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路 U.S. Gymnastics

Coaching Burnout Dietary Supplements Triple Back Somersault Men's Elite Judging Requirements for 1992 How to Introduce RSG to the Artistic Club Child Abuse in Youth Sport 1992 USGF Congress Who Speaks for Gymnastics?

lillis/ ration by: Michele Leglise






GYMNASTICS CHAMPIONSHIPS Paris-Bercy-1992 Indianapolis - 1991


1991 - Indianapolis, Indiana #2180 - 1991 World Championships. Competition III (Women's Event Finals)V, UPB, BB, FX (A, :56) ...................$16.95 #2183 - 1991 World Championships. Competition Ib (Women's Team) - URS, CHN, ROM, USA. (A, 2:00) ....................... $16.95 #2185 - 1991 World Championships. Competition II (Women's All-Around Finals)Part I: V, UPB, FX. (A, 1:34) ............ $14.95 #2186- 1991 World Championships. Competition II (Women's All-Around Finals)Part II: Balance Beam (A, 0:54) .....$10.00 #2260-1991 World Championships. Men's Individual Event Finals. (A,1 :06) ... $16.95 #2261- 1991 World Championships. Men's All-Around Finals: Part 1- FX, PH, SR. (A, 2:00); Part 2 - V, PB, HB. (A, 1:37) ...$24.95 #2262 - 1991 World Championships. Men's Competition Ib (Men's Team): Part 1 - FX, PH,SR.1st-6th Teams. (A,1 :49); Part2- V, PB, HB. 1st-6th Teams. (A,l:27) ...... $24.95

#2400- 1991 World Gymnastics Championships HIGHLIGHT TAPE. Includes 10 to 12 of the top optional routines from Competition II or III. All Men's and Women's Events. The gymnasts are identified on the tape by name, number, country and score at the start of each exercise. (A,2:00) .............. ................................$16.95

1992 - Paris-Berey, France #2168 - 1992 World Individual Championships. Competition III: Women's Event Finals -V, UPB, BB, FX (top 9 individuals per event). Zmeskal, Okino, Onodi, Boguinskaia, Milosovici, Li, etc.).This tape also includes excerpts from the Opening Ceremonies ........................................$16.95

#2169 - 1992 World Individual Championships. Women's Semi-finals (top 16 in each event) - Dawes, Strug, Tchusovitina, Lisenko, Lu, Gutsu, Mitova, Pasca, etc. ............................................ ........... $16.95 #2258 - 1992 World Individual Championships. Men's Finals (top 9in each event) and Men's Semi-finals (top 16 in each event) Korobchinski, Scherbo, Pae, Csollany, You, Li, Voropaev, Misutin, Belenki, Krahberg, Hibbert, O'Neill, Sohn, Hanks, Dimas, etc. ........................... $16.95 #2259 - 1992 World Individual Championships. Selected performances from the Men's preliminary qualification rounds .............................................................. $16.95









oTder any of these tapes, or other educational materials presented in this issue, please complete this order form and send to:

U.S. GYMNASTICS FEDERATION PO Box 5562 Indianapolis, IN 46225-5526 (317) 237-5060

PLEASE NOTE: The videos listed above are providedforeducationalandhistoricpurposes.

Whileeveryeffortismade to produce videos of thehighestquality,itshouldbenotedthatsome of the videos are produced at events utilizing handheld cameras from vantage points in the stands by non-professional volunteer 1Echnicans. Only limited editing and production enhancements are utilized in order to ~ videa timelyproductata reasonable rost to the USGF membership.


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City_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ State Zip_ _ _ _ __ Phone (_ _ _ _ __ USGF Member No. _ _ __ _ __ 5.5. No._ _ __ D MasterCard D VISA Card#_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Expiration Date: _ _ _ _ __ _ __ Signature: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ Send Mail Orders to: USGF Merchandise PO Box 5562 Indianapolis, IN 46255-5562 Make checks payable to: USGF Merchandise

Subtotal Indiana Residents add 5% sales tax Shipping & Handling Charges Purchases over $50 = $4.50 Purchases $10.01 -$50 = $3.50 Purchases 10.00 and under := $2.00

Grand Total



L __________________________ I (T492)


May, 1992 - TECHNIQUE


May, 1992, Volume 12, No.5

Publisher Mike Jacki Editor Stephen W. Whitlock Director of Educational Services and Safety

Production Luan Peszek United States Gymnastics Federation Board of Directors Executive Director: Mike Jacki; President: Mike Donahue; President Emeritus: Bud Wilkinson; Athlete Representatives: Brian Babcock, chair; Wendy Hilliard, vice chair; Michelle Dusserre, sec; Sheryl Dundas; Tim Daggett; Jim Hartun/?; Karyn Lyon; Tanya Service; Wendy Hilliard, USOC Athlete s Advisory Council; Amateur Athletic Union: Julie Sickels; American Sokol Organization: Jerry Milan; American Turners: Bruno Klaus; Junior Boys Gymnastics Coaches Associa-

tion: Bill Foster; Men's Elite Coaches Association: Fred Roethlisberger; National Association for Girls and Women in Sports: Dr. Mimi Murray; National Assocation of Collegiate Gymnastics Men: Abie Grossfeld;National Association of Collegiate Gymnastics Women: Gail Davis; National AssociatoD olWomen's Gymnastics Judges: Yvonne Hodge; National Collelliate Athletic Association: Cheryl leviCk, Fred Turoff; National Federation of State High School Associations: Sharon Wilch, Susan True; National Gymnastics Judges Association: Harry Bjerke; National High School GymnasticsCoachesAssociation:JohnBrinkworth; Nationai Jewish WeUare Board: CourtneyShanken; Rhythmic Coaches Assocation: Suzie DiTullio; Special Olympics, Inc.: Kater Faber-Hickie; U.S. Association of Independent Gym Oub: Lance Crowley; U.S. Elite Coaches Association for Women: Tony Gehman, Chere Hoffman; U.S. Sports Acrobatics Federation: Bonnie Davidson; Young Men's Christian Associa~ tion: Rick Dodson; USGF National Membership ReJ;>resentatives: Men's: Dave Strobel, Bob Wuomos; Women s: Joan Moore Rice, Jeff Metzger; Rhythmic: Marina Davidovich, Jolie Barretta-Keyser.

United States Gymnastics Federation Executive Committee President: Mike Donahue; Secretary: Mike Milidonis; Vice President~Women: Sue Ammerman; Vice President~Men : Jim Howard; Vice President-Rhythmic: Norma Zabka; Executive Director: Mike Jacki; FIG Women's Technical Com~ mittee: Jackie Fie; FIG Rhythmic Technical Committee: Andrea Schmid; FIG Men's Technical Committee: Bill Roetzheim; Members ~At路Large : Roe Kreutzer; N a ncy Marshall; Athlete Representatives: Brian Babcock, Michelle Dusserre, Wend y Hilliard; President Emeritus: Bud Wilkinson.

Contents Sport Psychology Coaching Burnout: How to Beat It ........................................ 5 Nutrition Dietary Supplements ............... ............. .................................. 7 Coaches Education Progress Through 1992 ........................................................... 8 Introduction to General Gymnastics .................................... 9 A High Performance Skill The Triple Back Somersault ................................................. 11 Men's Judging USGF Men's Elite Requirements for 1992 ................ ... ....... 13 Rhythmic Gymnastics How to Introduce RSG to the Artistic Club ....................... 16 Minutes MPC Conference Call, 4/28/92 ........................................... 19 Special Article Child Abuse In Youth Sport ................................................ 21 Results/Announcements Various .................................................... ............... ,................ 25 WGC, Paris-Bercy .................................................................. 26 Announcements and Press Releases ................................... 28 USGF Congress General Information ......................... .. ................................... 29 Coach Education Summer Coaches Education Workshops ........................... 33 1992 Compulsory Workshops Women, Men and Rhythmic Materials Information ........ 35 Rhythmic Gymnastics FlG/TC Report ............................. ......................................... 39 Commentary Who Speaks for Gymnastics? ......................................... ..... 41 Various USGF Membership Plans in 1992-93 ................................. .46 Education/Event Calendar .. .. .............................................. 47 Safety Certification ... ................,.................................... ........ 48

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Jttll-iR1 OlympIC Worksho}JS

Associate Content Editors William Sands, Ph.D., Chairman, Sports Advisory Committee Patty H acker, Ph.D., Chairman, E'ducation Sub-committee Stephen W. Whitlock, Liaison Unless expressly identified to the contrary, all ar ticles, statements and views printed herein are attributed soley to the author and the United Sta tes Gymnas tics Federation expresses no opinion hereon and assumes no responsiblity thereof.


May, 1992

CHANGE OF ADDRESS AN D SUBSCRIPTION INQUIRIES: In ord er to ensure uninterrupted d elivery of TECHNIQUE magazine, notice o f cha nge of address should be made six to eight weeks in advance. For fas test service, please enclose your present mailing label. Direct all subscription mail to TECHNIQUE Subscriptions, Pan American Plaza, 201 S. Capito l Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225. TECHNIQUE is published 10 times per year by the United Sta tes Gymnastics Federa tion, Pan American Plaza, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225 (phone: 317-237-5050). Third class postage paid at Indianapolis, IN. Subscription price: $25.00 per year in United States; all other countries $48.00 per year. If available, back issue sing le copies $4.00 plus $1.00 postage/ handling. All reasonable care will be taken, but no responsibility can be assumed for unsolicited material; enclose return postage. Copyright 1992 by USGF and TECHNIQUE. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.

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• ••


#2167 - Women's All-around Finals.• and Preliminary Competitions. • #2402-Women's & Men's Competitions. Zmeskal, Onodi, Miller, Kosuge,· WOMEN-USA: Dawes, McDermott, Hirstova, Kozlova, Umeh, Parente, : Hornbeek, Campi, Bruce, Woods. Strug, Machado, Martinez,. MEN-USA: Hanks, Dimas, Stelter, Portocarrero, Bruce, McDermott. Kirksey, Ryan, St. Pierre. JPN: Satoh, Chinen, Hirai, Shinihara, Honda, (A, 1:23) ......... .... ... .................. $19.95 Mitzushima. #2213 - Men's All-around Finals. (A, 1:30) ... .............................. .. . $14.95 Hanks, Karbonenko, Keswick, Lopez, Giang, Aguilera, Tamura, Thomas. (A, 1:44) .. .. ............. . $16.95 #2214 - Men's Preliminary Competition. Hanks, Kabronenko, Keswick, Dimas, Waller, Ivanov, Lopez. (A, 1:20) ...... ..... ...... .. .... ...... ..... $16.95

VIDEOTAPES: #2272- MEN: Jr. National Team Dance Program. AND, 1992J.0. Boy's Team Winter Training Camp (Colorado Springs) Intersquad competition. (A, 2:00) ... ..$12.95 #2273- MEN: 1992 Jr. National Team Winter Camp in Colorado Springs. Sport Psychology Session by Dr. McKelvain (Goal Setting and Preparation for Team Competitions). (A, 2:00) ............ ............. $14.95 #2274- MEN: '96 Olympic Compulsory Session from the 1992 USGF Winter NationalsinColoradoSprings. (A,I :45) ..... $12.95 #2275- MEN: Optional routines by the "Atlanta '96 Group" at the '92 Winter Nationals in Colorado Springs. (A, 1:45) .. $16.95 #2276- MEN: '92 Olympic Compulsory Session from the 1992 USGF Winter Cup Challenge in Colorado Springs. NOTE: Two (2) tapes. (A) ............. ............... $24.95 #2277- MEN: Optional Session from the 1992 USGF Winter Cup Challenge in Colorado Springs. NOTE: Two (2) tapes. (A) .......................... ... ........... ... .............. $24.95

#2330- RSG: 1992 USGF Rhythmic Challenge from Colorado Springs. Jr. & Sr. Rope, Hoop, Club and Ball. Plus Jr. Ribbon. (B, 2:53) ................ ...................... $16.95 #2143 - WOMEN'S ELITE TRAINING CAMP, Colorado Springs, CO 1/92. Part 1: FX drills and Jr. B. routine (Biggs); BB drills and Jr. elements (Grossfeld); V drills (Elliott). (A,2:00) ........ ...................... $12.95 #2144 - WOMEN 'S ELITE TRAINING CAMP, Colorado Springs, CO 1/92. Part 4


2: TU drills (Elliott); "FastTrak" Tumbling / Trampoline system (Elliott); Dance/ Ballet training (M. Faulkenberry). (A, 2:0) ..................................... ........... $12.95 #2130 - PRESCHOOL/DEVELOPMENTAL WORKSHOP, Ft. Worth, TX, 8/91. This clinic featured Kajsa Murmark and Gun Stahl from the Swedish Gymnastics Federation. #1 of 3 tapes. Introduction, Philosophy, and first group lessons. (A,2:00) .............................. ......... ...... ............... $12.95 #2131- PRESCHOOL/DEVELOPMENTAL WORKSHOP, Ft. Worth, TX, 8/91. This clinic featured Kajsa Murmark and Gun Stahl from the Swedish Gymnastics Federation. #2 of 3 tapes. Ways to use apparatus; Day in the Jungle; Bean Bag Activities and Games. (A, 2:00) ................... $12.95 #2132 - PRESCHOOL/DEVELOPMENTAL WORKSHOP, Ft. Worth, TX (8/91). This clinic featured Kajsa Murmark and Gun Stahl from the Swedish Gymnastics Federation. #3 of 3 tapes. Games; Balloons; and final lessons .... ... ... .... ................ $12.95 #2133 - AMERICAN CLASSIC (W), Salt Lake City, UT (11/91). #1 of 2 tapes. Senior Optional Exercises (selected routines, all events) T.Sommer, D.Fierro, L.Fontaine, MShaw, MShawen, H.Hornbeek, and others. (B+) ... ..................................... $16.95

Use the Forms on pages 2 or 37 to order any of these videos or educational materials.

• •

1992 McDONALD'S INTERNATIONAL MIXED PAIRS Tallahassee, FL - March, 1992

#2401 - International Mixed Pairs. Miller /Keswick, Kozlova/Karbonenko, Fang/Giang, Zmeskal / Hanks, Parente/Aguilera, Hristova/Inanov, Kosuge/Tamura, Onodi/Koster, Bruce/Waller. (A,) ................ .. .................. ..... $14.95 RSG EVENTS #2401- Derjugina Cup. Kiev, Russia, March, 1992. Hewitt-Couturier. ................ .. ............................... $14.95 #2330 - USGF Rhythmic Challenge. February, 1992. Colorado Springs, CO ... ..... ........................ .. ............... $16.95

#2134- AMERICAN CLASSIC (W),SaltLake City, UT (11/91).#20f2 tapes. Junior A & B optional exercises (selected routines, all events 0:38) L.Pallardy, L.Vincyanovic, K.Powell, P.Harris, S.Robbins, K.Burke, J.Thompson, M.Flammer, H.Prosser, O.Willis, and others. Senior compulsory exercises (selected rou tines 0:50) ..... $16.95 #2140 - ELITE PREMIER of the proposed 1996 compulsory exercises, Salt Lake City, UT (11/91). The premier featured demonstration of the '96 routines and instruction on the Junior elite testing program. #1 of 2 tapes. Floor Exercise: T. Biggs; and Part 1 of Balance Beam: M. Grossfeld . (A, 2:00) ......................................... ..........$12.45 #2141 - ELITE PREMIER of the proposed 1996 com pulsory exercises, Salt Lake City, UT (11/91). The premier featured demonstration of the '96 routines and instruction on the Junior elite testing program. #2 of 2 tapes: Part 2 of Balance Beam: M. Grossfeld; Uneven Bars: A.Akopian; Tumbling: S.Elliott; Vaulting: V.Artemov. (A, 1:50) ............................ ........................ $12.45 #2349 - RHYTHMIC NATIONALS (RSG), Colorado Springs, CO (5/91) . Finals competition. (C) ........... ...... ....... .............. $12.95 #2240- 1991 Chunichi Cup, Nagoya, Japan (11/16-17/91). Men's All-Around and Event Finals ........... ... .... .. .................. $19.95

ALSO AVAILABLE: #2101 - Gymnastics Greatest Stars ...Thret decades of unforgettable moments. ABC. Korbut, Retton, Comaneci, Conner, Thomas, Rigby, Frederick, Mukhina, Szabo, and more! (A+, 1:30) ....... ................ $25.00

May, 1992 - TECHNIQUE


Sport Psychology

Coaching Burnout: How to Beat It


ren't you glad you avoided the highstress world of business and went into coaching? Those poor corporate souls in their high-rise office buildings have to cope with so much pressure - making quotas, negotiating multi-million dollar deals, late nights at the office, and of course, the guilt of not spending enough time with their families. Wait a minute, that sounds disturbingly familiar, doesn't it? The truth is that coaches ,many of whom are also juggling teaching or other part-time jobs, have more than their share of job-related stress. Instead of quotas, there is pressure from administration to win. Million-dollar negotiations are replaced with struggling to manage shoe-string budgets. Late nights at the office translate into weekends spent traveling to competitions. Factor in trying to find time for family, and suddenly an exciting career in athletics may turn into an anxiety-ridden, exhausting job. To make matters worse, if this stress is not recognized and managed, it can take its toll on a coach's mental, physical and emotional health. In other words, it can lead to burnout But what does being "burnt-out" really mean? Scientifically speaking, there is not one commonly agreed upon definition because researchers have taken so many different approaches to studying burnout. Some studies have described how environmental factors, such as poor working conditions and heavy time constraints, contribute to burnout. Others have focused on personality traits and actual behaviors such as perceiving oneself to be in control and using appropriate leadership styles. For example, in a 1989 Sport Psychologist article, Judy Dale and Robert Weinberg reported that one of the basic leadership characteristics of individuals prone to burnout is being "other oriented." In ' other words, their research suggests that coaches who become too personally involved with each individual athlete may be taking on more than they can manage. Dale and Weinberg note that the best coaches are able to take a sincere interest in their athletes, but keep it at a realistic, professionallevel. From a practical perspective, burnout is the result of chronic stress over an extended period of time According to a review of burnout literature by Dr. Betty Kelley*, this culmination of stress often leads to symptoms such as mental and TECHNIQUE May 1992

physical exhaustion, lack of enthusiasm for work, strained family relationships and psychosomatic illness such as ulcers, high blood pressure and tension headaches. Too often in coaching, it leads to a letter of resignation.

Carol Flynn, USOC Division of Coaching Development

"Burnout is the largest contributing factor to the high turnover rate in amateur coaches," said U.S. Olympic Committee Sports Psychologist Sean McCann. Contrary to what one might think, it is not always those who have been in coaching the longest that are burning out and leaving. Often, it is the younger, less-experienced coach who are most vulnerable to burnout. According to McCann, new coaches not only have to adjustto the fast-paced world of coaching, but they are also compelled to prove themselves. In addition, there is the ever present pressure to win. When their athletes don't win, many new coaches lack the confidence to know that they are still doing a good job. Consequently, only those who learn to manage their stress levels and recognize the signs of burnout stay in the profession. Unfortunately, the percentage of coaches who do stay in the profession is relatively low. How can you, as a coach, recognize the signs of burnout and manage your stress? Examine the following check-list of symptoms identified by Kelley and other researchers, and see how many presently exist in your life:

o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

Physical Exhaustion/Fatigue Substance Abuse Psychological Exhaustion/Fatigue Insomnia Feelings of Helplessness Absenteeism Psychosomatic Illness Loss of Appetite Negative Attitude Toward Work Over-Eating Poor Work Performance Negative Self-Concept Negative Attitude Toward Athletes Lack of Enthusiasm

If you find that several of these symptoms a pply to your life, you may want to try some of the coping techniques listed on page 6. 5

*Betty C. Kelly, PhD., Department of Physical Education, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL

1. Relaxation exercises After or during a stressful day, unwind with activities such as stretching, meditation or just reclining in a comfortable chair and listening to your favorite music. 2. Regular physical exercise It is amazing how many coaches don't find the time to maintain their own personal fitness. This is a big mistake. To perform your best, practice what you preach to your athletes. 3. Create a social support system Make time to get together with friends or other coaches so you can talk about the pressures of your job. Organize a weekend bike club or a noon running group so you can revitalize your body and mind. 4. Set realistic goals without emphasis on winning Remember that you can't control whether your athletes win or lose, so try to focus instead on elements that you can control. Set attainable performance goals such as improving team unity, avoiding overtraining, and enhancing each athlete's skill level and motivation. Define the goals, work toward them, and the winning will take care of itself. 5. Positive self-talk The way you talk to yourself is very powerful and has a dramatic impact on your emotional well-being. Learn to listen to yourself and recognize your negative thoughts. Eliminate negative thoughts by replacing them with positive ones. Although this may sound simple, it is very effective. 6. Getting away When was the last time you took a vacation? Plan ahead and schedule some time throughout the competitive season when you can have some time alone or with your family. Remember, you will be a better coach if you allow yourself some time to relax and get some perspective on your job 7. Coaches retreat Ask your director to schedule a retreat for you and your peers. A day or weekend trip away from the pressures of work is a great opportunity for you and your colleagues to discuss coaching issues in a relaxed, open forum. 8. Professional development Attend conferences, workshops and coaching clinics. In order to prevent burnout, all coaches need to first become aware of how they react personally to the stress and pressures of their job. It isn't enough, however, to only recognize the symptoms and acknowledge that there are techniques for coping. Coaches must integrate these coping strategies into their lives This means scheduling exercise, relaxation and social time into their weekly plann as if it was a competition or training session. 6

Remember, just because you work in a gym instead of an office doesn't make you immune to job-related stress. In fact, given the importance of your task, it makes you even more susceptible. By making a few positive changes in your lifestyle today, you can continue to enjoy and excel in your career as a coach for years to come. Reprinted by permission from Olympic Coach, Spring 1992, Volume 2, Number 2, United States Olympic Committee.

One 1Jay at a crime Stand tarÂŁ. Start fresfi. Let go ofgui[t. 'Don't [ool(bact 'Ta/(g an inventory. 9vfa/(g amends. 'Trust otfiers. 'Be[ieve in yourself. .9Lppreciate your specia[ness. .9Lccept your humanness. .9Ls I(for fie[p. 'Trust enougfi to ta/(g. J{ave courage enougfi to cfiange. .9Lccept tfie uncfiangeaMe. 'Be patient. 'l(?ep promises. 'Bury regret. 'Discard fiate. 'Transcend self-dOUbt. .9Lbandon worry. 'Envision fresfi opportunity. 'Don't dwe[[ on tfie past. Love eacfi moment. Live eacfi day. 'BuiM a better tomorrow. Open your fieart. 'Ef([J[ore your souÂŁ. 'Ef([Ject tfie best. Let mirades fiappen. -5tutlior unk.nown



Dietary Supplements The Training Table Should an athlete take vitamins or minerals? The fact is, all athletes already take vitamins and minerals every day .. . at every meal, vitamins and minerals are in virtually all the food we eat. Whether or not athletes take vitamin pills, they are getting vitamins as well as other nutrients every time they snack or dine. No matter how a person consumes his/her vitamins and minerals, in food or in pills, the human body uses these substances in basically the same ways-as physiological catalysts, vitamins help make things happen in the body. Small amounts of these nutrients help the body absorb other nutrients, fight off infection, heal injuries, and turn food into energy. The body's energy comes from the carbohydrate, fat and protein in the food we eat. When athletes lack energy, most often it's from eating too few calories or too little carbohydrates. One of the most important considerations for athletes concerned about their nutritional well-being is the need to eat healthy meals and snacks providing ample carbohydrates. In any nutritional plan, food comes first- it's of primary concern. Any consideration of vitamin or mineral supplements should be secondary because no amount of vitamin pills will make up for a seriously deficient diet. However, there are situations where vitamin and mineral supplements may be needed: • Female athletes generally need more iron than men, and women who have heavy menstrual periods may need to take iron supplements. • Athletes who are routinely dieting or frequently cutting calories severely to make weight may want to take a multi-vitamin/ mineral supplement that contains the Recommended Daily Allowances (RDA) . This becomes more important when food intake is restricted for long periods of time. • Athletes who don't ea t dairy prod ucts (milk, yogurt, etc.) may need to take a calcium supplement. Women generally need to consume more calcium than men. • Athletes who eat a vegetarian diet and avoid meat and animal products altogether should TECHNIQUE May 1992

probably take a supplement containing vitamin B-12. Vegetarians also may need supplements with calcium, iron and zinc. Megadoses of vitamins and minerals should be avoided because they can be hazardous to your health. Contrary to what some people believe, the RDAs are not the minimal amounts of nutrients that are needed. They are the levels needed to maintain good health plus a generous margin of safety added to account for individual variationsincluding erratic eating. Taking too much of particular vitamins or minerals (especially minerals) may interfere with your body's absorption of other nutrients. Taking too much of some can seriously compromise your health. For example, taken in large amounts, vitamin A can cause liver damage. It's not uncommon for athletes to take a supplement because they read about it or it was recommended by another athlete. As a result, athletes frequently take supplementary vitamins or minerals they don't need while neglecting other nutrients that are deficient in their diet. Rather than relying on media information or word of mouth, the best way to determine an athlete's need for supplements is to consult a physician, dietitian or nutritionist who can evaluate the athlete's activity and diet. Since athletes most often rely on the advice of their coach, it is important that coaches are informed on nutrition issues, and give advice based on scientific fact.

Reprinted by permission from Olympic Coach, Spring 1992, Volume 2, Number 2, United States Olympic Committee. "The Training Table" is a regular feature column of OLYMPIC COACH authored by Dr. Ann Grandjean, USOC Chief Nutritional Consultant. To request a discussion topic or receive additional information on topics in this column, please w rite: Dr. Ann Grandjean, Ed .D., International Center for Sports Nutrition, 502 South 44 Street, Suite 3012, Omaha, Nebraska, 68105-1065. Coaches and athletes with nutrition questions may call Judy Nelson, USOC Nutrition Coordinator at (719) 578-4613.


Dr. Ann Grandjean, USOC Chief Nutritional Consultant.

Coaching Accreditation

Progress through 1992 Dave Moskovitz USGF Coaching Development Coordinator



he first four issues of Technique, 1992, have combination of theoretical and skill-oriented matereported the inauguration of the USGF Pro- rial provides the gymnastics professional with a fessional DevelopmentProgram. Many ques- base-line of gymnastics knowledge from which tions have been raised, and answered, but many he or she can progress throughout an instrucgymnastics professionals remain confused and to tional or coaching career. Review of this material some extent "in the dark." Throughout this article I provides all gymnastics professionals with the will attempt to answer as many of those concerns as information that is most appropriate for young possible and outline the broad scope of educational athletes working at this level of gymnastics. Level I has a broad focus which crosses all of the gymopportunities that this new program has created. The philosophical base of the program stems nastics disciplines. from a need in the gymnastics profession for some PDP Level II moves toward a more comprehenstandard by which gymnastics instructors and sive analysis of gymnastics and its requirements. coaches can measure and document their training. Components include an introduction to the sports The safety certification program was the first effort sciences, skill analysis and progressions, safety, and to provide this type of formal education. We are professionalism. Each component is achieved as a now to the point where it is necessary to move process leading toward accredita tion at LevelII. The beyond that level of training and continue to de- sports science clinic is a formal8-hour course based velop formal educational components. on the Successful Coaching text produced by ACEP. By providing a step level system, the PDP offers Following the clinic, a take-home exam is coman opportunity for gymnastics professionals to ad- pleted and sent directly to ACEP for processing. vance at their own pace. Coaches are encouraged to Skill analysis and progressions differ based on the participate to a level at which they feel comfortable three disciplines, men, women, and rhythmic gymand competent. During the first few years in which nastics. For each discipline a skill booklet will supplethe program is introduced, it will be necessary for ment the Junior Olympic Compulsory book. Particieveryone to become comfortable with the format pants will review the material on their own, comand process by which a coach becomes accredited at plete a short exam, and send the exam to the USGF a given level. for documentation. The safety component is As the PDP is introduced, we will provide oppor- achieved through participation in a USGF Safety tunities for more experienced coaches to participate Certification Course and exam. The procedures for in the initial levels through applications and special safety certification are well-known and documented. clinics. These clinics will offer the veteran coach a The final component for Level II accreditation is review of the materials and an outline of the process USGF Professional Membership, which must be of accreditation. We have defined that process as maintained to ensure active accreditation status. "grandparenting." This process will not simply give Level II will be inaugurated at the 1992 USGF Conaccreditation to coaches. Coaches need to partici- gress (see the congress announcement and tentative pate in the special clinics in order to become familiar schedule in this issue of Technique). with the program, the materials, and the philosophy The current structure of the PDP includes two at each level. Coaches participating in the special additional levels. Level III is scheduled to be introclinics will not be required to complete examina- duced at the 1993 USGF Congress and Level IV at tions; they will be immediately eligible to partici- the 1994 USGF Congress. The PDP has been depate in the next highest level of accreditation. For signed and implemented to meet the needs of the example, a coach attending the Level I clinic at a gymnastics community. As the higher levels of the National Compulsory Workshop will be eligible to program are developed we continually as for you attend the Level II clinic at the National Congress input and assistance. This is your education, your program, and your profession. We encourage all later this year. PDP Level I is an introduction to the basic prin- gymnastics professionals to take an active part in ciples of gymnastics instruction and coaching, which the development and implementation of this educaalso includes skills appropriate for that level of tional program. gymnastics. The clinic has been produced in two Review the previous issues of Technique and segments. The first segment is an instructional video compare the information that has been presented in tape based on the text Rookie Coaches Gymnastics this article. If you have additional concerns or quesGuide. This guide was produced in cooperation with tions that arise based on the printed format of the ACEP, the American Coaching Effectiveness Pro- program, please contact the USGF Coaching Develgram. The second segment, also on video tape, is opment Coordinator, Dave Moskovitz, at the nabased on the Sequential Gymnastics II textbook. This tional office, 317-237-5050. 8


General Gymnastics

Intoduction to General Gymnastics I n the United States we have developed a very formal, rigid definition of sport. Weare quick to point toward professional sports, college and high school programs, and club sports such as competitive gymnastics. The physical fitness boom of the 80's and the emphasis on health and fitness in the 90' s draws our attention to activities in which people can participate in for a life-time. Questions to consider-Is gymnastics a part of life-time sports activities? Could gymnastics become a sporting activity for mass participation? When we define the sport of gymnastics our first impression is a picture of a superstar on the awards stand at a major competition. (Kim Zmeskal at the 1991 World Gymnastics Championships in Indianapolis). However, we know though that these champions only represent the peak of the participation pyramid-indeed, competitive gymnastics is just a small part of the overall participation in our sport. Can we also include in our definition other sporting activities that include gymnastic-type movements? The freedom of movement that characterizes competitive gymnastics gives us the latitude to create a broader definition of gymnastics, General Gymnastics. Any limits we place on activities move in a direction that limits the overall participation in the sport and enjoyment of physical activity. Part of the enthusiasm for gymnastics obviously stems from the recognition of top level performances on television and the recognition they receive from the media. But even our professional athletes in football and baseball demonstrate their interest in gymnastics, back somersaults after touchdowns and Ozzie Smith's tumbling entrance to the baseball diamond. Many other sporting activities include gymnastics-type movements. Cheerleaders use acrobatic and tumbling elements. Aerobic dance incorporates basic gymnastics positions, skills, and dance elements. Sports Acrobatics utilizes the handstand position as one of its core elements. As we expand our perception of gymnastics to all the activities which use basic gymnastics positions and skills, we find that there is a wide range of opportunities to apply gymnastics training and performance. We must seek to encourage and promote those activities, not limit them because they do not conform to our rigid definitions of competitive artistic or rhythmic gymnastics.

enhance their attractiveness and provide expression for their message. Gymnastics teams and clubs use their skills, at all levels, to promote themselves and raise funds. This is not unique to the U.S. In 1991 there was a report on the International Gymnaestrada in the Netherlands where more than 25,000 participants celebrated gymnastics with a wide variety of performances, shows, and demonstrations.

What then is our definition of General Gymnastics? I propose that we include all activities that use gymnastics movements. We should expand our scope to celebrate our sport and the benefits that participation brings, not just formal competition in gymnastics meets, but at all levels. Criticisms of gymnastics include that it is elitist, too expensive, and too complicated for broadbased participation. Growth in competitive gymnastics is small at best, but we have seen advances in overall participation within our clubs. This means that more people are enjoying the sport. Let's provide opportunities for them to continue. If we choose to think in terms of "Gymnastics for All," then more people will have the opportunity to participate for longer periods of time. Individuals and groups, young and old, can participatemaybe they will never achieve the Olympic dream, but who is to say that is wrong? We can visualize tremendous opportunities for participation. What better activity than a celebration of sport and physical activity is there to bring people together, to meet on a common ground? As we move through the 90's and into the next century, we can demonstrate that our sport truly is one of mass participation. We are not limited by a panel of judges, a piece of apparatus, or a given number of participants. General Gymnastics is an opportunity to participate, celebrate, and expand. The USGF General Gymnastics Committee is currently evaluating participation. We anticipate new and different types of "competition" in the form of shows and displays. Questions and inquiries may be addressed to Steve Whitlock, USGF Director of Educational Services and Safety.

Another area in which gymnastics activity is present is group shows and displays. Musicals and thea tre performances use gymnastics skills to TECHNIQUE May 1992


Dave Moskovitz, USGF Coaching Development Coordinator









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The Triple Back Somersault Introduction Although the triple back salto was performed for the first time 18 years ago, it is still considered a very difficult and highly technical skill. The number of acrobatic tumblers performing variations of this skill is rather large and keeps growing constantly. In gymnastics this process is going slowly and very few gymnasts in the world are able to compete the triple. Of course, there are objective reasons which can partly explain that phenomenon: 1. The run is limited to only three steps. 2. The floor exercise surface has far less spring than a tumbling floor. 3. Floor exercise is one of six events. Thus gymnasts have far less time to spend on learning tumbling elements than tumblers.

It seems, however, that the number of gymnasts who master the triple back should be larger especially considering the difficulty of the exercises on other apparatus. No doubt the majority of coaches know, in general, the techniques and training methods for learning the triple back salto. There are however, some peculiarities inherent in the triple. Knowledge of these peculiarities and use of this knowledge can facilitate the process of learning this skill. Material in this article is based on my own experience as a tumbler and coach and also from my research in the field of highly technical tumbling elements.

Technique What is the most important technique in performing a triple back salto? The basis for successful completion of saltos with rotation around the transverse axis is the optimum combination of height and speed of rotation. It is general knowledge that the more complicated the saIto the more important the speed of rotation. Indeed, the triple saIto can be performed much better with an emphasis on rotation rather than height. If one compares the average height of a double to the average height of a triple there is not a great difference-about 24 cm(9 Ih") . Also the rotation is almost exactly twice as fast. TECHNIQUE May 1992

How speed of rotation is created: 1. Primary speed. Primary speed is the speed of the gymnast at the moment of take-off. This includes the quickness of the roundoff, backhands pring, especially the quickness and degree of the bod y' s extension as well as the upward motion of the arms during the snap-down and takeoff phase. 2. Quickness pulling into the tuck. 3. Tightness of the tuck position. Items #2 and #3 can only be effectively attained if the correct position is achieved to the end of the take-off (starting position). For a correct starting position the gymnast should use an aggressive contact at the end of the snap-down, of extreme importance here is the angle between the front of the legs and the tumbling surface (the angle of attack). This angle must be smaller for the more difficult skill. For a double' tuck salto the angle of attack is 48-53 degrees and for a triple salto tucked it is 40-42 degrees. It is of great importance to have a small angle of attack. At the moment of take-off all body segments must be lined up vertically over the upward movement of the compressed floor. Because the take off time is very short (about 0.08 sec) it is still enough to result in passing over the vertical. Too much backward linear movement and loose tuck will occur if the angle of attack is even slightly too high. As mentioned before, the degree of body extension and upward movement of the arms during the snap-down and take-off is one of the items which provide great speed of rotation. A classical remark of coaches is "lift your arms." This is correct of course. But we should consider the very small period of time a gymnast has to lift the arms-0.04 sec. for the snap-down and 0.08 for the take-off. Because of this small period the gymnast should make sure the arms are already in the upwardforward position as the backhandspring ends. The flight phase starts when the take-off is over. If all previous actions were performed correctly the grasp and holding of the tuck position is not a problem.

Learning and Refinement The first very important question which should be solved by the gymnast and his coach is when to 11

Vadim Bindler, 1976 & 1980 World Tumbling Champion

Translation Assistance by Richard Tucker, U.s.A. Junior National Coach

The triple salta can be performed much better with an emphasis on rotation rather than height.

start learning the triple back salto. On what basis should this decision be made? The gymnast should be able to perform a double with control as well as a triple on or off the trampoline. However, the basic salto should be performed with such height and rotation as to give potential possibility of mastering more complicated saltos.

Table of Characteristics of the Triple Back Saito Name of Phase

Contents of Phase

Time of Speed of RotPhase (sec) atlon (Radlsec)

Snapdown of Backhandspring


Take off


I Rotation



II Rotation



III Rotation






Opening and Landing



Possible tests of readiness could be: • Double back with opening at the apex of the height. • Double back landing on an elevated surface. • 2 1/4 back salto landing on a soft surface. Of course, all of these tests are effective only if performed with correct technique. Standard training methods for the triple salto employ the use of various auxiliary apparatus as well as spotting assistance. Some methods are trampoline-pit system. Tumbling strip pit system, spotting belts over trampoline and tumbling strip, and hand-spotting assistance for take-offs and landings. The sequence of learning the triple back on the floor depends a lot on what kind of equipment you ha ve in your gym. The most popu lar and effective sequence for learning is: • Triple back from tumbling strip to pit with spotter. • Triple back from tumbling strip to pit with no spotter. • Triple back landing on floor or extra mat with spotter. • Triple back landing on floor no spotter. • As soon as the gymnast has mastered the triple back salto he should start to perfect and polish his skill.


At this stage, the following methods can be used: • Triple back with smaller run. • Triple back landing on an elevated surface. • Performing the triple at the end of practice when the gymnast is tired. While learning and perfecting the triple back salto, it is necessary to constantly take measures to improve technique. While doing this, the gymnast should use all previously mentioned systems while performing both double and triple saltos. Continuously strive to make the conditions more difficult, for example, decrease the number of bounces or use a harder bed on trampoline. At this level of perfection of the triple it is very helpful to do a standing double back from the floor into the pit or back handspring double back (spotting can be used). The use of the standing double back is very helpful because of the extremely difficult conditions. There is no lateral momentum from the back handsprings, and very little height and time for execution. To perform a double this way, the gymnast must make a maximum effort and maintain all details of technique with a maximum of accuracy. The triple back salto is the most difficult tumbling element in the somersaulting category. All techniques used for the triple are also important for easier skills such as a double back variations and even single back saltos. When the gymnast is trying to increase his difficulty he should pay particular attention to correct body position during the whole tumbling pass. He should try to keep his whole body tight especially the arms and legs and also he should develop quickness of movement.

References 1. Burakov, B. Triple salto of Va dim Bindler. Gymnastica. Collection of Articles, Moscow, Physical Culture and Sport 1975. Issue I , 36. 2. Gaverdovsky, Y., Mamzin, V. Basic gymnastics exercises. Gymnastica, Collection of Articles, Moscow. Physical Culture and Sport 1975. Issue pages 17-20. Kuris,Y., Smolevsky, V. Tumbling elements of high 3. complication, Moscow. Physical Culture and Sport 1985, 113. 4. Kuris, V. Triple salto with full twist-it is realistic. Gymnastica, Collection of Articles, Moscow. Physical Culture and Sport 1981. Issue 2 pages 49-53. 5. Smolevsky, V., Kuris, V. Floor exercises for men, Moscow. Physical Culture and Sport 1976, 52, 63.


Men's Judging

USGF Men's Elite Requirements for 1992 • This rule overrides the rule in the NGJA Interpretation Book, pg. 6, part 2 & 3 under bonus points. R - 0.1 for each '0' strength over and above the required '0' strength under the Additional Combination Requirements.

Composition Difficulty Combination ExecutionBonus Points -

4.00 1.00 ~

9.20 Base score +.80 10.00

Note: The additional 'D' strength part can be a strength to handstand. Example: Kip L cross, pull out Mandatory 0.20+; 0.10 Possible 0.3 R, 0.2 V Total 0.8 - The total bonus for anyone skill is 0.6 HB- 0.1 for each '0' release over and above the required '0' release under the Additional Combination Requirements.

Difficulty: • Competition II difficulty -10 3C 2B 6A. • Minimum of 12 parts • Deductions for missing parts comes out of difficulty. Note: The additional D will replace a lower value


Combination: Additional Combination Requirements: FX Additional '0' = Total of two D's PH Additional '0' = Total of two D's SR Additional '0' = Total of two D's 1 0 Strength Required V 9.6 vault PB Additional '0' = Total of two D's HB Additional '0' = Total of two D's 10 value Flight Element attempted 2nd Flight Element attempted Deductions for missing "Additional Combination Requirements": a. NO "additional" '0' part 0.2 b. NO 'D' strength part on R 0.2 c. Less than 9.6 vault shown 0.2 d. NO '0' release attempted 0.2 e. NO "additional" release attempted 0.2

Bonus Points: • 0+ - Maximum 0.2 bonus points for any 0+ Skill(s) attempted. Note: Skills on the D+ Skills List are the only skills that satisfy D+ credit. • No more or less than 0.2 can be awarded in the 0+ category. • The 0+ category can only be filled by attempting a 0+ skill. This includes vaulting. Note: Pommel Horse - D+ bonus points may be

awarded by completing a third 'D' of any type.

Originality: • Each 0+ skill has an associated maximum bonus point value in the originality category. • Any attempted 0+ skill with 0.3 points or less in execution errors will receive full credit for the originality bonus. TECHNIQUE May 1992

Landings: • An automatic 0.1 bonus in Virtuosity, will be awarded for a stuck optional dismount of '0' value on all events, except on PH.

Additional Matting: • An additional landing mat of up to 8" will be permitted for '0' skills on FX, '0' vaults, '0' dismounts (except on PH), and all HB releases. • There will be a 0.3 deduction for use of any additional matting not in accordance with this rule.

"0+" Skills List Floor Exercise "D+" Skills 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Originality Bonus Points

Double twisting double back Full twisting double layout Double twisting double layout Triple back Double saIto tucked or piked with % twist (Lou Yun) Tucked double front Tucked double front with Y2twist Layout double front Full twisting double back to punch front Triple full to punch front Layout Thomas Piked double side Back 2 Y2 twist to punch front Double back to punch front Manna (Trunk horizontal) 2 sec. to handstand - hold 2 sec.

0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 13

16. Whip back, double back, punch front salto (B 0+) 17. Front layout 1!J to punch front layout 18. Front layout 1!J to punch front layout 1!J 19. Front layout double twist 20. Front layout double twist to punch front Dismounts 21. All 0 dismounts except following skills: a. Double full to punch front b. Back 1 Yz twist to punch front

0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1

Pommel Horse "D+" Skills

o Bonus points may be earned by performing a third '0' of any type

Still Rings "D+" Skills 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

0.1 Tucked Guczoghy 0.2 Layout Guczoghy Czech giant ( 1. 12, pg. 123) 0.2 0.2 Giant crossing the ropes 0.1 Maltese press to handstand FeIge backward slowly with straight arm to cross (Azarian) 0.1 Two "0" strength moves in an exercise 0.1 0.1 For each additional 0 strength Kip to Olympic "L" Cross (Not approved 0.1 as a "0+" skill but 0.1 for originality) From hang: back toss to hang rearways followed by stemme forward to support (Li Ning) 0.1 From hang, straight arm back kip to 0.1 h andstand From hang, straight arm back kip to inverted cross 0.2 From "L", straight arm, straight body 0.1 press to inverted 0.1 Maltese with Yt turn (Olympic Maltese) Back lever (hold) pull to cross 0.1 Back lever (hold) pull to Olympic Cross 0.1 0.2 Tucked Guczoghy-Guczoghy

Dismounts 17. Tucked double front 1 % twist 18. Triple back 19. Double twisting double back 20. Full twisting double layout (Straight body throughout) 21. Triple full 22. Pike to layout or layout to pike double front 23. Piked double front % twist

0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

Vault "D+" Skills III. 00 Tinsica layout front 20 Handspring and salto forward stretched 24 Handspring and salto forward stretched with % twist 28 Cuervo stretched (Stretched body throughout the flight) *Momentary piked during the flight Cuervo tucked with % twist 14

0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1

36 Handspring and salto forward tucked with 1 % twist (Kroll) 0.2 Cuervo tucked with 1!J twist 0.2 40 Handspring and salto forward piked with 1 % twist 0.2 Cuervo piked with 1!J twist 0.2 44 Handspring and salto forward stretched with 1 Y2twist 0.2 Cuervo stretched with \r1 twist (Lou Yun) 0.2 Handspring and double saIto forward tucked (Roche) 0.2 IV. 00 Tsukahara stretched with 1 % twist 0.1 20 Tsukahara stretched with Y1 twist 0.2 00 Kasamatsu stretched with % twist 0.1 28 Kasamatsu tucked with 1!J twist 0.1 32 Kasamatsu piked with 1!J twist 0.2 40 Kasamatsu stretched with 1!J twist 0.2 V. 8 Jump forward with 1!J turn and handspring with salto forward tucked 0.2 12 Salto forward tucked and handspring forward 0.1 SaIto forward tucked and handspring front salto 0.2 VI. 4 Round-off handspring backward and salto backward stretched with 1!J twist 0.1 Round-off handspring backward and salto backward stretched with Y1 twist 0.2

Parallel Bar "D+" Skills 1. Double front (tucked or piked) over the bar to upper arm 2. Double back over the bar to upper arm (Morisue) 3. Giant to Diamidov 4. Giant to double back over the bar to upper arm (Belle) 5. Back 1 % saIto with % turn to upper arm (Reichert) 6. Back over bar straddle cut catch without intermediate support 7. Gienger on the end of the bar (Chartrand) 8. Gienger from one bar to the other bar crossways (Kwon) 9. Back uprise 1 Yt front to upper arm (Yamawaki) 10. Front uprise Diamidov (Richard) 11. Back uprise full turn to support 12. Front uprise, with 1!J turn to support 13. Streuli % turn to support (Watanabe) 14. Front swing full turn to support (Carmin ucci) 15. Giant Y2 turn, forward salto to support (Gushiken) 16. Moy with straight legs to straddle back cut to handstand (Tip pelt) 17. Peach % to handstand 18. Back toss to English handstand 19. Diamidov Yt turn to one bar pirouette 20. Giant straddle cut (Korolev) 21. Moy with straight legs to support 22. Giant swing backward with 1f2 turn and

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1


front flip to straddle backward to upper arm support to forward roll 23. Front 1 Vi straddle from support 24. Giant to elgrip % turn 25. From support, layout front 1 1,14 to upper arm 26. Front uprise, stutz to handstand Dismounts 27. Double full dismount 28. From the side handstand double back dismount (Kwon) 29. Double front with 1f2 twist or front saIto % twist back out dismount or Wendy to immediate back salto 30. Full twisting double back dismount 3I. From handstand, giant down to full twisting double back dismount on the end (Kajitani)

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1

0.1 0.2


Horizontal Bar "D+" Skills 1. Layout Tkachev (Arched throughout the flight) 2. Full twisting Gienger (Deff) 3. Full twisting Jaeger (Winkler) 4. Gaylord I tucked, straddled or piked 5. Gaylord II 6. Tkachev front catch (Xiao Ruizhi) 7. Tkachev front catch from toe on or from Stalder 8. Kovacs tucked 9. Kovacs layout 10. Piked Marinich II. Backward swing, back somersault catch

0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1

12. Any 0 + 0 release combination 0.1 Examples: a) 1 arm giant to Tkachev - immedia te Gienger b) Full twisting Gienger to another Gienger c) Kovacs to Gienger

13. Any '0+' release to another '0+' release 0.2 14. From forward giants, full pirouette to one el grip giant swing on one arm and % tum to backward giant = 0; directly to one giant swing backward on one arm to % tum to el grip giant on one arm and 0.1 Jaeger flip = "0+" 15. Full twisting Kovacs (Gaylord 2 with % twist) 0.2 16. Jaeger with a full twist from el grip 0.1 17. Back giant, 1!J twist over the bar, catch in double over grip, 1!J twist over the bar, catch on one arm, Gienger 0.1 18. Under grip giant, straddle over the bar (hecht action) regrasp in "el" grip (Not 0+, but receives originality) 0.1 Dismounts 18. Triple back 0.1 19. Double twisting double layout 0.1 20. Piked double front with 1 % twist 0.1 2I. Layout double front with % twist 0.1

Note: Any additional potential 0+ skills must be submitted for approval to Mas Watanabe at the USGF National Office at least two weeks prior to a competition.

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Rhythmic Gymnastics

How to Introduce RSG to the Artistic Club Meg Warren Association of British Gymnastics Coaches Sherwood House, Hinckley Road, Burgage, Leicestershire LE102AG 1st Issue, 1992

This lecture was introduced by Nora Hitzel, National Rhythmic Program Administrator for the USGF.

At this stage, Nora introduced Terry Exner, gym owner and coach to Gymmarin, San Raphael, California. Terry runs RG in his center.

Hitzel started by dispelling the myth that all rhythmic gymnasts are skinny and you need a gym hall with a high ceiling in order to train.

After introductions, Terry proceeded to sell us rhythmic gymnastics. Terry could have in fact sold you anything; this is meant as no disrespect to rhythmic gymnastics. If I had a gym club of my own, then I would certainly include rhythmic gymnastics in my program.

She then showed us a video of a pre-school rhythmic program. I will try and give you some ideas from this. It was a delight to see young children working with the rhythmic equipment. They started to work with scarves doing a lot of arm movements.


The children worked on a small mat (a carpet square will do) tossing scarves and then moving to the next mat.





Children then worked with the hoops with throwing and catching activities . Here they worked with the coach.

The children worked with balloons and also ribbons. Conditioning was done; including their first arabesque (no apparatus). They also did jumping activities. They then progressed to balls and hoops; tossing and catching. An older group of 5,6 and 7 year olds did some dance technique and flexibility work.



Using small mats or carpet squares, children had to leap over a mat and then run to the next mat and pose or stretch on the next mat.

Exner runs a Men's and Women's Artistic Club as well as Rhythmic. Each class, whatever discipline, includes a RG station. It is much cheaper to set up a RG station than an extra artistic station. (Consider the cost of a set of balls and hoops against another set of bars). Terry then went through each apparatus in turn showing how each could be progressed.

Hoop 1. Rolling - using carpet square 12" x 12". Roll and catch or take hoop step by step with hands.

Gymnasts can go onto next square or roll to next gymnast.

O;:=D D;:=D 0;:=0 0;:=0

Gymnasts can also exchange hoops. 2. Spinning First with alternate hands


Clubs Remember, these are wooden so coaches often feel that young gymnasts shouldn't work with these. Nora uses a tennis ball in a sock. 16


Then free spin and gymnast catches the hoop before it falls May 1992 TECHNIQUE

3. Circling

5. Steering wheel Game

Gymnast circles hoop around the hand.

Hold the hoop in thevertical plane andth children can rotate backwards and forwards as with a steering wheel.



6. Tossing Sunset


Using both hands, gymnast swings hoop from side to side; tic-toc. Then circle on one hand and keep the hoop in the same plane, but then make a Yt turn so hoop is now at the side.




Technique - it may help children to catch the hoop if after they release they do 'pointer hand.' This makes them keep their eyes open and keep thei, .,m srr.ight. ~



Get children to link these two positions and then eventually to let go at sunrise so that it becomes a toss. After keeping in the same hand the gymnast can then toss at sunrise to catch with the other hand.

If someone does a good spin etc. then do a CELEBRAnON! (10 sit ups, 10 jumping jacks and 10 push ups).

D/ Try combining a circle and on the way up in circle to release, do 'pointer hand' and then catch.



1. Balance - a gymnast is not allowed to dimple

pv /'X

theb.lI . 4. Table Game low table

high table then let hoop fall




'11 fA \


From low table the gymnast can jump out to:


catch the table


1: ~


Give the ball a name: Friend Louise. Don't kick Louise! When buying balls, don't buy different colors- otherwise the children will cry if they can't pick a special color! Hold the ball with two hands and swing from side to side.





Then balance the ball on one hand and swing from side to side. 17

Then take the ball around the body. Then take the ball around the leg. Then take the ball around the neck.

c. Roll the ball along the legs.

2. High and low.




Switch hands all the time.

Make a figure 8. This is more difficult for younger children. Get the gymnast to balance ball on back of her hand. What other parts of the body can the gymnast balance the ball on? 4. Bouncing. 2 hands - bounce and catch. Get children to stand on carpet square. Gymnast balances ball on one hand then bounces ball to catch with two hands. Develop this to bounce the ball with one hand and catch and then change to the other hand.

roll down



Roll the ball from side to side. Children can kneel on their carpet squares. Sit in long sitting. Roll the ball under the knees. Also work in partners, rolling the ball across to opposite partner.

a. Toss ball & bounce with 2 hands and catch in 2 hands. b. Toss ball with one hand, bounce and catch in 2 hands.

c. Toss ball and bounce with one hand and catch in one hand.

d. Then toss and catch without the bounce. e. Then swing the ball from a downward position to up, use 'pointer finger' technique and catch. toss ball



• ::rO.


catch ball kneeling down on vegetable shape.

Ribbon The ribbon is attached to a stick on a swivel connection (so that it doesn't get tangled). =====~

Terry suggested that each carpet square have a different vegetable painted on. The children had to roll the balls from, sayan onion to carrot, etc.

The ribbon for preschool children should be about 3 meters long and for juniors 6 meters long. Don't use a ribbon with a lot of 'finish' - can be a regular ribbon. The ribbon is the Friendly Snake, Herbie. 'Pointer Finger' - the method of holding.

Rolling on body.

1. Activities

a. Roll the ball along arms placed side by side. b. Then roll down one arm but do this in simple stages. (1) place ball on hand

and use free hand as a 'stop' at the elbow. Ball rolls from hand to elbow. (2) then place free hand at shoulder; ball rolls from hand to shoulder. (3) and (4) etc place free hand at ear, then to chest and then to other arm. 18


6. Tossing

Bounce the ball under one leg. Bounce the ball with different body partselbows, knees, etc. 5. Rolling.

roll back and catch

snake in back


?/it~ shoulder motion only. Then perform this in a circle so it is "snake all the way round," then change hand. Try a figurr 8 with the snake motion. 2.Z's Make zig-zags or ZS. Call this the little snake. May 1992 TECHNIQUE


Get the children to make the motion through the wrist, not the shoulder. Then combine activities.

4. Tossing Drop stick from upper hand to lower hand. Then toss up to the other hand. 5. Toss and catch Hold atthe 'join' (between stick and ribbon) in left hand and hold end of stick in right hand. Let go of stick with right hand slightly swinging left arm. Then let go with left hand to catch end of stick with right hand.

circle all the way round



3. Stir the pot use the wrist stir the pot all the way around - children circle round.



Notes taken by Meg Warren at the 1991 USGF Congress in Indianapolis, Indiana. This was published in the Newsletter of the British Gymnastics Coaches, #1 , 1992. U.s. subscribers are welcomeoverseas subscriptions are £10*. Send your check to Meg Warren, Association of British Gymnastics Coaches, Sherwood House, Hinckley Road, Burgage, Leicestershire LElO 2AG.

*£lO's is approximately U.s.$18.00. Meg suggests that you go to the bank and get a £10 note to includewith your subscription.

Men's Minutes

MPC Conference Call April 28, 1992 Roll Call: Members Present: Greg Buwick Jim Howard Kevin Mazeika Art Shurlock Robert Cowan Mas Watanabe

Chairman, Sr. Coaches Rep. V.P. for Men Jr. Coaches Rep. Sr. Coaches Rep. Mens Program Administrator Mens Technical Coordinator

Members Absent: Jim Hartung Bill Roetzheim Gene Watson

Athletes Council Rep. FIG Mens TC Member Jr. Coaches Rep.

The call was put up at 5:30 Eastern Standard Time. I. PETITIONS AND QUALIFYING SCORES

There were 3 petitions filed . Tom Schlesinger and Lance Ringnald for the 1992 Division and Nick Baker for 1996. According to the published Selection Procedures, you must be a National Team member or former National Team member and have appeared in the past Winter or US Nationals to be considered. Baker's petition does not fulfill this requirement. Motion to accept the petition for Ringnald and Schlesinger. MOTION - Greg Buwick SECOND - Art Shurlock PASSED - Unanimously


Motion to accept the 48 scores as posted by Robert Cowan from qualifying meets, which places the cutoff at Josh Stein at 109.55. MOTION - Greg Buwick SECOND - Jim Howard PASSED - Unanimously

II. QUALIFYING SCORES IN 1996 DIVISION Discussion about the manner in which scores were obtained from the Eastern NCAA Regional and the Great Plains Invitational. A vote was taken to disallow the scores posted in an incorrect process. The vote was 3-1-1.

Later after subsequent investigation it was determined that the meet(s) in question were sasnctioned and the process, while unusual, would be allowed in this instance. The Mens Program Committee will outline further the exact manner in which scores may be obtained for the future . There being no further business, the meeting was adjourned. MOTION - Greg Buwick SECOND - Jim Howard PASSED - Unanimously

The above is true and accurate to the best of my knowledge. Submitted by: Robert Cowan (4/3 19


U.S. Olympic Gymnastics Trials '92

Baltimore, Maryland June 6 - 13

Natiollal Aquarium

Inner Harbor Baltimore, Maryland

#1 rankedfemale gymllast Kim Zmeskal

e part of Olympic history in the making. Come to Baltimore home of the Star Spangled Banner - to watch America's top gymnasts compete for a coveted spot on the U.S. Olympic Gymnastics team. Enjoy Baltimore's many fine restaurants , great shopping and wonderful attractions including the world famous Aquarium. Individual tickets now on sale may be purchased by calling 1-410-481-7328. For group tickets and more information call 1-800-800-TRIALS.

Special Article



mchiIa sfral[ enjoy special protection, ami sfral[ be gWen opportunities amifaci!ities, by raw ami by otmr means, to ena6{e him to c£evefop

physica£[y, menta£[y, moral[y, spiritual[y anasocia£[y in a healthy ana norma{ manner ana in conaitions of freeaom ana aignity. In the enactment of raws for this purpose the best interests of the chiM shal[ be the paramount consicferation. Principle 2 United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child, November 20, 1959

CHILD ABUSE IN YOUTH SPORTS This document has been prepared and compiled by the United States Gymnastics Federation staff, its volunteers, committee members and athletes, under the guidance and supervision of numerous professionals who are directly involved with children and the sexual abuse issue. It is the hope of the USGF that this document will help assist our coaches, athletes, clubs and members to deal with one of the most sensitive social issues of today. Special thanks to the Baltimore County Dept. of Social Services for their pre-publication review.

HHS Part 1340.2, defines the term "sexual abuse" as including the follOwing activities under circumstances which indicate that the child's health or welfare is harmed or threatened with harm: • the employment, use, persuasion, ind ucement, enticement, or coercion of any child to engage in, or having a child assist any other person to engage in, any sexually explicit conduct (or any simulation of such conduct) for the purpose of producing any visual depiction of such conduct; or • the rape, molestation, prostitution, or other form of sexual exploitation of children, or incest with children. With respect to the definition of sexual abuse, the term "child" or "children" means any individual who has not attained the age of eighteen.

Elements Involved in Child Abuse and Child Sexual Abuse Situations 1. The major characteristics of sexual abuse are:

SEXUAL ABUSE IN YOUTH SPORTS Sexual abuse is emerging as one of the major forms of child abuse. Throughout the late 1970's, official reports of sexual abuse began to increase at a rate much more rapidly than that experienced with reports of any other form of abuse. The number of reported cases each year in the United States continues to increase. However, for each case of sexual abuse that is reported, it is estimated that ten cases go unreported. Sexual abuse of children, in the broadest sense, encompasses a wide range of behavior including fondling, forcible and statutory rape/sexual intercourse with a minor, oral sex, genital exposure and exhibitionism, inappropriate kissing, sexual assault, commercial exploitation of children in pornography, pedophilia, and incest. In the Code of Federal Regulations, Public Welfare, the Office of Human Development Services, TECHNIQUE May 1992


3. 4.


a. The acts involve children and are of a sexual nature in that they give the perpetrator a sense of sexual stimulation and/ or gratification. b. The acts are considered inappropriate by society. c. The adults have a substantial advantage in authority, power and sexual sophistication over their child partners. These advantages usually grow out of a preexisting relationship the offender has with the child. For the most part, sexual abusers have an easy access to their victims. A sexual abuser is a person usually in a position of authority. The abuser uses that authority to take advantage and to control an individual markedly younger and less powerful. In a sexual abuse situation, the child does not have the freedom to say yes or no. There is no such thing as a consenting child in matters of sexual abuse. The child lacks the capacity to decide matters of long range consequence. The financial cost society bears to deal with the results of child abuse is enormous. The cost in human suffering and wasted individual potential is immeasurable.


• Approximately 1 in every 500 children in the United States is reported for being sexually abused. • In the United States, authorities estimate that 1 in 4 girls and 1 in 8 boys by the age of 18 will be sexually victimized. Recent literature suggests that the number of boys abused is much higher, perhaps almost as many boys as girls are being abused. • In 1985, an estimated 113,000 children were reported with sexual maltreatments. THE VICTIM IS NEVER AT FAULT IN SEXUAL ABUSE • Sexual abusers come from all races and religions, all educational and career levels, all age categories and all socioeconomic levels. • Most sexual abusers are respected members of the community and are often family members. • Eighty percent (80 %) of the children who are assaulted are taken advantage of by someone they know. Usually it is a person the child knows quite well, and is an individual the child trusts. THE VICTIM IS NEVER AT FAULT IN SEXUAL ABUSE • Sexual abusers may be of any age from adolescence to old age. Sexual abusers have many psychological problems. They are often individuals who do not feel comfortable with people their own age. They choose children to meet their needs because children are less threatening to them. • A sexual abuser exploits children for his / her own sexual gratification. The abuser is more interested in satisfying his / her own needs rather than protecting the welfare of the child. In addition to sexual gra tifica tion, the offender usually uses the abuse situation as an opportunity to experience power and control in a relationship. Thiscanbevery gratifying as well and becomes an important ingredient in continuing the cycle of abuse. • It is the adult abuser who is totally responsible for the exploitation of the child .

• Most sexual abuse of children is nonviolent. THE VICTIM IS NEVER AT FAULT IN SEXUAL ABUSE • Sexual abuse is committed primarily by men. Men constitute approximately 95% of the perpetrators in cases of abuse of girls and 80% in cases of abuse of boys. • Many sexual abusers who choose girls as their victims see the girls as much older than they really are, and therefore rationalize the girls are appropriate sexual partners. Other abusers, whose primary sexual orienta tion is to children, bring themselves down to the level of the child.

• Many sexual abusers were victims of sexual or physical abuse themselves as children. They abuse children because it allows them to feel like a powerful person, instead of being a victim. • Most sexual abusers of children will continue to do this until they are stopped by outside intervention.

ALL TYPES OF CHILD ABUSE & SEXUAL CHILD ABUSE ARE WRONG The harmful effects of sexual child abuse encompass physical effects and emotional effects.

Physical Effects It is in only a small minority of cases where the physical effects of sexual abuse are apparent. These include: - Scarring in the vaginal or rectal area - Impregnation of the victim - Transfer of venereal diseases and/ or AIDS - Damage to reproductive organs

Emotional Effects The emotional effects of sexual abuse can be devastating not only to the children, their parents and family members, but also to adults who were molested as children. Victims of sexual abuse do not always experience the same feelings and emotional reactions. It is often that the impact of abuse does not appear until the victim reaches adulthood. Symptoms of the emotional impact of sexual abuse include: • The Loss of Childhood, in that the victim has been introduced to the adult world of sexuality and, consequently, feels older than his/her peers. In addition, innocence has been taken from the child which can never be replaced. • Guilt, in that the victim feels as if the abuse were due to something tha the / she said or did; or that the victim was not able to stop the abuser. • Low Self-Esteem, resulting from the victim's feeling like a "bad child" involved in inappropriate, sexual activity. • Fear, comprised of fear of physical harm, the event of the sexual abuse being discovered, and the anxiety of the next incident of molestation.

• A sexual abuser who chooses boys as his victims is usually not a homosexual. He is attracted to boys because they are children, not because they are males.

• Confusion in one's sense of right and wrong • Depression possibly leading to suicide, drug and alcohol abuse, running away, self abusive behavior, eating disorders (i.e., anorexia nervosa and bulimia, etc.)


• Anger arising from being mistreated, anger toward the abuser and self anger arising within



the victim for not being able to change and escape the abusive situation, and often also toward other parental figures who failed to protect. Over a period of time, this can even lead to frequent headaches, ulcers, colitis, depression, suicide, etc. • Inability to Trust Others caused by a betrayal of trust by an adult the child respected and trusted. Women who have been molested by a male will sometimes have trouble trusting men. • Helplessness, resulting from the victim's feeling powerless, defenseless and vulnerable to the abuser. • Attitudes Toward Sexuality involving mutual sharing, concern for the needs of both partners, respect and trust which are completely absent in a situation of child sexual abuse. In the future, the victim could feel unworthy of relationships with members of the opposite sex, or deny him/herself any sexual feelings and/ or sexual contact, even with one's spouse. Another possible outcome is that sex becomes a tool to manipulate others, and may lead to promiscuity or difficulties in intimate relationships.

LEGAL AsPECTS OF SEXUAL ABUSE The fundamental notion underlying the laws prohibiting the sexual abuse of children is tha t the government has a compelling interest in safeguarding the physical and psychological well being of minors. This notion has given rise to a panoply oflaws designed to protect children from sexual abuse which are generally broader in scope and more severe in sanction than comparable statutes dealing with crimes against adults. Although the laws differ from state to state they generally share four common features: (1) they make criminal specific types of cond uct which is sexual in nature; (2) where the victim is below a specific age; (3) the person engaging in the prohibited conduct is above a certain age; and (4) they often impose criminal liability regardless of the intent of the offending adult. 1. Age of the Victim. These statutes outlawing sexual abuse establish a maximum age for victims which is often lower than that employed elsewhere in the criminal code to define a minor. Thus, for example, a state's sexual abuse statute may apply only to victims who are less than 16 years old even where the normal age of majority is 18. These maximum age provisions do not represent an absence of criminal sanctions where the victim is beyond the statutory age, but rather the applicability of other more traditional sex crimes statutes. 2. Age of the Offender. Designed to avoid attaching criminal significance to the innocent actions of one minor child toward another, the TECHNIQUE May 1992

sexual abuse statutes typically require that the violator be at least 16 years of age. 3. Objectionable Conduct. Most of the statutes focus on touching or fondling, intercourse and deviate sexual conduct. Criminal "touching" under these statutes need not necessarily involve the touching of genitalia, and may occur even though the victim remains fully clothed. In some cases, the statutes apply even where there was no physical contact-the victim having been witness to or encouraged to participate in some sort of deviate sexual conduct. 4. Intent of the Offender. For some forms of sexual abuse, a specific intent on the part of the offender is required. For example, in the case of statutes prohibiting touching or fondling the offender must believe that the outlawed conduct would arouse or satisfy sexual desires. Requirements or specific intent do not, however, typically apply to the more egregious types of sexual abuse, as for example, sexual intercourse. Thus in a state which prohibits sexual intercourse with a child under the age of 16, a criminal violation results even if the offender reasonably believed that the minor was above the minimum age and had granted consent. Punishment for sexual abuse crimes is usually related to the nature of the offending conduct. In Indiana, for example, touching or fondling is punishable by five to eight years in prison; sexual intercourse or deviate sexual conduct is punishable by ten to twenty years in prison; and any of these types of conduct accompanied by a threat of deadly force is punishable by thirty to fifty years in prison.

Reporting Requirements The vast majority of the states have also adopted laws which make the failure to report sexual abuse a crime. Originally extending only to physicians who were required to report nonaccidental injuries to children, these statutes have been expanded (by amendment and judicial interpretation) to apply to other individuals considered uniquely responsible for the welfare of children, as for an example a teacher. Typically these laws require that a report be made whenever there is reasonable cause to believe that a child has been sexually abused. The obligation may arise as a result of either personal observations or the report given by a minor.

Civil Liability Both sexual abuse and the failure to report sexual abuse may give rise to civil as well as criminal liability. The victim, or more likely a guardian, may file a lawsuit seeking damages for sexual assault and/ or battery while also prosecuting a criminal action based upon those same facts. It is important to note in this context that an employer may be liable for the acts of an employee, especially when that conduct involves a customer and takes place on the employer's premises. Liability also extends to any person who encourages, incites, aids or abets the offender. As 23

is the case under the criminal statutes, a defense that the minor consented to the objectionable conduct is typically unavailing in civil actions of this sort because the law does not attribute to minors the legal capacity to consent to such conduct. Civil actions of this sort may result in an award of both compensatory and punitive damages.

DON'T'S DON'T enter the lavatory or locker room alone with only one child. DON'T allow a male coach to be the sole chaperone at an away girls' meet, regardless of the age of the children. DON'T allow a child to be picked up at the gym by another parent without prior written parental consent. DON'T vacate the gym premises as the last remaining staff member if a child or children are still awaiting to be picked up. DON'T ignore any situation that looks suspicious.

Do's DO have as a gym club policy that one-on-one sessions between a gymnast and a coach are STRICTLY PROHIBITED. When traveling and at meets, DO encourage gymnasts to enter the lavatory and locker room facilities in groups of at least two (2) at all times. At your gym or club, in addition to separate lavatory and locker room facilities for boys and girls, if possible, DO have separate facilities for coaches and staff as well. DO assign a staff member to keep an eye on the lavatories and locker rooms. DO try to send both a male and female chaperone to all away meets. DO encourage the gymnasts in your program to inform you if they are not comfortable with the manner in which they are being spotted. DO run references and background checks on previous employment and history prior to decisions being made on hiring new coaches and staff. To the best of your ability to determine, coaches / staff should have healthy adult relationships and not appear to relate primarily to children. DO believe a gymnast who informs you that he/ she is being or has been sexually abused. It is rare that a child will lie about sexual abuse. DO commend the child for telling you about the situation. DO take action if a sexual abuse situation is occurring at your gym. Keep in mind that if you do nothing immediately, other children will continue to be at a risk. If an incident is occurring or has occurred at your gym, DO inform the respective parents and DO inform the local authorities. If a child dis24

closes a sexual abuse situation in the home, DON'T inform the parents. First notify the police and/ or the local child protection agency. DO seek out appropriate medical attention if it is possible that the child has been physically injured as well. DO keep open the lines of communication. DO respect the gymnast's and family's privacy. DO be careful not to discuss the incident in front of people who do not need to know what has happened. DO discuss this article and the matter of sexual abuse with your coaches and staff. DO explain the seriousness of the situation, the effects it does and will have on children. DO make sure that the LEGAL CONSEQUENCES are known. The following organizations and resources are available for further information: American Association for Protecting Children, Inc. American Humane, P.O. Box 1266 Denver, Colorado 80201 CHILDHELP, USA 6463 Independence Avenue, Woodland Hills, California 91367 - 818/347-7280 Clearinghouse of Child Abuse and Neglect Information. P.O. Box 1182 Washington, DC 20013 703 / 821 2086 (This organization can provide a complete listing of each U.S. State Child Protection Agency.) The C. Henly Kempe National Center for the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect 1205 Oneida Street, Denver, Colorado 80220 303 / 321-3963 National Center for Missing & Exploited Children 1835 "K" Street, N .W., Suite 700, Washington, DC 20006 - 202/634-9821 . National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse 332 South Michigan A venue, Suite 950, Chicago, Illinois 606044357 - 312 / 663-3520 The National Exchange Club Foundation for the Prevention of Child Abuse 3050 Central Avenue, Toledo, Ohio 43606 419/535-3232 Baltimore County Department of Social Services 620 York Road, Townson,MD21204 - 301 / 494-2520

In addition to the previously listed organizations, the following publications have been utilized in the production of this document: Cooney, Judith. Coping With Sexual Abuse. The Rosen Publishing Group, New York, 1987. Daugherty, L.B.,PH.D. Why Me? Help for Victims of Child Sexua l Abuse Even If They Are Adults Now. Mother Courage Press, Racine, Wisconsin, 1984. Finkelhor, David. Child Sexual Abuse, New Theon) and Research . Collier MacMillanPublishcrs, London, 1984. Mayhall, Pamela D. and Norgard, Katherine Eastlack Child Abuse and Neglect. John Wiley and Snns, Inc., New York, 1983. Published By United States GymnastiCS Federation Pan American Plaza 201 S. Capitol Ave. Suite 300 Indianapolis, Indiana 46225


US Classic Nationals Knoxville, Tennessee A pril 24-26, 1992

Intern ational Tournament of Cottbus Cottbus, Germany March 20-22, 1992 Name Country Score 1 VOROPAEV, Alexei CEI 58.400 2 BELENKI , Valeri CEI 57.700 3 GHERMAN, Marius ROM 57.700 4 SUPOLA, Zoltan HUN 57.650 5 KROLL, Sylvio GER 57.250 6 RAMMLER, Steffen GER 56.700 16 LEE, Jon USA 53.050

City of Popes Avglnon, France April 4, 1992 Name Country 1 LUSSAC, Elodie FRA 2 APISUKH, Lanna USA 3 COUSINEAU, Marilou CAN 4 BICAN, Ana Maria ROM 5 MARCONNET, C. FRA 6 MAILLARD, Celine FRA 7 MUNTONI, Karine FRA 8 LlCHEY, Karine USA

Score 39.100 38.650 38.500 38.175 38.175 37.950 37.950 37.875

1992 Thiais RSG Ville de Thiais, FRG March 2-9, 1992 Name Junior ComQetition: 1 Jana Batyrchina 2 Anna Sokolova 3 Yulia Tsunikova 4 Dara Carteleanu 4 Weihua Dong 6 Manuela Vu Trieu 12 Christi Tucay Senior ComQetition: 1 Carolina Borrel 2 Amina Zaripova 3 Eliana Davidenko 4 Anouta Goia 5 Irina Mikhailukova 6 Alina Voinea 27 Bianca Sapetto



36.75 35.90 35.60 34.60 34.60 34.20 33.50


37.65 37.60 37.30 37.05 37.00 36.50 34.40

Name Senior Division : 1 BRUCE, Wendy 2 BANGERTER, Juliet 3 WOYNEROWSKI , Anne 4 SOMMER, Traci 5 McDERMOTT, Kristin 6 BORDEN , Amanda 7 KELLY, Kim 8 MUHLEMAN, Samantha 9 STACK, Chelle 10 SIMPSON , Tiffany 11 MERCIER, Jennifer 12 GIANNI , Lisa 13 GRUBBS, Martha 14 KABNICK, Heather 15 FITZPATRICK, Katie 16 McKENNA, Jennifer 17 ARNOLD, Kim 18 BENNETT, Heather 19 GUISE, Kristen 20 MOORE, Misty

77.110 76.030 75.940 75.860 75.730 75.720 75.630 75.100 75.010 74.950 74.930 74.860 74.840 74.790 74.760 74.640 74.550 74.430 74.310 74.260

Junior A Division : 1 POWELL, Kristy 2 APISUKH, Lanna 3 GREEN, Melisa 4 THOMPSON, Jennie 5 CHOW, Amy 6 PALLARDY, Leila 7 VINICIJANOVIC, Lisa 8 BRINK, Heather 9 MEDUNA, Sony 10 NOCEANU , Dominique 11 ROCHELLI , Rachael 12 YOUNG, Kim 13 WASHBURN , Jessica 14 SEVERIN, Katrina 15 PETERNARD, Kim 16 MUSSER, Erin 17 SPYCHALA, Emily 18 ESPOSITO, Maryann 19 CAIN, Sarah 20 FRENCH , Laura 21 KOCH , Jenni 22 LAU, Stephanie 23 CARVER, Lea 24 WEBSTER, Marianna

76.080 75.660 75.160 74.980 74.710 74.090 74.050 73.930 73.830 73.650 73.640 73.560 73.450 73.320 73.290 73.110 73.030 72.980 72.950 72.550 72.500 72.220 72.010 71 .960


Senior DeveloQmental : 1 ERDOS, Amber 75.280 2 LlCHEY, Karin 74.970 3 DROEGDMUELLER, Deanne 74.850 4 EMIG, Natalie 74.840 5 SZCZEPANSKI, Laura 74.970 6 DELUCA, Jennifer 74.610 6 ROBINSON, Deshawn 74.610 8 GRUPE, Melissa 74.440 9 HOLLANDER, Tara 74.000 10 JONES, Denise 73.930 11 BEAN, Tawai Lee 73.738 12 KEVER, Ashley 73.730 13 WRIGHT, Meghan 73.510

1992 USGF National Collegiate Championships Springfield, Massachuetts- April , 1992 NamefTeam Score Men's Collegiate ChamQionshiQs: 1 Springfield 264.55 2 Cortland State 259.90 3 Wisconsin-Oshkosh 255.40 4 Cornell 254.10 5 Southern Conn . 244.05 6 Vermont 240.40 All-around ComQetition: 1 Rick Hoag, Springfield 54.60 2 Ricardo Portalatin, Springfield 54.15 3 Brian Smith, Cortland 53.45 4 Keith LaChance , Springfield 52.85 5 Damienb Forest, Cortland 52.65 6 Matt Curley, Cornell 52.45 Men's Club ChamQionshiQs: 1 Texas 242 .10 226.90 2 Sacramento State 3 Miami,OH 192.05 All-around (Club) : 1 Robby Kiefer, Texas 55.05 2 Pat Soiuri, Sacramento State 50.25 3 Corey Couch, Cal Poly SLO 46.90 Women's Collegiate ChamQionshiQs: 1 Seattle Pacific University 185.850 2 Texas Woman's University 185.200 3 University of California Davis 184.725 4 University of Bridgeport 183.075 5 Southern Conn. State Univ. 180.700 6 Springfield College 180.225 All-around ComQetition: 1 Kim Holmes, Cortland 37.600 2 Kathie Cradduck, Seattle Pac. 37.600 3 Cheryl Sidel , U.C. Davis 37.200 4 Monica Ramage, Texan W. 36.975 5 Janine Stewart, USAF 36.875 6 Laura Servidone, Texas W. 36.850 Women 's Invitational Division 1 University of Denver 185.475 2 College of William and Mary 185.000 3 Radford University 183.600 4 Yale University 182.500 5 Northeastern University 175.000 All-around 1 Jeanne Hoffman , Denver 38.075 2 Donna Elliott, Denver 37.600 3 Tasha Murphy, Yale 37.200 4 Erin Murphy, Yale 37.200 5 Anna Dwyer, W & M 37.125 6 Sandra Avzllan i, Northeastern 37.025

1992 Champions ALL Birmingham, GBR - A pril 4, 1992 Name Country Score Women's ComQetition : 1 Gina Gogean ROM 38.900 2 Stephanie Woods USA 38.725 3 Tatiana Ignatova CIS 38.700 4 Rowena Roberts GBR 38.550 5 Jana Gunther GER 37.550 Men's ComQetition: 1 Alexander Kolicanov CIS 56.950 2 Marius Toba GER 56.350 3 Curtis Hibbert CAN 55.650 4 Laslo Boda HUN 54.750 5 Marvin Campbell GBR 54.7000





1992 Individual World Championships Paris-Bercy, France April 15-19, 1992

Semi-Finals Women's Vault 1. BOGUINSKAIA,Svetlana 2. ONODI, Henrietta 3. TCHUSOVITINA, Oksana 3. GOGEAN, Gina 5. MITOVA, Silvia 6. STRUG, Kerri 6. PASCA, Mirela 8. BECKS , Elvira 9. UMEH , Stella 9. YANG , Bo 11. MOLNAR, Andrea 12. BORIAN, Carmit 12. KINCLOVA, Pavia 14. WELLER , Gaby 14. LEGROS , Melanie 16. DAWES, Dominique 17. PR INC, Ludmila


9.912 9.900 9.887 9.887 9.875 9.862 9.862 9.850 9.837 9.837 9.825 9.800 9.800 9.775 9.775 9.762 9.737

Women's Balance Beam 1. Ll SENKO, Tatiana 1. OKINO, Betty 3. GUTSU, Tatiana 4. ZMESKAL, Kim 5. NECULlTA, Maria 6. LI , Yifang 7. GOGEAN , Gina 8. MITOVA, Silvia 8. UMEH, Stella 10. MALJAVKINA, Diana 11. ONODI, Henrietta 12. KOSUGE , Mari 13. SHI, Liying 14. PARENTE RIBEIRO, Luisa 15. LEE , Hee Kyung 16. PLATAROTI, Romina 17. MACHADO, Virginie 18. MIURA, Hanako


9.937 9.937 9.875 9.862 9.850 9.825 9.800 9.737 9.737 9.712 9.700 9.637 9.600 9.562 9.325 9.137 9.125 9.062

Women 's Uneven Bars 1. LU , Li 2. MILOSOVICI, Lavinia 3. LlSENKO, Tatiana 3. PASCA, Mirela 5. OKINO, Betty 6. LI, Yifang 6. STRUG, Kerri 8. MON ICO, Julie Anne 9. MOLNAR, Krisztina 10. PAK, Gyong Sil 11. MITOVA, Silvia 12. PARENTE RIBEIRO, Luisa 12. CHOI, Gyong Hui 14. KUCHARCIKOVA, Martina 15. STRONG , Lori 16. RUEDA, Eva Maria 17. MAIGRE, Cloe


9.887 9.875 9.862 9.862 9.850 9.837 9.837 9.812 9.800 9.787 9.775 9.750 9.750 9.712 9.700 9.287 9.075

Women's Floor Exercise 1. ZMESKAL, Kim 2. MITOVA, Silvia 3. LlSENKO, Tatiana 3. ONODI , Henrietta 5. FRAGUAS, Son ia 5. NECULlTA, Maria 7. LI , Yifang 7. MILOSOVICI, Lavinia 9. UMEH, Stella 10. STRUG, Kerri 10. COLSON , Marie-Angeline 12. Read, Lisa 12. FRAGUAS, Christina 12. MOLNAR , Andrea 12. SERVENTE, Veronica 16. MAIGRE, Cloe


9.937 9.912 9.900 9.900 9.875 9.875 9.800 9.800 9.787 9.737 9.737 9.712 9.712 9.712 9.712 9.075


Finals WQm~o's V~u!t

1. ONODI, Henrietta 2. BOGUINSKAIA, Svetlana 3. TCHUSOVITINA, Oksana 4. MILOSOVICI, Lavinia 5. MITOVA, Silvia 6. STRUG, Kerri 7. GOGEAN, Gina 8. UMEH, Stella 9. BECKS, Elvira


9.950 9.943 9.937 9.906 9.862 9.818 9.600 9.556 9.481

Women's Uneven Bars 1. MILOSOVICI, Lavinia 2. OKINO, Betty 3. PASCA, Mirela 4.lU,Li 5. LI, Yifang 5. MOLNAR, Krisztina 7. STRUG, Kerri 8. MONICO, Julie Anne 9. LlSENKO, Tatiana


9.950 9.900 9.887 9.875 9.862 9.862 9.850 9.800 9.775

Women's Balan!;;e Beam 1. ZMESKAL, Kim 2. LI, Yifang 2. NECULlTA, Maria 4. MITOVA, Silvia 5. UMEH, Stella 6. BOGUINSKAIA, Svetlana 7. LlSENKO, Tatiana 8. OKINO, Betty 9. GOGEAN, Gina


9.925 9.850 9.850 9.800 9.775 9.750 9.362 9.337 8.750

Women's Floor Exercise 1. ZMESKAL, Kim 2. ONODI, Henrietta 3. NECULlTA, Maria 3. LlSENKO, Tatiana 5. FRAGUAS, Sonia 5. LI, Yifang 7. TCHUSOVITINA, Oksana 8. MILOSOVICI, Lavinia 9. MITOVA, Silvia


9.937 9.912 9.887 9.887 9.812 9.812 9.800 9.300 1.000

Men's FloQr Exercise 1. KOROBCHINSKI, Igor 2. SCHERBO, Vitaly 3. KRAHBERG, Maik 4. AIHARA, Yutaka 4. GHERMAN, Marius 6. LI, Xiaoshuang 7. LI, Chunyang 8. YOU, Ok Youl 9. IKETANI, Yukio


9.812 9.687 9.625 9.600 9.600 9.425 9.362 9.200 8.950

Men's Pommel I:::lQ[sg 1. PAE, Gil Su 1. LI, Jing 1. SCHERBO, Vitaly 4. GUO, Linyao 5. TANAKA, Hikaru 6. HATAKEDA, Yoshiaki 7. SOHN, Mark 8. BELLE, Maik 9. BELENKI, Valeri


9.850 9.850 9.850 9.837 9.787 9.762 9.725 9.700 9.375


Men's Floor Exercise 1. SCHERBO, Vitaly 2. YOU, Ok Youl 3. LI , Chunyang 3. LI , Xiaoshuang 5. MISUTIN, Grigori 6. KRAHBERG, Maik 7. AIHARA, Yutaka 8. IKETANI, Yukio 9. BURLEY, Kristian 9. HANKS, Jarrod 9. GHERMAN, Marius 12. IVANOV, Ivan 13. DAHL, Oerjan 14. RIESNER , Martin 15. LEE , Joo Hyung 16. MAYER , Marc



9.800 9.725 9.675 9.675 9.600 9.525 9.475 9.450 9.425 9.425 9.425 9.400 9.350 9.275 9.225 9.200

Men's Pommel Horse 1. PAE, Gil Su 2. KOROBCHINSK I, Igor 2. SCHERBO, Vitaly 4. LI , Jing 4. GUO, Linyao 6. BELLE, Maik 6. HATAKEDA, Yoshiaki 6. TANAKA, Hikaru 9. SOHN , Mark 9. DARRIGADE, Sebastien 11 . CSOLLANY, Szilveszter 11 . CHANG , Feng Ch ih 13. HRISTOZOV, Kalofer 13. CHUNG, Jin Soo 13. HANKS, Jarrod 13. GHERMAN , Marius 17. RIZAN, Marian 18. MILBRADT, Jens 19. LIN , Cheng-Ming


9.850 9.800 9.800 9.775 9.775 9.725 9.725 9.720 9.700 9.700 9.625 9.625 9.575 9.575 9.575 9.575 9.425 9.125 8.775




1992 Individual World Championships Paris-Bercy, France (cont.)

Men's Still Rings 1. SCHERBO, Vitaly 2. BELENKI , Valeri 3. O'NEILL, Paul 4. CSOLLANY, Szilveszter 5. L1, Jing 6. SIN, Myong Su 6. SUPOLA, Zoltan 8. L1, Xiaoshuang 9. MILBRADT, Jens 9. YOU , Ok Youl 9. RODRIGUEZ, Alfonso 12. MAYER, Marc 13. BELLE, Maik 13. HRISTOZOV, Kalofer 13. LOPEZ, Luis 16. DOWRICK, Brennon

Men's Vault 1. KOROBCHINSKI, Igor 2. YEO, Hong Chul 3. HIBBERT, Curtis 4. NEDIALCKOV, I. 4. L1, Jing 6. COLON, Victor 6. GHERMAN, Marius 8. L1, Xiaoshuang 8. SUPOLA, Zoltan 10. CHANG, Feng Chih 11 . INGLIS, Mike 11. MAYER, Marc 11. KOVACS, Fereno 14. IVANOV, Ivan 15. KRAHBERG, Maik 16. TANAKA, Hikaru 16. RIESNER, Martin 18. CAMPELL, Marvin



9.800 9.775 9.700 9.675 9.650 9.625 9.625 9.600 9.550 9.550 9.550 9.500 9.450 9.450 9.450 9.425

9.725 9.650 9.625 9.600 9.600 9.575 9.575 9.550 9.550 9.525 9.500 9.500 9.500 9.475 9.450 9.425 9.425 9.325

Men's Parallel Bars 1. BELENKI, Valeri 2. GUO, Linyao 3. VOROPAEV, V. 3. SUPOLA, Zoltan 5. L1, Xiaoshuang 6. HRISTOZOV, Kalofer 6. HATAKEDA, Yoshiaki 8. HIBBERT, Curtis 8. RUMBUTIS, Sergejus 10. DIMAS, Trent 10. KOLMAN, Alojz 12. LEE, Joo Hyung 12. GHERMAN , Marius 12. RIZAN, Marian 15. DARRIGADE, Sebastien 16. MODLITBA, Martin 17.AGUILERA, Felix Men's Horizontal Bar 1. MISUTIN, Grigori 2. NISHIKAWA, Daisuke 3. KOROBCHINSKI, Igor 3. L1, Jing 3. JONASSON, Johan 6. HIBBERT, Curtis 7. IKETANI, Yukio 8. DOYLE, Robert 9. LOPEZ, Luis 10. GHERMAN, Marius 11 . SUPOLA, Zoltan 11 . CENTAZZO, Gianmatteo 13. CHEVALIER, Christian 14. LEE, Joo Hyung 15. KOLMAN, Alojz 16. PAE, Gi l Su



9.875 9.725 9.700 9.700 9.675 9.650 9.650 9.625 9.625 9.600 9.600 9.525 9.525 9.525 9.300 9.000 8.975

9.800 9.775 9.750 9.750 9.750 9.675 9.650 9.625 9.600 9.575 9.525 9.525 9.500 9.175 9.150 6.175

Finals M~o'~ Still Biogยง

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

SCHERBO, Vitaly CSOLLANY, Szilveszter MISUTIN, Grigori O'NEILL, Paul LI, Jing SIN, Myong Su SUPOLA. Zoltan L1, Xiaoshuang RODRIGUEZ, Alfonso


9.900 9.850 9.837 9.762 9.737 9 .725 9 .675 9.650 9.625


9.675 9.587 9 .581 9.581 9.543 9.531 9.481 9.462

Barยง L1, Jing VOROPAEV, V. BELENKI. Valeri SUPOLA, Zoltan GUO, Linyao HATAKEDA, Yoshiaki HIBBERT, Curtis HRISTOZOV, Kalofer RUMBUTIS, Sergejus


9.887 9.887 9.800 9.787 9.775 9.737 9 .687 9.662 9.537

Men's HorizQntal Bar 1. MISUT1N, Grigon 2. L1, Jing 3. KOROBCHINSKI, Igor 4. JONASSON, Johan 5. IKETANI, Yukio 6. HIBBERT, Curtis 7. DOYLE, Robert 8. L1, Chunyang 9. NISHIKAWA, Daisuke


9 .862 9.825 9.787 9 .737 9.700 9.650 9.475 9.400 9.125

Meo's Vault 1. YOU, Ok Youl 2. KOROBCHINSKI, Igor 3. HIBBERT, Curtis 3. COLON, Victor 5. GHERMAN, Manus 6. L1, Xiaoshuang 7. YEO, Hong Chul 8. NEDIALCKOV, I. M!i!n'~ PยงrยงII~1

1. 1. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Announcements /Releases World Championships Paris Defending World All-around Champion Kim Zmeskal proved that her title won last fall in Indianapolis was no fluke or the result of a "home country" advantage by winning two gold medals at the World Gymnastics Championships in Paris in April. Zmeskal won the gold in floor exercise and balance beam while teammate Betty Okino won a silver medal in the uneven bar competition. "We consider it as confirmation of her all-around world championship. That wasn't an accident," said Zemskal and OkinD's coach, Bela Karolyi. TECHNIQUE May 1992

Tierno Gavan Madrid, Spain - March 14-151992 GR IVICH, Hilary Bronze medalist on floor exercise and balance beam

International Championships Budapest, Hungary - 1992 HORNBEEK, Heidi Silver on FX, Bronze on BB & AA RE ID, Summer 10th in AA, 6th on FX

USGF Hires New Receptionist Due to the office staffs extensive travel schedules, numerous events, including the Olympic Games, the USGF has hired a new receptionist for the next six months. Her name is Terry Bryson. Bryson has been a gymnastics coach for the past 25 years and is a former member of the USGF Board of Directors-so, some of you might know her and recognize her voice when you call the national office. Terry will be a very important asset to the USGF over the next six months. 27

Evian Awards Peak Performance Evian, a sponsor of the 1992 U.S. Olympic Team, introduced the "Evian Peak Performance A ward" of a $500 training stipend to Jarrod Hanks and Dominique Dawes at the Dodge Challenge: USA/Japan on March 18 in Phoenix, Arizona. As part of Evian's sponsorship of the United States Gymnastics Federation, additional Peak Performance Awards will be given out at the Junior Olympic Nationals in Boston, Mass.; the PharMor U.s. Championships in Columbus, Ohio; and the Rhythmic and Artistic Olympic Trials in Baltimore, Md. The award will be voted on by the media covering each of these events. To qualify to win, athletes must meet the following criteria: • Demonstration of extraordinary performance that exemplifies reaching one's peak. • Commitment to training toward the goal of the Olympic ideals, and • Upholding the ideals of true sportsmanship throughout training and competition. The Evian Award was also awarded to the 1991 World Championships team members at the Hilton "Superstars of Gymnastics" exhibition conducted at the Great Western Forum on March 28, 1992. - Susan Baughman, USGF Special Events Manager L..-_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _- - I

Corporate Sponsors Support Gymnastics New USGF sponsors added since January 1992 include Dodge (National Team Sponsor and Official Cars and Trucks of the USGF), Sunshine Biscuit (Official Snack Foods Supplier to the USGF and its Teams), Phar-Mor (USGF National Sponsor as a Mass Merchandiser /Discount Retail Chain), and Evian Bottled Water. These sponsors join American Airlines, American Athletic Inc., Bemco Bedding, Coca-Cola, Elite Sportswear, Fleet/Norstar Bank VISA Card, Gatorade, McDonald's, Panasonic, Red Roof Inn, and Texaco in support of the USGF and its teams. - Susan Baughman, USGF Special Events Manager 28

In Memory Wayne :f{uebner . On March 2, 1992, Colorado lost not only a professional member but a dear friend of the gymnastics community. Wayne Huebner, 37, died after a short illness. Wayne was a graduate of the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. It was at the University that Wayne developed a love and devotion for the sport. Wayne moved to Colorado where he taught high school and then went on to open his own gym- Denver Artistic Gymnastics Academy (DAGA). He did graduate study at Denver University and the University of Moscow, USSR and lectured at Denver Metro on Russian history and was fluent in the language. He traveled to the USSR and represented the United States and the State of Colorado at the 1989 International Gymnastics School and Friendship Competitions in Moscow and Leningrad.

rado he was a member of the World Gymnastics Association, Colorado Gymnastics Association and the Colorado Judges and Coaches Association and the United States Gymnastics Federation. Wayne brought excitement, laughter and fun to those who knew him. He was a coach and friend to all of his gymnasts. He not only coached them but understood what they went through as at the age of 36 he trained at the Colorado Sta te Garnes and took a gold medal on the pommel horse and vault. The love of the sport was exemplified in all that Wayne did. He will be missed deeply but the love he left behind through his gymnastics and those who knew him will continue.

In September 1991, he was an interpreter for the Russian gymnastics team at the World Championships. In Colo-

Hilton Exhibition Drew Die-Hard Fans and Great Memories There was an overwhelming sense of history and new hope of Olympic proportions at the Hilton's Superstars of Gymnastics exhibition in Los Angeles where Olympians and current hopefuls shared daring and emotional routines as a star-struck audience of 7,000 watched. What more appropriate time to be star-struck, as Olga Korbut, Nadia Comaneci, and Mary Lou Retton shared the same stage (or floor exercise mat) for the first time in history. Added to the glitz of the evening were Olympians Bart Conner, Peter Vidmar and Mitch Gaylord, whose performances brought back memories of the 1984 Olympics, known to some as the Golden Garnes. Performing alongside the Olympians were World Championships team members, Kim Zmeskal, Shannon Miller, Michelle Campi, Elisabeth Crandall, Hilary Grivich, Betty Okino, Kerri Strug, Jarrod Hanks, Patrick Kirksey, Lance Ringnald, Chris Waller, and Torn Schlesinger. The sport of rhythmic gymnastics treated the audience with performances by Bianca Sapetto and

Heather Lovell. A donation from Hilton of $250,000 to the United States Olympic Committee was a welcome highlight during intermission. Hilton is a corporate sponsor of the USOc. - Susan Baughman

U.S.Coaching Position Wanted Grigori Okrashevsky Salutee 18, Tallinn, Estonia fax +70142-238100 I'm 36 years old and have been the head coach of the Estonian National Team in Women's Artistic Gymnastics for 12 years. I'm married with two children: a son, 14 and daughter, II. My wife is also a coach. We've been working together for more than 15 years and are both graduates from the University of Physical Culture in Leningrad. We apply to the USGF for assistance in establishing contacts with some club from the USA which is interested in coach / professionals. We would like to work in some gymnastics club that has specialized training facilities. Thank you very much for your kind attention and your time. May 1992 TECHNIQUE

USGF Congress

1992 USGP Congress Hotel Information Services Available ...

• • • •

• Airport Service available from hotel. • Continuous Shuttle Service to Disneyland • PAVIA: The finest Northern Italian and Seafood Cuisine. • HASTINGS: Elegantly casual California Grill. ON THE AVENUE: Dining and entertainment. CAFE OASIS: Round the clock sidewalk cafe. PULSE: One of the areas most popular entertainment lounges. HILTON SPORTS AND FITNESS CENTER: State-of-the-art exercise and workout equipment, aerobics, swimming, basketball, sauna, massage, tanning.

Accommodations Available ... SINGLE

One Person - Deluxe King or Double/ Double. Location determines rate. DOUBLE Two Persons-Deluxe King or Double/ Double -location determines rate. Two persons - Deluxe Double/ TWIN Double. Location determines rate. LAN AI Pool and Garden Level-These rooms open onto three acres of terraced decks or feature extended patios. TOWERS The ultimate in elegance on the top floor, featuring separate registration, concierge, private lounge and numerous amenities. SUITES A wide selection of suites available with one or two bedrooms and connecting parlors ranging in size fgrom 370 square feet to 14000 square feet. (Further information available on request).


~: the



FACTS AT A GLANCE Host City: Anaheim, California Congress Dates: September 16-21, 1992 Congress Hotel: Anaheim Hilton and Towers, 777 Convention Way, Anaheim, CA 92802 714/750-4321 Exhibit Hall: Featuring the best in equipment, apparel, supplies and services. Olympic Exhibition: An exhibition performance by the 1992 Olympic Team and special guest performers on Saturday, 9/19. Annual Banquet and Dance: Held on Saturday with our Olympic Team members as special guests. Congress Sessions: Technique, judging, preschool, developmental, business, safety certification, coaches accreditation, management, men, women, rhythmic. (See the tentative schedule on pg. 30 - the next issue of Technique will include more specific course information) Minimum age for Congress participation: The minimum age for registration and participation in the 1992 USGF Congress sessions is 16 years.


Tentative 1992 Congress Schedule Anaheim, CA While it is too early to offer a complete schedule, the following might be helpful in your general planning: 9/16 Wed

PDP Level" Instructor's Course (13.5 hrs)* Parts 1-3: 8:30-12:30; 2:00-6:00; 7:30-9-:00 PDP Level" Sport Science Course (8 hrs)* Parts 1-2: 2:00-6:00; 7:30-9:00 Congress Registration Booth open

8:30 am- 9:00 pm 2:00 pm- 9:00 pm 1:00 pm- 9:00 pm

9/17 Th

8:30 am-11 :00 8:30 am-11 :30 12:00noon-5:00 12:30 pm- 6:00 2:00 pm- 8:30 6:00 pm- 9:00 6:00 pm-10:00

9/18 Fri

Congress Registration Booth open PDP Level" Instructor's Course (cont) Parts 4-5: 8:30-11 :00; 12:30-1:40 PDP Level" Sport Science Course (Part 3) PDP Level I Administrator's Course* Exhibit Area open Congress sessions 1, 2 3 4 USGF Safety Certification Course PDP Level I Administrator's Course* (repeat) Special Group meetings

7:00 am- 9:00 pm 8:30 am- 1:40 pm am am pm pm pm pm pm

Special Group meetings Congress Registration Booth open Congress sessions 5, 6, 7 and USGF Sport Science Symposium Exhibit Area open Lunch and visit exhibits Congress sessions 8, 9, 10 and USGF Sport Science Symposium Special Group meetings

7:00 am- 9:00 am 7:00 am- 9:00 pm 8:50 am-12:20 pm 10:00 am- 5:00 pm 12:20 pm- 1:35 pm 1:35 pm- 5:50 pm 6:00 pm-10:00 pm

9/19 Sat

7:00 7:30 9:00 9:00 11 :35 12:45 4:00 6:45 7:30 9:30

am- 8:00 am-12:00 am- 4:00 am-11 :35 am-12:45 pm- 3:30 pm- 6:00 pm- 7:30 pm-10:00 pm- 1:00

am noon pm pm pm pm pm pm pm am

Special Group meetings Congress Registration Booth open Exhibit Area open Congress Sessions 11, 12 Lunch and visit exhibits Congress Sessions 13, 14 Olympic Exhibition (Arena) Cocktail Reception USGF Awards Banquet Dance

9/20 Sun

9:00 9:00 9:00 8:00

am-12:00 am- 3:30 am- 3:30 am -11 :00

noon am pm pm

Special Group meetings USGF National Safety Certifier's Course USGF Safety Certification Course and Exam NAWGJ Judging Certification course/exam

* By Special Application only.




BRIDGING THE GAP ANAHEIM 1992 Early Registration Form Please: one name per registration form


Name of Club/Program _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __


City_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ State__Zip _ __

Birthdate* (year)

Phone, day (__)______ Phone, night (_ _ )_ _ _ _ __

USGF Pro # _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Exp. Date_ _ _ _ _ Soc. Security No. _ __ Check ( ) appropriate titles: o Men's Program o Club Owner

o Women's Program o Coach 0 Judge

o Rhythmic Program o Administrator

• Minimum age for Congress registration is 16 years.


Congress Fee: Fee Includes:

Credential for entrance to regular Congress sessions, master clinics, and demonstrations on Thursday afternoon through Saturday. And ... Free entrance to the Exhibit Hall featuring the industry's finest products. (additional day passes into the Exhibit Hall are $5.00 each) Ticket to the annual USGF Awards Banquet. (additional Banquet tickets for spouses/guests are $40 ea. - available at registration) Ticket to the Olympic Exhibition at the Anaheim Arena, Saturday, 9/19/92. (additional tickets will be available on site for $15 each)

Note: You must register separately for the POP Coaching Accreditation courses, Safety Certification course/exam, Skill Evaluators exam, etc.-Forms will be sent upon receipt of this Congress Registration form.

Discounts: o USGF Professional Member's only - Early Registration (if postmarked by Aug. 1, 1992)

- $60


Fee enclosed:

Make check/money order payable to: United States Gymnastics Federation o VISA 0 MasterCard Expiration Date _ _ _ __ Card#_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Signature _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Registration is non-refundable after September 4, 1992 NO EXCEPTIONS 1992 USGF CONGRESS

~~ /, Bridging the



Please return this registration form to: USGF CONGRESS Pan American Plaza, Suite 300 201 S. Capitol Avenue Indianapolis, IN 46225 (T592)



Coach Education

1992 USGF Summer Coaching Workshops Workshop Highlights USGF Safety Certification Based on the USGF Gymnastics Safety Manual, 2nd Edition, this course is designed to increase the participant's level of safety awareness. Gymnastics safety is everyone's responsibility - preschool, age-group, high school, elite. Safety certification shows your commitment to coaching, gymnastics, and your athletes.

1992 USGF Summer Educational Workshops Daily Schedule (tentative) Thur 5:00- 9:30 Fri

USGF Professional Development Program: Level I Accreditation

11 :30- 1:00

NEW! These workshops will see the first complete Level I clinics. Participants in the clinic will receive full Level I Accreditation. The clinic covers two workshop sessions. The first session will present important coaching competencies including: Coaching Philosophy, Communication, Athlete Readiness, Safety, Terminology. The second session presents basic skills and progression in a format created to match each athlete's developmental level.

Alternative Programs

1:00- 3:00 3:00- 3:30 3:30- 5:00 4:30- 5:30 5:30- 6:00 6:00- 7:30 7:30- 9:00 Sat

Clinics will show demonstrations of spotting techniques for such skills as the back somersault with 1/1 turn, giant swing. As an alternative to spotting, progressions using safety pits and uphill mats will be discussed.

Skill Progressions Cast to Handstand. Flyaway. Giant swing. These are some of the skills for which clinicians will provide detailed technical analysis, spotting techniques, progressions, and strength requirements.

9:30-11 :00 11 :00-12 :30

Several sessions will be devoted to designing and utilizing alternative gymnastics activities for fun and profit. Presentations will include activities for gymnastics exhibitions, group shows, and fund raisers. Learn how to make gymnastics FUN FOR ALL.


9:00-11 :30


2:00 3:30 5:00 5:30 7:00 8:30

9:00-10:00 10:00-11 :00 11 :00-12:00

USGF Safety Certification Course and Examination PDP Level l: Rookie Coaches Gymnastics Guide Lunch PDP Level I: Sequential Gymnastics" PDP Level I: Accreditation Review Dinner Registration Welcome , Introduction , Workshop Preview Session 1 Session 2

Session 3 Session 4 Lunch Session 5 Session 6 Daily Review/Questions Dinner Special Activity Session 7 Session 8 Workshop Review/Questions/Discussion/Survey

I ~ ~I


Mark these dates on your calendar: July 10-12

August 28-30

Site: Host:

YMCA of Greater New York National Gymnastics Training Center Camp Greenkill, Huguenot, NY

Edina, Minnesota TAGS Edina

A complete information packet. (includi1!-~ ac~om~dation i:zformation) will be sent upon recezpt of regzslratzon znformatzon. 32


Coaching Workshop Early Registration Form Please check ( ) the Workshop you plan to attend:

o July 10-12, Edina, MN

0 August 28-30, Camp Greenkill, Huguenot, NY

Participant Information: Club Name: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Contact Person: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ City_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ State _ _Zip _ __

Phone, day (_ _ )_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Phone, night (_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Social Security Number

Participant names:

USGF Pro-number

Coaching Safety PDP WorkshopCertification Levell

1. ______________________ _ _ _ _ $95

2. ______________________ _ _ _ _ 3. ______________________ _ _ _ _ 4. ______________________ _ _ _ _ 5. _____________________ ____

$95 $95 $95 $95

0$75 0$75 0$75 0$75 0 $75

0$35$ _ __ 0 $35$_ __ 0 $35$_ __ 0 $50$_ __

o $3::5 -== $ =====----.


Sub-total for fees:

Discounts: • Early Registration Discount* • USGF Professional Member Discounts: Number of coaches attending the Coaches Workshop Number of coaches taking the Safety course/exam Number of coaches participating in PDP Level I course



= = 5=


_ _ (no.) x $ 5 _ _ (no.) x $20 _ _ (no.) x $ 5 _ _ (no.) x $

Individual Totals

SUb-total for discounts:

1- $


Fee enclosed:


June 15th for the Edina, MN workshop August 1st for the Huguenot, NY workshop CHECKS SHOULD BE MADE PAYABLE TO: United States Gymnastics Federation If paying by credit card:



0 MasterCard

Card # _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Expiration Date_ _ _ _ __ Card holder name: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Signature _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

<$> ~ )





Please return this registration form to: USGF EDUCATIONAL SERVICES Pan American Plaza, Suite 300 201 S. Capitol Avenue Indianapolis, IN 46225 (T592)


Everyone Brings Home the Gold with Crown! 12" Marble & Metal Trophy

214" Diecast Medals


99 C


$3. 95


1000 & up

over 100 pes. $4.95 under 100 pes.

10-99 ... ....... $1.79 100-499 . . . . . . .. $1.49 500-999 . . . . .... $1.39 1000 & up ........ 99¢



2Y2" Custom Diecast Medals

Starting at

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Everyone in your event this season deserves a symbol of achievement. That's why we at Crown have made top quality gymnastic trophies and medals more affordable than ever before. Call today to order and to receive our complete color catalog including trophies, plaques and medals. Beautiful, diecast, 2W' medals are now available for only 99¢ including a top quality red, white and blue neck ribbon. A nd, of course, everything we sell is backed by our famous no-questions, 100% money-back guarantee!

To order, or for free color catalog of trophies, plaques & medals, call today at:

1-800-227-1557 In NY: 1-914-963-0005 CROWN TROPHY, One Odell Plaza, Dept. GA2P , Yonkers, New York 10701

CROWN ~ TROPHY The Symbol of Success

Now available!

See the following three pages.

• •

Junior USGF Olylllpic aterials Men's Program BSAP Instructors Book BSAP Instructional VHS Wall Charts/report cards Certificates / chevrons ODP Instructor's book ODP Instructional VHS JOPC Instructor's Book JOPV Instructional VHS Artistics GymnastiCS book

Women's Program

Rhythmic Program

Compulsory Text Levels 1-4, 5-7,10 Compulsory Book Levels 5-8 Instructional VHS Levels 1-4 Instructional VHS Levels 5-6 Instructional VHS Levels 5-7 & 10 Level 5 & 6 cassette tape Level 7 & 8 cassette tape Compulsory music cassette tape Dance Workout texts Dance Workout Gymnast's VHS Dance Workout Coaches' VHS RO entry vault VHS Dance music cassettes J.O. Awards Program

Although the Compulsory Workshop pre-registration deadlines have now passed. you can still register "onsite" for any of the Compulsory Workshops or the workshop add-ons. such as Safety Certification or Coaching Accreditation. Please note the following "on-site" registration dates/times:

Women's Workshop

Men's Workshops

Rhythmic Workshops

Tempe, AZ Thursday. June 4 2 :00-9:00 pm

Indianapolis, IN Friday. May 29 4:00-6:00 pm

Princeton, NJ Sunday. June14 8:00-8:30 am

Atlanta, GA; Norman, OK; Philadelphia, PA; San Francisco, CA Friday. June 5 4:00- 6:00 pm

Los Angeles, CA Sunday. June 21 8 :00- 8:30 am


Friday. June 5 7:00-8:30 am



Junior USGF




OlymPIC Item No. 1110 1111 2109 2105 2106 2107

A progressive program that provides the basis for the sound development of the young athletes from the "entry level" class student up through the advanced competitive gymnast. The program consists of ten levels. Beginner gymnasts start at Levell and progress sequentially. This assures that each athlete has mastered the physical and performance requirements to safely pass through the system. Levels 1-4 are designed for beginning class students (USGF athlete registration is not a requirement). Students perform skills and skill sequences only. Levels 5-10 are the competitive levels of the program and include compulsory and optional exercises.

Description Compulsory Text (Levels 1-4 and 5-7 & 10) with binder - Regular price Compulsory Text (Levels 1-4 and 5-7 & 10) with binder - USGF Pro-member price Women's compulsory music cassette - All new music for '92-'96 Compulsory video Levels 1-4 - Revised and newly edited Compulsory video Levels 5-7 & 10 - Revised, newly edited . All new Level 10 Round-off entry vault training video - Training tips

Price 29.95 24 .95 6.00 29.95 29.95 19.95

$ $ $ $ $ $

Junior Olympic Awards Program A motivational program utilizing a wall chart and a patch/ chevron awards system as inter-gym educational and organizational tools. This awards system is an excellent way to set goals, track followthrough of skills, and witness the accomplishments of your gym's athletes. A great tool for introducing "new" gymnastics parents and kids to the lO. developmental curriculum. Since it's easy to read and to understand, it will help parents visualize where their child fits into the national program. 30 31 32 33 35 34 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

$ 50.00

Starter Kit - Includes: 1 wall chart, 25 report cards, 25 patches, 50 pins and 25 Level I chevrons Wall Charts - in-gym motivational tool for Levels 1-4 (holds names of 40 students) Report Cards - Records achievement of all Level 1-4 skill achievements Patches -The 1st award as the student enters the Level 1-4 program Green Chevron - Recognition award for Level 1 Recognition Pins - Used to recognize completion of Levels 2, 3 and 4 Bronze Chevron - Recognition award for Level 5 Silver Chevron - Recognition award for Level 6 Gold Chevron - Recognition award for Level 7 White Chevron - Recognition award for Level 8 Red Chevron - Recognition award for Level 9 Blue Chevron - Recognition award for Level 10 Level 5 Wall Chart - (holds names of 40 students) Level 6 Wall Chart - (holds names of 40 students) Level 7 Wall Chart - (holds names of 40 students)

$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

3.00 3.00 25.00 12.00 7.50 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

ea. for 25 for 25 for 25 for 50 for 25 for 25 for 25 for 25 for 25 for 25 ea. ea. ea.

EDUCATIONAL DANCE WORKOUT PROGRAM This educational program was designed specifically for the developmental gymnast. Participants will become better, stronger, safer and more elegant gymnasts when provided with a sound basis for proper alignment, good balance and correct dance technique. The program was authored by Mary Faulkenberry, Shirley Tranquill and Vicky Clarkson. Music by Kate Ross. 2170 2171 2172 2173 2175 2176 2177 2178

USGF Dance Text Levels 1-5 -

Complete explanation of all exercises

J.D . Dance Workout Video Workouts 1-3 - Shows all exercises J.D. Dance Workout Video Workouts 4 & 5 - These levels are newly completed Coaches Instructional Dance Video Workouts 1-3 Dance Music Cassette 1 & 2 Dance Music Cassette 3 Dance Music Cassette 4 Dance Music Cassette 5

Special explanation for the coaches

$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

15.00 15.00 15.00 15.00 6.00 6.00 6.00 6.00

Use the Order Form on page 37 of this magazine to order any of these materials. NOTE: Merchandise will be shipped after June 8th.



Junior USGF





BASIC SKILLS ACHIEVEMENT PROGRAM (BSAP) Designed for boys programs with classes which meet one hour per week. The BSAP forms the foundation of the USGF Men's Program. The four levels of the BSAP prepare the gymnast to participate in the Olympic Development Program (ODP) and the Junior Olympic Competitive Program (JOCP). BSAP is a list of skills which instructors check off and date to record the progress of each gymnast. Records of each student's progress in the program are kept on skill cards and wall charts with the date the skill is successfully performed. A n awards system is designed to recognize the successful accomplishment of skills of each level with patches, chevrons and certificates. Item No. 51 52 53

54 55 56

Description Basic Skills Achievement Booklet - complete description of program and skills BSAP Video - Demonstration of all of the skills BSAP Patch - This is the 1st identification award given when entering the program Chevrons - See below BSAP Wall Chart - Use this to keep track of the students' progress BSAP Report Card - Maintain an individual record of each student's progress BSAP Achievement Certificate -


$ 7.50 $ 29.95 $ 1.00 ea. $ $ $

3.00 ea. 3.00 for 25 3.00 for 25

OLYMPIC DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM (ODP) Formerly called the Skills Testing Program, the philosophy has always been to identify the most talented and promising gymnasts in the United States. The most important goal, however, is the education and training of both the gymnast and the coach while they are involved in the program and in any camps to which they might qualify. Finally the program is designed to place gymnasts on the various national teams for the purpose of international development and competition. 60 61 62 63

64 65


$ 7.50 $ 29.95 $ 1.00 ea. $ 5.00 for 25 $ 5.00 for 25 $ 5.00 for 25

Booklet - Skill descriptions and skill testing materials Video - Complete demonstration Award's Patch - This is the 1st award given when entering the program Certificate (Gold) - Awarded for 90% skill attainment score or higher Certificate (Silver) - Awarded for 80-89% skill attainment score Certificate (Bronze) - Awarded for 70-79% skill attainment score


Junior lI~-@j . OlymPIC 1202 2222 70 71 72 73

74 75 76 77 50

The objectives of this program are to establish a shorter time period of competition and better evaluation of the lower level athletes. Additionally to make transition from one class to abother easier, to de-emphasize winning and stress individual achievement at the lower classes, YET allow the top athletes to rise to their highest level of achievement, to reduce the required number of skills and streamline the evaluation process. Modified optionals, required basic skills and other aspects are included in competition at local, state, regional and national levels. $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

1993-'96 Compulsory Book - all of the routines with illustrations and deductions 1993-'96 Compulsory Video - demonstration of all of the exercises Age Group Award's Patch Chevron (Green) - Recognition award for Class VII Chevron (White) - Recognition award for Class VI Chevron (Red) - Recognition award for Class V Chevron (Blue) - Recognition award for Class IV Chevron (Bronze) - Recognition award for Class III Chevron (Silver) - Recognition award for Class II Chevron (Gold) - Recognition award for Class I Artistic Gymnastics (Turoff) -Supplemental Coach's Reading

29.95 39.95 1.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00 21.95

Use the Order Form on page 37 of this magazine to order any of these materials. NOTE: Merchandise will be shipped after June 15th. TECHNIQUE May 1992


ea. for 25 for 25 for 25 for 25 for 25 for 25 for 25








1992-'96 USGF Rhythmic Compulsory Book - The text and floor patterns for the 1992-'96 Junior Olympic RhythmiC Gymnastics compulsory program. The three ring binder book includes the routines for Levels 5-8 and a glossary of rhythmic gymnastics terms. Routines $ 29.95 are written for rhythmic floor exercise,. rope, hoop, ball, clubs and ribbon. 1992-'96 USGF Rhythmic Gymnastics Level 5 & 6 Video - Companion to the compulsory book, the video shows the six Level 5 routines performed from both a front and rear viewpoint. The Level 6 routines are also shown in phrases. $ 29.95 1992-'96 USGF Rhythmic Gymnastics Level 5 & 6 Cassette tape - The music for the $ 10.00 twelve routines in the Level 5 & 6 Compulsory program. 1992-'96 USGF Rhythmic Gymnastics Level 7 & 8 Cassette tape - The music for the six Level 7 compulsory routines and the Level 8 RhythmiC Floor Exercise compulsory routines. $ 10.00

xx xx xx

Use the Order Form be/ow to order any of these materials. NOTE: Merchandise will be shipped after June 15th.

1-----------------------------------------, I USGF Program Materials I Item No Qty Description Cost Total J Order Form


Name Address

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Phone (



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Purchases over $50 Purchases $10.01-$50 Pu rchases 10.00 and under

= $4.50 = $3.50 = $2.00

I L _________________________________________ I (T592)

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Rhythmic Gymnastics


roposal for elements of difficulty with ex change of apparatus for a composition of an exercise with 4 hoops and 4 clubs, according to the RSG program tor 1993-1994.

1. Norms of Apparatus Identical to those required for individual exercises. The 4 hoops must be of the same material and have the same diameter. The 4 clubs must be of the same materiat have the same dimensions and the same weight. 2. Requirements regarding the elements of difficulty with exchange of apparatus Exchanges are considered as difficulties if they are performed with either hoop and clubs, or hoop and hoop, or clubs and clubs. Exchanges with apparatus of the same type follow the general norms specified in the Code. 3. Possibilities of exchange of the hoop and of the club or clubs These two apparatus offer enough possibilities of exchange which can be performed in various ways in order to fulfill the requirements for elements of difficulty. Hoop, by ... 1. throwing 2. throwing 3. throwing 4. throwing 5. rolling 6. rolling · 7. rolling 8. rolling 9. throwing with rebound 10. throwing with rebound 11. throwing with rebound 12. throwing with rebound 13. rotation with travelling 14. rotation with travelling 15. rotation with travelling 16. rotation with travelling 17. passing 18. passing 19. passing 20. passing 21. throwing, rolling, etc.

Club(s), by .. . throwing (1 / 2 clubs) passing (1/2 clubs) rolling (1/2 clubs) sliding (1 / 2 clubs) throwing (1 / 2 clubs) passing (1/2 clubs) rolling (1/2 clubs) sliding (1 / 2 clubs) throwing (1/2 clubs) passing (1/2 clubs) rolling (1/2 clubs) sliding (1/2 clubs) throwing (1/2 clubs) passing (1/2 clubs) rolling (1 / 2 clubs) sliding (1 / 2 clubs) throwing (1/2 clubs) passing (1/2 clubs) rolling (1 / 2 clubs) sliding (1/2 clubs) in clifferent ways for the 2 clubs

4. Criteria for judging the level of difficulties 4.1 Exchanges between the hoop and one club (the other must be in motion) follow the same norms as those specified for exchanges with a single apparatus per gymnast. TECHNIQUE May 1992

Examples: • exchange by throwing the hoop and one club: a) distance less than 6 meters between the gymnasts: - in conjunction with a body movement of medium difficulty performed by the 2 gymnasts = medium difficulty; - in conjunction with a body movement of superior difficulty performed by the 2 gymnasts = superior difficulty. b) distance greater than 6 meters between the gymnasts: - in conjunction with a body movement performed by the 2 gymnasts = superior difficulty. • etc., etc. 4.2 Exchanges between the hoop and both clubs (either without throws or with the throw of only lor 2 apparatus) follow the same norms as those specified for exchanges with a single apparatus per gymnast. Examples: • exchange by throwing neither the hoop nor the clubs; • exchange by throwing the hoop and not throwing the 2 clubs; • exchange by throwing the hoop and a single club, and not throwing the other club; • exchange by not throwing the hoop nor a single club, and throwing the other club; • exchange by not throwing the hoop and throwing the 2 clubs. In all cases, if the exchange is made in conjunction with a body movement of medium difficulty performed by the 2 gymnasts, the difficulty is mediumi if it is made in conjunction with a superior difficulty performed by 2 gymnasts, the difficulty is superior, except in a few particular cases mentioned in the Code. 4.3 For exchanges of the hoop and the 2 clubs with throws of the 3 apparatus, the criteria are the same as those indicated under 4.2, except in the following special cases: • the following cases are considered as exchanges of superior difficulty when the gymnasts are more than 4 meters apart: a) regular throw of the hoop and the 2 clubs: the gymnast who has an apparatus at the beginning must throw her apparatus in conjunction with a body movement of medium difficulty; the other gymnast 39

must throw the 2 apparatus in conjunction with a body movement; b) complicated throw of the hoop (ex: throwing with a foot) and regular throw of the 2 clubs, or vice-versa (ex.: throwing the clubs asymetrically); c) regular throw of the hoop and of the 2 clubs, but with complications during the flight (ex.: more than 2 rotations of the hoop around its axis, or with more than 2 rotations of the 2 clubs, or with the passing of the clubs through the hoop); d) regular throw of the hoop and of the 2 clubs, but with complications during the catch of the hoop or of the clubs (ex. : catching the hoop while jumping or leaping through the apparatus, or passing through the apparatus, gymnast being in forward or backward vertical splits). The 2 gymnasts must throw the apparatus in conjunction with a body movement.

Note: In a combination with different possibilities of exchanges, the easiest element will determine the level of difficulty.

hoop and of one club, and for their partners to hold a single club under the condition: â&#x20AC;˘ that this situation is not overwhelming in the composition Penalty: 0.20 point by the composition jury in the contrary; â&#x20AC;˘ that both the hoop and the club are actually handled by the gymnasts who have them and are not simply held. Penalty: 0.20 point by the composition jury if the apparatus are not moving. This norm is also valid when one or several gymnasts are in possession of the hoop and of the 2 clubs. 6. Element of left hand difficulty

The composition must include a superior left hand difficulty with the hoop, performed by 3 gymnasts. The composition must also include a balance between the work of the right and left hands for both apparatus. 7. Composition of the exercise

For Composition requirements, see the 1989

Code of Points.

5. Use of apparatus

During an exercise, it is allowed for one or several gymnasts to be in possession of the

RSG Compulsory Elements Level 7 RFX Routine elements 1 Promenade 315 0 in arabesque 2 RIGHT backscale 3 Chasse LEFT turning 360 0 LEFT 4 Ring kick 5 720 0 passe turn LEFT on LEFT 6 1800 tour jet' 7 Split combination 8 Developpe, rond de jambe, passe turn 9 Pique, chaine turns 10 LEFT split leap 11 Needle kick Rope Routine Elements 1 Runs through rope with cross 2 Side leap through rope 3 Toss with non-rotating body movement, catch on floor 4 Balance with rope work 5 720 0 arabesque-passe turn RIGHT 6 RIGHT backscale in releve 7 Tuck jumps over DOUBLE rope turns 8 Three split leaps through rope 9 Free figure-8 10 Toss with rotating element, catch on floor Pre-acrobatic skills 1 Chest stand 2 One-arm support with rope wrapping on leg Hoop Routine Elements 1 RIGHT backscale in releve 2 Hoop roll across shoulders


FIG - RSG -TC March 1992

3 Side balance in releve 4 Flip toss with kick through hoop 5 Toss with split leap to toss, chaine turn and catch 6 Frontal plane toss with double stag jump 7 720 0 passe turn RIGHT on LEFT 8 360 0 attitude turn Pre-acrobatic skills 1 Toss with split leap, forward roll and catch 2 Circular hoop roll with splits and rolls Ball routine elements 1 Split with ball roll across chest 2 Ball roll on back and arms 3 Arabesque with ball bounces 4 RIGHT backscale in releve 5 540 0 arabesque turn RIGHT 6 Toss with split leap, catch with split leap 7 Ring leap 8 Rond de jam be with ring kick 9 Bounce with 1 1/2 chaine turns, catch behind back 10 720 0 optional turn 11 side balance in releve Pre-acrobatic skills 1 toss, forward roll and catch Club routine elements 1 Flip toss combination 2 Ring leap 3 Needle kick 4 Double toss, catch in backscale 5 Continuous mills series 6 Side balance in releve 7 720 0 attitude turn RIGHT 8 Turning leaps RIGHT

Pre-acrobatic skills 1 Toss with split leap, forward roll & catch Ribbon routine elements 1 Front balance in releve 2 Arched double stag jump RIGHT 3 Turning leaps RIGHT 4 720 0 arabesque-passe turn RIGHT 5 Pull back toss 6 RIGHT backscale in releve 7 720 0 passe turn LEFT on RIGHT 8 Tour jete 9 Slide back to RIGHT split 10 Toss with optional rotating element 11 Arabesque balance in releve 12 Split leaps over ribbon Pre-acrobatic skills 1 Optional pre-acro skill

Level 8 RFX routine elements 1 5400 tum LEFT with leg front and fouette 2 RIGHT backscale in releve 3 540 0 attitude turn LEFT on RIGHT 4 Switch leap 5 Turning leap RIGHT to passe turn RIGHT 6 Arabesque hop to LEFT side leap 7 LEFT backscale 8 720 0 arabesque turn RIGHT to 270 0 passe turn LEFT 9 Side developpe and balance Pre-acrobatic skills 1 Acro jump 2 Illusion, forward roll



Who Speaks for Gymnastics?


he 1991 World Championships in gymnastics held in Indianapolis led to some interesting and discouraging press. After reviewing many articles I feel compelled to put on paper my views regarding several issues. I found myself disheartened, and in some cases angered by several comments in the articles I read. It appears that in spite of all of the truly wonderful things that did occur at the 1991 World Championships, the journalistic media would prefer to cover, and in fact encourage, pointless bickering. Unfortunately, it also appeared that some of our coaches fell for the trap. First, we live in a democracy, and I will defend to the death the right of magazine to write whatever they believe. A certain amount of 'background noise" of dissent is necessary, and I believe healthy, in a democracy. However, I believe it is necessary to offer some responses to recent statements regarding the conduct of athletes, judges, coaches, and administrators involved in the 1991 World Championships. I believe the necessity is based on the sloppy journalism, the worst kind of sensationalism, the inaccuracies, the misrepresentations, and the one dimensional thinking on the part of the authors of these articles and opinions expressed to the editor. As a person with scientific training, I am accustomed to dealing with controversial issues by stating the evidence and then allowing the evidence to lead to a conclusion. The following arguments involve some evidence but are largely based on philosophical tenets. Therefore, in the philosophical matters I will offer as "evidence" the logic and philosophical stances of others in support of the points I would like to make. I apologize in advance if I overdo the justification of my position. I found four major issues that were obscured in the press beyond reasonable understanding and require a clearer perspective. I would like to address myself to these four issues. These include (a) accusations of biased judging and the influence of the home crowd on the judging, (b) USA team selection, (c) Ms. Zmeskal versus Ms. Boginskaya in their contest for the all around title, and (d) the nature of winning and competition at world levels. (3,4,8,9, 15,17,19,20,21,22,23,24)

Judging I am sure that the following statement will take no one by surprise-judging has flaws. This has been verified in a number of judging settings and by a number of investigators with very different approaches to the problem. 0,2,10,12,14,16,28,30,31) Mrs. Jackie Fie and Mr. Lance Crowley are pursuing a computer program to analyze the performance of judges to detect bias and other potential anomalies TECHNIQUE May 1992

in judging performance. One of my graduate stu- - - - - - - - - dents and I are also conducting an investigation WilliamA.Sands,Ph.D., independently along different statistical lines to C.S.C.S. assess judging performance. We fully acknowledge, as I think the judges would also, that judging is not perfect. However, it is the best we can do at the moment. Technology HAS NOT progressed to the point that computers can do the analysis for us. This is often touted as a potential solution, but my work in artificial intelligence has indicated to me that this I would like to idea is at least several years maybe decades in the future. (26) And then, it may not be cheap enough to address myself to four be a viable alternative to human judges. Officials are criticized in every sport. The criti- issues: (a) accusations cisms vary in their target and intensity. I would not of biased judging and take a second look at these criticisms except that they threaten the integrity of the athletes, coaches, the influence of the and administrators personally, and the sport generally. Moreover, this kind of criticism indicates a one home crowd on the dimensional thinking on the part of the critics, and. . seldom identifies the exact nature of the problem Judgmg, (b) USA with judging - after all, "cheating" is a little vague. team selection (c) Ms. Moreover, how do you distinguish between cheat' ing, incompetence, and simple human error? Per- Zmeskal versus Ms. haps the simplest response I can give to the critics is . . . TRAIN TO BECOME JUDGES YOURSELVES, and Bogmskaya m theIr then remedy the situation by doing a better job. I t t th II think you will quickly see that judging is no simple con es or e a task, and that the job they do is remarkable given the around title, and (d) complexity of the rules and the time in which they have to do it. In short, it is the best gymnastics can do the nature of winning at this time. and competition at The accusations of biased judging due to the crowd I find to be a very hollow criticism. It is silly world levels. and destructive to apologize or criticize based on a perceived "home court" advantage. There is little scientific information regarding the home court advantage, but I would argue with others that it probably exists. It also exists for other countries, and that is one of the reasons you try to get the event in your own country. When Americans face extraordinarily hostile crowds, as they did during the Pan American Games in Cuba, the plaudits for their performances does not appear to balance the criticism that there may have been a home crowd advantage at the World Championships. Moreover, the critics should fess up to the fact that Americans suffer similarly when they go abroad. Apologizing for an American crowd proceeds from a false assumption.


If Americans could just see what happens when we play in other countries, they would never cheer for anyone but an American. Foreign fans are so anti-American and so pro their own guy they even make the linesman cheat in their favor . 41

-Just go to Romania, Spain or South America and see for yourself. It's unbelievable. - Billie Jean King The event has to be held somewhere. We could pick absolutely neutral sights, but face-up to never having any sporting event in the u.s. Or, we could hold the event and allow no spectators at all. Or, we could simply let the crowd vote, and thereby eliminate judges and the potential influence of the crowd on judges by letting the crowd decide. Obviously, the silliness of these proposals indicate to me that home court advantages may occur and they are part of the sport. I doubt if the LA Lakers apologize for their home court advantage. And, one should remember that the champion is determined based on all of the circumstances surrounding the competition, which includes where the championship is held. Have Americans suffered in the past for competing in foreign countries, obviously they have. I have seen it first hand. Donotcondernn U.S. athletes for something that they had little or no control over. When it comes to judging, I think the following words may help: It is the mark of an educated mind, to rest satisfied

Voting through a representative is a well established democratic principle and I would challenge the editorials authors to find a better methodparticularly one we haven't already tried.

with the degree of precision which the natureof the subject admits, and not to seek exactness when only an approximation is possible . -Aristotle

Team Selection A few of the editorials appearing after the '91 Championships (addressing U.S. team selection procedures) appear to be examples of poor research and misrepresentation. (15, 19,20,21,22,23,24) Let me quote from a 1991 communication sent to all national team coaches regarding the 1991 World Championships team selection (dated January 1991). "D. Final determination of the (6) competing athletes will be made by the World Championships Coaching Staff and the athlete's representative according to the following procedures: World Championship Team Criteria 1. The ability to perform full optional and compulsory routines. 2. Freedom from injury. 3. Competitive consistency during training and international competition. 4. Mental readiness. 5. Physiological readiness. 6. Proper attitude, team support and spirit." This communication was also published in USA Gymnastics, which goes to all coaches and athletes who are members ofthe USGF. (29) Moreover, these are the same criteria used in 1989 for the World Championships in Stuttgart. There are many ways to select a major international team. We have done everything from holding four consecutive days of competition with two rounds of compulsories and two rounds of optionals-taking the seven survivors to the competition; to the current system. I fully support the current system. If there is one thing we have learned since 1985, it is that the closer to the actual contest that we select our team the better. I think the progressive improvements in our interna42

tional rankings since then are simple evidence in support of this fact. The top four were not guaranteed a position as one editorial states, and in fact not just the athletes mentioned in the editorial, but all ofthe athletes had to continue to prove themselves throughout the preparation for the World Championships. (22) The specific athlete in question is a most accomplished athlete. She did "prove" herself in a variety of earlier competitions. Unfortunately, the judgement call of who is going to finally make up the six athletes who compete at a World Championships must be made as near the competition date as possible. Readiness for such an important competition is a very tenuous thing. (5, 6, 7, 11, 13, 27) And, we have learned the hard way that locking-in spots on the team relatively far in advance results in poorer performance on the average than selecting the team at the last possible moment. I was not there to witness the training and therefore obviously cannot vouch for the actual performances of the athletes at that time, however-my understanding is, neither were the authors of the editorials. For whatever the reasons, the votes of the coaches led to the movements of athletes around in the line up. I find it difficult to justify any other method of team selection than the voting method used because of the inherent conflicts of interest that arise. Voting through a representative is a well established democratic principle and I would challenge the editorials authors to find a better methodparticularly one we haven' t already tried. At this point please understand that I have nothing but the utmost respect, both for the athletes and the coaches, involved in these terribly ticklish decision. The athlete who was the target of the editorial is one of the finest young ladies I have ever met. And contrary to one opinion, she was not" off the team". (20) She was the alternate. In my opinion, that clearly places her on the team. I vividly remember one of the most ethical coaches I have ever known talking about his athlete and how he would make a good alternate (the position she qualified for) . I also remember him speaking to her about her role as alternate, her need to demonstrate leadership and support for her teammates. I would argue that the alternate is an extremely important member of the team, with duties to fulfill, and absolutely no shame in these duties. For those of us who have been there, I think that we know what the alternate can mean to a team and have only the utmost praise for her. It appears that the press has again proceeded from a false assumption, the alternate is important and no apologies should be made for being the alternate. The athlete's coach is well established and very gifted. A decision had to be made as to who the six gymnasts would be who would go on the floor. The coaches voted and made a tough decision. In my opinion, this does not make the youn!!~ athlete and her coach a failure. I cannot pretend tha some feelings would go unhurt, but the decisions made at that point had to be in the interest of the USA team and not individual athletes. I wish we May 1992 TECHNIQUE

could put everyone on the six member competing squad. Moreover, I disagree with the idea of the editorial that the "goal of any program should not be to win a silver or gold, or whatever. It should be to maintain integrity in the system and faith in its athletes." (22) First, I don't believe that I know what this sentence really means. Second, I would argue that it is precisely the goal of this level of program to win medals, period. Athletes, coaches, parents, administrators, and so forth; if they don't understand this they should take a quick reality break. Moreover, doesn't the winning of medals serve a good (admittedly, not the only) measure of the "integrity" of a program. I found the words of David Prouty particularly interesting and appropriate regarding this type of attack by people involved in amateur sport. Mr. Prouty served as the executive director of U.S. Cycling for many years and offered this in his book In Spite of Us. (25) I wasn't surprised to find that political games existed within the world of amateur sports. What did surprise me was that those who played those games concentrated so much on the small and negative. I had seen plenty of hardball politics within the department of corrections and in the corporate world. But until I entered the world of amateur sports I had never seen so many people being so casually vicious and destructive over so little, and within something that the rest of society perceives as being positive: the Olympic movement. (p273) The coaches and athletes performed brilliantly during the Indianapolis World Championships. The athlete who did not end up being on the floor of the competition still contributed an enormous amount, after all, in order for another athlete to replace her she should have had a better probability of doing better in the competition. To do this above and beyond the athlete she displaced took one heck of a great performance. I admire the coaches for having the courage to make such a difficult and what became a controversial decision. Moreover, I complement the athlete and her coach for putting the USA performance above their own. The athletes who did not perform should not be disappointed as indicated in the editorial. They should be proud, I am certainly proud of them, and I know all of the people who have had their lives touched by these athletes are proud of them also. Moreover, those people who know the difficulty that these athletes and their coaches face in gymnastics at this level, appreciate and admire them. It is never as simple as the editorial indicated. If there is any disgrace in these matters, it is that of the press for dragging them through an editorial that is inaccurate, misrepresentative, and degrading. In support of this I would like to offer another quotation: In the battleoflife it is not the critic that counts; not the man who points out how the strong man stumbled, or where the doer of a deed could have done better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena; whose face is marred with TECHNIQUE May 1992

dust and sweat and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs and comes short again and again because there is no effort without error and shortcoming; who does actually strive to do the deeds; who knows the great enthusiasms, great devotion, spends himself in a worthy cause;who at best knows in the end the triumph ofhigh achievement;and who at worst, ifhe fails while daring greatly, so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who have tasted neither victory or defeat. -Theodore Roosevelt

The coaches and The mud slinging in this case is silly. Ms. Zmeskal athletes performed and Ms. Boginskaya are both excellent athletes at brilliantly during the epitome of their sport. The specific competition of the World Championships saw Ms. Zmeskal the Indianapolis perform 12 routines, and get past 72 judges in the process of attaining her gold medal. I think the World Championjudgment of 72 trained judges should be enough. If the argument rages tha t it might have been different ships.

Ms. Zmeskal vs. Ms. Boginskaya

in Europe, it is a cop-out, because we will never know. The idea of seeking "revenge" (15, 21) in Barcelona is childish and points me to the quotation from Mr. Prouty. Ms. Zmeskal appeared to have things well in perspective. I wish only that the press did also. Ms. Zmeskal had perfonnance goals not outcome goals. Her goal was to perform her routines, the outcome (medals, places, etc.) would take care of themselvesand did. She could not control the judges scores and should not be criticized for anything other than what she did, which was brilliant. The handshaking business, I thought was summed up quite nicely by Ms. Zmeskal. She was quoted as saying that she didn't remember NOT shaking Ms. Boginskaya's hand. (8, 18, 19) Frankly, I believe her. There were many more things to talk about than handshakes after seeing the performances in Indianapolis. Finally, while taking teams abroad I have seen controlled and premeditated award stand behavior where the Eastern Bloc countries ignored Western athletes-regardless of country. Where was the press then?

No Apologies for Winning It is the job, and I would argue, the obligation of the coach to do everything within his/her power and within the rules and ethics of good sportsmanship to win. Mr. Karolyi and the rest of the coaching staff should not apologize for playing to the crowd, "gyrating" or any other adjective that the press seems stuck on at the moment to describe similar efforts. Thecrowdisa "tool" or "weapon" tobeused in gymnastics performance. Other athletes and coaches have used the crowd in gymnastics and were admired for it (Olga Korbut comes to mind), suddenly the table has turned and the U.S. team is not admired. I find this to be liberal snobbery. If I may borrow a military metaphor; we did not apologize for the smart bombs and high tech weaponry in the Persian Gulf conflict in seeking a quick and total victory. Too strong? Okay. The business man who develops a product or service that is so 43

good that it beats the rest of the businesses should not apologize. Business is business. Competition is competition. Frankly, I thought the interview with the Romanian coach (21) to be so much sour grapes. What do you expect him to say less than a year before the Olympic Games?

5. Bompa,T.(1984a, April). Peaking for the major competition(s) part one. Science Periodical on Re-

search and Technologrj in Sport, 1-6. 6. Bompa,T.(1948b, May) . Peaking for the major competition(s) part two. Science Periodical on Re-

search and Technologrj in Sport, 1-6.

7. Bompa,T.0.(1990). Theonjand methodologrjoftraining (2nd ed.). Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt. Conclusion 8. Cazeneuve,B.(1991, December). Zmeskal grabs When journals / newsletters consist largely of writUSA's first world all-around gold. International Gymings that could come from the handwriting inside a nast, 17-21. high school year book (i.e., gossipy, negative, and 9. Criley,D.(1992). 'Judging' judges. International Gymbiased) then I am saddened. Although I realize that nast, 34(1), 22-23. a large number of the readers are children, the 10. Flatten,E.K(1974). A study of the relationship between amplitude scored by judges and measured by writing does not have to be childish. These jourcinematographic techniques. Doctoral Dissertation, nals/newsletters must walk a careful line between Indiana University. reporting and promoting (or in this case destroying), and have not done well in this particular 11. Freeman,W.H.(1989). Peak when it counts. Los Altos, CA: Tafnews Press. instance. 12. Godbout,P., Fink,H., Lascari, A., Mazeas, H.,& WilFinally - ''Who Speaks for Gymnastics?"; I beson, V.E. (1976). Issues in the judging of gymnastics: lieve that we all do. Every athlete, coach, adminisA panel. In J.H.5almela,(Ed.), The Advanced Study of Gymnastics. pp.167-179. Springfield, IL: Charles C. trator, judge, and even gymnastics related journals Thomas. speak for gymnastics. Perhaps a better question is ''Who is worth listening to?" At this point I would 13. Harre,D.(1982). Principles of sports training. Berlin, German Democratic Republic: Sportverlag. argue that it is not the press. I hope that every 14. Hunsicker,P.,&Loken,N.(1951). The objectivity of thinking reader will critically consider the informajudging at the National Collegiate Athletic Association given him/her from the various media, and tion gymnastic meet. The Research Quarterly, 22,423question the validity of the information before ac426. cepting it as true and good. To the media, I offer the 15. IG People, Etc.(1992). No place like home. Internafollowing: tional Gymnast, 34(1), 24. 16. Johnson,M.(1971). Objectivity of judging at the NaThe new young breed of writers are looking for tional Collegiate Athletic Association gymnastic social significance. They dwell too much on whether meet: A twenty-year follow-up study. The Research a player is getting along with a manager or how Quarterly, 42, 454-455. happy he is at home. They ought to be writing for 17. Letters to the Editor.(1992). International Gymnast, gossip columns, ... 34(1),4,7. - Paul Richards 18. Low,T.(1991). The 26th World Championships. Gymnast, 29(6),9. What can they see? The amount of information 19. McCaffety,K (1991 a, Oct). Zmeskal surprise champ. they can assimilate with their own etjes and their Flying Squirrels, 17, 1-2,4-5. limitedknowledgeofthegamegives them adanger20. McCaffety,K(1991b, Oct). Where was Sandy? Flyous perspective. ing Squirrels, 17,5-6. - Merlin Olsen, PhD. 21. Normile,D.(1992). Octavian Belu.International Gymnast, 34(1), 22-23. In conclusion, let me say that the above opinions are mine alone. I felt compelled to respond to the 22. Normile,D.(1991a, December). Deserted Devils. International Gymnast, 6. things I had read that appeared to me to be misdi23. Normile,D.(1991b, December). Soviet depth buries rected at best and journalistic disgraces at worst. I field. International Gymnast, 8-9. have had the pleasure of knowing all of the people 24. Normile,D.(1991c, December). North Korean interwho were attacked in the various articles and opinrupts Soviet-Romanian gold rush. International Gymions. I was and am still proud of the way the World nast, 35-38. Championship Team did. I will not criticize them 25. Prouty,D.F.(1988). In spite of us. Brattleboro, VT: for small indiscretions or mistakes when the overVelo-news Corporation. whelming brilliance of their performances were so 26. Sands,W.A.(1992). AI in athletics. PCAI,6(1), 52-54. 27. Sands,W.A.&Henschen,KP.(in press). Theprobabilgraphic. ity of repeating on World Championships and OlymReferences pic Teams for U.S. Women's Gymnastics: A twentythree retrospective look. Technique. 1. Ansorge, C.J.,Scheer, JK,Laub, J.,& Howard, J.(1978). Bias in judging women's gymnastics induced by 28. Scheer,JK(1973). Effect of placement in the order of competition on scores of Nebraska high school stuexpectations of within-team order. Research Quardents. The Research Quarterly, 44(1), 70-85. terly, 49, 399-405. 2. Aronson,RM.(Ed.),(1970). The art and science of 29. USGF Report(1991 Marchi April) . WGC women's selection procedures. USA Gymnastics, 34. judging men's gymnastics. Lowell Technological 30. Weiss,RW.(1979). Two objective methods of rating Institute, Lowell Massachusetts, Author. gymnastics judges. Doctoral Dissertation. Univer路 3. Australian Gymnast, The (1991) World Championsity of Utah. ships report-continued from last issue. The Austra31. Wilson,V.E.(1976). Judging gymnastic judging. In lian Gymnast, 17(4), 6-11 . J.H. Salmela (ed.), The advanced study of grjmnastics 4. Benner,B.(1991,Oct). New wall splits gymnastics (pp.151-166). Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas. stars. Flying Squirrels, 17, 6.

"Who Speaks for Gymnastics?"; I believe that we all do. Every athlete, coach, administrator, judge, and even gymnastics related journals speak for gymnastics.



If we listened to true sports fans, we'd have Olympics coverage on 3 cable channels for 15 days, 24 hours a day-

We listened. One thing we've learned from sports fans is that when the summer Olympics begin, nothing else matters. And now there's coverage as dedicated to the games as to the fans who watch them. The O lympics TripleCast. In addition to the NBC broadcast, there wil l be three pay-per-view channels, simultaneously bringing you all the best events. So you can choose what you wantto watch, when you wantto watch it. Irs Olympics coverage for 15 days, 24 hours a day.

So you can choose to experience the greatest track and field moments as they happen. Or, if you prefer, you can switch to events like gymnastics and basketball. With no commercials. And no interruptions. We can't predict what kind of year our athletes will have. But one thing is certa in-it wil l be a very good year for true sports fans. For more information, don't wait. Call1-800-0LYMPIC now. The Olympics TripleCast. Irs a whole new way to see the games.


l:1SGF Membership

Four Club Memberships offered in 1992-'93


he 1992-93 Season will offer a choice of two types of Club Membership and two levels of insurance coverage for the first time in USGF history. Clubs wishing to join the USGF by registering 100% of their staff and students in the Member Club programs now have a choice of how much insurance coverage goes along with the memberships as well as how they are administered. The two insurance levels, designated by "Gold" and "Silver" names offer the gymnastics club a choice of $1,000,000 Liability insurance coverage and $50,000 Secondary Accident Coverage on each staff and student member (the "Gold" package); or $500,000 Liability and $25,000 Secondary Accident Medical (the "Silver" package). In addition to insurance coverage, these Member Clubs receive a $2.00 rebate for each Athlete Member registered for competition from the Club; $3.00 per person discount on USA Gymnastics Magazine subscriptions for non-Athlete members (Athletes already receive USA Gymnastics as part of their membership). Member Clubs also receive special benefits throughout the season as they are created. 1991-92 season Member Clubs received a complete Television, Radio .& Newspaper advertising and marketing kit - free - which offered ready-made advertising materials plus the book "Club Marketing: Gymnastics Is It!" Table 1.

100% GOLD CLUB MEMBERSHIP: Members joining June, July, August, 1992: Members joining Sept, Oct, Nov, 1992: Members joining Dec '92; Jan , Feb 1993: Members joining Mar, Apr, May, 1993:

$17 $15 $12 $10 All Club Memberships renew/expire the following June 1.

100% SILVER CLUB MEMBERSHIP: Members joining June, July, August, 1992: Members joining Sept, Oct, Nov, 1992: Members joining Dec '92; Jan, Feb 1993: Members joining Mar, Apr, May, 1993:

$13 $11 $9 $7 All Club Memberships renew/expire the following June 1.


over 6

6 & under

Clubs joining Jun,Jul,Aug: $18 $16 Clubs joining Sep,Oct,Nov: $16 $14 Clubs joining Dec '92;Jan,Feb '93: $14 $12 Clubs joining Mar,Apr, May '93: $12 $10 All Peak Memberships renew/expire the following June 1. PEAK SILVER CLUB MEMBERSHIP: Clubs joining Jun, Jul, Aug '92: $14 $12 Clubs joining Sep, Oct, Nov '92: $12 $10 $10 $8 Clubs joining Dec'92;Jan,Feb '93: Clubs joining Mar, Apr, May '93: $8 $6 All Peak Memberships renew/expire the following June 1.


"Our USGF Member Club program is growing rapidly, " says USGF Membership Director, Jan Claire, "and with the new ability to offer split pricing based on amount of insurance coverage, the Club Membership program now has a place for every single club." So far, the Club Membership program has school districts, recreation and park districts, commercial and non-profit clubs of all kinds, YMCA's, Turners, Sokols and many other types of gymnastics teaching facilities. The price breakdown for the 1992-93 season (June I, 1992 - June I, 1993) is shown in Table l. The difference between 100% and Peak Club Memberships is the method by which the membership fee is developed: 100% Club Membership requires individual names and addresses of each student or staff member being registered. The fee is a "per person" fee and is paid with initial registration for all students and staff currently in the club, or, following initial registration, new members joining the club are reported to USGF Membership on a monthly basis. The 100% Membership program requires a minimum of 20 students registered, and works well for clubs which are either smaller, or whose membership is computerized, making it easy to send in monthly names and addresses for membership. Peak Club Membership fees are based on the number of students expected by the club during the peak month of the year. This is usually September or October in most clubs, and no names or addresses are required. The Club states, in its application, the number of students over 6 years old, and the number age 6 and under they estimate will be members during the Peak Month and pay their fee on that basis (see rates above). While Peak Club Membership requires advance payment of fees, for any club joining during June, the annual renewal month, the USGF will finance the premium at 25% down plus a $100 fee, and two equal payments amounting to 37.5% each due August 30 and September 30 months when the club would have students arriving and paying the club. With low priced backup insurance for the club, and other benefits for the club's students such as membership cards, discounts, advance notice of USGF events in the club's area, newsletters and inter-Club communications, the USGF Club Membership program stands alone among the amateur sports in the USA. For further information on coverages, exclusions or membership information, contact USGF Membership at 1-800-345-4719, preferably early in the week. May 1992 TECHNIQUE

EDUCATION/EVENT CALENDAR Start No. DiscipDate days line 5/15/92 3 R 5/16/92 1 MWR 5/17/92 1 MW 5/17/92 1 MWR 5/17/92 1 MWR 5/22/92 1 MWR 5/22/92 3 W 5/23/92 1 MW 5/24/92 1 MW 5/29/92 3 M 5/30/92 2 MW 5/30/92 1 MW 5/31/92 1 MWR 6/1/92 6 MW 6/4/92 4 W 6/5/92 3 M 6/5/92 3 M 6/5/92 3 M 6/5/92 3 M 6/6/92 2 R 6/8/92 7 M 6/11/92 3 MW 6/12/92 4 R 6/13/92 4 R 6/13/92 1 W 6/14/92 1 M 6/14/92 1 MWR 6/15/92 12 MWR , 6/18/92 12 W 6/18/92 4 R 6/19/92 4 R 6/19/92 3 W 6/23/92 1 MWR 6/26/92 3 MWR 6/27/92 1 MWR 7/6/92 7 M 7/10/92 3 W 7/12/92 1 MWR 7/12/92 1 MWR 7/13/92 7 M 7/17/92 1 MWR 7/17/92 3 W 7/17/92 10 MWR 7/18/92 5 MWR 7/18/92 1 MWR 7/20/92 7 M 7/23/92 4 W 7/26/92 16 MWR 8/1/92 1 MWR 8/5/92 3 W 8/6/92 6 R 8/9/92 3 W 8/11/92 6 R 8/13/92 3 W 8/14/92 11 M 8/21/92 3 MWR 8/21/92 2 R 8/24/92 7 M 8/27/92 4 W ,8/28/92 3 W ~ 8/3O/92 1 MWR 9/2/92 6 R 9/9/92 3 MW 9/10/92 4 MWR TECHNIQUE May 1992

Event U.S. Rhythmic Championships & Safety course Safety Certification Course Safety Certification Course - at the U.s. Championships Safety Certification Course (9:00 am-3:00 pm) Safety Certification Course (9:00 am-4:00 pm) Safety Certification Course (4:00-10:00 pm) MalatCup Phar-Mor U.S. Gym. Championships (TV coverage) Phar-Mor U.s. Gym. Championships (TV coverage) Men's National J.O. Compulsory Workshop + Safety Golden Sands Dodge Challenge: USA/Japan Safety Certification Course (2:00-6:00 p.m.) Puerto Rico Cup W.ti}men's National J.O.Compulsory Workshop +Safety Men's National J.o. Compulsory Workshop + Safety Men's National J.O. Compulsory Workshop + Safety Men's National J.O. Compulsory Workshop + Safety Men's National J.O. Compulsory Workshop + Safety U.S. Olympic Team Trials Oass I/II Developmental Camp U.S. Olympic Team Trials Rhythmic Nat. J.o. Compulsory Workshop + Safety J.o. East Team Competition U.S. Olympic Trials (TV coverage) U.S. Olympic Trials (TV coverage) Safety Certification - at Florida Men's State Clinic International Olympic Academy (lOA) Argentina/USA J.O. West Team Competition Rhythmic Nat. J.O . Compulsory Workshop + Safety Region ill Mini-Congress (+ Safety & Coach Cert.) Olympic Team Exhibition Sokol Canada Slet-740 Spadina Avenue, Toronto, Ont. Safety Certification Course 10-11 Developmental Team Camp USGF Summer Coaching Workshop + Safety Course Safety Certification - with Florida State AAU Clinic Safety Certification Course (l0:00am-4:00pm) Regional Development Camp Safety Certification - with YMCA Great Lakes Clinic Region V Compulsory Workshop American Sokol Instructor School FIG Congress Hilton's Superstars of Gymnastics (TV coverage) Class 1 & 2 Development Camp Region VIII Mini Congress Games of the XXVth Olympiad Safety Certification Course (10:30 a.m.-5:oo p.m.) Elite Sr Develop & Sr. Nat'l Team Training Camp J.O. Training Camp Jr. B Elite Training Camp Elite Training Camp Jr. J.O. National Team Training Camp Jr. National Team Camp Post Olympic Exhibition North American Rhythmic Competition 10-11 Developmental Team Camp USGF Region VII Mini-Congress at Split Rock Resort USGF Summer Coaching Workshop Safety Certification Course (8:00 a.m.-4:oo p .m.) J.O. Training Camp BIG: Biomechanics in Gymnastics Conference USOC Coaching Symposium

STI City CO Contact Phone Colo. Spgs. CO Nora Hitzel 317-237-5050 Midlothian VA Scott Gauthier 702-276-7039 Columbus OH BobbieMontanari 614-457-1279 Westminster MD Dave Moskovitz 317-237-5050 Federal Way WA Leigh Eaton 206-839-2438 503-293-7899 Everett WA Ruth Sandoz Stockholm SWE Kathy Kelly 317-237-5050 NBC TV, 1:00-3:00 P.M. EST (Olympic Showcase) NBC TV, 1:30-3:00 P.M. EST (Olympic Showcase) Indianapolis IN Robert Cowan 317-237-5050 Sofia BUL Program Administrators ABC TV, 3:00 P.M. EST Indianapolis IN Dave Moskovitz 317-237-5050 Sanjuan PUR RCowan,KKelly 317-237-5050 Tempe AZ Kathy Kelly 317-237-5050 Atlanta GA Robert Cowan 317-237-5050 Norman OK Robert Cowan 317-237-5tJ50 Philadelphia PA RobertCowan 317-237-5050 San Francisco CA Robert Cowan 317-237-5050 MD Nora Hitzel 317-237-5050 Baltimore CO Robert Cowan 317-237-5050 Colo. Spgs. MD RCowan,K.Kelly 317-237-5050 Baltimore Princeton NJ Nora Hitzel 317-237-5050 Princeton NJ Nora Hitzel 317-237-5050 NBC TV, 2:00-6:00 P.M. EST (DYE) NBC TV, 4:00-6:00 P.M. EST 813-447-2108 Daytona BeachFL Karl Bishop 317-237-.5050 Olympia GRE S.whitlock Buenos Aires ARG Kathy Kelly 317-237-5.050 Los Angeles CA Nora Hitzel 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 Los Angeles CA Nora Hitzel 303-429-3367 Denver CO M. Mahoney San Francisco CA Toronto CAN Slet Committee Biddeford ME Steve Randall 207-284-504a 317-237-5050 CO Robert Cowan Colo. Spgs. 317-237-5050 Edina MN D.Moskovitz New Port Richey, FLKari Bishop 813-447-2108 Houston TX Russell Ward 713-444-6595 Colo. Spgs. CO Robert Cowan 317-237-5050 Medina OH Bobbi Montari 614-457-1279 216-871-1497 OH Kathy Koeth Cincinnati Sandy Benak Western Dist. 402-731-2665 Salou ESP Mike Jacki 317-237-5050 TBS TV, Olympic Gold Series - TBA 317-237-5050 Colo. Spgs. CO Robert Cowan Stone Mtn. GA Sheila Ragle 404-294-4235 ESP Olson Travel Barcelona 213-615-0711 Stroudsburg P A Bruno Klaus 717-629-0244 317-237-5050 CO Kathy Kelly Colo. Spgs. CO Nora Hitzel Colo. Spgs. 317-237-5050 317-237-5050 CO Kathy Kelly Colo. Spgs. CO Nora Hitzel Colo. Spgs. 317-237-5050 CO Connie Maloney 317-237-5050 Colo. Spgs. CO Colo. Spgs. AllisonMelangton 317-237-5050 Various Sites Colo. Spgs. CO Nora Hitzel 317-237-5050 Colo. Spgs. CO Robert Cowan 317-237-5050 LakeHarmony PA LindaJohnson 410-721-5853 Huguenot NY Fred Perkuhn 602-778-9564 201-586-1808 Lake Harmony P A Cathy Finkel Lake Placid NY Nora Hitzel 317-237-5050 Cologne GER Secretariat 49-221-4982-418-419-221 Colo. Spgs. CO Steve Whitlock 317-237-5050 47

Non-Profit Organization U.S. Postage

PAID Permit No. 7867 Indianapolis. Ind.






SAFETY CERTIFICATION Wednesday & Thursday, May 13-14, 1992 *Colorado Springs, CO 7:00-10:00pm eacn evening U.s. Olympic Training Center, 1776 E. Boulder St., Colorado Springs, CO 80909 (719) 578-4500 Course Dir.: D. Moskovitz (317) 237-5050 In conjunction with the U.S. RSG Championships.

Saturday, May 16, 1992 Midlothian, VA - 1:00-8:00 pm Virginia International Gymnastics Club 10810 Paul Brook Dr., Midlothian, VA 23112 Course Dir.: Scott Gauthier (703) 276-7039 Sunday, May 17, 1992 I.Columbus, OH - 8:00am-1:30pm Holiday Inn, 328 W. Lane Ave., Columbus, OH 43201 (614) 294-4848 Course Dir.: B. Montanari (614) 457-1279 This course will be conducted in conjunction with the U. S. Gymnastics Championships.

2.Westminster, MD - 9:00 am-3:00 pm Perna Gymnastics, 3100 Littlestown Pike, Westminster, MD 21157 Course, Dir.: John Perna (410) 848-2771 3. Federal Way, WA - 9:00am-4:00pm Gymnastics Unlimited, 31431 Pacific Hwy. 5., Federal Way, WA 98003 Course Dir.: Leigh Eaton (206) 839-2438 Friday, May 22, 1992 Everett, WA - 4:00-10:00pm Leading Edge Gymnastics 2111 1/ 2 38th St., Everett, WA 98201 Course Dir.: Ruth Sandoz (503) 293-7899 Local Contact: Nancy Butler (203) 259-2010 Sunday, May 31, 1992 Indianapolis, IN - 2:00-6:30pm Course Dir.: D. Moskovitz (317) 237-5050 This course will be conducted in conjunction with the USGF National Men's Compulsory Workshop.

Thursday, June 4, 1992 Tempe, AZ -12:00-4:30pm Course Dir.: Steve Whitlock This course will be conducted in conjunction with the USGF Women's CompoWorkshop.

Course Dir.: D. Moskovitz (317) 237-5050 Local Contact: G Corsiglia (510) 796-3547 The above courses will be conducted in conjunction with

the USGF Nat. Men's Compulson) Workshops.

Friday, June 12, 1992 Princeton, NJ - 2:00-7:00pm Course Dir. : D.Moskovitz (317) 237-5050 In conjllnction with the RSG Compulsory Workshop.

Sunday, June 14, 1992 Daytona Beach, FL - 9:00am-3:00pm Indigo Lakes Hilton, Daytona Beach, FL Course Dir.: Karl Bishop (813) 447-2108 In conjunctioll with the USGF Flordia Men's State Clinic.

Friday, June 19, 1992 Los Angeles, CA - 2:00-7:00pm Course Dir.: D. Moskovitz (317) 237-5050 In conjunction with the RSG Compulson) Workshop.

Saturday, June 27, 1992 Biddeford, ME - 9:00am-2:00pm Randall's Gymnastics Center Alfred Business Road Park, Biddeford, ME 04005 Course Dir.: Steve Randall (207) 284-5048 Thursday, July 9, 1992 Edina, MN - 5:00-9:30 pm Contact: USGF Safety (317) 237-5050 In conjunction with the USGF Slimmer Coaching Workshop.

Sunday, July 12, 1992

l.New Port Richey, FL - 9:00am-3:00pm Course Dir.: Karl Bishop (813) 447-2108 In conjunction with the Flordia AAU State Clinic.

2. Houston, TX -10:00am-4:00pm South East Gymnastics Acaaemy, 12900 Nyack, Houston, TX 77087 Course Dir.: Russell Ward (713) 444-6595 Local Contact: Jim Archer (713) 481-6000 Friday, July 17, 1992 - 9:00am-4:00pm Best Western-Medina, 2875 Medina Rd., Medina, OH 44256 Course Dir's: B. Montari (614) 457-1279 Dave Moskovitz (317) 237-5050 Local Contact: M. Miller (614) 654-0616 In conjunction with the YMCA Great Lakes Zones Gymnastics Clinic. • These courses are USGF National Courses, therefore, USGF pro-members will be charged the grollp rate of $60 per person. 1. The text book for the Certification Course is the USGF GYMNASTICS SAFETY MANUAL. This text/reference manual is to be purchased and studied prior to course participation. 2. The course will take approximately six hours, including the test. 3. Certification is good for four years. 4. The Course fee is $100.00. USGF members and second cycle recertification is $75.00. Retest cost is $25.00. For groups of at least 5, contact the USGF Department of Safety and Education (317) 237-5050.

r-------------------------, Participation Registration Form T592

Name: Mr./Mrs./Ms. _ _ __ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _Soc. Sec. # _

_ _ _ _ __ •

Address: • City: _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _State: _ _ _ _ _ _Zip_ ___ • Telephone: (H) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (B) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~_ • Course Director: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ ____________ •

Course Location: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ ___ Date:_ _ _ _ _ •

Sunday June 7, 1992 Organization Represented: • 1. Philadelphia, PA - 2:00-6:30pm If USGF Member, List Type and N u m b e r . Temple Dniv., Pearson Hall- Basement Media room, Broad Street & Montgomery Form of Payment: 0 Check 0 Visa 0 Mastercard . A ve., Philadelphia, PA Cpurse Dir.: Phil Frank (609) 786-3977 Name on Card: _______ ____ Number: .. ' . 2. Atlanta, GA - 2:00-6:30pm Expiration Date: Signature: _ _ _ __ _ -'---_ _ _ _ _ _ _• Atlanta Airport Marriott, 4711. Best Rd ., " College Park, GA 30337 (404) 766-7900 PM'lealseRm~ke c~.eckFs payabldepin full tOt L1.SGUFSGSAFFSETf Y CEpRTIAFICATION 5 "t Course Cont.: Joe Strank (404) 766-7900"" ...... al egistratlOn orm an aymen t 0; a e tYi' an. · aza, \:II e 3. Norman, OK - 2:00-6:30pm • 300, 201S.CapHol, ~n..£tianapolis, IN 46225 "",~pklahoma University, Red Room / Owen r~-t1emorial Stadium, 180 W. Brooks, • DO NOT WRITE:BELeW-THIS LINE e" FOR OFFICE' USE'GIjiLY . Norman Oklahoma I ... '.... Course Dir.: TBA Local Contact: M. Williams (404) 325-8341 • Registration Form Received: ........... ' .' . ""~ 4. San Francisco, CA - 2:00-6:30pm • C f' . M 'l d' onln:natI~n _~l ~ ,,; ., "" , ,,. "",_, ,,",",,,", J~ -~ ,~ - -' - .I I Cathedral Hill Hotel, Van Ness at Geary, . . .... _ _ ~_ -_ -_ -----... San..Er.a.nlWism,..CA.,.9410~) 776-8200 'K'~ ~ L ~_AMIif"'IIIIjI' \\ L· . , t

.• •






Technique Magazine - May 1992  
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