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USA Gymnastics The Official Technical Publication of USA Gymnastics

McDONALD'S速 AMERICAN CUP Building A Publication Library Planning To Win Men's Compulsory Vault-The Hecht Preparation And Training For Saltos Book Review: Seniors On The Move Coaching Information Survey Sport Science SymposiumCall For Papers


Family And Soical Trends: The New Customers Of The 1990's And Beyond




The Next Jump Forward in Fitness


International Gymnastics Federation (F.I.G.)


Ken M. Solis, MD 1992 • Paper • 152 pp Item #3621 - $12.95

Code of Points 1993-1996

Code of Points

1993· 1996

Ropics<ll is a great fitness program, even for beginners! Readers will learn that rope jumping is inexpensive, portable, and not dependent on weather conditions or special facilities. It also burns calories, strengthens the heart and lungs, and tones muscles! This book makes it easy for readers to learn to jump rope and to develop a Ropics exercise program that's right for them. Included are:

Both the Men's and Rhythmic versions of the NEW F.I.G. Code of Points, 1993-1996, are now available. Specifics regarding the availability date for the new Women's Code of Points have not yet been communicated to USA Gymnastics. Order information will be posted in future issues of Technique.

34 basic to advanced jump rope techniques and variations; how to modify the Ropics program for a particular age, fitness level, or goal; how to choose appropriate apparel, floor surface, shoes, music; and more.

Men's Code - Item # 1201 • $39.95 Rhythmic Code -Item # 1301 • $39.95 To order: use the form below.

1--------------------------1 Name _____________________________ Address _________________________





City _____________________________ State _________ Phone( _

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USA Gymnastics Memb. No. _______________ S5.No. _________



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Card # ___________________________ Signature: _________________________ Send Mail Orders to: USA Gymnastics Merchandise PO Box 5562 Indianapolis, IN 46255-5562

Indiana Residents add 5% sales tax Shipping & Handling Charges Purchases over $50 =$4.50 Purchases $10.01·$50 =$3.50 Purchases 10.00 a nd under= $2.00

Make checks payable to: USA Gymnastics Grand Total rn~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

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order any of these books, or other educational materials and videos presented in this issue, please complete this order form and send to:

USA GYMNASTICS PO Box 5562 Indianapolis, IN 46225-5526 (317) 237-5060

PLEASE NOTE: The videos listed in thismagazine are provided for educational and historic purposes. While every effort is made to produce videos of the highest quality, it should be noted that some of the videos are produced at events utilizing handheld cameras from vantage points in the stands by non-professional volunteer technicans. Only limited editing and production enhancements are utilized in order to provide a timelyproductatareasonablecost to the USA Gymnastics membership.


March 1993 TECHNIQUE

Inside This Issue

Publisher Mike Jacki Editor Stephen W. Whitlock Production Luan Peszek Graphic Design Julie T. Jones Men's Program Director Robert Cowan

Contents Resources Building your Publication Library ...... " .. ,., .. " ... .. .... ....... 5

Coaches Education ACEP Leader Level Sports Science Course .... .............. 7 PDP Level II-What If I Have Experience? ....... ,.... ....... 23 Summer Coaches Workshop ...... ................ ... ............... 39


Women's Program Director Kathy Kelly

Planning to Win ... .... ..,.. ... ........................ ,., .. ............... .... . 9

RhythmiC Program Director Nora Hitzel


USA Gymnastics Board of Directors President: Mike Ja cki; Chair: Sa nd y KnafeP; President Emeritus: Bud Wilkinson, Mike Donahue; Ath ele Directors: Wendy Hilliard, chair; Jim Hartung, vice chai r; Michelle Dusserre, sec;She~t Dundas; Tim Da g 1jtt; Karon Lyon-Glover; Tanya Service; C ris Waller; Kevin avis, SOC Athlete's Advisory Council; Nancy Marshall, Admin . Advisor; Ama-

teur Athletic Union: Stan Atkin son; American Sokol Organization:Jerry Milan; American Trampoline & Tumb ling Association: Wayne Downing; American Turners: Be~ H e~pner; Jun ior Boys Gymnastics Coaches Association: arc a ncy; Men's Elite Coaches Association: Peter Kormann; National Association for Girls and Women in Sport: Dr. Mimi Murray; National Association of Collegiate Gymnastics Men: Able Grossfeld; Na tional Association of Collegiate Gymnastics Women: Gai l Davis; National Association of Women's Gremnastics Judges: Yvonne Hod~e; Na tional Collegiate Ath etic Association: Cherhl Levick, red Turoff; National Federation of State Hi,h Sc 001 Associations: Susa n True; National Gymnastics udges Association: Harry Bjerke; National High School Gymnastics Coaches Association: John Brinkworth; National Jewish Welfare Board: Courtney Shanken; Rhythmic Coaches Association: Suzie DiTullio; Special Olympics, Inc.: Kate Faber-Hickie; U.S. Association of Independent Gym Clubs: Lance Crowley; U.S. Elite Coaches Association for Women: Tony Gehman; U.S. Sports Acrobatics Federation: Bonnie DaVIdson; Young Men's Christian Associat ion: Rick Dodson; USA Gymnastics Nationa l Membership Directors: Men's: Jim Holt, Ra y Gura; Women's: Joan Moore, Julia Thompson-Aretz; Rhythmic: Alia Svirsky, Ute Alt-Carberry.

USA Gymnastics Executive Committee Chair: Sandy Kn~p ; Seccetary: Mike Mi lidonis; Vice Chair Women: Nancy arsha ll; Vice Chair Men: Jim Howard; Vice Chair Rh>ihmlc: Norma Zabka; President: Mike Jacki; FIG Women's echnical Committee: Jackie Fie; FIG RhythmicTechnical Committee: Andrea Schmid-Shapiro; FIG Men's Technical Committee: Bill Roetzheim; At Large Members: Roe Kreutzer; Sue Ammerman;Athlete Directors: Tim Dag~ett , Michelle Dusserre, Wendy Hilliard; President Emeritus: ud Wilkinson, Mike Donahue.

page 5

Men's Compulsory Vault-The Hecht ,.. ,., .................... 12 Teaching the Underarm Swing on Vault to Beginner Gymnasts ....... .. .... ..... " .... ...... ....... 15 Preparation and Training for Saltos .......... ...... .,.. ,.. ..... 17 Progressions of the "O'Neill" .. .. ................... ... ,.,... ..... .. 30

Book Review Seniors On The Move .. ... .... ............... ..... ... ... " ............... 25

Coaching Research Questionnaire

page 9

Coaching Information Survey ....... .. ...... ,." ... ....... .. .... ... 26

Sport Science Symposium Call for Papers ........ ... ..... ..... ............. .... ........ ,.............. ... 33

Preschool Gymnastics Beam Skills and Activities for Preschoolers ... ...... ..,... 35

Future Trends Family and Social Trends ... ............... ........,., ........... ..... .40

Minutes Rhythmic Program, 2/22/93, Col. Spgs., CO ,.... ,.. " ..43 M. Program Comm., 2/7/93, Col. Spgs., CO ............. 44 W. Elite Program, 2/15/93, Conference call ... " ..... ,.,.45 M. J.O. Program, 2/15/93, Conference call ................ 46

page 26

Associate Contents Editors Sports Science Advisory Committee William Sands, Ph.D., Chair, Spor ts Ad viso ry Committee Patty Hacker, Ph.D., Chair, Education Sub- committee Stephen W. Whitlock, Liaison Unless eXcfressly identified to the contrary, all ar ticl es, s tatemen ts an views printed herein are attribu ted solely to the au thor and the Ul11ted States Gymnastics Federation expresses no o pinion and assumes no res ponsibili ty thereof.

TECHNIQUE March 1993

CHANGE OF ADDRESS AN D SU BSCRIPTION INQUIRIES: In ord er to ensure uninter路 rupted delivery of TECHNIQUE magaz ine, noti ce of change of address should be made six to eig ht weeks in advance. For fastest service, please enclose your present mailing label. Direct all subscription mail to TECHN IQ UE Subscriptions, Pan America n Pla za, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225. TECHNIQUE is publis hed 10 times per yearby USA Gymnastics, Pan Ameri ca n Pla za, 201 S. Ca pitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225 (phone: 317-237-5050). Third class postage paid at Indianapolis, IN. Su bscription price: $25.00 per year in United States; all other countries $48.00 per year. If ava il able, back issue single copies $4.00 plus $ 1.00 pos tage / handling. All reaso nable ca re will be taken, but no respo nsibility ca n be assumed for unsolicited material; enclose return postage. Copyrigh t 1992 by USA Gynmastics and TECH NIQUE. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.






PuBLICATIONS Use the order form on page 2 to order any of these publications .

I Call Do Gymnastics: Esselltial Skills for Begillning Gymllasts (1992,

Coaching Coachil/g YOI/I/g Athletes (1981, Ma rtens, paper, 200) • Thi s book in trod uces and expla ins the basics of coaching philosophy, spo rt psycho logy, teaching spo rt skills, sport ph ysiology, sports medi cine a nd parent managemen t. #13 522.00 PD P Level I Ciil/ie Workbooks (1992, USA Gym nas tics) • Packet of 15 workbooks for use by cl in ic admini strators for PDP Levell coach accreditati on. #3610 520.00 PDP Level l: Starter Kit (1 992, USA Gym nastics) • For Levell c1 inc adminis tra tors. Includ es: 1/ 2" VHS and 15 Level I Clinic Workbooks. #3609 560.00 Seqllelltinl Gymllaslics II: The ills truetar '5 Guide (1 992; Hacker et al, 108 pp) • Used in conjunction with USA Gymnastics PDP Level I Coach Accred itation, thi s boo k is desig ned specifica lly for the gy mnasti cs teacher to provid e basic gymna stics skill progres#3604 513.00 sions. RookieCoaehes GYIlll/astiesGllide(1992, USG F/ ACEP, pa per,80 pp) ' A combina ti on o f coaching adv ice and gy mnas tics in fo rm ation fo r the entry- level gymnasti cs coach. This book isone of the required tex ts for USA Gymnasti cs PDP Levell Coach ing Accred itation. #3608 58.95

Competitive Men Basic Skills Achievement Book - BSA P (1992, USA Gy mnas ti cs, paper, 18 p p) • A 4-level program for boys classes meeting l-hour per week. Prepa res the student for pa rti cipation in the J.O. program. #51 57.50 FIG Code of Poil/ ts (1992-96, FIG, paper) • The o fficia l interna tiona l competiti ve guidelin e book with skill d ifficu lty ratings. #1201 539.95 JlllliorOlympic Program - JOPC( 1992, USA Gymn as tics,3-ring bi nder, 130 pp) • Includ es graded levels of com pul sory exercises as \vell as modified optionals. Competitio ns are conduc ted a t the loca l, :s tate, regiu lletl, ami na tiun et ll evels. #1202 $29.95 Olympic Development Program- aDP (1992, USA Gym nastics, paper, 41 pp) . Thisskill s testing prog ram is desig ned to identify talented and promi sing gym nasts as well as fo r the ed uca tion and trai ning o f the coaches. #60 529.95

Competitive Rhythmic FIG Code of Poil/ts (1992-96, FIG, binder, 213pp) • The officia l in ternati onal com petiti ve guid eli ne book wit h skill d ifficu lty rat ings. #1301 $39.95

Competitive Women Compl/ /sory Text (1 992-96, USA Gymnasti cs, 3-ring binder, 203 pp) • USG F Ju nior O lym pic Compulso ry Program, Levels 1-4,5-7 and 10. USG F Pro-membe r price: #1111 S24.95 Comp;t/sonj Text (1 992-96, USA Gymnasti cs, 3-ring, binder 203 pp) • USG F Ju ni o r O lym pic Com pu lso ry Program, Levels lA, 5-7 and 10. Regular price: #1110 529.95 FIG Code of Poil/ ts (1992-96, FIG, XX, XX pp) • The official in ternatio na l com petitive guideline book v'l ith ski ll di fficul ty ratings. (1101 available yet)

Competitive Programs Women's RecrealiollaljOptiOlwl Com pet ilive Program (1991, USA Gy m ~ nastics, paper, 37 pp) • Th is restricted d ifficu lty program is an idea l introduc ti on to competi tive gym nastics. Grea t for in tra -club tea ms o r school leagu es. #1100 57.00

Hacker et al, paper, 139) • This is the studen t versio n of Seql/e/ltial Gymllastics II . Fu lly illustra ted gy mnas tics movement sequences activities: Lea rn to fall, Across the floor, Over the va ul t, On th e bea m, Around the ba rs, Rhy thm ic ski lls. #3611 $13.00 Mouemellt Activities for Early Ch ildhood (1992, Tots ky-Ha m mett, paper, 152 pp) • 100+ child -tes ted move ment activities th at make lea rni ng new skills fun fo r preschoolers. Fou r movement areas: locomotor, ba ll-handli ng, gym nastics skills, a nd rhyth mic ac ti vities. #3622 515.00 The Jump Rope Primer (1991, Solis & Budris, spira l, 104 p p) • Pa rt I is a n in trod uct ion to rope jumping; Par t II co n ta ins over 175 ill us trations of specific skills; a nd Pa r t III provides an 8-lesson uni t fro m the basic 2-foot jump to Double Dutch. #3624 515.00 The JUIIIP Rope Primer Video (1991, 1/ 2" V HS)· V id eo demons trations of all th e jum p rope techn iques included in the book, making them easy to understand and teac h. #3625 $49.95

Gymnastics Artistic GY"lllastics: A Comprehellsive GI/ide to Perforlllillg a1ld Teachillg Skills fo r Begillllersalld Advallced Beginllers (1991 , Turoff, paper,413 pp) • All of the skills covered in thi s text a re A-level or easier. Each skill is presented wi th a desc ription of how it should be perfo rmed, a short list of com mon problems, and teaching suggestio ns. Covers men's and women's even ts. #50 521.95 Creat ing Gymnastics Pyralllids alld Balallces (1989, Fodero & Furblur, spiral, 120 pp) • Pyram id buil ding is safe and fun \v ith the thorou gh instructi o ns and g uideli nes fo und in thi s gu ide. Choose fro m 268 carefull y illustra ted and explained formatio ns. #3614 518.00 Dance Choreography for Competitive Gymllastics (1990, Gu la, pa per, 176 pp) • Focuses o n how da nce techniques can, and shou ld, be appli ed to the traini ng of gymnasts. The book helps the reader use combi nations of dance steps to create com plete choreog raphed sequences fo r floo r and bea m. #3628 521.00 Dallce Workollt: Levels 1-5 (1992, USA Gym nastics, spi ral, 46 pp) • Educational progra m designed specifically for the developmenta l gym nast. The entire program is also avai lable o n 1/ 2 VHS. #2170 515.00 Dallce Traillillg fo r Gymnastics (1988, Pica, clo th, 160 pp) • For gy mnas ts, coaches and dance instructors. Purpose: to define the #3629 $25.00 ro le of dance in gy mnast ics. Gym/lnstics: A Gllide for Pnrelltsalld Athletes (1992, Feeney, paper, 171 pp) - An excellent book fo r beginners as well as experienced gym nasts. Contains infor mation to gu ide pa ren ts and a th letes in choosi ng a gy m nastics prog ram that wi ll best su it their needs. Provides pertinen t information o n safety, cond ition ing, a nd the #3612 515.00 gui dl ines o f the spor t.

HealthlFitness Fitlless Leaders Halldbook (1989, Franks & Howley, paper, 276 pp) • Forexercise leaders w ith little formal trai ni ng but whoare responsib le for leadi ng safe and effec ti ve fitness classes. Includes: evaluation, prac tica l compete ncies, forms, helpfu l hints, injury prevention st ra tegies, and much more. #3619 519.00 Marketillg HealthlFitlless Services (1989, Gerson, cloth, 136 pp) • A ma rketi ng gu id e showing how to enhance the business side of an opera ti o n and achieve optimal profit wit h m in imal financia l risk. It takes the readers s tep-by-step th roug h writing and implementing a ma rket ing/ business plan. #36 16 521.00 Ropics: The Next JIIIIIP Fonllard ill Fitlless (1992, paper, 168 pp) • A great fitness prog ram for all. Includes 34 basic to adva nced rope #3621 512.95 techniques and varia tio ns. Sell iorSOIl tlieMove (1986, Ri kkers, spiral , 256 pp) . Selected exercises and healt h / fi tness prog ram for seniors. #3620 $26.00

Elementary & Preschool


Desigl1illg Preschool Movemellf Programs (1992, Sanders, paper, 152 pp) • Bo th a deta il ed gu ide for developing a preschool/ move· men t curricu lum and a resource co ntaining developme nta ll y appropri ate movement activities. #3626 $16.00 Deuelopmelltal GY11lllastics (1990,O'Qu inn, paper,218pp) · Gy mnastics move ment ed ucatio n program fo r kindergarden through 3rd grade. #3605 $19.95 Fitl/ess FilII: 85 Gnmesalld Activit ies !orCllildren (1992; Foster, Hartinger & Smit h; pa per; 112 pp) • Provides chi ldren \vith un ique a nd enjoyable activities that consider muscular s trength, mu scu lar endurance, flexibil it y, and cMdiorespiratory fitness. Great fo r K8. #3601 512.00 Grea t Gamesfor YOl/llg People (1991 ; Gutafson, Wolfe & Ki ng; paper; 152 pp) • Contai ns 60 field- tes ted ga mes and relays fo r upper elementary thro ugh high school . Included: completedescriptions, gamediagram s, suggest ions for modifica tions, equipment needed, and safety tips. #3623 S12.00

Coaclies GlIide to Nlltritioll ami Weight COlltrol (1990, Eisenman, paper, 192 pp) • A practical guide to sports nu trit ion wh ich translates the sciences of ph ys iology, biochemis try and nutrition into easily applied information. Includes an excell en t chapter on the signs of eating disorders. #17 $22.00


Sport (General) Joy alld Sad lless il/ Chi/dre" 's Sports (1978, Martens, paper, 376 pp) • 36 articl es based upon pert inence, s uccinctness & quality o f writing. The book emphasizes the joy of s ports, but also examines those even ts tha t crea te sad ness. #15 $ 19.95

Posters Bifl of Rights for YOl/lig AtMe/es (1984, AA HPERD) • Lists 12 important rig hts of ath letes. #3603 $5.00

Safety Poster #1: Safety Gu idel illes (USA Gymnasti cs) #6101 55.00 Safety Poster #2: Respollsibilities of the GYlllllast (USA Gy m nas ti cs) #6102 55.00 Safetif Poster #3: Mat Safety (USA Gy mnasti cs) #6 101 55.00 Safety Poster #4: Safety First (USA Gy mna sti cs) ' #6101 $5.00

Safety Gymllastics Safety Malllw /, 2nd editioll (1990, USGF, paper, 142) • This book is used as the required tex t for the USG F Safety Cer tificati on courses. #6001 516.45 Trampoli1le Safety Mallllal (1 978 79 pp) • If you use tram polines in your cl ub, you shou ld have a copy of thi s book. Incl udes speci fi c #6002 $9.95 tra m poli ne lessons.

Sport Psychology Adval/ees il/ Sport PSifcllology (1992, Willis & Ca mpbell, clo th, 272 pp) • Tex t prov id ing broad cove rage of resea rch, theory and p ract ical applica tions in exercise psychology. Real -life scenarios help readers unde rsta nd how to apply theo retical models and research in the fitness setti ng. #3617 542.00 III Pursuit of Excellell ce: How to Will ill Sport and Life Through Mell tal Traillillg (1990, Orlick, pa per, 208 p p) • Text covering basic sport psycho logy techn iques of conce ntratio n, wi nning, losi ng, and com peti ng s uccessfull y. #14 $14.95 Mil/dset fo r Winnillg (Cu rtis) • This coaching system is desig ned to im prove the mental preparation of a thl etes. It is an en tire mental trai ni ng progra m w hi ch includ es: coac hing ma nual; athl ete's log; cassette, and YHS tape. #3603 569.95 Psychology alld Gymllastics (1986, Massi mo, paper, 320 pp) • f. co llection of papers on psycho logy and gy mnasti cs arranged by topic category. #3602 521.50

Sport Science Ergogen ic Aids ill Sport (1983, \lVilliams, clo th , 386 pp ) • The a ids are g ro u ped in to 5 ca tegories: nu tri tional, pharmacological, physi#19 528.95 olog ical, psychologica l, and mechanical. Livillg AllatolllY (1990, Do nnell y, spiral, 231 pp) • Desig ned fo r physical ed ucation teachers, coaches a nd / o r tra in ers. Lea rn about the human body in a ma nner tha t is ap pli ca ble to the d ai ly #16 $19.50 activ ities of you r field. Phifsiolog" of Fitlless (1 990, Sharkey, paper, 432 p p) • An up-to-da te gu ide to the prescriptio n of exercise for health , fi tness & perfo rma nce. Th e book is d ivided into 5 par ts: aerobic fitness, m uscul ar fitness, fitness & we ig ht, control, fi tness & hea lth, a nd fi tness & lifesty le. #12 517.95 Toward ntl Ullderstalldillg of Hlllllall Performallce (1980, Burke, pa per, 311 pp) • Read ings in exercise physio logy for the coach and a th lete. #18 521.00

Sports (General) Dare to Dream (1 992, Daggett, cloth, 235 p p) • Tim Daggett 's own accoun t of his pursu itof a gym nas tics d rea m. A positive, mo ti vating and inspi ring s tory. #3615 $18.00 Portrait of all Athlete (1992, Durbin, paper, 88 p p) • Thi s boo k emp ha sizes the idea ls tha t make a thletes successfu l in bot h sports and life. It fea tu res adv ice, motivation, and val ues that help young people understa nd w hat a thletics ca n mea n to their fu ture. #3627 58.95

Strength/Conditioning Developll1ent of the COllditiollillg Faclors ill Elite Gymllastics (1989, Hu llner, pape r, 51 pp) . Thi s booklet wasori ginall ydeveloped for the men 's events, but also has broad ap plicability to the women's event s. #1212 516.00 The Fifth Evellt· (1992; Sands, et a l; paper, 42 pp) • A comprehensive cond itioning plan designed for the demand s of women 's gymnastics. The componen ts of the plan include the Calis theni c Stre ngt J' Program, the Rexibi lity Prog ra m, a nd Injury Preve ntion EXf cises. #3613 512.50

StrengthiPower J/{lIIpilig ill to Plyolllctrics (1992, Chu, paper, 88 pp) • How to develop a sa fe plyo metric tra ining prog ram. Fea tures 90 fu lly ill ustra ted #3618 512.95 exalTlple plyo metric exercises.

March 1993 TECHN IQUE



PuBLICATION LIBRARY eeping up with new trends in coaching, technique, and sports science advances is not an easy task for gymnastics professio~­ also One good method is to take a strategic approach to creating and building a club / personal reference library.


One of the benefits that I have received since moving from my former coach/club-owner position to work with USA Gymnastics is the opportunity to read more. I have found that there is an existing (and ever expanding) body of information that could have significantly helped me achieve coaching and program goals. My excuses were probably the same as yourslack of time, ignorance of where and how to find these resources, what to read, and cost. The purpose of this article is to encourage you to begin building your club and/ or personal library of available publications.

I don't have the time! One advantage to a club / personal library is availability. Despite heavy time commitments, these publications are available to fit into YOUR schedule. Take a book with you on a gymnastics trip where you might have some time on the plane or at the hotel. Take them home for more intense stud y. Take advantage of some free time between classes to refer to the club library. Complaining about lack of time is just an excusewhen developing your schedule, if you PLAN time to read, it will happen.

Where do I find the information? This is a legitimate excuse, but one that USA Gymnastics hopes to help you resolve. USA Gymnastics is in the process of reviewing books from many various publishers and adding them to our merchandise catalogue. You may ha ve noticed that Techniqu e magazine has begun to include more information about available publications of interest to the m embership. Our plan includes: • page two of each issue of Technique will offer a d etailed review of two fea tured publications each month, along w ith the general USA Gymnastics Merchandise Order Form;

TECHNIQUE March 1993

• page four w ill be devoted to thumbnail reviews of various USA Gymnastics publication offerings according to topic category. (Be sure to review this page each month because the featured topic areas will change). • each issue will contain at leas t one in-d epth book/publication review. • we will soon be offering a Merchandise Catalogue that will include all currently available publications through USA Gymnastics. This ca talogue will be available by request and also included with all merchandise orders.

What should I read? Where do I find it? USA Gymnastics is attempting to help you by expanding our review process (above) and by including an ever expanding list of available publications.

Steve Whitlock Director of Educational Services and Safety

What about cost? Yes, it will take a financial commitment to build your library - sport books now cost anywhere from $5 to $50 each. However, I believe the benefits outweigh the costs. This is especially true if you are selective in the additions to your library and consid er the following: • The value of a "good" addition to your library can last for several years. • These important resources can be shared by a large number of users. • Thebooksare "immediately available" if you (or a staff member) have a question or concern.

Creating and building a club/ personal reference library is a good method for keeping up with new trends in coaching,

• If you selectively build your li-

brary slowly over time, the cost factor represents a very minimal part of your budget. A hidden cost is "disappearing" reference material-the books that you loan to staff members or parents that are never returned. I suggest that you make the effort to provide a "place for your stuff" (as George Carlin would say), and establish check-out, check-in procedures wi th an assigned staff member in char ge serving as librarian.

technique and sports science advances.


Building A Publication Library How do I increase the benefit potential?

Future articles will focus on building the club/ personal video library and taking advantage of advances in computer related databases and telecommunications.

A club library is just a stack of books on a shelf unless they are used . Gym Club Owners and Program Directors can make the library a viable resource in a number of ways: • Let the staff and parents know that the club library is available for their use. • Use it yourself and refer to it often l Become a model for the rest of your staff (and for the athletes)-READ! • Don' t personally answer all of the staff questions, even if you know the answer! Encourage them (through guided suggestions) to seek the answers to their own questions. You will find that they learn more and are much more accepting and responsive if they work to discover on their own. • Incorporate the material and information available from the club library into your staff training curriculum. You can even establish "required reading" programs. • Utilize particular books or topics as part of your weekly staff enrichment and training sessions. • Identify a staff member to prepare a report or summary of a relevant topic to present to the rest of the staff. This is a particularly good way to respond to evolving concerns and to enrich individual staff members' knowledge base.

For example, it may come to your attention that an athlete might have an eating disorder. Part of your proactive response to this situation might include asking one of the staff members to review all available information in the library and prepare a report with suggested actions and discussion topics. • Feature information from the library resources in your club newsletter. For example, you might do a short piece on pre-competition meals and then note: "for more information, check-out the (book) available in our club library." My guess is that many parents and coaches would follow-up on this suggestion. • Photocopy relevant information for your coaches and gym club parents regarding topics that are on your mind. For example, if you believe that one of the coaches is too authoritarian in their style of interacting with the athletes, deluge him / her with copies from sections from books in the club library that emphasize the advantages of a cooperative and reinforcing coaching style. This enhances your opinion and lends credibility to your position. I hope that this article encourages you to build your library. Future articles will. focus on building a video library and taking advantage of advances in computer related databases and telecommunications.

II ~~~N~~~~~~ Ii ~~l;::!E~~~l!!}:!!.~!~: ~!/);)?rt£~!tem TM

For more information, or to receive your license, call (818) 845-0700 6

• Provides a SAFE and Progressive Teaching System • Sets ACHIEVABLE Goals • Motivates Parents and Studellts • Keeps Records of when Skills are Passed • Valuable for Measuring Teacher Efficiency • Currently Licensed to Over 50 Gyms Nationwide

Plus an annual license fee of $100 • Posters .30 ea. • Award Certificates .25 ea. • Kindergym Cards .15 ea. • Progressive Cards .20 ea. • Evaluation Cards .20 ea.



Upon enrollment every student receives a Poster TO TAKE HOME. Stars will be awarded to be placed on the poster. When the poster is full. the student is given a Certificate. a photo with the instructor(s). and the next level poster. The whole family can monitor the students progress and share in the excitement.

Guide instructors through the cuniculum and provide a Standard criteria for passing skills. • Kindergym Levels 1 to 5 - $39.95 • Progressive Girls Levels 1 to 6 - $49.95 • Progressive Boys Levels I to 6 - $49.95 • Evaluation Card Video - $29.95 Complete Set of ALL 4 VIDEOS - $139.95

All material may be ordered as needed by calling a toll free 800 phone number I !

March 1993 TECHNIQUE

Coaches Education

ACEP LEADER I lEVEL SPORTS SCIENCE CoURSE he Sports Science Course can benefit new and experienced coaches with little or no formal coaching education. It combines the practical experiences of successful coaches with important findings of sport scientists. Successful completion of this course fulfills one requirement for USA Gymnastics PDP Level II Accreditation.


The course provides coaches with critical information in areas such as philosophy, communication, teaching, nutrition, and management. These topics come to life through videotapes, discussions, and thought-provoking workbook exercises. Coaches later study the text and take an open-book test. ACEP offers ACEP Leader Level Sports Science courses throughout the country year-round . USA Gymnastics will be sponsoring Sports Science courses beginning later this year. You can host a seminar at your own facility by contacting a certified instructor. For more information, contact USA Gymnastics.

The form on the following page should be used to register for Sports Science Courses sponsored by USA Gymnastics.


COACH]NG Successful Coaching Rainer Martens, PhD

This text thoroughly explains all the concepts presented in the Sports Science Course.

Successful Coaching is full of exercises, examples, discussion topics, illustrations, and checklists designed to make learning how to be a more effective coach interesting and enjoyable. This text is included as part of the course fee.

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USGF-ACEP Leader Level Sports Science - Registration Form Fill in the following form as completely and accurately as possible. Please print or type. Name_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

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importantly, it's going to take some serious strategic planning. Does this sound like another article on the merits of applying business principles to coaching? Well, it is, But let's face it, as a coach you are in business-the business of training world class athletes and bringing home Olympic and world championships medals . In addition to your many other roles, you are a manager, an accountant, a politician and a salesperson. And to get where you want to go with your sport and your athletes, you'll need to become a strategic thinker.


Where are you today?


Where are you going?


How do you get there?

Tom Crawford and Carol Flynn USOC Coaching Development

This article will address each of these questions so coaches can gain a better understanding of the benefits of strategic planning.

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WHERE ARE YOU TODAY? SITUATION ANALYSIS As a coach you are in business-the business of training world class athletes and bringing home Olympic medals and world championships.



is referred to as situational analysis. In sport, situational analysis encourages coaches to take a closer look at the external, internal and competitive aspects of their sport.

External factors: Economical - In order to plan realistically, you must have an accurate picture of your funding for the next year and beyond. This requires that you become very familiar with your organization's budgeting process, sponsorship issues, endorsements, grants and scholarships for athletes. How can you maximize fund-raising opportunities? Technological - Advances in modern technology have incredible applications to sports. How is your sport presently taking ad vantage of computer technology? What should you be knowledgeable about today that you are not? Political - How is your sport affected by the national and international politics of your NCB, the USOC and the laC? In what ways do other political decisions such as the American Disabilities Act of Title IX affect your sport? Who are your key contacts and allies who can help you get things done? If you don't have any contacts, how can you get to know the influential people both in and out of sport, who can help you?



Social- This area is concerned with areas such as who is involved in your sport, participation rates, talent identification, lifestyle trends for athletes, demographics and changing attitudes toward your sport. Not only should you evaluate current external factors but you should also project how things will change in the next four years. What drives success today? What measures will determine success in the future?

Internal Factors: Resources - Take a good look at what is available to help you to be successful in your sport. Evaluate human and financial assets, educational resources, grants, athlete assistance programs, etc. Try to develop a specific plan for maximizing your use of every possible resource in your organization. Complaining about a lack of resources isn't nearly as productive as using your time to develop a plan to take advantage of everything that is available to you. Do you know about the resources available at the USOC? (Please see directory on page 11)

Competitive Factors: This area includes all aspects of competition such identifying your primary competitors; reviewing las, year's results and comparing them to your primary competitors; identifying outstanding athletes; and de-

March 1993 TECHNIQUE


termining your athletes' preparedness both physically and mentally.

will be necessary to reach it. As you do this, consider two things: priorities and obstacles.

A situational analysis, with its external, internal and competitive review is a very involved process. However, it is the essential first step to creating strategic plan for success in your sport. To get where you want to go, you have to know where you are and what resources are available to you.

Considering the goal of bringing your athletes to new personal bests, some of your objectives may include: learning more about periodization principles, getting new equipment or arranging some scientific testing for your athletes.

2. Where are you going? This aspect of strategic planning is similar to reading a map. You can't plan a trip if you don' t know where you are going, and you can't reach your goals if you aren't sure what they are. As you think about the goals you have for your sport and your athletes, consider these four criteria: 1. Be realistic - This involves setting yourself up for daily success so you have constant reinforcement that your goal is attainable. Set your goal within an achievable timetable. 2. Measurable - you must define your goal specifically so you can evaluate your progress. For example, setting a goal that states, "I will get my athletes in better physical condition by using periodization planning techniques" lacks definition and clarity. What determines "better physical condition?" However, a goal that states, "I will bring all my athletes to new personal bests by using periodization planning techniques" is easily measured by comparing training performances to previous personal best records. This type of measurable goal gives you something concrete to strive for instead of a vague ideal. 3. Stated positively - A positive goal statement will encourage you to maintain your behavior. Your athletes will feel a sense of achievement, which helps maintain high levels of motivation. 4. The goals must be your own and your athletes own. When you write goals, make sure they are the things you really want to see happen and not simply a result of political or administrative pressures. Plan to win.

3. How do you get there?

First, you'll need to prioritize. For example, of the three objectives listed above, the first thing you should do is become more knowledgeable about periodization so you know how to arrange your training year. This is important because it will help you determine when you should incorporate scientific testing, and what type of training equipment will be the most effective to bring your athletes to a new level of excellence. Prioritizing your objectives will help you determine a sequential, logical approach to accomplishing your goal. Second, you should consider any obstacles that will prevent you from achieving your objectives. Although you can't anticipate all problems, you can probably foresee many. As you list your objectives, identify any obstacles that you think you'll have to overcome.

If you are contemplating buying new equipment, one obstacle may be funding. Recognizing this, you can brainstorm and come up with some ideas on how to get the money. List all your options such as sponsorship, donations, grants and fund raising. By looking ahead at possible obstacles, you can incorporate new objectives into your plan that will eliminate them. Another obstacle that most coaches face is time. With training, competition, travel and family demands, it may seem difficult, if not impossible, to find more time to set and reach goals. One key ingredient to enhancing your goal-setting strategies is a timeline. So, if you want to use periodization techniques to plan your athletes training season. That way, you'll be ready to do some serious planning while your athletes take a break during the off-season. Develop a timeline of the remaining months of the season, including tasks such as contacting your NCB or the USOC to get some specific information on periodization; talking to other coaches about their training strategies; reading related information on training volume, intensity and recovery and making a preliminary draft of the next training year. Hang the timeline above your desk and stick to it. Schedule activities into your daily planner and follow your map to your ultimate destination, success. Remember, failing to plan is a plan to fail.

Now that you know where you are going, it's time to map out the roads you'll need to travel to get there. Look at your goal and list the steps or objectives that Reprinted by permission from the Olympic Coach , Winter 1993, Vol. 3, No.1 , 1-2.

TECHNIQUE March 1993


You should consider any obstacles that will prevent you from achieving your objectives. Although you can't anticipate all problems, you can probably foresee many. As you list your objectives, identify any obstacles that you think you'll have to overcome.


'IHEHECHT he hecht is an old vault, dating back to well before I used it competitively in the late sixties. It is a vault that won World and Olympic championships through 1962, when handspring-type vaults became the more important vaults. The era of the hecht did not have the springy vault board seen today-perhaps that had something to do with its popularity at the time.


Fred Turoff

Head Coach of Men's Gymnastics, Temple University

The hecht from the far end (there were zones back then) was the compulsory vault used in the 1972 Olympics and 1974 World Championships. The general technique used to perform this vault at that time developed from the stoop vault-after jumping from the board with a stretched body to a contact angle of 30째 on the far end, a slight pike as well as a shoulder / chest push was utilized to create counter-rotation and lift to enable a performer to clear the horse. Nikolai Andrianov performed the hecht in 1972 without piking, and did it better than anyone else. My reaction to seeing his hecht was, "Boy, is he strong." I don't recall anyone else doing a hecht as well or without piking.

contact angle and less than 2 meters distance, it is evident we must work toward this type of hecht. When working toward the desired technique, it is suggested to not begin with a stoop vault, but rather to work from a straddle vault (to ensure clearing the horse with those just starting). Beginning with the run, I found it better not to run all-out until my vault action was well established. In fact, I found tha t when I trained this vault from a short run, cutting out two running steps, I did the vault much better when I added those steps later. Those who tend to always have their shoulders pass their hands before leaving the horse, and therefore go down immediately, should reduce their run speed until they can push better. An under-reach from the board to the horse is preferred. Since the performer doesn't need great rotation (as opposed to handspring-type vaults), a strong lean should be present upon leaving the board. Board contact should show hip-flexion combined with a forward lean to assure rotation to the required minimum. Board position will be a matter of experimentation. I used the board about three feet away, but we didn't have spring boards then. The Japanese placed their boards closer in 1972, but none of them vaulted as well as Andrianov.

The performer should reach directly for the far end of the horse, with his chest passing relatively Contact with board close to the near end. His hands should follow a direct line to the far end, while his legs rise behind. Contact should be made with his shoulders in full flexion-as open as possible. This will make a full downward push possible. Any closing of his shoulder prior to the point of contact will reduce the amount of downward Stick figures of aspects of Andrianov' s performance push available. Push should come from both his shoulare drawn here. Note the lean off the board, which was ders and chest, driving his hands directly downward placed approximately 3.7 feet from the horse. Since he and resulting in a hollow chest and no more than a 90째 wasn't concerned with rotation, he leaned forward in change in shoulder position from full flexion toward order to travel far while attaining the required preflight full extension by the time his hands leave the horse. angle. His contact angle was excellent and his repulsion from the horse was completed without piking. He left Immediately upon repelling from the horse, the the horse with his arms practically vertical, assuring performer circles his arms, passing through full extenmaximum height as a result of his push. Since the table sion, hyperextension and back to a position overhead of deductions for our new compulsory vault includes (and perhaps farther around) . This helps his body to various penalties for piked positions, less than 30째 counter-rotate, although if he hasn't pushed hard


March 1993 TECHNIQUE


enough his arm circles won't bring his feet under him for a good landing. He should lift his head to be in line with his body in the afterflight-all performers I have seen so far had their heads forward to see the landing, so perhaps they weren't trained to look down with their eyes but not their heads. Let's examine a few common contact position mistakes. If the performer's shoulders are too high for effective repulsion, even if his body angle is good, it is

impossible to counter-rotate enough for a secure landing. If his body angle is below 30掳 he will be able to counter-rotate better but will be deducted for using a performance flaw to make his postflight rotation easier (note an open hip angle upon board contact reduces rotation). If he has a somewhat closed shoulder angle, his ability to counter-rotate will be reduced. If he contacts with a low body angle, he may be forced to pike during repulsion to get enough power to lift over the horse.

Hollow push from lying position on floor.


Hollow push

~ 011

performed the hecht in 1972 without piking, and did it better than anyone else. My reaction to seeing his hecht was, "Boy, is he strong. I don't

Several strength exercises are suggested to improve repulsion: A.

Nikolai Andrianov


floor from upper body arch with legs elevated.



recall anyone else doing a hecht as well or without piking.

Hollow push with body angle approximating a good contact angle.

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Patti Komara, national clinician since 1981 TECHNIQUE March 1993

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m BEGINNER GYMNASTS John Wojtczuk, Northstars Gymnastics Academy, NJ


ne of the most difficult things to teach with consistency is the underarm swing on vau lt. It is generally

accepted and coached that the underarm swing is the most difficult technique to use on vaulting. However, most coaches see a fairly wide variety of "variations" on this technique. This article is written to present one possible methodology





consistently. The key to this methodology is to gradually increase the length and speed of the run without sacrificing the timing and exactness of the swing and hurdle. There are several variations of arm position. Some will perform


From 2-3 steps have the gtjmnast perform a short hurdle and single circle the arms, so that the hands gently "slap" or brush the sides of the legs from behind just as the gtjmnast's feet can tact the board. * The gymnast stops "dead" on the board with the arms by the sides. This prevents a "leaning" body shape off the board instead of a good upright posture on the board, with the feet contacting just slightly ahead of the vertical line of the body.

better with an extended arm swing, others will want to flex the arms. Find what is most comfortable for the gymnasts and allow them to use this within the format of the underarm action. Never worry about backing up a few steps to correct a problem. Since Steps 1 and 2 are relatively simple to do once understood, and require a minimum of space, these two can be used as an additional station on vault for the gymnasts while waiting in line.


* Note:

This brush/slap action is a tactile timing cue for the gtjmnast to coordinate the timing of the arm swing to the board contact of the feet.

March 1993 TECHNIQUE

Technique 2.

When this is consistent, repeat step 1, but now allow the arms to continue the swing to a horizontal position and punch up off the board onto a landing mat. You may need to continue to stress the brush ("s lap") as the feet contact the board, but also stress the arms moving to horizontal with the jump. You can begin emphasizing a strong quick "punch" off the board. As the arm swing becomes more consistent, then the gtjmnast no longer brushes the legs, but swings normally past the area of the hips to the forward horizontal position of the arms.

It is generally

accepted and coached that the underarm swing is the most difficult technique to use on vaulting.

Most important: As you add more steps and start ptitlching quicker, the force off the board will begin to increase. Have a 24"-36 " stack of soft mats in front of the gymnast to protect from accidental over-rotation. Pad the area in front of the board in case the gymnast jumps off the board (such as a vault safety zone). I would recommend that the mats be just below the shoulder level of the gymnast to simulate the approximate height of a horse.


Now repeat step 2 gradually adding steps until the gymnast is working at a fu ll run doing either a squat vault to the knees or feet or a handspring to a flat landing on a soft skill cushion on the top of the stack. The emphasis is still on the timing of the arm swing, but by this point in time it should be fairly well done. (Note: The gtjmnast will often want to place their hands at the very front of the mat, this can inhibit a good arm swing and stretch to the mats. Tell the gtjmnast to reach out to a place on the mat that is comfortable for them. Often a tape or chalk line is helpful. As gymnasts are different sizes and strengths, this will vary for the individual gymnast. References: 1.

George, Gerald S. (1980) . Bio-

lIlecJtallicso!Wolllen's Gymnastics . Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prenticehall, Inc. Sands, William A. (1981). Beginning Gymnastics. Chicago, IL: Contemporary Books. 3. Notes on Vault (Artemov) Coaches Workshop: T.O.P. National Testing, Indianapolis, IN . 2.

TECHNIQUE March 1993




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Roundoff vault training. Developed by T. Gehma n fo r the Wo men's ) .0. progra m. Prerequisites, tra ining tips, conditioning, and techniqu e. #2107 $19.95

u .s. Champ., Colo. Spgs. Finals. (1 991) #2349 $12.95 U.s. Champ., Colo. Spgs. Individual finals . (1991) #2349 $12.95 U.s. Champ., Colo. Spgs. Jr. & Sr. finals . (1991) #2353 515.95 U.s. Cham p., Colo. Spgs. Jr. A. Ball, cl ub, rope, h00J;:j~ia p$~1(~~91)


Competitions General OTB Cup, Stuttga rt, GER. Women's AA & Finals. (1 990) #2289 $16.95 Internationa l Mixed Pairs, Atla nta. (0:45)(1991) #2155 $16.95 International Mixed Pairs, Tallahassee. Miller/ Keswick, Kozlova/ Ka rbonenko, Fa ng/G iang, Zmeska l/ Hanks, Pa rente/Aguilera, H tis tova / lva nov, Kosuge / Tam ura, Onodi / Koes ter, Bruce / Wa ller. (1 992) #2401 $14.95 Texaco Challenge: USA vsJPN. Women, USA: Dmves, McDermott, Hornbeek, Ca mpi, Bruce, Woods. Men, USA: Hanks, Dimas, Stelter, Ki rksey, Ryan, St. Pierre. JPN: Satoh, Chinen, Hirai, Shinihara, Hond a, Mi tzushim a. (1 :30)(1 992) #2402 $14.95

Men Am. Cu p. O rla nd o. Event finals. (0:45)(1991) Am. Cup. Preliminary competition . (1991)


#2283 $16.95 #2284 $16.95

Sr. optionals. Sele~t~f3~ou~r~.~~lus

US. Tea m Trials, Indianapolis. Compulsories and optionals. (1991) #2184 $16.95 Wid. Champ., Indianapolis. AA Finals competition II. Part I: V, UB, FX. (1 :34)(1991) #21 85 $14.95 Wid. Champ., Indianapolis. AA Finals competition II. Pa rt II: BB. (0:54)(1 991) #2186 $10.00

92-96 J.O. Rhythmic LevelS & 6 VHS. Compa nion to th e compulsory book, this video shows the six level 5 routines performed from both a fro nt and rea r viewpoint. The level 6 routines are also #2321 $29.95 performed in phrases. 92-96 J.O. Rhythmi c Level 7 & 8 VHS. Compa nion to the compulsory book, the video shows th e six level 7 routines and the level S RFX from two view points. #2322 $29.95 J.O. Compulsory Video levels 1-4. Compani on to the compulsory book. #2105 $29.95 J.O. Compulsory Video levels 5-7 and 10. Compa nion to the compulsory book. #2106 #29.95 J.O. Dance Workouts: levels 1-3. Coaches' tape. Explana tion of the #2173 $15.00 basic balle t exercises. (2:00) J.O. Dance Workouts: levels 1-3. Gymn as t's tape. Basic ball et exercises desig ned fo r th e gymnas ts to fo llow. Demonstra ted by M. #2171 $15.00 Faulkenbe rry. (2:00) J.D. Dance Workouts: levels 4 & 5. These levels are newly com-


Chunichi Cup, Nagoya, JPN. All-around & even t finals. (1 991) #2240 $19.95 U.S. Challenge: USA vs. ROM. Compoand O ptional competition in #2293 $12.95 Albuqu erque, N M. (1991) U.S. Champ., Cincinnati. Event finals. Includes Ra canelli, Waller, #2236 $12.95 Keswick, Ringnald , and others. (0:40)(1 991) U.s. Champ., Cinci nnati. Sr. & Jr. opti onals. Selected routines include Waller, Kirksey, Schl esinger, Umphrey, Wa rburton, Hanks, Cohen, Huston, Denk, Durbin, Meadows, and others. (2:00)(1 991) #2235 $19.95

Am . Classic, Salt La ke City. Jr. A & B optionals, Sr. compulsories. Selected routines incl ude: Pallard y, Vinciga naov ic, Powell, Harri s, Robbins, Burke, Harri s, Robbms, Prosser, Willis a nd others. (Opts=0:38, Comps=0:SO)(1 991) #2134 $16.95 Am . Class ic, Salt L:, ke City. Senior optionals. Selected routines incl uding: Sommer, Fierro, Fon taine, Shaw, Shawen, Hornbeek, #2133 $16.95 and oth ers. (1991) Am . Cup, Orland o. Preliminaries and finals. (1 :29)(1 991) #2154 $19.95 U.s. Champ.; Cinci nna ti. Jr. A optionals. Selected routines include: Woyne rowski , McDermott, Spid le, Simpson, Hornbeek, Duff a nd #2162 $16.95 others. (2:00)(1 991) U.s. Champ., Cincinna ti. Optional finals . (selected routines). Also #2164 516.95 incl ud es Sr. compul sories. (2:00)(1991) U.s. Champ., Cinci nnat i. Sr. optionals. Selected ro utines include: Zmeskal, Woolsey, Stru g, Kelly, Bru ce, Griv ich, Miller, Crand all and others. (2:00)(1991) #2163 $16.95 US. Classic, Huntington Beach. Jr. A & B optionals. Selected routines. (1:51)(1991) #2136 $16.95

W~, 5~~ :rl~d(t~6f<~~i~iPptional event finals#i180P$~~~~ III

W~o~~tst d~0~\(~01)liS

Team competition #~~il3URii6~~N,

Wid. Champ., Paris-Sercy. Competition III Finals. Zmeskal,Okino, Onodi, Boguinska ia, Milosovici, Li and others. Also includes excerpts form the O pening Ceremonies.(1 992) #2168 $16.95 Wid. Cha mr- ' Paris -Be~. Semi-finals. Dawes, S tru~, Tchu sovitina, Lisenko, u, Gutsu, itova, Pasca and others. ~2ii6 $16.9""-

General ABC-TV Prod uctions. Gymnastics greatest stars: three decades of unforgettable moments. Includes: Bilozerchev, 80, Boginskaia, Caslavs ka, Coma neci, Co nne r, Korbut , Kormann , Magy ar, Moguiln y, Mukhin a, Ning, Re tton, Rig by, Szabo , Thomas, Tsukahara, Yurchenko, and more! (1:30)(1 991) #2101 $25.00 Amsterd am Gymnaestrada. Amsterdam Gala. (1991) #2705 516.95 Amsterd am Gymnaes trada. Opening ceremonies and other out#2702 $16.95 door performances. (1 991) Amsterda m Gymnaes trada. USSR Gala performance. (1991) #2704 $16.95 Amsterd am Gymnaes trada. Various performances. (1991) #2703 $16.95 Pa nasonic. The winning difference. This video d ocuments the prepa ra tion and tra ining of the U.s. Men's and Women's 'SS Ol ympi c Teams. An excellent and informati ve tape. (1991) #2700 $12.95

Training Women Eli te Premier, Salt La ke City. 96 Elite compulsory exercises. #1/2 tapes shows demonstration of the routines and instru ction on the Jr. Elite testing program. FX by 1. Biggs, Pa rt I of BB by M. Grossfeld . (2:00)(1 991) #2140 $12.45 Elite Premier, Salt La ke City. 96 Elite compulsory exercises. #2/2 tapes includes Pa rt II of BB by M. Grossfeld, UB by Akopian, TU by Elliott, and V by Artemo\'. (1 :50)(1991) #2141 51 2.45 Nat. Tr. Ca mp, India napolis. Beam basics. With T.Biggs, B.Johnson, a nd J. Kni ght.(1 991) #211 8 $12.95 Na t. Tr. Ca m p, Indianapolis. Brandy John son interview. Also includ es Va ulting basics with M. Cook. (2:00)(1991) #211 6 $12.95 Na t. Tr. Ca mp, Ind ia napolis. Dance drills for floor exercise. With M. Fa ulkenberry, 1. Biggs, and B. Johnson. (1 :30)(1991) #2114 514.95 Na t. Tr. Ca mp, Ind ianapolis. Tumbling basics. Prese nta tion by S. Elliott (1:30, Note: missing sound in part of the tape)( 1991) #211 9 $12.95 Na t. Tr. Camp, Colo. Spgs. Elite compulsory beam & floor test exercises. Na ti onal Tea m coaches M. Gross feld and T. B instruct the 1993-96 exercises. (1 :38)(1 992) #21 29 $14.95 '


March 1993 TECHNIQUE




t long last I have managed to extract the work recorded on the video from the lecture demonstrations




Yatchenko and Victor Gavrichenko at Harrow Gym Club in January, 1992. Tamara and Victor were both responsible for training Olympic and World champion

up with legs extended and body piked.

1 l/e4t I~c? ~ ~J




This first part is the warm-up that Tamara and Victor always use at the beginning of a tumbling session.



Jumping on 2 feet , forward s and then backwards.

Hopping on one leg, arms used naturally. Change to other leg.

't j\ ~

'i -~

d; 3.




Squat jumps , arms swing up by the ears.

oj o!~ t





Bouncing on hands and feet. Forwards and backwards.


2 forward rolls, pike up to handstand roll. o


1 ~ i fL? 6?///J Ift1 ~JM ~ 6.

Handstand forward roll with extended arms, stand

TECHNIQUE March 1993


1 ~~~~~i J ~

Notes by: Meg Warren, Ed. Newsletter of the Association of British Gymnastics Coaches

Backward extension to handstand, extended legs all the way with pike down.


t It) ~o J4\\f




Three backward rolls (third one extension to handstand{

Elena Shoushunova.

Tumbling warm-up


Handstand full turn, forward roll with extended legs as before.

l(I~{~I ~ t) 10.


Bounce on hands to handsta nd, then over to bridge to stand.

L~Jol 11.

Back bend to stand (two feet to two feet). Gymnast must show handstand and then pike down. (Coach to assist if necessary)

J0 12.


Forward walkover into handspring to 2 foot landing. (The arms mllst sty by the ears) h






Backward walkover, back handspring (FF) to come down one foot after the other (finish with one foot in front of the other).



2 flying back handsprings landing on toes, weight going back to overbalan ce slightly on landing, arms by the ears, (Orthodox beginning)


Training for Saltos

1'' ~

From standing on vaulting board, gymnast executes a whip-back with assistance from coach\.

i ~


"~A JII 5.


Preparation and



11d~rl 14.

Corbette into 2 or 3 back handsprings .


Next, whip-back into back handspring .


/~l~v~ ~/~J\


4 or 5 FF's in a row. Landing one foot after the other. Orthodox start.

~,.-J/'~r=A 16. <}

F il

FF, FF, layout salto, as for beal1l. ~ ~=-a9

h r

~j' 17.


f A

0 \\

Flip layout, flip layout, flip layout. No pauses.



~ ~~h/'l~ II~\

\<>~-'lvJ/ ~4


Using the "corbette" (handstand snap-down) 1.

Using a vaulting board, the SJjmnast cOl'bette's to land close to board, then immediately jumps upward.



j;/\~ (~ 2.


Repeat, but the SJjmnast immediately rebounds to land on the vaulting board. The coach assists in order that the SJjmnast lands with the shoulders slightly behind the feet. (Victor paid a lot of attention to this)

Roundoff, FF, stretched back saito. ~ II


t V

Now from a vaulting board, corbette to land, to tuck back saito.

\ "\ ~\

Jll 9.


Then , jump backwards from the floor on to stacked mats to a tuck position and then to a shoulder stand position. (3 skill cushions were used here to come to approximately the gymnast 's hip height). The hips must go forward as the gymnast jumps in order to create rotation and lift legs .

lE fr: 1rtMarch 1993 TECHNIQUE

Technique 10.


Next, the glJmnast jumped to the tuck position and immediately into backward roll . The extension before the tuck was good. (Victor supported for both of these activities).

Still with Victor spotting, the glJmnast did a back saito to land on stacked mats. Victor allowed one gymnast to go by herself-but only to do tuck onto the shoulders with roll backwards. He emphasized the arm action for the back saito.


11/4 back saito (coach spotting all the time). For those not ready he did snapdowns to the shoulders. (1/2 somersault).


Victor then did some work correcting the standing back saito. d()

'1/ I



f I~t




Front tumbling Victor teaches the forward salta in the following progression: first a 1/4 salta, then 3/4 and finally 1/ 1.


a slight circle back before coming up to just by the ears.


Set-up used a trampolette and stacked skill cushions. The glJmnast did hurdle step into high horizon tal position to fall flat on stomach onto 2 skill cushions. Victor kept his hand up throughout to encourage height.


Victor always insisted on correct hip placement and posture. He would correct them at the end of every saito or before.

then turn over to back when this high. 12.

Handstand snap-downs (corbette) off vaulting board to land on toes. One repetition each, then corbette agai11 to immediate back saito.

TECHNIQUE March 1993




then 1/1 tum coach assisted. He had to turn them over because the gljl11nast cannot crea te rotation if her body is straight and he did not



March 1993 TECHNIQUE

Technique It was then demonstrated as to how the tightness and strength in the tuck was tested. Here the coach lifts the gymnast by the ankles and she must maintain the tuck shape.


Then to the front. (10 arms, 10 legs, 10 together, and 10 rocking) ~ ".-,./ ~ '<:::::.- ~ ,~ ,, ~ ,

<.~-- ,



p~1 III Notice how the top cushion overhangs the trampolette in the above exercises.


Lift the arms and shoulders 10 times. Arms kept tight by the ears. (Positioning must be perfect).




Next, lift arms and legs together.

Repeat this, but then make another 1/1 turn by bringing arms into the chest and then opening out again just before finishing.


Here the gymnasts worked in pairs. In front lying with ankles extended, the partner lifts gymnast by the waist as she pulls herself forwards. She then extends the arms forwards again and repeats. Travel across floor area.


Now the reverse. (Notice here how the gymnast must be lifted so that the feet and legs are free of the ground)

o--=~ tlf=-7?'"24~ 11.

Rock- keeping the back rounded with arms by ears and legs extended.


~-2 :7T ~ =-


Now the same pattern is done on the side. (10 arms, 10 legs, both together and 10 rocking)

TECHNIQUE March 1993



This session was given by Tamara. These conditioning exercises are part of every training session.

On the back, arms by the ears, lift legs 10 times. The back must be kept on the floor and legs and arms must be extended.

Rolling. In the obligatory dish position, the gymnast rolls over to the front and then continues to the back. Notice how she tries to keep the dish shape and note hollow when she comes to the front .

"'-~~ .=:=-=k



~~ ~


Walking on hands in a circle or up and down floor area.








~~ ,f(

This article is reprinted by permission from the Newsletter of the Association of British Gymnastics Coaches, 6th issue, 1992, 1-8.











Initial Hourly Rate



22 .00






Running Rate






11 .00





One Round Meets

o Hours o Hours o Hours o Hours o Hours o Hours

1 Hour

48 .00







28 .00

2 Hour 2112 Hour

48 .00

46 .00


38 .00


32 .00

32 .00







32 .50


28 .00

3 Hours







33 .00

28 .00

3112 Hours

66 .50 76 .00

63 .00





38 .50



68 .00

56 .00

48 .00




48 .00



38 .00




28 .00




45 .00





o Hours o Hours

4 Hours

Two Round Meets 2 Hour 1

2 hHour 3 Hours



61 .00



43 .00

43 .00


1 hour

3112 Hours


73 .00



52 .00

48 .50


41 .50

1 hour

4 Hours 4112 Hours

86 .00 90.50

82 .00


66 .00





1 -2 hours

86 .00


68 .00




46 .00

1 -2 hours

95.00 90.00 104.50 99.00 114.00 108.00 123.50 117.00

85.00 93.50 102.00 110.50

70.00 77.00 84.00 91.00

60.00 66.00 72.00 78.00

55.00 60.50 66.00 71.50

55.00 60.50 66.00 71.50

46.00 49.50 54.00 58.50

2 hours 2 hours 2 hours 2 hours

5 Hours 5112 Hours

6 Hours 6 112 Hours

Three Round Meets 3 Hours

72 .00







42 .00

1 hour

3112 Hours


78 .00




53 .50

46 .50

1 hours

4 Hours 4112 Hours

91 .00



71 .00



53 .50 59 .00


1 hours

95 .50

91 .00







1 hours

5 Hours




75 .00





2 hours

5112 Hours




82 .00

71 .00

65 .50



2 hours

6 Hours







71 .00


2 hours

6 112 Hours





83 .00


76 .50

63 .50

2 hours

7 Hours





89 .00


82 .00

68 .00

3 hours

7 1/ 2hours





95 .00



72 .50

3 hours

8 Hours







93 .00


3 hours

8112 Hours

169.00 181.00

160.50 152.00 172.00 163.00

126.50 136.00

109.50 118.00

101.00 109.00

101.00 109.00

84.00 91.00

3 hours 4 hours

9 Hours


Whenever actualludg,"g time exceeds 8 hours, "additional time"



compesated according to the inltla/ rate â&#x20AC;˘

Championship Meets Up to 4 Hours 4112 - 8 Hours











72 .00

64 .00

9 Hours







10 Hours







Revised 2/93 - Produced by Ruth Morse, Massochusettes State Judging Director, Edited by Heather Whitaker


March 1993 TECHNIQUE

Coaches Education


WHATIFlHAVE EXPERIENCE? he most frequently asked question related to coaches education is: "How do I get my accreditation? I'm an experienced coach and I heard there is a way that I can get credit for my previous accomplishments."


Grandparenting procedures have been established to allow experienced coaches easy access to the Professional Development Program (PDP), by waiving the testing requirements for specific components. Por Level II, coaches may apply to by-pass the testing procedures for the skill related components. These coaches must be USGP professional members and have successfully completed the ACEP Leader Level Sports Science course and the USGP Safety Certification requirements. The processing of applications for grandparenting at PDP Level II will begin in May. The awarding of Level II Accreditation will follow, as verification of professional membership, ACEP and safety certification is confirmed. The specific requirements for Coaching Accredita·ion in PDP Level II are as follows:

Level II: 1. ACEP Leader Level Sports Science Clinic This certification is based on the book Successful Coaching. Coaches must attend an 8-hour clinic conducted by a certified ACEP instructor and complete all ACEP requirements.

The course elaborates on critical coaching knowledge components including philosophy, psychology, physiology, and management. 2. USGF Safety Certification Current certification is required in order to achieve and maintain active Level II Accreditation. The safety course is designed to increase the coach's level of safety awareness. Coaches should be familiar with the USGF Gymnastics Safety Manual prior to the course. 3. USGF Professional Membership Current membership is required in order to achieve and maintain active Level II Accreditation. In addition to a variety of member benefits, the professional member receives Technique magazine and discounts on both the Sports Science and Safety courses. 4. J.D. Compulsory Exercises Coaches must successfully complete a selftest based on the compulsory text for their discipline. (Available June 1993) TECHNIQUE March 1993

At Level II, the coach's accreditation will be designated by program: Men, Women, or Rhythmic. Testing materials will assess the coach's understanding of the compulsory exercise, core skill progressions throughout the program, and basic routine evaluation. USA Gymnastics looks forward to offering specialization in the preschool! developmental area in the future.

<5> «Q




5. Basic Skills Progressions Coaches must successfully complete a selftest based on specific basic skills materials for their discipline. (Available June 1993)

Dave Moskovitz Coaching Development Coordinator

Basic skills materials will be identified. The basic skills tests will stress the proper sequence of skill learning and the importance of safe and effective drills and learning stations.

Grandparenting As with Level I, experienced coaches and administrators will be allowed to grandparent, or by-pass the required gymnastics skills testing for PDP Level II Accreditation (components 4 and 5 above). However, the ACEP Sports Science Clinic will be required for ALL coaches at Level II. This requirement cannot be waived or by-passed due to the reciprocal relationship with the ACEP certification program. Components 4 and 5 may be waived for those coaches who submit the appropriate application form and documentation who meet the following minimum criteria: • Levell Accreditation (strongly recommended), • USGP Professional Membership, • USGP Safety Certification, • ACEP Leader Level Sport Science Course, • 10-15 years coaching and / or administrative experience in the sport, and • 5-7 years as a competitive program coach.

Where can I find a course? A safety certification course schedule is printed in each issue of Technique and USA Gymnastics magazines. If you are unable to find a course in your area, contact the safety coordinator for USA Gymnastics. Or, you may contact your local national certifier to request a course. Beginning in April, a schedule of ACEP Sports Science courses will be included in Technique along with the course registration form. The advertised courses will generally be offered for $75, the pro-member fee is $60. A list of certified ACEP instructors was included in the January 1993 Technique, page 12. Por additional course information contact the Coaching Development Coordinator at USA Gymnastics. (317) 237-5050.


,----------------------------------------1 PDP LEVEL II-GRANDPARENTING APPLICATION

I :


Please hjpe or print Name ___________________________

Birthdate ___ / _ _ / _ _

Age _ _

Address _________________________________________________________ City _____________________________

State ____


Night ( _ _ _ )-

Day ( _____ ) - _ _ - _ __

USGF Professional No. _______

Social Security No. _ _ ___ USGF Safety Certification

Zip _ _ _ _ _ _ __



PDP Level I Accreditation



ACEP Sport Science Course



o o

Expiration Date _ _ _ __


Site/Date _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

No No

Site/Date _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Education Background Inst

Grad . Yr.

School/College / Uni versity


Major Area


<S> ~


Univ. Grad.


Coaching!Administration Experience From


Upon completion of this application, send to: USA Gymnastics 201 S. Capital Indianapolis, IN 46225 Attn: Coaching Development Coordinator



Position Description

Team Coaching Year


# of Athletes


Additional Infonnation


~ __________ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ---1I


March 1993 TECHNIQUE

Book Review

SENIORS ON 'I'HE MOVE Since the beginning of the eighties, words such as health, fitness and exercise 0~\ . ~Senwrs have been a part of our daily language. It was>- :J~ covered during this "great _.hi national wellness movement," as the author of Seniors on the Move calls it, that daily exercise is a must in order to live a happy and healthy life. With this realiza tion came the health clubs and exercise classes devoted to helping people become physically fit. This devotion, however, was directed almost exclusively to the younger generation and still is today. What about the older generation? Very few programs have ever been designed specifically to aid the senior pGpulation in their quest for the "happier, healthier life" until this book, Seniors on the Move , by Renate Rikkers.

an the

T Mave

Seniors on the Move contains much of what "I have been privileged to learn while teaching seniors who were willing to experiment, react and critique [the classes]," says Renate Rikkers. The author taught his first senior fitness program over thirteen years ago at Amherst Senior Center and has continued teaching over the years. "The materials I have compiled are the result of sorting out all that has appealed to my students and brought about a high level of energy, fitness and wellness," continues Rikkers. Sen iors on the Move contains over 100 pages of simple, yet effective exercises for the older generation. Simple stretching to more advanced endurance exercises for the entire body are illustrated. These exercises are

easily and accurately performed by actual participants of Rikkers' program. In addition, the necessary (and inexpensive!) equipment is also included in the manual -both how to use it and where to buy it. The book even outlines ways to modify programs for the different levels of students. In addition to the exercises, other chapters cover essential information that gym club directors should be aware of before beginning a senior fitness program at their facility. Basic components of fitness, medical concerns in aging, nutritional information, and even tips on how to be an effective instructor are all included in Seniors on the Move. The book offers sample lesson plans to help one in starting a Seniors on the Move program of his or her own. It is widely believed that an active body has a positive affect on the mind. Without exercise, depression can set in and physical confidence and ability can diminish which is often the case with many seniors. Rikkers' program offers a wide variety of exercises which include partner and group interaction that will no doubt benefit the seniors physically and mentally. It is important to remember, as Rikkers says, "no matter what age, lifestyle can be improved. Aging is not an inevitable process of losses and decline." Developing and instituting programs for the older generation will not only benefit the seniors of today but will help improve and make the aging process more enjoyable for the seniors of tomorrow. With the wealth of knowledge now available on the benefits of exercise for the older generation, there is no excuse for the absence of exercise programs, such as Seniors 011 the Move. Gym clubs today can easily develop safe, enjoyable and beneficial programs for this important part of our population.

Reviewed by:

Katheryn Heenke USA Gymnastics Intern

You may order this book through the USA Gymnastics Merchandise Department. Use the Order Form on page 2 of this

warm-up exercises for the upper body

magazzne. Seniors On The Move

• 1986 • Spiral • 256 pp Item #3620 $27.00


:::~=~---r ~,'- t ~ ,




--_ ......O"""_ ........ . .----""'-_ .. ,.l1li. ...... _ . poo _ _ ....

.-. ."" .......-- ..- .~



TECHNIQUE March 1993



Steve Whitlock Director of Educational Services and Safety

SA Gymnastics would like your assistance in completing a survey of information regarding gymnastics

coaches and coaching education needs. This survey is being undertaken by independent researcher, Mr. Fred Caster, a doctoral candidate

Technique magazine, it is OK to send a photocopy of the survey form! In fact, you are encouraged to photocopy and distribute the form to others in your organization who might be interested in participating in the survey, but who might not receive their own issue of Technique since they are not current USGF Professional members.

in Sport Science.

Can you include other comments? The information will provide a demographic profile of gymnastics coaching professionals as well as information regarding educational needs,

Yes, but please use a separate sheet of paper. If you want to refer to particular survey items, just include the item number.

attitudes about coaching, and important coaching

Return date

knowledge areas. This data will be extremely

Now, while it is on your mind, is the best time to respond! However, if you don't have time to do it now, please try to get it in the mail no later than April 15, 1993. For you procrastinators out there, this is an easy deadline date to remember-just complete it and drop it in the mail along with your 1992 tax forms!

useful in determining future educational objectives for the USA Gymnastics Professional Development Program (PDP).

Who should respond? While we are particularly interested in the responses of active gymnastics coaches, we encourage Gym Club owners, program directors and administrators, judges, and even gymnasts and their parents to complete the survey! Please note that the survey does not require you to individually identify yourself by name, organization, club, or address.

How do you respond? This is easy! Just complete the following survey and return it to Mr. Caster at: Fred Caster P.O. Box #90 Norwich, Vermont 05055

Can you receive copies of the final report(s)? Yes! Given the amount of the data collected, we anticipate that the survey data will be analyzed in a number of ways. USA Gymnastics will publish a series of articles in Technique magazine based upon the the data. Or, if you want a personal copy of a general summanJ of the data, you may write to USA Gyml1astics. Send this written request to: Steve Whitlock, Director of Educational Services USA Gymnastics Pan American Plaza, Suite 300 201 S. Capitol A venue Indianapolis, IN 46225

If you don't want to tear-up your


March 1993 TECHNIQUE

Coaching Research Questionnaire [01] School

o Suburb


o Rural

0 Urban

0 Region # _ __

o Date _


Part I

[08] Yearly Salary:

General Infonnation

o o o

The ;lI!ormnlio1l ;11 this section wifl be used to describe the background of the coach ;11 gym,mstics.

[02] Gender:



0 Female

[03] Age:

0 0 0 0

Under 20 25-29 35-39 45-49 55-59

0 0 0 0 0


20-24 30-34 40-44 50-54 60 & over

[04] Educational Background: (IIigilest leuel completed) Non high school graduate High school graduate Some college but never completed BA Completed bachelor's degree Some master's level work Completed master's degree Some doctoral level work 'J Certificate of graduate study or specialists degree ..J Completed doctorate

o o o o o o o

[05] Type of Program: (wllere YOII teacll/coaell gymnastics) Private club 0 Community

o o o

College/University High School

0 YMCA/ YWCA 0 Other (specify) _ _ _ __ _

[06] Coaching Areas: (Please iudicate the average IlIlmber of paid coaching hOllrs you spetld each mOllth in the following areas)

Preschool! developmental classes Birthday parties and other "special events" Supervising or assisting with "open gym" Girls' recreational classes Girls' team classes and workouts Rhythmic recreational classes Rhythmic team classes and workouts Boy's recreational classes Boy's team classes and workouts Other Club/school program classes (clieerieadillg, trampoline, kara te, etc.)

r====-, Office or planning hours (paid)

L=====:.JI TOTAL coaching hours per month Number of Years (ill present position) r07] Major Level of Gymnastics Coaching:

Levell-4 Level5-7 Leve18-10 Elite

(coachillg and teaching gymnastics)

o o o

o o o o o o

Under $1,000 $5,000-$9,999 $15,000-$19,999 $25,000-$29,999 $35,000-$39,999 $45,000-$49,999

$1,000-$4,999 $10,000-$14,999 $20,000-$24,999 $30,000-$34,999 $40,000-$44,999 $50,00 and over

Please fill out the information on the front and back of this page and return to:

[09] USGF Professional Membership: (C u rre1lt

USG F Professio1lal Member)



No Fred Caster

[10] Work 'Benefits:

P.O. Box #90

(Check the!ollowhlg benefits provided or allowed by your employer or business)

o o o

o o o

Workman's Compensation Health insurance: Full Partial Dental insurance: Full Partial General liability insurance Pension or some kind of profit-sharing Extra income opportunities

Norwich, VT 05055

(ill addit ;0 11 toCOl1lpellsation fo r coachillg respo1lsibilit ies such as "private classes" for individual students/groups UShlg the program facilit ies; additional '1011-coachillg responsibilities SUdl as d eaf/ing f he gym, program promotion;and/or office/pro-shop/

o o o


recept io /l d lltips)

Flexible hours Continuing education assistance ([or participation in c1illics, workshops, etc.)

Additional compensation allowances for competitions and exhibitions The possibility for yearly or semi-annual pay increases related to systematic performance reviews and "cost-of-living" adjustments

Part II

Coaching Courses/Areas of Preparation Please answer the following questions as to the degree of importance you believe is most appropriate. 1 2 not little important importallce

3 unsure

4 important

5 very imp'ortan '

What courses and/or areas of preparation do you believe would be most helpful in preparing future coaches in gymnastics? 1 2 3 4 5 SPORT SCIENCE COURSES [11) SPORT PHYSIOLOGY [12) SPORT BIOMECHANICS/KINESIOLOGY [13) SPORT MEDICINE [14) SPORT PSYCHOLOGY

;heck all appropriate)

o o o o

o Number - - - - -


o o o


YMCA High School College Other(specify) _ _ _ _ __

TECHNIQUE March 1993










































Thank You!










































Part II


Coaching Attitudes and/or Perceptions


This area addresses the relative competency areas that yo u believe are most important in coaching gymnas ts. For each fac tor below, rate the degree of importance you believe it will contribute toward an increase in coaching competencies. 1 2 not little important importance


3 IInsltTe

4 important



very importaltt

March 1993


The Women's Technical Committee and National Coaching Staff Present: An Introduction to the



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Hotel Package price per person: • double occupancy $219 • triple $199 $339 • single (a deposit of$50/person to guarantee reservations due on or before March 1, 1993)

Symposium cost: USGF Pro members $ 40 non-members $ 60

Featured Presenters include:

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$40.00 $60.00

Please check method of paymen t: [ I CHECK (Make checks payable to USA Gymnastics)

Return forms and checks to:

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USGF /WTC members Card Number:

Course Directors: Marilyn Cross Muriel Grossfeld Audrey Schweyer

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Card Holder's Name:

Exp. Date: _

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~~~~~~~~~~~~_ (print)

USA Gymnastics, 201 S. Capitol, Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225

__ LSignature: _______________________ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~



Judges'Track: • In-depth technique sessions including videotape analysis • 1993 Code ofPoints presentations by events - geared to preparation for the Elite course • Junior Olympic changes to the Code of Points



WTC SYMPOSIUM • LAS VEGAS • JUNE 3-6, 1993 Last Na me: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ Add ress:

First Name:






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• "To give or not to give?" Room (Please Check One):

Coaches' Track: • Examples for Bonus combinations • Utilizing the new Code of Points for optimal value. • Technique lectures and analysis of selected "E" skills • "Everything a Coach should know ... so you won't be afraid to ask!" (Short version) TECHNIQUE March 1993

[ I Single [ I Double [ I Triple

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Double Layout without Release To learn an "O'Neill," first you must learn a Guczoghy. Here are drills to teach both.


Turnover drills From swings, the gJjmnast must work pressure off the bottom (Illustration 1, Figs. 1 and 2) and keep pressure downward all the way over the top (Figs. 3,4, and 5). This is much like a peach to support on P-Bars, but on rings you can turn your thumbs inward as you pull down (Figs. 3 and 4). As you pull the rings downward, your chest should rise. This drill shou ld be worked in a hollow position and arms should be kept straight throughout, releasing rings at vertical (Fig . 5) as gJjmnast falls to his back. Work into pit onto mat (Fig. 6).

Paul O'Neill Originator of the "O'Neill" on the still rings



Back off the top The gymnast should work this drill along with turnover drills. Performed tucked, he should keep pressure as long as possible, then put the rings to his hips (Illustration 2, Fig. 3), bending arms slightly with the rings turned out. Then throw rings outward tnjing to catch pressure similar to the end of a dislocate. Releasing rings as he catches pressure (Fig. 4) until you think your athlete is ready to hang on. He can work this laid out as well-after he hangs on to it tucked. Work on low rings first, then move to high . The gymnast should work support swings trying to keep pressure as far up front as possible.

2 3.





Double tuck Working pressure off the bottom, throw rings in front to tight tuck then throw rings outward as the body opens (tnjing to catch similar to end of a dislocate)-release at this point. This happens fast and feels like I make a circle with rings inside the double, inward then out. When you observe that the gJjmnast is catching at a high enough point, he should then hang on. The second flip of this drill is like the last 3/4's of back off the top drill. This is the same as the double layout drill but performed tucked.

March 1993 TECHNIQUE



Double layout After years of experimen ting on the correct technique, I feel the safest and smoothest is working pressure off bottom (Illu stration 3, Fig. 2), then arch and pull down (Fig. 3), throwing the rings in front as you hollow (Figs . 4 and 5)---at this point, I pull rings inward and then out with my thumbs turned out (Figs . 5 and 6). I then start to straighten my arms as the flip finishes. This feels similar to the end of a dislocate (Fig. 7).






a 'Neill attended both Houston Baptist University and the University of New Mexico. He holds each school's record on still rings with the score of 10.00. a 'Neill is the 1987, 1988 and 1989 NCAA Champion on still rings. O'Neill won the still rings event at the 1992 Winter Nationals which qualified him to compete for the U.S. at the 1992 World Championships on this event. He finished 4th in still rings event final at the 1992 World Gymnastics Championships in Paris, Francethe highest place for the U.S. men's team.



The gymnast should release rings at this point for drill (Figs. 7 and 8). When hanging on, the gJJmnast keeps working the rings in fron t. For me, this happens fast and feels like I make a circle with the rings inside the double, inward then outward. Double tuck and layout drills are very difficult to unders tand and take time to develop.

General Comments The gymnast should work these drills over a long period of time. Once he masters the technique and drills, performing the skill will not be a problem . When performed too early you risk the longevity of the gymnast. Even after the skill is learned, the gymnast does not need to hang on all the time. Double tuck and layout drills work fin e in training; for example, gymnast performs routine without Guczoghy / O'Neill and after he works double tuck or layout drill. I recommend hanging on in routines one day a week,2 to 3 times and concentrating on timing and controlling the swing. I also believe this is a skill that our top athlete's can learn very quickly in order to up grade the level of their routines to be more competitive internationally.

TECHNIQUE March 1993



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Sport Science Symposium

Abstract Information


United States Gymnastics Federation Pan American Plaza Suite 300 201 S. Capitol Avenue Indianapolis, IN 46225 (317) 237-5050 Telex: 27- 2385 USGYM-IND fAX: 317- 237-5069

Please read all the information before preparing the abstract on the next page. You should make several copies of the abstract form to practice typing before committing to a final copy. The abstract must fit entirely in the space provided.

USA Gymnastics Sport Science Symposium 1993 USA Gymnastics Congress Atlanta, GA February, 1993

Please use a typewriter, preferably electric, with ELITE type. Use a high quality ribbon with BLACK ink. Be sure that the type is clear and dark. Type the entire title of the paper in all caps. The title should be succinct and descriptive. Follow the title with the author's name(s), the presenting author first. Include the lab, institution, city, state, zip, and country. Indicate grantorfunding information at the bottom . NOTE: you may use a computer and laser printer and then "cut and paste" the abs tract to fit in the space.

Dear Colleague, The 1993 USA Gymnastics Congress is being held in Atlanta, Georgia, September 9-1 2. USA Gymnastics is continuing efforts to conduct sport science and medicine symposia in conjunction with the annual Congress. As director of the USA Gymnastics Sport Science Symposium, I would like to invite you, your colleagues, and/or your students to submit a paper and /or presentation for this symposium. The symposium will be held on Friday, September 10, 1993 between 9:00 a.m. and 5:30 p .m. in the Marriott Marquis Hotel in downtown Atlanta. The Symposium will focus on issues related to improving performance and minimizing injury of gymnasts. The audience for these presentations will primarily be coaches. Therefore, papers and oral presentations should be applied in nature, seeking to enhance performance and / or learning through scientific information. The length of the presentations will be from 15 to 20 minutes, depending upon the topic.

Your abstract should be of the informative type. It should contain a statement of the study's or presentation's specific objectives, a statement of m ethods (if pertinent), a summary of results and/ or statement of conclusions. Tables and/or graphs are permitted in the provided space. It is not acceptable to state that " Results will be discussed ."

Potential contributors should submit six copies of the abstract(s) on the accompanying form by April 15, 1993. We are going to publish the symposium proceedings in a book and would like the complete papers submitted no later than July 15, 1993. The book will contain the abstract and the full paper. The abstracts will be peer reviewed and acceptance or rejection notification will be made by May 15, 1993. I sincerely hope tha t you and / or a colleague or student have been doing work in gymnastics that you would like to present to the U.S. gymnastics coaches. If you have any questions, do not hesitate to call me (801) 581-5430.

Use standard abbreviations. Any use of Greek letters or other nonstandard symbols and punctuations should be drawn in by hand in black ink. When using abbreviations for compounds, spell it out in full the first mention, followed by the abbreviation in parentheses. Do not abbreviate in the title of the abstract.


William A. Sands, Ph.D. USA Gymnastics Sport Science Symposium Director

TECHNIQUE March 1993


Sport Science Symposium USA Gymnastics Sport Science SymposiumAbstract Submission Fonn

~------------------------------------------------~ ~ 'J

The original completed form and five copies must be submitted by April 15, 1993. MAIL FLAT -- DO NOT BEND Mail to: William Sands, PhD. Dept. of Exercise and Sport Sciences College of Health University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT 84112 Audio-visual equipment needed for this presentation:

Submitter Information: Name ___________________________


Address _________________________ City ___________________________


Zip ________ Country _ __

Phone numbers (H) _____________

(W) ___________

Reviewer's Space: Grade ___________ Rank _________ Accept ___________ Reject ___________ Comments: ________________________

u 34

March 1993 TECHNIQUE

Preschool Gymnastics

BEAM SKILLS AND ACTIVITIES FOR PRESCHOOLERS eam is the easiest gymnastics event to teach preschoolers. As long as you keep them on the low beams, they feel comfortable enough to try all the various walks and most of the skills listed below. Beam is easy because the event lends itself to the use of props, music, and various games.


Skills The skills below are listed in a progression beginning with the most basic. All children mature at their own pace mentally, socially, and physically. Children also develop differently in the elements of fitness: strength, endurance, and flexibility.

Difficulty Level A-(Mom and Tot) Walks forward releve sideways bear (on all four's) L-kicks backward step-stag on incline beam lunge pose, V-sit straight jump dismount (OM) front support mount tuck jump DM Birdie Perch (deep phe w/ hands on beam) front scale chasse side straddle mount on low beam (LB) releve turn

Difficulty Level B knee scale (L&R) walk on med-high beam (MB) - no falls pliewalk back step stag chasse front small running steps straddle jump DM straight 1/2 turn DM squat turn develope walk front support mount on MB

TECHNIQUE March 1993

step hops sidewinder in push-up (see illus. page 36) crab push-up cross over walks jump, switch feet side kicks cartwheel LB front scale (5 sec.) bounce ball while walking on LB

Difficulty Level C

Patti Komara

lunge step stag low tuck jump squat mount pike jump DM tuck jump DM 1/2 turn straddle support leg cut-hip uprise on HB kneescale DM chasse (MB, no falls) straddle mount on MB handstand with spot English handstand with spot Difficulty Level A is for Mom and Tot classes as well as a place for all preschoolers to start. Basically speaking, Level B is appropriate for three and four year olds and Level C is for five year olds. Any child can progress to Level C after completing the first two levels. I believe that keeping individual check-off skill lists in preschool classes isn't appropriate. This takes too much time out of class. Most preschool classes are 45 minutes in length. This is just the right amount of time for a fast-paced, fun-filled, perpetual moving class. There's no time to use individual skill sheets. What is recommended, however, is a "class check-off list." At the conclusion of the class or day the instructor should date when the skill was taught. Coaches who instruct a large number of classes weekly can't be expected to remember from week to week skills mastered in each group.

Safety Notes A few safety comments about the beam are important to keep in mind. 1. Don't put a child on a beam higher than his / her shoulders. Children can learn all the skills they need on low beams in preschool. If you're forced to use high beams, build mats up to


them so the students can easily "see" over the beam when they mount. 2. Teach the children how to fall! If they feel like they are about to fall, teach them to jump off safely. This lessens their fear to get on the beam initially. 3. Teach the students to "feel" the center of the beam through their body. 4. Don't have the tots dismount any further than they can jump up from a two foot take-off. Please watch their joints and hold their waist. 5. Have students dismount onto a 4" landing mat, not an 8" skill cushion. There's too much give to the landing when they're asked to jump into a skill cushion.

Don't put a child on a beam higher than his/her shoulders. Children can learn all the skills they need on the low beams in preschool.

Spotting If you keep the tots on the low beam and teach using progressions, there's very little need for spotting. If you must put them on the high beam, spot them on their walks by holding their waist, not their hand. Even a slight loss of balance could pull and tug at their arms too much.

Remind them to look at the end of the beam when doing their walks, not down a tthe beam in front of their feet. Give the children various arm positions while they' re doing their walks. Don't have them just do the arms out at the sides (airplane arms)-put some pizzazz and style into the arms. Have them overhead, on shoulders, on the waist, on the tops of the thighs, bow and arrow, V-shape, hug yourself, and various ballet arm positions. Teach the children the proper ballet terms for the walks, and what they mean in French. 1. chasse-to chase

2. plie-to bend 3. develope-to bring up and extend You should always give more challenging walks and comb ina tions to those preschoolers who need them. For instance a side combination for three year olds might be chasse, chasse, step together. A four year old might do chasse, step over, chasse. A five year old could do chasse, step together, step over. Always challenge the kids who are ready for more.

Always have the students mount and dismount/ even if it's a step-on mount and a straight-jump dismount (Ta-da!) at the end. Use visual cues such as footsteps, hand prints, small foam letters and bean bags to "tell" them where to put their hands or feet. Place two floor beams by each other. Have the child's hands on one and feet on the other. Move laterally down the beams. (Call this spider walks.)

Stations Creating different stations or challenges at the beam area is easy with the use of props. A "station" is an area where a student can go and work by him / herself on a task that is basically self-explanatory. Successful preschool classes are based on children learning through instruction and self-discovery. Have a station where the children exercise. They can place their hands on the beam in a crab position and do tricep push-ups. The children can place their hands on the beam and stretch out to a push-up position with their feet on the floor and move laterally down the beam (sidewinder push-up). If it's an older boys' class, have them put their feet on the beam, stretch out in a push-up position with their hands on the floor and do decline push-ups.

Have stations where the students can work on handeye coordination activities like throwing balls to other children while they're each on a floor beam. Have them roll a ball, football or exercise wheel down the beam. Put photo cards or pictures on the beams to step over that goes with a special theme for that day. Have a cone on each side of the beam with a rope in the cones to create a barrier to step over, etc. Have plastic bowling pins next to the beams to knock over for plie walks and to develop foot-eye coordination. A station utilizing the concept of crossing the mid-line of the body can be created by putting cones alongside the low beam. Put foam balls on top of the CO'1es. The task is to pickup the balls, cross their arms, balance, and put the balls on the other cones.

If you're looking for more beams, there are many varieties on the market. I like the three-layered red, white, and blue ZIN-KIN Beam. Use cloth jump ropes laid on the floor to be used as their own beam. Taped lines work well, too. There are two beams you can find in equipment catalogs you might want to get. The EduBeam (it has shapes, numbers, and colors on it) and Beam-Links (this beam comes in sections with a velcro top which are great for mobile programs) .

Vary the way you place the floor beams. Zig-zag them, put them in a triangle or rectangle, or build inclines, planks, ladders, stairs, or other beams up to it.


March 1993 TECHNIQUE

Preschool Gymnastics 2. Place them snugly under the medium beam facing the end of the beam and create a tunnel to get back in line.

Put the beam over the pit to create a crocodile pit and then use bubbles to help the kids jump off into the pit. Have a station where the students put their hands on the beam and their feet on the floor and they work on handstands, handstand snapdowns, and cartwheels. Use a beam for oversplitting for the older children as a waiting station. Use the plank, ladder, and floor beams to connect the high beams in patterns. Have the low beams in a square and children all spread out two to a beam. The teacher in the middle can review poses, positions, and various walks. In Mom and Tot classes, Mom can hold the child's feet and place a hand under the child's tummy to do wheelbarrow down the beam. You can put a trapezoid piece across a floor beam and use it as a surfing station. Put three hoops at the end of the beam, decorate his tummy and face with tape on the floor land have the kids dismount into "Frosty the Snowman."

3. Slide a hoop under the floor beam and let the

student hold the hoop (steering wheel) and drive down the beam. Children can just hold the hoops in their hands and drive their car, also. 4. Use the hoop as a jump rope. 5. Roll it alongside the beam as the student does

various walks and motor skills. 6. Place the hoop overhead and "flutter" or over-

head and twist for helicopter.


7. Hold the hoop with both hands and move like

a figure 8 as the child does walks down the beam.

Other Activities Using props such as jump ropes, balls, scarves, lummi sticks, hoops, and ribbons can make the class easy for the coach and fun for the student. Children frequently feel more confident on the beam if they have something to hold. Here are some props and ideas for their use:

Hoops 1. Place them lengthwise tucked snugly und er the medium beam. The students can use this as an "in and out" station.

Jump Ropes (Alternative: cloth pieces of clothesline) 1. Hold the rope at various heights (overhead, shoulder height, low) and do leaps, poses, walks, turns, and motor skills. 2. Use as a jump rope. 3. Make figures in the air as child walks down

the beam. 4. Put the rope around the child's waist. Cross

the rope and have a teacher on each side and pull creating a turn . (spider web) 5. Place the rope on the floor and use as a beam.

Rhythmic Ribbons and Scarves (Alternative: crepe paper streamers)


Keep the ribbons short so that they don't become tangled . Have the children move d own the beam doing various poses, walks, turns and motor skills while they

TECHNIQUE March 1993

Patti has owned and operated her own gymnastics school for the last 24 years in Dyer, Indiana. Dyer is a town of 10,000 and is about one hour from Chicago. Out of the small town, Patti has 1500 students in gymnastics, Tumblebear, dance, Step Reebok, cheerieading, swimming and her mobile gymnastics program. Ms. Komara has been a speaker for the USAICC and the USCF during the last 11 years and hosts her own one day preschool workshops somewhere in the U.s. every other weekend. Patti has produced over 25 videotapes on instructing preschool and business topics. Her tapes have been sold in every state and eight foreign countries. Ms. Komara is USCF Safety Certified and is a certified aerobics instructor with AFF A and ACE. For more specific information on this topic and many others concerning preschool gymnastics and business, contact Patti Komara for her latest catalog of resources. (219)8652274 or 1530 Joliet St., Dyer, IN


make flowing arm movements with the ribbon in their right hand, then left hand.

1. Hokey-Pokey-Bring a tape player over to the

beam area with the music playing. Arrange the floor beams so that all children face the same way (towards the instructor). Have the instructor lead and do the song while the kids are on the beam. This works balance, directionality, turning, and movement to music.

Lummi Sticks, Foam Shapes, Bean Bags This is a great "child-directed" lesson. Give each child a piece of equipment. Ask them to participate by suggesting out loud some ideas about what they can do with these pieces of equipment while they move down the beam. Call on each child to encourage participation.

Balance beam for preschoolers can be fun for them and a treat for the instructors with just a little preparation and planning in the lesson plans. Use these ideas good luck!

2. Simon Says-As a way to review poses, positions, turns and walks, play this familiar game while all the children are on the floor beams. No losers, though, the "losers" just go to another beam.

Balls and Balloons These activities are limited to the floor beams only. On the high beam the child tends to "walk" right off the beam following their ball or balloon- Oops!

3. Head, Shoulders, Knees and Toes-This fa-

1. Bounce them on the side while moving down beam.

miliar song can be sung while the kids walk down the beam. They can say, "head, shoulders, knees and toes, knees and toes, knees and toes, head, shoulders, knees and toes" while they're touching the correct body parts and walking down the beam. At the end of the song and the end of the beam they can say "all turn around." Then they're ready to go down the beam again.

2. Hold at various levels while doing move-

ments on the beam. 3. Throw, roll, or bounce a ball to partner while

standing on another floor beam. 4. Roll the ball down the beam. S. Do rhythmic movements with the ball in hand

while moving down the beam.

Games All children love to play games. Here are a few for beam:

Balance beam for preschoolers can be fun for them and a treat for the instructors with just a little preparation and planning in the lesson plans. Use these ideasgood luck!

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March 1993 TECHNIQUE


Beginning June 23 through June 26, the first summer workshop will be held at the YMCA of Greater New York, at the National Gymnastics Training Center, Camp Greenkill, Huguenot, NY. Unlike previous

Alternative Programs Several Sessions will be devoted to designing and utilizing alternative gymnastics activities for fun and profit. Presentations will include activities for gymnastics exhibitions, group shows and fund raisers. Learn how to make gymnastics FUN FOR ALL.

1993 USA Gymnastics Summer Workshop Daily Schedule Wednesday Evening 5:30-10:00 USGF Safety

camps, this year's camp will allow coaches to bring 2 or 3 athletes to participate in the clinic. There will also be a few special guest clinicians appearing at certain clinics.

Workshop Highlights USGF Safety Certification Based on the USGF Gymnastics Safety Manual, 2nd edition, this course is designed to increase the participants' level of safety awareness. Gymnastics safety is everyone's responsibility- pre-school, age-group, high school, elite. Safety certification shows your commitment to coaching gymnastics and your athletes.

ACEP Sports Science Level II Accreditation I

Certifi cation Course &


Spotting The clinics will show demonstrations of spotting techniques for such skills as the back somersault with 1/1 turn, to giant swings. As an alternative to spotting, progressions using safety pits and uphill mats will be discussed. This year a new feature will be added to the spotting section-coaches may bring athletes (2-3) to participate at certain times in joint learning sessions. The athletes and the coaches will also have separate instructional classes. This will enable the coaches to learn along with the athletes.

Skill progressions Skills ranging from cast to handstand, flyaway, to giant swing will be taught in detail. Clinicians will provide a detailed technical analysis, spotting techniques and strength requirements.

Thursday 9:00-12:00 12:00- 1:30 1:30- 4:30 4:30- 6:00 7:00- 8:30 Friday 9:00-12:00 12:00- 1:30 1:30- 4:30 4:30- 6:00 6:30-10:00 Saturday 8:30-10:00 10:00- 1:00


Lunch Training Dinner Follmv-up


Lunch Training


ACEP Sporls Science Course: part 1 Workshop wrap-up ACEP Sports Science Course: part 2



Regional Elite Competition

PDP Level 1 Video Clinic

This certification is based on the book Successful Coaching. Coaches must attend an 8-hour clinic conducted by a certified ACEP instructor and complete all ACEP requirements. The course elaborates on critical coaching knowledge components including philosophy, psychology, physiology, and management.

Accommodations Housing and meals will be available at Camp Greenkill. The cost for these services has not yet been finalized . Information will be provided at a later date. The accomodations will be available to all workshop participants, including the coaches and athletes.

Sunday Regional Elite Competition Participants Depart

Add itional Dates and Sites to be announced in future issues of Techniqlle magazine.

USGF Summer Coaching Workshop-Early Registration Form June 23-26, Camp Greenkill, Hugenot, NY Nome _________________________________________ Address _______________________________________

Please indicate 011 progroms for which you ore registering: Pro-member Fees

City ___________________


Phone, day ______________ USGF Membership?



State ______

Zip _ _~

Phone, night _______________



Coaching Workshop Fee

Non-member Fees



Fee with eorly regishonon discount-

$ 90

$ 90


$ 70

$ 75

Sofety Certificonon Course & test

PDP level I

USGF Professional Number _ _ _ _~ SS # _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


Books, tes~ and Video Clinic

$ 30

$ 35

Club Represennng ___________________________________


Video Clinic Only

$ 5

$ 10


PDP Level II Sport Science Course

$ 60

$ 75


Women's Skill Evaluator Test

$ 9

$ 11


Do you wont informonon on othlete onendonce ?(fees and occommodonons) Informonon on housing ond meal cost> at Camp Greenkill will be moiled to registered workshop participant> at 0 later dote. If paying by credit cord o VISA 0 MosterCord Signature ________________________ Cord #

Expironon Dote _____________

Return this registration form to: USGF Educational Services, Pan American Plaza, Suite 300, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46225



- In order to receive the above discount, regishonon must be postmarked by April 15, 1993. Make Checks Payable to "USA Gymnosncs"



TECHNIQUE March 1993


Family and Social Trends: The New Customers of the 1990's and Beyond he typical private gymnastics club offered gymnastics instruction to those people who were interested in signing up for its services. The general attitude has always been, "1 can only sell my service to people who are interested in gymnastics lessons." A new approach may be that if people are not interested in buying the service from a club, the club had best adapt its services in order to meet the needs and expectations of potential customers. Many clubs have sold and promoted their programs based on an Olympic association. Clubs have tried to encourage membership participation through the idea of the Olympic dream. One of the reasons that clubs have continually tried to restructure the national program to allow for the competitive opportunity to begin as soon as possible is that the basis of their promotion and marketing has been competition. When the Women's Program used the Level 1-5 system, coaches and clubs were motivated to rush the athletes through the first year or so of preliminary gymnastics experience so that they could get them into competition as soon as possible. Most people felt that once they got a participant into the competitive program, there was an incentive and a motivation to stay. The new program currently in use allows the club to create intra-gym competition in Levels 1-4. We are continually requested to have and allow competitions at Level 4. The purpose of this is obvious-it is to create the competitive environment for a student as quickly as possible. This, most people feel, is an enticement that keeps children in programs. One of the key selling points in our sport is individuality. A child is allowed to progress at their own rate and at their own level. Many parents appreciate this and this in fact does allow for individual performance evaluation. While most sports that have a team basis to them tend to force ability groupings, gymnastics is saved from this by allowing an individual to progress at his / her own rate. There are some fascinating occurrences taking place right now regarding family spending and buying trends. In the late 1970's throughout the middle of the 1980' s, designer fashions and name brands were the most sought


Mike Jacki President, USA Gymnastics

One of the key selling points in our sport is individuality. A child is allowed to progress at his/her own rate at his/ her own level. Many parents appreciate this and this in fact does allow for individual performance evaluation.


after products. Logo and trademark identification became so important to consumers that name brands were virtually placed on every imaginable prod uct, whether or not there was an y connection between the product, the designer or the manufacturer. The most popular and expensive designer names were virtually attached to every conceivable good and service that was sold. Whether it was clothing, sporting goods, automobiles, video and audio equipment and a huge array of other products, goods and services. These buying trends have virtually ceased within the last eighteen months. Many of the top name brands whose sales skyrocketed in the 70's and 80's have filed for protection under bankruptcy law, have been bought out or consolidated or have simply reversed their price structure in order to stay in business. Granted, a few of the more expensive designer products and fashions are still in business. At the same time, their sales are flat, profits are down and they are getting beat not by competitors who sell similar products at similar prices, but rather competitors who are selling at the lowest discount and wholesale prices. A great deal of the buying trends that are normally directed by the general consumer are now being guided by family spending dictates. Families are finding it more and more difficult to keep up with accelerating costs, inflation and basic family needs in the most diverse market of consumable goods in history. At the same time, retailers and wholesalers are responding to these demands with price changes, product changes and appropriate advertising and marketing. While it was trendy and fashionable in the 70's and early 80's to buy designer clothes and pay the exorbitant prices that they charged, it is just as trendy and fashionable today to conserve the family finances, shop at the ever popular wholesale clubs, create family or community consortiums and buying groups and even be able to brag abou t the amount of money tha t you saved by not buying the most well-known and popular brands. Manufacturers and industry are followinยง, suit. They are advertising and promoting their low prices, their consumer mentality and their understanding of the plight of the American buyer. Even our most noble institutions like McDonald's March 1993 TECHNIQUE

Future Trends are continuing to offer special sale prices, daily discounts, kids-eat-free programs and other special incentives to attract and keep customers. Not only has this been effective, but McDonald's clientele is probably reaching its greatest diversification ever. There is no question that without proper market analysis, our private businesses will suffer. Our clubs are going to have to make significant changes in their operations and the way they plan and conduct their businesses. There is no question that this will effect the overall level of competition for a period of time. It would seem logical that once the clubs make this change, it should probably effect the quality of the competitive levels as well as the number of athletes for a period of six to ten years. After that time, those clubs that are willing to make a commitment to the competitive program will have the capability of training athletes at most any level.

The family as the consumer, purchaser and customer An analysis of the family unit is important as we look to the next decade. The family is going through numerous changes and diversifications. There are many single parent families and families that have two parents working. We are also finding that the trend of employment in the home is becoming much more popular and also possible. With current technologies such as computers, telephone modems and fax machines, more and more people are establishing businesses or bringing their own business to their home. Where the 70's and the 80's brought us the fitness boom, it is important to recognize that the focus of this was very much toward the young adult and personal fitness. As we move into the next decade, the family unit will play a much greater role in this area. Family fitness programs and opportunities will become increasingly popular and more children's programs will be available nationwide. Again, there are a number of reasons for this-with availability of such programs having a significant impact in the future. The other significant reasons include the family focus on children as well as the need for the famil y to spend more time together as a unit. Also helping to increase the interest in fitness is the new focus on nutrition. Greater emphasis will be placed on diet, food preparation and nutrition. Health and fitness centers will strategically offer family programs in order to allow "one stop shopping" for fitness . Again, this will become more necessary as fewer programs are offered to children through the public schools. Of course, we cannot forget the issue of rising health care costs.

TECHNIQUE March 1993

As the family unit becomes stronger, so will the identification of neighborhoods and the opportunity and need for community involvement. This will again assist the private gymnastics club as the club creates its own community and neighborhood identity. It w ill be necessary for the club to be looked upon in its main geographic marketing area as an asset to the community and a special resource that fulfills very specific needs and provides additional value to the quality of life. For this reason, the image of the club will change from a competitive sports program to a family fitness, environmental and sports center. The club will need to become a role model for the community. This will extend from the quality of the service that is provided, the ethics and professionalism of the staff, the decor, and physical appearance of the facility, to the club's support of local business, the club's presence at popular civic and educational programs to even the club's participation in recycling programs, community fund-raisers and other programs and projects that are part of the initiative of the community to improve the quality of life. While the services that are offered will still be the primary attraction of the business, it will no longer be possible for a club to survive in a vacuum and be successful. It will no longer be possible for a club to turn its head on the necessity for credentials, professional training, professional associations and influences as well as the need to establish associate relations with the health, medical and fitness communities and of course, other businesses. Again, to the extent that a club is able to adapt and incorporate these new trends in its business, this will determine the club's ability to grow and fit into the changing business climate during the next decade.

USA Gymnastics' role with private clubs -1993-2000 After an analysis of the private club business, consumer markets and the numerous changes that will take place in the sports marketplace during the next ten years, it is appropriate to better identify the role that USA Gymnastics must play in the future. It cannot be assumed that all of these changes will be easily adopted and understood by the private club industry. As mentioned previously, clubs are very traditional in nature. It has taken a great deal of time for clubs to make the changes that they have already made. Transitions are not simple-they tend to be costly, complicated to implement and frequently resisted by employees and employers alike. If a survey was conducted of the coaching community to determine what changes that they are likely to face during the next ten years, most of the answers would probably focus on competitive rules, judg-


It will no longer

be possible for a club to turn its head on the necessity for credentials, professional training, professional associations and influences as well as the need to establish associate relations with the health, medical and fitness communities and of course, other businesses.

Future Trends

USA Gymnastics will now have a specific responsibility to better prepare the clubs as businesses during the next decade and beyond. For this reason, efforts must be made in the area of marketing, public relations, media, advertising, event management, financial management, facility usage and long- and shortterm strategic planning.

ing regulations, equipment specification changes and issues regarding program structure and co~足 petition formats . They would p~obably.all.a?mIt that it is obvious that there wIll be sIgmfIcant changes in the business environment. At the same time, it would be interesting to see if they had the ability to forecast just what these changes. might be, or how their businesses will evolve dunng the next ten years. While USA Gymnastics has always assumed a responsibility to provide technical leadership, promotional considerations, education and safety programs and other areas of program support, USA Gymnastics will now have a specific responsibility to better prepare clubs as businesses during the next decade and beyond. For this reason, efforts must be made in the area of marketing, public relations, media, advertising, event management, financial management, facility usage and long- and short-term strategic planning. The details for each business will be quite specific to each particular enterprise, but the fundamentals will apply to most every club regardless of size and geographic location. Application of wellknown business principles will differ based on type of facility and content of program as well as specific areas of emphasis and interest. It is likely that it will be virtually impossible for a club to be financially successful by the end of the decade without a strong preschool! children's motor development program. These activities are the feeder system for numerous other programs that the club will offer. In addition, clubs have an opportunity to reach a very large population from which new customers will be solicited. Preschool! development programs are image builders within the community, usually of low risk in terms of insurance and risk protection and provide a unique vehicle to entice first-time customers that frequently will be accompanied by other f~mily members. This becomes a perfect opportumty to sell additional services at the same time. Other offerings that will become more popular are classes for cheerleaders and dancers. Virtually every elementary school, junior high school and high school has groups of cheerleaders, pompom girls, spirit leaders and numerous other dance and entertainment groups that perform at sports events and other school activities. For each girl participating in one of these programs, there are ten girls who are trying out or who wish to be involved. Classes such as these will become important because they can reach a client population that is frequently neglected by current gymnastics programs. Special sports classes will be another opportunity for the private gymnastics club to reach new and diverse populations. Exercise programs for golfers, tennis players, skiers, martial arts 42

participants and other sport enthusiasts can b( custom designed and easily incorporated in a gymnastics/ fitness environment. Increasingly, top level athletes are spending more time in preand post-season training to develop upper body strength, flexibility and agility, balance, eye-hand coordination and speed and power. Customized programs can be made available for these groups to be serviced by the local gymnastics center. Even today, gymnastics clubs are becoming diverse activity centers that offer a variety of programs serving a variety of client groups. Expansion will continue in order to allow private gymnastics clubs to maximize reach to as many diverse populations as possible. Obviously, some offerings are more appropriate and will naturally be more successful. At the same time, geography, area interest and specific demographic information will oftentimes dictate the potential popularity of certain programs and activities. For example, "get ready for the ski season" programs could prove to be a real hit in places like Salt Lake City, Denver, Boise and numerous other cities. The same can be said for other sports pre- and post-season programs targeting varying locations around the United States. As other future opportunities are identified, the specific role played by USA Gymnastics be comes clearer. USA Gymnastics needs to evaluate responsibilities, commit this to writing and begin strategic implementation of new programs in order to best serve the club population during the remainder of the decade and beyond.

Editor's note: This is the third ariticle in a four-part series

by USA Gymnastics President, Mike Jacki. The series presents Mr. Jacki's observations on the growth of the private gymnastics club industry and the sport of gymnastics as well as projects for further development. The first article, USA Gymnastics: Objective 2000, appeared in Technique, January, 1993, Vol. 13, #1, 39-41 . The second article, The Private Gymnastics Club: 1993 and Beyond, was published in Technique, February, 1993, Vol. 13, #2, 40-44. The final article will focus on some of the things that USA Gymnastics must do in order to provide the support so necessary for the future growth and development of the gymnastics club industry.

March 1993 TECHNIQUE

Rhythmic Minutes

PROGRAM COMl\1II'I'EE I. ROLL CALL Members Present: Candace Feinberg Norma Za bka Wendy Hilliard Marina Davidovich Maureen Broderick Nora Hitzel

Chairman, judge representati ve VP, RSG Athlete Representative Coaches Representative J.O. Program Representative Rhythmic Program Director (non-voting)

II. USGF OFFICE REPORT 1. Nu trition Education - All National Team Athletes were required to participate in the USOC diet ana lysis program. Prior to the Cha llenge, each athlete submitted a 3-dayd iary of food intake. Each a thlete attended a private counseling session w ith the USOC sport nutritionist at which time a d iet analysis was given and suggestions made for improvement. The sport nutritionist also a ttended a Na tional Team Coaches meeting and a joint athlete/coaches meeting. All Na tional Team Athletes w ill be required to participate in the USOC nutritional /d iet monitoring program throughout the year. Failure to participa te will result in w ithholding of Team 96 money. National Team coaches will be required to write out a sample diet that they advocate for their athletes and have it analyzed by the USOC to determine key nutrients that may be missing. Current information regarding the importance of wa ter intake during training w ill be sent to all Na tional Team Coaches. Formal ed ucation sessions for athletes, coaches, and parents will be held at the Junior Olympic Championships and Nationa l Championships. 2. Apparel - The new appa rel sponsor is Reebok. Na tional Team apparel will be sent to those at hletes and coaches w ho receive international assignments. A warm-up suit will also be supplied to athletes who qua lify for the Junior O lympic Championships. 3. Budget - All USGF departments were required to make budget





cuts from the 1993 budget because projected income has not materiali zed . Following a review of the initial cuts. further reductions ma y be requested. Girls, Inc. Na tiona l Rhythmic Program - Based upon a pilot program conducted in Indianapolis, the Rhythmic Gymnastics program a nd the Girls, Inc. Na tional office are working together to crea te a rhythmic curriculum and program for Girls. Inc. facilities throughout the country. Filming of the USGF Level 1-4 videos was completed in Janua ry. The video editing and writing of the printed supplements is currentl y being done. Projected completion of this project is August, 1993. A pilot program featuring rhythmic gymnastics as an intramural sport for girls in junior high schools is currently being discussed with a school district in Atlanta. A master' 5 competition using very modified rules has been successful in several countries. A survey of retired athletes will be conducted to d etermine the interest and feasibility of such an event in the U.s.

III. NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS 1. Juniors w ill follow the FIG Junior rules: 6 A's + 2 B'sand no risk for competition I, II, and III. (see appendix of FIG Code of Points) Competi tion I: All participants compete the FIG junior program (rope, ball, clubs, ribbon). The top 12 juniors (based upon all-around score) will adva nce to Competition II and the top 6 athletes from each event will adva nce to Competition III. Competition II: FIG Junior Competition II rules w ill be followed . Combined all-around scores from the preliminary and final all-around competition w ill determine the a ll-around champion and U.s. Na tional Team. Competition III: New life. FIG Junior Competition rules will be followed. NOTE: Competition III is a change from the information presented in the February, 1993 issue of Tec/",iqlle magazine. 2. Senio rs Competition I: FIG Competition I rules will be followed. All ath letes must compete the FIG program (hoop, ball, clubs, ribbon) and have the option of competing with the rope event. The top four scores will beadded together to determine the a llarou nd score. The top 15 seniors will advance to Competition II and the top 8 a thletes from each event will advance to Competition III. Competition II: FIG Competition rules will be followed. All a thletes will compete the FIG program only. The combined a llaround score from Competition I (4 events) and Competi tion II (4 events) will determine the all-around champion and the U.s. Na tional Team Members.

TECHNIQUE March 1993

Competition III: New Life. FIG Competition II rules w ill be followed. NOTE: Competition III is a change from the information presented in the February, 1993 issue of Tec/",iqlle magazine. IV. TRAINING CAMPS Fourofthe seven OTC requests were approved. In order to maximize the training center use, further eva lua tion is needed to determine the most appropria te training camp dates for specific levels. A World Championships training camp will be held in Lake Placid four days prior to departure for Alicante, Spain. A National Team training camp will be scheduled during the summer. If the scheduling can be made so that there is no major conflict with other events, it will be a required training camp for athletes and coaches. V. OLYMPIC SPORTS FESTIVAL The Na tional Team (IO seniors, 8 juniors) will be invited to the Festival. It will be new life competition. The seniors will compete five events w ith the top four events counting as the all-around score. The eight highest placing all-around seniors w ill adva nce to the World Championships trials. VI. WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS The goal established for the 1993 World Championships is to advance one all-around ath lete to competition II and to obtain a team placement of between 10 and 15. Because of the nature of the new format for the World Championships a selection strategy must be d esigned that will maximize at hletes strengths in relation to the overall goa ls. The top two all-around ath letes from the World Championships trials will beassured a position on the team. Athletes w ho place 1-4 in the events will be considered as additional team members. The specific selection policies w ill be determined immediately following the Na tional Championships. , VII. INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM COMPETITION ASSIGNMENTS April 16-18 7th Rhythmic Tournament, Portimao, POR Seniors: Jessica Davis and Sall y Ward Coach: Marina Davidovich 'Judge: Ellen Nyemcsik Apri11 7-18 7th International Tournament, DeVenissieux, FRA Juniors: Lori Fredrickson and Jennifer Lim Coach: Lana Lashoff Judge: Maureen Broderick April 24-25 DTB Rhythmic Tournament, Karlsruhe, GER Senior: Brooke Bushnell Coach: Jan Exner Judge: Helena Greathouse May 1-2Xth Medico Cup, Feldkirch, Austria Seniors: Brooke Bushnell and Tamara Levinson Coach: Catherine Yakhimovich Jud ge: Rosa Litva May 14-16 Corbeil International Tournament, Corbeil, FRA Seniors: Caroline Hunt and Christie Tucay Coach: Alia Svirsky Judge: Hana Christie 'judges selected by judges selection committee. VIII. 1994 RHYTHMIC CHALLENGE The Challenge was origina lly orga ni zed as a National Team Competition. Over the yea rs a few a t-large athletes have been invited to this competition, the age and level of the at-large invited a thletes dependent upon the makeup of the current Na tional Team. Because of athlete misunderstanding about the nature of this competition wi th regard to the at-large invitations" the decision was made that in the future the competition will be held for only Na tiona l Team members. At large athletes will not be invited. IX. USA RHYTHMIC GROUP Kary n Lyon presented a proposal for the Wo rld Championships Group Team '94. The plan is dependent upon obtaining training space for the months of July and Augustof 1993. The Olympic Training Center request for this program has been denied. Hitzel w ill pursue other possible training options. X. NATIONAL GROUP COMPETITION Karyn Lyon presented a proposal for a National Group Competition that follows a format similar to one followed in Spain. The proposal was approved in concept, Hitzel w ill work further with Lyon do design a more specific format. NOTE: J.O. Level 7If an athlete has chosen to do the optional hoop routine, she must perform the compulsory elements of the routine as described in Tec/llliqlle, Jul y 1992 a nd the 6/92 Compulsory Book Add ition.


February 22, 1993 Colorado Springs, CO

Submitted by: Nora Hitzel Approved: Mike Jacki, February, 1993

Men's Minutes

MENSPROGRAM CoMMITTEE Originally scheduled for 2 p. m., the meeting was moved to immediately afte r the Ad Hoc Meeting in order to allow for expeditious ha ndling of Agenda Item 7. Bill Roetzheim, Chairman, convened the meeting a t 12:33 p.m. in the Rocky Mountain Room of the Olympic Training Center. I. ROLLCALL

Members Present: Bill Roetzheim Jim Howard Jim Hartung Mas Watanabe

1993 Winter Cup Meeting Colorado Springs Sunday, February 7, 1993

Francis Allen Art Shurlock Dennis McIntyre Kevin Mazeika Robert Cowa n

FIG/ MTC Representa tive-Chairman Vice President for Men Athletes Cou ncil Representative USG F Men's Technica l Director (Voice, no vote) Elite Coaches Representati ve Elite Coaches Representa ti ve junior Coaches Representative Junior Coaches Representa tive Men's Prog ram Director (Voice, no vote)

Members Absent: None

Guests: There were many guests, including the Ad Hoc Committee members, the President of the USGF, a nd others. II. Motion to move th is item to later in the agenda and bring forward agenda item seven. Motion - J. Ha rtung Second - A. Shurlock Passed - Unanimously VII . REVIEW OF AD HOC COMMITTEE ACTIONS Bill Roetzheim gave the background for w hy, w hen and how the Ad Hoc committee was formed and stated that in the meeting w hich bega n at 8 a.m . the Plan which had been the product of the Ad Hoc Committee had been amend ed in the following manner: 1. Funding for top Junior coaches was modified and expanded . 2. A talent identification program was consid ered. 3. Alternate fundin g for top clubs w hich continually produce talented gymnasts. 4. Preparation ca mps outlined in the Plan are now mandatory for team members. 5. Elimination of Page 9 which d eals w ith structure and accountability. Robert Cowa n explained that he had been charged by the Ad Hoc Committee w ith creating a document to be used for the changes w hich the Board of Directors and Executive Committee wanted to see in the Men's Progra m. He took the minutes from the Ad Hoc meeting, the other materials sent in by va rious indi viduals and the experience he had gained from his position and wrote a paper. Mr. Jacki also wrote a paper and the decision was made to use Mr. Jacki's paper w hich was less d eta iled and easier to comprehend and mesh the two concepts togethe r. This d ocument was then modified eleven times, w ith Mizoguchi being the actual person who did the computer work. However, the central theme was for accountability if the pla n did not work and the me n's prog ra m did not achieve the goals of the Board a nd the Executi ve Committee, na mely being a meda l contending tea m in 1996. Mr. Roetzheim summed up that the work of the Ad Hoc Committee is completed and the committee is disband ed. He also sa id tha t he believes that in conversa tio ns ,,,'ith var io us n1cmbcrs o f the MPC, tha t

the consensus of the Men's Prog ra m Committee is that the plan is good , but, there still need s to be some source of accountability for success/ failure. At this pOint he offe red to go through the document page by page and this was d one. Page one d ea ls with the philosophy and goa ls and objectives for the quad re nnium . The question was posed if everyone was comfortable with thi s page. j. Howard stated tha t 3rd place in the team position was remotely possibl e. He also sta ted that most of the plan was redunda nt,


as ma ny of these thi ngs are already being do ne or have been stated in the Goals and Objectives crea ted by the Men's Progra m Administrator. This was genera lly agreed upon, but, felt that it was the task of the Ad Hoc to com plete a n all encompassi ng d ocumen t w hich represented the goa ls and plans for success in the quadrennium . The document was then d ea lt w ith page by page. Various individuals w ho had actually crea ted the docume nt defended or addressed the various points raised by the MPC members during the page by page a nalysis. Page 3 - " need to d etail the respo nsibilities of variou s groups referred to in educa tion." Page 5 - "concerns about dollars fo r incenti ves and retaining a thletes eligibility, concerns about being able to pay athletes where NCAA elig ible or not." Francis Allen feels this can be done. There was a great deal of discussion at this point, about exactly how each indi vidual had interpreted various sections. Often times, intent had been read into the statements w hich upon review, was clearly not stated or not there. Bill Roetzheim mentioned that a meeting of Mike Jacki and several Junior coaches present had resulted in areas 4,5, 11 o f the Education section being re-worked w ith input from these individuals and would be inserted in these places. Kevin Mazeika had a n additional proposa l that is critical to education section and this w ill be added. Under the Section III-International Performa nce, the MPC d esires that the names for the Colorad o Springs be removed and tha t tl- stringent USOC guidelines for athlete selection be included . F ther, #6 need s to be expanded to include other centers. Under the Section V-Marketing, many questions were asked by jim Howard a nd Francis Allen. Mike Jacki responded to these questions. On page 11, item 9, the cash incenti ves will be eliminated . Then the discussion turned to the last section which is the ca lendar. The d iscussion centered arou nd the training ca mps, their leng th, open opportunities. A lot of discussion a bout mandatory camps should be changed to voluntary camps. Even the prepa ration camps. Finally, Item IV-Administra tion and the infa mo us page 9 was addressed . Everyone understa nds the need to improve, but, who is going to be held accountable for failure to improve? Committees cannot be held accountable nor, can they be fired . A motion by A. Shurlock a nd seconded by D. McIntyre to accept the plan and put the Men's Progra m Director in charge of implementing it, was w ithdrawn. It was sta ted that a ll details of the plan, including personnel, their job responsibilities, to w hom they report, the termination of their duties a nd every d etail must be in black a nd w hite before the Men's Program Committee can accept the plan and d esign a pla n for implementation and determine who is to be accountable. It was then agreed that all substantive changes to the plan would be mad e and the d ocument would be re-submitted to the MPC and a meeting at the McDonald's American Cup would be conducted to d eal w ith this a rea. Mike Donahue stated tha t the Executive Committee must see the plan completion by end of March. At this point, the Ad Hoc Committee left and the agend a of the MPC was followed . II. REPO RTS 1. Olympic Training Center - R. Cowan reported tha t the Director of the Gymnastics Prog ram a t the OTe, Ron Bra nt had asked for permission to use part of the fund s in the budget for the hiring o f an assistant coach, w hich appeared to be 6 months from fruiti on, ( the purpose of providing college tuition to those athletes, wished to remain at the OTC upon completion of high schoo . , . Howa rd stated that the USOC had Tuition Assistance Grants and this avenue should be pursued first. No action was taken. 2.

FIG - B. Roetzheim annou nced tha t he had just returned from an FIG meeting in Birmingham and that the Kip-cast to stald er is now

March 1993 TECHNIQUE

a deduction anywhere in the routine. At the World Championships, all athletes are split 50% over two da ys. Nations who have three athletes will have their third athlete drawn for either day. So, the USA will ha ve one athlete one day and two ath letes another. Hopefull y, the two ath letes will be on the second day. Roetzheim also announced that there is to be a coaches/judges symposium in Lugano, Switzerland in September. The purpose is to see how effective and implementable Hardy Fink's Code for 1997 may be. The USA is to run a trial test of the Code with various individuals which Mr. Roetzheim hasselected. j. Scheer will correlate the material from these practice sessions. III. ATHLETE ASSIGNMENTS 1.

Paris Bercy-Trent Dimas has until Wednesday, at 5 p.m. to accept the assignment. Otherwise, no ath lete will go.


USA / japan-Top 4 Compulsory and optional from Winter Cup in rank order. MOTION - A. Shurlock SECOND - j. Howard


Cottbus-rank order-Optionals only from Winter Cup MOTION - A. Shurlock SECOND - j. Howard No other events were accepted. Clarification of assignments: 1.

World Championsh ips-Top 3 rank order optiona ls only from Winter Cup. Motion that Tim Daggett will be assistant coach to Ed Burch. MOTION - j . Hartung SECOND - A. Shurlock PASSED - Unanimously


American Cup-john Roethlisberger, USA Champion; Lance Ringnald, Winter Cup; jarrod Hanks, Defend ing Am. CupChampion;Gregg Curtis, Winter Cup C& o Champion; Scott Keswick, highest finisher interna-

tionally; Chris Waller, Winter Cu p. Plus personal coaches.

MOTION - A. Shurlock SECOND - j. Howard PASSED - Unanimously IV. PETITIONS 1.

Bill Roth petition Motion to accept Bill Roth's petition to the National Team unranked . MOTION - j. Hartung SECOND - F. Allen PASSED

Motion to place athletes on National Team unranked who are given assignments based on previous rank or Winter Cup optionals. (Hanks, Keswick, Waller, Ringnald) for the purpose of American Cup, World Championships, World University Games Trials or other events as requested. MOTION - K. Ma zeika SECOND - F. Allen PASSED V. TEAM LEADER POSITION R. Cowan explained that he had been given a directive by his supervisor, Vice-President, Allison Melangton to select an alternate individual to be Team Leader for the World University Games and for subsequent even ts, such as Pan Am Games and Olympic Games. The USOC wants the NGB administrator and the USGF does not want these individuals due to concern over time out of the office. Names such as Mike Milidonis and Tim Daggett had been suggested by the USGF and Abie Grossfeld was discussed by the MPC. However, the MPC made the following suggestion. Motion that the MPC unanimously recommends the retention of the Men's Program Director as the Team Leader for the USOC events, as requested by the USOc. If this is not acceptable to the USGF President, A. Grossfeld is the second choice. MOTION - D. Mcln tyre SECOND - A. Shurlock PASSED - Unanimously 2.

VI. ELECTION STRATEGY FOR BOARD OF DIRECTORS This was actua lly dealt with by the Elite Coaches and j. Hartung will be the candidate for the At-Large pOSition for the spring election. Candidates for the Vice-Chair position which are being considered are: j. Holt, A. Grossfeld , and M. Yancey. VIII. NEW BUSINESS 1. Clarification of World University Games Trials qualifi ers from Winter Cup. All team members (Senior, Sen ior Development and junior Elite) are eligible. 2. R. Cowan presented the National Appa ratus Leaders program which was included in the Ad Hoc plan and which had been initiated at the Continental Course. Motion to accept the NAL Proposal with Mas's actions letter. Place Robert Cowan's job description for these individuals on hold until American Cup. MOTION - j. Howard SECOND - K. Mazeika PASSED 3.

Representation on the Men's Program Committee. Motion that in the future, the Men's Program Committee should only have representation by individuals with one club/program being represented . Exception is the Athletes Representative. MOTION - A. Shurlock SECOND - K. Mazeika DEFEATED - 2-5

d . FIG Intercontinental Course delegates shou ld have been dealt with by MPC. MPC reviewed the ca ndidates and approved B. Roetzheim's selections (ex post facto). Motion to adjourn. MOTION - J. Howard SECOND - K. Mazeika PASSED The lIIeeting adjollrlled at 3:30 p.lII. Milllltes approved: Mike fa cki, 2/93

Women's Minutes


Region I

Julie Knight

Region II

Brad Loan (absent)

Region JII

Kristie Krafft (voted la ter)

Region IV

Diane Stockard

Region V

Gary Warren

Senior National qualifying score (69.00 AA) MAY ENTER THE CLASSIC AS A NATIONAL SENIOR. MOTION - J. Knight SECOND - G. Anderson PASSED 40 International Senior gymnasts are guaranteed to the Classic Meet.

Region VI

Byron Knox

Region VII

Gary Anderson

If 40 athle tes do not reach the qualifying score, 36.00 AA Optionals-only for Sr. National Team Members

Region VJII

Elaine Thompson

71.00 AA Comp / Opt-for all athletes


Audrey Schweyer

the remaining slots will be filled first by 1992 Senior National Team Members, providing their optional score is grea ter than the optional score of the nex t highes t qualifier below a 71.00 AA. All rema ining slots will be filled in rank order following the above system. Any athlete w ho becomes qualified through the "g uarantee" MAY NOT ELECT TO COMPETE IN THE CLASSIC MEET AS A NATIONAL SENIOR.

(did not get message) RPCC

Roe Kreutzer


Kathy Kelly


Kathy Kell y ex plained that the purpose of the conference ca ll

las to clarify competi ti ve options for the Seni or International / Senior Nationa l Divisions. Recommendation that any athlete who registers and competes in the Senior International Division and does not reach the International qualifying score for Classics, but does reach the

TECHNIQUE March 1993

Other levels do not have the option of changing levels between the regionals and the classics.

If you have any questions, please call your REPC, R. Kreutzer or A. Schwayer. Thank you l

Min/lles approved by: Mike fa cki, 2/93


Conference Call February 15, 1993 12:00 noon

Men's Minutes

J.D. PROGRAM Conference Call February 15, 1993 The ca ll was put up at 9:15 p.m. EST. I. ROLLCALL

Members Present:

These minutes are true and accurate to the best of my knowledge. Robert Cowan, Acting Secretary in T. Fontecchio's absence. Minutes approved by M. Jacki, USA Gymnastics President, 2/ 93.

Hiroshi Fujimoto

Reg. I Chair.

Scott Morrow

Reg. II. Chair.

Gilbert Elsass

Reg. III Chair.

Ralph Druecke

Reg. IV Chair.

Ray Gura

Reg. V Chair.

Brian Babcock

Reg. VII Chair.

Ron Clemmer

Reg. VIII Chair.

Mike Davis

Reg. IX Chair.

Dennis McIntyre

JOPC Rep. to MPC

Kevin Mazeika

JOPC Rep. to MPC

George Beckstead

NGJA J.O. Vice president

Hideo Mizoguchi

Men's Asst. Technical Dir. (voice, no vote)

Robert Cowan

Men's Program, Acting Chair. for JOPC (voice, no vote)

Members Absent: Tom Fontecchio Guest: Sandy McDonald

Reg. VI Chair., JOPC Secretary Host for 1993 J.O. Nationa ls (voice, no vote)

II. PURPOSE Mr. Cowan opened the call with an explanation of the concern about establishing a qualifying score for the 1993 ).0. Nationals and yet the lack of adequate information and statistics to accurately predict a score for Jr. Elite I's and Jr. Elite II's w hich would provide adequate representation from the program AND finan cial stability for the competition. Cowa n then referred to Mr. Gura's affi rmation action document wh ich proposed a change in the qualifying format. Na mely tha t the performance based system of score achievement be rescind ed for 1993 ONLY and that a percentage of membership per region be used for the basis of qualifica tion. Gura had prepared a very extensive and well researched document which had been circulated to all JOPC members. In addition, Druecke had sent in an amendment to Gura's proposal, although not all the JOPC members had received this, given the President's Day attenuated mail service. Fujimoto also had faxed a d ocument to H . Mizoguchi w hich others had not seen. This document was a proposed amendment and clarifica tion to Gura's proposal. This proposal on ly d ea ls w ith Jr. Eli te I's and II's (14-1 5). Class Ill's and Jr. Elite II's (1 6-18) ONLY QUALIFY BY VIRTUE OF REG IONAL TEAM STATUS. With this preface, the members of the committee spoke in order beginning w ith the Region I Chairman so forth until all had presented their views. Two of the members wanted a score based system, two wanted modifications in the proposa l and the remainder were in favor of the proposal from Gura. Committee Chairman, Cowan, then ca lled for a vote on changing the forma t of qualifying to the 1993 ).0. Nationals. Motion that for the 1993 J.O. Nationals ONLY, amend the qualifying procedure to use membership based regional qualifying percentages instead of the performance based qualifying score. MOTION - H. Fujimoto SECOND - B. Babcock PASSED -10-1


III. PROPOSAL" AU VS. PROPOSAL "B" An explanation of the Proposa l A and Proposal B by Gura was heard as well as an explanation of the p roposed amendments by Druecke and Fujimoto. Concern d ealt with ad equate numbers of representation by each Region, how to deal w ith petitions and other ancillary, but important issues. Cowa n expressed the opinion that petitions should be dealt with as a separate issue and gave some historical perspective on numbers of petitions annually. Two of the members wanted a score based system, two wa nted modifications in the proposa l and the remainder were in favor of the proposal by Gura . Cha irman Cowan then called for a vote on changing the forma t of qua lifica tion to the 1993 J.O. Nationals. Motion that for the 1993 J.O. Nationals ONLY, amend the qualifying procedure to use membership based regional percentages instead of the performance based qualifying score. MOTION - H. Fujimoto SECOND - B. Babcock PASSED - 10-1 Then an explanation of the Proposa l A and Proposal B by Gura was hea rd as well as an explanation of the proposed a mendments by Druecke and Fujimoto. Concern dealt w ith adequate numbers of representation by each Region, how to deal wi th petitions and other ancillary, but importa nt issues. Cowan expressed the opinion that petitions should be dealt with as a separate issue and gave some historical perspective on numbers petitions annually. The onus must be on the Regional Chairmen insure that petitions have merit before consideration. NO rules ca .. insure correct moral behavior from our coaches, if they are inclined to abuse the system. Also,a proposed concept of having petitions "bump" a qualified athlete was rejected, due to time constraints, possibly costing an ath lete an air ticket a nd potential litiga tion concerns. Motion to accept Gura's Proposal A. Petitions to be dealt with separately. MOTION _S. Morrow SECOND - M. Davis Discussion ensued about expanding the numbers and a vote was ca lled. FAILED - 4 for, 5 against, 2 abstentions Motion to accept Gura's Proposal B with 110 athletes as the base for Jr. Elite I and II qualification to J.O. Nationals '93. Petitions to be dealt with separately. MOTION - G. Elsass SECOND - R. Druecke FAILED - 4 for, 5 against, 2 abstentions Motion to accept Gura's Proposal A with 110 athletes as the base for Jr. Elite I and II qualification to J.O. Nationals for 1993 ONLY. Petitions to be dealt with separately. MOTION - R. Gura SECOND - S. Morrow PASSED - Unanimously Summarily, there w ill be4 Regional teams of 54 athletes each: Class III (9 x 6 = 54), Jr. Elite II 16-18 (9 x 6 = 54), and Jr. Elite II 14-15 (9 x 6 = 54) for a Total of 216 GUARANTEED athletes in the competition. In addi tion, a percentage for each Region, up to an add itiona l 56 a thletes for Jr. Elite I and Jr. Elite II (14-1 5) will be qualified . Finally, petitions of very high merit w ill be considered. This cou ld eventuate in a ).0. Nationals with 340-350 a thletes. The exact percentages per Region, a nd the associated numbers of athletes in each class, w ill be determined by Gu ra by March 1, 1993. IV. CLOSING There being no further business, Cowan sincerely thanked all f members fo r their business-like manner and continued devotion ' service to the USA Gymnastics Junior Program. Motion to adjourn. MOTION - S. Morrow SECOND - H. Fujimoto PASSED - Unanimously The Conference Ca ll ended at 10:03 p.m . EST.

March 1993 TECHNIQUE


Star t N o . D a te daIs 3/18/93 3/21/93 1 3/25/93 5 7 3/25/93 3/25/93 2 3 3/26/93 3/27/93 1 4/2/93 1 4/3/93 4/8/93 3 4/ 12/93 1 4/13/93 6 4/15/93 3 4/16/93 2 4/17/93 1 4/17/ 93 2 4/24 /93 5 4/24/93 1 4/24/93 1 4/30/93 4 1 5/1 /93 1 5/1 /93 5/6/93 4 5/7 /93 3 1 5/10/93 5/13/93 4 5/21/93 4 5/22/93 1 5/30/93 2 *5/TBA *5/TBA 6/4/93 3 6/4/93 3 6/12/93 2 6/12/93 7 6/17/93 27 4 6/17/93 6/17/93 4 6/19/93 1 6/20/93 33 6/23/93 5 2 6/26 /93 6/30/93 4 7/8/93 12 7/17/93 2 7 7/20/93 7/23/93 10 7/29/93 7 7/31/93 1 7/TBA 8/5/93 12 8/6/93 4 8/25/93 4 8/28/93 3 8/TBA 9/9/93 4 4 9/30/93 10/3/93 1 10/15/93 2 10/28/93 4 10/TBA 2 11/4/93 4 11 / TBA 11 /TBA 11/12/93 4 12/TBA 2 2/4/94 1 3/26/94 *3/TBA

DiscipEvent line ~W International ~as ters Tournament ~WR Safety Certi ficatio n Course 00:30 a. m .-4:30 p.m . W America n Classic Na tionals MW Gymnastics Challenge: USA/JPN ~W V Tournament of France ~WR International Fair Cu p ~WR Safety Certifica tion Course (10:00 a.m .-3:30 p. m .) ~WR Safety Certification Course (12 noon-6:00 p.m.) ~W NCAA Regionals MVV USA Gymnastics Collegiate Championships W USA Gymnastics Nat'l Invitational Tournament ~W World Championships (Individual App.! AA) W NCAA National Championships ~ NCAA National Championships MWR Safety Certification Course 02:00 noon-6:00 p.m.) W J.O. Level 9 + 10 Regional ~eets ~WR 108th Annual Convention of AAHPERD MWR Safety Certification Course (3:00-9:00 p .m.) ~WR Safety Certification Course (8:00 a.m.-2:00p.m.) ~WR 9th Annual Scottish Gymnastics Festival ~WR Safety Certifica tion Course 02 noon-7:00 p. m.) W World University Games Trials ~ J. O. Na tionals W J.O. Na tional - Level 9 ~WR Safety Certifica tion Course (8:00 a .m.-1:00 p .m.) W J.O. Na tional - Level 10 ~ Sr. ~en's Team Training Ca mp ~WR Safety Certifica tion Cou rse (9:00 a.m .-4:00 p.m.) R J.O. Na tionals - Rh ythmic ~W Pro-Am Invitational ~W International Pro-Am Exhibition R U.s. Rhythmic Championships W WTC Symposium ~ World University Games Trials ~ Age Group Development Team Camp ~ World University Team Prepration Camp W Region VII Mini-Congress MWR ACEP National Conference (Coaching America's Coaches) ~WR Safety Certification Course (9:00 a.m.-2:00 p.m.) ~ ~en's Senior National Team Camp XVIII American Sokol Slet W Regional Elite ~eets W NA WGJ National Symposium MW World UniverSi ty Games 0 gymnastics session per day) W Regional Elite Meets ~ Junior Elite I & II Development Camp ~WR U.s. Olymp ic Festival M Regional Development Ca m p ~W R Safety Certifi ca tion Cou rse (10:00 am-2:00 p.m.) W Elite Judges Course ~ Jr. National Team Camp W U.s. Classic Nationals ~W U.s. Championships MVV International Gymnastics Symposium Triangular Event: USA/UKR/BLR ~WR USA Gym nastiCS Na tional Congress W Region V ~ ini-Congress MWR Safety Certification Course 00:00 a.m.-6:00 p.m.) W ~chigan State Congress Olympic Congress of the USA MVV USA Gymnastics Triangular Event (USA/UKR/BIE) R Rhythmic World Champions hips ~W Chunichi Cup W Ca tania M Jr. Team Olympic Development Program Eva lua ti on ~W DTB Pokal ~ USA Gymnastics Winter Cup Challenge ~ NCAA Regionals ~W ~cDonald's American Cup Tenative

TECH N IQUE Ma rch 1993


City Cottbus Lenexa TBA Japan Paris Ha nnover Louisville Phoenix Various Sites Springfield Cape Girardeau Birmingham Corvallis Albuquerque Clearwater Various Washington Petaluma Layton Perth Churchville Salt Lake City Ann Arbor Colo. Spgs. Ed ina Baltimore Colo . Spgs. Chicago Colo. Spgs. Reno TBA Colo. Spgs. Las Vegas Colo.Spgs. Colo.Spgs. Colo. Spgs. Birmingham Indianapolis Stroudsburg Colo. Spgs. Various sites Orlando Buffalo Various sites Colo. Spgs. San Antonio Colo. Spgs. Columbus TBA Colo. Spgs. Austin Salt Lake City Ankara TBA Atlanta Ci ncinnati Flemington Rochester New York TBA Alican te Nagoya Ca tania Colo. Spgs. Stuttgart Colo. Spgs. TBA TBA

STI C O Contact GER KS Ja mes Ged ney Ka thy Kelly JPN Mike Juszczyk FRA GER KY Kevin Spencer A2 Hiroshi Fujimoto

Phone 913-469-5554 201-586-1808 317-237-5050

502-426-2214 408-373-1694



GBR Mike Juszczyk OR




Karl Bishop 813-447-2108 317-237-5050 Connie ~aloney ~. Kotowski 703-476-3466 DC CA Hiroshi Fujimoto 408-373-1694 UT Blake Starr 801-544-0854 SCOT Bill Don (0324) 612308 VA Scott Ga uthi er 703-568-3684 UT Ka thy Kelly 317-237-5050 MI Robert Cowan 317-237-5050 CO Connie Ma loney 317-237-5050 ~N Julia Thompson-Aretz 612-890-9020 MD Con nie Ma loney 317-237-5050 Robert Cowan 317-237-5050 CO IL M. Kimes 312-347-6770 Nora Hitzel317-237-5050 CO NV Mike Juszczyk 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 Mike Juszczyk CO Nora Hitzel 317-237-5050 N~ Kathy Kelly 317-237-5050 CO Robert Cowan 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 CO Robert Cowan CO Robert Cowan 317-237-5050 AL Hoylene Noble 404-386-0012 IN ACEP 217-351-5076 PA Bruno Klaus 717-629-0244 317-237-5050 CO Robert Cowan IL 708-795-0539 Jackie Kourim Kathy Kelly 317-237-5050 FL Rene Niccollai 305-755-9197 NY Cowa n / Kelly 317-237-5050 Kathy Kelly 317-237-5050 CO Robert Cowan 317-237-5050 TX 719-632-5551 USOC CO Robert Cowa n 317-237-5050 OH Bobbi ~o nta nari 614-957-1279 Ka thy Kelly 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 CO Robert Cowan TX Kathy Kelly 317-237-5050 UT 317-237-5050 Mike Juszczyk (4) 310 44 70 TUR Atilla Orsel 317-237-5050 Mike Juszczyk GA Ka thy Brown 317-237-5050 OH Jeff Metzger 201 -586-1808 NJ Cathy Finkel ~I Judy Freiheit 313-742-2151 NY USOC 719-632-5551 317-237-5050 Mike Juszczyk ESP Nora Hitzel 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 JPN Cowa n /Kelly ITA Ka thy Kelly 317-237-5050 Robert Cowa n 317-237-5050 CO GER Cowan/Kelly 317-237-5050 CO Robert Cowan 317-237-5050 Mike Juszczyk



Non-profit Organization U.5. Postage PAID Permit No. 7867 Indianapolis, IN

USA GYl11nastics

SAFETY CERTIFICATION Safety Certification Courses Friday, March 5, 1993 Orlando, FL -9:00am-3:00pm Radisson Plaza Hotel Orlando 60 South Ivanhoe Blvd. Orlando, FL 32804 Course Dir.: D. Moskovitz (317) 237-5050 This course will be held in conjunction with the 1993 McDonald's American

Cup. Sunday, March 7, 1993 Hudson, OH -12pm-5:00pm Western Reserve Academy Hudson, OH 44236 Course Dir: Bobbi Montanari (614) 457-1279 Sunday, March 21, 1993 Lenexa, KS-1O:30am-4:30pm Elite Gymnastics Club 13600 West 108th St. Lenexa, KS 66215 Course Dir.: James Gedney (913) 469-5554 Saturday, March 27, 1993 Louisville, KY-1 0:00am-3:30pm Louisville Gymnastics Club 3600 Chamberlain Lane, Suite 210 Louisville, KY 40241 Course Dir.: Kevin Spencer (502) 426-2214 Friday, April 2, 1993 Phoenix, AZ-12:00 noon-6:00pm Phoenix Airport Hilton 2435 S. 47th St. Phoenix, AZ 85034 Course Dir.: Hiroshi Fujimoto (408) 373-1694 Local Contact: Brock Anstine (602) 730-8911

2. Layton, UT-8:00am-2:00pm North Davis Gymnastics 80 W . Gentile Layton, UT 80041 Course Dir.: Blake Starr (801) 544-0854 Monday, May 1, 1993 Churchville, VA - 12 noon-7:00pm Northern Virginia Gymnastics Academy, 22446 Davis Dr., Suite 109, Sterling, VA 20164 Course Dir.: Scott Gauthier (703) 568-3684 Monday, May 10, 1993 Edina, MN - 8:00am-1:00pm TAGS-Edina, 5201 Eden Circle, Edina, MN 55436 Course Dir.: Julia Thompson-Aretz (612) 890-9020 Saturday, May 22,1993 Chicago, IL - 9:00am-4:00pm Whitney-Young High School, 210 S. Loomis, Chicago, IL 60607 Course Dir.: M. Kimes (312) 347-6770 Saturday, June 19, 1993 Stroudsburg, P A - 9:00 am-2.00 pm International Gymnastics Camp, Golden Slipper Rd ., Stroudsburg, PA 18360

Course Dir.: TBD Local Contact: B. Klaus (717) 629-0244 Saturday, July 31,1993 Columbus, OH -10:00am-2:00pm Radisson Hotel Columbus North 4900 Sinclair Rd., Columbus, OH 43229 Course Dir.: Bobbi Montanari (614) 457-1279 Sunday, October 3, 1993 Flemington, NJ-10:00am-6:00pm Gymnastics Unlimited RD #5 Box 80, Flemington, NJ 08822 Course Dir.: C. Finkel (201) 586-1808 1. The text book for the Certi~cotion Course is the USGF GYMNASOCS SAFETY MANUAL This text/reference manual is 10 be purchased and studied prior 10 course participation. ; 2. The course will toke approximately six hours, including the test. 3. Certi~cation is good for four years. 4. The Course/examination fee is $100.00. USA Gymnastics members and second cycle recertification is $75.00. Retest cost is $25.00. For groups of at least 5, contact the USA Gymnastics Department of Sofety and Education .


r-------------------------, Participation Registration Form T393

Name: Mr. / Mrs./ Ms._ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _S, oc. Sec. #_ _ _ _ __ Address: _ __ __ _ __ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ City: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ ____ State:_ _ __ __ .Zip _ _ __ Telephone: (H) _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ (B) _ _ _ __ _ __ _ _ Course Director: ____ _ __ _ __ __ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ __ Course Location: _ _ _ __ _ __________ Date: _ _ _ __

Saturday, April 17, 1993 Clearwater, FL-12:00 noon-6:00pm Apollo School of Gymnastics 2140 Range Road, Unit G. Clearwater, FL 34625 Course Dir.: Karl Bishop (813) 447-2108

Organization Represented: _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ If USA Gymnastics Member, List Type and Number_ __ _ _ _ __ _

Saturday, April 24, 1993 1. Petaluma, CA - 3:00-9:00 pm Redwood Empire Gymnastics 434 Pay ran St., Petaluma, CA 93940 Course Dir.: H. Fujimoto, (408) 373-1694 Local Contact: Steve Klotz (707) 778-0529

Mail Registration Form and Payment to: USA Gymnastics Safety, Pan American Plaza, Suite 300,201 S. Capitol, Indianapolis, IN 46225

Form of Payment: D Check D Visa 0 Mastercard Name on Card: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Number: _ _ __ _ _ _ __ Expiration Date: _____ Signature: _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ Please make checks payable in full to USA Gymnastics Safety Certification

I I DO NOT WRITE BELOW THIS LINE â&#x20AC;˘ FOR OFFICE USE ONLY I Registration Form Received: _ _________________ I L _________________________ ~ Confirmation Mailed: I

Technique Magazine - March 1993  
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