

Melt-General USECA-Men Membership Application. #1, 31.

Mert-Judging 8th Intercontinental Judges' Course. #2, 17-20. (Special req.'s in artistic gtjmnastics; bonus points; judging execution). USGF Men's Additional Special Requirements. #6, 45.

Men-Technique Arnold, A.S. A biomechanical analysis of the compulsory Hecht vault. #7, 26-30. O'Neill, P. Development of the Azarian. #4, 30. O'Neill, P. Progressions of the double layout with full twist. #4,28-29.

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Half Zip' Jacket. 100% crinkled nylon tafetta in Navy. Half

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February 1994 TECHNIQUE

O' Neill, P. Progressions of the "O'Neill". #3, 30-31. (double layout without release on rings). O'Neill, P. Strength development for inverted cross and Maltese. #4, 31. Turoff, F. Men's compulsory vault: the Hecht. #3, 12-13. Turoff, F. Teaching a Gaylord 2from Gienger to Gaylord 2. #10, 35.

Preschool Gymnastics Komara, P. Beam skills and activities for preschoolers. #3, 35-38. Komara, P. Creative preschool bar skills and variations. #4,32-36. Komara, P. Teaching vaulting to preschoolers? Yes-but, make it fun!. #7, 31-34. Komara, P. Ten commandments of teaching tumbling to preschoolers. #5, 26-30. Komara, P. What, when and how to teach preschool tumbling skills. #6, 10-15.

Resources Ebert, C. Great games for young people. #4, 25. (book review). Ebert, C. I Can Do Gymnastics: Essential Skills for Intermediate Gymnasts. #6, 5-6. (book review). Ebert, C. Make the Team: Gymnastics for Girls. #7, 5. (book review). Ebert, C. Movement Activities for Early Children. #5, 5-6. (book review).


Educational Materials. #3, 2.

(Ropics; Code-M's; RSG). Educational Materials. #3, 4.

(Publications) . Educational Materials. #3, 16.

(Videotapes). Educational Materials. #4, 2.

(Portrait of an Athlete; Designing Preschool Movement Programs). Educational Materials. #4, 4.

(Videotapes). Educational Materials. #4, 18.

(Publications). Educational Materials. #5, 2.

(Coaches Guide to Nutrition and Weight Control; In Pursuit of Excellence). Educational Materials. #5, 4. (Videotapes). Educational Materials. #5, 22.

(Publications). Educational Materials. #6, 2. (Make

the Team: Gymnastics for Girls; Conditioning Program USA M's Gymnastics). Educational Materials. #6, 4.

(Videotapes). Educational Materials. #6, 22.

(Publications). Educational Materials. #7,2. (Element Supplement; J. O.

Technical Handbook; USGF Gymnastics Safety Manual). Educational Materials. #7, 4.

(Videotapes). Educational Materials. #7, 16.

(Publications). Educational Materials. #8, 2. (1993

Technique Guide to W's Training;

1993 Technique Guide to M's Training; USGF Safety Manual 2nd edition). Educational Materials. #8, 4. (Videotapes). Educational Materials. #8,16.

(Publications). Educational Materials. #9, 16. (Publications: women's, men's, rhythmic.) Educa tional Materials. #9, 4. (videotapes.) Educational Materials. #10, 2. (RSG Gymnastics-Level 1-4 Program; Kids' Books; Music Cassette;

Instructors' Manuals; In structional Videos). Educational Materials. #10, 4.

(Videotapes) .

#3,25 . (book review). JOPC Women's Progmm Materials. #2, 44. (miscellaneous; JO

(Publications). (Creating Gymnastics Pyramids and Balances; Marketing Health / Fitness Services). Educational materials. #1, 4.

(Videotapes and Publications). Educational materials. #2, 2. (Bill of

Rights for Young Athletes; Advances in Sport Psychologtj). Educational materials. #2, 4.

(Videotapes and Publications). Equipment and resource companies. #5, 3l. Harless, R. Artistic Gymnastics: a comprehensive guide to performing and teaching skills for beginners and advanced beginners. #8, 5. (book review).

RPC. 6/6/93, Colorado Springs, CO. #7, 42. (USaF; World

Awards Program; Education Dance Workout Program). PDP. #2, 45. (coach ing accreditation materials). Whitlock, S. 1993 Technique guide to women's training, 1993 Techniqe guide to men's training. #9, 5. (book review) Whitlock, S. Building a publication library. #3, 5-6. Whitlock, S. Building a video library. #4, 5-8. (includes

observations about the Am. consumer).

Educational Materials. #10,16. Educational materials. #1, 2.

Nat'l Champs.; Training Camps; USaF; World Champs.; Int'l Program Competition Assignments; 1994 RSG Challenge; USA RSG Group; Nat'l Group Competition ).

Heenke, K. Jumping into plyometics. #2, 5. (book review). Heenke, K. Seniors on the Move.

Whitlock, S. Creating gymnastics pyramids and balances. #1, 24.

(book review).

RTC. 7/27-28/93. San Antonio, TX. (judges evaluation, education, certification; USA international list; rhythmic floor; judging assignments and club affiliation; protocol; national team routine evaluations; team judges; FIG proposals; J.O. proposals; judges payments; video analysis; meet referee responsibility. RPC. 7/28/93. San Antonio, TX (Illy petition, 94 level 9/10 program, 94 Rhythmic Challenge.)

Whitlock, S. Hints for taking gymnastics videotapes. #4, 26. Whitlock, S. USA Gymnastics videos. #1, 13-15.


RhythmiC-<ommittee Reports

1994-1996 Rhythmic Junior Olympic Program. #6, 46.

JOPc. 6/25-27/93, Atlanta, GA. #8, 45-46. ( USA G Report; Congress; 1994 Schedule; 1993

Greathouse, H. Advice to Level 9/ 10 coaches. #9, 32. Modification of Level 5 floor patterns and clarification of Level 6 floor patterns. #9,31.

Data; Region structure; 1994 R&P; Meet limits; Team/Club competitions; JO Champs.; Foreign Athlete Policy; Recommendation to the TC). RPc. 2/22/93, Colorado Springs, CO. #3, 43. (USGF Office Report;

Logo Fitness Short. 89/ 11 cot/lycro. White or red/blue silkscreened USA Stor logo on right leg, Reebok on left. #31605 50 While· #31605 49 BI"k (l./A.IAduill~$12.95 Logo Fitness Top. 89/1 1cot/lycro in White. Controsting USA Star logo in red/blue on front. #31600 50

Champs. Trials; Int'l Assignments; 1994 Elite Athletes; RSG Team program; World Champs.).

RSG National Competitions. #2, 27. (J. O. and Nat'l Champs.).



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Fleece Fitness (overup. 80/ 20 cot/ poly. Reverse fleece controsting embroidered USA Star logo in while or red/blue. #39355 50 While· #39355 49 BI"k Il·M·1 Aduill sar.'I5 $29.95

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Multi·print Short. 100%poly taffeta. Allover print. White USA Gymnastics logo screened on front leg. #3930B 121 (l·1 Aduillw:'lf $12.95 Pri,es do not indude shipping and handling. To re,ei.e a ,atalogue featuring the ,omplete line of apparel, ,a" USA Gymnast/,. mer<hand/se deportment at 317-237-5060.

February 1994


To order the All Around Activewear™ merchandise shown on these pages, use the USA Gymnastics order form on page 2.



.A 43




0 A


Abruzzini, E. RSG Update. #2, 26. (revisions and clarification for competition rules). Code Clarifications. #8, 43. (from the RSG FIG/TC meeting in Moutier, Switzerland; 6/93). Hitzel, N. Rhythmic gymnastics: Code of Points. #1, 21-22. (listing of major changes from the previous code).

Safety Gibney, J. Protecting yourself from liability. #9, 9-11. Holcomb, D. Express assumption of risk in youth sports. #9,2427. Protect yourself from AIDS and hepatitis. #5, 43. Safety Certification Mandate. #6, 43. (memo to USGF Pro members from Whitlock). Whitlock, S. 3rd Cycle of Safety Certification. #10,39. Whitlock, S. Club risk managementcommittee.#5,16-17.

Sports Science Benardot, D. and Joye, A. Talent opportunity program (TOPs) gymnasts: nutrient intake and body compoeition assessment results. #9, 17-20. Clark, N. Does a low fat diet equal a leaner body? #8, 34-35. Cornelius, W.L. Conditioning the immature gymnast. #6, 24-25. Cornelius, W.L. Muscular strength and the young gymnast. #10, 24-27. Cornelius, W.L. Shoulder complex: biomechanical considerations. #5,23-25. Grandjean, A. Carbohydrate: the energy source. #7, 8. Hadhiev, N . Analysis of some characteristics of the participants (male and female) in the gymnastics competitions at the Olympic Games Barcelona '92. #7,9-12. Lewis, K. Truth's imperative. #2, 25. Marshall, N. Celebration of healthy sport. #8, 14. Murphy, S. The Dream Team: in the flow? #1, 42. Nelson, J. Fighting the battle of the bulging baked potato. #1, 23. Roselund, D. Preventing overuse injuries. #9, 28. Sands, W.A. The role of science in sport. #10, 17-18. (Total qualitl) management approach). Sands, W.A. , Abramowitz, R. , Hauge Barber, L. , Lemons, R. , Cervantez, R. , Irvin, R. , Major, J. , Paine, D. A twenty-four year retrospective look: the probability of repeating on

World Championship and Olympic teams for U. S. men's gymnastics. #5, 32-35. Sands, W.A. , Shultz, B.B. , and Paine, D.O. Gymnastics performance characterization by piezoelectric sensors and neural networks. #2, 33-38.

Technique Artemov, V. Swing Progressions. #7,24-25 . (includes conditioning exercises). Artemov, V. Two different ways of performing the double layout. #6,26-30. (includes conditioning exercises and drills). Artemov, V. Vaulting progressions. #2, 21-22. (front handspring and roundoff)路 Cowan, R. Which way do I go, coach? #1, 30. (twisting). Trieber, M.G. Make your feet score for you!. #2, 11-l2. Warren, M. Preparation and training for saltos. #3, 17-21 . Warren, M. Straddle Press to Handstand. #4, 12-14. Warren, M. The handstand. #8, 15.

Women-<ommittee Reports Ad Hoc Committee. 12/10/92, conference call. #1, 38. (competitive structure surrounding the Am. Classic). Ad Hoc Committee. 3/7-8/93, Orlando, FL. #5, 44. (Review of goals; Int'l competitive review; 1993 World Champs.; Athlete/ Coaches support program; Judging issues; Nat'l team compulson) development; USA Champs.; Apparel-Sponsorship; 1994/95 World Champs .; New level for 1994-Nat'l elite season; WUG; Trials for 1994/95-Classics and Trials-Qualifications; Selection procedures; Coaches ethics). Administrative Board. 6/6/93, Las Vegas, NY. #7, 46. (JOPC report; EPC report; JO apparel; wrc Symposium; Recommendation of judges for JO Nat'ls; Awards for non-citizens/foreign athletes; Operating code; R&P; Code of ethics). Elite Ad Hoc Committee. 6/6-7/ 93, Las Vegas, NY. #7, 42-43. (Compulson) Development Proposal; Corps of Judges; Scoring Method at Classics; Criteria for nominations for EPC; Quadrennium goals and objectives; Club financial support; Nat'l team meeting at USA Champs.; Calendar; Classic meet/ trials combination; Selection procedures for World Champs.; Compulson) Training; First Compulson) training camp). Elite Ad Hoc Committee. 9/12/93, Atlanta, GA. #10, 41. (Selection procedures; Competition rules; Quadrennium calendar; Support

program; Nutrition). Elite Ad Hoc Committee. 10/16/ 92 and 10/26/92, conference call. #1, 33. (Selection procedures for the 1993 World Champs.; 1993 WUG; and 1993 USOF) . EPC. 2/15/93, conference call. #3, 45. (clarification competitive options for the Sr. International/ Nat'l Divisions). EPC. 3/28/93, Salt Lake City, UT. #5,42-43. (TOPs; Equipment issues; Nat'llevel; Qualifi)ing scores; recommendation for Nat'l calendar). EPC. 9/9/93. Atlanta, GA. (USA championships, classics, national junior and senior levels, calendar, score requirments, TOP's.) EPC. 10/7/93, Indianapolis, IN. #10,41-42. (TOP; Elite Ad Hoc proposals; Am. Classic Clinic for Jr/Sr Nat'l Levels). EPC. 12/4-5/92, Indianapolis, IN. #1,37. (Elite schedule; Champs. format; Int'l meets in 1992; former LlO-Elite Nat'l merge; TOP; Nat'l team support programs; modifications to the 1993 Compulson) Testing program). EPC. 12/15/92, conference call. #1 , 38. (competitive structure surrounding the Am. Classic; percen tages for rank of the Na t' I team). JOPC and EPC Joint meeting. 12/ 5/92, Indianapolis, IN. #1, 36. (EPC proposal on new elite program; TOP cooperation between EPC and JOPC). JOPc. 5/16-17/93, Baltimore, MD. #7,44-46. (TOP; Meet Director Certification ; Compulson) Development; VTing; Miscellaneous JO Consideration; Competition for individual event specialists; Age divisions; Champs. competitions; Apparatus specifications; Mobility; Level B & 9 Difficultl) Restrictions; EPC Report; W's Admin. Board Report; wrc Report; Calendar; Level 10 Nat'ls; JO Nat'l Team; JO Nat'l Bids; Compositional deductions; New business). JOPc. 5/27/93, conference call. #7, 46. (R&P; LB/9 difficulty restriction). JOPc. 9/8/93. Atlanta, GA. (JO national team training camp, WTC report, WAB report, individual event specialist competition, difficulty restrictions, equipment specifications, mobility between compulsory and optionals, EPC report, judging issues, level 1-4 program, JO national championships, clarifications for 93-94 rules . and policies.) JOPc. 10/ 20 / 93, conference call. #10,45. (Recommendation that L4

February 1994 TECHNIQUE

and LS's in the Jr. /Sr . Division be allowed to lower the VT and BB; change of deductions on VT for JO C&O competitions; wrc Recommendations; Corrections). JOPc. 12 /4-5/92, Indianapolis, IN. #1,34-36. (compulsory concerns; wrc report; USGF/NA WGJ Judges' compensation; renaming optional levels; LlO review; TOP and JO program; individual event competition pilot programs; coaches' education videos; UB specifications; app. of the '93 Code to the JO Program; 1993 L9 age divisions; C/O JO LlO; L4 VT; compulsory program development for '96-'00). WAB. 8/29/93. Salt Lake City, UT. (interoffice communication, national team training camps, regional chairmen's workshop, rinancial reporting procedures, promotional items, safety certification, judges assignments, eligibilitl) to judge sanctioned events.) WAB. 9/9&12/93. Atlanta, GA. (JOPC report, EPC report, NA WGJ report, 93-94 rules and policies clarification, judges' fee structure, judges' uniforms at USGF sanctioned meets, financial reporting system, regional meet awards, equipment clarification, state meet entry fees, judges' certification.) World University Games Selection Committee. 4/23 /93, conference call. #6, 44. (petitions and other administrative). WPc. 6/21/93, conference call. #8, 44. (Criteria for nomination for regional EPC). WTC. 3/6-7/93, Orlando, FL. #4, 44-45. (Old Business; NCAA Report; NA WGJ; Judges' Certification;,Inc. Report; JO Technical; TOP; 1993 Congress; Budget Concerns; Upcoming events; Judges Training Commission Report). WTC. 6/24 / 93, conference call. #8, 44-45. (JO Committee recommendations to wrc; Optional Judges ratings; Criteria for selection of judges to USGF competitions). WTC. 10/14-15/93, Colorado Springs. #10, 42-43. (Review of wrc Symposium & Elite Judges Course; Congress Sessions; NA WGJ report; JO Program; NCAA Report; Judges' Training Commission; fO Technical; Judging Assignments to JO Nat'ls; Corps of Judges; Elite Program Report; Elite Technical; Judges Certification) .

Womert-General Fie,}. 1993 World Championships Report. #9, 33-35.


Talent Opportunity Program. #6, 40-41. Women's 1993 Elite Qualification Procedures. #1, 31.

Women-Judging An Introduction to the 1993 Women's Code of Points for Coaches and Judges. #3, 29.

(USGF/WTC Symposium app. form) . An Introduction to the 1993 Women's Code of Points for Coaches and Judges. #4, 27. (USGF/WTC Symposium app. form). An Introduction to the 1993 Women's Code of Points for Coaches and Judges. #5, 45. (USGF/WTC Symposium app. form) . Code of Points: general directives for special connections. #5, 4041. (Provisional edition) . Judge's fee chart. #3, 22. Judges' compensation package. #1, 27-29. (includes Judge's Fee Chart). Optional Questions and Answers. #10,43-44. (from WTC). Seminar on the 1993 Women's Code: info and application form. #2, 23-24. (1993 W's Code for Coaches and Judges). Women's Artistic Judge's Certification Exam. #8, 44. (includes app.).

Women-Technique Biggs, T. Dance technique. #1, 9-11. Biggs, T. How does dance relate to gymnastics? #1, 8. Warren, M. 20 Dance Exercises with Natalia Ilienko. #10, 32-34. Warren, M. Balance beam sequences. #6, 31-33. Warren, M. Beam preparation. #5, 12-15. Warren, M. Stretching exercises from Leningrad. #2, 15-16. Warren, M. Training for uneven bars. #8, 22-25. Wojtczuk, J. Teaching the underarm swing on vault to beginner gymnasts. #3, 14-15.

USA Gymnastics, 1993, Volume 22 Editorials/Open Floor Jacki, M. Great expectations lead to .... #3, 6-7. ,acki, M. High standards raise level of gymnastics. #1, 6, 36. Jacki, M. Rules were made to be .... #5,6-7. Jacki, M. The world sporting community unites. #2, 6,41.

Jacki, M. We don't DO! need another hero. #4, 6. Knapp, S. We'll be skiing you. #6, 6-7. Knapp, S. An open letter. #6, 12. (re: replacement of president/ executive director.) Roe, J. Gymnastics: who wants to be normal? #1, 44. Turoff, F. The NCAA men's gymnastics program. #2, 16-17. West, K. and Wickert, J. Seeing straighter handstands. #1, 46. Wojtczuk, J. Hey, why am I scoring so low now? #4, 11.

Event Results 1993 Commonwealth showcase. #5,32. 1993 Junior Olympic Rhythmic Championships. #5, 33. 1993 Kosice Open. #5, 33. 1993 Puerto Rico Cup. #5, 34; 1993 World Gymnastics Championships. #3, 32. Cable, S. Jr. Pan American Games. #2,32-33. Christie, H . 19th International RSG competition. #5, 34. Cowan, R. Twentieth Anniversary: Men's Junior Olympic Championships. #4, 32. GWG Cup. #6, 35. Gymnastics Results, special edition. #6, 38-41. (Michigan state meet, Arizona flairs invitational, 31st Spartan open, PCRI rhythmic invitational, Sunshine invitational, 92-93 state meet, Sunshine state games, MA state meet (4), TX state meet(2), 17th Aloha Gymfest, Buckey classic, Region VI championships.) Harless, R. 1993 U.s. Classic. #5, 33. Junior Gymnastics Tournament. #1,11. Maloney, C Women's Junior Olympic Championships. #4, 33-34. Mexican Olympic Festival. #5, 41. Pasquale, J. Pacific Alliance. #1, 13. Rhythmic Challenge. #2, 25. Rhythmic World Championships. #6,35. The Peace Cup. #1, 14. U.s. Women's team selected for 1993 World University Games. #4,34. USA Gymnastics National Collegiate Championships. #4, 7. USA-Canada. #5, 34. USGF National High School Gymnastics Championships. #1,14. Witenstein, D. Chunichi Cup & Tokyo Cup. #2, 33-34.

February 1994

Features 1993 McDonald's American Cup: new rules, same champions. #3, 21-26. Holiday messages. #6, 25. (Miller, S.; Waller, C; Diaz, E.) Homage to a dear friend. #2, 46.

(Doris Vidmar). Media Training Seminar. #6,18-19. Mizoguchi, H. USA-Japan dual competition. #3, 45-46. Peszek, L. Amanda Borden, allamerican kid . #6, 22. Peszek, L. Hilton Challenge: the tide turned in LA.. #5, 13-15, 29. Peszek, L. John Roethlisberger, all in the family. #6, 23. Peszek, L. The 1993 Coca-Cola National Gymnastics Champ ionships: the circle is complete. #5, 22-28, 39-40,46. Robinson, R.L. Star Search. #1, 12.

(M. Gaylord, S. Mar). Sands, W .A. How much weight can we hang on them? #1, 3233. Seiter, G. 1993 Reebok International Mixed Pairs: Scherbo shines during "marchmadness" mania. #3, 27-28. Seiter, G. Miller, Strug sweep 1993 U.S. Olympic Festival Honors; Grace strikes all-around gold in men's competition. #5, 18-19, 32. Smith, L.W. Driving Miss Stacey. #2,19. Soloveychik, S. Tamara Levinson, rhythmic national champion. #6,24. Thoma, S. Somewhere over the rainbow. #1, 8-10.

Features-Men's Gymnastics Baughman, S. 1993 Winter Cup. #2,21-23. Galimore, R. Men's World University Games. #5, 17,36. Golde, K.Waller brings it into focus. #1, 22-24. Moskovitz, D. Originality Invitational. #2, 24. Peszek, L. Scherbo: King of the castle. #4,26-28,45-47. (World

Championships) . Shelton, J. Men's NCAA Championships: Stanford steals the show. #4, 13. Theoharis, P. 1993 NCAA Men's Preview. #2, 10-11.

Features-Rhythmic Gymnastics Callahan-Molnar, T. L. U.s. Olympic Festival: Davis leaps to victory. #5, 11-12. Exner, T. 1993 Coca-Cola Rhythmic National Championships. #4,7,35-36. Rhythmic gymnastics suffers a great loss .. #2, 41. (reigning


World Champion O. Kostina). Rhythmic World Championships: a new order. #1, 25, 28-29.

Features-Women's Gymnastics Benson, D. 1993 NCAA Women's Preview. #2, 8-9. Binder, D. Women's NCAA Championships: Georgia grabs the title. #4, 14, 43. Booth, A. Dawesome!. #2, 26-27. Bruce: against all odds. #1, 18-20. Chaplin, T.s Women's World University Games. #5, 16, 36. Moskovitz, D. Rhythmic Challenge: balancing the new rules and impressive routines. #3, 1416. Peszek, L. Little Miller hits the big time. #4, 16-17. Peszek, L. Miller: New member of the royal gymnastics family. #4,

21-23,26. (World Championships). Retton, M.L. Ask Mary Lou. #1 , 7. Retton, M.L. Ask Mary Lou. #2, 7. Retton, M.L. Ask Mary Lou. #3, 8. Retton, M.L. Ask Mary Lou. #4, 8. Retton, M.L. Ask Mary Lou. #5,8. Retton, M.L. Ask Mary Lou. #6, 8. Seiter, G. Heidi Hornbeek. #4, 29. Whitlock, S. 1993 American Classic Nationals. #3, 33-36. Zmeskal, K. Zmeskal Chalk Talk. #1 , 15. Zmeskal, K. Zmeskal Chalk Talk. #2, 12. Zmeskal, K. Zmeskal Chalk Talk. #3,37. Zmeskal, K. Zmeskal Chalk Talk. #4,37. Zmeskal, K. Zmeskal Chalk Talk. #5,37. Zmeskal, K. Zmeskal Chalk Talk. #6,37.

Health and Nutrition Benardot, D. and Joye, A. Problems with not eating enough. #6, 10-12. Benardot, D. and Joye, A. Hints for happy holiday eating. #6, 26-28, 45. Clark, N. Keeping your cool. #4, 910. Fighting the battle of the bulging baked potato. #2,14. Kyanke, C and Grogan, J. A celebration of hea lthy sport. #5,

35. (sidebar by Marshall, N.T.). Milligan, P.T. H ow ea ting attitudes can affect your performance. #3,9-12. Morrissey, M. Are Americans overwhelmed by conflicting advice? #5, 10, 44. Niles, F., Ubbes, V. ed . Dangers of not ea ting enough fat. #1 ,34-35.

I 0



Reports 1993 Congress, Atlanta, GA. #3, 1819. (includes pre-registration form). 1993 Congress, Atlanta, GA. #4, 1819. (includes pre-registration form). 1993 Congress. #6, 16,46. Classified Ads. #1, 42-43.



Classified Ads. #2, 42-43 . Classified Ads. #3, 41-43. Classified Ads. #4, 41-42. Classified Ads. #5, 43. Classified Ads. #6, 44. Educational Materials. #1 , 37. (videotapes , publications) .

.A. 46


s You'll flip over USA Gymnasticsl This magazine covers important national and international events leading up to, and including, the 1996 Olympic Games. Get to know the gymnasts through interviews, profiles and competition results. USA Gymnastics gives comprehensive gymnastics coverage in six, full color issues for only $15.00. Foreign subscriptions $32.00. Don't miss what USA Gymnastics has to offer!

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Educational Materials. #5, 42. (publications & videotapes). Educational Materials. #6,13. (publications: nutrition, sport psychology, sport science) Educational Materials. #6, 32. (publications: women's, men's, rhythmic) Event Schedule. #1 , 39. Event Schedule. #2, 20. Event Schedule. #3, 20. Event Schedule. #4, 20. Event Schedule. #5, 20. Event Schedule. #6, 20. Faces in the gym. #1,36. (B . McVicker, D. Thompson, H. Ramirez ). Faces in the gym. #2,44. (L. Nelson , L. Straatemeier, E. Wilton) . Faces in the gym. #3, 30-31. (T. Apgood, f. Clinkscales, f. Perimats, M. Falke, K. Schaal) .

Faces in the gym. #5, 30-31. (M. Edwards, S. Shterenberg, J. Olinger, D. Langere, D. Westmoreland, B. Warren). Faces in the Gym. #6,31 -32. (K. Reighard, N. Mason, E. Chell, K. Gong, M. & M. Bidordi, H. Knowling.) Men's artistic selection procedures. #6,42.

D Parent D Other_____

Pan American Plaza, Suite 300, 201 S. Capitol Avenue Indianapolis, IN 46225

Educational Materials. #3, 13. (Portrait of an Athlete, Bill of Rights for Young Athletes). Educational Materials. #3, 40. (publications & videotapes). Educational Materials. #4,40. (publications & videotapes).

Faces in the gym. #4, 30-31. (K. Lang, M. Hilton , f. Gallagher, T. Brennan, f. Meljer, T. Coenen).

City _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ State

Educational Materials. #2, 15. (pub lications). Educational Materials. #2, 36. (videotapes).


_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ---l

Moskovitz, D. Coaches' tips. #4, 30. NCAA Alert. #5,12. Safety Certification Schedule. #1, 38. Safety Certification Schedule. #2, 38. Safety Certification Schedule. #3, 44. Safety Certification Schedule. #4, 44. Sponsor Update. AAI innovators in the business. #6, 29. Statement of Ownership, Management, and Circulation. #1, 36. Summer Camp Directory. #2, 31. Talent Opportunity Program. #6, 14. Upcoming events. #6, 35. Update. #1, 16-17. (The Zaharias Award, Name change and reorganization , Men 's Olympic Development Program results, USOC Athletes of the Year, Corrections, NCAA Today's Top Six Finalists). Update. #1, 40-41. (Olympic Development Program, Fit or fatperception vs. reality, Manj Lou's Fitness Club launched, Precompetition meal tips). Update. #2, 37,39. (Scherbo-top & pop performer; Kim Gwang Suk: how old is she really?; USOC Sportsman and Sportswoman of the Year; Kevin Davis named Council rep; Shannon Miller: female athlete of the year; South African Cup: Grubbs wins five medals). Update. #3, 38-39. (Six men elected to U.s . Gymnastics Hall of Fame; A silver, a bronze, and now a diamond for Shannon Miller; Oregon State Universihj new gJjmnastics facility; Gymnastics most popular Olympic sport; Gymnasts visit Atlanta area schools). Update. #4, 38-39. (1993 USA Gymnastics broadcast schedule; Bud Greenspan 's "Barcelona '92: 16 Days of Glory"; "Academic All-America" of men's JO program; World of gymnastics suffers great loss (f. Bachna, J. Chicchetti); 1996 World Championships awarded to Puerto Rico; Survey says ... Mary Lou best loved athlete). Update. #5, 41. (Congratulations!: Chris and Cindy Waller; letter from Wendy Bruce). Update. #6, 33-34. (Marchi April summer camp issue, Here's an idea, Gaylord 47, a surprise visit) USA Gymnastics-hot on coaches education. #1, 30. Women's artistic selection procedures. #6, 43.

Calendar Date

Days Disdpline






FEBRUARY 4 2 M 5 8 M 5 1 MWR 5 1 MWR 11 2 R 12 1 MWR 13 1 MWR 17 3 MWR 20 1 MWR 20 1 MWR 20 1 MWR 20 1 MWR 21 8 W 25 3 M ' 26 2 W 27 1 MWR 27 1 MWR 27 1 MWR

USA Gymnastics Winter Cup Challenge J.D. Notional Team Training Camp Safety Certification (8:30 a.m.路12:30 p.m., OTC) Safety Certification (9:00 a.m.-3:00 p.m.) Rhy1hmic Challenge Safety Certification (10:00 a.m.-1 :00 p.m.) Safety Certification (10:00 a.m.-4:30 p.m.) Safety Certification (12:00 noon-4:00 p.m.) Safety Certification (9:00 a.m.-4:00 p.m.) Safety Certification (9:30 a.m.-4:00 p.m.) ACEP Sport Science Course (8:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m.) Safety Certification (Time: T8A) Sr. Pan American Championships Peter Vidmar International Invitational Regional Elite Meets Safety Certification (9:00 a.m.- 1:00 p.m.) Safety Certification (9:00 a.m.- 1:00 p.m.) Safety Certification (10:00 a.m.- 6:00 p.m.)

Colo. Spgs., CO Colo. Spgs., CO Colo. Spgs., CO Menlo Park, CA Colo. Spgs., CO Chicago, Il Getzville, NY Columbus, OH 8urbank, CA Niles,ll Portland, OR Fredricksburg, VA Maracaibo, VEN Pacific Palisades, CA Various sites Medford, NJ Edina, MN Rockaway, NJ

John Kirchner Men's Director Dave Moskovitz Michael Taylor Nora Campbell Monte Kimes SJ Clifford 80bbi Montanarri Jeff lulla Gerold Denk Dave Klein Scott Gauthier Kathy Kelly Men's Director Regional Chairs Phil Frank Scott Goy Cathy Finkel

317-237- 5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 415-858-3269 317-237-5050 312-347-6770 716-381-8840 614-457-1279 818-845-0700 708-272-9511 503-557- 1223 703-434-4574 317-237-5050 317-237-5050

M ARCH 4 2 5 1 5 1 6 1 8 1 11 1 11 2 12 1 12 1 18 1 25 3


McDonald's American Cup Broadcast McDonald's American Cup Safety Certification (8:30 a.m.-12:30 p.m.) Safety Certification (9:00 a.m.-1:00 p.m.) International Mixed Pairs Safety Certification (4:00 p.m.-8:00 p.m.) ACEP Sport Science Course (11-6:00-9:30, 12-9:00- 6:00) Safety Certification (5:00 p.m.-9:00 p.m.) Broadcast International Mixed Pairs Safety Certification (4:00 p.m.- 8:00 p.m.) American Classic Nationals

Orlando, Fl N8C Orlando, Fl Westminster, MD West Palm Beach, Fl Gaithersburg, MD Raleigh, NC Gaithersburg, MD NBC TBA Orlando, Fl

John Kirchner Julie 8ejin Dave Moskovitz John Perna John Kirchner B. B. Taylor Christine Kennedy B. B. Taylor Julie Bejin Karl Bishop Kathy Kelly

317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 410-848- 2771 317-237-5050 304-344-3279 919-848- 7988 304-344- 3279 317-237-5050 813-447-2108 317-237-5050

APRIL 8 9 9 9 14 15 16 16 19 22 22 22 22 23 24 29 30 TBA


NCAA Regional Meets Eastern Qualifier International Pacific Games NCAA Regionals USA Gymnastics Collegiate Championships USA Gymnastics National Invitational Tournament J.D. level 10 Regional Meets Western Qualifier Ind. App/AA World Championships NCAA Notional Gymnastics Championships NCAA Notional Gymnastics Championships J.D. Championships Safety Certification (6:00 p.m.-9:30 p.m.) Broadcast World Championships Broadcast World Championships Safety Certification (4:00-9:00 p.m.) Broadcast World Championships J.D. Regional Meets

Various sites Atlalita, GA Coli, COL TBA Denton, TX Cape Girardeau, MO Various sites los Angeles, CA Brisbane, AUS lincoln, NE Salt lake City, UT Chicago, Il Chicago, Il ABC ABC Spokane, WA ABC TBA

Kathy Kelly Nora Campbell Meade/Kelly Bill Meade Meade/Kelly Kathy Kelly Connie Moloney Nora Campbell Meade/Kelly Bill Meade Kathy Kelly Nora Campbell Dove Moskovitz Julie Bejin Julie Bejin leigh Eaton Julie Bejin Hideo Mizoguchi

317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237- 5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317- 237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237- 5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237- 5050 206-874-1363 317-237-5050 317-237- 5050

4 10 7 2 1


FIG Congress J.D. Nationals -level 10 (Jr) Coca-Colo Rhythmic Notional Championships J.D. Nationals J.D. Nationals - level 10 (Sr.) International Youth Camp 29th German Gymnastics Festival Hilton Challenge Triangular Event Broadcast Coca-Colo Rhy1hmic Notional Championships

Geneva, SUI Allentown, PA TBA Augusto, GA Seattle, WA Homburg, GER Homburg, GER Phoenix, AZ CBS

Becky Riti Connie Moloney Nora Campbell Hideo Mizoguchi Connie Moloney 8ill Meade S. Whitlock John Kirchner Julie Bejin

317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237- 5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050

JUNE 9 4


Four Continents Championships

Seoul. KOR

Nora Campbell

317-237- 5050

MAY 4 5 5 6 12 13 15 20 22

3 2 10 4 1 7 2 6 2 3 3 1 1 1 1 1

11 4 3

' tentative February 1994 TECHNIQ UE

609-234- 5292 612-920-5342 201-586-1808





Non-profit Organization U.s. Postage PAID Permit No. 7867 Indianapolis, IN




Burbank CA 90506 Course Dir.: Jeff lulla (818) 845-0700

Chicago, IL 10:00 am-l :00 pm Whitney Young High School 210 S. loomis, Chicago, Il60607 Course Oir.: Monte Kimes (312) 347-6770 local Contact: Chicago Parks District Gymnastics (312) 347-6770

Niles,ll 9:30 am-4:00 pm learning Tower YMCA 6300 Tuohy Ave. Course Dir.: Gerald Denk (708) 272-9511 Local Contact: Gerald Denk (708) 564-3420

Getzville, NY 10:00 am-4:30 pm Greater Buffalo Gymnastics Center 1614 North French Rd. Course Oir.: Sarah Jane Clifford (716) 381-8840 Local Contact: Sharon Hirsh (716) 639-0020

Fredricksburg, VA TIme: TBA 230 J Industrial Blvd. Fredricksburg, VA 22408 Course Oir.: Scott Gauthier (703) 434-4574 local Contact: Ken Wood (703) 891 - 5000

Columbus, OH 12:00 noon-4:00 pm Universal Gymnast Course Oir.: Bobbi Montanarri (614) 457-1279


This course ;s to be held in conjunction with the Buckeye Closs;c.


Medford, NJ 9:00 am-l :00 pm Wilmoor School of Gymnastics 18 Charles Sf. Course Dir.: Phil Frank local Contact: Jane DeAngelis (609) 234-5292 Edina, MN 9:00 am-l :00 pm TAGS Edina Course Oir.: Scott Gay (612) 920-5342


Rockaway, NJ 10:00 am- 6:00 pm Marcella Firehouse, Company #3 Course Oir.: Cathy Finkel (201) 586-1808


Orlando, Fl 8:30 am-12:30 pm Radisson Plaza Hotel (407) 425-4455 Course Oir.: Dave Moskovitz (317) 237-5050 This course to be held in conjunction with McDonald's American Cup.


Gathersburg, MD 4:00 pm-8:00 pm Course Dir.: Billy Bob Taylor (304) 344-3279 Fax: (304) 344-2365 local Contact: Gary Anderson (301) 468-1016 Fax: (301) 468-9181 This course is to be held ;n conjunct;on w;th Capitol Cup.


Kirkland, WA am-l :00 pm canceled North Ariels Course Oir: Le Eaton (206) 874-1363

Burbank, CA 9:00 am-4:00 pm Fun & Fit Gymnastics Center 1919 W.Burbank Blvd.,


Gothersburg, MD 5:00 pm-9:00 pm Course Oir.: Billy Bob Taylor (304) 344-3279 Fax: (304) 344-2365 local Contact: Gary Anderson (301) 468-1016 Fax: (301) 468-9181 This course is to be held in conjunction with Capitol Cup.


Westminster, MO 9:00 am-l :00 pm Perno Gymnastic Club 3100 Littlestown Pike Course Oir.: John Perna (410) 848-2771 Local Contact: Johnor Liz Perna (410) 848-2771

Site: TBA I Host Hotel 4:00 pm-8:00 pm Course Oir.: Karl Bishop This course is to be held in conjunction with Florida Level 9&1 0 State Championships.

,------ -----------------------, Participation Registration Form

Please make checks payable

Name: Mr./Mrs./Ms. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ Soc.Sec.#_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Address: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ City: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _State: _ _ _ _ Zip_ _ _ __ Telephone: (H) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (W)._ _ __ _ _ __ __



Mail Registration Form and Payment to: USA Gymnastics Safety, Pan American Plaza, Suite 300, 201 S. Capitol, indianapolis, IN 46225



Organization Represented:_ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ If USA Gymnastics Member, List Type and Number_ _ _ _ _ _ __

Form of Payment: Name on Card:








Number: _ _

Expiration Date:





1 1

----------------1 Confirmation Mailed:


----------- :


L _________________________ ___ ~



These courses will be taught as 2nd Cycle courses. These courses are planned as 3rd Cycle courses.


______ 1

Course Director:_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Course Location: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Date: _ _ _ __


in full to USA Gymnastics Safety I



• The text for 2nd Cycle Certification courses is the USGF Safety Manual. This text should be purchased and studied prior to course participation. • All materials for 3rd Cycle courses are provided at the course and are part of the course fee. • Certification is good for 4 years. • The course I examination is $' USA Gymnastics ProfessiOi.,~_ Members and recertification is $75. Retest cost is $25. For groups of at least 10, contact the USA Gymnastics DepartrnentofEducational Services and Safety.

Technique Magazine - February 1994