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U.S. Gymnasti s The Official Technical Publication Of The United States Gymnastics Federation

USGF Congress Schedule Enclosed!

Overcoming Learning And Performance Blocks Trends In Men's Gymnastics ' ....., How Much Sleep Is \ .





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Muscles, Bruises And Strains One-Arm Giant Swing Backward

Cover ll/ustration By: Brian Babcock




#2162 NEW! Report on Elite Compulsories from "Golden Sands" competition. Muriel GrossfeldandMaryWright.1:00 (B) .... $15.95

#2105 1989-92 Levell-IV Compulsory VHS - the new developmental exercises for your class and recreational students. The Levels include individual skills and skill sequences. (A+) ....................................................... $ 79.95

#2140 1989 Women's American CupThe tape includes routines from both the Prelims and the Finals as well as segments from the pre-competition training. 2:00 (B+) ........ ..... ....... .... ..... ....... ..... .... .. ........ $ 15.95

#2106 1989-92 Level 5-7 Compulsory VHS - these are the new compulsory routines that will be utilized beginning with the Fall season. (A+) ........................................ $ 89.95

#2142 McDonald's USA/USSR Challenge, Women's Compulsory sessions - During the Soviet visit in April, the USA and USSR teams shared workouts on the new 1989-92 Olympic Compulsory routines. Also included on this tape are segments of a training session conducted by Mary Wright on FX and BB. 2:00 (B) .......... $ 19.95

#2107 1989-92 Level 10 Compulsory VHS - This Level is adapted from the 1989-92 Elite Compulsory routines. (A+) .... $ 49.95 #2108 Special price for purchasing all three of the 1989-92 Compulsory Levels above. (A+) ......................................................$189.95 #2119 McDonald's USA/USSR Challenge (held in Columbus, OH 4/29/89) - The women's competition was spectacular! The USA Team gave the champion Soviet Team a strong challenge. Also included is approximately 1 hour of the USA and Soviet teams in their pre-competition work-outs. 2:00 (A) ................................................ $19.95

#2150 NEW! 1989 American Classic Optional sessions. 2:00 (B) ............................$19.95 #2151 NEW! 1989 American Classic Compulsorysessions. 2:00 (B) ..................... $19.95

MEN'S TAPES #2240 1989 Men's American Cup - Men's Prelims and Finals. 2:00 (A+) .......... $19.95 #2241 1989 McDonald's USA/USSR Challenge, Compulsory competition (held in Columbus, OH 4/27/89) - (A+) .......... $ 19.95 #2242 1989 McDonalds's USA/USSR Challenge,Optional competition (held in Columbus, OH 4/30/89) - (A+) ............ ..... $19.95 NOTE: The Men's Tapes from 1989 Championships of the USA will be available soon! Call 317-237-5060 for information!


#2160 NEW! 1989 Championships of the USA. Compulsory sessions. 2:00 (B) .....$19.95 #2161 NEW! 1989 Championships of the USA. Finals & Optional sessions. 2:00 (B) ....................................................... $19.95


#2500 FIG Continental Judges Course - an excellent series of tapes for both judges and coaches. (6) 2 hour tapes! (A) ............. $ 60.00

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Inside This Issue

July - September 1989, Volume 9, No.3 Publisher Mike Jacki Director of Educational Services Stephen W. Whitlock Production Luan Peszek

Sports Psychology

Overcoming Learning & Performance Blocks ............................. 4 Men's Technical

Trends In Men's Gymnastics ................. 8

bhiJl1rl ~~rr r.r rT "Ii' ~

Exercise Physiology

How Much Sleep Is Enough ............... 14



rJ~ ~ r:l r-:L":''=~. ~- . - '-

United States Gymnastics Federation Board Of Directors Executive Director: Mike )aOO; President: Mike Donahue; President Emeritus: Bud Wilkinson; Athlete Representatives: Brian Babcock, chair; Kathy Johnson, vice chair; Linda Kardos Barnett, sec; Kelly Garrison-Steves; Wendy Hilliard; Tim Daggett; Jim Hartung; Peter Vidmar; USOC Athletic Advisory Council; Amateur Athletic Union: Julie Sickles; American Sokol Organization: Norma Zabka; American Turners: Bruno Klaus; Junior Boys Gymnastics Coaches Association: Rich Boccia;Men's Elite Coaches Association: Jim Howard; National Association for Girls and Women in Sports: Dr. Mimi Murray; National Association of Collegiate Gymnastics Men: Fred Roethlisberger; National Association of Collegiate Gymnastics Women: Judi Avener; National Association of Women's G~astics Judges: Dale Brown; National Collegiate Athletic Association: Syllvia Moore, Gail Davis, Nancy Latimore, Dave Mickelson; National Federation of State High School Associations: Sharon Wilch, Susan True; National Gymnastics Judges Association: Harry Bjerke; National High School Gymnastics Coaches Association: John Brinkworth; National Jewish Welfare Board: Courtney Shanken; Rhythmic Coaches Association: Pauline David; Special Olympics, Inc.: Kate Faber; U.S. Association of Independent Gym Club: Lance Crowley; U.S. Elite Coaches Association for Women: Roe Kmetzer, Don Peters; U.S. Sports Acrobatics Federation: Thorn Blalock; Young Men's Christian Association: CliffLothery

United States Gymnastics Federation Executive Committee President: Mike Donahue; Secretary: Judi Avener; Vice President-Women: Sue Ammerman; Vice President-Men: Jim Howard; Executive Director: Mike Jacki; FIG Women's Technical Committee: Jackie Fie; FIG Rhythmic Technical Committee: Andrea Schmid; FIG Men's Technical Committee: Bill Roetzheim; Members-At-Large: Mike Milidonis, Roe Kmetzer; Athlete Representatives: Kathy Johnson, Peter Vidmar, Wendy Hilliard, Brian Babcock; President Emeritus: Bud WilkiiIson.

Associate Content Editors SPORTS MEDICINE COMMITTEE: Merrill A. Ritter, M.D. Frank A. Pettrone, M.D. James J. Campbell, M.D. SAFETY COMMITTEE: Dr. Gerald S. George EDUCATION COMMITTEE: Susan True BIOMECHANICS COMMITTEE: Dr. Marlene Adrian, Director SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY COMMITTEE: Dr. Keith Henschen, Ph.D. EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY COMMITTEE: Dr. Pat Eisenman, Ph.D. Unless expressly identified to the contrary, all articles, views printed herein are attributed solely to statements the author and the United States Gymnastics Federation expresses no opinion hereon and assumes no responsibility thereof.


TECHNIqUE July-September 1989






Exercise Physiology

Muscle Force: The Stabilizer ................................... 16 Sports Medicine

Knocked Out Teeth Can Be Saved ................................... 18 page 16

Sports Medicine

Muscles, Bruises and Strains ............... 20


Congress Coaching Pommel Horse Schedule For Class IV's .................................... 22 Enclosed! Grassroots, Boys

page 36


Study Of The One Arm Giant Swing ..................................... 25 Committee Reports

Women's & Men's Minutes ................ 32

CHANGE OF ADDRESS AND SUBSCRIPTION INQUIRIES: In order to ensure uninterrupted delivery of TECHNIQUE magazine, notice of change of address should be made six to eight weeks in advance. For fastest service, please enclose your present mailing label. Direct all subscription mail to ECHNIQUE Suscriptions, Pan American Plaza, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225. TECHNIQUE is published quarterly for $12.00 by the United States Gymnastics Federation, Pan American Plaza, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225 (phone: 317-237-5050). Third class postage paid at Indianapolis, IN. Subscription price: $12.00 per year in United States; all other countries $24.00 per year. Back issue single copies $2.00 plus $1.00 postage/handling. All reasonable care will be taken, but no responsibility can be assumed for unsolicited material; enclose return postage. copyright 1987 by USGF and TECHNIQUE. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.


Sports Ps-ychology

Overcoming Learning & Performance BlocKs Alan Goldberg, Ed.D. Director, Competitive Advantage

WO of the most frustrating things for a coach to have to deal with are: 1) the gymnast who has the physical potential to learn a new trick but who is blocked or paralyzed by her fears; 2) the gymnast who practices perfectly yet seems to fall apart in competition, sometimes even missing his or her best tricks. Performance and learning blocks seem to defy logic. Very often there is no apparent reason for them. They just don't make any sense. Occasionally a gymnast will run into problems after a bad meet, an injury, or a scary close call. Then it is easier to understand the athlete's tentativeness and fears. Some gymnasts seem more susceptible than others. And although time has a way of resolving the difficulties, too often gymnasts stay locked in their fears far longer than necessary. A blocked gymnast can tax the patience of the most even-tempered or mellow coach. Should you work them harder and push them? Should you be supportive and gentle? Should you back off completely? Maybe screaming, yelling and pulling your hair out might somehow help. Certainly these kinds of problems can rapidly deplete your entire bag of teaching tricks.



Flexibility Kinesthetic awareness Experience (skill repetition) Strength (upper & lower body) Balance






Mental imagery (quality) Self-talk (positive/negative) Beliefs (limiting or enhancing) Anxiety level

So what can you do to more quickly and effectively help your gymnasts when they get stuck in the learning process or in competition? The following is a seven step model to better understand the blocked gymnast and serve as a guideline for effective intervention.

Figure 1


Step 1 - Address the Physical/Technical Side of the Block The coach can understand any learning or performance block to be made up of two components: A physical! technical one and a mental or psychological component. (See Figure 1) The first step is for the coach to determine how the gymnast is stuck physically. The athlete may be physically incapable of the skill or may lack the experience and repetition necessary to learn the skill. If a gymnast lacks the flexibility or upper body strength to do a trick, is unable to maintain the necessary balance, or lacks a kinesthetic consciousness for the movement, then a specific physical drill or exercise can be assigned to remedy the problem. The coach can break the skill down to focus on the specific area of weakness. Having the gymnast work on a particular lead-up skill is an example of this. Not all performance blocks are psychological in nature and it is critically important that the coach "rule out" the technical aspects of the problem before proceeding.

Step 2 - Determine Faulty Mental Strategies Maintaining Block When the gymnast doesn't respond to your technical interventions, then the second component, or the mental dynamics of the block need to be addressed. How does the gymnast inadvertently maintain the difficulty? What thoughts, self-talk, beliefs, and imagery underlie the block? In the majority of cases, persistent learning and performance blocks can be effectively resolved if the coach is able to intervene at this psychological level. Frequently a technical or physical deficiency is created or exacerbated by the particular "mental strategies" of the gymnast, which usually operate outside of the athlete's awareness. Mental strategies refer to the specific thought, self-talk, and imagery that every athlete engages in prior to, during and after a performance. For example, just before her beam routine a successful gymnast might comment to herself, ''I'm ready" as she begins to feel pre-performance "butterflies." She may flash pictures in her mind of the last few times she performed her routine perfectly. She may "coach" herself with a calm inner voice to July-September 1989 TECHNIQUE

"stay relaxed and "have fun". And she may reassure herself that she is prepared, that she's done everything necessary to do her best. Finally, before she narrows her concentration to her mount, she may briefly preview the entire routine, seeing, hearing and feeling herself execute confidently and accurately. Contrast this with a different gymnast who is blocked or stuck in the performance of his pommel horse routine. This gymnast's mental strategies are qualitatively different. As he warms up for his routine the focus of attention is frequently on difficulty. His self-talk cautions against mistakes or falling and tends to generate rather than allay anxiety. The tone of his "inner coach" is threatening and belittling. He may remind himself of his inadequacies and reinforce this with a focus on some of his "more talented, stronger" competitors or the "biases" of the judges. Whether he reviews a past performance or replays this one, his images consistently depict failure. A priority in getting a gymnast unstuck is to learn as much as one can about the "mental tricks" and strategies that the gymnast employs. The best way of going about doing this is to ask the gymnast to literally "teach" you in specific detail how to have the block. For example, you may say to the gymnast, "I want you to teach me to be stuck in exactly the same way that you are. What should I say to myself as I think about doing this trick? What tone of voice should my inner dialogue use? What kind of pictures should I make in my mind about this trick? What should I focus my conscious attention on as I get ready to mount? etc. In the process of learning the exact mental strategies that keep the gymnast stuck one will accomplish two very important things. A) One will discover clear areas of intervention. For example, ifa gymnast says, Tmgoingto blow my dismount" and then follows that with images of this happening, a coach can help the gymnast change both the negative self-talk and imagery and get him/her to refocus on a more positive performance related cue. B) By having the gymnast "teach" the coach how to be stuck, the gymnast will begin to gain an awareness of how specifically he /she maintains the block, which is a critical first step in overcoming it.

Step 3-Normalize the Block When a gymnast is immobilized by a particular skill or situation, his / her imagination begins to work overtime, frequently blowing the difficulty out of proportion. This process usually takes place in the confines of the gymnast's head as fears and anxieties reach incapacitating dimensions. The gymnast is left feeling isolated and powerless. The coach must intervene in this process by helping the athlete understand that the

TECHNIQUE July-September 1989

block is being self-maintained by their own "mental strategies", and that these strategies are distinctly different from those used when they are successfully executing skills and competing. Have the gymnast explore an old routine that they are comfortable with, or a past successful meet and this will further highlight that the difference between the good and bad performances is directly related to the different mental strategies employed. (See Figure 2) By explaining a block in terms of

Mental Strategies For Effective Performance


Mental Strategies For Blocked Performance

Imagery: complete execution

Imagery: faulty executing

Self-talk: positive or non-existent

Self-talk: negative and distracting

Beliefs: self-enhancing

Beliefs: limiting

Thoughts: positive, task-oriented, focused

Thoughts: negative, unfocused

Concentration: here and now

Concentration: past, future, wrong place

faulty mental strategies the gymnast will feel less powerless and out of control. Part of the coach's job is to "normalize" the block or remove some of its' power. By redefining it as a consequence of certain thoughts and images the gymnast can begin to believe that maybe they can do something about overcoming it.

Step 4 - Teach the "Here and Now Rule" of Peak Performance As a consequence of the gymnast's almost total preoccupation with their block, concentration is disrupted and misdirected. The next task is for the coach to help restore a proper focus of attention. This is accomplished by teaching the athlete the "here and now" rule for peak performance. The "here and now" rule states that you want to do what you are doing mentally while you are doing it physically. As it's stated, this rule ha s two important components--time and place. During peak performances, the gymnast is totally in the proper time, the "now" . They are mentally focused on


Figure 2

what they are doing without thoughts of the past or the future. Worries about a missed trick, a past poor performance, the previous routine, or the performance in front of a particular judge, distract the gymnast's concentration from where it needs to be. Similarly, future thoughts of a difficult trick, falling, the score, winning or losing, or blowing a dismount can disrupt attention and tighten muscles almost insuring a poor performance. During peak performances the gymnast is also totally focused in the right place, the "here". Concerns about the judges, other competitors, the audience, or the surroundings can mentally remove the gymnast from a proper focus on what they are doing. Although the "here and now" rule appears very basic (almost too simplistic) a violation of it's time or place component is an integral part of every learning or performance block. Most gymnasts who are experiencing performance / learning difficulties routinely shift their immediate pre-performance focus from the past (the last time something bad happened) to the future and the "what if's", ie. what if it happens again. In the process of flip-flopping from past to future, and back again, a great deal of anxiety is generated. This mental strategy almost insures that the performance difficulty will continue. After learning the "here and now" rule the gymnast needs to practice the skill of "bringing himself/herself back" whenever they recognize that they have left the proper time or place.

During peak performances gymnasts are mentally focused on I

what they are doing without thoughts of the past or the future.

(Note: mentally rehearsing a perfect routine or replaying a past great routine just before the actual performance is not a violation of this rule because these mental activities are usually built into the gymnast's pre-performance routine and serve a positive function .) The coach can teach the gymnast focal points within their routines or warm-ups that they can bring themselves back to when they notice that they have begun to wander away from the here and now. For example, a focus on the kinesthetic or feelings of the stretching as the gymnast loosens up, a focus on breathing, or on a specific preperformance rou tine will serve as an anchor in the here and now for the gymnast. During performance other kinesthetic, visual or auditory cues can be developed which will help serve as a reminder for the gymnast to keep focused in the here and now. For example, visually spotting a particular staple in the beam to stay focused for the mount or just before a particularly difficult trick, the sound and rhythm of the music during floor exercise, or the kinesthetic or muscle feelings in the arms or legs during a bar routine.

Step 5 - Challenge SelfLimiting Beliefs The next step in helping gymnasts overcome blocks is to directly uncover and challenge the


particular set of self-limiting beliefs which they have inadvertently build up around their problem. Beliefs like, "I'm going to get hurt", "I'll always fall" tend to create a self-fulfilling prophesy in which the athletes get what they are afraid of. Furthermore, gymnast's beliefs, if left unchallenged can undermine the coaches best efforts at intervention. Since a gymnast is limited most by what he/ she believes is possible, it is critical that the coach intervene at this level. The gymnast who is stuck on a particularly scary trick has lost perspective on his / her capabilities. Helping the gymnast remember in vivid detail other fears or blocks that were successfully overcome will start to restore this perspective. Another way of overcoming self-limiting beliefs is to frame the task to be done in a way which takes the individual outside of the belief. For example, before Roger Bannister broke the four minute mile barrier, all the experts had said that it couldn' t be done. To take himself outside of the collective limiting beliefs of his time Bannister reasoned, "I don' t want to break the four minute mile. Since I can run a mile in four minutes and one second, or 241 seconds, all I want to do is run it in 239 seconds." No one had ever said that you couldn't run a mile in 239 seconds and with this mental trick he was able to separate himself from the self-limiting beliefs and do the "impossible". Part of this "framing" to expand a belief system can be accomplished by breaking the block down into a progression of manageable chunks that the gymnast can be successful in completing and that will ultimately lead to the completion of the skill. For example, a diver I recently worked with was totally paralyzed by a back double somersault and her fears were starting to spread to other backward dives. Some of the "chunks" she was assigned was to first "mentally" practice the dive at least 15 times every night with perfect execution, second, to attempt at least one actual dive at every practice session the first week, two the second, etc., and third to concentrate on executing only one aspect of the dive (the take-off) in every session for the first week and switch to a different one the next week. The whole purpose of this "chunking down" is to get the athlete unstuck. This process in itself might generate enough momentum to free the blocked gymnast. By far, the most effective way that a coach can ~se to manage the gymnast's self-limiting beliefs IS to bypass their conscious resistance by the deliberate use of metaphor or story telling. Because conscious fears and anxieties are so powerful and can frequently undermine other interventions, several well-designed stories of gymnasts or other athletes who had similar self-limiting beliefs and overcame them will frequently serve as a catalyst to get the athlete unstuck. For example, I like to tell my athletes the story of the "five minute miler", a high school senior who was so named beca use he ran his first five races of his senior year between 5:01 and 5:06 and fllly-Septell/ber 1989 TECH IQUE

races of his senior year between 5:01 and 5:06 and didn't believe it was possible for him to break five minutes. in his sixth race he ran a 5:03 and the coach ran out to the track hugged him and excitedly yelled, "John. You did it, 4:59. You finally broke the barrier." Now the coach had arranged with the opposing coach to fudge the actual time. Right after that, the runner consistently broke five minutes. Such a story as it is interpreted by an athlete will cause them to begin to see that beliefs and barriers are self-imposed and not etched in stone. Certainly many young gymnasts today don't remember the story of Carol Johnston, CalState Fullerton's one armed gymnast who achieved national prominence as a competitor back in the early 70' s. With your experience you can present such stories which indirectly and therefore very powerfully, challenge the gymnast's beliefs and stimulate appropriate action to overcome the block.

Step 6 - ReprQgram Performance K'elated Thoughts and Images The sixth step in helping a gymnast overcome a block is to help them constructively "reprogram" their performance related thoughts ~nd images. A blocked gymnast's thoughts and unages are consistently negative, and therefore, reinforce and maintain the block. The self-talk warns of failure or possible injury while the images replay past poor performances and depict future ''horrors.'' It's no wonder that when it's time for the actual performance that the gymnast is physically and mentally tied up in knots. To counter-balance the negativity the coach can help the gymnast begin to "program in" more positive, confiden~e enhancU:'g thoughf:S ~nd images. It's not unportant 10 the begmrung whether the gymnast believes these positive messages. All that's important is that they begin to dwell on these instead of the negative and that they "act as if" the positive messages were true. For example, a gymnast who sees bars as her weakest event can be encouraged to make little "signs" that might say, '1 love bars", '1 can't wait to do my bar routine", "My dismount on bars is my strongest trick" etc. The gymnast is then encouraged to place these signs around their room, in their school notebooks, pocketbook, and/or locker. They are also encouraged to systematically practice via mental rehearsal going through the routine and executing their bar routine perfectly. If they are unable at first to identify with this imagery than they are encouraged to see someone else performing the trick. Focusing on positive self-talk with accompanying imagery of successfully completing the bar routine will ultimately begin to "reprogram" the negative set that the gymnast was maintaining. Although by itself TECHNIQUE July-September 1989

this technique appears quite simplistic, when combined with the others mentioned it its quite effective in contributing to the resolution of the block.

Step 7 - Teach Arousal Control Strategies The final step in this model is to teach gymnasts a relaxation technique or two which they can use to control their level of arousal. Any gymnast who is blocked is also e~riencin~ f~r too much anxiety to perform effectively. This IS highlighted in figure 3, the Performance/ Arousal curve. Learning to gain control of this anxiety will contributes to restoring the gymnast's self-confidence. There are numerous relaxation techniques that one can use ranging from progressive muscle relaxation to meditation. Probably themosteffective group of techniques involves teaching the gymnast to control the rate and depth of breathing. Being able to change respiration is the quickest and most powerful ways of mentally and physically gaining control. Diaphragmatic breathing, taking slow deep breaths that fill up the abdominal area, is one easy to practice exercise that can be prescribed as homework which will teach the gymnast how to maintain arousal at more optimal levels. By utilizing the above intervention model a coach can increase his or her effectiveness with the blocked gymnast. Since intervention at a "mental" level is usually critical in resolving these sorts of performance or learning difficulties,

Figure #3 Performance-Arousal Curve of Blocked Gymnast


Performance/ Execution

Blocked Gymnast (Poor or impeded performance. High anxiety related to execution)

pool' /blocked


Arousal (anxiety)


Figure 3 having a general guideline to follow will increase your flexibility as a coach and add to your teaching repertoire. 7


Trends In Men's Gymnastics


he Olympic Games represents the final showcase of each quadrennium. Many athletes put forth the best efforts of their career in order to maximize (peak) their performance in this, the most recognized prestigious amateur competition of all. It is the usual case that major rule changes take place immediately after the Olympic Games in order to upgrade the rules to fit the current international standards of gymnastics performance. It has always been evident that the advancement of the gymnastics skills occurs faster than the rules! Consequently, it is often hard to differen-

Mas Watanabe USGFMen's Technical Coordinator












1J (lJ1

Gaylord I (piked)

Gymnast U Jing (CHN) '88 Olympic Games illustration: H. Mizoguchi







tiate between the mediocre and the best by the end of the quadrennium. By the time the Olympic year rolls around, there are many gymnasts who far exceed the minimal requirements according to the rules - but 10.0 points is the maximum pennitted score. Thus, there are two basic strategies for Olympic Game preparation.


1. The gymnast attempts to eliminate all of the potential mistakes in his routines in order to perform with great control and precision. He could then draw a possible high score of 10.0 points even though his routine might not be the most difficult or exciting. 2. The second approach is more aggressive. The gymnast will utilize the most ideally composed routines. In this approach, he is taking a greater risk due to inconsistent moves and possible performance errors - conceivably costing him an Olympic or even team medal.

It has always been interesting to observe the different attitudes displayed by the two leading countries in the world. China, who once defeated the Soviet Union to become World Champions in 1983, has always taken the conservative approach in the Olympic Games. On the other hand, the Soviet Union has typically taken the aggressive position regardless of the consequences- that is, they attempt to out perform the rules as best as they can. They have been quite successful with this approach in the last decade. It is evident that the Soviet Union is clearly the best in the world ... not only in the area ofdifficulty but also in the level of technical refinement on virtually every event. Furthermore, they have al- 路 ways displayed the attitude of the true champion. The Soviet Union has been the trend setter in gymnastics for the last two decades. Traditionally, the skill (difficulty) trend is set by the younger aggressive athletes who are courageous enough to put very new skills into their routines and execute them successfully. Perhaps their routines are not the most elegant or the most consistent, but they are very exciting to watch!

On the other hand, the technical trend usually is set by an individual who has extremely refined technique on certain skills or sequences which has great appeal to the judges. Also, it could come from a selected technique emphasized by an entire team that is superior to the others and thus rewarded by the judges in competition. Upon reviewing the performances from the 1988 Olympic Games, it is evident that the Soviet team had a superior difficulty level as a whole on practically every event compared to other teams. Every routine had a minimum of two ''D's'' and approximately 70 percent of the routines had three "D's" or more. From this point of view, it is

July-September 1989 TECHNIQUE

reasonable to predict that the upgrading of difficulty level will continue in the '89-'92 quadrennium. To further evaluate the trend in difficulty since the 1988 Olympic Games, video-tapes from four competitions were reviewed: 1) Pacific Alliance, China held in December, 1988; 2)Moscow News/ Leningrad competition, March, 1989; 3) 1989 American Cup; and 4)McDonald's Challenge: USA/USSR, April 1989. The following trends and predictions are noted:

Floor Exercise 1. The appearance of more Super ''D'' being performed by more gymnasts (such as triple backs or full and double full twisting double layouts). 2. Greater emphasis on front tumbling skillsdouble front, full twisting layout, and series of fronts. 3.Greater emphasis on combination tumbling passes, such as: a. RO, FF, double layout, FF, double back saIto. b. RO, 11/2 back step-out, RO, FF, double back salto. c. RO, FF, double back, punch-front stepout, FHS, FtFF, FtFF, layout front saIto, 1/1 twisting dive roll. 4. Full twisting double back dismount.

Rings 1. Routines will often contain two or three "D" strength holds (totaling 4 or 5 strength moves). 2. Common "D" swing skills include: piked "Yamawaki," "Guczoghy," "Honma" to swing handstand, Li Ning (German rise). 3. Common ''D'' dismounts: Double twisting double back, triple back, and 1/1 twisting double layout. Comment: The ratio of swing and strength in the routine is shifting more and more towards strength. Most ofthe top ring routines are consistently 50 percent swing to strength.

Comment: It is important to further refine the technique on the front handspring (FHS) as well as the front flip-flop (FtFF) to improve in the front tumbling category. The combination tumbling pass should be utilized to a greater extent in routines. The "D" dismount will become one of the essential elements to be able to score high in international competitions.

Pommel Horse 1. Observation of longitudinal travel with legs together or with flair circle. 2. Increased number of Spindle (1/2 or 1/1) type moves during the longitudinal travel or on any part of the horse. 3. Greater use of the Flair circle to handstand, back down to Flair circles. 4. Utilization of Handstand dismount with traveling (pirouette across) 2 or 3 parts of the horse. Comment: Continuous emphasis on longitudinal travel or traveling across the horse in a variety of ways is essen tial. The handstand move should be executed without showing the use of strength and in a fluid manner. The refinement of technique on circles, particularly hip extension and improved amplitude, needs to be improved as a whole.

TECHNIQUE July-September 1989


f ~




Triple Back Somersault Gymnast: Serguei Kharikov '88 Olympic Games Illustration: H. Mizoguchi

Parallel Bars

Vaulting The following common "0" vaults were identified: LayoutKasamatsu, layout Cuervo, Handspring 1 1/2 twisting front, 1/1 twisting layout Kasamatsu, Round-off on, 1/ 1 twisting layout. Comment: The Round -off entry vault is making as definite step into the field of men's vaulting. Up to this point, the only country emphasizing the vault has been China, however, there is evidence that more and more countries are developing the vault. Conceivably, the development of proper technique and experience with the vault could take a long period of time before the vault can safely and consistently be executed in competition. Due to the inherent dangers involved in this vault, safe prog;ressions and a precautionary environment should be utilized in the preparation of athletes performing this vault.

1. Spectacular "0" moves such as the double front or double back over the bar to upper arms are used to make the routines stand-out from each other. 2. Other than the piked double back dismount, common "0" dismounts will include the double front and handstand snap-down back over the bar. 3. Giant swings and variations of the giant swing will be commonly used in routines. 4. It was observed that skills such as forward and backward stutz, Oiamidov, back toss, and the Healy are used as a core part of the routine. Comment: This event has more "0" moves (43 skills listed in the FI.G. Code of Points) than any of the other events. Very creative combinations and the appearance of original skills are fairly common on this event due to the variety of basic swings used. Therefore, it is important not to restrict oneself - be creative in composing routines.

Double front Sommersault to Upper Arm Gymnast: Li Jing (CHN) '89 American Cup Illustration: H . Mizoguchi
















July-September 1989 TECHNIQUE

Horizontal Bar 1. Spectacular "0" release moves such as the Kovac, Gaylord I, Tkatschev front catch are becoming more prevalent. 2. The most common pattern of release combinations are: a. Two "0" release moves in the routine. b. One "0" release move plus the 2 release combinatioc. One arm giant to release move ("0") plus a single or 2 release combination. 3. Any value skills into "el-grip" giants other than a stoop-in dislocate. 4. The most common dismounts will include: triple back, double twisting double back, and full twisting double layout. Comment: The above mentioned trend is a definite pattern that needs to be considered for the future. However, there exists some connecting moves between the spectacular skills which will also make the routine more interesting. Again, creativity is needed here to bring excitement to this event. The three "0" requirement on every event for the 1989 U.S. Championships is a very severe requirement for most gymnasts today. However, it is inevitable that this step be taken in order to keep up with the current internationallevel. Por awhile, some gymnasts will struggle to acquire a third "0" skill. With work and time, the gymnast will grow: through this adjustment period. What is extremely important, though, is that the quality of the technique should never be sacrificed just to acquire more difficult moves. Patience is necessary for goal achievement.

L (1)



(5 )

r'rrl I I


.(11 )










Reverse. Hecht

Front Catch Cymnast - Vitali Marinic (USSR)

'89 American Cup




Reverse Hecht - Front Catch Gymnast: Vitali Marinich (USSR) '89 American Cup Illustration: H . MIzoguchi

-- --------------------------------------------------------------------------=-----------------

9TH WORLD GYMNAESTRADA 1991 The 9th World Gymnaestrada will be held from Monday, July 15 until Saturday, July 20, 1991 in the capital of Holland, Amsterdam. Besides being a fascinating and beautiful city, it is almost ideal as the site where the World Gymnaestrada will be held. The opening and closing ceremonies, as well as, many pther demonstrations, will be held in the 55,000 seat Olympic Stadium. The organizing committee expects to receive entries from 30 to 40 countries with over 25,000 participants! The USGP is accepting inquiries from U.S. gym clubs and member organizations interested in having their groups participate in the Gymnaestrada. TECHNIQUE July-September 1989

If you would like more information on this colorful,. exciting and festive gathering of gymnastics enthusiasts, please contact Steve Whitlock, ~irector of Educational Services at the USGP offices. 317-237-5050. We will soon have available pre-entry forms and entry forms, accommodation information, and tourist information. In addition to the festivities and special events surrounding the Gymnaestrada, Amsterdam offers many tourist attractions. It has a huge hotel capacity, various camping sites, youth hostels, etc. NOTE: Pre-entry forms and partial payment of entrance fees are due by July 15, 1990. (Entrance fees will be announced at a later date).

For more information write to: USGF 201 S. Capitol A vneue Suite 300 Indianapolis, IN 46225

Attn: Steve Whitlock Director of Educational Services or Call: 317-237-5050


Junior Olympic Awards Program Wall charts and Chevron/Patch Awards are used as an inter-gym educational and organizational tool .

The USGF has developed a motivational and recognition plan for use in the women's all-new Junior Olympic Awards Program. Wall charts and Chevron / Patch Awards are used as an intergym educational and organizational tool. This award program is an excellent way to set goals, track follow-through of skills, and witness the accomplishments of your gym's athletes. Each wall chart is designed to track the progress of 50 young athletes. If your gym has more than 50 students, extra charts are available from the USGF to cover your full enrollment. As parents sign up their child, the new student's name is added to the next open line. Her name is in print, and she is on her way! The skills at each of Levels I-IV are listed at the top of the chart. When the skills of a given level for each event have been mastered the gymnast is awarded a special star or sticker to place on the chart. The Chevron / Patch System is similar to the badges and stars awarded to girl scouts, and the colored belts of taekwondo. The Junior Olympic awards program is designed for young gymnasts as a way to keep them motivated and continually striving towards excellence. A girl scout's achievements are clearly displayed by the accumulative patches on her awards sash. In taekwondo, the succession of belt colors ultimately leads to black, recognizing the student as a mas-

ter. For gymnasts, when a student enters Level I, she receives the Junior Olympic Program patch. Achievements in Levels I-IV are recorded on the gymnasium wall chart, and after completion of Level I a green chevron is awarded. When the gymnast passes 75% of the requirements of each level, she progresses to the next level. For levels II-IV she will receive three recognition pins to attach to her green chevron.) Afterleve15 (the first competitive level) is completed, a BRONZE chevron is awarded-after Level 6 a SILVER and Level 7 a BLUE. Compulsory skills are demonstrated and then executed within Levels 5, 6 and 7. After proving proficiency ofthe compulsory exercises, a gymnast advances to the optional competition, Levels 8 and 9. Successful completion of Level 8 awards a WHITE chevron and Level 9, RED. Level 10, the highest of the Junior Olympic Program, requires each gymnast to perform four compulsory and four optional exercises. Successful completion of this level results in a BLUE chevron. The standards for testing will be uniform across the nation. A green chevron will mean the same in New York as it will Nevada. The system will give coaches, athletes and parents an easy, confidence building way to track and identify the determined athletes.

I ------------ - ---~------ - - - - - - - - --- - - - - - I

J.O. Program Matenals Order Form: Yes! Send my order right away. I have enclosed my check / money order or credit card number and expiration date.

Name: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Address:- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - City/State/Zip: _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Phone: ( Mail checks to:

USGF P.O. Box 5562 Indianapolis, IN 46225 Or:

Mastercard / VISA # T8 / 89

L __________Expiration Date:=-==-==-=-=c==-==--==-=12

Item #



30 31

Starter Kit (see * below ) Wall Charts (for 40 Gymnasts nam es)

32 33 34

Report Cards 25-pack Patch es 25-pack Recognition Pins 50pack_ Specify the Level Level I

35 36 37 38 39 40 41

Level S Level 6 Level 7 Level 8 Level 9 Level 10



$45.00 $ 2.50 $ 2.50 $25.00 $ 5.00 $/ pack $12.00 $12.00 $1 2.00 $12.00 $12.00 $12.00 $12.00

Order Total

'Starter Kit includ es: 1 wall char t, 25 repor t cards, 25 pa tches, pins, and_ 25 level chev_ rons_ _ _ _ _ _50_ _ _ I_


__ _

II :::::J

Jul y-September 1989 TECHNIQUE





SAFETY CERTIFICATION TESTING Scheduled Courses Sat, Aug 12, 1989 Woodwa rd , PA 12:30-7:00 pm Woodwa rd Gy mnastics Camp 814-349-5633 Route 45, Box 93, Woowa rd , PA 16882 Course Dir: Mi chael Ri zzuto 814-238-8895 Sun, Aug 13, 1989 1. Nashville, I Opry land Ho tel 2800 Opryla nd Dr. Nash ville, T 37214 615-889-5633 Course Dir: D.) . Mil em 904-641-9966 Cou rse Contac t: H. Noble 404-386-0012 Thi s cou rse is cond ucted in conjunct io n

Everyone Needs To Be Safety Certified 1. Promotes a safer teaching / learning environment. 2. Reduces insurance premiums. 3. Identifies your commitment to your profeSSion, your sport and your athletes. 4. Implementation of stricter safety practices will help reduce the chances of accidents and / or injuries. 5. Helps in membership recruitment.

with the USGF Region V III M ini-Congress

2. Tulsa, O K 9:00-4:00 pm Course Dir.: Eddie Smith 314-432-1757 Thi s cou rse is cond ucted in conjunct io n w ith the USG F O K Women's Sta te Meetin g. Fri, Aug. 18, 1989 St. Lo uis, MO 8:00-2:30 pm Stou ffer's Co ncou rse Hote l 9801 Na tura l Bridge, St. Lo uis, MO 63134 314-429-11 00 Course Dir.: Ray Overman 314-569- 11 79

Cou rse Contact: Joa n Sha nkin 314-569-11 79 This course is cond uc ted in conjunc ti on w ith the Mid -West Coaches Confe re nce. Sun, Aug 20, 1989 Po rtla nd, O R 9:00-4:00 pm Multno mah A thlet ic Club Course Dir.: Y. (Sa m) Sa nd mire 208-385-1657 Course Cont act: Cindy Lo rd 101 29 S.W. Pauline Dr., Tualatin, O R 97062 Thi s course is co nd ucted in conjunctio n w ith the USGF Region II Congress. Tue & Wed, Aug. 22-23, 1989 Glas to nbury, CT 9:00-12:00 noon (both days) N abuc School, 83 Griswold St. Glasto nbury, CT 06033 Course Dir.: Joa n Hicks 203-386-1340 Cou rse Contact: Robert Duni 203-659-2711 x 327 Wed, Au g. 23, 1989 Chi cago, IL 9:00-4:00 pm Whitney Young Rec reati o n Cente r 210 S. Loo mis, C hi cago, IL 60607 Course Dir: Gerry Denk 312-564-3420 Sun , Aug, 27, 1989 Roches ter, NY 9:00-4:00 pm Gy mnas ti cs Training Cente r of Roches ter 1606 Penfeld Rd, Rochester, NY 14625 Course D ir. : Sara h Jane Bernhard t 716-586-9.580 Thur & Sun, Sept 14 & 17, 1989 Philadelph ia, PA 215-581-5000 Adams Ma rk Ho tel City Ave. ,md Monume nt Rd. Philadelphia, PA 1913 1 In conjun cti o n w ith the USG F Congress. Th ur Course - co nducted by severa l USGF Na tio nal Certi fie rs. Fri Course - cond ucted by Dr. George Co nt act USG F Office 3 17-237-5050 Sun, Sept 17, 1989 Haw tho rn, IJ 10:00-5:00 pm Elite G ymnas ti cs 80 Fifth Ave, Ha wt horne, N) 07506 201-432-4040 Course Dir. : Ca thy Finkel 201 -263-1325

General Points of Information 1. The text book for the Certification Course is the USGF GYMNASTICS SAFETY MANUAL. This text/ reference manual is to be purchased and studied prior to course participation. Availabe through USGF Merchandise. 2. The course will take approximately six hours, including the test. 3. The Course fee is $100.00 (retest cost is $25.00). NOTE: Special Group Rates are available, contact the USGF office. 4. Certification is good for four years.


Participation Registration Form

Name: Mr. / Mrs./ Ms._ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _SOc. Sec. # _ _ _ _ _ __ Address: _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ __ __ _ __ __ _ _ _ __ City:_ _ _ __ _ _ __ __ ___ State:_ _ _ _ _ _Zip _ __ _ Telephone: (H) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (B) _ __ _ _ _ _ _ __ Course Director:____ _________ ______ ______ Course Location: Date:- - - - - Organization Represented: _____ _ _ _____________ If USGF Member, List Type and Number_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Form of Payment: Name on Card : Expiration Date:






Mastercard Number: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Signature: _______________

Please make checks payable in full to LTSGF SAFETY CERTIFICATIO N Mail Registration Form and Payment to Respective Cou rse Con tact. DO N OT WRITE BELOW TH IS LI NE • FOR OFFICE USE ON LY

USGF Department of Safety, Pan American Plaza, Suite 300, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Indianapolis, IN 46225, 317/ 237-5050

Sports Physiology

How Much Sleep Is Enough? he purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between hours of sleep and the subjects' perceived physiological responses using the Rate of Perceived Exertion scale. Fourteen students from the University of Mississippi, twelve males and two females, enrolled in Methodology of Tumbling, were selected as subjects. Four times throughout the semester the subjects participated in thirty minutes of gymnastics skills and at the completion of this period recorded their hours of sleep from the previous night and recorded their perceived physiologic response to


Jacalyn J. Robert University of Mississippi

Table 1. Spearman's Rank Order Correlation Between Hours of Sleep and Perceived Physiologic Response Dates of Readings

Correlation Coefficients

September 4 September 24 October 15 October 30 November 13 Means for Class

.6778 4932* 1393 .5138* -.2034 .4860*

Level of Significance

.004 .037 .317 .030 .243 .041

we get our sleep, but do we perform better? Shepard (1984) stated that acute biological clocks are important to the precise timing of both internal and external cues. In no other sport is the timing of movements as synchronized with internal cues dependent upon our biological clocks as gymnastics. Being off a split second can result in point ded uction in competition. Sports' scientists need to examine the relationship between sleep and athletic performance. The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between hours of sleep and perceived physiological performance. Researchers have pointed to the serious psychological and physical problems that accompany chronic sleep loss: mental fatigue, muscle pain, depression and apathy, lack of coordination, and blurred vision (Gable, 1985). Even ordinary sleepiness can cause mistakes, according to a study conducted by Dr. Torbjorn Akersledt of the Karobinska Institute in Stockhold (Long, 1987) .

Methods Subjects The 14 subjects were comprised of 12 men and two women ages 19 - 21 enrolled in the fall 1987 Methodology ofTumblingClass at the University of Mississippi.

Instrumentation The subjects assessed their bodies' physiological--responses to the exercises using the Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale (RPE). This scale consisted of a range of values from zero (nothing at all) to 10 (very, very strong maximal) (American College of Sports Medicine, 1986). This self-report scale has been shown to be valid in assessing perceptual response to physical work (Borg & Noble, 1974) and has test-retest reliabilities of .80 and higher (Skinner, Hustler, Bergsteinova, and Burkirk, 1973). It has been used in various studies to record exercise intensity (Beeker, RJ., Dahm, G.T., Israel, RG., Tapscott, E.B., 1986; Ben-Ezra, V.,Hardy,C.,McMurray,R,1986;Sancocie,C.C., Sancocie, K.P., Slone, M.H., 1984). The subjects recorded their hours of sleep from the previous night in integers to the nearest half hour.

the skills of that day. A Spearman Rank Correlation was computed between the subjects' hours of sleep and perceived physiologic responses. The mean correlation coefficient of .4860 (P =.041) indicates that there is a significant relationship between hours of sleep and perceived performance. How much sleep is enough for peak performance? According to Dr. German Nina-Marcia, Director of the Sleep Disorders Clinic at Stanford University, needs vary from two hours to 10 hours (Gable, 1985). Ourneeds tend to be individual and are dependent upon physiological factors such as diet, health, age, genetics as well as psychological factors such as motivation, desire and emotional state of mind. In general if you are deprived of sleep, you will not perform as well. In a study sponsored by the U.S. Olympic Committee (Gable, 1985) 100 male athletes completed the questionnaires on their sleep habits which reOn September 4, September 24, October 16, vealed they were sleeping up to nine hours a day. Common sense tells us that we feel better when October 30, and November 13,1988, the subjects



July-September 1989 TECHNIQUE

participated in 30 minutes of gymnastics skills ranging from strength and balance skills, tumbling skills, and dance and locomotor skills. At the end of the 30 minute period the subjects rated their perceived physiologic response to the skill by circling the value which corresponded to their response intensity using the RPE. In addition, they recorded the number of hours they had slept the previous night to the nearest half hour integer. The data derived from the recorded hours of sleep and perceived physiologic rating scale was statistically analyzed using the Spearman Rank Correlation between subjects hours and within subjects groups on each date independent of the other dates. The mean hours of recorded sleep were also correlated with the mean of the perceived physiologic response for the sample period.

Results Table 1 depicts the correlation coefficients and significance levels obtained from the Spearman Rank Correlation between the subjects' hours of sleep and perceived physiologic response for the five observations and the mean of the five observations. For a one-tailed test, the correlation coefficient needed for p at the .05 level with n = 14 is .456. For September 4, the correlation coefficient was .6778, (P = .004). For September 24, the correlation coefficient was .4932, (P = .037). For October 15, the correlation coefficient was .1393, (P = .317). For October 30, the correlation coefficient was .5138, (P = .030). For November 13, the correlation coefficient was -.2034, (P = .243) . The mean correlation coefficient was .4860, (P = .041).

Discussion In reference to table 1, the highest perceived physiologic response performance level was recorded with eight hours of sleep on September 4 and 24, and seven hours of sleep on September 4, five and nine hours of sleep on September 24, and six hours on October 30. This is also in agreement with Salzman (1985), a biologist at the State University of New York in Binghampton, who states that athletes may need more sleep for top performance levels. In a study in 1984 of U.S. Olympic Team athletes, it was recorded that compared to recreational athletes their age, these athletes were sleeping longer - up to nine hours a day (Gable,1985) . On October 15 and November 13 (Table 1) the relationships are insignificant. The relationship between sleep and performance may seem like common sense but because of training conditions, travel, jet lag, and competi-

TECHNIQUE July-September 1989

tive anxiety, athletes may be chronically sleep deprived. It is time for coaches to recognize the link between sleep and peak athletic performance. At some point in life, one out of every two people develops a sleeping problem and athletes are among that number (Gable, 1985). Relaxation techniques should be a part of the athletes training regime in order to produce top performance. In conclusion, the investigator feels that there is a direct correlation between sleep and performance. The mean correlation coefficient of .4860 (P = .041) indicates that there is a direct relationship between hours of sleep and perceived performance. How many hours each individual performer needs depends on his biological clock, health, diet, age, and training regime. Even ordinary sleepiness can cause mistakes, according to Dr. Akerstedt (Long, 1987). The fact is if you are sleep deprived you are not going to perform as well.

References 1. American College of Sports Medicine. (1986). Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription (3rd ed.). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger.' 2. Beeker, RJ., Dohm, G.T., Israel, RG., & Tapscott, E.B. (1986). Metabolic responses to exercise in fasting humans. American College of Sports Medicine Conference Abstract, 13,5. 3. Ben-Ezra, V., Hardy, c., McMurray, R (1986). The effects of high intensity training on the subjective perception of work during state exercise. American College of Sports Medicine Conference Abstracts, 13, 14. 4. Borg, G., Noble, B.E. (1974). Perceived exertion. In J. Wilmore (Ed.). Exercise and Sport Science Review, 2, 131 -153. 5. Gable, M. (1985). The sleep factor - how your night time habits affect performance. Women's Sports, 7, 42 - 43. 6. Long, M. (1987) . What is this thing called sleep. National Geographic, 6, 787 - 821. 7. Sancocie, c.c., Sancocie, K.P., Stone, M.H. (1984). The effect of acute caffeine ingestion on muscle endurance in weight trained males and females. American College of Sports Medicine Conference Abstracts, 11, 40. 8. Skinner, J.S., Hustler, R, Bergsteinoba, V., Buskirk, E.R (1973). Perception of effort during different types of exercise. 9. Shepard, RJ. (1984). Sleep, biorhythm and human performance. Sports Medicine, I, 11.


There is a direct correlation between sleep and performance . .. The fact is, if you are sleep deprived you are not going to perform as well.

Exercise Physiology

Muscle Force: The Stabilizer he muscle contraction and resulting force does more for the gymnast than move a body segment. Although a muscle force is relied upon for moving a segment at a joint, providing joint integrity (stability) is also important. Consequently, there are two significant outcomes in a muscle force: to move a body segment and to stabilize a joint. Movement of a body segment, such as the lower arm, cannot take place unless the elbow joint is held together or possess stability. A gymnast relies on both ligaments and muscle contraction to provide stability at a joint. Therefore, by increasing muscular strength, it is possible to improve the ability to move a body segment as well as elevate joint integrity during performance. Understanding force concepts and relevant mechanical principles reinforce the importance of improving muscular strength.


William L. Cornelius, Ph.D.

University of North Texas

Concepts of Muscle Force Muscle force. A muscle force is a vector quantity. This simply means that a force can be represented as having direction and magnitude (amount). Figure 1 demonstrates a muscle force represented by an arrow. The arrow indicates line of pull (direction) and magnitude of the musleforce.



Y Axis 2


o Figure 1


2 X Axis




Resultant Force Resultant force. The resultant force is synonymous with net force. A resultant represents the components (makeup) or the way a force is put together. Therefore, a gymnast's muscle contraction can be resolved into angular (rotary) and stabilizing (fixating) force components. Figure 2 indicates the resultant vector and related force components. The effect of a resultant force is highly dependent on the angle at which the muscle attaches to the bone (segment) to be moved. Therefore, the significant attachment is the muscle insertion. The muscle insertion is the point at which the force magnitude is represented. On the other hand, the opposite muscle attachment (origin) near the shoulder joint represents the direction of the pull. A base or larger bone is often associated with the origin. The origin provides a foundation upon which the muscle can attach in order to effect change in segment position at the insertion.

Stabilizing Force Component Stabilizing force component. A stabilizing force component represents one part of the resultant force and is directed into the joint. This line of force action assists in holding the joint together (refer to Figure 2). Consequently, stabilization of an articulation, such as the elbow joint, can be partly influenced (held together) during flexion by an elbow flexor (biceps brachii). The magnitude of stabilization is dependent upon the angle of insertion of such a muscle. Figure 3 exemplifies change in the force components when the ~ngle of insertion (at the resultant) is altered. A larger stabilizing component (Figure 3a) is present when the angle of insertion is smaller. This is the case when the elbow joint is near full extension. The stabilizing component begins to reduce in force magnitude, and the angular force component increases in magnitude, when more elbow flexion occurs (Figure 3b). Although the ability to move a segment is improved when the angle of muscle insertion is at or near 90 degrees, there is little or no stabilizing of the joint during muscle contraction. Greater reliance on ligaments for joint stability and less on muscle force characterizes the 90 degree angle of insertion. In fact, Figure 3c demonstrates maximum magnitude in the angular force component at 90 degrees because there is minimal force being directed toward stabilizing. July-September 1989 TECHNIQUE

The resultant and the angular component coexist without a stabilizing force component.

VA: Upper Aim

LA. !! l Q;vII Arm



Rfsu ltlnl \'f(\Ot

• •• •

An~ [ar Fot'QI Com~on~n l

__ St.abiljl jn\l f orc.. compcnenl~~

Gymnastics performances can be very stressful to the human joint. The gymnast, therefore, can rely on strong muscles and particular angles of muscle insertion to assist ligaments in providing joints with adequate integrity. High levels of muscular strength and performance technique that will enhance the appropriate angle of muscle insertion, provide the gymnast with added joint stability. Consequently, gymnastics performance and joint injury can be positively influenced with appropriate changes in the angle at which the muscle attaches to the bone.

" "





\ /\ \ \


A gymnast relies on both ligaments and muscle


contraction to provide stability at a joint.


Figure 2

Figure 3a. Large slabilizing



Smaller stabiliz ing

Figure 3c. No stabilizing

Figure 3 TECHN IQUE JIIly-September 1989


Sports Me!dicine

Muscles, Bruises And Strains A bruise is an injury to a body tissue caused by external force applied to the body. One of the most common injuries sustained by athletes, regardless of a particular sport, is a contusion, commonly called a bruise. Although a bruise can occur to the skin, to the subcutaneous tissue, or to the bone, in athletics the term bruise usually means an injury to the muscle. Essentially, the muscle bruise is tissue damage caused by an external force applied to the muscle or sustained when the body strikes an external object. In other words, either the body is struck by an object, or the body runs into or falls onto something like a pole, the ground, a bench, etc.

Dr. Douglas W. Jackson

Figure 1

Unknown to most, an interesting bit of folklore is nevertheless associated with the muscle bruise. In the 1890' s, a white horse named Charley pulled a leveling device on the infield of a Sioux City, Iowa, baseball field. Poor Charley had a characteristic limp and the players used to say "Here Comes Charleyhorse". The saying caught on, and its use spread to many other athletic circles, then into common usage, and a muscle bruise came to be known as a "Charleyhorse". Although the term is occa,sionally used incorrectly to mean a muscle cramp, it really refers to a muscle bruise or contusion of the muscle on the front of the thigh. With a muscle bruise, the damage to the muscle 18

itself, although potentially disabling for a short time, is usually temporary. There is usually local bleeding associated with this type of injury, which is the cause of the almost immediate swelling and discomfort. The bleeding can continue oozing until there is enough pressure built up in the area of the muscle to stop it. The bleeding may work its way to the surface or, if the insult is near the surface of the skin, a bluish discoloration, called an ecchymosis (the typical ''black and blue mark"), may result. However, a deep muscle bruise can be present even if there is no visible discoloration. The disability resulting from a bruise is directly related to the amount of actual muscle and tissue damage, and the amount of bleeding that results. The more ex~ensive the bleeding and swelling, the longer the recovery period will be. Although we know a bruise will heal even if nothing is done to treat it, when athletic participation or competition is involved, it is usually important for the gymnast to minimize the effects of such an injury and hasten the recovery period where possible. The best way to diminish the extent of disability related to a muscle bruise is to control the bleeding and swelling when the damage occurs. Apply ice to the area of the bruise as quickly as possible. A compression dressing such as an elastic wrap, and elevation of the injured part, will also help. Resting the injured muscle initially is very important for recovery and tends to shorten the period of disability. Te be sure a muscle bruise or Charleyhorse is healed, be sure that muscle function and strength have been re-established before the gymnast returns to play. There must be a return of the full range of motion in joints adjacent to the bruised area with muscle function restored in the entire extremity. The surface discoloration (black and blue mark) may take some time to resolve but its presence does not preclude the gymnast from returning to participation. A special complication of a muscle bruise is a condition called myositis ossificans. An occasional athlete will experience a muscle contusion so severe that the healing process is disturbed and the body begins to deposit bone in the area of the bruise in reaction to the severe inflammation and damage to the muscle cells and surrounding tissue. Myositis ossificans is most likely to occur in large muscles such as the thigh muscle (quadriceps) and in the muscle on the front of the upper arm (brachialis). There is significant swelling and

July-September 1989 TECHNIQUE

inflammation when this process occurs. This abnormal bone formation caused by injury is, on occasion, confused with a malignant tumor. Parents should remember that myositis ossificans is not a form of cancer and does not change into cancer with time. There is usually no specific treatment for the problem of myositis ossificans, once the abnormal deposit of bone has taken place. On occasion, where bony tissue interferes with muscle function, it may be removed surgically. Prevention of muscle bruising is sometimes possible. The use of special pads or guards has resulted from past experience with repeated bruising of athletes in many sports. For example, in soccer the shins are very vulnerable to being kicked and shinguards are used. In football, where the thigh muscles are vulnerable, players wear thigh pads for protection. The list goes on and on, but the principle is the same-the value of protective equipment should not be underestimated, and the gymnast should be encouraged or required to wear it whenever practicing. A gymnast who suffers injury severe enough to produce great swelling, pain and limitation of motion of an adjacent joint should be evaluated by a physician who is knowledgeable about sports injuries, to be sure the damage is to the muscle alone, and not to the bone itself, the growth plate or the ligaments of the adjacent joint.

A Grade II strain involves tearing of either the muscle or tendon fibers, and will take two to three weeks to heal. The injured part requires protection from further injury and rest during this time, and may require rehabilitation to re-establish full muscle function. A Grade III strain is much more serious and involves a complete rupture of the muscle or tendon unit. Although this type of injury is rare in the growing gymnast, it can occur. This type of injury to the tendon usually requires surgery to repair the tendon, although occasionally splinting alone may suffice if it is the muscle that ruptures. A "pulled muscle" is the common term for a muscle strain, and a hamstring pull (the hamstring muscles are those on the back part of the thigh) is one of the more common strains. As with the other injuries around or near a joint, the pos-

Muscle Strain A strain is an injury to a muscle-tendon unit. A muscle-tendon unit provides power and strength resulting in movement of the joint. Injury to any part of this unit is called a strain, and should be differentiated from the sprain or ligament injury. The fibers of a muscle contract or shorten, causing the movement of the joint. The size, strength and condition of the muscle determine the force transmitted through the tendon. The tendon attaches the muscle to the bone and is tough, fibrous and usually resistant to tearing. Muscles produce the power and tendons transmit it to the bone, resulting in joint motion, or body movement. The muscle-tendon unit can be injured several ways. Tears in the muscle fibers themselves are common, and the resulting injury is called a muscle strain. Tearing of the tendon fibers at the junction with the muscle, or in the substance of the tendon itself, or at the tendon attachment to bone, are called tendon strains. Although it is possible to injure both ligaments and muscle-tendon units at the same time, this is a less common, very severe injury. More commonly, the injury involves one or the other, not both, especially in the gymnast. Like sprains, strains are graded as to severity. A mild strain in which fibers of the muscle-tendon unit are damaged but not tom is a Grade I strain. The swelling and discomfort from this injury may take five to 10 days to resolve. TECHNIQUE July-September 1989




Figure 2

sibility of a growth plate injury must be considered if pain or disability is severe or prolonged. Careful evaluation by a physician knowledgeable in diagnosis and treatment of this type of injury is important. Again, ice compression, elevation and rest will help to limit and resolve the swelling and bleeding associated with muscle-tendon strains. Crutches may help to reduce use of the injured area or splinting, bracing or casting may be needed, depending upon the severity of the injury. Full recovery from a strain requires an adequate period of time for the muscle-tendon unit to heal, and assurance that the unit has returned to its previous strength. Rehabilitation may include muscle strengthening exercises 'prescribed by a physician, sometimes under the supervision of a physical therapist. 19

A gymnast.who suffers injury severe enough to produce great swelling, pain and limitation of motion of an adjacent joint should be evaluated by a physician who is knowledgeable about sports injuries . ..

Grassroots Boys I

Coaching Pommel Horse For Class IV's he pommel horse isn't any fun! This honest statement summed up the feelings a seven year old gymnast had toward this event. He wanted to move on to a fun event like the trampoline. As his coach, who was interested in his overall gymnastics development, I told him, ''We are going to do horse anyway. I'll try and make it fun for you." Pommel horse is hard enough for a highly trained elite gymnast. Imagine what it must be like for a seven-year-old boy just getting started with the sport! One of the major difficulties a gymnast in this age group has to deal with is coping with a pommel horse body that is too large for his size. Other complexities which arise from coaching this group and this event stem from the short attention span of boys between the ages of seven and nine, dealing with the typically high gymnast to coach ratio of 10 to one, and pinpointing a way to overcome the monotony of teaching non-acrobatic type skills that are associated with this event. The coach at this level must address these difficulties and stifle the negative attituae many class IV's have toward pommel horse. If the coach is to adequately prepare these youngsters for a successful future in gymnastics, he must find ways to teach the right things, and still make it "enjoyable." While trying to make the event fun, it is also critical to use correct training techniques, motivation, and progressions which are essential to a gymnast's development.


Mark Williams The University

of Oklahoma

Physical And Psychological Demands Physically, a gymnast performing on the pommel horse must develop specific mu~cular strength and flexibility in various parts of his body. He also needs agility, quickness, and some physical endurance. The hands, wrists, shoulders and the girdle of the hip are specific areas of the body which need muscular strength developed. Through specific strengthening exercises and the actual repetition of pommel horse skills, these areas will develop the physical strength to meet the demands placed upon them. Flexibility in these anatomical parts, along with an extended toe point, are essential for the correct and esthetically pleasing performance of most skills on the horse. Psychologically, a gymnast doing pommel horse must have the ability to concentrate on a task, the kinesthetic awareness of his body in 20

relation to the horse, a sense of diligence and perseverance to perform many repetitions toward accomplishing a skill or routine, the willpower to overcome the many frustrations and obstacles that get in the way of immediate successes, and a competitiveness that propels him to reach his goals. The introduction of in-the-gym contests and Class IV gymnastics competitions allow the gymnast the opportunity to broaden these cerebral and physical skills at an early age.

Basic Movements The basic movements on the pommel horse may be broken down into four categories. These categories are single leg movements, double leg circles, flairing circles, and transitional movements. Single leg movements are leg cuts, forward and backward scissors, and scissors with a turn, a hop or to a handstand. Double leg skills include the basic circle, travels, hops, spindling actions, stocklis, and kehres. Flairing circles are the Thomas flair circles performed on various parts of the horse; and transitional movements are skills moving from one category to another. It is the acquisition of these basic movements that will lead to the advancement of a gymnast's ability on pommel horse.

Stations And Equipment Before detailing the drills and progressions necessary for good pommel horse, it is advantageous to point out supplementary equipment and stations which can be used along with the standard pommel horse. These extra pieces of equipment may be set up as separate stations for gymnasts during a particular workout. The stations help to enhance the number of repetitions done in a practice and encourage simple progressions toward a difficult skill. The following is a list of different apparatus that are useful for learning pommel horse movements: See figure 1.

Rotation 1 1) The vaulting horse - the vaulting horse may be used to learn loops, cross support circles, and longitudinal travels. 2) A pommel horse without legs or mats stacked-up to the body of the horse - the lowered height of the horse promotes extension of the

July-September 1989 TECHNIQUE

circles and lessens the fear of a long fall. 3) The buck with or without pommels - the shortened ends allow for free movements to each side. 4) Ground pommels - these force the gymnast to increase the height and extension of his circles. 5) Taping the figure of a horse on the floor this may be used like the above apparatus. Front and rear supports with extension should be stressed. 6) The mushroom - the rounded surface makes learning circles and flairs easier. 7) The bucket - placing the feet in a suspended bucket helps develop the rhythm and strength needed to do circles without having to support one's total weight. 8) A horse under the parallel bars - pendulum swings in an upper arm position add to one's shoulder strength and helps develop the motions of good scissor work. 9) Attaching mats on top of the horse's body - the elevated areas facilitate traveling movements to the pommels and leather.

Drills And Progressions The first order of business is to create a rotation of stations which move in a circular fashion. If there are 10 class IV gymnasts in the group, set up about eight equipment stations, a rest station, and a routine preparation station. At each of the equipment stations, a different progression or drill should be emphasized. Set up the stations, assign a team member at each station, and have each gymnast rotate from station to station by following the person in front of him. After each gymnast completes the circuit once or twice, change the drills at each station. Here are two examples of circuits devoted to teaching class IV's better pommel horse:

Circuit Rotation 1 Station #1 The first station is where the coach spends most of his time and devotes his attention to one on one instruction. Therefore, make this station the standard pommel horse. During the gymnast's first turn, have him do basic straddle swings in front and rear support. At all times, the gymnast's hands should be in contact with the pommels and the hand placement should be slightly in front of center. The coach may spot the swing by lifting the gymnast's top leg to promote a greater straddle and increase the movement of the hips. Station #2 The second station is another standard pommel horse. Here the gymnast performs leg cuts. The leg cuts are done rhythmically at all times; the head is in a neutral position; and the legs are straddled as wide as possible. The hip position should remain square with the horse during the whole sequence. The cuts begin with the right leg forward (total of four cuts) then the left forward, TECHNIQUE July-September 1989

right back then left back. This sequence should be repea ted three times. Station #3 The third station is a buck horse with pom-

1. Vaulting Horse

2. Pommel Horse with Mats Set up

3. Buck horse with pommels

4. Ground pommels

5. Taped outline of the horse on the floor

6. Mushroom

7. Bucket

8. Parallel bars with horse 9.

Horse with mats on top

mels. The gymnast at this apparatus will do a feint to feint exercise. The gymnast starts by bringing one leg straddled around a pommel. As the legs are swung in the back, they should come together and swing through an arched planche position. The legs should be swung from side to side in rear support. The body is straight and the feet are horse high. At the conclusion of two or three swings, the gymnast may swing his body forward over the pommel to a rear support position. Station #4 The fourth station is the vaulting horse. At this station, the class IV athlete walks the length of the horse with support on his hands and his legs stay in a straddle L position. The gymnast may walk forward and backward across the top surface of the horse several times. This is a wrist and shoulder strengthening exercise. Station #5 The fifth station is a designated rest area. The gymnast at this station should not be talking or distracting the other team members, but should 21

Figure 1

be quiet and resting for the next routine. Station #6 The sixth station is ground pommels with feet in the bucket. The gymnast does 20 circles or more depending on the length of time in that rotation. Station #7 The seventh station is the mushroom. Here the gymnast does as many consecutive circles as possible in three or four turns. Station #8 The eighth station is the taped outline of a horse drawn on the floor. The gymnast should do front and back supports in a straight or an overextended body position. After doing each support twice, the gymnast may then take a feint step and do a 1/ 2 circle to rear support. Station #9 The ninth station is a mushroom that has a shorter diameter across its top than the first mushroom station. The smaller top makes the gymnast perform more accurate hand placements and begins the action toward doing single pommel work. Station #10 The tenth station is a routine preparation area. Though the gymnast may be too young to do mental visualization skills, he should pretend to do his routine in his head. This preparation station helps set the stage for the waiting that occurs in between competing at class IV competitions. It is also the foundation by which mental imagery techniques can be built as the gymnast grows older.

Through the use of well choreographed coaching of the basic movements, supplemental equipment and stations, and the proper progressions and drills, the physical and psychological demands of the pommel horse at these age groups can be met.

Rotation 2 Station #1 In this rotation, the class IV routine is performed on the standard pommel horse. Station #2 On the other standard pommel horse, the gymnast executes the sequence of front false scissor, front false scissor, front scissor. The sequence is done on each side two or three times. The coach may help spot these scissors to help promote a wide straddle while keeping an eye on the routines done on station #l. Station #3 On the buck horse, four reverse scissors are done in succession. After this drill is completed, a reverse scissor, leg cut, and pickup into a 1/2 circle may be attempted. Station #4 The vault horse station has the gymnast doing several loop circles into a loop around action. If the gymnast can perform this with some proficiency, the next step would be to add circles in


side support turning to a back loop circle. Station #5Rest. Station #6 Using the ground pommels and the bucket, the gymnast will add moores and back moores between the 20 circles. Station #7 At the mushroom, the gymnast attempts a circle into a straddle circle. With time and proper direction, these straddled circles develop into flairing circles. Station #8 This station is changed to pendulum swings with straddled legs while in the upper arm position on the parallel bars. The gymnast finishes this rotation with 10 reverse push-ups with the legs resting on the parallel bar rails. Station #9 - Add a single pommel to the smaller mushroom, and position higher mats around its base. The gymnast will do a feint step, 1/2 circle to rear support, and slide back to front su pport while su pporting his weight on the single pommel. Station #10 - Preparation station. After about 30 minutes of this circuit training, the team may gather together for some pommel horse contests. Individually, the coach can post a record board listing the maximum number of circles performed on the mushroom, buck, and the pommel horse for each gymnast. As the team, the coach may also list the total circles accomplished when each member takes one turn. Other contests might include judging the routines and allowing the highest scorer to be first in line, separating the group into two teams and having them compete against each other doing routines or circles, or challenging the groups to do 10 circles by each team member on the mushroom in the least amount of time.

Summary The coach of class IV gymnasts must make workouts on the pommel horse exciting, entertaining, and enjoyable. Because it is a difficult event at any age level, getting gymnasts of this age group to work on skill progressions and drills on as many stations as possible will lead to further advancement and will present enough variety to keep them from getting bored. Through the use of well choreographed coaching of the basic movements, supplemental equipment and stations,and the proper progressions and drills, the physical and psychological demands of the pommel horse at these age groups can be met.

Jllly-September 1989 TECHNIQUE

Technical Researeh'-----'

Study Of The One Arm Giant Swing he "one arm giant swing backward" has been a new and unique motion style. Our training practice shows that the one arm giant swing can, not only, develop into a pirouette and grip change (hop), but also can develop into a high difficulty movement such as the Jaegar, and/ or a dismount. Thus, the current study of the technique and characteristics of the one arm giant swing will have considerable significance in the development of high bar techniques in both practice and theory.


Method According to the "strain dynamometric principle," our study used a two dimensional analysis using a strain guage. The two dimensions were Nx and Ny. The strain guage was sampled at 50 samples/second. This method was used to collect data from six athletes who were considered the best at the backward one arm giant swing in the country. According to N=sqr(NyI\2+NxI\2), we made a composite force curve to graphically analyze the kinetics. See Figure 1. We also used 16mrn film analysis equipment to measure the location of the center of gravity and to determine angular and linear velocities. Then according to the displacement of the center of gravity we determined the angular speed of the center of gravity from film data.

Results 1. The center of gravity must shift toward the support hand smoothly. The study showed that the release of one hand prior to performing the one arm giant must be preceded by a shifting of the body's center of gravity toward the intended support hand prior to release of the nonsupport hand. This will ensure that the center of gravity will indeed folIowa circular path during the one arm giant. 2. The best moment (time) for release of the nonsupport hand.

sec). The bes.t position to release the hand should be above the high bar at approximately 20-30 degrees off vertical. In the case of a slow angular speed of the body, the centripetal (center seeking) force will also be reduced. This will result in increased bend of the bar downward. Under these conditions the body will be acted upon by three outside forces, Gravity (downward), horizontal component force at the bar, and vertical component force at the bar. A variety :of calculations were performed that derived the following table of characteristics of the performers at the moment of hand release.

Lu Enchun, Head Coach, Chinese National Gymnastics Team

Translation: Jiang Zhenying with W.A. Sands, PhD. University of Utah

Table 1 shows that support reacting force is inversely proportional to angular speed. The tangential force-is inversely proportional to the angle from vertical above the bar when release occurs. As the release of one hand occurs the weight of

The Comp,lrison ot Kinem,1tics & Kinl'tic . . Whill' I'ertorming the Rell',1 . . l' trom thl' B,w VARIABLE


Angle from Vertical (deg) Shoulder Angle (deg) Hip Angle (deg) Bar Reaction Force X (kgf)(Horiz) Force Y (kgf) (Vert) Resultant (kgf) Tangential Force (kgf) Tangential Acceleration (m / s"2) Centripetal Force (kgf) Angylar Speed (radian/ sec) (deg/sec) apprx. Centripetal Acceleration (m/ s"2)






















5.00 46.00 46.30

7.00 27.00 28.00

0.00 3.00 3.90

1.50 14.60 14.70

7.00 14.20 15.80

8.50 26.00 27.40



















1.24 71.20

2.06 118.20

3.09 172.20

2.40 137.80

2.14 122.80

1.80 227.30







The study showed that in order to allow enough time for the center of gravity to get in line with the support hand, the velocity of the center of gravity should not be too fast. The optimum speed should be around 1-3 radian/sec (approximately 172 deg/ TECHNIQUE July-September 1989

Table 1


the body soon begins to press down on the bar also but is somewhat delayed in time. The athlete should be made aware of this somewhat delayed force component and maintain an active shoulder girdle elevation to counteract it. 3. The position and application of "Imponderability" (weightless period - W.A.S.). Research showed that during the downward and upward swing of the one arm giant a period of time occurred when the normal gravitational

Comparison of Maximum Reaction Forces During a One Arm Giant Swing Backward VAlUABLE





215 202

Times Body Wt





3.5 Unreadable

Angle of Max







force component equalled the centripetal force component. Under this circumstance "the athlete felt neither pushing down on the bar, a feeling of being pulled away from the bar (See table 2). In this study we found that phase of weightlessness occurred from 47° to 63° behind the vertical and above the bar during the downswing, the average was approximately 54°. The weightless phase during the upswing occurred 24° to 46° forward of the vertical and above the bar, the average was approximately 37°. During this weightless phase, the hand is free. At this moment of the swing downward the athlete should seek to adjust his grip (overgrip) for the impending downswing. During the upswing the athlete could use this weightless period to perform hops, pirouettes, etc. 4. The mechanical principles and techniques characteristic of the "hanging swing downward." As soon as the motion begins in the downswing the angular speed is continuously increasing, the normal component force of gravity is causing an acceleration of the body downward. The reaction force on the bar is increasing at this time also. As the normal force component of gravity is straight downward and not in line with


This study found that the maximal stress of "hanging" on the bar did not occur at the vertical (vertical directly beneath the bar W.A.S.), but slightly before the vertical during the descent phase. This was closely related to the occurrence of the "whip flap wave" technique (tap - W.A.S.).


Maximum React. Force (kg£) 209

Table 2

the bar the result is to increase the outward and downward force component when the body is in a position below horizontal. This results in an increasing demand on the gymnast to provide the centripetal force necessary to hold on to the bar. The period of time while the gymnast is above horizontal the resultant of gravity and centripetal forces helps press the gymnast into the bar. The force necessary to hold onto the bar was calculated to be as high as 150-215kgf (300-473 1bf several times body weight W.A.S.).

Performing the whip flap wave (tap) will produce' twisting of the trunk and lower limbs, revolving around the arm. The angular speed and linear velocity of the center of gravity will be decreasing as a result of this. As a result, during the process of approaching the vertical line directly beneath the bar, the total reacting force (N) will decrease (See Figure 1). Due to the decreasing angular speed the rotational kinetic energy will also decrease. This decrement is reasonable and will later assist the athlete in using a powerful abdominal contraction to whip the legs upward during the upswing. 5. The mechanical principles and techniques characteristic of the hanging swing upward. As soon as the center of gravity passes through the vertical line directly below the bar the motion moves into the upswing period. According to calculations, when the peak reaction force of the bar is increased, angular speed of the giant will also increase. This will result in a more explosive upswing. Our research found that among the subjects those with a great whip flap wave (tap) during the swing upward the peak reaction force can reach 153-213(kgf). For those who have less power during the leg tap, the total reaction force will be less and the maximum power peak in the upswing will not appear. We also found that when L. Zhou performed his one arm giant swing with pirouette and flip regrasp, his ankle linear velocity was as fast as 12.34 m/ s. He also showed increasing velocity of his shoulder and hip during the upswing. This is why his performance is so outstanding.

July-September 1989 TECHNIQUE

Conclusion 1. This research advanced the principles of body stress dynamics (tapping - W.A.S.)

2. The weightless phases are not symmetrical in both the downswing and upswing with regard to angle of occurrence. This is very important and should be carefully trained and coached, since the overgrip and the potential hops, releases, and pirouettes occur during these phases.

: '-'.

-..... '~--f'.


.r '

J "




i :\ : j


i\: l'

.i ~i , J :' it

3. The maximum power of swing downward oc-

curs right before the vertical line below the bar, which has a great relationship with the tap technique employed. Maximum power occurs during this phase. With any modification of the one arm giant swing the tap phase is critical. The speed and power of the one arm giant swing tap phase must be carefully and thoroughly trained.




'\'b : ... . . , 7"''. ...;t




I :' .,

i: \.

........ j' ! \'

'-... . . . . ./'\)



( -so).



(-100) . • 00

(-ISO . So

Figure 1









t Table 3

1989 WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS TEAM TRIALS FOR WOMEN The top 16 Women in the U.S., determined by the U.S. Gymnastics Championships and petitions, will compete on September 23-24, 1989 in the World Championship Team Trials, sponsored by McDonald's. The top eight from this competition will be part of the World Championship squad and will travel to Stuttgart for the competition to be held on October 14 - 22, 1989. The competition schedule is Saturday, September 23, 1989 -- Compulsories at 2:00 p.m. and Sunday, September 24,1989 -- Optionals at 2:00 p.m.

Don's miss this exciting competition as the top U.S. women try to earn a spot on the 1989 World Championship Team!

TECHNIQUE July-September 1989

General Information The following are the top 16 women expected to compete at the World Team Trials:

Date: September 23-24, 1989 Site: Arizona State University Tempe, Arizona

Brandy Johnson Christy Henrich Sandy Woolsey Jenny Ester Wendy Bruce Juliet Bangerter Chelle Stack Kristen Kenoyer Sheryl Dundas Stephanie Woods Lisa Panzironi Chari Knight Kim Kelly Jennifer Mercier Ann Dixon Diane Cushenberry

Ticket Information: (602) 941-3496 Hotel Information: Sheraton Tempe Mission Palms 1-800-547-8705 60 E. 5th St., Tempe, AZ Schedule: Sat. Sept. 23-Compulsories 2:00


At-hlete reparation

The Need For Gymnast Preparation he urge to convince coaches of the overwhelming need for extensive and intensive physical, technical and other Hardy Fink forms of preparation in a gymnast's developmE!nt, has started to become a mania with Canadian me. But the word preparation does not tell the Men's Technical whole story as it seems to imply something that Director has a beginning and an end; something that, when completed, can be dispensed with so that the coaching of skills can begin. In reality, and as the word is intended to be understood in this paper, preparation refers to currently needed ability and capability and, as such, has no end. Preparation should dominate every workP - Physical Preparation out of every P - Psychological Preparation gymnast throughout their A - Artistic or Aesthetic Preparation career. With K - Kinesthetic Preparation adequate prepaT - Technical Preparation ration, all the many &J<ills at T - Tactical Preparation which we labour for weeks, months even years fall readily into place. Preparation is coaching! What we have come too much to understand as coaching is all too often merely ''busy work" and leads more often to frustration and injury than it does to skill acquisition. Each coach I have encountered professes to know how important, especially physical and technical preparation, are to a gymnast's career. Each coach parrots the preparation gospel even as it becomes growingly evident, by the performances of his/her gymnasts, that his/her knowledge and his actions do not coincide; that the professed beliefs and understandings have not been internalized nor translated into preparation programs; that, in effect, his/her : preparation statements are merely the paying of lip service so as to appear to be on the contemporary preparation bandwagon. By preparation, I mean to include six areas of special preparation required by every gymnast and summarized with the letters PPAKTI. Those few who have committed themselves to preparation tend to confine the concept to conditioning or to preparatory training instead of an ongoing, ever escalating and all encompassing preparation program. The most often mentioned of the six PPAKTT preparation factors (the physical and the technical) are best, though still inade-



quately handled. The additional factors of psychological, artistic, kinesthetic and tactical are largely ignored or poorly understood and tend to be de-emphasized for lack of time or capability. I can state unequivocally that without a PPAKTT preparation program all of your efforts and dreams, and those of your gymnasts, will be for nought. Too many of us train endless hours for nought. We waste so much - for nought! What do I mean by the various PPAKTT preparation components?

Physical Preparation This is probably the best known of the six PPAKTT preparation factors as all coaches seem to set aside a special one-half hour for conditioning at the end of most workouts - and, curiously, therein lies much of our poor preparation problem. By physical preparation I don't mean the providing of some conditioning time, but allottments as follows: for beginners, virtually the entire workout; for the beginning competitor, a major part of each workout; for the advanced and international level gymnast, a significant portion every day distributed continuously throughout every workout. Required throughout are the development (to

Physical Preparation

The payoff is: - reduced incidence of injuries and muscle soreness - more sustained, intense and prolonged participation - more rapid recovery from fatigue - generation of greater reaction forces for air time and rotation - faster and more correct skill acquisition - immediately increased skill repertoire (strength and flexibility)

extraordinary levels) of flexibility, strength, power and local muscular endurance of the entire musculo-skeletal system - but especially in the "spring apparatus" (ankles and knees); in the hip July-September 1989 TECHNIQUE

extensors and flexors (kip action and snap up action); and in the shoulder extensors and flexors (manna position and planche press action).

Psychological Preparation Of the PPAKTT preparation components this is probably the least understood and therefore most neglected, at least in a formal sense. Appropriate psychological skills should be introduced on the first day of training and constantly included and added to over time. Among the skills to be gradually introduced and honed over the years are mental rehearsal, coping with chaos and ambiguity, coping with failure, fear and injury, optimal arousal (activa-

Psychological Preparation The payoff is: -enjoyment, motivation and continued participation -greater skill level -consistency in performance -higher scores -greater self-esteem -more competitive success

tion vs. relaxation) for maximum performance, focus control, stress and crisis management, goal setting, competition and pre-competition psychological planning, etc. The gradual accretion of positive psychological skills by the gymnast will occur only if they become an imperative, deliberate and planned part of every training session so that these crucial skills also become automated and automatic.

Artistic or Aesthetic Prepara tion This PPAKIT preparation component also tends to be neglected or, at best, haphazardly included in workouts under the mistaken assumption that the physical and technical preparation will include it. Not so! Intended here is training in ballet and other dance forms, training in rhythm and fluidity of movement, training for posture (not merely body position), training in movement control and enhancement, and attention to grooming, deportment, toe-point, etc. This component will become ever more important in coming years as F.I.G. begins to move in the direction of assigning specific values to choreographic elements and reemphasizes rewards for elegance and virtuosity.

TECHNIQUE July-September 1989

Artistic Preparation The payoff is not trivial: - greater repertoire of skills - higher scores (virtuosity) and fewer deductions - greater self-esteem - more competitive success

Kinesthetic Preparation The importance of this PPAKIT preparation factor is self-evident but not many have recognized that its high level development needs extensive preparation in isolation from the various apparatus. Contemporary and future gymnastics will put more demands on the gymnast's spatial orientation and related kinesthetic abilities. Hundreds, and perhaps thousands, of hours of trampoline and mini-tramp time (with and without pit) are needed for security and competence in the multiple twisting and multiple somersaulting skills which have become de rigueur on most events.

Kinesthetic Preparation The payoff is :

-increased repertoire of contemporary skills and dismounts -greater safety and better landings -bonus points for risk and originality -consistency in performance -higher scores -greater self~esteem -more competitive success

Technical Preparation This PPAKIT preparation component is what, especially in the early months or years of a gymnast's development, is normally thought of as coaching. Technical preparation includes primarily perfect body positions, precise timing, outstanding extension and amplitude in swings and generation of maximum angular and vertical momentum all of which require a concomitant high level of physical preparation. Technical preparation can never be ignored and must often be re-visited with the advancement of the gymnast. A beat, a tap, or a punch which is technically sufficient for a double back will not suffice for an added twist or somersault. Moreover a possible complacency over the double back may have allowed a subtle degeneration in critical preliminary factors. The next level of skill (and its precursors) will require a renewed emphasis on technical preparation and probably on physical, psychological and kinesthetic preparation as well.


Summary Tactical Preparation The payoff is: - increased skill repertoire -greater safety and reduced incidence of injuries - bonus points in all three factors - consistency in performance - higher scores and fewer deductions - greater self-esteem - more com etitive success

Our sport is an accumulation of thePPAKTT

Tactical Preparation This PPAKTT preparation component is perhaps somewhat anomalous but is nevertheless necessary to a complete conception of gymnast preparation. Tactical preparation is relatively unimportant in the early years but requires a gradually increasing commitment or presence in the training environment with the advancement of the gymnast. Included are such things as anticipating problems at the competition site, competition and precompetition plans, coping with strange equipment and environments, understanding place and order on team, covering up in case of error, maximizing score based on rules, etc. all of which become more necessary with time. _ To some extent the concept of tactical preparation can also be understood to include-the proper balancing, interplay and utilization of the other five PPAKTT and other competition preparation factors in a properly periodized training program. In that sense it becomes the most important factor.

preparation components

In all cases the payoff, as indicated, for a PPAKTT preparation program is not trivial: In fact it is highly, highly significant and is in all ways indispensable to success. It is important to understand that _the six PPAKTT preparation components are synergistic - that is, they work together. For example, for a full twisting triple somersault from horizontal bar (no longer unusual), physical and technical preparation must be accompanied and supported by psychological and kinesthetic preparation and must be assessed relative to the aesthetic ability of the gymnast and the aesthetic demands of the sport as well as the tactical requirements of a competition. I contend that an almost exclusive reliance in training on these six PPAKTT preparation components would change our philosophy of the sport and greatly increase our success internationally. We still tend to perceive our sport as an endless series of individual tricks to be learned onc at a time. Rather, our sport is an accumulation of the PPAKTT preparation components.

Tactical Preparation The payoff is: - reduced uncertainty and stress in competition - consistency in performance - higher scores - greater self-esteem - more competitive success

CALL FOR NATIONAL SAFETY CERTIFIERS In order to better serve the interests of the membership, the USGP is currently seeking to add interested/qualified individuals to the current core of USGP National Safety Certifiers. Certifiers are needed in the following geographic locations: AK, AL, AR, AZ, CA (centra!), CO, GA, HI, KS, KY, LA, ME, MI, MS, MT, NC, ND, NY (northern), NM, OK, OR, PA (southeastern), RI, SD, TX (northern), UT, VA-DC-MD area, VT, WY. National Safety Certifiers are responsible for the planning, organization, implementation, and reporting of USGP Safety Certification courses within their local and regional areas. Courses generally include four to five hours of lecture presentation by the National Certifier as well as administration of the written Safety Examination (2 hours). Obviously, knowledge of subject matter and materials, speaking ability, and organizational efficiency are important qualities of National Safety Certifiers. The next course for National Certifiers will be presented by Dr. Gerald George at the USGP Congress in Philadelphia, PA, Sunday, September 17, 1989. The United States Gymnastics Pederation looks forward to receiving your official application for the position of National Safety Certifier. Please do not hesitate to contact us should you have any questions. In order to become a National Safety Certifer, interested individuals must:


1. Submit a copy of their current resume and a letter requesting participation as a USGP National Safety Certifier to the USGP office. (Attention Mr. Mike Jacki, USGP Executive Director). 2. After application, the applicant must be accepted and attend the National Certifiers Course and Meeting at the USGP Congress in Philadelphia. 3. Take (or re-take) the written Safety Examination at the USGP Congress (must pass with a very high score). NOTE: even if the applicant has already participated in a USGP Safety Certification course, it is necessary to attend the course conducted by Dr. George and to re-take the exam. Thanks, Becky Riti, USGP Safety Certification Coordinator. (317) 237-5050.

July-September 1989 TECHNIQUE

Sports Medieine~

Knocked Out Teeth Can Be Saved ooth Avulsion (knocked-out tooth) is a widespread and serious problem. Many tooth avulsions occur when participating in sports. In the United States there are over 2 million teeth knocked out each year. One in every 200 children will suffer this injury and be faced with a lifetime of dental treatment and dental bills. Most of these avulsed teeth are needlessly lost because dental research has developed methods and technologies for saving almost all of them. It is necessary for gymnastics clubs to be prepared for such an accident in order to avoid high costs of dental treatment for victims or costs associated with lawsuits. The American Dental Association has recommended a treatment for an avulsed tooth based on extensive dental research. This treatment consists of: (1) Replantation of the avulsed tooth into its socket within 30 minutes of the accident, (2) Splinting of the avulsed tooth to the adjacent teeth, and (3) Follow-up root canal treatment. The cost of replanting a tooth and the followup dental treatment is about $350 vs. $1500-10,000 over a lifetime for the necessary replacement fixed bridgework. In addition, a replanted tooth looks and feels like a natural tooth. Artificial replacements for a missing front tooth often have compromised esthetics and sensations. Very often it is not possible to replant an avulsed tooth immediately. Either the accident victim has other, more serious injuries, which require immediate attention, the person at the accident scene doesn't feel competent to replant it, or the victim is in pain, unconscious, and/ or uncooperative. If the tooth is not replanted immediately, then it must be stored in a nurturing environment until a dentist can be located. Because after a few minutes outside of the mouth, the cells of the tooth begin to degenerate and even if the tooth is replanted it will be rejected by the body. The key to long-term success for replanted avulsed teeth is to prevent damage to the cells of the tooth root. Care must be exercised to avoid crushing these cells or allowing them to dry out. Crushing can be avoided by picking the tooth up by the enamel of the tooth and avoiding the root. Crushing can also be reduced by placing the avulsed tooth in a soft container. In this regard, the use of glass containers to hold an avulsed tooth should be avoided. The container should


TECHNIQUE July-September 1989

also have a securely fitting top. This will prevent the preserving medium from spilling out during Paul R. Krasner transporta tion. M.D. The second way to prevent damage to the tooth is to store it in a preserving medium. There are Diplomate of the several possible media in which to store an avulsed American BOard tooth. The best storage medium is a pH balanced of Endodontics buffered cell preserving fluid. This fluid contains such ingredients as glucose, calcium, and magnesium which nurtures the tooth cells. It is sterile and does not permit bacteria to grow on the tooth. This fluid has been found to preserve and rejuvenate the tooth for up to 12 hours. This fluid is packaged in a device called the Emergency Tooth Preserving System which also contains a specially engineered basket and net- One in every 200 ting that protects the tooth cells from being crushed children will suffer during transportation. It is not sufficient for the solution to be merely this injury and be wet; it must also be compatible with the cells of faced with a lifetime the tooth. Other media which can be used to preserve of dental treatment avulsed teeth are; milk, sterile saline, and saliva. Milk is an acceptable storage medium, but it must and dental bills. be whole milk, not skimmed or powdered, and it must be kept refrigerated. If the milk is sour or becomes sour (for example, on a hot day), it will become damaging to the avulsed tooth, so milk cannot be kept in pre-made containers and carried in team sports bags. Saliva can also be used to store the tooth, but it has some serious drawbacks. It becomes damaging to the tooth after one hour and even more of a problem exists if it is placed in the mouth of the victim for storage and the victim is hysterical or unconscious. Under these conditions the tooth can be swallowed. Sterile saline can also be used for storage but it only preserves the tooth for two hours and is usually not available at an accident scene. The use of water should be avoided if at all possible. Water is incompatible with the tooth and is as damaging as using tissues. The avulsed tooth should never be wrapped in drying media such as tissues or cloth. The tooth and the victim should be brought to a dentist as quickly as possible so that proper treatment may be performed. If these steps are followed over 90 percent of all avulsed teeth can be retained for life.


Committee Reports

M.P.C. Championship Meeting Minneapolis, Minnesota July 7, 1989

with a voice and no vote, due to his role as World Championships coach and later has position with the World Championships Organizing Committee in Indianapolis.

Bill Meade, Chairman, called the meeting to order at 1:03 p.m.

III. REPORTS A. NGJA - (absent at first)

NOTE: Items are numbered as appearing on the Agenda, but reported below according to the order of discussion during the meeting. I. ROLL CALL Members Present: Bill Meade - Sr Coaches Representative - Chairman/ MPC Bill Roetzheim - Member FIG Mens Technical Committee Mas Watanabe - USGF Men's Technical Coordinator - Voice/ no vote Jim Howard - Vice President for Men Jim Hartung - Athletes Advisory Council Representative Ed Burch - Junior Coaches Representative Dave Mickelson - NCAA Representative Greg Buwick - Senior Coaches Representative Dan Connelly- Proxy for Yoichi Tomita-Junior Coaches Representative Robert Cowan - Mens Program Administrator - Secretary/MPC (voice; no vote) Members Absent: John Burkel - NGJA Representative (Mr. Burkel arrived at 1:27 pm -His flight had been grounded in Chicago along with 81 other flights. See Agenda Item 3 below)

II. ELECTION OF CHAIRMAN Mr. Meade explained that his term of office was up and that a new Chairman needed to be elected. Bill Roetzheim suggested nomination of Mr. Meade for another term. Jim Howard questioned the legality of a USGF employee chairing a standing committee and cited a recent statement or ruling by Mike Jac1<i at the USGF Board of Directors meeting (June, 1989). Motion to nominate Greg Buwick as Chairman of MPC MOTION - Dave Mickelson SECOND - Jim Howard

Motion that Nominations cease. MOTION - Dave Mickelson SECOND - Bill Roetzheim

Motion to accept Greg Buwick by acclimation. MOTION - Dave Mickelson SECOND - Bill Roetzheim PASSED - (the above Motions) Unanimous

CLAIRIFICATION That Mr. Meade would retain a position on the MPC


B. FIG/MTC - Bill Roetzheim - reported on. Tampa meeting, courses in New Zealand and Philippines. He spoke to preface on reports he sends out which states that information is not in force until certain dates or until acted upon by certain committees. Spoke about the stadium for World Championships '89. The video possibilities are BAD. We should buy the video tape from the West Germans. Training gyms are very spread out. Could be 2-21/2 hours crossing city in traffic. He talked about hotels. Kongress Hotel in Belbach is an Atrium type hotel. Has nice park next to it for jogging and stretching. Wide hallways for athlete stretching. Cost is about $85 to $90 per night. Also has fewer gyms attached to it. The Germans are working against the total "blind draw" . The first day each nation will submit 3 names and the second day 3 names. The draw will occur each day from within those 3 names per nation. This defeats the entire purpose. Hardy Fink (CAN) is doing a compulsory video for judges course. Eberhard Gienger has reversed himself on compulsory high bar mount. He now says that a gymnast cannot swing higher than 45째 on the mount. Trends on FX - deductions for steps into corners. Will become parts of no value. Shakhlin - (USSR) insisted on "balletic moves" . These will be "B" value skills. Gary Alexander was submitted by Bill Roetzheim and APPROVED as Superior Judge's Assistant for the next World Championships. The FIG/MTC wants an "A" group of judges and a "B" group of judges. The common thread for the "A" group is that they must attend the Intercontinental course, must work 2 or 3 international events a year. Two FIG members will be at all International Cup meets. Discussion arose about most recent information mailed out by Bill Roetzheim on rules changes. Motion to accept Bill Roetzheim's information on rules changes for implementation in USGF program effective July 10, 1989. MOTION - Jim Howard SECOND - Bill Meade PASSED - Unanimous

July-September 1989 TECHNIQUE

On Pommel Horse, Bill Roetzheim restated that the degrees of deviation rule (15,30,45) will be used on Pommel Horse at 1989 World Championships. So longitudinal travels, for example that are "skewed" will be deducted.

The World Championships Search Committee iss till looking for an Executive Director for the 1991 World Championships. Relative to USOC actions, the World University Games will be held in Buffalo in 1993.

He spoke about a Judges book per country. These must be presented at next meeting. Robert Cowan sta ted that a book had been crea ted by Mr. Roetzheim and was at the printer. A sample was distributed to each member of the committee. (see attached)

The Winter Olympic Games bid city for the USA is Salt Lake City.

The Coaches symposium to be conducted at the World Championships should be excellent and will be limited. Cowan explained that the USGF had booked 8 slots for coaches. JOHN BURKEL ARRIVED AT 1:27 p.m.

C. Junior Coaches Report -

Ed Burch Spoke about most recent Junior Olympic Nationals and commended Ken Allen for how well the meet was conducted. Ed spoke about the coaches seminar which followed in Oshkosh, and about the Junior Pacific Alliance meet in Indianapolis. USA was 2nd behind Chinese Taipei. We are sending 3 junior boys to Pan Am Cup in Victoria, Tamaulipas, Mexico.

D. Vice President for Men's Report - Jim Howard At the last Executive Committee meeting and USGF Board Meeting, there was a collegiate coaches advisory meeting. They discussed ways of making collegiate programs better and possibly more longevity. Mike Jacki is to put together a proposal for review by this group and when approved send it to Dick Schultz of the NCAA. This proposal is to aid collegiate programs. Team '92 was discussed needs to be reviewed - before fall meeting. Also a request by athletes for revision of eligibility statement in Team '92 program. Coaches Support program no longer called Coaches Incentive Program. MPC needs to forward a proposal to Executive Committee to include Junior coaches. Robert Cowan asked if this was different than the past action of the MPC in which the Junior Coaches were awarded $500 based on JO Nationals. Mr. Howard said this is a NEW issue. The Junior monies are proposed to be $24,000 as advised from the Executive Committee and the Athletes Advisory Council. This would be $2,000 for top 6 Class I coaches and $2,000 for top 6 Class II coaches. South Africa was discussed . South Africans exploit USA presence. USGF Board ruled that loss of Professional membership and athlete membership would occur if a person participates in South Africa, effective July 15, 1989.

The Summer Olympic Games bid city for the USA is Atlanta, GA. Also, Mr. Howard announced that the USOC is considering NOT attending the 1991 Pan American Games in Havana, due to concerns about accomodations and food. Andy Payne is the new Chairman of the National Gymnastics Foundation. Athlete grievances were discussed . Dominick Minicucci did not file a grievance but the procedure whereby an athlete can be protected when his coach files a petition late or does not file was discussed . Dennis Hayden's petition/ grievance was dealt with as expeditiously as possible. At least 3 steps in the grievance procedure were by-passed in the interest of time. Nance Marshall, Ken Allen, and Larry Gerard were the hearing committee. The MPC has not received anything from the AAC, but heard a rumor that the grievance was accepted. Robert Cowan explained that he had received a copy of a letter from Nancy Marshall and had called to inform Dennis. However, Dennis felt too much time had expired and he was not coming due to stopping training. Jim Howard wants a formal deliberation from the committee of Marshall, Allen and Gerard to the MPC on their actions. Dave Mickelson stated that the Dominick Minicucci situation was aired at the Board of Directors and should not have been. The MPC discussed what had been done. Robert Cowan explained that he had called Dominick who did not know the petition had been filed and was not planning, nor able to compete. It was discussed and no action taken . Motion that a sub-committee be formed with Jim Howard as Chairman and a Junior coach and Seniorcoach to draft a statement relative to the Coaches Support Program. MOTION - Greg Buwick SECOND - Bill Roetzheim PASSED -Unanimous

F. Athletes Council - Jim Hartung More discussion centered around the Dennis Hayden petition /grievance procedure and the time it took to get an answer.

The new FIG format was discussed with a World Championships each year and the possibility that the USA would hold one of these every four years.

G. Office report - Robert Cowan Spoke about the training center, the readjustment of the Program staff - Dana Rainville is the new Secretary for Men's Program and Department of Educational Services.

Mr. Howard discussed the new McDonald's contract which includes the American Cup, the Mixed Pairs and the USA-USSR meet. It will be 1.55 million over 4 years, up from about $900,000.

H. NGJA Report - John Burkel International assignments seem to be going very well. He thanked Mas Watanabe for the compul-

TECHNIQUE July-September 1989


USGF Board ruled that loss of Professional mermbership and athlete membership would occur if a person participates in South Aftica.

sory film from the USA-USSR meet. He thanked the MPC for allowing judges to attend the Coaches Seminar in Colorado Springs. He also hopes to get information to coaches on the various areas of the US Nationals performance for their athletes. John is the director of officials in Gary Alexander's absence (Gary is assisting with a FIG course in Malaysia) and has prepared a lot of material for the judges to use in Minneapolis. I. Senior Coaches - Greg Buwick There were a lot of missed routines at Regionals. Compulsories averaged 2.0 higher than at NCAA's or Winter Nationals. There was a concern over the timing of the May 3 paper issued by Gary Alexander through John Burkel. The feeling of the Senior coaches was that it was information which either should have been received earlier or not until after Regionals. Some coaches got the material on the day of the meet. The Senior Mens coaches seminar was a great success and Greg praised Bill Sands. The Olympic Festival is on schedule and ticket sales are uncertain depending on the source you listen to. Greg has arranged for two coaches for the head coach. Also, host families have been secured for the athletes. Greg then handed out a good statistical survey on the comparison of Winter Nationals/ NCAA's/Regionals.

IV. AT-LARGE ELECTION TO BOARD OF DIRECTORS Jim Howard explained it was a National Directors election not At-large election. Robert Cowan explained that the MPC was to review the resumes for the nominees and present no more than 6 names to the USGF for inclusion on a national ballot. Two people per discipline will be elected. RECOMMENDATION The MPC approved the nominations of: Dave Strobel - Okla. Gerald Denk - Illinois Joe Strank - Georgia Bob Wuornos - Minnesota V. TRAINING CENTER/IN. UPDATE Robert Cowan described the new facility which the USGF has rented at 6855 Hillsdale Court on the northeast side of Indianapolis. The space is in a very attractive tree-lined business park surrounded by lakes. The front is glass and there is a separate office area, video area, observation area and approximately 9,500 square feet of workout space. The podium is up and several workshops have already been conducted. This is an interim facility through 1991 with aspirations of the Olympic Training Center being completed at that time. Mas Watanabe and Hideo Mizoguchi will move there on or about July 12. XI. PROCEDURE OR CLARIFICATION FOR DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION This item was taken out of order because Chairman Buwick wished to deal with all international business at the same time. There was general discussion about how information is to be disseminated to the general gymnastics community. Reference was made again to


a mailing from the NGJA to the judges / coaches which arrived very late. It was restated that the procedure was for the information to come to the office and then be sent out by the Mens Program Administra tor. Next discussion about dissemination of Code changes being reviewed by NGJA. John Burkel is to give to Robert Cowan, who in turn mails to MPC. Two weeks later a conference call will take place and then the information as approved will be forwarded to the gymnastics community. VII. WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP JUDGES - As is stated above, this item was taken out of order so that international items could be dealt with together. Bill Roetzheim had sent a memo to the MPC outlining his recommendations for the 1989 World Championships. He had recommended Robert Cowan and George Beckstead. Mr. Roetzheim gave an historical overview of the selection procedures. The USA has a different judging situation than any other nation in the world. The USGF is responsible for the international judging support. Mr. Roetzheim had endorsed Gary Alexander for the Superior Judges Assistant position and this had also been proposed by the NGJA. At the recent FIG meeting, Gary was proposed and approved. At this point, Mr. Burkel spoke to the role of the NGJA and the efforts and activities which had taken place. The normal nomination procedure had been followed with nominations coming in from the 4 Regional Technical Directors. A lengthy conference call had taken place and the NGJA proposed the following judges for considerations. Mr. Burkel gave a good documentation for each nominee. He indicated that the NGJA endorsed Harry Bjerke as its NUMBER ONE candidate. For the second spot, the NGJA endorsed, equally, George Beckstead and Robert Cowan. Greg Buwick spoke to why the MPC had selected Alexander, Beckstead and Cowan to attend the Intercontinental Course, with the concept tha t they would judge future World and Olympic Games. He also addressed Mr. Roetzheim's identification of Robert Cowan to ultimately run for election to the FIG/MTC in 1996. Mr. Roetzheim spoke on behalf of Robert Cowan's qualifications - including international visibility, political clout, knowledge, but needs international experience. Mr. Roetzheim has spoken to Mike Jacki about his support for Cowan in this position and has been assured the USGF is supportive. RECOMMENDATION - The Mens Program Committee recommends to the USGF Executive Director that the names of Robert Cowan and George Beckstead be considered for the 1989 World Championships judges in Stuttgart. SECOND - Dave Mickelson PASSED - 8 for, 1 against, 0 abstentions

VII. PERSONAL COACH SUPPORT FOR WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS It was discussed exactly what the USGF could do for the personal coaches of athletes at the Stuttgart World Championships. Air tickets, room and board and tickets for the events would be provided. Credentials

July-September 1989 TECHNIQUE

for training and floor access are limi ted and will be distributed as available. XII. SOVIET EXCHANGE It was discussed on how to best utilize an invitation from the Soviet Union for our teams to train together in Moscow. It was felt that the invitation for 1989 (which is for September) is too close to the World Championships to be effective. Robert Cowan stated that 1990 would be a good year due to the Goodwill Games and if we maintain the same summer schedule, a team could be sen t in la te A ugustfor a mon tho Mas Wa tana be will make this part of his 1990 game plan to be presented during Winter Nationals MPC meeting.

XIII. LIMITED INTERNATIONAL EVENTS The FIG has approved 8 events for World Cup qualifying. It is felt that these meets plus 2 or 3 more should compose our international calendar. It was also suggested that weekend training camps (Thursday-Sunday) could be assigned to athletes just like trips and they could come to Indianapolis along with their coach for specialized training. This was received with mixed reactions. Mas Watanabe will make this part of his training camp proposal for 1990 game plan. VI. WINTER NATIONALS FORMAT The meet will be December 2-3, 1989 in Colorado Springs. Arrival is December 1 and departure is December 4. The meet will occur at 2 p.m. each day. 84 beds are reserved . The Senior National Team of 12 will have their airfare paid. Within the 84 slots, all coaches and other athletes will receive free room and board. Greg Buwick proposed a maximum of 48 athletes with a qualifying score out of approved qualifying meets. The Senior Elite Development Team is not affected. The Senior Team is re-ranked. If a Senior Elite Development team member moves onto the Senior team, he is not replaced. Petitions must be documented to warrant a top 24 slot or they must enter a qualifying meet. Motion that the Format for Winter Nationals shall be: a. Top 24 from Summer Championships automatically qualify b. Petitions must demonstrate that they have a score which would have placed them in the top 24 c. Qualifying meets must end by November 19 d. Petitions must be received by November 15 unless involving an injury occurring between November 15 and 20 e. Conference call on Monday November 20 to determine final roster f. 48 gymnasts maximum who achieve the qualifying score to be set by the MPC at the 1989 Congress g. 12 National Team members will be named MOTION - Greg Buwick SECON D - Jim Howard PASSED - Unanimous

X. EVALUA TION OF SPECIFICALLY DESIGNATED "D" SKILLS Greg Buwick introduced this item as having been dis-

TECHNIQUE July-September 1989

cussed at the Coaches Seminar in Colorado Springs. He had sent out 40 surveys to coaches and received 7 responses. The discussion centered around exactly what skills should be evaluated less strictly in order to encourage gymnasts to perform them, such as triple flyaways . It was the concensus that the list would be small. Mas Watanabe will develop this as part of the 1990 game plan. Mas is also to develop a list of D skills which either should be DEVALUED or not considered. All of this will be done by Winter Nationals. XIV. COACHES CLINICS/WORKSHOPS ON THE CODE OF POINTS Robert Cowan addressed his proposal for a series of clinics or workshops expressly for coaches on the application of the new Code of Points. He feels that while some coaches do attend the NGJA National Certification courses, many do not. The concensus of the committee was that this was more of a junior problem than a senior problem. Cowan was directed to contact George Beckstead, the NGJA JO Technical Vice President to ascertain the possibility of the NGJA Junior Technical people conducting these workshops. XV. TRACKING PROGRAM FOR ELITES Greg Buwick spoke to the positive aspects of adopting a program created by Dr. Bill Sands to track the daily activities of the elite women. Greg said that this program was used by Kelly Garrison-Steves and other elite athletes with great results. Robert Cowan said it would cost about $1,500 to initiate the program and it would probably be instituted based on the Winter Nationals results. It was discussed as to how many athletes should be included in this program. Utilize the USGF Tracking Program (developed by Dr. Bill Sands) for all National Team members, specifically 12 Senior National Team, 10 Senior Development Team, 10 Class 1 and 10 Class 2. MOTION - Bill Meade SECOND - Dan Connelly PASSED - Unanimous

IX. JUNIOR ELITE DIVISION AT CHAMPIONSHIPS Greg Buwick had earlier proposed a separate junior elite division at the 1990 US National Championships. This would be 24 athletes qualifying from the Elite Regionals with the same criteria as the Seniors. They would have to be under age 19 as of first day of Championships. If a gymnast is in the top 48 from Regionals, they would have to choose which division to enter. This would mean two divisions at US Nationals, again. One group of 48 and one group of age specific athletes of 24. The top 8 finishers would comprise the junior elite team and the senior development team would be reduced to 6 (only those gymnasts under age 21 who finish under place 12). Motion to Accept Junior Elite Division at 1990 US National Championships MOTIO - Greg Buwick SECO D -Bill Roetxheim PASSED - Unanimous


MOTION - Dave Mickelson SECOND - Bill Roetzheim PASSED - Una nimous

XVI. NEW BUSINESS A. Ed Burch had 3 proposals First, was a review of the 3-D rule. It was a well written proposal w hich basically states we are getting cheap D's as a result. Much discussion, and finally Mas Watanabe's earlier described effort a t identifyi ng D's to be evaluated less critically AND which D's should possibly be d evalued w ill help. Second, Ed proposed not requiring the World Championship Team to come to Winter Na tionals AND paying them the top 7 slots in Team '92 monies, if eligible. After much discussion, no action was taken. Third, a review of the age of the Senior Development Team. Ed sta ted tha t there was a diminished number of young athletes in the Championships and the Regionals this year because we: 1) raised the age of the senior d evelopment team and 2) reduced the number of slots available to the Championships. This had a d etrimental effect on the junior gymnas ts. After much discussion, it was determined to leave the age alone and institute the junior elite program.

C. Jim Howard reviewed the voting procedure for electing the Senior Coaches Representative to replacE Bill Meade on Sunday at the Na tional Team meeting. It w ill be an at-large nomination process voted on by coaches of Senior National and Senior Development Team gymnasts. Motion to adjourn the meeting. MOTION - Bill Meade SECOND - Dan Connelly PASSED - Unanimously

Meeting adjourned at 5:46 pm. The above is true and accurate to the best of my knowledge. Respectfully submitted, Robert Cowan, Mens Program Administrator / MPC Secretary 7-13-89

B. Dave Mickelson discussed the need to have Robert Cowan at all USCF Board m eetings. The Vice-President for Men should insure that the Mens Program Administrator attend USCF Board meetings.

Minutes Approved: (Greg Buwick, Chairman, -,1989) (Mike Jacki, USGF Executive Director, July, 1989)




The USGF will present a new feature at this year's Congress. Many have expressed interest in a Business Lecture. Therefore, we will feature a pre-Congress Business Seminar targeted directly to Gymnastics Club Owners. Highlights of this Seminar will include:

Name:,_ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ Club: _ _ __ _ _ __ __ __ Home Address: _ _ __ __ __ _ City: _ _ __ __ _ __ __ _ State: Zip _ _ Date: _ _ Phone (Day),_ __ __ _ _ __ Phone (Night)_ __ _ _ _ __ _

* Maximizing Profits *Quality Customer Service *Creating Perfect Gym Club *Hiring/Keeping Employees *Gym Construction *Legal session - Asset Protection *Marketing Strategy For Gym *Business Action Plan Two of the most exciting and interesting speakers w ill be back this year to help you increase enrollment and raise your revenues. Seminar speakers Patti Kom ara and Jeff Metzger will share m any yea rs of know led ge and experience wi th you .


Please circle appropriate title: Womens' Program Judge Men's Program Coach Club Owner/Adm. Owner Rhythmic Program

FACTS AT A GLANCE Date: September 13 and 14, 1989

Site: Philadelphia Adam's Ma rk City Avenu eand MonumentRoad Philadelphia, PA 19131-1 788 215/581-5000 Fees: $85 for fu ll conference $50 for 1 day only $10 discount for USGF professional members attending Congress

USG F Pro #: _ _ __ _ _ _ __ Expiration Date: _ _ _ __ _ __

Please return this registration form with checkforfee 10: ~

__ •

....c; .. ••


USGF Congress Pan American Plaza 201 S. Capitol, Suite 300 Indianapolis, IN 46225 T889

July-September 1989 TECHNIQUE

Women's Elite Ad Hoc Committee Minneapolis, Minnesota July 7, 1989 ROLL CALL: Roe Kreutzer, NEDC Chairman Jackie Fie, FIG/WTC Kevin Brown, REDC, Na tional Coaching Staff Donna Strauss, Na tional Coaching Staff Audrey Schweyer, NTC Bill Sands, USGF /USECA Muriel Grossfeld, National Coaching Staff Mary Wright, Na tional Coaching Staff Kathy Kelly, Womens Program Administrator Steve Whitlock, USGF Dir. Ed. Services

NOTE: The following portion of the Elite Ad-hoc minutes have been approved. The remaining proportion will be published upon final approval. I. WORLD CHAMPIONSHIP TEAM TRAVEL

SCHEDULEThe scheduling for the World Championship Team for travel and training is defined as follows: Compulsory Trials in Phoenix, AZ 9/23 9/24 Optionals Contact Stormy Eaton for flight arrangements. Everyone should plan on departing Phoenix on Monday early evening. The coaches of those gymnasts qualifying for the World Championships Team will be involved in an organizational meeting on Sunday evening and Monday morning.

Home-town to New York Thurs, 9/28 New York to Nimes Fri,9/29 Begin training in FranceSat, 9/30 Travel to Colmar Fri,10/6 Exhibition in Colmar Sat, 10'7 Travel to Stuttgart Sun, 10/8 Podium Training Tue / Thurs, 10/ 10 & 12 Opening Ceremony Fri,10/13 Competition 1A 10/14-15-16 10/17-18 Competition 18 10/20 Competition II Competition III 10 /21-22 Depart for USA 10/23 Travel dates are tentative based upon available flights. The above schedule is the first option. II. CRITERIA FOR INTERNATIONAL COACH ASSIGNMENTS Jackie Fie asked the office to draft the Coach Selection Criteria for International Assignments to Team Competitions. These procedures are listed in old minutes of the WIPC. The committee discused the USGF philosophy on Team Meet Coach Selection. III. CALENDARJackie Fie commended the efforts of Dr. Sands and the coaches on approving the new calendar. She indicated that we have made strides toward the international calendar. Shew requested that continued efforts be made.

Submitted by: Kathy Kelly 7/15/89

ADDENDUM TO MPC MINUTES After review, Mike Jacki made the following additions, forrections or comments. II. - While this has been discussed, an official position on USGF employes acting as Chairmen of standing committees has never been taken. In Mr. Jacki's words, "where it is not necessary, we suggest the use of other persons to serve as Chairman, rather than USGF employes." III. D.1.- the USGF will not initiate action with the NCAA, nor spearhead action. Rather, if the NCAA coaches community AGREES, the USGF will carry the message to the NCAA on changes that are desired by the coaches. III . D.2. - no official action has been taken by the Executive Committee or the Board on this type of Incentive program for Junior Coaches. III. D. 9. - Mr. Jacki felt much different about the action of the Athlete Council. He stated that they were not speaking to Dominick Minicucci specifically, NOT

TECHNIQUE July-Septem ber 1989

criticizing the MPC. Rather they were addressing the process whereby an athlete is punished/ censured due to a mistake or oversight by the coach. III. D. 10. -referring to the athlete grievance for Dennis Hayden, Mr. Jacki felt that the grievance procedure was expedited and that the process took much less time than normally expected. VII. - the names of the World Championships judges as recommended are approved by the Executive Director. IX. - while Mr. Jacki agrees with the program concept for the Junior Elite program, he is concerned about the impact on the US Nationals of adding another 24 athletes, espeCially since the women just removed their Juniors from the meet and the ment went from 48 to 72. He stated that he feels this division should be at US Nationals, but some compromise may have to take place in the other division.




USGP Congress Philadelphia, PA September 13-17, 1989

General Daily Schedule TIME WEDNESDAY September 13

Find the Pre-Congress Registration Form on page 34.

NOTE: The first regular Congress Sessions begin at 1:00 pm on Thursday.

THURSDAY September 14


FRIDAY September 15

SATURDAY September 16

MORNING WAKE-UP - Walks, Runs, and Aerobics for all who are interested! (bring work-out gear)


Business Seminar REGISTRATION (7:30-9:00)


Special Interest Sessions SpeCial Interest Sessions


Business Seminar

Business Seminar

1st Morning Sessions

1st Morning Sessions


Business Seminar

Business Seminar

2nd Morning Sessions

2nd Morning Sessions


Business Seminar

Business Seminar

3rd Morning Sessions

3rd Morning Sessions


Business Seminar

Business Seminar (concludes) -




Business Seminar

CONGRESS' BEGINS 1st Afternoon Sessions


1st Afternoon Sessions


Business Seminar

2nd Afternoon Sessions


Business Seminar

3rd Afternoon Sessions

1st Afternoon Sessions


Business Seminar

4th Afternoon Sessions

2nd Afternoon Sessions 4th Afternoon Sessions (Women's Reg. Meetings)




(Reg. Meetings cont.)

Possible 5th Session




Skill Evaluator's Test (Begins at 5:30 pm)



Business Seminar




Business Seminar


"We Have It All For You in 1989!" This year the USGF Congress features many outstanding topics and presenters covering a wide range of interests- technique, grassroots, dance, sport sciences, etc. The USGF carefully evaluated the comments and suggestions from par-



2nd Afternoon Sessions

3rd Afternoon Sessions


ticipants at the 1988 Congress. While by the nature of the size of the Congress and the number of participants with varied interests, we realize that we can't "please all of the people all of the time ..." we sincerely hope that you find Congress '89 to be a truly rewarding experience!

July-September 1989 TECHNIQUE

Pre-Congress Business Seminar

Women's Program Offerings

Patti Komara and Jeff Metzger.

Kathy Kelly, Women's Program Adminis tra tor

This offering is a direct result of the extremely positive evaluations that these two clinicians received from Congress '88! Patti and Jeff will offer timely and informative sessions based upon their experience as successful gym club owners / operators/managers. (Registration for this special offering is separate from the regular Congress fee and schedule). The Schedule and topics are as follows:

Vaulting • Basic, Intermediate, and Advanced sessions.

Uneven Bars • "Live" demonstration period on UPB BasicsAdvanced • "Principles of Biomechancis for Uneven Bars" Dr. Gerald George

Balance Beam Wednesday, 9114/89

8:30- 9:30 9:30- 9:45 9:45-11 :00 11 :00-11 :30 11:30- 1:00 1:00- 2:00 2:00- 3:30 3:30- 4:00 4:00- 5:30 5:30- 7:00

Registration for Business Seminar Welcome and Material Outline "A Proven 7-Step Approach to Maximizing Profits" Question and Answers "Quality Customer Service" Lunch "Creating the Perfect Gym Club -ForYou!" Question & Answers Hiring and Keeping Good People Dinner Break

Thursday, 9/15/89

8:30-10:00 10:00-10:30 10:30-10:45 10:45-12:40

"How to Design a Marketing Strategy for YOUR Club" Question and Answers Break "A 25-Step Personalized Business Action Plan"

PLEASE NOTE: The following listing of sessions and topics have been compiled from submissions from the "Call for Presenters" that was published in Technique magazine as well as from the submissions from the various USGF Program Administrators, USGF Committee Chairmen, and USGF Member Organizations. In an effort to provide you with an" early schedule," we have included submitted topics and clinicians to date ... not all have yet been confirmed or finalized. As needed, changes and additions will be made. The "final" schedule, including all session times/ days will be part of your program packet at Registration . Thanks , S. Whitlock, Congress Program Coordinator

TECHNIQUE July-September 1989

• The Basics - Tammy Biggs • Advanced Beam Training - Tammy Biggs • RO entry mounts - Gina Verrett, Parkettes coaching staff

Floor Exercise • Training the elements from the JO and elite routines

Tumbling • Advanced Tumbling Concepts - Dr. Gerald George, U. of So. Western Louisana

Judging Sessions • Elite Judges - Practice Videos - A. Schweyer • Judges Training Committee - S. Weber • Beginner and Intermediate Shorthand - L. Chencinski • Judging JO Optionals • Judging Training Manual & USGF Technical Handbook - Beran, Cross, Maloney, etc.

Judge/Coach Sessions • International Protocol meeting- REQUIRED for coaches and judges expected to participate in International assignments. • Elite Compulsory Trends - M. Grossfeld, M. Wright, A. Schweyer • Code of Points intrepretation for COACHES

General Information • The New JO Program - Description, Questions and Answers (this session will be offered twice) • How to Conduct a sanctioned USGF competition according to the new Rules & Policies C. Maloney.

COMMITTEES AND MEETINGS JO Develop. Comm. (closed) - Th, 9/14,9:00-6:00 pm. Elite Development Director's Committee (closed) Thurs,9 / 14, NOON-9:00 pm. WTC - Fri, 9/15,7:00 pm-ll ;OO pm (closed) WTCAd-hoc meeting (closed) - Fri, 9/15, 9:00-NOON Admin. Board (closed) - Fri, 9/15, 9:40-NOON Reg. Boards (closed) - Fri, 9/15,3:00-3:00 pm Regional Meetings (open) - 4:00-6:00 pm WTS (closed) - Sun, 9/ 17, 9:00-1:00 pm Admin. Board (closed) - Sun, 1 :00-4:00 pm Program Committee (closed) - Sun, 5:00-6:00 pm USECA-Women (open) -Fri, 9/15, 7:00-10:00 pm NACGC/Women - TBA


Rhythmic Gymnastics Program Offerings Nora Hitzel, USGF Rhythmic Program Administra tor The following schedule of sessions for Rhythmic coaches and judges is offered.

Compulsory Events • Class IV - All routines • Hoop and Clubs, Class III and II

Judging • Course work, practical, and written exam for all levels • FIG Code of Points - Update, Norma Zabka and Nora Hitzel

General • Working with Parents Clubs • Analysis of Complex Skills in Rhythmic Gymnastics -

COMMITTEES and MEETINGS (Days and Times TBA) General Session (open) Regional Meetings (open) Regional Judges Committee (closed) National Team Coaches (closed) Rhythmic Coaches Association (open)

Business and Management Offerings • "Successful Gym School Operations Manual" (this is now being used in over 350 clubs across the USA) Frank Sahlein, WINGS and WIN consulting. • "Supplemental Income Programs" Enhance the profitability of your business through supplemental programs. Frank Sahlein, WINGS • "Marketing, Advertisment, etc." Development of a plan and strategy. Frank Sahlein, WINGS • "Gymnastics Business Owners - Traditional Areas of Difficulty"Identification of typical shortcomings of Business owners in order to create a new business attitude. Tom Burgdorf • "Gymnastics Industry - The need for Higher Owner Profits" If the owners are making good profits then staff salaries can rise.. . Tom Burgdorf • "The Gymnastics Club Industry - 1992" A look into the future. Where we might be by the 1992 Olympics businesswise. Tom Burgdorf • "Gymnastics Club Owners - Time Management" Time management is the key for gymnastics owners in management, organization and good business practices. Tom Burgdorf


Men's Program Offerings Mr. Robert Cowan, USGF Men's Program Administrator Presentations bave been planned by Mr. Watanabe and Mr. Mizoguchi as well as other contributors. Sessions will include lecture, videotape analysis as well as technical drawings.

Mas Watanabe, USGF Senior Men's Technical Coordinator • Trends in Men's Gymnastics • 1992 Game Plan • Compulsory Skill and Routine Analysis for Vaulting, High Bar, Floor Exercise, Pommel Horse, Parallel Bars, Rings, and Tumbling. Plus Special Technical sessions on Optional Skills

Hideo Mizoguchi, USGF Junior Men's Technical Coordinator • Junior Men's Programs Report • Optional Skill and Routine Analysis- Vaulting, High Bar, Floor Exercise, Pommel Horse, Parallel Bars, Rings, and Tumbling • Testing Program - Strength and Flexibility

Sport Sciences Dr. Glyn Roberts and Dr. Bob McKelvain (see Sport Science Below) . Dr. Bill Sands • Periodization of Training - A MUST for ALL coaches (Men, Women, Rhythmic) • Application of the USGF "Athlete Tracking Program" for male gymnasts.

Other Sessions • "101 Skills to do on the Trampoline without Somersaulting" - Kevin Scott, Scott's Gymnastics • Team-level Trampoline Circuit" - Kevin Scott, Scott's Gymnastics • "Conditioning and Training Loads" - Jim Holt, Coach Washington State University

Judging Related Session • "Improving Judging - Recognition and evaluation of difficulty and execution" Turoff, Grossfeld • Code of Points Review

COMMITTEES AND MEETINGS Junior Coaches Staff Meeting (closed) - Thurs, 9/14,3:00-4:00 pm Junior Olympic Program Committee (closed) Thurs, 9/ 14, 6:00-10:00 pm Men' s Program Committee Meeting (closed) Fri, 9/ 15, 9:00-NOON USECA-Men (open) - TBA JBGCA (open) - TBA NACGC-Men (open) - TBA NACGC-Men (open) -TBA NGJA Executive Committee (H.Bjerke) - TBA NGJA Technical Committee (Burkel) -TBA

July-September 1989 TECHNIQUE


Sports Science Offerings Sport Psychology • "Relaction Practical Relaxation for Gymnastics" Dr. Robert McKelvain, Harding Univ. • "Career Transition after Elite Sport Career" Dr. Robert McKelvain, Harding Univ. • "Concentration, Attention, Focus, Distractors" Dr. Robert McKelvain, Harding Univ. • "Overview of Essentials of a Mental Training Program" Dr. Robert McKelvain • "Results of Rhythmic Gymnastics Error Identifica ton Study" Dr. Richard Fenker, Texas Christian University • "Practical Motivational Techniques for Gymnastics Coaches" ... Goal Setting, Rewards, Charting, and other practical applications Mickey Orr, World Class Gymnastics Centre • "Mental Imagery for Enhanced Gymnastics Performance" ... Critical performance variables are discussed. Mental imagery techniques are introduced with emphasis on imagary skills in the context of performance enhancement. Mickey Orr, World Class Gymnastics Centre • "The Learning of Gym Skills" .. .The conditions for learning gymnastics skills are explored. Motor learning theory and relevant learning variables are discussed Mickey Orr, WCGC • "Interventions - Helping Athletes who are blocked by fears" Dr. Alan Goldberg, Competitive Advantage

Training / Strength • "Ankle Sprains, Treatment and Rehabilitation" Jack Rockwell, PC, ATC, USGF National Team Trainer • "A method of developing explosive muscle power in competitive female gymnasts." Dr. Ron Perrone, Long Island SurgiCenter • An overview of a sports science education program for gymnastics coaches, Dr. Ron Perrone • "Strength and Flexibility Enhancement" Dr. Bill Sands, U. of Utah • "A Year-round Strength Program for Gymnastics - Pre-season through Competitive" Stephen Knott, Certified Strength and Conditionning Specialist • "Development of the Conditioning Factors for Elite Gymnastics" Peter Hullner

Nutrition • Panel Discussion: Moderated by Bill Sands, PhD., University of Utah "Successful Weight Control for Gymnasts" Kathy Fenton, MPH, RD, CD, Director of the Nutrition Clinic at University of Utah. "Psychological Aspects of Weight Control" Kelly Brownell, Ph.D., Department of Psychiatry. University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine "Exercise Applications for Weight Control" Steve Varechok, MFW, CS TECHNIQUE July-September 1989.

• "Periodiza tion - Prepara tion and Planning" Dr. Bill Sands, U. of Utah • "USGF Athlete Tracking Program, Implications from the Research" Dr. Bill Sands, U of Utah • Formation meeting for a National MacIntosh Users Group for Gymnastics Coaches • Formation meeting for a National PC and Compatables Group for Gymnastics Coaches.

Child Development and Preschool

Many of the

• "Maximizing Sport Skill Potential: A Developmental Approach"" Tom Crawford, National Institute for Fitness and Sport • "Creative Movement Activities: Developing the Fundamentals Can Still Be Fun!" John Ozmujn, AB.D, SN.I.F.5. • "1 0 Keys for a Successful Preschool Gymnastics Program" - Patti Komara • "Successful Mom and Tot Preschool Classes (that won't drive the teacher crazy!") Patti Komara • "Promoting our Grassroots Programs - Developmental Gymnastics and Movement Skills" ... discussion and video. How to help children prepare for successful active participation in all sports & physical activities. Stephen Posner, Springfield College • "Movement Exploration and the Gymnast (Preschool to Competitor)" ... Movement exploration can apply to all ages of children. NOTE: This session is participatory! Rae Pica, Movement and Learning. • "Enhance Your Preschool Programs with Rhythmic Gymnastics" Terry Exner, San Rafael, CA

Dance and Grassroots Programs • "Ballet Barre - Basic Training for Competitive Gymnasts .. . demonstrates the connection between basic Barre exercises and competitive gymnastics" (Girls & Boys) Toby Towson (This will be lecture / demonstration /PARTICIPA TION session) • "The Art of Performing - games and Techniques forimprovication to help your gymnasts" Toby Towson (This will be lecture / demonstration / PARTIClP A TION session) • The USGF JO Dance Program-lecture / demonstration and Question and Answers • "Rhythmic Dance Techniques for Artistic Gymnastics" AlIa Svirsky, Nat RSG Coach • " Grassroots / Recreational Gymnastics" Betsy Sprague, Thornton Recreation • "Sequential Gymnastics For Grades 3-6" Susan True and members of the USGF Education Sub-committee. • USGF Basic Tumbling Program - (for girls and boys ... a "grassroots / recreational" program.


Preschool and Dance sessions encourage participation by the audience ... be ready to move!.

The Nutrition Panel Discussion is sponsored by the Potatoe Board Plan on attending this interesting and informative session.

Non-Profit Organization U.S. Postage

PAID Permit No. 7867 Indianapolis, Ind.




Once again the USCF will present an outstanding program, featuring the finest clinicians and professionals in the sport. The 1989 Congress will provide you with essential, useful information on coaching techniques, rules and interpretation, running a successful, profitable operation, and more. The highlights of the 1989 Congress in Philadelphia: • • • • •

Safety and Educational Programs Preschool Gymnastics Programs Business Presentations Updates on Rules and Policies Emphasize Grass Roots Programs

Due to the growth of Congress in recent years, space is limited for the final banquet. Register early to assure prime seating. The registration desk will be open the following days and times: Wednesday, September 13, 12:00 noon to 10:00 p.m. Thursday, September 14, 7:00 a.m. to 10:00 p.m. Friday, September 15, 7:00 a.m. to 8:00 p.m. Saturday, September 16, 7:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.


FACTS AT A GLANCE Date: September 14 -17,1989 Site: Philadelphia Adam's Mark City Avenue and Monument Road Philadelphia, PA 19131-1788 215 / 581-5000 Sufficient rooms are reserved for Congress up to August 12, 1989. Rates:

$85.00 $95.00 $105.00 $115.00

Single Double Triple Quad

Travel: The official carrier of this year's Congress is American Airlines. We have negotiated with American Airlines for substantial air fare discounts not otherwise available. Please call American Airlines special reservations number, 1-800-433-1790 and refer to STAR number S0699MY to access these savings on the applicable fares. American Airlines is giving away two free sweepstakes tickets to those who book their flight through the meeting services desk and fly on American Airlines. So, don't delay. Call now! Winners will be announced at the final banquet and dance. Fees: $90 for USGF profeSSional members postmarked by August 1, 1989 $110 for USGF professional members postmarked after August 1, 1989 $130 for non-USGF professional members regardless of date. Fee Includes: Free entrance to alilectures, master clinics, demonstrations, open meetings and general assembly. Free entrance to exhibit area featuring the industry's finest products. Final Awards Banquet and Dance. Registration is non-refundable after September 1, 1989. NO EXCEPTIONS

r--------------------------, REGISTRATION FORM I


Please circle appropriate titie:

Women's Program Judge Men's Program Coach Club Owner / Ad m. Owner Rhythmic Program USGF Pro #: . - - - - --




Na me Name of Club/ Program Home Address

Expiration date:


Please return this registration form with check for Iee to

State Phone (day) Phone (night>


Date I

USGF Congress: Pan American Plaza 201 S. Capitol, Suite 300 Indianapolis, IN 46225

This fonn must arrive al our offices NO LATER THAN August 31, 1989. After August 31, you must register on-sile. Registration is " On-refu ndable after September 1, 1989. NO EXCEPTIONS. T .8/89



Technique Magazine - July-September 1989  
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