Page 1

USA GymnastiGs

1993 USA Gymnaestrada Enhancemen t of Coaching Effectiveness The Role of Science in Sport Express Assumption of Risk in Youth Sports Muscular Strength and the Young Gymnast 20 Dance Exercises Teaching a Gaylord 2 Equipment Liability and the Coach Third Cycle of Safety Certification

EDUCATIONAL MATERIALS I Rhythmic Gymnastics-Level 1-4 Program

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levell 1-1 levell 3·4

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Item#1305 Item #1307

55_00 55.00

Instructor 's MIlDUIlI

Sold separately, the Level 1-4 Kids' Books list all skills in the Level 1-4 Program with space for stamps or stickers to note the successful completion of a skill or set of skills. These books are illustrated with pictures of rhythmic gymnastics and can be colored at the gymnasts' leisu re .

Le\'cl l -2 &lHItl'lCWn.r kbo uJ.



levell 1-1 Item#2313





To order any of these books. or other edu(Qlionol malerials and videos presented in this issue, please (omplete this order form.



Included with the Instructors' Manuals , the instructional vid eo shows each skill and combination performed by several gymnasts of varying ages and ability levels. The video is an indispensable tool for becoming acquainted with the skills of rhythmic gymnastics. If the text is unclear, the video will offer instant clarification. Voice-overs give instruction on recogniz-_ ing proper and improper body and apparatus techniques.


IQuantily I


Item #1306

Instructional Videos

This cassette contains 25 short pieces of classical music specially arranged for the Level 1-4 Program. Combinations of skills have been choreographed to fit a specific piece of music. The combinations are notated in the Instructor's Manual, and voice cues identify the various music cuts by number.


Item #1304


• Skills are divided into fundamental groups for quick reference and combined in short sequences choreographed to specially arranged music.

Music Cassette

Item #

Levels 1-1

• The In structors' Manuals describe a progression of basic skills leading up to the J.O . Compul sory Program. Body preparation and apparatus technique for each of the five events--rope, hoop, ball, clubs and ribbon--are included w ith tips on "What to look for."

Kids' Books

-~ - - -,

l"ell l-4 ltem#2314

Instructors' Manuals

. 'Rhytft#c 'G;ri1ltasiiC'S~:~'

The Rhythmic Gymnastics Level 1-4 Program has been designed to aid instructors in d eveloping rhythmic programs. The Level 1-4 Program is a superb reference for introducing rhythmic gymnastics as an addition to currently existing artistic gymnastics programs or dance classes, or for starting a curriculum devoted solely to rhythmic gymnastics.

USA Gymnastics Order Form


Name _____________________________________________________ Address ______________________________

City _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ State ______

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Send orders and make checks payable to: USA Gymnastics, Merchandise Dept., PO Box 5562, Indianapolis, IN 46255-5562 • 317·237-5060

Novel17ber/Decel17ber1993 TECHNIQUE

Inside This Issue

Contents Editor Stephen W. Whitlock Production Luan Peszek Graphic Design Julie T. Jones Men's Program Bill Meade Women's Program Director Kathy Kelly Rhythmic Program Director Nora Campbell Ritzel USA Gymnastics Board of Directors Chair: Sandy Knapp; President Emeritus: Bud Wilkinson, Mike Donahue; Athlete Directors: Wendy Hilliard, chair;J im Hartung, vice chaiT; Michelle Dusserre, sec; SheThi Dundas; Tim Dae,gett; Ka?cn Lyon Glover; Tanya Service; C )fis Wa ller; Kevin avis, U OC Athlete's Advisory Council; Ama teur Ath letic Union: Stan Atkinson; American Sokol Organization: Jer Milan; American Trampoline & Tumbling Association: ayne Downing; American Turners: Be~ H e~pner; Junior Boys Gymnastics Coaches Association: arc aney; Men's Elite Coach es Association : Peter Kormann; Na tion al Association for Girls and Women in Sport: Dr. Mimi Murray; National Association of Colleg iate Gymnastics Men: Abie Grossfeld; Nation al Association of Collegiate Gymnastics Women: Gail Davis; National Association of Women's G~mnas tics Judges: Yvonne H Od~; National Colleg iate Ath etic Association: Jane Betts, Lou urkel; Natio nal Federation of State Hi~h School Associa tions: Susan True; National ~mnastics udges Associa tion: Harry Bjerke; National igh School Gymnastics Coaches Associahon: John Brinkworth; Jewish Community Centers: Courtney Shanken; Rh ythmic Coaches Association: Suzie DiTullio; Special Olympics, In c.: Kate Faber-Hickie; U.S. Associati on of Independent Gym Clubs: Lance Crowley; U.S. Elite Coaches Association for Women:TOI;lc Gehman, Roe Kreutzer; U.S. Sports Acrobatics Federati on: onnie Da vidson; Young Men's Chris ti an Association: Rick Dodson; USA Gymnastics National Membership Directors: M en's: Jim Holt, Rat Cura; Women's: Joan


Moore, Julia Thompson-Aretz; Rhyt mic: Alia Svirsky, Ute Alt-Carberry.

USA Gymnastics Executive Committee Chair: Sand y K n~p; Secretary: Mike Milidonis; Vice Chair Women: Nancy arshall; Vice Chair Men:Jim Howa rd; Vice Chair RhythmiC: Norma Zabka; FIG Women 's Technical Committee: Jackie Fie; FIG Rhythmic Technical Committee: Andrea Sclunid-Shariro; FIG Men's Tech nical Committee: Bill Roetzheim; At ar¥ Members: Jim Hartung, Roe Kreutzer; Athl ete Directors: im Daggett, Michelle Dusserre, Wend y Hilliard; Presi dent Emeritus: Bud Wilkinson, Mike Donahue.

Associate Contents Editors Sports Science Advisory Committee William Sands, PhD., Chair, Sports Advisory Committee Patty Hacker, Ph.D., C hair, Education Sub-committee Stephen W. Whitlock, Liaison Un less eXJressly identified to the contrary, all articles, ..,t a tements an views printed herein are attributed solely to the author and the Ul1Ited States Gymnastics Federation expresses no opinion and assumes no respo nsibility thereof.

TECHNIQUE November/December1993

Gymnaestrada 1993 USA Gymnaestrada ... .................. ........ ... ..... ..... ................. 5 Coaches Survey Results Enhancement of Coaching Effectiveness in Adolescent Gymnastics ........... .............................. ........... 8 Sport Science The Role of Science in Sport ...................... .......................... .... 17 Muscular Strength and the Young Gymnast ................ ........ 24 page 5

Legal Express Assumption of Risk in Youth Sports .............. ......... 20 Equipment Liability and the Coach ................. ........ .............. 36

Percentage (%1 of Importor'ICe

Coaches Education ACEP Instructors ................. ....................................... ............ .. 28 ACEP Leader Level Sport Science Course ... ........... ... ...... .... .40 Alternative Programs Where Do We Go from Here? ..................... ... ......................... 30 Dance 20 Dance Exercise .... .............. ..................... ...... ......... ................ 32

page 8


Men's Technique Teaching a Gaylord 2 ........ .............................. .............. ... .... .... 35




Safety Third Cycle of Safety Certification ..... .............. ...................... 39

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-'~ ...

Minutes W-Elite Ad Hoc Comm., 9/12, Atlanta, GA ... .... ................. .41 W-Elite Program Comm. Mtg., 10/7, Indianapolis, IN ............................ ......... ...... .. .......... ................................ .............. 41




W-Women's Technical Comm. Mtg.,



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, I


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page 24

10/14-15, Colorado Spgs., CO ..................... ..................... ... 42 W-JOPRC, 10/20, Conference Call .............. ............. ............. .45 M-]OPC 10/ 10, Atlanta, GA ................. ......................... .......... 45 M-Men's Program Comm., 10/ 19, Conference Call ...... ......46

CHANGE OF ADDRESS AND SUBSCRIPTION INQUIRIES: In ord er to ensure uninter· rupted d elivery of TECH N IQUE ma gazine, notice of change of address should be mad e six to eig ht weeks in adva nce. For fa stest service, please enclose your present mailing la bel. Direct all subscripti on mail to TECHN IQUE Subscriptions, Pan American Plaza, 201 S. Ca pitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225. TECHNIQUE is published 10 times per year by USA Gymnas tics, Pa n American Pla za,201 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225 (phone: 317-237·5050). Third class postage paid at Indianapolis, IN. Subscription price: $25.00 per year in United States; a ll other co untries $48.00 per year. If ava ilable, back issue single copies $4.00 plus $1.00 postage/ handling. All reasonabl e ca re w ill be taken, but no responsibility ca n be assumed fo r un solicited material; enclose return postage. Copyright 1993 by USA Gymnastics and TECHNIQUE. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.

page 36



PLEASE NOTE: The videos listed in this magazine are provided for educational and historic purposes. While every effort is made to produce videos of the highest quality, it should be noted that some of the videos are produced at events utili zing handheld Cameras from van tage points in the stands by non-professional volun teer technicians. Only limited editing and production enhancements are utili zed in order to provide a timely product at a reasonable cost to the USA Gy mnastics membership.

EDUCAIIONAl ~----------------------~----------------------~~ VIDEOTAPES t: ., Use the order form on page 2 to order any of these videotapes.


J.O. Compulsory Video levels 1-4. Compa nion to the compu l#2105 $29.95 sory book.




J.O. Compulsory Video levels 5-7 and 10. Compa nion to the compulsory book. #2106 #29.95

General NEW

1993 USA Gymnaestrada, Indianapolis, Indiana, Oc-


r :J C


A ms te rdam Gym naes trada. Amsterdam

Gala. (1991)

I )



tober 8-10. Group Performances. #2771 $16.95 Highlights from the Gymnaestradas in Herning a nd Amsterda m. (0:30) (1993) #2600 $5.00





Ams terdam Gymnaestrada. Opening ceremonies and othe r outdoor performances.

(1991) #2702 $16.95 Amsterd am Gymnaestrada. USSR Gala performance. (1 991) #2704 $16.95 Ams terda m Gy mnaestrada. Various per-

formances. (1991) #2703 $16.95 How to tape an injured gymnast. This tape was prepa red by La rry Nassar, ATe. (Pa rt I = 1:55, Par t II = 1:23 #2102 $19.95 PDP level I instructor's starter kit. For Level I Clinic Administrators. Includes video and

15 Clinic Workbooks.



Safety Video. Gy mnastics 1st, 2nd, and always.



Back exercises for the gymnas t. A video designed to lessen the

problem of back pain in the gymnast. With use of a skeleton a nd gymnasts, L.Nassar, ATC, demonstrates how body posi tion in g, fl eXibility, pel v ic s tabili za ti on & muscular exer-

cises are benefici al. (1:20)(1992)

2410 $10.95

J.O. Dance Workouts 1-3 fo r coaches' tape. Expla nation of the basic dance exercises. (2:00) #2173 $15.00 Roundoff vault training. Developed by T. Gehman for the W om en's J.O. program . PrerequiSites, training tips, condi-

tioning, and technique.



Talent Opportunity Program (T.O.P.), India napolis, IN. National Testing. This tape shows all of the physical ab ilities tests used at the Na tiona l Testing in Indianapolis. (1 993) #2139 $14.95


Sr. Na tional Team Spring Training Camp, Colo. Spgs, CO. Clinics and lectures. The focus of the training camp was

OlympiCcompulsories. Mini-clinics: PH (Burch); R (O'Neill); V (Hamada); PB (Mizoguchi); HB (Furman). Lectures: Strength training (Major);Sport Psychology (McKelvain). (SLP format 6:00) (1993) #2280 $24.95 Sr. Na tional Team Spring Training Camp, Colo. Spgs, CO. Sr. Men's TrainingSessions. The focusof the training camp was Olympic compulsories. (SLP format 4:00) (1993) #2281 $24.95



Basic Skills Achievement Program (BSAP) video. Demo nstration of all of the skills. #52 $29.95

Ta le nt Opportunities Program (TOPs) Na tio nal Training Camp, Birnling ham, A L, May, 1993. Activities. Warm -up (Towson),

J.O. Compulsory Program (JOCP) video. Demonstration of all of the exercises. (Edited by class level) #2221 $39.95 J.O. Compulsory Program (JOCP) video. Demonstration of all #2222 $39.95 of the exercises. (Edited by event) Olympic Development Program (ODP) video-1992. Complete demonstration. #61 $29.95 Goal setting and preparation for competitions. Sport Psychology session by Dr. K. McKelvain at 92 nat. team camp, Colo. Spgs. (2:00)(1992) #2273 $14.95 USGF Congress, Anaheim . Dieter Hofmann's lectures. Clinic

for men's coaches. (2 parts: tota l time ; 9 Ius in SLP)(1992) #2200 $39.95 Colo. Spgs. Coaches Seminar for Men's Gymnastics. TU: Liu kin; V: Artemov; PB: Tomita; R: 0 ' eill; HB: Akopya n; Cond itioning& Periodization: Sands; PH : Daggett; Wa tanabe. (2 tapes, SLP forma t, 5:43) (1993) #2253 $24.95

PreschooVelementary Preschool Workshop, Ft. Worth. Swedish gy mnastics. Features Kajsa Murmark & Gun Stahl. #1/3 tapes includ es: Introduct ion, Philosophy, and first group lessons. (2:00)(1 991) #2130 $12.95 Preschool Workshop, Ft. Worth. Swedish gymnastics. Features Kajsa Munnark & Gun Sta hl. #2/3 tapes includes: Ways to use ap paratus, Day in the jungle, Bea n bag acti vities, #2131 $12.95 a nd Games. (2:00)(1991) Preschool Works hop, Ft. Worth. Swedish gymnastics. Features Kajsa Murmark & Gun Stahl. #3/3 tapes includes: Games, Balloon <lctivities, and final lessons. (2:00)(1991)



Rhythmic Levell & 2 Instructional video (Accompanies Level 1-4

Program Instructor's Manua ls) (1993) #2323 $10.00 Level 3 & 4 Instructional video. (Accompanies Level 1-4 Program Instructor's Manuals) (1993) #2324 $10.00


Va ult (Artemov), Tumbling (Elliott), UB Lioukin / Akopya n), BB (G rossfeld), FX (Pozsar), Dance (Towson), and Ba nquet. (A-SLP 4:56) (1993) #21 50 $24.95 Talent Opportunities Program (TOPs) Na tional T raining Camp, Birmingham, AL, May, 1993. Lectures. TumbleTrax (Davis), Tra ining (Dr.5ands), N utrition (Dr. Benadot), Coaching (Grossfeld), Taping (Nassar), and Sport Psychology (Dr. Duda). (A-SLP, 3:42) (1993) #2151 $24.95



93 World Uni versity Ga mes, Buffalo, NY, 7/11 &13/93. Men's All Around and Event Finals. (1:1 8) #2248 $14.95 93 World University Ga mes, Buffalo, NY, 7/9/93. Men's Team Competition (1:39) #2249 $16.95 Coca-Cola Na tional Championshi ps, Sa lt Lake City, UT, August, 1993. Junior and Senior Men's Compulsories. #2298 $16.95 Coca-Cola Na tional Championships, Salt Lake City, UT, Augu st, 1993. Junior and Senior Men's Optionals. Seniors: Roethlisberger-111.30, Umphrey-11O.20, Keswick-109.20, Wa ller-108.25, Hanks-107.25, Roth-106.50, Bagio-105.90, Huston-1 05.85, Grace-1 05.25, Simons-104.85, Masucci-1 04.75, Meadowes-1 04.70, Durbin-104.60, Harrison-1 0'1.45, McCain103.40, Stein-103.35, Yee-103.20, Denucci-102.70. Iuniors: Brya n-99.15, Thornton-95.75, Klaus-94.05, Stibel-93.1O, Kinison-91.05, Michel-89.40, Stein-86.05, Juguilon-81.45. #2299 $19.95 J.O. Na tionals, Ann Arbor, MI, Ma y 7-8. Event Finals. Jr. Elite I, Jr. Elite II (14-15) & 16-1 8), Class Ill. (2:00)#2279 $16.95 World C ha mpionships, Birmingham, GBR, April, 1993. Men's all-around final s and individual event finals. Scherbo-56.174

(BLR), Charkov-55.625 (RUS), Wecker-55.450 (GER), Ivankov55.425 (BLR), Ka rbanenko-55.275 (RUS), Liukin-55.225 (KZK), Belenki-55.225 (UNA), Korobchinski-55.100 (UKR), Keswick54.875 (USA). FX: Misutin-9.400, Thomas-9.350, Scherbo9.350. PH : Pae-9.750, Wecker-9.425, Schupkegel-9.400. R: Chechi-9.G25, Wecker-9.575, Iva nko v-9.500. V: Scherbo-9.612, Feng Chih-9.487, Yoo-9.418. PB: Scherbo-9.600, Korobchinski9.525, Belenki-9.475. HB: Charko v-9.450, Gherman-9.375, Supola-9.350. #2295 $19.95 McDonald'sAm. Cup, Orlando,FL. Prelims and Finals. Scherbo56.950 (BLR), Rin gnald-55.700 (USA), Wecker-55.175 (GER), Sharipo v-55.000 (UKR), Gherman-54.850 (ROM), Waller54.650 (USA), Supola-53.700 (HUN), Centazzo (ITA), Curtis (USA), Um ino (JPN), Thomas (GBR), Bra vo (ESP), Pluss (SUI), Lopez (M EX), Keswick (USA), Dashua ng (CH N) (1993) #2252 $19.95

Rhythmic Coca-Cola Na tional Rhythmic Championships, Colo. Spgs., 1993. Junior All-around Finals. Sievers-69.90, Lim-69.40, Sieber-69.30, Fredrickson-68.75, Lee-67.20, Lacuesta-67.00. (SP 1:14) #2360 $16.95 Coca-Cola Na tional Rh ythmic Championshi ps, Colo. Spgs., 1993. Senior All-around Finals. Levinson-73.45, Davis-72.40, Hunt-71.90, Bushnell-71.60, Ward-71.50, Tucay-70.05. (SP 1:34) #2361 $16.95 J.O. Rhy thmic Championships, Colo. Spgs., 1993. Level 7 RFX, Rope, Hoop and Ribbon. (2 tapes) #2380 $24.95 Rh ythmicChatnpionships, Colo. Spg.s, 1993. Level8 RFX, Ball, Ribbon and Clubs. (2 tapes) #2381 $24.95

Women Coca-Cola National Championships, Salt Lake City, UT, August, 1993. Women's Junior and Senior Compulsories. #2198 $16.95 Coca-Cola National Championships, Salt Lake City, UT, August, 1993. Women's Junior and Senior Optionals. Senior Miller-78.41 , Da wcs-77.33, Strug-76.57, Burd e n -75 . 1 ~ Campi-74.95, Fontaine-74.09 Davis-73.865, Beathard-72.485, Rochelli-72.34, Bhard waj-72.305, Reid-72.26, Muhleman71.93,Arnold-71.915, Fitzpatrick-71.895,Gianni-71.74, Young71.655, Ellsberry-71.655, Lichey-71.635, E.Reid-71.415, Fry71.27. luni o rs: J.Thompso n- 74.70, Maiers-74.38, Meduna-74.005, Te ft-73.765, D.Thompson-72.98, Lichey72.925, Moceanu-72.895, Dia z-72.895, Kinkaid-72.845, Kullikowski-72.60, Pickens-72.395, Martini-72.355. #2199 $19.95 Coca-Cola Na tional Championships, Salt Lake City, UT, August, 1993. Mens and Women's Individual Event Finals. #2197 $16.95 U.5. Classic, Austin, TX, 7/ 93. Women's Jr. & Sr. International Optionals. - I uniors: Lichey-37.575, Meduna-37.25, Pickens37.075, Teft-36.95, Martini-36.675, Kulikowski-36.55, Maloney36. 025, Moceanu-35.925, Kn ox-35.90, Kinkaid-35.275, Dem ery-35.275 Seniors: Dawes-38.100, Ca mpi-38. 075, Beatha rd-36.925, Sommer-36. 925, Fontaine-36.80, Harriman36.80, French-36.80, Reid-36.70, Muhleman-36.675, Fry-36.675. (SLP 4:45) #2125 $19.95 U.s. Classic, Austin, TX, 7/ 93. Women's Jr. and Senior Compu lsory Practice Meet. Selected routines.-SP#21 26 $14.95 U.s. Classic, Austin, TX, 7/93. Women's Jr. and Senior National Optionals. Selected routines. (SP) #2127 $14.95 World C hampi onships, Birmingham, GBR., Ap ril, 1993. Women's all-around finals . Miller-39.062 (USA), Gogean39.055 (ROM), Lisenko-39.011 (UKR), Dawes-38.830 (USA), Fabrichnova-38.630 (RUS), Galieva-38.586 (UZB), Piskun38.554 (BLR), Milosovici-38.392 (ROM). (B)#2195 $16.95 World Championships, Birmingham, G BR, A pril, 1993. Women's individual event finals. VAULT: Piskun-9.762, Milosovici-9.737, Chusovitina-9.718. BARS: Miller-9.887, Dawes-9.800, Cacovea n-9.787. BEAM : Milosovici-9.850, Dawes-9.725, Gogean-9.650. FLOOR: Miller-9.787, Gogean#2196 $12.95 9.737, Bobrova-9.712. (B, 0:00) McDonald's Am . Cup, Orlando, FL. Prelims and Finals. Miller39.268 (USA), Strug-38.168 (USA), Piskun-37.837 (BLRl Xu e m e i-37.455 (C H N), Portocarrero-37.206 (GUI Hadarean-36.762 (ROM), Kosuge-35.798 (JPN), Gallow. 35.173 (CAN), Dawes (USA), Borden (USA), Campi (USA), Stobvtcha ta ia (UKR), Ma chado (FRA), Molnar (H UN), #2152 $19.95 Hristakieva (BUL) (1993)

NovemberJDecember1993 TECHNIQUE


1993USA . . . . .s I RADA During the recent Gymnaestrada in Indianapolis, we asked each of the Group Leaders to respond to some questions. The Group Leaders included: • Barbara Taylor, Maverick Gym Club, Inc., Charleston, West Virginia While primarily a competitive artistic club at levels 1-10, the Mavericks perform a wide variety of shows. They have performed in the 1980 and 1984 World's Fairs. Performers in this mixed group ranged in age from 5 to 31. • Nancy Hanes and Nancy Gregory, High Fliers, Brighton, Michigan The High Fliers are an outgrowth of Group Leader Nancy Hanes' physical education classes and recess program for boys and girls at Davisburg Elementary School. The club has been in existence for 15 years and has performed in Spain, the Dominican Republic, and at national P.E. conventions.

Why did you choose to participate in the first Gymnaestrada? Hanes and Gregory: We were looking for another way for our kids to enjoy the Sport of Gymnastics without being judged. This seemed to be ano ther avenue for our Demonstration Team to pursue. Hilliker: To give the participants a group activity. All working toward a common goal. Grainger: After spending time with artistic programs that are judged (my kids are USGF Level 8-10 athletes), this gave us an opportunity to do gymnastics in a more relaxed atmosphere and have fun doing something together!

Reviewed by: Steve Whitlock, Director of Educational Services and Safety

Taylor: While we really knew nothing about it, the Gymnaestrada event in Indianapolis

• Debbie Grainger, North Shore Academy of Gymnastics, Cedarburg, Wisconsin This group consisted of Levell 0 artistic gymnasts who learned Acro skills especially for the Gymnaestrada. The girls choreographed their own performance to American teen-age d ance and music. • Lil Laznovsky, Sokol K.H .B., Ennis, Texas Most of the group members are Sokol instructors who meet on weekends to train. Ages range in this mixed group from 18-29. The group recently performed at the summer Sokol Slet in Chicago. Two of the performers performed in the 1987 Gymnaestrada in Heming, Denmark. • Paula Hilliker, Performer's Edge, Carmel, Indiana Performer' s Edge is a rhythmic gymnastics club. They have performed at "Kids for a Cause" benefit and will entertain this season at th e NFL Indianapolis Colts falh-time. The Gymnaestrada was choreographed to include team Moms and Group Leader I CoachPaula Hilliker. TECHNIQUE November/December1993

sounded like it would be fun! We were interested in the possibility of going as a group to Germany for the 1995 International Gymnaestrada-we needed more information and experience. In Indianapolis, we wanted to see that big circle thing where "them" cars go round and round! Lasnovsky: This is the kind of activity in which we enjoy participating-it allows all who want to, to participate.

What is the value of this type of activity to your club? Hanes and Gregory: It shows that gymnastics is fun! From our Club stand-



~ ~. /

... '




~d!d ~hal

point,itis an excel, ~ lent marketing tool. .. Children learn to socialize and work together and with others. They have fun as a group. They learn many "lessons of life" through traveling, staying away from home and handling their own money, Boys and girls learn to work togetheL

we w,nl,d 10 do Since the performance guidelines were somewhat vague, we agreed to follow or plan whether or not it would fit the "Gymnaestrada" mold, While hoping that our decisions would fit, we knew that we would learn from the experience and make appropriate changes for next yeaL

Lasnovsky: This activity develops stronger team spirit, friendships and teaches all to work hard together toward the same goal.

Hanes and Gregory: Our Demonstration Team has existed for approximately 15 years with changeover of performers every few years, For the 1993 Gymnaestrada, several new team members had to be selected to complete our line-up. Prior to departure, several special practices were conducted during the last two weeks.


Taylor: Most students who have been at your gym for several years love "doing" gymnastics. However, competitive gymnastics tends to restrict and confine creativity, spontaneity and the "fun" of gymnastics. All three of these are reasons why many people fell in love with the sport in the first place. Gymnaestrada gives this joy of participation back to the gymnast. It also allows more space for the less "talented" gymnasts to participate successfully. Hilliker: It is a creative alternative to competitive gymnastics-it gives us a more wellrounded curriculum. Grainger: More people can participate since the activities are more general and less demanding. There are opportunities for everyoneno matter what is their ability level or age!

How did you prepare for your participation? Hilliker: We trained Saturday morning for two months prior to the event. Lasnovsky: Although we only had a short time to prepare, we worked every weekend after deciding to take part in the Gymnaestrada. Grainger: Our gymnasts who participated in this event did everything themselves. (I was really proud and impressed by their effort!)- They selected and spliced their own music, they choreographed all the dance parts and formations, and they learned all of Acro lifts on their own (with help from a staff member with Acro experience who they solicited for assistance). This was a group effort from the start! Taylor: We scheduled six extra practices (2 hours each) outside of regular class time. We



. . .\


How did you financially organize your participation? Taylor: Each gymnast paid their own way.

Editor's note: This group attended via a chartered bus for all participants, They also rented a U-haul to bring their equipment which included extensive matting and two minitramps. Hanes and Gregory: We assessed each member for hotel costs and part of the entry fee, Our Demonstration Team has an existing fund which provided the remainder of the costs. Hilliker: All were responsible for individual fees, Since we are from the Indianapolis area, this was a very inexpensive event. Grainger: Each gymnast paid for their own portion of the trip, I drove the team van since we were within driving distance-therefore, our costs were low. Lasnovsky: We received various donations from our members and organization.

Editor's Note: Participation fee for the Gymnaestrada was $20/person, This included full credentialing, a T-shirt and attendance at the clinics and workshops, Each group did three performances and were scheduled for additional practice/workout times. Two social activities were scheduled. One of these was a "free" hospitality evening at the host hotel and the other was a picnic with chili, hot-dogs, hot chocolate and apple cider, hayrides, a bonfire and marshmallow roast-this cost each participant an additional $6/ person for those who attended, Other activities included "linedancing" and Sing-along. NovemberJDecember1993 TECHNIQUE


What words of advice would you give to gymnastics clubs regarding future Gymnaestrada participation? Grainger: Have fun' Select a variety of music. .. have a theme and do anything that makes you happy! Let EVERYONE help with the choreography. Use props, uniforms-make it a real group effort. Lasnovsky: This type of participation gives all groups a chance to participate at any level of ability. Hanes and Gregory: Don't wait to be perfect before participating ... so much can be learned from just attending! Watching the videotapes of prior Gymnaestrada activities is helpful in planning and choreography. (Editor's note: prior international Gymnaestrada videotapes are available through the USA Gymnastics Merchandise Department) Taylor: Bring anyone and everyone ... all ages and skills. We were impressed that one of the other groups had choreographed part of their routine for the gymnasts' Moms! We had not considered that in Gymnaestrada, everyone can be a participant. We learned that even our bus driver might have participated by carry-

ing one of our special Maverick Team Banners in the March-in!

Bring anyone and everyone ... all ages and skills. We were impressed that one of the other groups had choreographed part of their routine for the gymnasts'Moms!

Hilliker: Don'tlimityour group to just your "star" gymnasts. Use everyone who is enthusiastic.

Other comments Taylor: Gymnaestrada is a perfect example of an experience that is all about The Journey and not the Destination. "Carpe Diem". Grainger: I've had lots many years of competitive gymnastics-with lots of stress, lots of worrying, etc. This experience gave me and the girls a chance to really enjoy gymnastics in a relaxed and fun atmosphere. The Group concept is a nice change from "individual" competition-to a more unified "team" approach. Gregory: Gymnaestrada activities showed our kids how much fun it can be to meet other gymnasts from other places. Watching others gave them new ideas and helped them focus on ways to improve their own performances. The enthusiasm is contagious. Lasnovsky: Even though this was the USA Gymnaestrada, our group made many new friends and enjoyed all activities that were very well organized . Hanes: It's a great way for kids to have fun with gymnastics and share with others.

FOR MORE INFORMATION ... on General Gymnastics, the 1994 USA Gymnaestrada (probable site is Palm Springs, CA in October) and the 1995 World Gymnaestrada (Frankfurt , Germany July 7-1 5), please complete the information form below: Please send more information and add our names to the Gymnaestrada mailing list! Name ______________________________________ Organization ______________________________________________ Address __________________________________ Day phone _________________________________

City _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

State ______

Zip _________

Night phone

Information requested:

o o o

General Gymnastics 1994 Gymnaestrada in Palm Spring, California (October) 1995 World Gymnaestrada in Frankfurt, Germany (July 7-15)

Please mailto:USAGymnastics. PanAmericanPlaza. 201S.CapitoIAve .â&#x20AC;˘ Suite300. Indianapolis. IN 46225, Attn: Gymnaestrada

TECHNIQUE November/December1993



Fred J. Caster Ph.D. Gymnas tics Teacher / Coach Sports Science Consultant Northern Sports Wilbraham, MA

The existing eduCIltiona l programs in preparing gYll1nastics coaches lI1ay be enhanced throllgh an organized program of specialized training. Knowledge, skill and experience acquired froll1 practiCllI and theoretiCllI participation are important elements il1 professional development. However, these factors may be 1I10re effective if organized throllgh a coaches certifiClltiol1 program.

The intent of this stud y, because of the ever increasing competencies of experience and knowledge required to be an effective coach of gymnastics, was to identify the current and perceived knowledge, skill and experience of gymnastics coaches. The data generated by the questionnaire may be used to design and develop a profile of recommended competencies for coaches who teach adolescent gymnasts. The data may further help to establish a base of recommended competencies for the design of an academic program of study to enhance coaching effectiveness for the present coaching development / accreditation program. This study was a descriptive study in w hich several measurement methods were utilized. In an attempt to address the main research question, the trea tment of data involved several procedures ap-

Table 1 Professional Member Frequency, Percent of total and Percent of Return of Respondents to Survey. (USAG June, 1993)

Region Pro Mem 1. 1277 2. 570 3. 1402 4. 798 5. 1560 6. 1207 7. 1286 8. 1571

% of

% of

Tot. 13.20 5.89 14.50 8.25 16.13 12.48 13.30 16.24

Ret. 10.8 6.9 6.2 12.3 13.1 13.8 20.0 16.9

TOTAL Pro-members=9671 Total %=100


plicable to descriptive statistics. The statistical procedures used included the utilization of the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS for MS WINDOWS Release 6.0, 1993). To complete this investigation and ascertain the information needed concerning recommended competencies for coaches, a questionnaire was constructed and validated among professionals in the field of sport science. The questionnaire was divided into three parts. Demographics included information in regard to School Location, (suburb, urban and rural). Data was also collected on the percent of returns by region and state Part I of the questionnaire described the background of the gymnastics coach (gender, age, educational background, type of program, coaching areas, number of years in various levels of coaching, salary, professional membership and work benefits). Part II included courses/areas of preparation believed to be most helpful in preparing future coaches in gymnastics [sport science courses (sport physiology, biomechanics etc.), preparation areas (such as skills in gymnastics, strategies, communications etc.), health and teaching courses, legal, safety and rules, administration and management]. Part III addressed the relative competency areas that were believed to be most important and contributed toward an increase in coaching effectiveness. This section consisted of human/ domestic and academic characteristics; (role modeling, motivation and club relations), coac hin g preparation, educa ti on and enhancement characteristics.

Results Demographic Profile Questionnaires were distributed through USA Gymnastics to subjects at various clinics, seminars ani' coaching sessions as well as Technique magazine durint" the summer and fall of 1993. All of the subjects were either coaches, administrators or had some affiliation with gymnastics.

Novel11ber/Decel11ber1993 TECHNIQUE

Coaching Survey Results Table 2

Frequency and Percent of Return by State of USA Gymnastics Professional Members




Figure 1



GIRLS'S & WOMEN'S PROGRAM Region 1. California, Nevada, Utah, and Arizona. Region 2. Washington, Oregon, Idoho ond Montono, Alosko ond Howoii. Region 3. Wyoming, Colorado, New Mexico, Kansas, Oklohomo, Texos ond Arkonsos. Region 4. North Dakoto, South Dokota, Nebrasko, Minnesoto, Wisconsin, Iowa ond Missouri. Region 5. lIinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio ond Kentucky. Region 6. Maine, Hew Hompshire, Vermont, Mossochusens, Connecticut, Rhode Island and New York. Region 7. Pennsylvonia, New Jersey, Maryland, District of Columbio ond Delowore, West Virginio ond Virginia. Region 8. Tennessee, North Corolina, South Corolina, Georgia, Aloboma, Mississippi, louisiana ond Florido. USA Gymnastics (1993-1994)

From a pool of 9,671 potential subjects, 130 chose to participate and return questionnaires (100%). The largest number of returns came from subjects that coached at facilities in the suburbs (44%). Studies conducted by earlier researchers did not show returns by school locations. Regional comparisons shown in Table 1 indicates that region #7had the highest rate of return (19%). Region #8, located in the South Eastern United States, had the largest number of registered pro-members with 1571 or 16.24% of the total. However, the response for region #8 was only 16.9. Region #2, w hich has the smallest number of pro-members (570), had returns of 6.9 % of the total registered members. Promembership by state has been illustrated in Table 2. USA Gymnas tics Girl's and Women's program is divided into 8 regions as indicated above in Figure 1. Demographic results indicated that 65 .0% of all 路~ turns were from females between the age of 25-29 .5 %), with 29 % having a bachelors degree, earning between $15-25,000 (30 %) and teach at a private club (69 %) in the suburban (44 %) area. Gould, Giannini, Krane & Hodge (1990) sampled elite coaches attending TECHNIQUE Novel11ber/December1993

the Tenth Pan American Games U. S. Coaches Conference on achieving peak performance. Results indicate that 78% were male (101) and 22% were female (29). The average age of the coach in this stud y was close to 41. However, there were coaches representing 33 different sports (two from gymnastics). Elite coaches in this study were well educated with 70% having a bac helors (32 %) and / or masters (38 %) d egree. The present study revealed slightly less educational background with 62% indicating they had obtained a bachelors or masters {bachelors (29 %), some masters (18%), masters (15 %)1. Stewart & Sweet's (1992) study on Montana high school coaches indicated that 94% had a bachelors degree. Reynard, Swiderski & Sutton's (1992) study indicated that 59 % of the subjects were male while 41 % were female. Tables 3, 4 and 5 depict the







0/0 of 0/0 of Returns USA Frequency Gymnastics by Pro-members members state by state

41 147 103 150 973 209 153 5 14 462 275 36 99 54 452 273 119 104 150 315 231 37 294 177 189 93 37 212 47 98 75 301 87 55 540 437 194 164 457 58 113 21 119 656 99 229 29 238 167 49 34

.42 1.52 1.07 1.55 10.06 2.16 1.58 .05 .14 4.78 2.84 .37 1.02 .56 4.67 2.82 1.23 1.08 1.55 3.26 2.39 .38 3.04 1.83 1.95 .96 .38 2.1 9 .49 1.01 .78 3.11 .90 .57 5.58 4.52 2.01 1.70 4.73 .60 1.17 .22 1.23 6.78 1.02 2.37 .30 2.46 1.73 .51 .35

1.10 8.50 .00 .00 10.80 .08 3.80 .00 .00 3.80 .80 .80 .00 2.30 3.10 3.80 .00 1.50 .00 2.30 2.30 .00 3.1 0 .80 2.30 2.30 .00 .80 2.30 .00 .80 2.30 .00 .80 6.20 3.1 0 .80 1.50 9.20 .00 .00 2.30 1.50 3.80 .00 4.60 1.50 3.1 0 1.50 .00 .80





typical coaches demographic background as to gender, age and education. A study conducted by Sands, Crain and Lee (1990) at the 1989 USA Gymnastics Congress indicated that the typical coach was a single male between 26-35 earning between $15-$25,000. The researchers indica ted that nearly 70.0% of gymnastics coaches were under 35 years of age and 83.0 % make less than $35,000 per year. Statistics in the present stud y were slightly lower than the average age and mean salary of coaches in the Sands, Crain and Lee (1990) as indicated in Tables 4&6.

A study conducted by Sands, Crain and Lee (1990) at the 1989 USA Gymnastics Congress indicated that the typical coach was a single male between 26-35 earning between $15-$25,000. However, according to the subjects who participated in this study, 65%, or nearly 2 to 1, identify the gender of the coach as female.

However, according to the subjects who participated in this study, 65 %, or nearly 2 to 1, identify the gender of the coach as female. Results also show that 75 % of the coaches are under the age of 40 making less than $30,000 (84%) a year. Sands (1990) survey of U. S. Elite Coaches Association for women members during the summer and fall of 1990 obtaining information relative to the study. The researcher asked the subjects to indicate their highest level of coaching achievement. The response indicated that 38% taught or coached in the U. S. age group level 9-10. Whereas in the present study, 35% teach and / or coach in levels 8-1 0. Further, Sands reported that 50% teach or coach at either the junior A or B senior team level or Olympic / World or Pan American teams. Five percent (5 %) of the subjects surveyed in the present study achieved elite coaching sta tus. The Sands (1990) stud y reported that subjects (Elite Coaches Association members) were slightly younger with 83% under 34 years of age, whereas in the present stud y 55 % were 34 years of age or younger. Sands reported that 74% of his subjects were male while in the present study only 35% were male (Table 3). Education in the previous study was also slightly higher with 81 % receiving either a bachelors (61 %) or masters (20%). The Gould, Giannini, Krane & Hodge (1990) stud y was relatively close with 80% having a bachelors and / or masters degree. However, the present study was considerably lower with 62% obtaining a bachelors and / or masters degree. The Sands, Crain and Lee's (1990) stud y indicated that the majority of responden ts teach and / or train gymnasts at a private club (83 %) while 20% teach and/ or train a t a community program and 19% at the college or university level. An inspection of Table 7 shows that 69 % of the respondents in this study teach and / or train at a private club, with 8% at a community program, 7% at the high school level, 5% from YMCA / YWCA, 3% from College / University and 8% other. The typical coach in this stud y taught and or coached for an average of 93 hours per month or 23 1/ 4 hours per week, Table 8. The majority of coaches in the present study taught recreation classes and conducted team workouts for girls at an average of 48 hours per month in levels 5-7 (72%), (Table9). The remainder of the coaches time was spent in planning (15.58 hours per month), pre-school



Table 31


Percent of Return by Gender

Male 35% N= 45

Female 65% N= 85 Total N= 130

Table 41 Percent of Return by Age %


under 20 3.8% 9.2% 20·24 25.4% 25·29 16.2% 30·34 20.0% 35·39 16.2% 40·44 5.4% 45·49 1.5% 50·54 0.8% 55·59 0.0% over 60


Tables 1 Percent of Return by Ed uca tiona I Background



Non high school graduate High school graduate Some college but never completed BA Completed bachelor's degree Some master's level work Completed master's degree Some doctoral level work CAS or specialists degree Completed doctorate

1.5% 6.2% 26.2% 29.2% 17.7% 14.6% 3.1% 0.0% 1.5%

t I

Table 61 Percent of Return by Yearly Salary

Saiarl Under 51,000 51,000·54,999 55,000·59,999 510,000·514,999 515,000·519,999 520,000·524.999 525,000·529,000 530,000·524,000 535,000·539,999 540,000-544.999 545,000·549,999 550,000 and over


3.8% 14.6% 16.9% 9.2% 16.2% 13.1% 10.0% 4.6% 3.1% 0.8% 0.8% 3.8%

November/December1993 TECHNIQUE


Coaching Survey Table 7 Percent of Return by Type of Program

Program Type Private club Callege/University YMCA/YWCA High School Community Other


68.5% 3.1 % 4.6% 6.9% 7.7% 7.7%

Question 10 referred to work benefits provided by the employer. Approximately 49 % of all respondents indicated that their employer provided them with Workman's Compensation benefits. Table 10 has been provided to identify the areas of work benefits supported by the employer.

Table 8 Mean Coaching Hours Per Month

MEAN Preschool/developmental classes 11.72 Birthday parties and other "special events" 2.50 Supervising or assisting with "open gym" 2.28 Girls' recreational classes 17.22 Girls' team classes and workouts 32.48 Rhythmic recreational classes .06 Rhythmic team classes and workouts .05 Boys' recreational classes 3. 95 Boys' team classes 4.25 Other club/school program classes 5.94 Office or planning hours (paid) 15.59 TOTAL coaching hours per month 92.88 (oaching/Teaching Area

Table 9 Percent of Return for Major Level of Coaching Responsibility



1-4 5-7 8-10 Elite YMCA H/Sch college other

63.8% 71 .5% 34.6% 5.4% 9.2% 16.9% 7.7% 15.4%

Table 10 Percent of Respondents Provided Work Benefits by Employer


at 11.72 hours per month and boys team/recreation and other related ac tivities for 14.14 hours per month. Other less time consuming commitments were birthday parties (2.50 hrs.), open gym supervision (2 1/ 4 hrs.) and rhythmic (recreation and team) at 1 hr. per month. Average monthly coaching hours in this study amounted to 93 with the coach being in his or her present position for an average of 6 years.

% Respondents

Workman's Compensation 49% Health Insurance Full路 26% Partial- 9% Full- 9% Partial-9% Dental Insurance liability Insurance 45% 15% Pension/Profit-Sharing Extra Income Opportunities (other than Gym) 33% Flexible Hours 56% Continuing Educational Assistance 56% Compensation for Competition/Exhibitions 41% Pay Increases 35%

TECHNIQUE Novell1ber/December1993

Forty percent (35%) of the employers provided some type of health insurance either full or partial, and only 18% provided dental either full or partial. General liability insurance was provided to 45 % while 15% received some kind of profit-sharing or pension program. Fifty-six percent of the subjects in this study reported having flexible work hours with some assistance for continuing education at clinics, seminars and workshops (56%), while 40% received some form of compensation for competitions and / or exhibitions. Possibilities for annual or semi-annual pay increases relating to systematic performance reviews with costof-living adjustments was supported by 35% of the coaches surveyed .

Forty percent (35 %) of the employers provided some type of health insurance either fu ll or partial, and

Part II Coaching areas of preparation relevant to coaching success was a major intent in this study. The five sections under this part are: sport sciences courses, preparation areas, health and teaching courses, legal/ safety, and administration / management. The coaches were asked to respond to a series of items under each section indicating what courses and or areas of preparation they believed would be most helpful in preparing future coaches in gymnastics. The subjects responded to a Likert Type scale with five variables (1 = not important, 2 = little importance, 3 = unsure, 4 = important, and 5 = very important). Responses are shown in graph form in Figures 2-6. The first graph, shown in Figure 2 d epicts the percent of importance the coaches responded to sports science courses in the survey.

Sports Science Courses Responses on sports science courses, to the degree of importa nce, were rated very important among coaches participating in this stud y. Sports medicine (92%) and motor learning (92%) were rated the highest followed closely by biomechanics / kinesiology, (89%) psychology (88%) and physiology (79%). Courses receiving the lowest percentage of importance were history of sport (24%), SOCiology of sport (42%) and philosophy of sport (49%).


only 18% provided dental either full or partial.

Figure 2

Graph depiding the perl8lll of imporIDIKt to sport sden!e loooes.

Percenloge (%) of Importance



8iomechanics Sport Medicine

Psychology Sociology

Philowphy History of Sport . . .. MotorLeoming

Percentage Scale

Coaches in this study strongly believed that attendance and or participation at seminars, clinics and training camps were extremely helpful in coaching effectiveness .

~. . . . ._ 10


. . . . . . ._











Data generated by Siegel and Newhof (1992) asking college coaches "What courses should be included in coaching curriculum?," stated that exercise physiology had the highest rating followed by psychology of sport and biomechanics. History of sport and philosophy of sport were courses that received the lowest percent of importance. The two studies concur in that coaches not only in gymnastics but other sports believe that courses such as physiology, biomechanics and psychology will help to enhance the effectiveness of coaching. Sands (1990) in his research on sport science and education, indicated that 93 % of the coaches surveyed either strongly agreed or agreed that sport medicine courses can help the coaches ability to improve the training of his/her athletes. The present study's statistics were similar with 92% of the coaches favoring sports medicine courses. Gould, Giannini, Krane and Hodge (1990) in their study on educational needs of elite coaches indicated that sport psychology and physiology were rated as the most important courses, whereas sport medicine courses were rated the lowest. However, the mean for the sport medicine course was 3.73 on a 5.00 point scale, and the researchers only included five courses in their study. They further stated that ... "the coaches felt that all the coaching science course topics were important in developing future Pan American and Olympic level coaches." Further, when asked their understanding of areas most actively studied, response was considerably lower, especially in biomechanics, sport medicine and sport physiology. However, the area in reference to "skills of their sport" rated highest in both mean and frequency. In the present study the results would concur with the Gould, Giannini, Krane and Hodge (1990) study, where 93 % of all coaches believed skills in gymnastics to be important. Figure 3 depicts how the coaches perceived areas of preparation which include skills in gymnastics.

Areas of Preparation Figure 3

Graph depiding the perlent of importnlKe to areas of preporOlion.

In ternshi ps were an im portan ted uca tional media in the present study with 88% of the respondents believing supervised coaching experience to be very impor tant/ important. Strategies in gymnastics (82%) closely followed . Communication and public speaking was slightly lower at 62%. However, research (45%), statistics (22 %) and computer literacy (22%) were the lowest.

Health and Conditioning Coaches in this stud y overw helmingl y believed tha t conditioning (95%), athletic training, first aid and CPR (95 %) and technique courses (94%), were areas of prep aration that provide important contributions toward enhancing the gymnastics program. The remaining courses in this area, health and nutrition (87%), growth and development (87%) and theory of gymnastics coaching (83 %) were slightly lower but were also believed to be of importance in contributing to the enhancement of coaching effectiveness. Figure 4 shows the importance the coaches place on health and fitness courses as contributors toward the enhancement of coaching effectiveness. Figure 4

Skills in Gym.

Graph depiding the percent of imporlolKe to health and teaming lOUrses.

Strategies Computers

Statistics Resea rch




00 "of Importance

KeoIth& Hulfilion (irQ'W1 h & Dtnlopme~ t

Ath. Training FA, (PR (ond"lfioninog trllirWlgThtory






The elite coaches study conducted by Gould, Giannini, Krane and Hodge (1990) on Pan American and Olympic coaches found that ... "61 % (77) of the coaches indicated that coaching workshops or clinics that specifically focused on elite coaches have been offered in their sport." However, 96% were willing to participate in clinics, seminars and/or workshops if offered.

Percentage (%) of Importance


Percentage Scale

Coaches in this study strongly believed that attendance and or participation at seminars, clinics an training camps were extremely helpful in coaching effectiveness. The response of 93% to this item would indicate that a participatory hands-on procedure for education is among the strongest ways to enhance the effectiveness of the coach. Coaches responding to Sands (1990) survey indicated that 94-95% either strongly agreed or agreed that sport science information obtained through seminars, clinics and or national meetings would be helpful or useful in the improvement of coaching. Sands, Crain and Lee (1990) in their gymnastics coaching survey of 1989 report that the primary means of education, reported by their responses, were congress, clinics and symposiums. Sa bock and Chandler (1986) stated that coaching clinics should be conducted by colleges more frequently to alleviate the problem of unqualified part-time coaches.









ttdVlique (~



Percentage xale











November/December1993 TECHNIQUE

Coaching Survey Results Sands, Crane and Lee (1990) were disappointed in 'heir gymnastics coaching survey results of coaches who were presently certified in first aid (66%), CPR (61. %) and athletic training (40%). They stated that "considering the injury potential in gymnastics, every gymnastics coach should be able to offer first aid and CPR." Additionally, future steps should be taken to offer first aid and CPR courses to coaches and obtain the services of an athletic trainer / physical therapist to assist athletes once an injury occurred. The question in the Sands survey and the present study differ slightly in that the Sands study asked "who is certified?", whereas in the present study the question asked was, the "importance" the coach placed on subject material in this area. The present study indicated that over 90% of the coaches believed health related courses were significantly beneficial areas of preparation. Cox and Noble (1989) stated that "Coaches feel that health, safety and welfare of the participant is important regardless of whether they took courses in first aid or CPR." Their study demonstrated that coaches receive formal athletic training (77%), first aid (83%), CPR (63 %) and technique of coaching courses (64 %). However, only approximately 45% were currently certified in first aid and CPR.

Safety Ranked by importance, coaches believed they should be safety certified or have taken a safety course (95 %). ,eventy-nine percent and 83% felt that rules & policies dnd facilities & equipment were moderately important. Only 70 % felt sport law was important, even fewer (26 %) felt it was very important. Current issues and trends received a 69 % response. FigureS

depicq1: percent 01 impor1aIKe to legoIoncI

sofety ames.

Percentage 1%) of Importance

Course 5ponlow

Safety Cour!>e


Rule~ cnd Policies

Issue/ Trends



Percentage Scale











Sands, Crane and Lee (1990) reported that only 65 % of their polled coaches were safety certified. However, one possibility for the high acceptance of perceived importance for safety certification (95%) in the present study was that 100% of the coaches were safety certified with approximately 85 % obtaining pro-member status of USA Gymnastics. The Sands, Crain and Lee (1990) survey was assumed to reflect returns from nonUSAG plembers as well as pro-members and pOSSibly non-coaching respondents because of the nature and distribution of the survey. The survey was reported to have been distributed at a booth in the exhibition area f the annual coaches congress which attracted not only coaches but judges and administrators. SpeCifically, only slightly over 50% were members of the elite coaches association.

TECHNIQUE November/December1993

The management and administration portion of the coaches effectiveness does not seem to be of top priority with coaches. Below Figure 6 demonstrates the responses in this area. Figure 6

Pen:entoge 1%1

of Importonc:e


OM Administration

Fund Roisir'l9i Promo/ions

Pen:entoge Scale











Responses to the questions relating to administration and management in this study were only moderate. The question on organization and management received a response of 75%, with sport management receiving 69 %, and fund raising/promotions receiving 52.8%. Siegel and Newhof (1992) requested information on academic qualifications and coaching experience from athletic administrators at various colleges and universities identified organization and administration courses as very important for undergraduate and graduate students. However, courses such as sport management and marketing were rated extremely low.

Part III This section addresses the competency areas believed to be very important/important in contributing toward an increase in coaching ability. The four areas include: human / domestic & academic characteristics, preparation, education and enhancement characteristics. As in the previous part (Part II) subjects responded to a five point Likert Type scale. This part differed from the previous part in that the questions related more to characteristics rather than experiences and or educational background of the coach. Figures 7 - 10.

Human, Domestic and Academic Characteristics


Facilities ond

Administration and Management

Coaches believed that the ability to motivate (96%) was the most important characteristic in this section followed by role modeling (90%), establishing rapport with staff (89%), ability to get along with parents (89%) and competitive salaries and benefits at 79 %. Figure 7


pertent of importalKe to

human/ dornestkond

amdemic choraderistks,



(%1 of Importance


Ro.""" .. Abiliry10 MotiYale




SetVKon (ommit1etS

AlOmls ....".

I<hod.",aou., Mv./Mklg. SloffEva!ualion :'.

litlAlong w/Portnl '"


Percentage Scale











Ranked by importance, coaches believed they should be safety certified or have taken a safety course (95%),

Gould, Krane, Giannini & Hodge (1990) stated that the major way coaches develop their coaching style was through experience and modeling. Results of a survey by Reynard, Swiderski & Sutton (1992) of high school coaches in California on the importance placed upon 36 different coaching competencies were crosstabulated with certified coaches. The results indicated that the ability to motivate was important. Surprisingly, the use of rewards was used as a motivational tool. The ability to motivate (96 %) in the present study reflects a similar acceptance rate. Research on the ability to get along with parents and the desire for higher salaries was not presented in the previous study. However, Maetozo (1971) in reference to role modeling, believed that the coach is the most important factor affecting the development of adolescent athletes. The role modeling acceptance ra te in the present stud y was 90%.

Results of this research project indicated that coaches believe communication skills (91 %) were important in contributing toward coaching competencies. However, coaches responding to a question earlier on "communication and public speaking" indicated only a 62% importance rate.

The area of academic characteristics in the present study were considerable lower with a range from 36% to 77%. Respondents moderately agreed that staffevaluation (77%) and scheduling classes (75 %) had some importance,whereas advertising / marketing (62 %) were less important as characteristics which contribute toward an increase in coaching effectiveness: Although marketing/ advertising (62%) was not a strong area in relation to what coaches felt contributed to the enhancement of coaching effectiveness: Jacki (1993), President of USA Gymnastics, stated that "local level campaigns must be created to increase awareness of preschool and developmental programs." He further emphasized that programs such as these, need to be advertised through public services, such as radio, print (newspaper), direct mail and other promotional vehicles. However, serving on committees (36%) was not an area the coaches believed contributed to the enhancement of coaching effectiveness.

Coaching Competencies Results ofthis research project indicated that coaches believe communication skills (91 %) were important in contributing toward coaching competencies. However, coaches responding to a question earlier on "communication and public speaking" indicated only a 62% importance rate. Most coaches felt that "watching other successful coaches" (92%) was a beneficial competency that would be most important in increasing coaching effectiveness. The preparation section was divided into six areas and are depicted in Figure 8.

't= FigureS


Penentage [%1of Importance

Pu p. 01 PhyWoI [d.

iMpor1on<e 10

the preporllion !ÂŤlion.

Pen::entoge Scale












Gould, Krane, Giannini & Hodge (1990) reported that only 48% of their subjects sought knowledge from fellow coaches. However, the authors indicated tha the coaches style was influenced most by experience and observation of others. In this study, preparation of physical educators (83 %) and knowledge of early child hood characteristics (82%) were only moderately ac cepted. Mentoring programs (75%) and mandatory certification of coaches (75 %) were believed to have only a moderate acceptance of importance rating. Re search by Sands, Crain & Lee (1990) concur similarly with the present study in that only 65 % of the coaches in their study were safety certified. However, Maetozo (1971) conducted a study on teacher / coach certifica tion, and suggested that states adopt coaches certifica tion endorsement beyond teaching credentials.

Educational Media This section is in reference to educating the coacl through different types of media. Figure 9 reflects the percent of acceptance the coaches expressed regarding use of educational media as a means for enhancement of coaching effectiveness. Figure 9 ¡


Gra~h depiding 1 e


pellen\ of importanle 10 edlKOlianal media.

Percentage 1%1of ImportaMe

Scit!w:e Progrom

Chol'lge Troin l'iÂŤIKe . . . . . ._



Stfyttm fowhy

Percentage Scale











Respondents in the survey indicated with a 95% acceptance rate that attending clinics, seminars and training camps were important means of obtaining education. Gould, Krane, Giannini & Hodge (1990) concur with the present study that 97% of their respondents attended clinics, seminars and lectures. Two other questions relating to governing agencies providing education programs (82%) and certification programs (80%), were only moderately accepted. Whereas the offering of a coaching science curriculum (74%), coaching academy (71 %) and faculty involvement (69%) were poorly supported. Respondents minimally supported the idea of coaches changing their training practice to follow a national program (56%). In addition, coaches do not believe research (58%) is of prime importance in contributing toward coaching effectiveness. Sands (1990), in his survey of USECA member coaches, stated that 82 % of his respondents supported a "coaches academy," and 84% believed they would follow a "national program" if developed . Whereas i the present study only 71 % favored a "coaches academy" and a minimal 56% said they would follow a "national program" if developed. Additionally, the present study reflects the acceptance of a "coaching

November/December1993 TECHNIQUE

Coaches Survey Results science" course curriculum (74%) as does the Sands ~ 1990) survey. He suggested that the USECA members were avid consumers and users of sport science information.

Enhancement Characteristics All of the enhancement characteristic areas in this section were very well accepted by the coaches participating in this survey. There was one exception, that being the competitive experience (58 %) of the coach. Only a few coaches believed that having been an athlete and competitor in the sport would be an enhancement for coaching effectiveness. However, knowledge of skill progression (98 %), strategies (ways in which skills are taught) (95 %), athletic discipline (94%), and prior coaching experience (79 %) were believed to have some very important contributions to the enhancement of coaching effectiveness in adolescent female gymnastics. The results of this section are depicted in Figure 10. Figure 10

Skill Progression AthleteDisciPline . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. slrotegiesofSkill . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

Experience Competition Experience

Percentage Scale








profile based upon

Gould, G., Krane, V., Giannini, J. & Hodge, K. (1990). Educational needs of elite U. S. national team, Pan American, and Olympic coaches, Journal of Teaching in Physical Education, 9, 332-344.



The typical coach

References Cox, R., & Noble, L., (1989). Preparations and attitudes of Kansas high school head coaches, Journal ofTeaching in Physical Education, 8, 329-341.

Per<entoge 1%) of Importance


course choices. She believes coaches should be safety certified to be effective as well as possess the ability to motivate and be a 'g ood role model. The typical coach has good communication skills, is committed to watching other successful coaches, attends clinics, seminars and training camps to benefit from educational media. She does not necessarily want to see the establishment of a national coaches academy, nor would she want to change her training practice to follow the national program if established. However, she does moderately agree that a governing agency should be provided to establish and oversee a coaches education program. The profile coach believes that the enhancement characteristics that are most beneficial to the effectiveness of the coach are knowledge of skill progression and strategies of ways in which skills are taught. In general, the typical youth gymnastics coach is a middle class female located on the east coast.





Jacki, M., (1993). Family and social trends: The new customers of the 1990' s and beyond, Technique, USGF, Indianapolis, IN., 13, (#4 Apr.) 38. Maetozo, M., (1971). Standards of professional preparation for athletic coaches. Certification of high school coaches. Washington, DC: AAHPER, 7-8.

The study on the enhancement of coaching effectiveness in adolescent gymnastics reflects statistics that for the most part agree with previous studies. However, certain areas of prepara tion differ slightly whereas the gender factor differs completely. Other studies indica te tha t male subjects popula te the coaching ranks of gymnastics coaching. Whereas in the present study the majority of respondents were female.

Sabock, R., & Chandler, P., (1986). Coaching certification United States requirement, Journal of Physical Education Recreation and Dance, 8:57-59.

Profile of Results of Survey

Sands, W., Crain, R. , & Lee, K. , (1990). Gymnastics coaching survey - 1989, Techn ique, Indianapolis, IN, 10, (#1 Jan-Mar), 22-27.

The typical coach profile based upon the results of this survey is a female who resides in Region 7 (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, District of Columbia, Delaware, West Virginia and Virginia) and teaches in the suburbs at a private club earning between $2530,000 a year. The coach has completed a bachelors degree and spends approximately 24 hours per week coaching girls gymnastics in levels 5-7. Currently our coach is a USA Gymnastics member and receives very few employee benefits as a result of her employment in l1e gym. However, she believes that motor learning ,md sport medicine are the two most valuable sport science courses, and skills in gymnastics the most valuable area of preparation. Conditioning and a thletic training, first aid, CPR are her health and teaching TECHNIQUE NovemberjDecell1ber1993

Reynard, R., Swiderski, M., Sutton, T., (1992). Important coaching competencies, Technique, USGF, Indianapolis, IN.,12, (#4 Apr.) 14-16.

Sands, W. (1990) . Survey of coaches - Sports science & education Techniqlle, USGF, Indianapolis, lA., 10, (#1 Jan-Mar),5. Siegel, D., & Newhof, c., (1992). Setting the standards for coaching curriculum: What should it take to be a coach? Journal of Physical Education, Recreation alld Dance, 63, (1), 60-63, Stewart, c., & Sweet, L., (1992). Professional prepa ration of high school coaches: The problem continues, Journal of Physical Education, Recreatioll & Dance, AAHPERD,63, 6,75-79.


the results of this survey is a female who resides in Region 7 and teaches in the suburbs at a private club earning between $25-30,000 a year.



I C 5





M f



• USGF Junio r Oly mpic Compul s o ry Program, Levels 1-4,57 a nd 10. USGF 1992·96, UIA GymnOllics, lring binder, 203 pp Regulorprice #11 10 S29.95 U5GfPro·memberprice S24.95 #1111

WOMEN'S COMPULSORY MUSIC CASSETTE • All new music fo r '92-'96. #2109 S6.00



• Used to recogni ze compl e ti on o f Levels 2, 3 and 4. 50 in a pack. #34 S7.50

• Green. Recognition award for Class VII. 25 in a pack. IfJJ S12.00 • Wh ite. Recog nition awa rd for C lass VI. 25 in a pack. S12.00 • Red. Recognition award for C lass V. 25 in a pack. Ifl3 S12.00 • Blue. Recog nitio n award for C lass IV. 25 in a p ack. If14 S12.00 • Bronze. Recognition awa rd for C lass III. 25 in a pack. #75 Sl2.00 • Si lver. Recognition award for C lass II. 25 in a pack. #76 S12.00 • Gold. Recognition award for C lass I. 25 in a pack. #77 S12.00





COMPULSORY VIDEO LEVElS 1-4 • Revised and newly ed ited #2105 S29.95


COMPULSORY VIDEO LEVElS 5-7 8, I0 • Revised , newly edited. All new Level 10. #2106 S29.95

ROUND-OFF ENTRY VAULT TRAINING ~IDEO • Training tips. #2107 519.95

ElEMENT SUPPLEMENT • Additiona l vaults a nd e lements (including illustrations and descriptions for va ults and eleme nts not listed in the Code of Po;,,'s. The WTC has assigned va lu esfor u sea tJ .O. level. This item is ready for insertion in the new Codes. W.P., 3·halepunched, 52pp S10.00 #1116

J.D. TECHNICAL HANDBOOK-FOR JUDGES AND COACHES • The technical rules a nd regulatior15 for the j.O. program. This manual follows the Code of Po;,,'s form a t a nd includes a ll the changes and adaptations of the Code fortheJ.O . level. Tex t is complete wi th exa mples of bonu 5, etc. W.P., paper, 98pp S15.00 #1117


• Green. Recognition award for Levell. 25 in a pack. #35 S12.00 • Bronze. Recognition awa rd for Level 5. 25 in a pack. #36 S12.00 • Sil ver. Recog nition award for Level 6. 25 in a pack. #37 Sl2.00 • Gold. Recogniti on award for Level 7. 25 in a pack. #38 S12.00 • White. Recognition award for Level 8. 25 in a pack. #39 S12.00 • Red. Recognition award for Level 9. 25 in a pack. #40 S12.00 • Blue. Recognition award for Level 10. 25 in a pack. #41 S12.00





• A fo ur-level program for boys' cla sses meeting one- hour per week. Prepares the studen t for participation in the J.O. program. 1992, UIA GymnOllics, paper, 18 pp #11 S7.50

BSAP VIDEO • Demonstration of a ll of th e skill s. #12 S29.95

• This is th e 1st id entification awa rd given w he n e ntering the program. #53 S1.00 each

point. The Level 6 routines are a lso shown in phrases. #2321 S29.95


1992-'96 USGF RHYTHMIC GYMNASTICS LEVEL l 8, 8 VIDEO • Companio n to the compulsory book, the video shows the six level 7 routines and th e level 8 RFX from two viewpoints. #2321 S29.95

BSAP REPORT CARD • Maintain an indi vidua l record of each s tudent' s prog ress. 25 in a pack. #55 S3.00



• Level 7. Holds nam es of 40 stud e nt5. #44 S3.00

REPORT CARDS • Records achievernent of all Level 1-4 ski ll achi evem en ts . 25 in a pac k. #32 S3.00

ODP AWARD'S PATCH #62 S1.00 each

ODP CERTIFICATE SILVER • Awa rd ed for 80-89% skill attainment score. 25 in a pack. #64 S5.00

ODP CERTIFICATE BRONZE • Awarded for 70-79% s kill a ttainment sco re. 25 in a pack. #65 S5.00

LEVEL 1-2 INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL • The new basic skills curriculum.




LEVEl 1-2 STUDENT WORKBOOK • Lists of skills wi th space to record progress. 1993 m05 S5.00

LEVEL 3-4 INSTRUCTOR'S MANUAL • The new basic skills curriculum . 1993 #1306 515.00




• lists of skill s with space to record progress. 1993 #1307 S5.00

• Includes g rad ed le vels of compulsory exercises as well as m odified op tio na ls. Competitions a re condu cted a t the local, s tate, regio nal, and national levels. 1992, UIA GymnOllics, 3·ring binder, 130 pp #1202 529.95



• The 1s t awa rd as the s tud ent enters th e Level 1-4 program. 25 in a pack. #33 S25.00

• This is th e 1st award given w he n entering th e prog ram. flO S1.00 each


• The mu sic for the six Level 7 compulsory routines a nd the Level 8 Rhy thmi c Floor Exercise compulsory routines. #2313 S10.00


• Awarded for 90% skill a ttainmen t sco re or hi g her. 25 in a pack. #63 S5.00

• Leve l 6. H olds names of 40 stude nts. #43 S3.00


• Give these to prospective students. Full color brochure d escribe all th e facets of rhythmic gymnastics. Comes in qua ntities of 100. 1993 #1340 S10.00


• Level 5. Holds names of 40 stud e Ilts. #42 S3.00


• The music fur the twelve routines in the LevelS & 6 Compulso ry prog ram . #2312 SIO.OO





• Complete demons tration. #61 S29.95


• Levels 1-4. Ho lds nam es o f 40 sttIdents. #31 S3.00

LevelS routin es performed from both a front and rear view-

• Use this to keep track of the students' progress. # 54 S3.00

• Skill d escriptio ns and skill tes ting mate rials. #60 S7.50

• Includes: 1 wall chart, 25 re port ca rd s, 25 pa tches, 50 pins and 25 Level I chevron s #30 S50.00

1992-'96 USGF RHYTHMIC GYMNASTICS LEVEl 5 8, 6 VIDEO • Co mpa nion to the compulsory book, the vid eo shows th e six


• Complete ex planation of the Wo men's Talent Opportunity Program. Includ es full explana n o nsof physical abilities tes ts, skill tests, and a ll re quired forms Sand., illUllroled, paper, 30 pp #1120 510.00

1992-'96 USGF RHYTHMIC COMPULSORY BOOK • The tex t a nd floor patte rns for the 1992-'96 Junior Olymp i Rhythmic Gymnastics compulsory program . The three rin g binder book includes the routines for Levels 5-8 and a glos sary of rhythmic gymnastics terms. Routines are written fa rh ythmi c floor exerci se, rope, hoop, ball, clubs and ribbon. #1302 S29.95


• A ringed tablet of score shee ts for optional judging. Same practice shee ts u sed at th e Jud ges' courses. W.P., paper, 200.heel. S5.00 #111 8

ro.p. 'SMANUAL



For " complete list of public"tions c,,11 or write USA Gymn"stics Merch"ndise for th new 1993 Technic,,' C"t,,'ogue. Use the order form on p"ge 2 to order "ny of these public"tions. November/December1993 TECHNIQUE

Sport Science


SCIENCE IN SPORT (long time p eriod) setting by carefull y considered interventions and measurement preceding and following the intervention . Of course, this sounds like the typical scientific method approach, but there are some important differences. Moreover, the TQM approach is suited to d eal with the problems faced by the mod ern elite athlete in ways that the scientific method finds clumsy at best.


ecent exp eriences have served to amplify some ideas and frustrations I ha ve had regarding the role of science and the scientific method in the development of elite athletes. These ideas and frustra tions have come from an ideological bias that I have, and that largely d iffers from the ideological bias of some coaches and som e sport scientists. The bias I have observed in coaches and sport scientists has to d o with an unqu estioned devotion to the scientific m ethod and its ability to solve the training and p erformance problems of elite athletes. I believe that althou gh the scientific method is an

The scientific method begins w ith some observation and an overall question . This question lead s to a theory about the observation. Usu ally, this theory is derived to "explain" the observed phenomenon. The scientific

Figure 1

TOM Approach Performance After Intervention





.g (l)




E L..

Baseline Performance

•• •

• • • • • • • • • •• • •• • • • •

• • • •• • • • • ••

...Q L.. (l)



Intervention Introduced

Time important component to the science of sport, and in man y cases the onl y method available to solve certain problems, it is not the only means for improvement of the elite athlete. In fac t, I doubt that the scientific method is of much use for the improvement of the elite athlete in a real training setting. The scientific method is m ost effective and m ost applicable in the labora tory. If this is true, w hat else d oes one use? In my opinion, an alternative approach is one u sed by business with considerable success. This is the Total Quality Management (TQM) approach. Frankly, I did n' t :n ow much about this until recently. Interestingly, I fo und that I had been doing it all along but called it som ething else-single subject research design. TQM is a m eans of improving som e fac tor in a longitudinal TECHNIQUE November/December1993

method then p roposes a hypothesis that attempts to predict cause and effect relationships. Therefore, if the theory is true-the hypothesis should be shown to be true by observable / measurable means. In other words, an exp eriment is conducted to determine if the p rediction can be d emonstrated . No single exp eriment "proves" anything . There are always alternative hypotheses that need to be checked that could also explain w hat happened . If the exp eriment(s) testing these hypotheses are conducted and the competing hypotheses are rejected (i.e., the theory is supported ), then one considers that some reasonable streng th is given to the theory. Aga in, this does not mean that 'the theory is "proven," there need to be many experiments conducted evaluating all "competing" hyp otheses before certainty can be achieved by the theory. 17

Wm. A. Sands, Ph.D. Deparmtnet of Exercise and Sport Science University of Utah Salt Lake City, UT

TheTQM approach to improving athletic performance can often be seen in Eastern European literature. Sport scientists there often studied a single athlete and recorded what kinds of interventions were done and what happened. This type of research is almost unheard of in the West, except case studies involving Injury.

This kind of approach requires many years to investigate the problem of interest. However, when these many years are expended and the experiments all lineup in favor of the theory (or against it), then the scientific method has worked and a level of truth is known. As one might expect, while the sporting community is waiting for this to occur, it is highly likely that the milieu of the sport will have changed enough to make such an "answer" to a training and/or performance question quite obsolete. This is because the scientific method assumes a relatively static and unchanging world-a machine-like world that is knowable given enough time and effort. However, I would argue that modern sport is not static, and that most lines of experimental work begun today will be of little use by the time anyone can be sure that the answer is obtained. Moreover, this presupposes that coaches and athletes require a definitive "answer" to their question/problem before proceeding. One can contrast the scientific method approach with the TQM approach. The TQM approach is very similar to single subject design methods of investigation as often used in clinical settings. In the TQM approach, some process is examined to determine what the prominent features of the process are and what measurable outcomes can be obtained. Then a "theory" of how the process works or what it depends on is made. This theory proposes that if the selected intervention is done, then one should see a quantifiable change in the desired outcome and in the desired direction. The next step is to obtain time-series data on the outcome variable to determine its baseline level. For example, this could be score, percentage of correct performances and so forth . Then the intervention is introduced . The intervention could be some new conditioning program, some new language used in instruction, some new training schedule, addition of videotape instruction and so forth. The outcome variable is continuously measured to see if improvement is demonstrated following the intervention. If it does, one considers the theory correct and moves on to the next iteration of the enhancement process (i.e., improve the intervention still further or look to another problem). If there is no quantifiable improvement in the outcome variable(s) or if it/ they get worse, then the theory is rejected and another theory is proposed-beginning the process anew. An example of this process is shown in Figure 1. The TQM approach is not constrained by the replication requirement of the scientific method nor the need for an equivalent control group. It may not seek what is true, but what works. It is situation-specific and does not seek to establish a "law" or "theory." One might consider it an "applied" scientific method. It is


much easier to start a new TQM process as circumstances in the sport environment change. It is much easier to adapt the TQM process to a small group (sample) such as a small group of elite athletes. Although the statistical techniques ofthe scientific method can be used in TQM procedures, they are not required. TQM is probably less rigorous than the scientific method, but more applied. TQM offers a tradeoff between applicability and practicality-and-rigor and precision. In the TQM method, the job of the sport scientist is still an important one. The role of sport scientists in this process should be to assist in the determination of what are the important theories to be tested by the TQM method based on other scientific research. In other words, what looks promising for performance enhancement. The sport scientist can develop the tests by determining reliability, validity, measurement error and so forth. The sport scientist can also assist in the implementation of the tests that measure the performance and outcome variables. The TQM approach to improving athletic performance can often be seen in Eastern European literature Sport scientists there often studied a single athlete ana. recorded what kinds of interventions were done and what happened . This type of research is almost unheard of in the West, except case studies involving injury. It is arguably as important to demonstrate that one can improve one or two elite athletes enough to win a medal rather than show how a group of middle or lower level performers got collectively better on any particular performance aspect. This is central to the distinction between the scientific method and the TQM method. The scientific method is better suited to the investigation of groups than individuals. Although I fully acknowledge that one can consider TQM to be a modification of the scientific method rather than completely different from it. Perhaps most important, a coach can do much of the "research" while using the TQM approach. This puts more of a burden on record keeping, but it also puts considerable research "power" in the hands of the coach. Again, this should not be considered to be an attack on the scientific method. The scientific method has long served Western science. Our current standard ofliving and other benefits of science attest to its remarkable power. However, I would argue that it is not the optimal model for the enhancement of elite level sport performance. Moreover, I would hope that both coacr and sport scientist would investigate single subje design approaches more thoroughly, include classes in them, and begin to implement this research methodology in elite sport.

November/December1993 TECHNIQUE

ExPREss Ass ON OF RIsK IN YOUTH SPORTS The following article is Part Threeofa five pm路tarticle. Parts One and Part Two were introduced all page 24 in the September/ October issue. The remaining parts will be covered in/ater issues of Technique.

Part One: Part Two:

David B. Holcomb Owner and head coach of Buckeye Gymnastics, Inc. Columbus, Ohio; A vice president of the USECA; Fourth year law student

Part Three: Part Four: Part Five:

I Understand and Accept Those Risks An Inevitable Consequence of Athletic Activity Disfavored by the law Reduced to Whimpiness What's Good for Skiing is Good for Gymnastics

Part Three Disfavored by the law The courts in Ohio have repeatedly stated that exculpation clauses are "disfavored by the law", although absent unconscionability or vague and ambiguous language, such limiting or exculpatory provisions will be upheld. [FN15] Unconscionability indicates an absence of meaningful choice on the part of one of the parties together with contract terms which are unreasonably fa vora ble to the other party. In addition, there is a requirement that the parties stand in roughly equal bargaining positions when contracting or that the party in the inferior position is given the option of paying additional consideration in exchange for excluding the exculpation clause. [FN16] In Orlett v. Suburban Propane mobile home residents entered into a gas purchase agreement and equipment lease with a liquid propane supplier. The Orletts brought suit against the supplier for injuries suffered as a result of the negligence of the supplier in failing to properly inspect and maintain its gas tanks pursuant to the purchase agreement and equipment lease. The agreement that the Orletts signed provided that: '''It is understood that Texgas [the supplier] will not be responsible for damage to the customer's property or for the death or personal injury of the customer. .. arising out of the storage ... , use ... , operation, maintenance, or repair of any equipment.. .. The customer agrees to indemnify and excuse Texgas from all liability ... unless .. . caused by the gross negligence or wanton and willful act of Texgas.'" [FN17] In holding that the exculpation clause signed by the Orletts was unconscionable the court noted that the parties in question clearly had unequal bargaining power because Texgas, as a supplier of liquid propane gas to the public, assumes a quaSi-public function, while the Orletts are dependent on Texgas for their living need s. [FN1 8] This view is consistent with the view expressed in the Restatement 2d of Torts. "Those charged with a duty of public service ... [h]a vi ng undertaken to the duty to the public, w hich includes the obligation of reasonable ca re, such defendants -are not free to rid themselves of their public obligation by contrac t, or by any other agreement. " [FN19]


However, the court in Orlett went on to state that if there were little or no dispari ty in bargaining power the parties were free to contract as they wished, even to the extent of limiting liability. [FN20] Since recreational services are not essential services, customers always have the option of refusing to sign the agreements and foregoing the activity. One court (not in Ohio) went so far as to refer to plaintiff's claims to the contrary as "ludicrous". [FN21] Ohio would appear to follow that reasoning because in Cain v. Cleveland Parachute Training Center the court held that a "[p]articipant in recreational activity is free to contract with the proprietor of such activity so as to relieve the proprietor of any responsibility for damages for injuries to the participant caused by the negligence of the proprietor, except when caused by willful or wanton misconduct." [FN22] In Cain the first time a skydiving student jumped he broke his leg. He then filed suit alleging negligence in the training for the jump, in maintaining the landing area, and failure to provide adequate jumping equipment. The Cleveland Parachute Training Center answered by asserting the affirmative d efenses of assumption of risk and release. In this case the student had signed the Center's "waiver, Release and Hoi Harmless Agreement" prior to his first jump. The gis of the Agreement was that in consideration for the permi[;sion and privilege to participate in the parachuting school, the student agreed to indemnify and hold harmless all owners and staff at the center in the event of injury to the student. In addition, the student agreed to assume all risks involved in connection with the privilege and permission given to participate in the jump. The court quoted a long string of cases that allowed proprietors of recreational activities to contract with the participants so as to relieve the proprietor of any liability in case of injury due to his own negligence. The court held that,

[i]n a negligence action against a parachute trainingcenter brought bya student who had broken his leg on his first jump, the training center was entitled to judgment as a matter of law, where student, prior to his jump, signed "Waiver, Release, and Hold Harmless Agreement" which clearly exempted the center from any financia l liability for personal injuries which the student might suffer in the process of parachuting or tmining. [FN23] This court upheld the validity of the signed release and what it called the affirmative defense of assumption of the risk in the context of a student contracting to learn a potentially dangerous sport. The waiver used at Buckeye Gymnastics contains many of the same provisions. Part of the consideration required for the use of Buckeye's facilities is the signed release form. Tl signer recognizes the dangers involved in participatio! in gymnastics and voluntarily accepts them. In addition, the signer agrees to provide for any fu ture medical care that might be required for a student injured at

Novell1ber/December1993 TECHNIQUE


Buckeye Gymnastics. And finally, the signer agrees to hold harmless the personnel at Buckeye Gymnastics, Inc. The major provisions of the agreement at Buckeye Gymnastics are remarkably similar to the provisions signed by the student in the Cain case cited above. Since the validity of that agreement was upheld it is to be expected that the waiver signed by the students at Buckeye Gymnastics would also be upheld. However, there is one major difference in the two agreements . In Cain the signer was the student who was injured and since the court did not specify that the student was a minor it can be assumed that the injured student was an adult. In most cases the parents sign the release at Buckeye Gymnastics on behalf of the student. While the court in Cain ruled that such releases were valid in Ohio when adults signed for themselves, the issue is different when the participant is a minor. The Ohio court of appeals reached this issue in Weiand v. City of Akron. [FN24] In this case a driver for the City of Akron struck the stationary au to driven by Miss Weiand, who was a minor at the time. The insurance carrier for the City had Miss Weiand and her parent sign a covenant and indemnity agreement proliding for the payment of the auto repairs and for medical bills arising from the personal injury to the driver. After turning 21 Miss Weiand presented the insurance carrier with additional bills which they paid by sending reimbursement checks to her father. She returned those checks indicating that she considered the indemnity agreement and covenant void. The court agreed and held that although Mr. Weiand was the legal guardian of his daughter, "that does not make him, also, the legal guardian of her property." [FN25] The court went on to say that w hile he may recover for the loss of services of his daughter, and for her medical expenses, "the damages for the injury to her person belong to her personally." [FN26] Ohio would appear to be in accord with other jurisdictions which have considered this matter. Parents do not have a legal authority to waive the child's own future cause of action for personal injuries resulting from a third party's negligence. [FN27] The central issue presented here is that while exculpatory clauses w ill be honored if unambiguous, understandable, and not unconscionable; they will not be honored if the parents purport to waive the child's cause of action by signing for the child or if the child signs for himself or herself. [FN28] While there are other issues to be raised, [FN29] this is the central policy is~uc involved in d eciding whether you th recreation and sports facilities can protect themselves from suit by requiring signed release forms. .~ootnotes

15. Cain v. Clevelnnd Parachute Training Center, 9 Ohio App.3d. 27,457 N.E.2d. 1185 (1983) 16. 28, 1187.

TECHNIQUE November/December1993

17. OrlettvSuburban Propane, 54 Ohio App.3d 127, 129,561 N.E.2d 1066, 1068 (1989) 18. Id. 19. Id . 20. Id. at 130, 1069

21. Williams v. Cox Entertainers, Inc. , 159 Ga App. 333,283 S.E.2d 367, 369 (1981) 22. Cain v. Cleveland Parachute Training Center,9 Ohio App.3d. 27, 28. 457 N.E.2d. 1185, 1187 (1983)

The signer recognizes the dangers involved

23. [d. at 27, 1186. 24 Weiand v. City of Akron, 13 Ohio App.2d. 73, 233 N .E.2d 880 (1968). 25. d.at75 26. id.

in participation in gymnastics and voluntarily accepts them. In addition, the signer agrees to

27. Fedor v. Mauhelnl Council, 21 Conn. Supp. 38, 143 A2d 466, 467-68 (1958); Fitzgerald v. Newark Morning Ledger Co., 111 NJ Super 104, 267 A2d 557, 558 (1970); Santangelo v. City of New York, 66 AD2d 880, 411 NYS2d 666, 667 (1978); Jones v. Dressel, 623 P2d 370, 372 n. 1 (Colo 1981); Doyle v. College, 403 A2d 1206, 1208 (Me 1979); Scott v. Pacific West Mountnin Resort,834, P2d 6, 8 (1989). 28. The Waiver of Liability used at Buckeye Gymnastics does not require the child to sign. The law in Ohio is clear and consistant with the majority view that contracts entered into by minors are voidable by the minor upon reaching majority. (Restatement 2d of Contracts, ยง14, Calamari & Perillo, The Law of Contracts, ยง8.2 (1987)) However, there are exceptions. One such exception is for the purchase of necessities. The infant is liable for the reasonable value of the necessities of life. (The Law of Contracts, ยง8.8.). Were gymnastics a necessity it might be possible for the exculpation agreement signed by an infant to be avoided. However, in that event it would be unconscionable for Buckeye Gymnastics to require such a release. (Orlett54 0hioApp.3d 127,561 N.E.2d 1066 (1989).

provide for any future medical care that might be required for a student injured at Buckeye Gymnastics. And finally, the signer agrees to hold harmless the

29. The most notable are: strict construction construed against the drafter, the requirement of the word "negligence" (not required in Ohio, Hil1 ev. Dayton SpeedwayCorp.,200hioApp.2d 185,252 N .E.2d 648), whether the agreement was brought home to the signer, w hether an individual can be bound without signing, whether such agreements must be supported by consideration, the scope of the agreement, whether assumption of risk still survives in an era of com pari table negligence, and whether a minor can ratify her contract after achieving majority .

personnel at Buckeye Gymnastics, Inc.


,----------------------------------------, PDP LEVEL II-GRANDPARENTING APPLICATION


Please type or print

Name ____________________________

Birthdate ___ / _ _ / _ _

Age _ _

Address _____________________________________________________________ City ________________________________

State _ __


Night ( _ _ _ ) -

Day ( ____ ) - _ _ - _ __

USGF Professional No. ____________

Social Security No. _ _ __ USGF Safety Certification


PDP Level I Accreditation ACEP Sport Science Course

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0 0


Yes Yes

0 0 0


No No

Expiration Date _________ Site/ Date ___________________ Site / Date ___________________

Educational Background Inst

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School / College / University


Major Area

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<$> ~

rn -

Grad .


Coaching!Administration Experience





Position Description


Upon completion of this application, send to: USA Gymnastics 201 S. Capital Indianapolis, IN 46225 Attn: Coaching Development Coordinator

Team Coaching Year


# of Athletes


Additional Information

L ________________________________________ (Tl 093)


~ I


November/December1993 TECHNIQUE

Coaches Education


Name _________________________________________________


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Na me ________________________________________________

Birthdate ____________________

Age ___________________

Position ____________________________________________

Address ______________________________________________ Relationship __________________________________________ City _______________________ State

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(nig ht) Pho ne _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Safety Certification:



PDP Accreditation: D Level I

expo date _______________

D Level II


Job Description

Na me _________________________________________________

(please print or type)

I coach and/or teach the following: (check all that apply) :J Mom & Tot D Preschool D Developmental D Tumbling D Cheerleading Wom en: D Levels 1-4 D Levels 5-7 D Levels 8-10 D Elite Men: DElite D Class 5-7 D Class 1-4 Rhythmic: D Levels 1-4 D Levels 8-10

Relationship ____________________________________________ Address _______________________________________________ Phone _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Employer's verification

D Levels 5-7 DElite

J, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____

Do you actively coach at competitions? (check all that a pply) If yes, list number per yea r. D Local__ D State__ D Regional__

Position _______________________________________________

information is tru e and accurate for the period w hich the above listed coach has been em ployed by ______________________________

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(please print or type)

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TECHNIQUE November/December1993

,acknowledge that this



William L. Cornelius, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Education University of North Texas Denton, Texas

Editor's note: While the FIG Code of Points outlines specific strength and skill requirements at the highest level of gymnastics, the USA Gymnastics Junior Olympic Competitive Program accounts for the developmental levels of the immature male gymnast. Such changes include the use of the mushroom, P-bar blocks, and no rings competition at the lower levels.

Appropriately designed gymnastics activities can provide a safe and effective means of increasing muscular strength in the young athlete. However, the higher force magni tudes and exercise intensi ties tha t are found during most resistance exercise programs may be in question. There is a clear need to raise levels of strength for improving gymnastics performance, yet it is unclear as to the long term effects produced by the forces that accompany this practice. It appears there is insufficient data available to make apt judgments concerning supplementary resistance exercise when examining both sides of the equation. The ever escalating levels at which some young gymnasts are performing and the higher risk associated with intensive training programs, complicate a complex issue. There will be increased - "..,... ~, physical demands on the immature system as the athletic population strives for greater performance perfection. Conservative practices, however, may prevent abnormal growth patterns brought on by aggressive sports programs. (Collins and Hofner, 1984) An immature gymnast may be defined as an individual not yet reaching puberty. (National Strength and Conditioning Association, 1985) Human body systems have nor fully matured. Ossification of the skeletal system and long bone growth center closure have not been completed. Consequently, this population may be referred to as prepubescent gJjml1asts and considered children.

Rationale for improving strength There is a lack of muscular strength and development in American youth. Frankly, strength and other physical fitness parameters have not significantly improved in American youth since research data began to be systematically collected in the early 1950s at the national level. Entry into competitive gymnastics programs, therefore, finds most youth sadly lacking in basic physical attributes that are necessary for initial success. The National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) favors resistance exercise for the imma24

ture athlete and suggests that strength training exercise can be safe and effective. Strength exercise, such as weight training, is supported by NSCA when in close association with proper technique. (NSCA, 1985) This procedure can implement the necessary training effect associated with safe strength development. Safety appears to be enhanced with small, progressive increases in resistance when the athlete performs the exercise with meticulous attention given to proper technique. Most injuries are not inherent to strengthening and may be minimized with the use of proper technique and practices. (NSCA, 1985) Close supervision is necessary for these principles to be realized. There are unique performance requirements levied in most sports that may not allow safe and appropriate participation by the immature athlete. It appears insufficient scientific data is available on the performance and conditioning habits of the ph ySicall y imma ture gymnast. It is unclear what is currently being done in most gymnastics programs and whether these programs are based on adult-type regimens that are solely entrenched in FlG requirements. Immature male. Strength adds dramatically to the success of all gymnasts and there appears to be a particular need for upper body strength in boys. The requirement for strength in the immature male may be greater than for his female counterpart. This appears to be true when accounting for combina tion requirements and the dictates of apparatus design. The apparatus design for boys' gymnastics events, such as pommel horse, parallel bars and rings, mandates that strength be present for controlling the body while performing. There are skills and combinations requiring such positions as the straight arm support that are particularly difficult for entry level immature gymnasts. Control is more difficult during swing oriented skills, while in the straight arm support, when angular momentum increases. Furthermore, the men's FIG Code of Points may exacerbate the problem by requiring positions and movements entrenched in the need for strength* Though combination requirements appear compatible\, with abilities inherent in adult male gymnastics popula tions, this might not be the case for the imma hue male sector. The younger male gymnast obviously does not

November/December1993 TECHNIQUE

Sport Science

yet have sufficient strength to meet some of the demands of the support. Consequently, coaches are needed with an w1derstanding of the normal growth and development patterns in the immature athlete. This background can provide a foundation for selecting appropriate skill progressions. Coaching decisions, based on understanding of normal anatomical structure and physiological function in the immature gymnast, can have a profound effect on whether the gymnast is entwined in a positive, stimulating environment. Immature female . The immature female has many of the same strength needs as her male counterpart. The design of the women's gymnastics events, however, mi tiga tes strength requirements at the entry level. There may be fewer obstacles for the young female when considering the relationship between the dictates of women's gymnastics apparatus design, the predisposition of the combination requirements set in the women's FIG Code of Points, and the immature anatomical structure. Less static positions, fewer support elements, and curtailed strength moves, promote greater success. There is an abundance of appropriate movement patterns inherent in swing from hang on the uneven bars and in skills allowing support on the feet and hands in floor exercise and beam. The uneven bar

design and related combination requirements discourage static support and slow moving strength parts, and encourage the maintenance of angular momentum (L). Because a force must be present in order to increase or decrease this mechanical phenomenon, timely manipulation of body segments can conserve the L inherent in swing about an axis . This is particularly helpful in allowing the young girls to experience a successful introductory experience, even though the immature female generally lacks muscular strength. Consequently, the nature of apparatus design and combination requirements can have an effect on whether the immature gymnast experiences continued success and ultimately remains in the sport.

Safety appears to be enhanced with small, progressive increases in resistance when the athlete performs the exercise with meticulous attention given to proper technique.

Influence of the all-around event. The all-around gymnastics event is particularly influential in assisting the immature with a progressive increase in muscular strength. Selected gymnastics movements and positions on these events provide important diversity in movement patterns. Although supplemental resistance exercise, such as weight training, is effective and quite common in sports conditioning programs, the all-around event can employ the human body and it's system of levers to capitalize on the interplay between the seg-

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mental centers of gravity, axes and points of force application. Manipulation of these components of the human lever system is particularly effective in regulating resistance as an essential means of incorporating the overload principle. Training specific to the task provides a means of focusing on gymnastics strength needs. The human body can act as the primary resistance when gymnastics elements are used. The interplay between gymnastics movement combinations and skills, designed to improve functional strength, can implement specificity of training. This yields a variety of muscle contractions (concentric, eccentric and isometric) that are intrinsic to participating in the all-around event. The result can act to stimulate both anaerobic and aerobic metabolic systems. Gymnastics vs. weight training. Including both gymnastics and weight training in a workout can be beneficial for the prepubescent athlete. (NSCA, 1985) Whether the immature athlete should participate in a gymnastics workout without the addition of supplementary resistance training, such as weight training, or some combined form of gymnastics and resistance regimen, has not yet been scientifically established. The onsite coach may be in a position to best determine the particular strategy for increasing and maintaining muscular strength that is best suited for each individual.

Resistance exerCIses performed repetitiously at lower intensities can be performed safely between six and 15 times. (NSCA,1985)

Proper technique can best be maintained when repetitions are performed at lower intensity levels.

Improved mobility Segment manipulation and forces. The gymnast cannot hope to successfully manipulate the human body without adequate strength. Muscular strength enables the gymnast to produce forces that are internal to the human system, creating body segment actions, resulting in external reaction forces from the apparatus. Mobilizing the skeletal system is, therefore, highly reliant upon muscle contraction and subsequent external force production. Explosive movements, common to all gymnastics events, along with slower transition movements and held positions required in floor exercise, parallel bars, balance beam and rings, rely on muscle contraction in order to produce body segment manipulations. The result can be changes in such mechanical qualities as segment angular acceleration. Increases or d ecreases in acceleration of a human system is associated with motive and resistive forces, respectively. Variety and diversity. The variety of movement patterns inherent in gymnastics activity, coupled with an assortment of muscle contractions acting throughout a total joint range of motion, reinforce the need for muscular strength. Strength needs exist for the gymnast at all joints. Particular importance lies in comprehensive muscle balance around these joints. The growing athlete can be injured as a result of soft tissues being inordinately stronger than interfacing tissues.


(Kreighbaum and Barthels, 1990, p. 18) The young gymnast must, therefore, begin to engage in a means by which functional strength can be safely increased. This can be accomplished over time, opting to develop strength within a reasonable time horizon. The young gymnast is phYSically immature and should not be arbih"arily subjected to an adult type conditioning program that may produce excessive mechanical stresses to the human system. Maintenance of control. Maintaining body control is a primary characteristic of artistic performance. Muscular strength is intrinsically linked with an ability to perform while under control. Progressive increases in muscular strength will better allow the young athlete to safely and successfully begin to deal with difficulty and combination requirements. Therefore, the level of controlled performance can be improved as the young gymnast is capable of producing the force needed to manipulate body segments under varying conditions. Consequently, strength is an essential ingredient because it is defined as the ability to exert a force. All movement is directly linked with an ability to produce a force. The following are several examples of how muscular strength can enhance performance through improved control: 1. Strength controls the pull of gravity as it acts to resist the upward motion and tempo of both the pelvis and lower torso in a press to a handstand.

2. Strength maintains the line of gravity within the base of support for establishing equilibrium in landing a dismount from the beam or horizontal bar. 3. Strength increases shoulder joint integrity through a stabilizing force component during extension of the humerus from a long glide to a kip on the uneven or parallel bars. 4. Strength increases the angular acceleration of the lead leg, at the pOintoftakeoff, in performing a front handspring.

Strength program for the young gymnast A primary problem. One of the primary problems in training the immature gymnast can be created when the coach disregards the maturity level. Being impatient and attempting to progress too quickly can create a dangerous environment for the immature athlete by subjecting them to various physical traumas, such as Osgood-Schlatter's disease. Kreighbaum and Barthels (1990) suggest that prior to ossification of the bones and in the period of accelerated growth, " ... young athletes should not be placed in intense or lengthy training programs ... " (p. 18) Practices in training the physically immature person are rather different than those used with the physically mature. Some caution advised. A conservative training approach is essential when developing strength in the immature gymnast. Although the immature athlete's

NovemberJDecember1993 TECHNIQUE

Sport $cience muscle fibers need to be stimulated in order to grow and develop at an appropriate rate, there is risk of injury to the immature athlete during strength training. Most injuries to this population, however, are not inherent to strengthening muscles and may be minimized by using proper technique. (NSCA, 1985) Bone structure in the immature athlete is susceptible to adaptations when subjected to excess stress. Even though genetics is the main determinant of growth and development, the way in which the gymnast is subjected to stress can greatly influence the adaptations that take place. The gymnast can be subjected to skeletal stress in a number of ways, such as tension, compression, shearing and torsion. Particular injuries, however, can occur to the young athlete before ossification of the bone takes place surrounding the apophyseal and epiphyseal plates. One such adaptation can result because the musculotendinous unit is simply stronger than the point at which it attaches to the immature bone. For example, muscle tension creates stress that can result in adaptations at this point of attachment referred to as the apophysis. Maximum muscle tension, therefore, can create an inordinate risk to the young gymnast through single or repetitive stresses on the apophysis during lengthy or intense conditioning programs. Muscle tissue can become strong enough to pull away or can create micro tears at the apophysis. (Kreighbaum and Barthels, 1990, p. 18) Maximum exertion created in a resistance program, or in the performance of a gymnastics maneuver, should therefore be carefully regulated. A safe approach. Safety should be of utmost concern. The young gymnastics population can be at risk because the human systems are immature. An appropriate approach is to select gymnastics moves serving as resistance maneuvers or weight training exercises that are submaximal in nature. Resistance exercises performed repetitiously at lower intensities can be performed safely between six and 15 times . (NSCA, 1985) Proper technique can best be maintained when repetitions are performed at lower intensity levels. Attempts to gain strength, while mechanics are lacking, can otherwise lead to tissue trauma and result in such conditions as skeletal adaptations or abnormal growth patterns. This is more likely in the immature athlete than in the adult because bony tissue is sometimes more susceptible to trauma than the associated musculotendinous unit. The imma ture gymnast is involved in skeletal growth and should be protected from traumatic separation of epiphyseal growth plates. The weakest kink to the immature musculoskeletal system is the bony structure, particularly the epiphyseal plate or growth center of the long bone. Growth plates are located near both ends of the long bones at the joint site and can easily be subjected to fractures. Trauma that might only result in a ligament sprain at the joint in an adult, often will nclude an epiphyseal plate injury in the immature individual. (Salter and Harris, 1963) Furthermore, about one-half of all injuries to immature long bones are to the epiphyseal plate. (Collins and Hofner, 1984)

TECHNIQUE November/December1993

Adequate rest under the supervision of a physicia n can easily provide the atmosphere necessary for tissue repair and a co ntinuation of normal growth and development. Under no circumstances s hould the young athlete workout or compete while experiencing physical pain. Shorter workout periods and appropriate rest between training sessions are recommended. Consequently, appropriate gymnastics workouts and timely medical care are essential in safely developing strength in the young athlete. Guidelines. The importance of a prudent approach in developing strength should not be understated. Strength can be safely and effectively increased in the prepubescent athlete. (NSCA, 1985) The following are some of the guidelines established by the NSCA for training the prepubescent athlete when resistance and sports programs have been coupled in a workout: 1. Limit the general workout program to 1 1/ 2 hours when including both weight training and sports activity. 2. Warm up 15 minutes before strenuous activity. 3. Limit weight training exercise to 30 minutes. 4. Provide a 24 hour rest between strength workouts. 5. Never attempt to determine maximum strength. 6. 50 to 80% of program should be concerned with comprehensive physical development. 7. Finish with 15 minutes of light activity as a cool down.

Summary Careful, comprehensive physical development should be a primary concern for all gymnastics programs. Muscular strength is essential to gymnastics performance. Resistance programs with a long term focus, however, will provide submaximum intensities that are considered conservative, yet provide training effects necessary for safe development in the immature gymnast.


References Collins, W.J., & Hofner, RG. (1984) A lower leg epiphyseal plate injury in a young athlete. Athletic Training, 19(1), 6162. Cornelius, W.L. (1993) Conditioning the immature gymnast. Technique, 13(6), 24-25. Kreighbaum, E., & Barthels, K.M. (1990) Biomechanics: a qualitative approach for studying human movement (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan Publishing Company. National Strength and Conditioning Association. (1985) Position paper on prepubescent strength training. Na-

tional Strength and Conditioning Association Journal , 7(4), 27-31. Salter, RB., & Harris, R (1963) Injuries involving the epiphyseal plate. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 45-A, 3.

Coaches Education

ACEP INSTRUcrORS The last few issues of Technique have listed the requirements for Level II Accreditation a nd Grandparenting. The component which seems to be surrounded wi th the most confusion is the ACEP Sport Science Course. Level II Accreditation Components: 1. USA Gymnastics Professional Membership

2. USA Gymnastics Safety Certification 3. ACEP Leader Level Sport Science Course 4. Experience Verifica tion Form 5. J.O. Compulsory Testing-available for Men, Women, and Rhythmic coaches 6. Basic Skills TestMen: Technique Training Guide to Men's Gymnastics Wo m e n:Tec hniqu e Tra inin g G uid e to Women's Gymnastics Rhythmic: J.O. Level 1-4 Video Workbook (available in '94) 7. PDP Level I Accreditation The ACEP Sport Science Course is required for all coaches at Level II regardless of their grandparenting status! The current schedule of ACEP Sport Science courses can be found on page X of this issue. We currently have identified nearly 70 ACEP Certified Instructors w ho represen t the gymnastics community and will be conducti ng courses throughout the country.

If you wish to set up a cou rse in your area, contact the Certified Instructor nearest you, or call the Ed ucational Services Department at USA Gymnas tics. You MUST have a MINIMUM of 10 PARTICIP ANTS in order to conduct a course.

ACEP Certified Leader Level Sport Science Instructors: Gloria Aikenhead Wallace Anderson Roger Baldwin Norbert Bendixon Beau Biron Kay Brown Lou Burkel Keith Carter Sarah Jane Clifford Bruce Davis Rick Dodson Steve Dunnigan Kate Faber-Hickie Douglas Fitzjarrell


Elko, NV Norwich, CT Floriston, CA Mundelein, IL Houston, TX Paris, TX Colorado Springs, CO Aurora, IL Penfield, NY Miami, FL Sarasota, FL Santa Monica, CA Toms River, NJ Waco, TX

Bill Foster Will Foster Jeffrey Fuchs Abe Gabriel Ricky Garcia Edward Gibson Dennis Gosnell Pat Gray Sherry Gruber Rick Gunther Patty Hacker Paul Hausladen Jill Henderson Louise Janecky Marvin Johnson David Klein Connie Kleven Thomas Koll Bernadette LeBlanc Louis liguori James linderholm Dave Moskovitz Jerry Nelson Phyllis Niemi Paul Padran Dave Peterson Edgar Pulido Jerry Reighard Susan Robinette Victoria Romano R. Lynn Ross Steve Rybacki John Sahlein Amy Sahli Jennifer Scannell Steven Schoenbaechler Heinz Schulmeister Kevin Scott Marvin Sharp George Sobotka Kevin Spencer Betsy Sprague Mike Stanner Chip Stevenson Lauri Stoneburner Michael Taylor Richard Terry Elaine Thompson EricTotman John Valdez Kevin White Steve Whitlock

Houston, TX Florence, AL Philadelphia, PA Camillus, NY Trussville, AL Merrillville, IN Knoxville, TN Meridian, MS Alva, OK Menonomonee Fails, WI Brookings, SD Mountain View, CA New Hartford, NY Los Alamos, NM Ypsilanti, MI Tigard, OR Medina, ND Omaha, NE Commack, NY Pinehurst, NC HuntSVille, AL Indianapolis, IN North Hoven, CT Rome, NY Charleston, SC Son Jose, CA Naperville, !L Mt. Pleasant, MI Pleasanton, CA Madera, CA Sf. Thomas, PA Covino, CA Boise, ID West Fargo, ND Leicester, MA Louisville, KY Los Angeles, CA Fenton, MO Forgo, ND Syracuse, NY Louisville, KY Denver, CO Omaha, NE Laurel, MD Santo Moria, CA Menlo Pork, CA Milford, CT GreenVille, NC Orangevale, CA Vista, CA Redgeland, MS Indianapolis, IN

November/December1993 TECHNIQUE

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Alternative Programs

WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE? Now that Levels I and II of the Professional Development Program (PDP) have been instituted, we must ask the question, "Where do we go from here?" At the Congress in Atlanta, one session was devoted to open discussion focusing on the development of criteria and components for Level III Coaches Accreditation.

Dave Moskovitz Coaching Development Coordinator

The Coaching Development Committee is anxious to explore the potential of this more advanced level of coaches education. Critical questions include:

As USA Gymnastics continues its efforts in coaches education, the recommendations and suggestions of active gymnastics coaches and administrators will form the foundation for the d evelopment of educational materials, programs, and certifications. In order to assist us in concept development, please complete the following survey and return by December 15, 1993 to: Coaching Development Coordinator USA Gymnastics

1. Who is the target population for this level?

Pan American Plaza, Suite 300

2. What components are required? Recommended?

201 S. Capitol Avenue

3. Where can / should these components be delivered to coaches?

Professional Development Program

Indianapolis, IN 46225 Thank You!

6. Please assign the number of clinic hours which you feel are necessary as a minimum requirement to complete PDP Level III Accreditation: Philosophy


8. Would you be willing to invest the time and money to attend a I-week coaches education camp? Yes


Why or why not? _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _

Sport Psychology Physiology Biomechanics

1. Sex

Season Planning/ Strategies


Nutrition 2. Age 18-24


35-44 45-54

Business Management


Time Management

3. State of current residence _ _ _ __

Each Competitive Event 4. Highest level of education o High school diploma

Strength Training


Marketing & Promotions


Completed college level coursework BA or BS Major: _ _ _ _ __ _


Area: _ _ _ _ _ __

Post-doctoral work



Why or why not? _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Other: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ____ 7. What costs would you pay for clinics lasting: 3 hours _ _ _ 6 hours (I-day) _ __

5. What is the most critical educational issue facing gymnastics coaches?


Other: _____ _ _ __ _ __

Post-bacheloriate coursework MA or MS Major: _ _ _ _ _ __ PhD or EdD

9. Would you recommend the addition of a state or regional coaches education direc.tor who would interact with the national office?

8 hours (2-days)

12 hours _ _ _ __ (2-days)

10. What three individual would you recommend for a position on a coaches education ad-hoc committee?

a. _______ _ _ __________

16 hours _ _ _ 24 hours _ _ _ __ (2.5 days) (3.5 days)

b. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

5 days

c. November/December1993 TECHNIQUE

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20 DANCE ExERCISES WITH NATALIA ILIENKO Facing a wall bar with the feet parallel Peel feet off the floor alternately-l , 2,3, 4. Rise on toes 5, flat feet 6, on toes 7,flat feet 8. Repeat "a". Rise to the toes 1, bend knees 2 back to straight legs 3, then flat feet 4, pike, press shoulders down 5, 6, 7 and stand straight 8. Repeat "b" 3 more times .




Notes and illustrations by Meg Warren, Association of British Gymnastics Coaches Sherwood House, Hinckley Road, Burbage, Leicestershire LE102AG

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Side to bar, feet in 1st position . Bend knees (plie) 1, 2. Straighten 3, 4. (2 times) Bend forward to horizontal 1, 2. Fold 3, 4. Rise up on toes 5, 6, 7,8. Lean back 1, 2, 3, 4. Stretch up 5,6. Move feet to 2nd 7,



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Face wall bar (feet in 1st position), Tendue to the side, 2 times. Then point to side and transfer weight bending knee and lifting heel up, point and close. Repeat on the other side.


Point left foot to side and turn to left to face the bar feet parallel. Belld knees and contract body, to push knees forwards rising on toes to body wave facing bar. Repeat from "a" circling right leg.

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tt.:t. \r:~1,11,,1. 路tt, Bend knees (plie) quickly 1, 2. Repeat 3, 4. Plie twice more but take arm across in front of the body and return 1, 2,3,4. Rise on toes, arm across head and return back to flat feet 5, 6. Repeat for 7, 8.



Face the wall bar. 4 tendues to right 1-8. Then point right foot and take weight on both feet into 2nd position, pass through knee bend (plie) to transfer weight to other side and join feet . Then point left foot and pass through plie again. Repeat "b" on the left side. Then repeat "a" with the left foot.


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With feet in 3rd position, rise up on toes and point outside foot forward to tap floor twice.. . support knee bel1ds. Return to 3rd on the toes . Repeat 1, 2, 3, 4 then twice to side and twice to the back. The arm comes above head in crown position on taos.


With weight on both feet, bend knee and body wave taking hips forward , hands held on bar. Repeat "b".





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Now bring feet to 5th position and repeat movements as for "a". After the backward bend, rise on toes 5, 6 and then pivot turn 7,8 to repeat on the other side.

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Face wall bar. Feet in 1st 1/2 turn and bend right leg and bend left leg in front and circle left leg forwards and sideways while hands hold back on bar. (1,2,



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Side to bad, feet in 3rd position . Tendu to front 1; turn toes up, bend support leg and arm to crown 2;

November/December1993 TECHNIQUE

Dance back to straight legs 3; and return to 3rd position 4. Repeat to front. Then to side 2 times and backwards 2 times. ~~~


Side to bar,feet in 3rd position. Lift leg to front 1, bend both legs on " & " and extend again on 2. Repeat for counts 3 and 4. Close feet and repeat. b) to the side, and c) to the back and then back to b. o~ ~ « «QQ ° 1 '0



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Side to bar,feet in 3rd position. The outside foot points toward as the support leg bends and the gymnast inclines body to bar---arm bends in front. Gymnast circles foot to side and straightens as arm moves to side. Keeping arms side, the right leg circles on the floor with a brush through straight. Repeat straight leg action again. Finish on toes in 3rd position and turn to repeat on the other side.

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Side to bar with feet in 3rd position. Brush foot forwards, backwards, forwards and return to 3rd plie on 4. Next re/eve (rise on toe) and bend leg to side 5, plie in 3rd behind 6. Repeat rise on toe 7 and plie on 8. Next the glJm nast points foot to side 1; close 2. Repeat 3, 4. Lift leg higher to side 5. Bend leg (toe to touch knee), straighten and close 6, 7,8. Now to back first as in section "a". Then to side again and stand on toes and turn to other side.




Facing wall bar, feet in 1st position. Repeat whole exercise on the other leg.

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Facing wall bar,feet in 3rd position. Lift leg fa back 1, 2, 3, 4. Bend support leg and hold 1, 2, 3, 4. Stra ighten 1, 2, 3, 4. Rise on toes 1, 2, 3 then close on 4. Repeat twice on each leg.


TECHNIQUE November/December1993

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Side to bar with feet in 3rd position . Point and close 1, 2, 3, 4. Lift leg above horizontal and rise on toes. Repeat twice more. For transition to other side, take leg to the back, turn passing through plie and bring feet together. Repeat to the other side.



Facing the wall bar. 4 straight leg lifts to back. 4 bent leg lifts. Repeat on other leg.


Facing the wall bar with feet in 1st position. Lift leg to side, bring feet to 1st and then lift leg to back, bending the knee. Repeat twice more. For transition, plie and step to other foot. Repeat on other side.



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Face wall bar. Rise on toes, bend leg with foot in front, foot behind foot in front 1,2, 3. Then extend leg to side 4. Repeat 3 times.



For transition , plii! and step to other foot. Repeat other side.


'1 -f!~-~f~(~\x3 ~J)1~ Side to wall bar and moving along wall bar. Step on toes and kick outside leg above horizontal. Bring feet together on toes and 1/2 pivot. Swing outside leg back bending support leg. Turn on toes with feet together. Step and repeat .

20 Dance Exercises with Natalia Ilienko

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This article is reprinted by permission from the Newsletter of the Association of British Gymnastics Coaches (ABGC), 3rd issue, 1993, 4-8. USA Gymnastics once again extends it thanks to Meg Warren, Editor, for her continued willingness to share ABGC articles with the U.s. gymnastics coaching community.

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In the center of the floor. Step onto flat foot , rise up and stretch free leg forward . Arms in opposition . Repeat on the other leg. Travel across the floor. ,0.0

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Step right, arms come up front to stretch above head 1. Together on toes 2. Step right, arms moving to side back 3. Together on toes 4. Step right and prepare for spin . Arms in crown on spin 1, 2,3, 4. Step left moving arms side to high back to stretch 1, 2, 3, 4. Repeat.

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Step and kick right leg high, arms in opposition. Step onto right leg, arms still in opposition. Repeat across the floor. Repeat on other leg. This is good training for leaps . (This can be progressed into a little leap).

P ;I'

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;I 9.


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November/Decemberl993 TECHNIQUE


Men's Technique


FROM GIENGER TO GAYLORD 2 The Gaylord 2 is a spectacular move that has an "E" skill rating currently the highest rating in the Code of Poin ts. I feel this move can be learned by more athletes than currently perform it successfull y, and offer the following analysis and progressions to encourage coaches w ho have gymnasts that can perform high Giengers to move on to the Gaylord 2 as a logical progression.

Anyo ne w ho can perform a high Gienger ca n learn this skill. The progression I follow, using an overhead belt, and stressing that the gymnas t should watch the bar the entire time, is:

I analyzed the Gienger and Gaylord 2 performances of two of my gymnasts and noticed several characteristics (all time and position d escriptions are approximate as I worked w ith a 30 frame / sec videotape system which is not ideal for doing motion analysis, but is useful for early investigation) :

3. Perfo rm a flyaway over the bar touching the bar with the feet as the bar is passed;

1. Speed ofswing before release: both gymnasts had slower giants before performing a Gienger. Passing below the bar, Bill Roth's took .77 sec from horizontal to horizontal (h-h). whereas Dave Frank's took .70 sec. When performing theGaylord 2, both gymnasts had a h-h time of .67sec. 2. Angle of arms, trunk and legs at release (figure I): for the Gienger, both released earlier than they did for the Gaylord, which is expected. In relation to the bar (horizontal =00.), Bill's arms were just below horizontal upon release, while his trunk and legs were approximately aligned at +500.. Dave's arms were +150., while his trunk and legs were at +530.. For the Gaylord 2, Bill's arms were horizontal, his trunk was +50 C (same as his Gienger), but his legs are almost vertical at +850. Dave, however, had an arm angle of +200., with his trunk and legs almost aligned at +700.. The difference between the gymnasts performing the Gaylord 2 can be attributed to Bill's experience and Dave's novice (and poorer performance) level concerning this skill. In the 1990 USA Championships, Bill's Gaylord 2 demonstrated a greater hip angle and a slightly higher ann angle upon release which contributed to that performance's greater rotation and ideal regrasp position. Dave has since improved his release position and is performing the Gaylord 2 much better.

1. Perform a flyaway to a stand on the bar (pad the gymnast's feet); 2. Perform a flyawa y over the bar;

4. Perform a flyaway over the bar and turn as the legs point toward the bar;

Fred Turoff Temple University

5. Go harder and attempt the whole move, not worrying about the regrasp but reach toward the bar; 6. Perform the move by kicking the fee t over the bar and "piking" in the shoulders, turning as the bar passes below, reaching for the bar actively (this should cause a pike which increases rotation, a desired action), regrasping and pushing to open the shoulder angle to a full swing position. The tap for this skill occurs later than that for a Gienger (which occurs later than that for a flyaway). This is because the flight path is over the bar, not in front of it as the other two skills require.

Obviously, if the performer releases too soon (an early tap sometimes causes this) he will not have the d esired flight path over the bar and will catch too close to move into a giant swing eaSily. If he doesn' t move into the release quickly enough (either the giant is too slow or his action is too weak) he will not rotate enough fo r a correct regrasp. Since we are now not allowed to perform a back uprise, hop to free hip circle or Stalder, but must continue into a giant swing, it is necessary to turn over considerably for the regrasp . When a gymnas t cannot make a giant swing, it is usually because he has "flopped" upon reg rasp due to either or both of the above mentioned problems. The ability to perform an Endo or forward free-hip circle to handstand ( "Weiler kip" ) from a small swing can cover up a close regrasp and subsequent lack of swing if necessary.

In short, w hat can be seen is what is expected-to chapge a Gienger into a Gaylord 2 the gymnas t should go fas ter, kick farther and break his shoulder angle more.

Once the general action is learned, this is a relatively safe move to miss going long, as the performer generally lands on his feet before sitting on the mat. If the skill is perfo rmed short, at least the performer can see the bar earl y and can reach d own to cushion an on-the-bar experience. To guard against this occurrence, once the skill is being performed out of the belt it is wise to have a teammate or coach slide a mat over the bar after release to cushion against any chest-to-bar mishaps until the gymnast has some degree of competence and precision of performance. A coach on a raised platform can hand-spot smaller gymnasts as well.

One of the nicer aspects of performance, according , all w ho learn this skill, is that the bar can be seen .,luring the entire flight time. O ne of my former gymnasts d escribed it as the "funnest trick I ever taught him" because he could see the bar, the gym, the judges and his teammates below him as he did it.

If the gymnast regrasps and then slips off, all a coach can do is try to break the gymnas t' s fa ll. Observe his grip upon bar contact and step in if u ncertainty on the coach's part occurs. During training, sliding a vertical safety cushion under the bar after release can stop a gymnast as he passes under the bar w ith relative safety.

Bill'l Gienger Bill'l Gaylord 2 Dove'l Gienger Dove'l Gaylord 2

TECHNIQUE Nave111ber/Dece111ber1993





Joy Gibney, Esq. 400 North Tustin A venue, Suite 400 Santa Ana, CA 92705 (714) 543-9939

roducts (equipment) liability in sports was once primarily associated with protective equipment such as football helmets. Today all types of sports related equipment are included. The rule is a manufacturer must adhere to the standard of reasonable care in the manufacture and design of the sports equipment so that it is reasonably safe when used for its intended purpose and in the maImer intended. Added to this, if the equipment is potentially dangerous, even when properly used, the manufacturer may also have a duty to warn of these potential hazards. This duty may even include the advertiser and seller of the equipment. So where does a coach stand under these rules? Coaches have a duty to provide safe and effective equipment. A coach may be negligent in supplying defective equipment. Coaches also have a duty to warn their gymnasts of any hidden dangers known to the coach and to instruct the gymnasts in methods to avoid these dangers. A coach may also have potential liability for injuries sustained from gym equipment, in the areas of design defect and failure to warn. Most suits involving equipment liability involve equipment that was defectively designed, or defective because it was not accompanied by an adequate warning. Such lawsuits often result in the coach being named in the lawsuit as well as the company that manufactured the equipment. Here are some ways a coach may be held liable instead of, or along with, an equipment manufacturer:

Design defects and the coach

4. The degree to which the risk of injury was increased by the defective equipment. (Was the injury actually caused by the defective equipment, or some other factor, such as negligent coaching?)

5. The state of the art in designing equipment that would be absolutely safe. (Was safer equipment available to the coach? Could safer equipment have been produced by the manufacturer?)

Failure to warn and the coach This theory has received the most widespread use. The theory here is that the manufacturer of the equipment failed either to provide an adequate warning or did not provide a warning at all. Failure to warn has been especially dominant In cases involving gymnastics equipment and trampolines.

signed to avoid. (this applies to protective equipment such as mats, grips, protective beam pads, etc. Were they properly placed by the coach?)

As an example, a case In California once resulted In a $353,000 settlement against Nissen Corporation on behalf of an 18 year old gymnast who struck his head on the gym wall while attempting a maneuver on the horizontal bar. The bar had been placed 16 inches from the wall. The gymnast alleged that Nissen had conducted tests which revealed that the bar should have been anchored at least 28 inches from the wall. However, no such warning or instructions accompanied the equipment. It is interesting to note that the coach was not liable here. ( Because the bar did not come with the warning, the coach was not on notice of the tests Nissen had conducted.)

3. The amount of use, foreseeable misuse, and wear and tear likely to be encountered by the equipment within a reasonable time, i.e., durability. (Did the equipment fail to function

Con versel y, a manufacturer ma y claim tha tit should be relieved of liability because it gave a full and adequate warning and instructions to the purchaser (the coach!) The question here is whether the warning was

In evaluating the defectiveness of a sports equipment design, the following five considerations may be taken into account, according to Trial, a law journal: 1. The nature of the sport and the usual inci-

dence of injuries associated with it. (i.e", is it the fault of the equipment, the coach, or a risk inherent to the sport?) 2. The type of injury the equipment was de-


during normal use, or did the coach know or should have known the equipment was not properly set up or not in proper condition?)

November/December1993 TECHNIQUE

'---- Legal trul y adequate. Also, even if the warninglli found to be adequate, due to the inherent d angers in some equipment, the manufacturer should not necessarily be permitted to delegate liability, but still has a continuous obligation to see to it that the warnings and directions are followed . (This might mean both coach and m anufac turer could be liable in these situations.) It is also important to note that in failure to wa rn cases, the age and experience of the gymnast may well d etermine the extent of the manufacturer's duty, and the coach's as well. This means that suits w hich have been successful based on fa ilure to warn or lack of supervision have involved young and inexperienced gymnasts.

A manufacturer's warning w ill be inad equate if it does not specify the risk presented by the equipment, it is inconsistent with how the product would be used it does not provide the reason for the warnings, or if the w arning d oes not reach foreseeable users. As an example. In one case a trampoline manufac turer was found not liable to a high school gymnast w ho received injuries because the experienced gymnast was held to have known the risks of the injuries he sustained . But, in another case five years later in another state, a high school gymnas t did recover monetary d amages for her injuries sustained from somersaulting off a mini-trampoline. Here, the court found the warnings were inad equa te because they did not specify the risk of severe spinal cord injury, w hich would result in permanent paralysis, during somersaulting off the miniTamp if perfor med without a spotter or safety harness. The court held that neither the gymnast nor the coach had sufficient knowledge of its d angers, since the warnings were inadequate!

The coach used as a defense by manufacturers The manufacturer in a sports equipment liability suit has a variety of defenses available. Among these defenses include misuse and intervening causes due to, your guessed it, the coach, the gymnast, or both. Manufac turer warnings are a method by which they may avoid liability. A piece of equipment in you r gym may be perfectly manufactured and d esigned but still be considered d efective when used by a gymnast if there is no ad equate warning regarding the m anner in which it should be used safely. That's the good news. However, if the manufacturer did provide an ad equate warning w hich was show n not to have been heed ed by a coach, the manufacturer w ill have rem oved liability from himself and passed it on to you! Suggestions to prevent equipment liability and injuries 1. Keep all brochures and specifications for each piece of gym equipment in a file, one manila file folder for each pi ece of equi p m ent. (This way

you are aware of wha t warnings you were or were not provided ) 2. Read, understand and follow these instructions. Make su re assistan t coaches and older gymnasts that would be adjusting their own settings see these instructions and have copies or access to them . Make su re they comprehend and follow these instructions. (This is the best way to put liability for fa ilure to warn back onto the manufacturer alone!) 3. Crea te a record for periodic inspection of each piece o f equi p m ent b ased o n th e manufacturer's recommended instructions for period ic inspection and maintenance. Follow and record your inspections and maintenance. (This is the best w ay to avoid being held responsible fo r a manufac turer's defective d esign! ) 4. Provide the best equipment available. (Using older equipment where it is known that safer equipment is available could result in negligence on the part of the coach.)

The manufacturer in a sports equipment liability suit has a variety of defenses

5. Provide safety modifications that are available fro m manufacturers for your current equipment when available, such as the AAI Balance Beam Pad s for beam legs. (Again, w here it is known that safety modifications, pad s, etc. are available, negligence on the part of the coach could result where he / she did not provide them.)

available. Among these defenses include misuse and intervening causes due to, your guessed it, the coach, the

6. Do not alter or m odify m anufac turer's equipment beyond the printed specifications and instructions they provide. (Making your own changes or adjustments to a piece of equipmen t makes ~ the new m anufacturer from that point in time forward with all future liability on your shoulders alone!) 7. Remember that ~ w ill be considered the m anufac turer of any homemad e equipment that you provide (Therefore, all of the above liability discussed will again be on your should ers alone!- in other words, d on' t d o it! )

gymnast, or both.

8. Continue to follow all USA Gymnastics coaching guidelines so that there are no "intervening factors" which could have caused the injury other than the equipment. (See the previous issue's article on Coach Liability.)

References Wilkinson, Allen P., Trial. November, 1981, p . 58-62 Champion, WalterT., Fundamentals of Sports Law, Lawyers Co-operative Publishi ng Co., 1990 H ogan v. Nissen Corpora tion Califo rnia . Orange County Su peri or Court, Cali fo rni a No. 203039 (1979) Garret v. Nissen Corporation, 84 N.M. 16 498 P. 2d . 1359 (1972) Pell v. Victor J. And rew H igh School, (1984, 1st Dist) 123 11 1 App 3d 423, 78 111 Dec 739,462 NE2d 858 USA Gymnas tics Photo Š Dave Black

TECHNIQUE November/December1993



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November/December1 993 TECHNIQUE



CERllFICATION The 3rd Cycle of Safety Certification courses will be introduced in 1994. 3rd Cycle courses will be based upon a new Safety Course Handbook which will now be included as part of the course fee . The format of a1l3rd Cycle courses will be more interactive and discussion oriented than the previous courses. Content will be provided by National Safety Instructors and augmented by videotapes, handouts and workbook exercises. The total time for course and exam should be no more than 4 hours.

All "groups" must register through the national office-contact the National Safety Coordinator for details. • Audit rate (currently $25) • "Retest" rate - for someone who had previously failed the examination • RECERTIFICATION rate - anyone who has previously been safety Certified during the 1st or 2nd Cycle courses (currently $75)

As before, 3rd Cycle Safety Certification is active for four years. Note: for persons who are recertifijing early, the

Beginning with 3rd cycle courses, anyone who is recertifying will not be required to write the examination-attendance and participation in a new 3rd cycle course will be sufficient to gain recertification.

four year period begins on the day the current certification expires. The proposed 3rd cycle price structure will remain essentially the same* as for current 2nd cycle courses: * Costs may vary depending on production costs. • Pro member rate (currently $75) • Non-member rate (currently $100) • Special group rate - for pre-registered groups of 10 or more (currently $60/participant)

Steve Whitlock Director of Educational Services and Safety

For a short period of time, both 2nd and 3rd cycle courses will be listed on the Safety Schedule, and both courses will be valid opportunities to gain Safety Certification-this is necessary in order to continue to provide service to the membership as the National Safety Course Leaders are trained in administering the 3rd Cycle courses. Courses advertised in Technique and USA Gymnastics magazine will clearly indicate 2nd or 3rd cycle designation.

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1-800-227-1557 In NY 914-963-0005 TECHNIQUE November/December1993


Coaches Education



SA Gymnastics will requirement for PDP Level II Accreditation. Use the be sponsoring

Tuesday & Wednesday, December 28-29 Tue.: 4:30pm-7:30pm Wed.: 1:00pm-7:30pm Tags (Thompson Academy of Gymnastics) 5201 Eden Ave. Edina, MN 55436 Course Oir.: Scott Gray-(612) 920-5342 Local Contact: Same

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USGF-ACEP Leader Level Sport Science - Registration Form Fill in the following form as completely and accurately as possible. please print or type.


Birthdate_ _ _ _ _ Age _



Zip _____

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D No

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Course Information

1. The textbook for the Leader Level Sport Science course is Successful Coaching. The textbook is included in the course fee. Preregistered participants will receive their materials at the course. 2. The course fee is $80. USGF Professional Members may register at the reduced rate of $70. 3. Successful completion of this course fulfills the Sport Science requirement for PDP Level II Accreditation . 4. Send completed form with payment to: USA Gymnastics, Pan American Plaza, 201 S. Capitol Ave. , Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225 Payment:



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Novell1ber/December1 993 TECHNIQUE

ELITEADHoc COMMI'I'I'EE September 12, 1993 Atlanta, Georgia I. ROLL CALL

Roe Kreutzer Chair Kevin Brown Coach Rep . Paula Gehman for T. Gehman Coach Rep. Kelli Hill Coach Rep. Bela Karolyi Coach Rep. Steve Nunno (9:00 pm) Jackie Fie Michelle Dusserre Athlete Rep. Women's Program Director Kathy Kelly Guests: Muriel Grossfeld (10:00 pm ) Mike Jacki Meeting called to ord er at 8:30 pm by Chairman, Roe Kreutzer I. SELECTION PROCEDURES for 1994Spring World Championships J. Fie apprised the committee on the format and schedule for the 1994 Spring World Championships. Competition w ill be conducted for All Around and Individual Events. Dusserre presented the Athletes' Council's recommendation regarding selection procedures. The Athletes' Council feel strongly that all selection for international competitions come from competitive results. Lengthy discussion regarding the process and w hat was best fo r the athletes, the country and the program goals was held. The following is the final committee draft of the Selection Procedures w hich w ill be submitted to the Executive Committee and the Board of Directors for final approval. They are subject to change pending final approval. Please see attached Procedures. The Goodwill Games participants w ill be determined from ,he American Classic results by the Selection Committee. The 1994 Team World Championships Selection Procedures w ill be d etermined after the FIG m eeting in October. II. COMPETITION RULES . Recommendation that the Senior and Junior International Level at 1994 Classics and above competitions compete under Competition III rules for Uneven Bars, Balance Beam, and Floor and Competition II rules for Vault. MOTION - K. Hill SECOND - P. Gehman PASSED Recommendation that the All Around Score for the International Levels (both Jr. & Sr.) be determined by60% Compulsory and 40% Optionals. This percentage will be used at 1994 Classics and above competitions. MOTION - S. Nunno SECOND - P. Gehman PASSED III. QUADRENNIUM CALENDAR The committe reviewed the past season's calendar. Although the committee recognizing the d iffi culties that existed with the "summer season", they felt that the benefits outweig hed the difficulties. Recommendation to continue to use the current calendar. MOTION - B. Karolyi SECOND - P. Gehma n PASSED IV. SUPPORT PROGRAM The committee d iscussed the current support program for the athletes, coaches and the proposal fo r the club support 路ogram. Kelly presented the proposal for the Club Support Progra m. Recommendation to the Executive Committee and the Board of Directors to accept the Women's Club Suppport Program as proposed and amended.

TECHNIQUE Nove mber/December1993

MOTION - S. N unno SECOND - B. Karolyi PASSED Recommendation to the Executive Committee NOT TO support the Junior Athletes by direct payments, but by continuing enhancement of their development by providing training camps, international competitions, and elite clinician visitations. MOTION - K. Hill SECO ND - P. Gehman PASSED V. NUTRITION The committee discussed the concern w ith proper nutrition for our athletes. While the coaches can be influential in this regard, they do not live w ith the athletes and cannot monitor their daily habits. The committee made the following recommend ation to the office. Recommendation that an educational video tape be developed by the National Team Nutritionist and Team Psychologist for distribution to the National Team athletes, parents and coaches. MOTION - S. Nunno SECOND - K. Hill PASSED Kelly thanked the committee fo r their time and effort on behalf of the national program. Meeting adjourned at 2:00 am. Approved by Mike Jacki October 1993

ELITE PROGRAM COMMI'I"I'EE MEETING Tops Training Camp, Indianapolis October 7, 1994 I. ROLLCALL

R. Kreutzer called the meeting to order at 8:00 PM . Region I David McCreary Dan Alch Region II Scott Crouse Region III Region IV Mike Hunger Region V Gary Warren Region VI Byron Knox Ga ry Anderson Region VII Region VIII Tim Rand EPCC Roe Kreutzer WPD Ka thy Kelly II. TALENT OPPORTUNITY PROGRAM Kelly thanked Ga ry And erson for cond ucting a meeting with the Regional Elite Chairmen on the administration of the regional TOPS testing. He gave each chairman a sample fo lder w hich included all aspects of the program, includ ing timelines for publica tion, sample tests, bios, other necessary forms, and a model fo r training session and rotations. III. ELITE AD HOC COMMITTEE PROPOSALS Recommendation to support the Ad Hoc Committee's proposal that the Senior and Junior International Levels at 1994 Classics and above competitions compete under Competition II Rules for Vault. MOTION - G. Anderson SECOND - M. Hunger PASSED


Recommendation to support the Ad Hoc Committee's proposal that the All Around Score for th e International Levels (both Jr. and Sr.) be determined by 60% Compulsory and 40% Optional for both Classics and Championship s, to be consistent with qualification requirements. MOTION - T. Rand SECOND - G. Wa rren PASSED Recommendation that the All Around Scores for the International Levels (both Jr. and Sr.) be determined by 60% Compulsory and 40% Optional for Elite Regional Competitions. MOTION - T.Ra nd SECON D - G. Warren PASSED IV. AMERICAN CLASSIC CLINICFORJR.!SR. NATIONAL LEVELS The Committee discussed the format for the clinic following American Classics. Each ath lete w ho participates in the clinic will receive a video tape of her compulso ry exercises with personal critiques. All USG F coaches w ho have qualified an athlete to a USGF Na tional Meet (J.O. or Elite) in the previous season may attend, at their own expense, any and all Na tional Tea m train ing camps. Please contact the office if you plan on attending for confirmation of space. Approved October, 1993

WOMEN'S TECHNICAL COMMI'IHI'EE MEETING October 14-15,1993 Colorado Springs, CO I. ROLL CALL Meetillg was called to order at 6:00 PM.

Region I Ricki Fell for Joanne Pasquale Karen Wisen Region II Region III Carol Bunge Region IV Linda Beran Region V Carolyn Bowers Region VI Cindy Sielski Region VII Cheryl Hamilton Ma rian Dykes Region VIII NETC Audrey Schweyer Tom Koll NJOPCC NJOPCoord . Connie Ma loney NAWq Yvonne Hodge WPD Kathy Kelly Roe Kreutzer (Saturday only) NEPCC NCAA Debbie Yohman Absent: WTCC Mari lyn Cross II. REVIEW OF WTC SYMPOSIUM & ELITE JUDGES' COURSE The committee discussed both events and made suggestions for improvements for these events in the fu ture. III. CONGRESS SESSIONS The committee reviewed the 1993 Cong ress sessions and was remind ed that USA Champi onships and Congress w ill be combined in 1994. A. Schweyer requ es ted that consideration be given to those judges w ho are offiCi ating at Championships in rega rd s to their Congress responsibilities. IV. N AWGJ REPORT Y. Hodge reported an increase in the number of NAWGJ members. The co mmittee discussed the proposed fee structu re and vo iced thei r concerns, questions and recommendations. K. Kelly and Y. Hodge will meet prior to the USGF Board of Direc tors meeting in November to finali ze the structure.


Recommendation that NAWGJ investigate the possibility of a more relaxed (warm-up suit) uniform for local meets. Recommendation that the Rilles and Policies be corrected as follows: Page 5, top of page #2. Add "May" acquire .... and Page 57, I. CONTRACTING OFFICIALS, First sentence Change MUST to "MAY". MOTION - K. Wisen SECOND - L. Beran PASSED V. JR. OLYMPIC PROGRAM T. Koll reported on the activities of the J.O. Program Committee and encouraged each region to survey their members for input fo r the new J.O. compulsory program w hich will be instituted in Aug ust, 1997. CLARIFICATION of Apparatus Requirements in the 199394 Rilles alld Policies: As stated in the May, 1993 JOPC minutes, the use of the skill cushion (maximum thickness of 8") for vault, bars, beam and floor is allowed for OPTIONAL competition ONLY. To clarify the statement on Bars and Beam: "the skill cushion may not be used in the mount phase" refers only to initiating the mount from the skill cushion. The skill cushion may be used under the apparatus during the mount.. VI. NCAA REPORT D. Yohman gave the NCAA report. The WTC encourages all judges w ho are active in the NCAA to read page 71 of the Women's Ru les alld Policies.

The following a pplies to all collegiate meets commencing in 1994: CORRECTION/CLARIFICATION to the Rules and Policies Page 71: C. Balance Beam - All acrobatic connections of B+ B+ D (includ ing f1ic-f1ac, f1ic-f1ac, back layout stepout) will receive bonus credit of + 0.20. D.6. Value of Arabian front salto piked to prone is C. F. Open Scoring will be used at ALL NCAA competitions. Scoring in 0.05 increments is allowed at all NCAA meets. VII. JUDGES' TRAINING COMMISSION K. Kelly announced that the Na tional offi ce, und er the d irection of and in conjunction with the WTC, will orga nize, structure, produce and disseminate the educa tional information. Therefore, the Jud ges' Training Commission Chairmen w ill no longer serve on the WTC and it is recommend ed that members of the JTC contact their RTC for direction regarding their involvement.This is being done in an effort to strea mline administati ve overhead VIII. J.O. TECHNICAL C. Hamil ton gave the report from the J.O. Committee and broug ht their recommend ations to the Technical Committee for the d esign and assistance w ith a philosophy statement on optimal executio n of elements and value part credit. Philosophy Statement: If a gymnast perforlll s an allowable element to its ultimate, wh ich inadverten tly results ill a restricted elemen t, the gymnast will receive the A LLO WAB LE VA LUE PART credit .

Exa mp le: Level 8 Uneven Bars - Cas t to a handstand with a half turn (B) that is performed compl eted in handstand (C) will receive B Va lue Part Credit. Level 9-Giant w ith full turn (C) that is performed completed in hand stand (D) w ill receive C Va lue Part Cred it. CLARIFICATION TO THE J.O. MINUTES: If an element is performed a th ird time, it will not receive Value Part credit but will be eligible for Special Requirement/compositional credit and any bonus. (Exception: SR of ten elements on uneven bars may onl y be fulfilled by elements receiving Va lue Part credit) The J.O. Comm ittee reques ted that the WTC acce pt their proposal that Start Va lues be fl ashed by each judge at Level 9 & 10 Regionals and Level 10 Natio nals and that the Sta te Boards have the option to im plement thesystem at Level 9aIY' 10 State meets. The WTC requ es ts tha t th e J.O. Committee consider the fo llowing: Recommend ation that the existing criteria for use of Open Scoring be applied to the fla shing of Start Value by each

November/December1 993 TECHNIQUE

judge (Le., required at Nationals, Regional Board decision for Regionals and not allowed at State meets and below). MOTION - Marian Dykes SECOND - Cindy Sielski PASSED Note - The J.O. Committee maintained their recommendation to allow the States to decide this issue. Therefore, this item will go to the WPC to determine which committee has jurisdiction in this matter. Recommendation that if a restricted element is performed as a dismount at Level 8 or 9, a deduction of 0.10 would be taken for missing a Special Requirement. The deduction for no dismount would not be taken. MOTION - Cheryl Hamilton SECOND - Marian Dykes PASSED CLARIFICATION: The new score range, as stated in the J. O. Technical Handbook, is in effect for all Junior Olympic Competitions, both compulsory and optional. (Please correct your Compulsory Book). 9.500 - 10.000 0.20 pt. 9.000 - 9.475 0.30 pt. 8.000 - 8.975 0.50 pt. Below 8.000 1.00 pt. CLARIFICATION: Page 37, C. Any performance (gymnastics included) for Entertainment/Demonstration purposes must be conducted before or after the entire competition is completed. No performance for "exhibition" is allowed during the competition, and no evaluation is allowed. The Committee reviewed a number of technical questions that have been asked since the WTC Symposium. See Question and Answer addendum to these minutes. Meeting adjourned at 10:00 PM. Meeting convened at 9:00 am IX. JUDGING ASSIGNMENTS TO J.O. NATIONALS ASchweyer asked that each region submit a list in rank Jrder of the recommended judges to M.Cross by Dec. 1, 1993. Regional recommendations for Sports Festival (Brevets and National Elites) and the Gymnastics Festival (Brevets, National Elites and Elites) should be submitted in rank order to A. Schweyer by March 1, 1994. CORRECTIONS TO THE RULES AND POLICIES: Page 60. 3.d and 4.c. change the word "selected" to "CONSIDERED". X. CORPS OF JUDGES K. Kelly and A. Schweyer reported on the Corps ofJudges. They are working on the responsibilities, goals, and the philosophy of education and communication. Information will be distributed in the near future. XII. ELITE PROGRAM REPORT R. Kreutzer gave a report on the activities of the Elite Program since Congress. The Elite Ad Hoc Committee and the Elite Program Committee have agreed and the minutes of both of their meetings will be approved and published in the next issue of Technique. 280 athletes were tested at Tops National Testing last week. Dr. Sands will submit the final "ranking" to the office next week and those athletes who qualified to the Tops Team will be invited to attend a training camp in either December or January (depending upon budget). The coaches who qualified through the 6-8 year olds will be invited to attend a Coaches' Seminar for coaches only. This date has not yet been confirmed. The TOPs Manual and the format of the Regional and National testing is being discussed and will be revised . XII. ELITE TECHNICAL A Schweyer asked for volunteers to review the USGF Element Supplement. Clarification: Delete the following statement from the cover 'ge: "It may be used in Elite Competitions if FIG has not laluated the element(s) but these evaluations are valid only in the United States". Effective Immediately for the Elite Program: All elements not listed in the FIG Code of Points must be submitted to the Regional Technical Chairman for evaluation. Each RTC will

TECHNIQUE November/December1993

discuss these element evaluations with A Schweyer and then J. Fie (if necessary) to ensure that the evaluation will be consisten t between Regionals, Classics and Championships. Event Assignments for the Element Supplemen t review are as follows: Wisen and Bunge - Bars Hamilton and Dykes - Beam Sielski and Bowers - Floor XIII. JUDGES' CERTIFICATION Regarding the new National Elite and Elite judges, the office will clarify with Judges' Certification, Inc. the USGF rules, as listed in the J.O. Technical Handbook. Recommendation that ICI provide as many Level 10 Test Administrators to the Regions as requested by the Regional Board. MOTION - C. Hamilton SECOND - M. Dykes PASSED C. Bowers presented a proposal for a modification of the testing timetables for the certification of optional judges. It will be presented to JCI at their next meeting in January. The next meeting will be held January 13-16, 1994 in conjunction with the National Team TrainingCampat USOTC, Colorado Springs. The committee has requested that the second annual meeting be held prior to Congress (possibly at the National Gymnastics Festival). We Miss You , Marilyn!! Meeting adjourned at 7:40 PM .

OPTIONAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS General: 1. Page 26 of J. O. Technical Handbook refers to General Deductions #3. Large Faults, c. Fall on BOTH knees, etc. = 0.5. What is the deduction for falling (support) on only one knee? Refer to the FIG Code, Page 22, General Faults-Technical: Fall on ONE or BOTH hands, knees, hips = 0.50.

Uneven Bars: 1. Clarify the wording in the FIG Code of Points regarding "In handstand" and "in handstand phase". Both refer to the completion of the element or turn within 10° of handstand. 2. Do dismounts retain their value regardless of the start position even if described in the Code as coming from handstand? Yes. 3. What is the value of a Forward swing to handstand, slipgrip counterswing to straddle back over LB w ith flight to hang on LB? It is considered 2 elements: Giant swing to handstand (B) plus Counter flight backward over LB with legs straddled (B, or C if to handstand). 4. #2.503 Giant with release-hop and 360 ° turn in handstand phase. If not performed in handstand phase, is it deva lued? If there is discernible flight occurring within 10° of handstand, it would still receive "E" value part credit even if completition of the element is slightly past 10° of handstand.

Beam: 1. Will an Illusion with 360° turn (#3.501) fulfill the Full Turn SpeCial Requirement if the hand touches the beam? Yes. Also, if the element is devalued due to not being performed through the vertical, the Full Turn SR credit may still be awarded. 2. Can the "Gymnastics B" Special Requirement be an isolated element or must it be part of a series? It may be either an isolated element or part of a series. 3. Will a Scale on Toe (#5.203) fulfill the "Gymnastics B" Special Requirement? Yes.


4. What is the bonus for the following gymnastics series? Switch-leg lea p (C) + Double-stag switch-leg leap (C) + Straddle Jump (C)? + 0.1 for the Switch-leg leap combination (exception to rule of C + C =+0.2) + 0.2 for the Double-stag switch-leg leap to Straddle jump Total Bonus = + 0.3 5. If an Omelianchik (#7.401) is performed with an additional ISO° pirouette without a hop, is it considered another element or just the Omelianchik with a change of connection? It is considered the same element with different connection; therefore, if an Omelianchik is performed to step-down and then again with a 180° pirouette without a hop, both elements would receive Value Part credit of "0" due to the different connection, but only +0.1 "0" for Extra D/E bonus. 6. Tuck jump with one leg extended and ISO O or 360° turn: What is the technical requirement for leg position to receive value part credit? The ideal position (one leg extended at horizontal or above, one leg in tuck position) must be shown in ANY phase of the turn. 7. Flic-flac with ISO° turn after landing + sissone: Does this constitute a mixed series? It depends on the continuity; if the 180 0 turn is part of the element and not a separate turn leading into the second element, it could be considered a series. S. Does a Switch-leg leap and a gainer flic-flac connect for a mixed series? for Bonus? Yes, if the landing is on the right leg from the leap and the take-off for the flic-flac is from the left leg with no pause in between, then it could fulfill the mixed series requirement as well a receive a bonus of +0.1 for Special Connection. 9. What are the guidelines for awarding a switch leg leap with y" turn to a side leap and a switch leg leap with y" turn to land sideways? The switch-leg leap to side leap must show the \I. turn and side split position to receive a "0". If the % turn is performed upon landing, with no side split position shown, award "C". 10. What are the technical requirements for the Silivas mount? (#1.310) There must be two continuous 180° turns in the shoulder/chest stand position to award "c" Value Part. If there is a % turn into the shoulder stand, followed by a 180° turn, then another % turn out, devalue to "B". 11. What bonus is awarded for a 3-flight element acro series involving one element with directional change or counter execution? If no principle is present, break it into two parts using the middle element twice.

Floor Exercise: 1. Are front saltos to prone position still allowed? If performed inJ.O. or Elite levels, they would receive no Value Part credit. However, the NCAA will continue to give Value Part credit for these elements; see the Women's Rules and Policies, page 71 for the appropriate values. 2. If a LevelS gymnast performs a "c" dismount (0 Value Part), is there a 0.3 deduction for no dismount? No, deduct 0.1 for missing Special Requirement (than an "A" dismount). 3. What is the va lue of a Back Saito Stretched with ISO° turn? It is considered the same value as the Arabian salto =B. This will be added to the USGF Elemellt SlIpplement. 4. Is a Split Lea p to immediate Forward Roll considered one or two elements?


It is considered one element and may be used as either an

acro or gym element. 5. Is it appropriate to deduct for execution / amplitude faults on multiple saltos with a fall (i.e., deduct more than the fall?) Yes, provided the fault was not the cause of the fall. 6. In the following series, can credit be given for both a mixed series as well as an acro series with two saltos? Round-off, flic-flac ¥, twist, Front saito tucked, straddle jump, headspring, round-off, flic-flac, ¥, twist. Yes, mixed series for Front saito, straddle jump, headspring and a two saito acro series for the two '/1 twists. However, it is intended that all Special Requirements be performed separately, not overlapping. 7. Can a handstand pirouette (360° or more) be used in a mixed series? Yes, because it is not a hold it may be used in a mixed series, as long as there is no pause or extra steps between elements. (Example-540° Turn, Handstand 540° Turn, 540° Turn). S. Gymnastics Series: If an element is devalued due to insuffi cient technique, is Special Requirement credit still awarded? If the "B" element is devalued to "A", deduct 0.10 for missing a "B" in the gym series. If a "C" element is devalued to "B", the Special Requirement is fulfilled. 9. Would the follo w ing series fulfill the "B" dismount Special Requirement? Round-off, flic-flac, Back Saito stretched, Jump 540 0 Turn. No, it is not considered a mixed series since the gym and acro elements do not alternate. 10. What is the value of a 2,r, Illusion Turn (#2.403) if it is performed with use of the hands? If the hand is used to complete the element, then devalue. If there is just a brush of the hand on the floor, deduct for execution. 11. Would you devalue or give no Value Part credit if only one butterfly is performed ? (FIG Code describes both front and back butterfly element as two butterflies in series.) If only one Butterfly is performed, award Value Part credit of "A" for forward Butterfly and "B" for backward Butterfly. 12. Will the mixed series Special Requirement be fulfilled if one butterfly is used as one of the acro elements? Yes. 13. If the last series is a gym series consisting of three A's, but previously in the exercise the gymnast performed a gym series with a "B", will the gymnast receive a 0.1 deduction for missing a B dismount? Yes, for Jr. Olympic. Whatever series is performed last in the exercise (a three element gym series, a three element mixed (AGA or GAG) series or a three element acro series containing one saito) must contain a "B" element to fulfill the B Dismount Special Requirement 14. If a gymnast attempts a "Popa" (Straddle jump with 360° turn) but it is not performed with required technical requirements, should it be devalued to "C" or given a "B" Value Part for a Straddle Jump Y4? Devalue to "C" if: • If the Turn is complete but amplitude of the leg position is insufficient. No bonus can be awarded for any Special Connections in this situation. 15. If a gymnast attempts a Cat Leap with 720° turn, but is not given " 0" Value Part credit due to insufficient turn, could it be awarded a legitimate "C" for a Cat Leap with 540° turn? Yes. 16. What is the technical requirement for leg position in the tuck jump with one leg extended with 540° or 720° turnThe ideal position (one leg extended horizontal or above. one leg in tuck) must be shown during the majority of the turn.

November/December1993 TECHNIQUE

W-JOPC Conference Call October 20, 1993 Ca ll cOll1l11enced at 1:00 PM. I.

ROLL CALL Region I Darla Franz Mike West Region II Region III Cheryl Jarrett Region IV Bryon Hough Region V John Geddert Region VI Bob Colarossi Region VII Kelli Hill Region VIII Ela ine Thompson Chairman Tom Koll NEPCC Roe Kreutzer Kathy Feldmann WABC WTC rep C hery l Hamilton NJOPC Connie Maloney WPD Kathy Kelly II. Recommendation that Levels 4 and 5 gymnasts in the Jr.! Sr. Division (12 yrs. & over) be allowed to lower the Vault and Beam to 110 or 115 cm .. MOTION - E. Thompson SECOND - D. Franz PASSED IlI.Recommendation to change the following deductions on Vault for Jr. Olympic Compulsory and Optional competitions: Support of only one hand on the horse 1.00 Failure to place both hands on horse 3.00 MOTION - K. Hill SECOND - B. Colarossi PASSED

-- M-JOPC Atlanta, GA September 10,1993 I. ROLLCALL The meeting was called to order at 9:30 pill Region I Hiroshi Fujimoto Scott Morrow Region II Region III Gil Elsass Region IV Ralph Druecke Region V Ray Gura Region VI Tom Fontecchio Absent Region VII Ron Clemmer Region VIII Region IX Mike Davis Athlete Rep. Absent NGJA Rep. George Beckstead Jr. Rep. MPC Kevin Mazeika Jr. Coaching Dennis McIntyre Men's Tech. Absent J.O. Tech. Hideo Mizoguchi Sports Science Dr. Robert McKelvain Prog. Admin. Robert Cowan II. REGIONAL REPORTS A. Mr Beckstead - Elect a new NJGA Representative Nom inations: Andy Zembower, Jim McKenny Elected: Andy Zembower B. Mizoguchi - Passed out new routines. Questions and answers . Motion to have the Compulsory Committee select a routine for pommel horse and still rings from the two existing routines from Region 3 and 8. MOTION - Morrow SECOND - Elsass PASSED III. BUDGETS - J.O. NATIONALS Most are in place. To be held at Augusta College.

TECHNIQUE November/December1993

IV. WTC RECOMMENDATIONS - C. Ha milton reported to the commi ttee that the WTC had made a recommendation to the amend the JOPC's motion rega rding the flashing of start va lues. The WTC recommended that the flashing of Start Values be consistent with the use of open scoring; tha t is, mandatory at Na tionals, a t the discretion of the Regional Board for Level 9 /1 a Regionals and not allowed at Sta te meets. The JOPC discussed the WTC recommendation, but the majority of the committee wanted to uphold the original motion; that is, each judge MUST flash their own Start Value at Level 9 & 10 Regionals and at Level 10 Nationals and that the Sta te m ay manda te tha t each judge fl ash the Start Val ue a t Sta te meets. Since the two committees have not come to a com m on decision in this matter, it will be taken to the Women's Program Committee for arbitration. Final decision w ill be printed in the January Technique. V. T. LEVELS 1-4 - Koll reminded the Committee tha t their work on the Level 1-4 proposa ls is due to him by Dec. 1, 1993. Conference call ended at 1:35 PM .

Corrections To the Women's Rules and Policies book: pg 71

D.#6 A rabian front sa lto piked to prone =C


Open scoring w ill be used a t ALL NCAA women's gymnastics competitions.

To the Women's FIG Code of Points book: p.217


C+C+C example:

IV. 1994 J.O. NATIONAL BIDS West Coast - Region 1 or 2 Motion to accept bid by Greg Corsigflia for Oakland area Oakland Convention Center. (It is attached to Pare Oakland Hote\). MOTION - Mazeika SECOND - McIntyre PASSED V. STRATEGIC PLAN REPORT Athlete Gran t Program and Program Support programs are in place. VI. FRANK CUMISKEY AWARD Nominees: Leneord Clemmer and Dennis McIntyre Motion to accept both nominations. MOTION - Gura SECOND - Morrow PASSED VII. ALPHA FACTORIREEBOK SUPPORT FOR REGIONAL TEAMS TO NATIONALS Competition jersey, white shorts, competition whites, warmup jacket, warmu p pants and Reebok shoes. VIII. NEW BUSINESS Motion to present the Robert Cowan Award to the Coach of the top JE 1 Gymnast at the J.O. Nationals each year. MOTION - Clemmer SECOND - Passed PASSED The JOPC has been very appreciative of the direction and support that Robert Cowan has given to the Junior Boy's Program over the years and would like to thank him for all he has done. We will miss him' You have been a grea t friend! Election of a New Chairman for the JOPC Nominations: Ray Gura by R. Druecke SECOND - Esass PASSED by acclaimation Meetillg adjoflnud at 8:25 p.m. Respectffllly sflbmiff ed, Tom FOllteccilio Siglled, Mike Jacki, September 1993



PROGRAM COMMI'I'I'EE MINUTES Conference Call October 19, 1993 I. ROLLCALL Members Present : Bill Roetzheim, Chairman FIG/MTC member Jim Howa rd Vice President for Men Francis Allen Sr. Coaches Rep. Tim Daggett Athletes Ad v. Cou n. Rep. Kevin Mazeika Jr. Coaches Rep. Dennis Mcintyre Jr. Coaches Rep. Mas Wa tanabe Men's Tech. Coord . (voice, no vote) Jr. Tech. Coord . (voice, no vote) Hideo Mizoguchi Bill Meade Secy. (voice, no vote) Member Absent: Fred Roethlisberger Sr. Coaches Representa ti ve The Cnll wns opelled 9:00 pm CST I. INTRODUCTION Bill Roetzheim opened the meeti ng w ith an explanation tha t in order to keep the call as short as possible that he had rem oved the Dortmu nd agenda and a ll items perta ining to it. Also agenda item IX was moved up and combined it w ith item II since they were closely related and he wa nted to handle them one right after the other. II. & IX. NAL (Jr. & Sr.) AND TA POSITIONS - as affected by Men ' s Program Rilles alld Policies, " I. C. 4." /Role of Men' s Program Committee in assigning assistants. Discussion concerned the role of the NGJ A and the selection by the MPC of the Na tional Appara tus Lead ers (NAL's) a nd Technical Assista nts (TA',) . ). H oward suggested that if "/. C. 4." is a p roced ural problem, the MPC ca n make the changes and move forward . While the NGJA can recommend, the MPC makes fin al decisions rega rding NAL's & TA's . The consensus of a ll members is that the MPC mu t be tota lly resp onsible. Motion: That National Apparatus Leaders and Technical Ass istants although used as judges are exempt from "I. C. 4." page 9 from the men's Rilles and Policy. They are appointed by the Senior Men's Technical Director with approval of the MPC; and at the junior level, with the approval of the Junior Olympic Program Committee. The MPC and J.O . Program Committee have sole authority to appoint these NAL's and TA's, remove them from office, assign them to meets and/or evaluate their performance. MOTION - F. Allen SECOND - K. Mazeika PASSED - Unanimously Discussion continued on the purpose of the T A's a nd their role a t competitions. The current list of assignments was d iscussed and a ll assignments were a pproved w ith the exception of rings due to the current location of the currently assigned rings TA. Wa tanabe has been assigned to follow u p on this. III. GRANT REQUESTS Discussion fo llowed regard ing two a thletes w ho had req uested grants. One was ineligible for Team '96 money but need ed to p ursue a Tea m '96 H ard shi p Grant. This a thlete was noti fied on the proced ures to fo llow. The second athlete was provided a gra nt over sun'lmer.

The gra nts for a id progra ms have not been fu lly clarified-for example, there is a question regard ing having two or more athletes training. Also, s ince com p lete results fro m the NAL's have not been received , a true eva luation ca nnot be mad e on the level of the a thletes and their trai ning. Beca use of their famila rity w ith this progra m, Roetzheim asked Mcl ntyrea nd Howard to collect in fo rmation and work w ith the Techn ica l Director fo r Men, )0 Technica l Di rector, Men's Progra m Di rector a nd Chairma n of the MPC to present recommenda tions fo r action by the MPC. IV. QUALIFICATIONS for Win ter Cup Cha llenge, World Championships / Brisbane a nd Good w ill Ga mes.


Motion to accept the qualifying procedure for the Winter Cup, Brisban e World Champions hips and Good w ill Games with the exception of item IB w hich is changed to: compulsories will be weighted 50% and optionals 50 %. As we move closer to Dortmund, th e compulsories would receive greater emph asis-ie. 60 %/40 % MOTION - J. Howard SECOND - F. Allen PASSED - Una nimously Since Nationals w ill be in August in 1994 Winter Cu p Cha llenge results w ill be u sed for tea m a nd indi vid ua l selection. V. CRITICAL DATES - World Championships / Brisbane Beca use of problems in Birmingha m the FIG has mad e some hard rules on the dates wi th rega rd s to Brisba ne. Fa ilure to abide by these da tes will resu lt in exclusion . November 18, 1993 Provisiona l Entry Defin itive En try February 18, 1994 March 18, 1994 Nom inative Entry VI. COMPULSORIES AND CODE OF POIN T S REVISIONSfor use at Winter Cup Challenge. J. H oward reported on this item . A draft w ill be prepa red for the gymnastic community so they ca n adequa tely p repare for the Winter Cup Challenge. Daggett brought up the dis mounts on fl oor exercise at the Na tiona l Cham pionshi ps indica ting that the a thle tes were circumventing the in tent of the "D" rule on dismounts. Discussion fo llowed a nd regarding the possible incl usion of the more di fficult backward "D" d ismounts a t Na tional and International meets. VII . PROPOSALS TO THE FIGITC in Alicante, Spa in. Wata nabe recommend ed tha t the World Championships be held once a yea r and o nly two times in a four yea r period w ith a fu ll schedu le each time (Tea m, AA and Ap para tus Finals) Roetzheim feels tha t we need consistency o f d ate for the event, not changing a ll the time. Also rega rdi ng sched ule, Howard feels that w hen World Cham pionships were in the la te fa ll (Oct/Nov) the athletes trained in summer a nd then ha rd er traini ng is Septembertherefore la te competitions benefits us . Other questions p osed by Roetz heim: Shou ld there be a qua lifying meet? Should compulsories be part of World cha mpionships? - A ll mem bers agreed tha t compulsories were necessary VIII. COACHES STIPEND POLICY Howard recalled that a t the last meeting it was suggested u se $100 per d ay (with a m aximu m of$l ,OOO-sameas the women ). Howard recommend ed no cap-if you' re gone longer, the cap s hould be removed . Althou gh this issue was not voted on by the MPC, Roetzheim encouraged Howard to report to the Executi ve Committee that the MPC recommends that there should be no ca p. Mazeika ta lked about JO's retroactive payment. Mizoguchi indica ted tha t the payme nt has been made. X. QUALIFYING MEETS to Winter Cup Cha llenge a nd Su m mer Na tiona ls need to use a formula to accept 9.5 based meets. F. Roethlisberger had asked the MPC if CAA's ca n be used as a qualify ing meet and w ha t p roced ure should be u sed to convert the scores? At present time, the MPC has no proced u re fo r u sing 9.5 in Collegia te meets (I n the past, Cowa n merely subtracted 2.5 from the All-around scores from 9.5 meets) Meade cla ri fied tha t a ll gymnasts m ust be a Registered Athlete Members in order for a ny com petition to be sa nctioned by USA Gymnastics. Discussion followed. Allen asked tha t insura nce in for ma tion fo r qua li fy ing meets be obtained-Mead e w ill check into this. XI. NEW BUSINESS The office has received noti fica tio n that the qualifying p rocedure for the Pa n American ga mes is d u e a t the USOC office November 1, 1993 Roetz heim related tha t more and more countries are insisting on qua li fy ing fo r Internationa l Meets. The FIG is giving more power to the Confed era tions and they a ll wa nt to be represented in the big meets. Mead e is to notify USOC that the 1995 Pan America n Gymnastics Tea m w ill be selected a t the 1995 Winter Cup Cha llenge in Colorad o Springs . The Tea m w ill be selected fro m Senior Na tional Team Members. XII. MPC RESTRUCTURE Roetz heim fe lt tha t this was an item should be deba ted face- tofacea tthe 1994 Winter Cu p Challenge. Daggett, Allenand Melnt}'" toserveon an Ad HocCommitteea nd review a nd p resent this it a t the next meeting. The Cnll wns termillnted nt 10:58 pili CST October 19, 1993 SlIbmitted by Bill Mende, October 22,1993 Approved, October 1993

November/December1993 TECHNIQUE

EDUCATION/EVENT CALENDAR Start No. DiscipDate days line Event 11/5/93 11/7/93 11/11/93 11/]2/93 11/13/ 93 11/17/93 11/20/93 11/21 / 93 11 / 25 / 93 11 / 27/ 93 11 / 28 / 93 ]2/ 2/ 93 ]2/ 4 / 93 12/5 / 93 12/ 7/ 93 12/ 9 / 93 12 / 11 / 93 12/11 / 93 12/12 / 93 12 / 12 / 93 12/ 16/ 93 12/18/93 12 / 9 / 94 1/ 13/ 94 1/ 16/94 1/23 / 94 1/23/ 93 1/23/ 94 1/23/94 1/29/ 93 I / TBA 2/ 4 / 94 2/1] / 94 2/12 / 94 2/18/94 *2/26 / 94 2/ 27 / 94 3/5 / 94 3/4/ 94 3 / 8/94 3/12/94 3/25/94 4/ 8/ 94 4/9/93 4/ 9/ 94 4 / 14 / 94 4 / 15 / 94 4 / 16 /94 4/ 19 / 94 4 / 22 / 94 4/22 / 94 4 /23/94 4/24/94 4 / 29 / 94 4 / 30 / 94 4/ TBA 5/ 4/ 94 5/5/94 5/ 5/ 94 5/6/94 5/12/94 5 / 13/ 94 5/ 15/94 5/20/ 94 ,/22 / 94 5/22/ 94 6/ 9/ 94 6/ 10 / 94

1 1 1 4 1 4

MW MWR MWR M MWR MW MW 2 W 1 MW 1 MWR 1 MWR 5 MW 2 MW 1 MWR 3 MW 7 MW ] MWR 2 MWR 1 MWR 1 MWR 4 W 1 MWR ] MWR 4 W 1 MWR 1 MW 1 MWR 1 MWR 1 MWR 1 MW W 2 M 1 MWR 1 MWR 3 MWR 2 W 1 MWR 1 MW 2 MW 1 MW 1 MW 3 W 3 W 10 MWR M 4 MW 1 W 7 W 6 MW 2 M 3 W 1 1 3 R 1 M 11 MWR 4 W 3 R M 4 W 10 M 7 MWR 2 MW 1 W 1 R 4 R 2 MW

STI City


World Gymnastics Challenge Toronto Safety Certification (10:00 a.m.-4:00 p.m.) Pittsbui Safety Certification (4:30-8:00 p .m.) Unicorn Jr. Team Olympic. Development Program Evaluation Colo. Spgs. Safety Certification (3:30-9:00 p.m.) Woodlyn Nikon International Sydney Chunichi Cup Nagoya Catania Catania Diet Coke Mixed Duo's Melbourne Safety Certification (9:00 a.m .-3:00 p.m.) Lake Worth Safety Certification DTB Pokal Stuttgart Memorial Blume - '93 Barcelona Safety Certification (9:00 a. m .-4:00 p.m.) Batavia Junior Pacific Alliance Canberra Sr. Pan America n Champio nships Maracaivo Safety Certifi ca tion (9:00 a.m.-2:00 p.m.) St. Louis Safety Certification (Sat or Sun) Albuquerque Safety Certifi ca tion Phoenix Safety Certifica tion Mt. Laurel Na tional Team Training Camp (International) Colo. Spgs. Safety Certifi ca tion Indianapolis Safety Certifica tion (3:00 p .m .-8:00 p .m .) Charleston National Team Training Camp (International) Colo.Spgs. Safety Certification Brookfield Reese's World Gymnastics Cup Baltimore Safety Certification (12:00 noon-6:00 p.m.) Fayetteville Safety Certification (9:00 a.m.-3:00 p.m.) Rochester Safety Certification Memphis Broadcast Reese's World Gymnastics Cup National TOP Training Camp TBA USA Gymnastics Winter C up C hallenge Colo. Spgs. Safety Certifica tion (4:00 p .m.-9:30 p.m.) Charlotte Safety Certification (10:00 a.m.-?) Chicago Safety Certi ficati on Columbus Regional Elite Meets Various si tes Safety Certifi ca tion (10:00 a.m .-6:00 p.m.) Rockaway Broadcast McDonald's American Cup Orlando McDonald's American Cup International Mixed Pairs West Palm Beach Broadcast International Mixed Pairs TBA American Classic Nationals Various sites NCAA Regional Meets Interna tional Pacifi c Games Cali NCAA Regionals TBA Denton USA Gy mnastics Co llegia te Championships USA Gymnastics Na tional Invita tional Tournament Cape G irard ea u Various sites J.D. Level 10 Regiona l Meets Ind . App / AA World Championships Brisbane NCAA Na tiona l Gymnastics Championships TBA NCAA Na tional Gymnastics Championships Salt Lake City Broad cas t World Championships Broadcas t World Championships J.D. Championships TBA Broadcast World Championships TBA J.D. Regional Meets FIG Congress Geneva J.D. Nationals - Level 10 Gr) Allentown TBA Coca-Cola Rhythmic National Championships J.D. Nationals Augus ta J.D . Nationals - Level 10 (Sr.) Sea ttle International Youth Camp Hamburg 29th German Gymnastics Festival Hamburg Hilton Challenge Triangular Event Phoenix Hilton Challenge Triangular Even t Phoenix Broadcast Coca-Cola Rhythmic National Championships Four Continents C ha mpionships Seoul Budget Dual Competition (USA vs ROM ) Worcester * Tentati ve

TECHNIQUE No vell1ber/December1993







Meade/Kelly J. Jay Frank Martines Bill Meade Robert Ross Meade/Kelly Meade/Kelly Kathy Kelly Meade/Kelly Karl Bishop USAG Meade / Kelly Meade / Kelly G.Denk Meade / Kelly Kathy Kelly Eddie Smith Louise Ja necky Quinn Shan non USAG Kathy Kelly Dave Moskowitz Billy Bob Taylor Kathy Kelly Ralph Druecke John Kirchner Ricky Garcia S.J. Clifford USAG Julie Bejin Kathy Kelly John Kirchner Billy Bob Taylor Monte Kimes Bobbi Montanarri Regional Chairs Ca thy Finkel Julie Bejin John Kirchner Jolm Kirchner Julie Bejin Kathy Kelly Kathy Kelly Mead e/Kelly Bill Meade Meade / Kelly Kathy Kelly Connie Ma loney Meade / Kelly Bill Meade Kath y Kelly Julie Bejin Julie Bejin Nora Hitzel Julie Bejin Hid eo Mizoguchi Becky Riti Connie Maloney Nora Campbell Hitzel Hideo Mizoguchi Connie Maloney Bill Meade S. Whitlock John Kirchner John Kirchner Julie Bejin Nora Campbell Hitzel Jo hn Kirchner



404-486-2525 317-237-5050 717-267-]760 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 8]3-447-2]08 317-237-5050 3]7-237-5050 317-237-5050 708-564-3420 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 214-203-8294 505-662-9523 602-919-5920 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 304-344-3279 317-237-5050 414-782-3430 317-237-5050 205-970-0496 716-381-8840 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 31 7-237-5050 304-234-3279 312-347-6770 614-457-1279 201-586-1808 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 317-237-5050

Non-profit Organization U.S. Postage PAID Permit No. 7867 Indianapolis, IN

USA GYlllnastics

SAFETY CERTIFICATION COURSES Course Dir.: Gerald Denk (708) 564-3420 Local Contact: Pam Clark/Vicki Austin (708) 879-5235

Thursday, November 11 Unicorn,NE 4:30pm - 8:00pm Union College Larson Lifestyle Rm Course Dir.: Mike Stanner Local Contact: Frank Martines (402)486-2525

Saturday, November 13

Saturday or Sunday December 11/12 @

Woodlyn, PA 3:30pm-9:00pm Delco Training Center (215) 876-5005 Course Dir.: Robert Ross (717) 267-1760 Local Contact: Betty Cooper (215)876-5005

Saturday, November 27 Lake Worth, FL 9:00am-3:00pm Gold Coast Gymnastics Course Dir.: Karl Bishop (813)447-2108 Local Contact: Chris White (407) 585-2700

This course is to be held ill conjllllctionwith the NM Level 6/7 State Meet.

Saturday, December 11

@ St. Louis, MO 9:00am - 2:00pm St. Louis Gymnastics Academy 315 W. Pacific, St. Louis, MO 63119 Course Dir.: Eddie Smith (214) 203-8294 Local Contact: (314) 968-9495

@ Macy's Academy of Gymnastics Course Dir.: Phil Frank (609) 234-5292

For Further Infor/nation contnet the USGF Main Office.


Phoenix, AZ Time:TBA Course Dir.: Quinn Shannon (602) 919-5920 This cOllrse is to be held ill COlljllllCtiollwith the AZ Level 6 alld 7 State Meet.

Sunday, December 12


Mt. Laurel, NJ Jersy Jets Course Dir.: Phil Frank

Batavia,IL 9:00am _4:00pm Batavia Park District 327 W. Wilson St., Batavia IL

Indianapolis, IN-1:00pm USGF Main Office 201 S. Capitol Ave. Suite 300 Indianapolis, IN 46225 Course Dir.: Dave Moskovitz (317) 237-5050

Sunday, January 9, 1994

For further Inforlllntion contnct the USGF main office.

Name: Mr./Mrs./Ms. _ __ _ __ __ _ _ __ __ _ __ _ __ Soc. Sec. #_ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ _ __ Address: _ _ __ __ _ _ __ __ _ __ _ __ __ _ __ _ City: _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _State: _ _ _ __ Zip _ __ _ _ (H) _ __ _ _ __ __ (W) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

For furtherinforlllatioll contncl the USGF Main Office.

Friday, February 11

@ Charlotte, NC 4:00pm - 9:30pm Carolina Elite Gymnastics 8617 Monroe Rd., Charlotte, NC 28212 Course Dir.: Billy Bob Taylor (304) 234-3279 Local Contact: Sandy Weyandt (704) 568-1277

Sunday, January 16

@ @ Brookfield, WI SaIto Gymnastics Course Dir.: Ralph Druecke (414) 782-3430 Hotel Contact: Hampton Inn (414)796-1500

Saturday, February 12

@ Chicago,IL 10:00 am-? Whitney Young High School 210 S. Loomis, Chicago, IL 60607 Course Dir.: Monte Kimes (312) 347-6770 Local Contact: Chicago Parks District Gymnastics (312) 347-6770

@ @

1. Fayetteville, GA

12:00pm - 6:00pm Gym South Course Dir.: Ricky Garcia (205) 970-0496 Local Contact: Chris Collins (404) 461-3370 2. Rochester, NY 9:00am - 3:00pm Training Center of Rochester Course Dir.:Sarah Jane Clifford (716)381-8840


Participation Registration Fonn

3. Memphis, TN Time:TBA River City Gymnastics (901) 388-3737 Course Dir.: Lisa Howell (901) 388-3737

Charleston, WV 3:00pm-8:00pm Maverick Gym Club Inc. Course Dir.: Billy Bob Taylor ( 304)344-3279

Sunday, January 23

Sunday, December 12

Sunday, November 28

Sunday, December 5

Albuquerque, NM Duke City Gymnastics Course Dir.: Louise Janecky (505)662-9523

Saturday, December 18

February, 18-20

@ Columbus,OH Time:TBA Ohio State Fairgrounds Course Dir.: Bobbi Montanarri (614) 457-1279

This course is to be held in conjllllctiOllwith the Buckeye Classic.

Sunday, February 27

@ Rockaway, NJ 1O:00am - 6:00pm Marcella Firehouse, Company #3 Course Dir.: Cathy Finkel (201) 586-1808

Please make checks payable in full to USA Gymnastics Safety Certification . Mail Registration Form and Payment to: USA Gymnastics Safety, Pan American Plaza, Suite 300, 201 S. Capitol, Indianapolis, IN 46225

f'J @} Thesecoursesa recurrently planned


Course Director: _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Course Location: _ __ _ __ _ _ _ __ __ _ Date:_ _ __ _ Organization Represented: _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ If USA Gymnastics Member, List Type and Number_ __ _ __ _ __


Registration Form Received: •

Form of Payment:

o Check

o Visa

o Mastercard

Name on Card: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ Confirmation Mailed: Number: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Expiration Date:

Signature: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

L ________________________ ~~ ___ ~

• •

as3rd Cycle courses-provided that all of the materials are available. If the materials are unavailable, the course will be taught as a 2nd Cycle course. Contact the Course Director prior to the course. These courses are planned as 3rd Cycle courses.

The text for 2nd Cycle Certification courses is the USGF Safety Manual. This text should be purchased and studied prior to course participation. All materials for 3rd Cycle courses are provided at the course and are part "f the course fee. Certification is good for 4 years. The course/ exa mination is $100. USA Gymnastics Professional Members and recertification is $75. Retest cost is $25. For groups of a t least 10, contact the USA Gymnastics Department of Educa tional Services and Safety.

Technique Magazine - November/December 1993  
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