THE OFFICIAL TECHNICAL PUBLICATION OF THE UNITED STATES GYMNASTICS FEDERATION
Vol. 7, No.4
PAID Permit No. 7867
Vol. 7, No.4
Inside This Issue 4-6 Preliminary Investigation Of Forces Produced By Junior Male Gymnasts On Rings
8-9 Safety Certifiers List And Schedule 10-11 RSG Duet Clubs Required Elements 12-14 RSG Difficulty Proposals 15-19 Junior Olympic Program Women's Proposed Elements 1989-92 20-22 Horizontal Bar Techniques (Learning Without Blisters) 23 USGF Calendar Of Events
By: P.J. Cheetham H. Mizoguchi Hoi. Sreden
By: Nora Hitzel By: FIG By: Linda Chencinski Dale Kephart John Wojtczuk By: Ken Allen
(Cover photo © 1987 by Dave Black) CHANGE OF ADDRESS AND SUBSCRIPTION INQUIRIES: In order 10 ensure uninterrupted delivery of TECHNIQUE magazine, notice of change of address should be made six to eight weeks in advance. For fastest service, please enclose your present mailing label . Direct all subscription mail to TECHNIQUE SUBSCRIPTIONS , Pan American Plaza, 201 S. Capi101 Ave., Suite 300, 'Indianapolis, IN 46225. POSTMASTER: Send address change to TECHNIQUE, Pan American Plaza, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225. TECHNIQUE is published quarterly for $12.00 by the United States Gymnastics Federation, Pan American Plaza, 201 S. Capitol Ave., Suite 300, Indianapolis, IN 46225 (Phone: 317-237-5050). Third class postage paid at Indianapolis, IN. Subscription price: $12.00 per year in United States; all other countries $24.00 per year. Back issue single capies $2.00 plus $1 .00 postage/handling. All reasonable care will be taken , but no responsibility can be assumed for unsolicited material; enclose return postage. ©1987 by USGF and Technique. All rights reserved. Printed in USA.
Publisher Mike Jacki Education/Safety Editor Dr. Gerald George Production Michael G. Botkin UNITED STATES GYMNASTICS FEDERA· TION BOARD OF DIRECTORS: Executive Director: Mike Jadd . Athlete Representatives: Lydia Bree; Peter Vidmar; Linda Kardos; Tom Beach; Kathy Johnson; Tim Daggett; Kelly Garrison . Amateur Athletic Union: Jerry Hardy . American Sokol Organization: Norma Zabka. American Turners: Harry Warnken. Members at Large: Linda Chendnski. NCAA Gymnastics CoachesMen: Fred Roethlisberj;er, University of Minnesota . NCAA Gymnashcs Coaches-Women: Judi Avener, Penn State University . National Association for Girls and Women In Sports: Dr. Mimi Murray, Sprin~field College. National Association of Women s Gymnastics Judges: Dale Brown . NCAA: Sylvia Moore, Oregon State University; Gail Davis, Rhode Island College; Jerry Miles, do NCAA; Wayne Young, Brigham Young University. NAIA: Bonnie Morrow. NHSGCA:John Brinkworth . National Federation of State High School Athletic Assoc .: Sharon Wi1ch; Susan True . National Jewish Welfare Board: Courtney Shanken . NJCAA: Dave Rowlands, Truman College. "NGJA: Mike Milidonis . USAIGC: Ed Knepper. Men's Elite Coaches Assoc.: Jim Howard , UniverSity of Nebraska. USECA for Women: Roe Kreutzer; Steve Whitlock. Youn~ Men's Christian Assoc. : Cliff Lothery. Jr, Boy s Gym. Coaches Assoc. : Rich Bocda. President: Mike Donahue. EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: President: Mike Donahue. Secretary: Judi Avener. Vice President: Jim Howard. Executive Director: Mike Jacki. FIG Technical Committee: Jackie Fie. FIG Rhythmic Technical Comm. : Andrea Schmid. FIG Men's Technical Committee: Bill Roetzheim . Vice President for Women: Sue Ammerman. President Emeritus: Bud Wilkinson. Athlete Representatives: Kathy Johnson; Peter Vidmar; Larry Gerald . Members at Large: Mike Milidonis; Linda Chencinski .
Associate Content Editon SPORTS MEDICINE COMMllTt:t:
Merrill A. Ritter, M.D.
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SAFETY COMMllTEE Dr. Marc Rabinoff EDUCATION COMMITTEE Dr. Garland O'Quinn BIOMECHANICS COMMllTEE Dr. Marlene Adrian, Director SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY COMMllTEE Dr. Keith Henschen, Ph .D. EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY COMMllTEE Dr. Pat Eisenman, Ph.D. Unless expressly identified to the contrary, all articles, statements and views primed h erein are attributed soley ( 0 the author and the United States Gymnastics Federation expresses no opinion ther eo n and assumes no re sponsib il i ty
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Preliminary Investigation Of Forces Produced By Junior Male Gymnasts On Rings P. J. Cheetham, USOC Sports Science Program H. Mizoguchi, USGF Junior National Team Coaching Staff H. I. Sreden, USOC Sports Science Program ne of the most common chronic injuries suffered by male gymnasts is inflammation of the shoulder joint caused by forces placed on it during performances on the rings . Nissinen (1983) found these forces to be up to 9.2 times the gymnast's body weight at the bottom of the giant swing. These enormous forces may be a factor leading to the early retirement of some unfortunate gymnasts. It is interesting though that there are some gymnasts who escape these chronic shoulder pains . Is there a difference in their technique? If so, and if we can find out what the difference is, then our young gynasts may be able to avoid shoulder injuries caused by the rings . Several scientists have examined the forces in the ring cables during various skills . Forbes (1985) looked at both forward and backward giant swings of elite Australian gymnasts. He found that forces curves with both one and two peaks during the bottoming phase of the swing were typical. The bottoming phase is defined here as the phase where the gymnast passes through the bottom of the swing and then begins to rise towards handstand. It is characterized by a force curve value of more than the gymnast's body weight (half the body weight in the case of one ring) . Nissinen (1983) studied over 60 giant swings performed by German gymnasts of various skill levels. The force curve of a world-class gymnast performing a giant swing exhibited a one peaked curve with a plateau on the down swing phase. Tan (1983) studied over 91 gymnasts from the Chinese
National Team and the Beijing Gymnastics Team . He concluded that the gymnast whose force curve had only one distinct peak exhibited "the best" technique. Sale and Judd (1974) analyzed Canadian gymnasts of varying skill levels doing a shoot to handstand. Each gymnasts used the bent arm technique and the two peak curve was evident in each case. The aim of this study was to investigate the forces exerted on young gymnasts during a series of three dislocates on the rings . Three dislocates were chosen since the dislocate is a basic skill on rings and doing three in sequence would show whether consistencies or inconsistencies occurred. It was hoped that indicators of poor and potentially harmful technique would be discovered. A second purpose of the study was to examine the feasibility of using split-screen video of the gymnast and the synchronized force curve as direct coaching feedback.
METHODS force measuring system was designed to fit into the ring cables (figure 1). The force transducers were installed in series with each ring cable above the ring frame cross member. Signals from the transducers were brought down a ring frame leg to a computer and the entire system allowed the gymnast to swing unimpeded. The feel of the rings was unchanged by the installation of the system . Thirteen, ten to twelve year old male gymnasts from the US National Squad were tested while performing three dislocates in sequence , beginning from inverted hang. The forces in both ring cables were acquired by a computer and one of the forces was simultaneously displayed on a storage oscilloscope. The gymnast and the oscilloscope were filmed with a 200 frames per second video system using its split screen capability. This allowed
for the synchronized viewing of the force curve and the gymnast's movement pattern. The data collected by the computer were scaled and plotted for each gymnast.
- ---- ---
'" ..: >-
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
100 1/2 BW
2 . 00
TIME (SEC) Figure 2 .
Force-til'le curve , for one r ing cable , for the three dislocate sequ e nce , by gymnas t BS.
0 0 . 00
VJV \ . j
~ 2 . 00
4 . 00
Force-time curve , for one rin::t cable, for the three dislocate sequence , by gymnast DR.
100 1/2 BW 0 0.00
TIME (SEC) Figu r e 4 .
TIME (SEC) Figure 3.
he peak force on the gymnast, summed for both arms, ranged from 5.1 times body weight to 7.9 times body weight. This was generally on the last of the three dislocates and just passed the bottom of the swing. The shape of the force curve during the bottoming phase of the swing varied markedly between gymnasts. Each gymnast however, tended to have a consistent force profile from one dislocate to the next. Three basic curve shapes were observed. Figures 2, 3 and 4 show the force profiles for an entire sequence of dislocates from three different gymnasts. Comparing figures 2, 3 and 4 we immediately have some indication as to the effectiveness of each dislocate in each sequence. After the initial dislocate from inverted hang (the first small peak) we see three large peaks caused by the bottoming phase of each dislocate. The three large peaks from figure 2 are similar in magnitude. This suggests that gymnast BS was not gaining from each dislocate in the sequence. His swing was not increasing in magnitude from dislocate to dislocate. The three peaks from each dislocate in figure 3 show an increasing trend. This suggests that gymnast DR was benefitting from each dislocate and was in fact increasing the magnitude of his swing from one dislocate to the next. Figure 4 shows a different situation. Here the magnitudes of the bottoming phase of the last two dislocates are similar. The first full dislocate however, is smaller than the last two. This may suggest that gymnast AA was very efficient, he only needed one full dislocate to reach his maximum amplitude. These conclusions from the force curves were also supported by observation of the video. Gymnast BS was very jerky and did not gain amplitude from one dislocate to the next. Gymnast DR did increase amplitude from one dislocate to the next and gymnast AA took only one dislocate to build up to a high dislocate.
Force-time curve, for one ring cable, for the t hree dislocate sequence, by gymnast AA.
If the force curve of a dislocate is looked at in detail more interesting results appear. Figures 5, 6 and 7 show the last dislocate of each of the three sequences from figures 2, 3 and 4. The time axis has been scaled and synchronized figures have been added . Figure 5 shows a force curve with multiple peaks during the bottoming phase. Certainly, from the shape of the force curve, this dislocate does not look smooth. Examination of the video reveals this to be the case. Several extraneous movements occur during the bottoming phase . Much of the gained energy from the down swing is dissipated in these extraneous movements. Figure 6 shows a force curve with two peaks during the bottoming phase. On examination of the video this gymnast's dislocate appeared quite high above the rings. Figure 7 shows a force curve with only one distinct peak. On examination of the video this gymnast's dislocate was also above the rings . Despite these similarities the difference in their force curves during the bottoming phase is remarkable. Gymnast DR experiences a drop of 3.8 times body weight then a rise of 5.4 times body weight to a second peak of 7.9 times body weight. (Note that the forces show on the figures are half of these since they are for one cable only) . These relatively large force changes occur in less than 0.1 seconds. Gymnast AA experiences no sudden drop then rise in force during the bottoming phase . He experiences a smooth rise to 5.7 times body weight. These differences, while dramatic on the graphs, were not so obvious from the video. The reason for ther--differences in the two force curves is not
cY I I
"100 1 /2
3 . 60
4 . 00
TIME (SEC) Figure 5 .
Synchronized film and force-time c ur ve, for one ring cable , during the last dislocate in a sequence of three, by gymnast BS.
4 . 00
5 . 00
TIME (SEC) Figure 6.
Sychronized fill:1 a nd force-tir.te c ur ve , for one ring cab le, during the last dislocate in a sequence of three I by gymnast DR.
Rhythmic Update Correction To October 30, 1987 Qualifying score for Compulsory Classic April 22-24, 1988
Seniors - 32.00 6
2 . 85xBW
I I I
I I I I I
I 0 3.80 Figure
4 .2 0
Sychronized film a nd force-time cu r ve , sequence of three, by gymnast AA .
during the last dislocate in a
clear. It is believed to be connected with the timing and interaction between the two elements of the complex double pendulum that is formed by the gymnast and the rings. This interaction needs to be closely examined . Tan (1983) concluded that the one peak force profile, as in figure 7, indicated "the best" technique. Also the force profile of figure 7 is almost identical in shape to that of the world-class gymnast in Nissenen's (1983) paper, even though one is a dislocate and the other is a giant swing.
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
It can be surmised that the gymnast with the "two peak" curve may be setting himself up for injury. Each time he performs a dislocate his shoulders,
and in fact whole body, receive two sharp jolts of force. Perhaps if he had grips with no dowels he would not be able to perform the dislocate with this technique. Perhaps he would "rip off." The gymnast with the one peak force curve may be less prone to shoulder injury in the future and may have less tendency to "rip off" when the dislocate grows into a giant swing . Gymnast BS had an obviously jerky technique. This was obvious from both the video and the force curve . Gymnasts DR and AA had dislocates that were not obviously different by superficial observation. With the aid of slow motion video and a synchronized oscilloscope trace the differences in technique are detectable. It is concluded that this combination of force display and video system is certainly useful to the coach and gymnast as a direct feedback tool and can help in pin-
pointing faulty technique that may eventually lead to injury. REFERENCES
Forbes , W. (1985) . Unpublished manuscript. Australian Institute of Sport, Canberra, Australia. Nissinen, M.A. (1983). Kinematic and kinetic analysis of a backward giant swing on the rings. In, Biomechanics VII-B , pp 781-786. University Park Press. Baltimore . Sale , G.D., and Judd, L.R . (1974). Dynamometric instrumentation of the rings for analysis of gymnastic movements. Medicine and Science in Sports, 6 (3):209-216. Tan , S. (1983). Kinetic characteristics of back giants on rings. In, Selection of Research Papers. National Research Institute of Sports Science. Peoples Republic of China. 1:92-100.
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USGF SAFETY CERTIFICATION PROPOSED COURSE/TEST SCHEDULE SATURDAY DECEMBER 19, 1987 UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA 9:00am - 4:00pm P.O. Box 253 TUSCALOOSA, AL 35404 Course Director : D.J. Milem - 904-641-9966 Course Contact: David Patterson - 205-348-4578
u.s. GYMNASTICS FEDERATION SAFETY CERTIFICATION TESTING Everyone Needs To Be Safety Certified 1. Promotes a safer teachingllearning environment. 2. Reduces insurance premIUms . 3. Identifies your commitment to your profession, your sport and your athletes. 4. Implementation of stricter safety practices will help reduce the chances of accidents and/or injuries. 5. Helps in membership recruitment.
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RSG Duet Clubs Required Elements Below are listed the required CLUB ELEMENTS for the 1988 Rhythmic Gymnastic Duet Competition. The three compulsory elements: 1. may be performed in any order 2. maybe performed to any rhythm The purposes of these requirements is to provide some direction to choreographers, gymnasts and coaches with regard to the structure of a duet rhythmic routine.
ELEMENT #1 Starting position: Side by side Gymnast A kneeling to L of Gymnast B Gymnast B standing A: seated on heels in closed kneeling position, head R B: standing erect with legs together, head R Both: one club in each hand, extended low R, clubs parallel
Gymnast A: Catches clubs with R hand from under R shoulder as clubs begin to slide down the back. Gymnast B: Catches clubs with R hand as clubs begin to slide down the chest. Both: Immediately drop clubs and body to low contracted position. Clubs remain in R hand . L arms extends low. Both : Taking one club into the L hand, step backward L with 45째 turn L, remaining in contraction. Clubs make one small inward circle on outside of arms . Both: Continue with a large arm sweep backward executing a body wave into deep arch with R leg kicking high. Finish in closed releve , clubs vertical high position. A and B side by side .
Gymnast A: Slide L knee to the side as circumduction begins. Circumduction : Clubs make large circle front , L, - - ancttrack~ as- body ratates to arch position . -Continue circumduction R as R leg extends sideward R. Clubs make one small horizontal circle, over the arms, to L at the front of the body. Finish with clubs extended to L side and R leg extended R. Head follows clubs . Gymnast B: Lunging to L side , clubs pass over gymnast A into the same circumduction movement. Lunge sideward R as clubs move R. Clubs make same small circle, over arms, and finish L with L side lunge. A & B: Turn 90째 R to step R passing through plie; body contracted . Clubs pass through low position to front and begin backward vertical mills as gymnasts rise to closed releve; R foot forward . Clubs finish high vertical. Grasp both clubs with R hand . Gymnast A places L hand on L shoulder of Gymnast B. Gymnast B extends L arm forward. Both gymnasts lean bodies slightly L. Head tilted L. Exchange: A: Contracts forward in plie, placing both clubs forward over R shoulder of gymnast B. B: Arches back, placing both clubs backward over R shoulder of Gymnast A. Both : Release clubs simultaneously 10
Starting position : Gymnasts facing Both : L foot pointed forward, one club in each hand, L arm backward high diagonal and R arm forward low diagonal, head optional
The following movement occurs while the gymnasts are moving toward each other and passing L shoulders: Both : Chasse L (LR) , step L and execute a R split leap (180째), while arms make two large opposition saggital circles. Repeat chasse , step leap with arm circles and during second leap execute a backward flip toss under R with the R club and catch (club makes a 360째 rotation) Close feet to finish with both clubs in front middle position.
Starting position: gymnasts facing approximately 3 feet apart one club in each hand, in low position at side of body
During element #3 Gymnast A and B move in the same direction as if looking into a mirror. Foot directions are given for Gymnast starting with R foot , other gymnast starts with L foot. 1. Cross R foot over L while executing a small outward circle with both clubs 2. Step side with L while executing a small outward circle with both clubs. 3. Close R to L and make a small toss with R club (540 0 turn of the club) to partner while L club makes a small outward circle. (partner tosses L club) 4. Repeat 1-3 above tossing L club (partner tosses R club)
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Rhythmic Gymnastics Difficulty Proposals Proposals for elements of difficulty by the exchange of apparatus for the composition of the group exercise with three hoops and three ribbons on the program for the 1988 European Championships, the 1988 4-Continents Championships and the 1989 World Championships. 1. APPARATUS NORMS Identical to those required for the individual exercises. The three hoops must be of the same material and diameter. The three ribbons must be of the same material. 2 . REQUIREMENTS REGARDING THE ELEMENTS OF DIFFICUL TY BY THE EXCHANGE OF APPARATUS An exchange of apparatus constitutes a difficulty only if it takes place between the hoop and the ribbon . Exchanges between identical apparatus are permitted but do not qualify as exchanges. 3. POSSIBILITIES OF EXCHANGE BETWEEN HOOP AND RIBBON These two apparatus afford sufficient possibilities of exchange realizeable in a variety of ways so as to fulfill the requirements upon elements of difficulty. Hoop Ribbon 1. by throwing ...... . ..... by throwing 2. by throwing ...... ...... by transmission 3. by rolling . .. ... .. .. . .. . by throwing 4. by rolling . . .. . . ... . . . . . by transmission 5. by throwing with bounce. by throwing 6. by throwing with bounce. by transmission 7. by rotation around an axis and displacement of the hoop on the floor ....... by throwing - - - 8. -by rotation around an axis - - - - - -and displacement of the hoop on the floor . . .... . by transmission 9. by transmission ... ... .. . by throwing 10. by transmission .... ... .. by transmission
4 . EXAMPLES OF ELEMENTS OF DIFFICULTY BY EXCHANGE BETWEEN THE HOOP AND THE RIBBON
A. Exchanges through throwing the hoop and the ribbon It is not necessary to mention these examples since they correspond to those indicated in the Code of Points . Remark: The examples and the general criteria for judging the degree of difficulty in the 1982/88 Code are valid for the 1988 European Championships and the 1988 4-Continents Championships. The examples and the general criteria for judging the degree of difficulty in the 1989 Code shall apply for the 1989 World Championships.
B. Exchanges by throwing the hoop and passing the ribbon Average Difficulties Superior Difficulties - Throwing the hoop and - Throwing the hoop and passing the ribbon with passing the ribbon with an average physical a superior physical difficulty performed by difficulty performed by both gymnasts. both gymnasts. - Throwing the hoop in a position on the floor and passing the ribbon during a jump of average difficulty over the partner. C. Exchanges by rolling the hoop and throwing the ribbon - Exchange by rolling - Exchange by rolling and throwing the ribthe hoop and throwing bon; the hoop to be the ribbon; the hoop to caught while passing be caught after a jump over it of average through it in conjuncdifficulty and the ribtion with an average physical difficulty. bon to be caught in conjunction with a superior physical difficulty. D. Exchange by rolling the hoop and passing the ribbon - Exchange by rolling - Exchange by rolling the hoop and passing the hoop with retro efthe ribbon in conjuncfect in conjunction with -a- superror physical tion with an average physical difficulty perdifficulty and passing of the ribbon to the formed by both the partner during a jump gymnasts. of average difficulty over the hoop. E. Exchange by throwing and bouncing the hoop and throwing the ribbon - The gymnasts must be - The gymnasts must be at least 4 or 6 m at least 4 or 6 m apart *: exchange by apart * : exchange by throwing and bouncing throwing and bouncing the hoop backwards and the hoop backwards and throwing the ribthrowing the ribbon in bon in conjunction with conjunction with an a superior difficulty average physical difperformed by both ficulty performed by gymnasts. both gymnasts.
- The gymnasts must be - Exchange by throwing at least 4 or 6 m apart*: and bouncing the hoop and throwing the ribExchange by throwing bon during a first jump and bouncing the hoop and throwing the ribbon; by the two gymnasts; the apparatus is to be during the flight of the two apparatus a pivot of caught during a second jump by both average difficulty is to gymnasts. be performed by the two gymnasts. * Remark: The distance of 4 metres applies for the 1988 European Championships and the 1988 4-Continents Championships in accordance with the Code of Points 1982/88. The distance of 6 metres is required by the 1989 Code for the 1989 World Championships.
I. Exchange by passing the ribbon - Throwing of the ribbon and passing of the hoop in conjunction with an average physical difficulty performed by both gymnasts.
hoop and throwing the - Throwing of the ribbon and taking up of a position on the floor; passing of the hoop during a jump of average difficulty over the partner.
J. Exchange by passing the hoop and the ribbon - Exchange by passing the hoop and the ribbon during a jump of average difficulty performed by both partners.
F. Exchange by throwing and bouncing the hoop and passing the ribbon - Exchange by throwing - Exchange by throwing and bouncing the hoop and bouncing the hoop and passing the and passing the ribbon ribbon in conjunction in conjunction with a with an average physical superior physical difficulty performed by difficulty performed by the two gymnasts . the two gymnasts.
G. Exchange by displacing the hoop while rotating it about a vertical axis and by throwing the ribbon - Rotation of the hoop - Rotation of the hoop about its vertical axis about its vertical axis while moving it on the and throwing of the ribfloor and throwing of bon ; the hoop is to be the ribbon; both apcaught after a jump of paratus to be caught average difficulty over in conjunction with it and the ribbon an average physical caught during a superidifficulty and the ribbon or physical difficulty. caught during a jump of average difficulty.
H. Exchange by moving the hoop during rotation around its vertical axis and by passing the ribbon - Rotation of the hoop - Rotation of the hoop around its vertical axis around its vertical axis while moving it on the while moving it on the ground and passing of ground in conjunction the ribbon in conjunction with a superior physi- 路 with an average physical cal difficulty and passdifficulty performed by ing of the ribbon to the both gymnasts. partner during a jump of average difficulty over the hoop.
5. LEFT-HAND ELEMENT OF DIFFICULTY The composition should include a superior left-hand difficulty with the hoop performed by three gymnasts and a superior left-hand difficulty with the ribbon performed by three gymnasts . The composition should also be well-balanced between work with the right hand and work with the left. 6. COMPOSITION OF THE EXERCISE A. 1988 European Championships and 1988 4-Continents Championships The 1982 Code of Points plus all the supplements thereto communicated by circular are valid for these events. Duration: 2' to 2'30" Number of difficulties: 8 difficulties, 2 superior difficulties and 2 average. Of these 8 difficulties, four must be by exchange of the apparatus, one of which must be a superior difficulty. B. 1989 World Championships The norms in the 1989 Code of Points shortly to be published will be valid for this event. Duration: 2' to 2'30" Number of difficulties: 8 difficulties, four of which must be superior and 4 average . Of these 8 difficulties, 4 should be realized by the exchange of apparatus, 2 of which must be superior difficulties. For the exchanges by throwing the apparatus, without physical difficulty, the distance between the gymnasts must be a minimum of 6 m to qualify for a superior difficulty.
Junior Olympic Program Proposed Elements 1989-92 LEVEL III: If you have any suggestions for the J.O. Program or the elements for the proposed 1989-92 Compulsory skills, please send them by December 15, 1987 to the following three people: J.O. Compulsory Coordinator: Linda Chencinski 377 Randall Ave . Elmont, N.Y. 11003 J.O. Compulsory Exercises Coordinator: Dale Kephart 7821 Lotus Dr. Anchorage , Ak. 99502
VAULT LEVEL I: 1. RUNNING SPEED BOARD DRILLS TO 4" LANDING MAT: 2. STRAIGHT JUMP 3. TUCK JUMP 4. STRADDLE JUMP 5. JUMP 112 TURN
1. RUNNING SPEED (must pass norms set up at this level) 2. FRONT HANDSPRING TO TWO FOOT LANDING AND STICK ON 4" MAT LEVEL IV: SQUAT VAULT LEVEL V:
LEVEL II: 1. RUNNING SPEED SQUAT ONTO HORSE AND: 2. STRAIGHT JUMP OFF 3. TUCK JUMP OFF 4. STRADDLE JUMP OFF 5. JUMP 112 TURN OFF
J.O. Committee Chairman: John Wojtczuk 4475 South Clinton Ave. South Plainfield, N.J . 07080
HANDSPRING - horse height optional not to exceed 120. LEVEL VI : HANDSPRING - horse height optional not to exceed 120. LEVEL VII: HANDSPRING - horse height regulation for age group.
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Gymnasts will be performing their greatest hits in Salt Lake City July 29 through August 7,1988, for the 1988 Olympic Gymnastic Trials. The record will be set straight that America has the best of Seoul. So if you want to be up front where the action is, call or write:
UTAH SPORTS FOUNDATION 445 EAST 200 SOUTH , SUITE 46 SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 84111 (801) 359-0314
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LEVEL I SKILLS :
Proposed Elements FLOOR EXERCISE 1989-92 LEVEL III SKILLS:
Layout dive forward roll Handstand, switch legs step down Straddle stand press to handstand, press down to str. stand Handstand 180 0 pirouette Dive cartwheel Back extension roll (straight arm) Front walkover Headspring to 2 feet Front handspring step out Back handspring, rebound
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Forward Roll Dive roll piked Handstand (hold 2 sec.) step down Handstand forward roll Backward roll Back extension roll (bent arm) Cartwheel R Cartwheel L Round off Back walkover
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
360 0 turn Outward Passe
LEVEL IV SEQUENCE (using level III skills)
Round off, flic flac , flic flac
Hitchkick/ handstand forward roll
360 0 turn Front Attitude
Front handspring step out, round off, flic flac
Round off, flic flac, back saito tucked
Front handspring step out, round off, rebound, back extension roll
Back walkover to handstand, split 180 0 , step down
360 0 turn Arabesque Round off, flic flac , back saito layout
Split leap side leap
Hitchkick/ Front walkover
Handstand 180 0 pirouette, step down , back walkover
Hitchkick/ aerial cartwheel
LEVEL II SEQUENCE (using level I skills)
LEVEL V: BRONZE COMPULSORY
LEVEL VI : SILVER COMPULSORY
LEVEL VII: GOLD COMPULSORY
Front handspring step out, round off, flic flac back salta tucked Front saito to 2 feet , forward roll
LEVEL I SKILLS:
Proposed Elements DANCE 1989-92 LEVEL III SKILLS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
1. Port de Bras. 2. Tours Chaines Deboules (fast turns on the balls of the feet across the floor in the same direction). 3. Tour a la Seconde (turn en dedans with the free leg in 2nd position). 4. Pirouette en dehors (from 5th to 5th position without changing of the feet). 5. Pas de Chat (a small cat-like movement in the air with bending of the knees). 6. Fouette en face en I'air (a jump with a half turn from one foot, the other leg is extended forward and finishes in arabesque. 7. Tour en I'air (en dehors a full turning jump beginning and ending in 5th position). 8. Pas de Basque (a series of four small movements across the floor emphasizing quick technical execution). 9. Si onne Tombee (Jump upwards from both feet with smooth transition of arms and extended leg to transfer weight).
LEVEL VII: GOLD COMPULSORY
7. Grand Jete en Tournant (a split leap with a change of legs in the half turn in the air).
Grand plie Battement Fondu Developpe Grand Battement/Battement en Cloche Temps Leve Jete Ordinaire Glissade Assemble Pas de Bourre Scissone Ouverte
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
LEVEL IV SEQUENCE (using level III skills)
Five positions of the feet Five positions of the arms (port de bras) Demi-plie Battement Tendu Simple Rond de Jambe A Terre Half Toe Work. Press up/Releve Plie Releve Allegro Changement Echappe
LEVEL II SEQUENCE (using level I skills) LEVEL V: BRONZE COMPULSORY 1. Epaulement (croise-eHace) The two fundamental positions of the shoulders in relation to the head and legs. 2. Petit Temps Lie (A combination of leg and arm movements using the 2nd, 4th , 5th positions of the feet. 3. Attitudes (en avant, en face, en arriere) Utilizing the various attitude positions while combining the head and shoulder positions. Soutenu en Tournant (en dedans, en dehors; half turns). Pirouettes (en dehors, en dedans) turns forward and backward . Grand Jete (en avant-forward) split leap. Soubresaut (a leap from both feet to both feet from 5th position).
4. 5. 6. 7. LEVEL VI : SILVER COMPULSORY
1. Port de Bras. 2. Pas Ballotte (Jumps performed without pause transferring weight from one foot to the other. 3. Cabriole (large beating of the legs forwards) 4. Brise Ferme (a small beating of the legs with jumps moving forward or backward). 5. Entrechat Quatre (a small beating of the legs while jumping vertically) . 6. Emboite en Tournant (a series of half turns from one foot to the other.
LEVEL I SKILLS: 1.
2. 3. 4. 5.
Proposed Elements BALANCE BEAM 1989-92 LEVEL III SKILLS:
1. Walk forward with knee lift and kick to horizontal 2. Body Wave 3. Stride leap 90 0 4. Arabesque hop (rear leg 45 0 ) 5. 180 0 -180 0 turn (same direction) 6. Straight jump travelling forward 7. Scale 8. Cartwheel 9. Backward roll 10. Round off dismount
Walk forward, backward, sideward (releve) Chasse R - L Run forward (on toe) Step hop finish demi-plie 2 foot 180 0 turn R - L Two foot straight jump Arabesque (hold 2 sec. 45 0 ) 1 foot sit to lying position and rise Forward roll Jump off to controlled dismount landing
7. 8. 9. 10.
LEVEL IV SEQUENCE (using level III skills)
Split leap 120 0 , straight jump
360 0 turn
Jump squat on with hands
180 0 turn opposite foot to 360 0 turn
Cross handstand step down
360 0 turn to balance
Chasse - split leap 180 0
Oblique run on
Assemble, straight jump, demi-plie, 180 0 releve turn
Cartwheel back saito
180 0 turn opposite foot to 360 0 turn
Cartwheel to handstand straddle down to feet
Author Split leap series (author)
Free jump to 2 feet
Cross handstand 180 0 split, step down to back walkover
Scale 360 0 turn to balance
Assemble, straight jump with 180 0 turn
LEVEL II SEQUENCE (using level I skills)
LEVEL V: BRONZE COMPULSORY
LEVEL VI: SILVER COMPULSORY
LEVEL VII : GOLD COMPULSORY
180 0 turn opposite foot to 360 0 turn Flic Flac
LEVEL I Skills
Proposed elements UNEVEN BARS 1989 LEVEL III Skills 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Straddle Glide Kip Up
LEVEL V Bronze Compulsory
Std. Glide to Back Kip
Clear Hip Circle 30°
LEVEL VI Silver Compulsory
Long Hang Kip
Std. Glide to Back Kip
Straddle on Full Back Sale circle
LEVEL VII Gold Compulsory
Single leg kip Glide kip From Squat stand on LB Long Hang Kip From Squat stand on LB Long Hang Pull over HB Basket swing Front Hip Circle Cast Straddle Sole Circle Dismount
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
LEVEL IV Sequence of skills from Level III
Front Hip Circle
Long Hang Kip
Front Hip Circle
Jump to Back Pull over LB Cast to horizontal and return to support Stride circle forward Back Hip Circle Single leg squat through Glide forward and back to stand Underswing from Front Support Dismount
LEVEL II Sequence of skills from Level I
Squat on, reach to HB
Front Hip Circle
Pull Over HB
Underswing forward to Counter Swing and Straddle Stand on LB
Clear Hip Circle 45°
Straddle Sole Circle Dismount
HORIZONTAL BAR TECHNIQUES:
Learning Without Blisters By Ken Allen Associate Professor, HPER Men's Gymnastics Coach University of Wisconsin Oshkosh f all the ideas, drills, gimmicks , etc. , I have learned from others or discovered or developed myself over the years, the one which I consider to have had the most profound effect on my coaching and teaching has been the use of straps in learning horizontal bar skills. The man to whom I must give the credit for exposing the idea to me is Myke Gluck who, at the time, was Men's Technical Director of the Ontario Gymnastics Federation (Canada). I first learned of this " new" idea in June, 1978, when I hosted the Junior Olympic National Championships and subsequent two week training camp which Mas Watanabe conducted for the Junior National Team . Gluck was present and gave everyone a copy of a brief article which he wrote describing this sytem of swinging horizontal bar which Eugene Galperin brought to Canada from Russia. Gluck had some straps with him and most of the coaches present "played" around the idea. It was novel, then scary, then , finally fun, because it was such a free feel ing and there was no friction on the hands. And-you could swing both ways without changing grips or ripping off the bar!! The entire experience of hosting this event gave me two great new ideas. I was so impressed with the junior boys that I began a competitive program for young boys . We already had a youth program, but recreational gymnastics only. The second idea, of course, was the straps. They have become a part of my daily training program since that time. The value of the straps has been the incredible number of repetitions of many skills, in particular, fundamental swing techniques, which can be performed without friction on the hands. They are a tremendous teaching tool
for young boys, college age gymnasts who have not learned how to swing properly, or for fairly advanced gymnasts who need to learn or improve a particular swing technique . Just as most doctors would tell you that any operation has its potential risks, this operation would also have potential risks . However, in the nine years I have been using them in our gym, we have not had one accident or injury.
MAKING THE STRAPS
OTHER EQUIPMENT NEEDED n addition to the straps, a material of some sort is needed for the gymnast to place on the bar so that he can place his hands on it. The most effective material I have found has been old nylon gymnastics slippers . We have tried other materials , such as canvas slippers, a pad of material , socks, etc. They all tend to " grab" the bar a bit more and it may be potentially dangerous . The material must slide easily otherwise the potential for the hands to stop is created. There is much pressure from the straps on the wrists. As with the new style leather handgrips, a gymnast must experiment with a variety of material , thicknesses, and configurations to place over the wrist area in order to arrive at a situation that does not creat blisters or a great deal of pain on the wrists. We have used wrist bands, old sock tops, wrist wraps , indooroutdoor carpet and , most recently, neoprene material which scuba divers use for wet suits. Of course, there is a horizontal bar and it must be very clean , i.e . sanded of all chalk with emory cloth . Emory cloth is the only thing we use on the bar and we sand it several times a week even though we do not put any chalk on this particular bar at all. The bar can be used high or low. Even though it is highly unlikely that a gymnast would " slip " off the bar, we place mats under the bar. When the bar is set high , we have a spotting table next to the bar so the gymnast can get into the straps.
have experimented with several different nylon materials for the straps. The best material I have found from the point of view of strength, durability, capability of sliding on the bar and softness (to avoid cutting into the wrists of the gymnast) is what is called one inch tubular nylon webbing. A store which sells outdoor gear, in particular, hiking or climbing supplies, will most likely carry this material. It can be purchased by the foot (approximately $.20/foot) and it comes in a great variety of colors. In our gym , I color code the various sizes. The material itself has a strength of 4000 pounds. Mark and cut the strips to length. The most common size in our gym (college gymnasts) is a finished length of 29 inches. In this case, I would cut two strips 32 inches long and mark a line three inches from one end . I then bring the strips to a shoemaker or someone with a heavy duty sewing machine and heavy duty nylon thread . The strip is laid out flat. The ends are brought together. A half twist is made and then the ends are overlapped by three inches and sewn together. I ask SOME CAUTIONS PRIOR TO SWINGING that the three inch overlap be sewn in a rectangle and then in two diagonal lines from the corners. We have never 1. Make sure bar is adjusted and fastened properly. had a strap break and , over the years, there has been surprisingly little 2. When using low bar, a spotter is not fraying . usually necessary for safety but may be useful for technical assistance. 3. Depending on the age and skill lev-
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el of the gymnast, when using a high bar for giant swings, a spotter may be necessary to assist the gymnast into and out of the straps, keep the gymnast's shoulders "open" when above horizontal and to stop the swing of the gymnast when they have completed their practice session . 4. The gymnast must be instructed to put the hands in the straps correctly, depending upon which grip he will swing in. 5. The gymnast must be instructed to indicate whether the straps feel too loose or too tight before increasing the level of the swing beyond light swings below the bar. 6. Certain skills, of course, would require specific cautions with regard to avoiding muscle or jOint strains. GETTING INTO THE STRAPS
For the majority of skills which might be learned and practiced in the straps, a regular grip can be used. It is very simple indeed, to rotate forwards or backwards in the straps. The process is as follows: 1. Facing the bar, lay the shoes side by side with the nylon against the bar and rubber sole up. Fingers will eventually be placed on shoe bottom just as the feet might. 2. The straps are then laid on the bar to the outside of the shoes. They simply fold over the bar so that there is a loop on each side of the bar. The gymnast may want to adjust the position of the sewn overlap so that it does not create a pressure point on the wrist. 3. The hands are placed forward through the loops. The hands and wrists are now under the bar. 4. The hands turn inward and then back under the bar and, finally, over the bar onto the shoes. NOTE: When using the undergrip, the entire setting is the opposite. Straps are inside, shoes are outside. Hands enter from opposite ~ide and then turn out. SKILLS WHICH CAN BE PRACTICED
The following skills, drills and techniques can be easily practiced in the straps. Details on the specific technical performance objectives of the exercises will be covered in the video and verbal presentation. A. Low bar skills 1. Back kickover 22
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Forward roll Backward hip circle Forward hip circle Single leg basket swing Jump to glide (or run) and Single leg kip (shoot through) 7. Forward stride (mill) circle 8. Backward stride circle 9. Underswing to single leg stoop out 10. Straddle basket swing 11 . Glide to straddle in overshoot and underswing to straddle out 12. Forward straddle seat circle (Endo) NOTE: Straddle toe on (sale circle) can be used with forward and backward direction in addition to the seat circle. 13. Backward straddle seat circle (Stalder) 14. Piked basket swing 15. Glide to stoop through and overshoot and underswing to stoop out 16. Forward seat circle a. Simple b. From stoop in above bar c. To Mana-like position (requires spotting) 17. Backward seat circle a. Simple b. To stoop out c. To backward kip d. To backward kip and cast back for German hang 18. Kip B. Long Hang Swings on high bar 1. General swinging in long hang to become acclimated to the straps 2. The beginning of "tap" swing for backward giants 3. Basic technique for the forward giant 4. Going over the top on a backward giant swing 5. Going over the top on a forward giant swing 6. Accelerating a backward giant swing 7. Accelerating a forward giant swing 8. Changing the timing of the "tap" of the backward giant swing a. Flyaway dismount b. Decelerating the swing c. Flyaway release and regrasp d. Reverse hecht e. Kovacs or Straumann 9. Forward hecht beat giant swings 10. Backward uprise to late entry
hip circle and underswing a. Backward uprise motion b. Underswing for high start or free hip circle 11 . Backward uprise to late straddle entry and underswing (Stalder) NOTE: Straddle toe on (sale circle) can be used with forward and backward direction in addition to the seat circle. 12. Forward swing to straddle in and circle forwards (Endo) C. Dorsal and elgrip requirements NOTE: These drills may not be for everyone and there is a certain amount of risk involved with regard to potential injury to the shoulders. In experimenting with these techniques, the process must be very slow, i.e. progressions must have many steps. A coach should directly monitor the technical progress of the gymnast and should continuously ask for feedback from the gymnast with regard to the level of pain experienced in the shoulders. The pain is a result of muscles being stretched . Some gymnasts do, in fact, have very tight shoulders. The coach must be ever mindful of the fact that it is total body weight which is pulling on those muscles and, as the gymnast swings, the momentum is increased. 1. Dorsal hang swing - German giant 2. Inverted (elgrip) hang swing ADDITIONAL COMMENTS WITH REGARD TO SAFETY
A. Gymnasts should not be permitted to train with the straps to the exclusion of regular bar work. There is so little friction on the hands that the gymnast does not learn how to use the hands and wrists properly for normal horizontal bar work. In the first few months we used them, we had several gymnasts slipping off the regular bar because they were relaxing their hands too much. B. I would not recommend teaching one arm giants with the use of straps for two reasons: 1. I believe it takes time for a gymnast's shoulder to become accustomed to handling the forces generated by a one arm giant swing . For this reason I prefer teaching a one arm giant on a normal bar by building up the swing from below the bar. Although a gymnast would most Technique
likely be secure in one strap, the force he would suddenly feel , if he casted from above the bar might cause injury. 2. I have already mentioned the problem of not being able to use the hand and wrist for control while in the straps. For a one arm giant, one of the most critical aspects is to learn how to grip the bar properly and to keep the body correctly aligned . I believe this can be better and more safely accomplished on a regular bar. C. Spotting by a coach should still be an important part in the learning of certain skills, particularly for younger gym nasts and at the start of a new skill area.
D. During long hang swings, begin- F. Examine the straps on a regular basis. Factors such as the abrasion ners get in trouble as they rise above bar level. They must learn to they experience by rubbing on the properly keep tension against the bar, ultra violet light, exposure to bar to avoid falling back into the chemicals, etc. will all affect the potential life of the material. The bar. E. Check the bar's cables, chains, material is relatively inexpensive. It turnbuckles, and other stress points would be best to discard any questionable straps and replace them . often . With more repetitions on the bar, there is more stress and poten- G. Lastly, a reminder that I have had tially worn parts. I believe the ideal personal experience with all the bar from the point of view of safety skills, techniques and situations. I have considered the use of straps is the Nissen bar with tubular steel supports. If anyone of them were for the teaching of other skills but to break, there would be three have rejected some ideas because more , not only holding the bar I considered them unsafe. I am sure down, but up as well. I am seriousthat there are many of you who will ly considering attaching safety cabrainstorm and come up with some bles of some sort from my ceiling to new uses. Please think things completely through before experimentthe uprights of the bar. ing with someone else's body.
UNITED STATES GYMNASTICS FEDERATION 1987-89 PROPOSED EVENT SCHEDULE (Dates & Events s ubj ect t o ch ange or cancellat ion )
23 22·23 27· May I 29 · May I TIIA
Phoenix, AZ Class I Slale Championships (W) McDonald's Challenge- Salt .Lake City, UT USAIUSSR (MIW) TIlA NCAA National Championships (W) TBA Senior Men's Training Camp Variolls Sites Class I Hegiollals (W) ' World SporL, Pair ( M/W)Tokyo, ,Iapan
December Wom en's USG P Nat.ional Sa lt Lake city, UT Team Coaches Seminar (By Invitation Only) Catania. Sicily IX Inte rnati onal Tournament in
8·14 11 ·11 IIi ~ I 17 · ~O ~Ii
Belgia n I nternat ional (;Y'm MastNs (IV) "!lhy't.h mic Laht i (fl) Kraft. In t." rn at innal Tu urnalll<'lIt ( MiW ) 5H Nat ional T.'a ln It<Hallki ng (M)
Lahl.i, Finl and 1,0 11(\ 011,
Lincol n, Nf:
Orlan do. FL CalliI' (Sr.\\'/,Ir.A W) Colorado Springs, CO ,IIUS I! National T.'all1 Trai ning Cam p (H) .Ir. Bol's Na liona l Testillg Co lorado Springs, CO & Training National Tl'am Trai ning Orlando, FL Ca mp (,Ir B Women) Nalill llal Tt'il llI Training
January 2·10 1·'1-17
'Seni or Womens Training 'Lake Plaeid, NY Ca mp ,Iuni or (Il ) Training TBA Camp (W)
McDona ld's American Cup Fairfax, VA
McDonald's In ternational Mixed Pairs (M/IV ) Australia Cup (MI\V/R) Juni or Paci fi c Alliance Championships Junior Boys Train ing Ca mp USSR International TournamenL,
8·17 22·28 25· Apr 2 TBA
Allentown, PA Melbourne/Sydney Co lorado Springs, CO Colorado Springs, CO Moscow/Len ingrad, USS R
6·8 I ~ · I :,
21·2:3 27 ·28 28·3U TBA TBA
1·2 8·10 9·10 15·16
San Rarcl, CA Various Sites Lincoln, NE
Various Sites TIlA Various Sites (TBA) TIlA Japan TIlA Italy Corbeil, France
Ohio State University of Iowa Arizona State Elite East/ West Qual ify · TBA 3·5 ing Meets (IV) Toronto, Ca nada Four Co ntinents 5·12 Cham pionships (R) TIlA U.S. Classic Nationals 18·19 (W) TIlA ' S!! Womens Training 20·24 Camp (IV) Alhuqu erqur , NM 20·23 Junior Olympic 1301'S Nationals (M) 23·26 ,IRIS HTraining Camp- TIlA Classic Qual ifier (W) ' Nat ional Training Camp T13A 26· (J r. Boys) July 3 TIlA Sen ior Men's Training 29 · Ju ly 3 Camp Canadian Classic (IV) Canada TIlA Varna, Eo Igaria Glllden Sa nds (IV) TBA
Sr. Elite Regionals ( M)
Colorado Springs, CO Springfi eld, MA
Hegional Elit.e Quali fy ing Meets (W) ,1.0. f:ast/\Y.,st. Championships (Class I) SR Elite Regional Qualifying Mc('(s (M) American Classic Nationals (W) Brother Cup (H) Junior Olympi c Nationals (W) Grand Prix or Rome Corbcil Essoncs (R)
April " USA vs. Hunga ry (Jr. Iloys) USG P Collegiate Nat'l ( Division 11 &111) MAV U.S. Rhythmic Gymnas· tics Championships NCAA Regionals (W) NCAA National Championships (M)
McDonald's U,S. Gym nastics Champs (MI\Y )
lIouston , TX
August 4·7 15·23 IH ti
Olympic Trials (MI\v/I() Salt Lake City, UT National Tcam Training Indianapolis, IN Camp (Sr. W) Colorado Springs, CO .Ir. Boys 11" l'<'loplI,,' nl. CalliI'
SI ~IIIU Kllrt'a FI (; Congr"ss OIYlllpil: (:allll'S ( WW/IO S"olll , "ofl'a
Olym pic- Trai nillg Camp (M/\Y)
'Konica Cup Rhythmic 'TBA Inn iJl\"itatiunal USGF National Congrrss Anahr im , CA
October 13· 16
II · If,
November 4·6 5·23 TRA TIlA
SR Nat:! Team Coachl's Training Camp (IV ) JUllior Iloys Dcve lopment Camp ' Swiss CuplDTIl Pukal Cup (MIW) 'Chunil:hi Cup (M/\V)
TIlA Colorado Sp rillgs, CO SwitzrrlandiFllG ,Iapan
December 2·10 9·12 II ·IB 15· 18 21i· Jan 3 TIlA TIlA
Pacific Alliance Championships SI( Nat'l Team Training Ca mp (W) PIG Men's 7th Int'l Judges Course Senior National Team Training Camp (M) Jr. Iloys National Testing & Training 'IlAGA Internal.ional Tournament (MI\Y) 'JIUSR Tra ining Camp· Classic Qualifiers (IV)
China TBA Magglingen , Swiss Colorado Springs, CO Colorado Springs, CO London , England TIlA
1989 March ' 11 !)
~"' no n al d 's An"" ican Cup (M/\V) McDonald's Inl'l Mi,rd Pairs (MIW) ' USSR International TournamenL, (MI\Y) ' Aust ral ian Games (M/\V)
TIlA TIlA Moscow/Leningrad, USSR Melbourne, Australia
. U.S. Rhythmic (;ymnas· tics Champs (R) TBA American Classic Nationals (W) 13·15 NCAA National Cham pionships (M) 14·15 NCAA National Championships (W)
TBA TBA TBA TEA
·' ·Tentative Dates or Sites (~1) · M c n (C) ·Chiid ren (W)·IVomcn (J)·Junior T13A·To be An nounced (1t) ·Rhyr,hmic (S) ·Scnior " ·Proposed Evcnt
American Athletic, an official sponsor of the United States Gymnastics Federation, is the all-around favorite. The one selected for use in the Olympics, and the Olympic Trials, the World Gymnastics Championships, the Pan American Games, the World University Games ... and many other major tours and meets. Why this unequaled popularity? Because our concern rests with the athlete. Because we believe gymnastic apparatus should enhance an athlete's performance, never hinder it.
It's no wonder American Athletic is the choice of champions. Shouldn't it be your choice, too? Bring out the best in your athletes, bring out AAl American. For information about the complete line, call Ken Cysewski at 1-800-247-3978 toll-free today. Telex 910-520-1031.
IAmerican ~ 200 American Avenue Jefferson, Iowa 50129, U.S.A.
Official Supplier of Gymnastic Equipment to the Tenth Pan American Games T.'
The'n!nth Pan AmerIcan indianapolis 7-23 August 1987
By permission of tht Unitt<! Statts Olym pic Commilttt C I98S PAX/India napolis. All RighlS Resenrd.