Page 1

THE OFFICIAL TECHNICAL PUBLICATION OF THE UNITED STATES GYMNASTICS FEDERATION

June 1986

Vol. 6, No.2

Men's Difficulty Analysis Of American Cup

(

Placement Of Static Stretching Exercises

Non路Profil Organization

U.S. Postage

PAID Permit No. 6466 Indianapolis, Ind.


Vol. 6, No.2

June 1\)86

Publisher Mike Jacki Education/Safety Editor Dr. Gerald George Production Michael G. Botkin

Inside This Issue

4-5

America Gets A Lesson In Insurance

6-7

Some Questions And Answers: About USGF Insurance Related Membership

8-9

Drugs And Gymnastics

By Bill Sands and Keith Henschen Univ. of Utah

10-11

1986 McDonald ' s American Cup Men 's Difficulty Analysis By Event

Compiled By Robert Cowan USGF Men 's Program Administrator

14

Statistical Analysis: Winter Testing vs. Regional Testing

By Robert Cowan

15-17

Placement Of Static Stretching Exercises In A Workout Program

By William L. Cornelius N. Texas State Univ .

By Jan Claire, USGF Member Service Director

USGF Member Organizations Amateu r Athkt ic Uni o n; Ame ricdn Sokol O rga ni zatio n; American TurnC'rs; Assoc iJl io n for I ntC'rcoll egia tr Athle tics fo r Wornl'n ; Na tio nal Assocj<ltion for Gi rl s a nd Women 's Spo rt s; Natio nal ASSllC. of Coll ege Gy mnas ti.:s Coac hrs; NACGC-Worncn; Na tiona l Assoc. of Women Gymnas tics Judges; NCAA; Na lio nal Fedl'ration o f S ta tr Hi g h School ASSllC.; Na ti o nal Gy mnas li.:s Jud ges Assoc.; Na tio na l Hi g h School Gymnas ti cs Coaches Assoc .; Na ti onal Jl'w is h Wel fare Bna rd; Na tion al Juni or Co ll ege At hletic Assoc.; Unit ed Stal es Assuc. of In dl·pendt..·m Gymnastics Clubs; Unit ed Sta tes Gymnastics Safe ty Assoc.; Young Me n's Chris ti an Assoc. ; Elite Coaches Assoc.; Men·s Cite Coac hes Assoc.; Wo men's ElilE' Coac hes A5~(lC.

All photos © USGF 1986, by Dave Black

CHA NGE OF ADDRESS AND SUBSCR IPT ION INOUIRIES : In order

10

ensure uninterrupted delivery

01

TECHNIQUE magazine. nolice of change of addr ess shou ld be made six to eight weeks in advance. For fastest

service. please enclose you r present mailing label. Direct all subscription mail to TECHN IOUESUBSCR IPTIONS . 1099 N. Meridian SI. . Suite 380. Indianapolis . IN . 46204 . POSTMASTER: Send address change to TECHNIOUE. 1099 N. Meridian St.. Indianapolis. IN 46204 . TECHNIOUE is published Quarterly lor 5 12.00 by the United States Gymnastics federation . 1099 N. Meridian SI.. Suite 380. Indianapolis. IN . 46204 (Phone: 317-638·8743) . Third class postage paid at Indianapolis. IN . Subscription price: $12.00 per yea r in United States : all other countries S24 .00 per year . Back issue singl e copies S2.00 p lus Sl .00 pos t age/ handling . A ll reasonab le ca r e wi ll be taken . but no responsibility can be assumed fo r unsolicited material: enclose return postage . (j: 1985 by USGF and Technique. All rights reserved . Printed in USA. Techniqu e Preparation of Articles for Submission : Please follow a uniform format o f preparing articles for submission in order to provide the most efficient channel through th e evaluation and review process . Th e following shou ld be included in su bmi ssions : 1. An original type copy. doubled spaced on 8 ~6 x 11 inch paper . 2. An abstract. on a separ ate page. a short sum mary of procedure and explanat ion of study o r article co ntent (no t more than 150 words) . 3. A short biogr aphical paragraph on a separate page of the author or authors accompanied by a small photo (2 1/;> x 3 V/ ') of the author. 4 . References on a separate sheet dou ble spaced in con secu ti ve order. using Index Medicine style (author's name- last name first. name of book . city . publisher. year. page numbers) journal r eferences . shoul d follow sam e format (author, nameof article . Journal name, vo lume. pages , year) . 5. Dupli ca tes of pictures and diagrams or figures (black and white preferred) with sharp detail. Also include explanations (captions) of pictures and diagrams on a separate sheet. Photograph release - a leiter of release from any identifiable subject in photos th at are included in the article unless the lace or eyes are obscurred , Leiter shou ld be signed by subject. parent or guardian .

2

6. T itle page consisting of an informative title. author's name and complete institutional or professional address Submission of Articles for Pubfication : Written arti cles will be accepted for review and possible publication in the following procedure . First the articles are sent to : U SGF Departmen t o f Publications

1099 N. Meridian St.. Suite 380 Indian apolis. IN 46204 Upon receipt of the ar ti cle. to the USGF office. the research coor din ator will review and forward copies to the appropria te USGF Sports Advisory Committee members for review . On r eceivi ng their review . copies of the article will go to the Managing Editor and Ex ecu ti ve Director for final approval for publication . If it is necessary for the article to be edited or revised in order to improve the effectiveness of com munication to a wide va riety-level of readers . the author will receive the edi ted article prior to publishing for their approval. °If the article or paris of have been su bmitted and /or published by another publicati on. a complete name and addres s of the Editor and Publication shou ld accompany the article upon submission to the U SG F in order to follow proper procedures of publishing and to receive approval to reproduce the article in the USGF publication .

United States GymnastiCS Federation Board of Directors: Execuhve Director, Mike Ja cki . Athlete Representatives: Nancy Marshall; Brent Simmons; Larry Gerard; Tom Beac h; Lyd ia Bree; Kathy John son; Dian e Bijesse; lim LaFleur. Amateur Athletic Union: Jerry Hard y. American Sokol Organization : Norma Zab ka. American Turners: Harry Warnken . Members at Large: Sue Ammerma n and Lind a Chencinski . NCAA Gymnastics CoachesMen : Ru s ty Mitchell , University of New Mexico. NCAA Gymnastics Coaches-Women: Jud y Avene r, Penn State Univers ity. National Association for Girls and Women in Sports: Dr. Mimi Murray, Springfield Co ll ege. National Association of Women's Gymnastics Judges : Dale Brown . NCAA: Sy lvia Moore, Oregon State Unive rsi ty,; Greg Marsden , UniverSity of Utah; Je rry Miles, " . NCAA; Wayne Young, Brigham Young Univers ity. NAJA : Bo nnie Morrow. NHSGCA : John Brinkworth . National Federation of State High School Athletic Assoc.: Sharon Wilch ; Susan Tru e . National Jewish Welfare Board: Courtney Shanken . NJCAA: Dave Rowlands, Truman College; Arlene Crossman, Linn Be nton College. NGJA:N1ike Milidonis . USAIGC: Ed Knepper. Men 's Elite Coaches Assoc.: Jim Howa rd , University of Nebras ka. USECA for Women : Rae Kre ut zer; Steve Whitlock . Young Men's Christian Assoc. : Bud Wilkinson . Jr. Boy's Gym. Coaches Assoc .: Rich Boccia . President : Mike Donah ue . Associ~te Content Editors SPORTS MEDICINE COMMIlTH

Merrill A. Ritter, M.D. SAFETY COMMllTEE

Dr. Marc Rabinoff EDUCATION COMMllTEE Dr, Garlal,d O'Quinn BIOMECHANICS COMMllTEE Dr. Marle ne Adrian , Director SPORTS PSYCHOLOGY COMMllTEE

Dr. Kei th Henschen. Ph .D. EXERCISE PHYSIOLOGY COMMllTEE

Dr. Pat EisenmiUl, Ph .D. Unless expressly identified to the contrary, all articles. statements anti vie ws prinll'u he rdn are au ribu«:u ~olt:y tu th e author anol hc l lnit cc.1 States Gymnast ics FC(it-ralion l"xprc:-.sl's no I)pin i o n th ereo n and a~S llnH.'S n o responsihility o

tht:fl'()f.

Technique


Announcing the ...

1986 {JSGF CONGRESS mce again, the USGF will present an outstanding program, featuring the finest clinicians and professionals in the sport. The 1986 Congress will provide you with essential, useful information on coaching technique , rules interpretation, running a successful, profitable operation, and more.

1986 USGF CongressFacts at a Glance

The highlights of the 1986 Congress in St. Louis:

Date: September 24-28 Site:

• The latest on Safety Certification • New Rules and Code interpretation

Adam 's Mark St. Louis Hotel Fourth and Chestnut St. Louis, Missouri 63102 (314) 241-7400 When making reservations, ask for " 1986 USGF Congress special rates."'

• Lecture/Demonstrations by top technicians

Sufficient rooms are reserved for Congress up to August 10, 1986. Reserve early to assure room and special discount rates.

• Videotape skill analysis for coaches, judges

Travel: Special airfare discounts off standard coach rates are availabl e. Fee: $55 for USGF professional members before August 10, 1985. $65 for USGF professional members after August 10, 1985. $75 for non-USGF professional m embers before August 10, 1985. $85 for non-USGF professional members after August 10, 1985. Fee Includes: • Free entrance to all lectures, master clinics, demonstrations, open meetings and general assembly. • Final Awards Banquet and Dance Special Offer: Caribbean Cruise for Two! During the final banquet a drawing will be held for a fantastic week-long cruise for two to the Caribbean aboa rd the U.S.S. Norway! So block off your calendar for September 24-28, 1986, and register for the 1986 USGF Congress today! Registration: Fill out the registration form below and mail, along with you r registration fee, to: 1986 USGF Congress U.S. Gymnastics Federation 1099 N. Meridian, #380 Indianapolis, IN 46204

'86 USGF CONGRESS REGISTRATION FORM Name,_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Date Home Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ City_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ State Phone (Day) Please check appropriate box:

Congress Fee: $75.00 per person. $85.00 after August 10th. $20 off Congress Fee for USGF Professional Members.

Zip, _ _ _ __

Phone (Night) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

USGF PROFESSIONAL MEMBERSHIP #

o Women's Program

0 Men's Program 0 Rhythmic Program l Coach 0 Judge 0 Club Owner/Administrator L.J Other, please specify:, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

PRIMARY INTEREST/PURPOSE FOR ATTENDING CONGRESS: _ _ _ _ __

Please return this registration form with check for fee to USGF Congress: 1099 N. Meridian, Suite 380 Indianapolis, IN 46204


America Gets A Lesson In Insurance By Jan Claire USGF Member Service Director merica is in the middle of an insurance crisis bigger than anybody was able to predict. It came as no surprise to the insurance industry that there would be a crisis - that is a cyclical fact of the business - but nobody could predict the volatile combination of economic, investment/interest, and courtroom climates coming together at once! The financial pages are full of doomsday articles concerning schools, cities, business and especially not-forprofit institutions such as the United States Gymnastics Federation (USGF) and its current insurance crises . Who's to blame? No one entity shoulders the load . It's easy to say the insurance industry didn't keep its house in order, or that the courts are at fault because they 're handing out multi-million dollar punitive damage awards (in cases brought by plaintiff attorneys who are taking a percentage of the winnings), or the American public is at fault because they've become "sue happy." Those are certainly plausible and convenient reasons, but rather than get bogged down seeking explanations, the USGF has had to forge onward to develop a program that WORKS. NOW! Insurance and the USGF are tied together intimately. The USGF is the governing body of the sport of gymnastics in the USA and is responsible for thousands of young athletes seeking national standing in the sport. As soon as one takes charge of another person, one also assumes certain liabilities and the protection in this area is afforded by insurance . Consequently, any gymnast wishing to compete in a USGF sanctioned event MUST first be a USGF athlete member (meaning the athlete has accident insurance). All participants are guaranteed to have insurance by being able to present a valid, current identification number which is only assigned after proper requirements are met.

A

4

'Insurance and the USGF are tied together intimately. The USGF is the governing body of the sport of gymnastics in the USA and is responsible for thousands of young athletes seeking national standing in the sport. As soon as one takes charge of another person, one also assumes certain liabilities and the protection in this area is afforded by insurance.' The same insurance coverages have been available through the same application of the 100 percent concept to member Clubs of the USGF in which if 100 percent of the staff and students become club members (meaning covered by accident insurance), the club then becomes a member of the USGF and receives liability insurance coverage as well. The difference between the USGF's membership programs, however, is important to know. The athlete program insurance is in effect WHILE PARTICIPATING IN A USGF SANCTIONED EVENT (Competition, exhibition , etc.), while the club program insurance covers youngsters when in SUPERVISED WORKOUT AT THEIR GYMNASTICS CLUB or while participating in authorized club activities . Gymnasts who belong to a member club, and who are going to compete in a USGF sanctioned event, would have to apply for BOTH insurance programs. CHANGES BEGET CHANGES In October, 1985, when the USGF was informed that its liability insurance

carrier was getting out of the sports insurance business , we felt the same panic felt,by most sports organizations, schools and associations who lost liability coverage. It was frustrating for the USGF, doubly frustrating for the fine insurance agency that represented the USGF, and totally frustrating for the many club and athlete members of the USGF. The best liability to be found was half the normal limit. And we had to take it . Through eight months of continuous meetings with insurance general agents, underwriters and others , the USGF has been able to convince some powerful and creative brokers that gymnastics - at least - is worthy of an underwriter taking on our sport . The USGF has spelled out its ongoing safety programs , the USGF Safety Manual, the upcoming certification programs for coaches and gyms. We have gone through the procedures of our membership programs with a fine tooth comb, explaining to the insurance people each minute aspect of the programs we offer and how insurance plays a part in these programs. We worked with them to devise a plan for insurance coverage that requires any person insured by the program to have a full complement of Accident Medical insurance - now even including lifetime benefits for disabling injuries - before the USGF will extend its liability insurance to the sanctioned event (in the case of Athlete members) or the club (in the case of club members) . At this printing, all the necessary mountains of paperwork are being typeset and printed, and the new program is being rolled out. Already out are the 1986/87 season ATHLETE MEMBERSHIP FORMS which have been sent to every club which registered athlete members into the competition season last year . The club membership materials are now rolling off the presses as is a newly-refurbished peak enrollment program, which is a strictly-insurance program offering no individual benefits Technique


to the members of a club. AND STILL MORE CHANGES ... Due to the complications of running a membership program involving more than '140,000 gymnasts, coaches , judges and others across the country, the USGF has changed insurance agencies . The new company located just blocks away from the Federation offices is City Securities Insurance Corporation , and the agent for the USGF is Pat O'Connor, Senior Vice President of CSIC . O'Connor, through creative insurance people at the general agent representing the USGF, has worked diligently to accomodate the USGF insurance program's needs and the end result is a program of which all USGF members can be truly proud. It is unique in the United States among sports governing bodies , and has resulted in much interest from businesses and associations unrelated to the USGF, as well. Any USGF member having questions regarding the insurance program may write to City Securities Insurance, c/o Pat O'Connor, at 400 Circle Tower Building, Indianapolis, IN 46204 or call (317) 634-4400. Inquiries for materials may also be directed to USGF Member Services at (800) 345-4719 . Membership fees for athletes in the 1986/87 upcoming season beginning August 1, are $25.00; fees for club membership remain at $13 until August 1, 1986 at which time they will raise to $16.00 per member - although the new liability coverage elevated to the new level effective June 1, 1986. While the peak enrollment program is not fuily ready or in effect at press time, the rates had been set at $18.00 for regular club students per year, and $14 for those age six and under. Again , requests for information should be directed either to City Securities Insurance or to the USGF Member Services offices. ALL correspondence should go to USGF Member Services, 1099 N. Meridian , Suite 380 , IndianapOlis, IN 46204. In the March 1986 issue of Womens Sports & Fitness magazine , an article about the insurance "cloud over U.S. skaters," and the problems with insurance in the skating world stated , "Unable to afford the premiums and unwilling to risk operating without insurance, rink owners are letting their ice melt .. . " Technique

ATTENTION USGF Official Gymnastics Safety Manual $16.45 -Official manual for USGF Safety Certification Program -Designed to raise the lev.el of safety awareness in the entire industry.

Edited by Gerald S. George, PhD.

A MUST FOR EVERY SERIOUS GYMNASTICS PROFESSIONAL

Available Now Through USGF-Trampoline Safety Manual -Includes chapters on: The Need for Safety; Legal Responsibility of Instructor; Accident Prevention Edited by William Allison

To order either the Gymnastics or Trampoline Safety Manuals , send check or money order to: USGF Merchandising P.O. Box 5562 Indianapolis , Indiana 46255-5562

------------------------------Order Form #6001 USGF Safety Manual (quant.) x $16.45 = _ _ _ _ _ __ #6002 Trampoline Safety Manual (quant.) x $ 9.95 = _ _ _ _ _ __ Total amount enclosed _ _ _ _ _ __ Allow 4-6 weeks for delivery.

5


Some Questions And Answers About USGF Insurance Related Membership

6

0:

WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AN ATHLETE AND A CLUB MEMBERSHIP?

A:

They are two separate programs. Athlete membership is required before participating in a USGF Sanctioned Competition (or exhibition event) . The Club membership is effective when a USGF Club signs up 100% of its staff and students into the 100% Club Membership Program , after which the Club is extended liability insurance, and each individual in the club receives the medical accident insurance coverage. The two programs are mutually exclusive.

0:

WHAT IF A GYMNAST IS INJURED?

A:

The person rsponsible for the gymnast should immediately call the USGF Insurance Agency and request a claim form (if one is not already available at the site of the club or event), which is filled out by the injured party's physician and returned to the Claims Department address shown on the claim form. Call (317) 634-4400 for Claim Forms.

0:

WHAT INSURANCE COVERAGES DO ATHLETE & CLUB MEMBER INDIVIDUALS HAVE?

A:

Excess Accident Medical Insurance amounting to $50,000 with $10,000 Accidental Death & Dismemberment benefits. Catastrophic injury coverage for injuries resulting in disablement with unlimited lifetime medical and rehabilitation benefits provided (in excess of other valid and collectable insurance) . Private duty nursing is included but is limited to $30,000 per year. (obtain full coverage inc formation from City Securities Insurance; this is not intended to be a full description as policy language and provisions apply.)

0:

WHAT DOES THE TERM "EXCESS" MEAN?

A:

It means the insurance is payable over and above existing primary coverage and will not pay double. If mom and dad have Blue Cross and it covers a portion of the injury claim, but not all, the USGF in-

surance covers the remainder (less the $250 deductible). In cases where there is no primary insurance, the USGF insurance automatically becomes primary. 0:

HOW DOES A CLUB RECEIVE USGF LIABILITY INSURANCE COVE.RAGE?

A:

By becoming either a Club 100 percent program member (meaning signing up 100 percent of staff and students), or through the Peak Enrollment program (100 student minimum, no reporting of staff & students. It is based upon peak period enrollment of the year.)

0:

WHAT IS INVOLVED IN REGISTERING ATHLETES INTO THE USGF COMPETITION PROGRAM?

A:

Request proper forms from the USGF Member Services Office. These forms are : Application - on which athletes are signed up with information needed such as name, address, birthdate, program, etc., - Membership Agreement, or waiver, a signed copy of which must accompany the application, and $25.00 per athlete.

0:

WHAT IS THE ATHLETE REGISTRATION SEASON?

A:

The season begins effective each August 1, and continues until the following July 31 . All athletes registering in that period have their memberships voided automatically on July 31 regardless of which month they register.

0:

IS THE USGF THE ONLY PLACE I CAN BUY INSURANCE?

A:

The USGF doesn't sell insurance. Our insurance agency does that. We have membership programs of which insurance is a part . Insurance, however, is available from other sources, although probably at a higher price for the identical coverages offered by the USGF insurance agency. The USGF uses the strength of its more than 130,000 members in order to develope insurance coverages at affordable prices. Since a typical insurance premium for $1,000,000 liability insurance these days will generally exceed that amount in cash outlay, very few smaller

Technique


organi zations can afford the payment. That is a small part of the overall insurance problem affecting the USA right now.

Subscribe Now

The USGF insurance premiums are the result of dividing up the actual cash outlay by the number of members expected to join into the program . If we go under that number, the USGF must come up with the cash to meet the earned premium . If we go over that number, the amount is plowed back into the membership program to buffer the possibility of being under during the next season . Q:

A RE US GF TRAN SFERABLE?

MEMB ERS HI PS

A:

No. Once a membership has been accepted and the number assigned to the member, the member 's benefits are paid for in that person's name. Each individual must have their own identification number which is good for one year.

Q:

IF USGF ATHLETE MEMBERSHIP IS REQUIRED IN ORDER TO PARTICIPATE IN A "USGF SANCTIONED EVENT", DOES THAT APPLY TO A GROUP OF TINY TOTS DOING AN EXHIBITION BEFORE THE MEET OR BEFORE THE AWARDS ARE GIVEN OUT?

A:

Our underwriters and insurance make no distinctions. If a gymnast is to perform on a piece of gymnastics apparatus - including floor - in a USGF Sanctioned Event, that person must have insurance (i.e. the Athlete Membership) covering possible accidents.

Q:

IF A STUDENT IN MY CLUB, WHICH IS A USGF CLUB MEMBER, COMPETES IN A USGF SANCTIONED EVENT, IS HE OR SHE COVERED BY MY CLUB INSURANCE?

A:

No. Club insurance covers the Club and its members while in the club. To compete in a USGF sanctioned event, the gymnast would have to be an ATHLETE member.

If you have a question regarding USGF Membership programs, call 1-800-345-4719 8:30 to 5:30 weekdays (except Monday: 12:00 noon to 5:30 p.m.) Central Time. 'nsurance coverage discussed herein are subJect to policy terms and conditions. For insurancerelated questions, call the USGF insurance agency, City Securities Insurance, (317) 634-4400

Technique

Technique gives the gymnastics professional, as well as the enthusiast, a clear jump on the rest of the community. As you know, education in our fast-paced sport is essential to the development of a safe and effective program. Technique gives you that vital information. Take advantage of this most important resource. Subscribe today. Please mail orders to : USGF Department of Education and Safety ; 1099 North Meridia n St., Suite 380 , Indian apolis , IN 46204.

Pl ease e nter my s ub sc r ip ti o n imme di a te ly. o

Enc [oS("d l~ .$ \ 2 , h e{k o r mune\ order fu r 路t l~~ UI!' ~

C

C ht'c k enclost'J - nu bol l mt' or CO D a(ccp ,ed

THE OFFI CIAL TEC HNICA L PU BLI CATI ON OF THE UN ITED STATE S GYM NASTICS FEDER ATI ON I-oIr .fM" 1M" , _

_

_

_

_ __ __ __ _ __ _ __

Address _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

C"y _ _ _ _ _ __

_ _ _ _ S,a{(' _ _ _ _ __

Z,p _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ Phone _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Chec k o nt

0

Gym na st / Agt: _

0

P a re nt

0

CI)ach

LJ

O( h('r

7


Drugs And Gymnastics By Keith Henschen and Bill Sands University of Utah

nce again the issue of drugs being used and abused in sports has reared its' ugly head . This problem of drug use by world-class athletes has reached such monumental proportions that the International Olympic Committee (IOC) deemed it necessary during the last Olympic year (1984) to require drug screening tests of all Olympic competitors. The harsh , cruel reality appears to be that use of drugs in sports has not diminished over the years ; but rather has accelerated at an alarming rate since the first few decades of this century (Goldman, Bush, Klatz , 1984). The use and abuse of foreign substances by world-class athletes has become so contemporarily popular that it is even rumored that medical teams of some Eastern Block countries routinely prescribe such substances in order to enhance performances (Klein, 1979). Also, certain sports seem to demonstrate a proclivity towards drug usage while others exhibit an opposite reputation. It was the intention of this investigation to gather information on the drug tendencies of contemporary gymnasts. The sport of gymnastics was selected because of its' rather " clean " reputation and due to the success of the gymnasts representing the United States in the recent Olympic games.

O

Just how prevalent is the use of drugs in gymnastics in the United States? If drugs are being used, who actually uses them? Also, questions such as the following need to be addressed : 1) At what age to gymnasts turn to drugs?; 2) Who supplies these foreign substances? ; 3) Which drugs are commonly used? ; and 4) Are male or female gymnasts more prone to drug usage? In an attempt to answer the previously posed questions the United States Gymnastics Federation (USGF) sanctioned this drug survey investigation .

8

METHODS Gymnasts from registered private clubs (with the USGF) throughout the United States were forwarded the survey. Two hundred and fifty-eight gymnasts (241 females and 17 males voluntarily returned the questionnaire. These numbers may initially appear to be lopsided in favor of females ; but they are actually proportionate to participation according to gender in the United States. Table 1 illustrates the demographic data associated with the surveyed population .

The results of the returned questionnaires indictated that in general , gymnasts in the United States have had very miniscule association with drugs or foreign substances. Less than two percent of the sampled population indicated any use of performance enhancing drugs. A similar percentage said that these drugs were provided by a coach, trainer or non-physician. Caffeine or perking up drugs were utilized by only 4.3 percent of the sample. No respondents indicated any use of strength gaining drugs (steriods, etc.).

TABLE 1

Surprisingly, only a little over four percent (4.7 percent) of the sample indicated use of weight control drugs. The substances most frequently taken included primarily diet pills and Dexatrime(R) . By far the most prevalently used foreign substance by gymnasts is vitamins. Approximately 75 percent of the respondents indicated that they regularly took vitamin supplements. Multiple daily vitamins, vitamin C, and B complex vitamins were the most commonly utilized. About 17 percent of the population admitted to taking vitamin dosages above the minimum recommended daily allowances. The second most used drug (other than vitamins) was pain control substances (other than aspirin). Approximately 11 percent of the population had taken pain control drugs. The gymnasts indicated that doctors were the main suppliers of pain control drugs and the drugs taken included : Advil, Tylenol, cortisone, Motrin, Naprosyn, Feldine, and heprin . Approximately two percent of the gymnasts indicated that they had received an injection of pain control drugs.

Demographic Data of Sample

Age 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 22

Female 3 3 14 16 17 25 40 54 31 24 8 4 1 1

Male 0 0 0 0 1 2 5 1 1 1 4 2 0 0

Total 3 3 14 16 18 27 45 55 32 25 12 6 1 1

241

17

258

2 5 7 2 1

34 114 51 35 14 10

17

258

Competitive Level Elite Class I Class II Class III Profile Unknown

32 109 44 33 14 9 241

o

As can be readily deduced from the information presented in Table 1, the age range of the sample was from 7 22 . There aslo appears to be adequate distribution from all of the competitive levels. RESULTS Results of this survey are presented in Table 2.

Even though almost 40 percent of the United States gymnasts believe that their Eastern European counterparts take drugs in order to enhance their performances, no gymnast in this survey indicated that they had ever taken a drug to help stop physical maturing or to delay the onset of menstruation . It is interesting to note

Technique


that eight percent of the gymnasts surveyed knew of some gymnasts who regularly used drugs ; but, as previously stated , only 4 percent of the respondents indicated actual drug usage. Only one gymnast expressed the idea that if other gymnasts were us-

ing drugs that this would influence his use of drugs. Only 1.9 percent of the surveyed gymnasts indicated that they had ever been approached by other gymnasts to use drugs. Also, only one gymnast admitted to offering a drug or substance

to another gymnast. The last concept investigated by this survey was that of drug screening . Sixty-four percent of the sample felt that drug screening tests should be conducted at national level competitons in gymnastics ; but only 2.7 percent had ever actually participated in such a screening test previously. DISCUSSION

TABLE 2 Results of Questionnaire Question

Results (Answering Yes) Males

%

Females

Been offered a drug to enhance performance?

2

11 .7

2

Given drug by coach or trainer?

o

0.0

Taken a " perk up" drug ?

6

Taken a " calming down" drug?

2

Are vitamin dosages taken above recommended daily allowances?

Total %

0.8

4

1.6

2

0.8

2

0.8

35.3

5

2.1

11

4.3

11 .7

3

1.2

5

1.9

5.9

11

4.6

12

4.7

13

76.5

175

72.6

188

72.9

2

11 .8

41

17.0

43

16.7

5.9

19

7.9

20

7.8

Taken weight control drugs? Do you take vitamins?

%

Do gymnasts you know take drugs? Taken drugs to make you stronger?

o

0.0

o

0.0

0

0.0

Has another gymnast offered performance enhancement drugs?

2

11 .8

3

1.2

5

1.9

5.9

o

0.0

Would you use drugs if other gymnasts did?

0.4

Do Eastern European gymnasts take drugs?

8

47.1

90

37.3

98

38.0

Have you ever taken a drug screening test?

3

17.6

4

1.7

7

2.7

14

82.4

152

63.1

166

64.3

0.6

o

0.0

Do you feel drug screening should be conducted at national level competition? Have you offered a drug to another gymnast?

0.4

Taken pain control drugs?

4

23.5

25

10.4

29

11 .2

Have you ever received an injected drug?

o

0.0

6

2.5

6

2.3

Technique

t appears that drug or foreign substance use by gymnasts (from private clubs) in the United States is minimal. What little drug usage which has been identified in gymnastics does not appear to occur at any one particular age. The greatest use of drugs or foreign substances is in the area of vitamin supplements. Possibly an alarming finding is that approximatley 11 percent of the gymnasts indicate use of pain control drugs ; although most of these were obtained from physicians.

I

There are a couple of additional findings of this survey which warrant further clarification. First, male gymnasts appear to be much more prone to drug usage than are female gymnasts. A greater percentage of males take "perk up" drugs, vitamins, and pain control substances. The reasons behind this finding are beyond the boundaries of this study. A second finding , which is quite fascinating, is that approximately eight percent of the gymnasts knew of other gymnasts who took drugs; but only four percent of the gymnasts admitted to having taken foreign substances. These findings are incongruent. With all the contemporary uproar concerning drugs and athletics, drug screening tests, and legislation concerning drugs ; it seems to be " much ado" about nothing in gymnastics. Young gymnasts in our country are not drug wise, hooked, or even concerned . References Goldman, B., Bush , P., & Klatz, R. (1984). Death in the Locker Room. South Bend , IN, Icarus Press.

Klein , R. (1979) . Are drugs braking gymnasts' growth? The Physician and Sports Medicine, 7, 18-20.

9


1986 McDonald's American Cup Men's Difficulty Analysis By Event Compiled By Robert Cowan Men's Program Administrator Floor Excercise Guczoghy (Hungary)-Mount-P ike full-in ; diagonal-pike double ; sidefront-front; dismount-tuck double. Tikhonkikh (Soviet Union)-MountTuck full in ; diagonal-11I2 stepout to front some to side somi with '12 twist; diagonal-Arabian side 1 and 314; dismount-tuck double. Kolev (Bulgaria) -Mount-Double layout ; diagonal-tuck full in ; sideside somi '12; dismount-tuck double. Barbieri (France)-Mount-Tuck full in; diagonal -pike double; side -full , punch front ; dismount-tuck full in . Daggett (USA)-Mount-Double layout ; diagonal-double pike; diagonalfront , front ; dismount-double tuck . Chongsheng (China)-Mount-Double layout (from the rafters) ; diagonalfront somi to double full ; side-back somi punch front 11;4; dismount-tuck double. Hoffman (German Democratic Republic)-Mount-Full and '12 twisting 1 and %; diagonal-whip back to full punch front ; dismount-tuck double Ginsberg (USA) -Mount-Double layout ; diagonal-front , front to full punch front ; side-full, punch brani; dismount-tuck double.

Pommel Horse Tikhonkikh (Soviet Union)-Back moore travel , front out travel , pom mel russian , Scissors '12 , back trave l, handstand dismount Kolev (Bulgaria)-Loops, pommel russian , flaring travel , flair travel , flair loop, handstand dismount. Barbieri (France)-Back moore, back moore to Tong Fei , double swiss, bailey, pommel russian , front out, 1/2 Russian, Handstand dismount Daggett (USA)- Back moore travel ,

10

pommel circle, back russian , pommel circle, pommel circle, scissor '12, back scissors '12, flair hop, flairs to handstand , pirouette through handstand dismount Hoffman (German Democractic Republic)-Loops, flair spindles, magyar travel , scissors '12, flair, back travel flair, moore, handstand dismount Ginsberg (USA)-Back moore , magyar travel to 1 pommel , pommel russian , single pommel circle, scissors '12, flair, flair travel , flair circle to handstand . Guczoghy (Hungary)-Flair back moore, flair magyar back travels, spindle, flair moore, flair russian , flair handstand pirouette dismount Chongsheng (China)-Loop, loop, magyar travel up, magyar travel back , flair handstand saddle pirouette, flair handstand pirouette dismount

Still Rings Chongsheng (China)-Back rise to inverted , roll backward to cross, kip L, Press, back giant , front giant , back giant , double layout. Hoffman (East Germany)-Kip, planche, cross, back kip L, stiff-stiff, front

giant , front giant, back giant, back giant , triple. Ginsberg (USA)-Front rise to cross, pull out, planche, press, back giant, front giant, back giant , back giant, Tong Fei dismount (straddled full in) Guczoghy (Hungary)-Muscle up to cross, L pull out , Hollow back , front giant , whippet , lower to cross, back roll , dislocate, Guczoghy, back roll to L, press, bail , double layout. Kolev (Bulgaria)-Back rise Handstand , front giant to inverted , giant, Guczoghy, whippet, whippet to cross (direct) , L cross, Kip L, press, giant , double layout Barbieri (France)-Kip Planche, shoot hand , planche, cross, dislocate, Back roll , L, hollowback , front giant , back giant , back giant , double layout . Daggett (USA)-Straddle Kip to V, Whippet cross, 路front roll , Kip L, Press, inverted , giant , front giant , back giant , back giant, double layout. Tikhonkikh (Russia)-Pull cross, pull out , straight roll forward to hollowback, shoot hand , whippet to cross (direct), front giant, giant, back giant , layout '/' in . Technique


Vault ~

Barbieri-One arm tuck tsuk full Chongsheng-Layout double twisting tsuk Hoffman-Cartwheel pike front

stutz, cast underarm , back rise, hand , healy to underarm , back rise cuts, L, press, Double back.

Kolev (Bulgaria)-Back rise hand , one arm gienger, layout yeager, blind change, jam , eagle, double layout

Horizontal Bar

Ginsberg (USA)-Stemme pirouette, one arm full twist, gienger, full twisting yeager, Tong Fei dismount

Barbieri (Fr~mce)-Stemme, one arm tkatchev (legs together), jam, inverts, hop to 1 arm, one arm giant, gienger, layout full in.

Guczoghy (Hungary)-Back rise hand , layout yeager, pirouette, one arm to Gienger, Jam , Eagles, full in .

Chongsheng (China) -Back rise hand, stalder, one arm tkatchev, one arm gienger, jam inverts, triple.

Tikhonkikh (Soviet Union)-Back rise hand, cal hop, healey, eagle, tkatchev, giant tkatchev, gienger, triple.

Hoffman (German Democratic Republic)-Stemme, delchev, yeager, jam, inverts, triple over bar.

Ginsberg-Straddled-oike kasamatsu Daggett-scratched the remainder of the meet Guczoghy-Layout kasamatsu Tikhonkikh-piked cuervo Kolev-Layout cuervo Parallel Bars

Hoffman (German Democratic Republic)-Glide reverse cuthandstand , front rise, front 1%, reverse cast , front roll , back rise cuts, L, Press, double back

(

Ginsberg (USA)-Peach on end, inside grip front giant backward to handstand, pirouette, giant, front toss, dip swing , back rise, planche, press, double. Guczoghy (Hungary)-Peach hand , double back to upper arm, front rise, cuts, L, press, stutz, front toss, front 11/2, back roll , streuhli, double back. Tikhonkikh (Soviet Union)-Cast support , front toss, swing pirouette, stutz, pirouette, back toss, back toss, pike double. Kolev (Bulgaria)-Glide, front rise, giant, pirouette, diamadov, stutz, front rise, back stutz , cuts, L, Press, stutz, double. Barbieri (France)-Peach cuts, front roll , back stutz , cuts, L, straight body Press, stutz, peach, giant glide, planche, press, Double back. Chongsheng (China)-Glide reverse cut, press, giant 112, giant, back toss,

(Upper left) Yuri Korolev of the German Democratic Republic performs a magyar travel during his pommel horse routine at the 1986 McDonald 's American Cup. (Right) America 's own Brian Ginsberg completes his full-twisting Yeager on high bar.

Technique

11


I


A~F


Men's Program Update

Statistical Analysis Winter Testing vs. Regional Testing By Robert Cowan Men's Program Administrator

his analysis is an effort to determine what effect, if any, participating in Regional Testing has on gymnasts' final placement on the National Team. There was a comparison done by age group and then an overall com parison of averages. While I do not claim to be a statistician, it would appear there is strong evidence that in those age groups where skills weigh more heavily than performance, there was a significant difference in scores

T

for those gymnasts who entered the Regional Testing. In other words, those who did enter Regional Testing , did better. In the age groups there where skills were not weighed as heavily the non-Regional performers seemed to fare better, but , you must consider that their potential scores were also higher. This would seem to indicate that these athletes are superior in natural ability and would have performed well regardless. I feel there is evidence here to support the necessity for ALL gymnasts to attend Regional Testing and this is to be evaluated by the Junior Board in its next meeting for implementation .

STATISTICAL COMPARISON OF 1986 JUNIOR NATIONAL TEAM SELECTED AT WINTER TESTING GYMNAST AT

AT REGIONAL

TESTING

TESTING

PERFORMANCE

POTENTIAL

SKILL

TOTAL

Seng Gendron Van Cleave Denucci O'Keefe Christie Bryan Evans Huston AVG .

Mason

18.0116.86 16.42 16.52 16.06 16.00 16.36 16.62 17.88 15.32 16.58/16.86

20.52/21 .09 19.50 23.40 22 .26 18.21 21 .21 20.28 22 .14 19.29 20.76/21 .09

38.0/34.25 36.50 35.05 34 .15 36.15 33.40 35.45 38.05 38.00 36.08/34.25

76.52/72 .20 72.42 74.97 72.47 70.36 70.97 72.35 78.07 76.52 73.85/72 .20

Cooper Hayashi Barnes Kish Elg AVG.

Darling Riordan

28.74/28.02 27.18/26.64 28.14 27.84 27.06 27. 79/27.33

20.40/24.33 23.07/22 .61 22 .26 21 .51 23.52 22 .15/23.48

33.4413 0.56 31 .29/28.68 29.60 33.24 32 .36 31 .99/29.62

82.58/82.91 81 .54/86.46 80.00 82.65 82 .94 81.94/80.42

Ringnald Halstead Morrero Ted Dimas Trent Dimas AVG.

Minicucci Umphrey

45.55/45.40 43.90/44.50 43.90 43.95 43.15 44.09/44.95

14 .84/15.84 13.38/15.92 15.46 15.53 14.06 14 .65115.88

25.20/24 .69 23.10/26.04 24.60 23.37 23.76 24.01/25.37

85.59/85.93 80.38/86.46 83.96 82 .85 80.97 82 .75/86.20

Notary Dow Kirksey

Bryan Chaplin Stelter Voorsanger Rancanelli

60.48/60.76 61 .04/62 .58 62.44161.74 61 .74 61.32

5.65/6.30 5.8416.96 6.23/6.34 6.38 6.38

15.11/15.08 14 .18/16.14 14 .64/14.70 15.48 14.78

81 .24/82 .14 81 .06/85.68 83.31/82.78 83.60 82.48

61 .32/61.63

5.9116.47

14.64/15.24

81 .87/83.34

AVG OF ALL AGES

14

GYMNAST NOT

REGIONAL

Technique


Placement of Static Stretching Exercises In A Workout Program William L. Cornelius Kimberly Tyree Constance L. Wood Allen Jackson North Texas State University Denton, Texas Abstract This study investigated if significant differences exist in flexibility when stretching occurs prior to or following a gymnastic activity class. A three minute warm-up and selected stretching exercises were administered to 30 college male subjects in a six week beginning gymnastic class. One group stretched before the gymnastic routines while the other stretched after the activity. Hip flexion was measured using the Leighton Flexometer, before the six week program and immediately following the six weeks. An anaylsis of variance indicated no significant difference in flexibility between the groups at either the pre- or post-test sessions, however, both groups improved significantly in flexibility. Due to limited research on the placement of stretching in training programs, future research should be conducted using different types of stretching techniques with other types of athletic groups.

n recent years the value of flexibility in maximizing an athletic's physical performance and reducing the incidence of muscle injury has been of considerable interest among sport participants and coaches. Although research data compiled to date remains inconclusive, it is generally agreed that valuable benefits are derived from a systematic and comprehensive stretching program (Prentice, 1983 ; Tanigawa , 1972; Wallin , Ekblom , Grahn , & Nordenborg, 1985). Recent research (Ekstrand & Gillguest, 1982; Holt, Travis & akita, 1970; Kreighbaum & Barthels, 1985) suggest that effective stretching exer-

cise can assist in reducing injuries when overstretching occurs.

'More specifically, there has been considerable interest regarding specific types of stretching techniques and their effect on enhancing flexibility. The ballistic method has been considered the oldest stretching technique and recent research has concluded that it's forceful, repetitive, bouncing motion may cause soft tissue damage and muscle soreness. The static stretch appears to be a safer method according to Beaulieu.'

More specifically, there has been considerable interest regarding specific types of stretching techniques and their effect on enhancing flexibility. The ballistic method has been considered the oldest stretching technique and recent research has concluded that it 's foreceful , repetitive, bouncing motion may cause soft tissue damage and muscle soreness (deVries, 1974). The static stretch appears to be a safer method according to Beaulieu (1981) . The stretch position is assumed slowly and held for an extended period of time. The gentle stretch can lower the electrical activity elicited by the muscle and lead to the initiation of the inverse myotatic reflex (Sapega , Quedenfeld , Moyer, & Butler, 1981 ; Beaulieu, 1981). This mechanism signals the stretched muscle to relax and further facilitate a safe and effective stretch . Several studies (Cornelius & Hinson , 1980; Cornelius & Jackson, 1984; Hardy,

I

Technique

~

... 15


1985; Prentice, 1983; Tanigawa, 1972; Wallin et aI., 1985) have indicated that the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) technique may provide a means for greater flexibility than do more conventional techniques. However, the PNF technique requires the use of an 'additional person to assist and more time per exercise. Anderson (in Anderson, Beaulieu , Cornelius, Dominguez, Printice, & Wallace, 1984) and Beaulieu (in Anderson et aI. , 1984) suggest the possibility of overstretching the soft tissues in using the PNF technique unless participants receive instruction and are closely supervised . Therefore, they advocate the static technique be used for a safer training or exercise program . In conjunction with the benefits attributed to stretching , it has been suggested in the literature (Sapega et aI. , 1981 ; Shellock , 1983) that a warm-up (calisthenics, brisk walking, or light jogging) prior to stretching may enhance flexibility and reduce the potential for injury. The physiological benefits from the warm-up results in increased tissue and muscle temperature, increased sensitivity to nerve receptors, and elevated blood flow. Virtually all athletic and dance programs use some form of stretching exercise. However, it appears that many questions concerning the use of stretching exercise remain unanswered . One such question lies in the placement of stretching within a strenuous program . A review of the literature reveals no conclusive study which determines whether the benefits of stretching rely on specific placement within a program . It appears that intuitive judgement has been used rather than scientific data in making decisions concerning placement of stretching exercises within the workout session . Most training programs advocate stretching following a warmup, prior to the activity and immediately following the activity (Anderson in Anderson et aI., 1984; Beaulieu, 1981; deVries, 1974). Therefore, the purpose oof this investigation is to determine if significant differences exist in flexibility when static stretching exercises are administered prior to or following a strenuous gymnastic activity session . Methodology he sample for this investigation was established as being male undergraduate university men enrolled in two beginning level gymnastics classes at

T

16

North Texas State University. Criteria for the selection of subjects included those who had not selected physical education as a major field of study, were free from any known injuries or disabilities to the hip and legs, and were between the ages of 17 and 23 years. Subjects (n=30) were invited to participate on a voluntary basis and were given the opportunity to withdraw from the study at any time. Subjects were randomly assigned a condition by group. Group 1 was assigned a static stretching condition which followed gymnastic activity. Group 2 was given the same program of static stretching but a condition which was applied before gymnastic activity. Each group participated in a six week training program designed to include the six men's gymnastic events with a specific progression of skills. Both groups used a three to four minute warm-up at the beginning of class. Hip flexion (dependent variable) was measured in degrees of motion using the Leighton Flexometer. Subjects were instructed to lie supine on a flat table with their arms resting at their sides. A strap was placed firmly across the non dominant upper leg to insure that it remained flat on the table while the flexibility maneuver was performed on the opposite leg. The Flexometer was strapped on the dominant leg, midway between the hip and knee. The subjects were instructed to hold their ankle in dorsifexion and allow the investigator to raise the leg , eliciting a passive stretch . The passive stretch continued until tension or a stretching sensation was felt at the popliteal fossa. The leg was held straight by the subject with the investigator monitoring possible bend with placement of a hand at the knee. A flexibility measurement as taken for three trials at the terminal position of hip flexion in a passive, static flexibility maneuver. A two minute rest period was given between each trial. The reliability of the data was estimated using intraclass correlation procedures. Leighton (1942) reported the measurement of right and left hip flexion with the Leighton Flexometer to be reliable (right hip flexibility, .978 ; and left hip flexibility, .994). A two (placement condition) by two (trials) research design was used and the data was analyzed using the analysis of variance techniques (Winer, 1971).

Results The descriptive statistics for the variables measured in the study are presented in Table 1. There were no significant differences between the stretch-before (Group 2) and the stretch-after (Group 1) groups in age, height , and weight. A reliability analysis indicated no significant differences between three trials and high reliability (r ) .95) for both the pretest and posttest sessions. Due to these results, trials were averaged for the pretest and posttest sessions for both groups and the mean scores were used in subsequent statistical analysis. A one factor ANOVA revealed no significant differences between Group 1 and Group 2 on the pretest range of motion data. A two (groups) by two (trials) ANOVA'with repeated measures indicated no significant differences between the groups at either the pretest or posttest sessions, no significant interaction between the factors and a significant (F(1 ,28) = 51 .78. p (,001) improvement for both groups from the pretest to posttest (see Figure 1). Discussions This investigation revealed no significant differences in placement of stretching exercises, either before or after a beginning men's gymnastics class. Both pre and posttest measurements between groups (1,2) did not vary significantly. The measurements among trials one through three were highly correlated indicating the flexibility measures were reliable and consistent. The results of this study do not support a need for specific placement of stretching exercises in a six week training program for improving joint range of motion . Specific placement of stretching with special references to benefits other than increased flexibility are reported by a number of studies. Investigators (Kreighbaum & Barthels , 1985 ; Ekstrand & Gillguest, 1982; Holt et aI. , 1970) advocate the benefits of stretching placed prior to strenuous activity in reducing soft tissue injury. Hanson (1962) indicated that a pre-activity of stretching will provide higher levels of tissue extensibility for up to three hours. Furthermore, Moller et aI., (1985) found the effects of stretching at the beginning of a training session resulted in (four to 13 percent) greater range of motion up to 90 minutes. On the other hand, there appears to be value in post-activity stretching . Reduction in muscular distress or soreness Technique


from static stretching was reported by a number of investigators (deVries, 1961 ; Sapega et aI. , 1981 ; Anderson , Beaulieu , Prentice, & Cornelius in Anderson et aI. , 1984) . Both groups in this study improved in hip joint range of motion for flexion regardless of whether stretching was placed prior to or following a gymnastic training session . Perhaps further investigation utilizing a larger sample size and a longer training period would demonstrate different findings. An additional group using both prestretch and poststretch in a training session might also provide findings of interest. It appears that most programs in activity environments, such as physical education classes, athletic teams, recreational groups and fitness centers, utilize the static stretch technique. In addition , the use of hip joint flexion as the dependent variable further focused on an action at a particular joint common to most sports. According to Kreighbaum and Baarthels (1985) , improved hip joint flexion is especially desirable to fitness programs in promoting proper pelvis and lower back alignment due to needed hip extensor flexibility. The results of th is particular study are restricted to the use of the static stretch , therefore , one cannot generalize about the othe r types of stretching techniques that could be used . In comparison to other stretching techniques, the PNF method had been shown to improve flexibility to a greater degree. Future research using the PNF technique should be conducted in order to ascertain if the placement of stretching exercises in a training program is beneficial to the athlete. References Anderson , B. (1980) . Stretching. Bolin as, California : Shelter Publi cations. Anderson, B., Beaulieu , J. E., Cornelius, W. L., Dominguez, R. H., Prentice, W. E. , & Wallace, L. (1984). Roundtable: Flexibility. National Strength and Conditioning Association Journal , 6(4) , 10-22. Beaulieu , J. E. (1981) . Developing a stretching prog ram. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 9(11 ), 59-69. Co rneliu s, W. L. & Hinso n, M. M. (1980). The rel ationship between isometric contractions of hip extensors and subseq uent flexibility in males. Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 20, 75-80. Corneliu s, W. L. & Jackson , A. (1984) . The effects of cryotherapy and PNF on hip extensor fl exibility. Athletic Training , 19(3), 183-184; 199. deVries, H. A. (1961). Prevention of mu sc ular di stress after exercise. Research Quarterly, 32 , 177-185. deVries, H. A. (1974). Physiology of exercise for physical education and athletics. Dubuque: Wm . C. Brown . Ekstrand, J. & Gillguist, J. (1982). The frequen cy of muscle tig htn ess and inju rie s in soccer playe rs.

Technique

American Journal of Sports Medicine, 10, 75-78. Hanson , T. O. (1962) . Selected effects of stretching on Flexibility. Unpublished master's Ihesis, Unive rsity of Californi a at Los Angeles. Hard y, L. (1985) . Improving acti ve range of hip flexion . Research Quarterly for Exe rcise and Sport , 56(2) . 111-114. Harri s, M. (1969). A faclor analytic st udy 01 flexibility. Research Quarterly, 40, 62-70. Holt, L. E., Travis, T. M., & Okita, T. (1970). A comparitive st udy of three stretching techniques. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 31 , 611-61 6. Kreighbaum , E. & Barthels, K. M. (1985) . ~iomech 足 anics : A qualitative approach for studying human movement. (2nd ed.). Minneapoli s: Burgess Publishing Company. Leighton , J. R. (1942) . Simpl e objective and reliable measure of flex ibility. Research Quarterly, 13, 205-216. Moller, M., Ekstrand , J., Oberg, B., & Gillquist, J. (1985)

Duration 01 stretchi ng 6n range of motion in lower extremi ties. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation , 66 (3) . 171-173. Prentice, W. E. (1983). A comparison of stati c stretch ing and PNF stretching for improving hip joint flexibility. Athletic Training , 18(1). 56-59. Sapega, A. A. , Quedenfeld, T. C., Moyer, R. A. , & Butler, R.A. (1981) . Biophysical factors in range-of-motion exercise. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 9(12) , 57-65 ; 106. Shellock , R. G. (1983). Physiologica l benefits of warmup. The Physician and Sportsmedicine, 11(10) . 134-139. Wallin , D., Ek blom , B., Grahn , R., & Nordenborg . T. (1985) . Improveme nt of muscle flex ibility: A comparison between two techniques. The American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine, 13(4) , 262-268. Winer, B. J. (1971). Statistical principal in experimental design . New York: McG raw-Hili Company.

Table 1 Means and standard deviations for the variables of the study Age Yrs.

M

Weight Ibs.

Height In .

SO

M

SO

M

Pretest Degrees

SO

M

SO

Posttest Degrees

M

SO

Total

19.7

1.9 70.2 2.4 155.7 15.5 81 .3 15.7 93.3 17.3

G1-

19.5

1.8

G2

19.9

1.9 69.9 2 .9 150.9 16.6 83.3 16.5 97.0 19.3

70.6

1.8 160.5 12.9 79.3 15.3 89.5 14.6

Figure 1 Pl acement by Pretest and Posttest Resu l ts

IDOr------------------------------------------,

~

0

H

E-l 0

C\o

./ ./

;;s

/"

/'

IX; /'

0

./

/"

(f)

J::Ll J::Ll

r:r::

80

/"

./ '

0 J::Ll

f=1

70~----------------

_____________________J

1

2

Pre Test Dashed line So lid line

Post Test

= a:

Group 1 Group 2 17


*

OROER #

*

OESCRIPTION

WOMENS GYMNASTICS /TECHNICAL

1101 1108 1109 1111 2101 2102 2103 2104 2105 2106 2107 2111 2112 211 3 2421

Code of Points/FIG Rules & Policies 8588 Elite Camp Text 8588 Agegroup Camp Text 84 Oly Games VHS 84 Oly Games Beta 85-8 Elite Camp Music 88 Agrp Camp Music Cass. 88 Agrp Camp VHS cL 2&3 88 Agrp Camp VHS cL 4&5 88 Agrp Camp VHS cL 1 84 Jr. Europe Champ VHS 88 El ite Camp VHS 85 Sr Europe Champ VHS 85 Ch USA C&Finals M&W VHS

*

*

PRI CE

21.50 11 .50 16.50 11.50 45.00 45.00 6.50 6.50 15100 151.00 49.95 31.95 41.95 31.95 31.95

*

OROER #

OESCRIPTION

PUBLICATIONS AND SAFETY

3101 3201 3601 6001 6101 6102

*

*

*

PRICl

15.95 7.50 23.95 16.45 5.00 5.00

Gym Reference/Hist Set 8 Back Issues "USA Gym" Mag "Biomechanics of W Gym. " Safety Manual/USGF Safety Poster 1 Guideline Safety Poster 2 of Gymnst

APPAREl & T-SHIRTS

LAST DIGfT OF ORDER # (four th digit) DESIGNATES THE SIZE DESIRED (cha rt below) L

M

l ast Digi t

XL

2

3

S 4

Youth Sizes

L 5

M 6

S 7

Adult sizes

l ast Digit

MENS GYMNASTICS/TECHNICAL

1201 1202 1208 1209 2201 2202 22 11 2212 2213 2221 2222 2421

Code of Points/FIG 88 Agegroup Camp Text Rules & Policies 88 Olympic Camp Text 84 Olympic Games VHS 84 Olympic Games Beta 84 Jr Europe Champ VHS 88 Olympic Camp VHS 85 Sr Europe Champ VHS 88 Agegroup Camp VHS 88 Oly Camp Japanese VHS 85 Ch USA C&Final M&W VHS

21.50 16.50 11.50 16.50 45.00 45.00 31.95 31.95 31 .95 31.95 31.95 31.95

RHYTHMIC GYMNASTI CS/TECHNICAL

1301 1302 1308 2311 2312 2313 2321 2331 2322 2332 2323 2333

Code of Points/FIG 88 Agegroup Camp Text Rules & Policies 88 Camp Music Casst CI 2 88 Camp Music Casst CI 3 88 Camp Music Casst 2&3 88 Agrp Camp CI 2 VHS 88 Agrp Camp CI 2 Beta 88 Agrp Camp CI 3 VHS 88 Agrp Camp CI 3 Beta 88 Agrp Camp CI 2&3 VHS 88 Agrp Camp CI 2&3 Beta

21.50 26.50 16.50 6.50 6.50 12.00 59.95 59.95 59.95 59.95 104.00 104.00

Commem Pictoral Bk LA84 Mary Lou Reitan Poster Mitch Gaylord Poster Bart Conner Poster 84 Oly Team Postcards (5) W 84 Oly Team Postcards (5) M USGF Logo Pin USA Gym Commem Pin 84 "I Love Gym. :' Bumperstk USGF Logo Decal USGF Logo Patch Antique Finish Key Chain Silver Coaster Set of 4 Gold Coaster Set of 4

15.95 6.50 6.50 6.50 4.00 4.00 2.00 2.00 1.50 .75 2.50 4.50 24.50 27.50

SOUVENIRS

3102 4111 4112 411 3 4121 4221 4201 4202 4401 4403 7201 4501 4701 4702

50035007

Olympic Leotards 'Adult M to Youth S only

33.95

LONG SLEEVE T'S (all sizes!

51115117 5121 -5127 517 1-5177

"USA GYMNASTICS" USGF Logo American Cup

10.95 10.95 10.95

SHORT SLEEVE T'S (a ll sizes!

5131-5137 5151 -5157 5161 -5167 51815 187 9001 -9004' 9011-9017

USGF L6go "Year of the Gold " "USA GYMNASTICS" Champ of USA 85 Classic Nationals 85 USA vs China

7.95 8.95 7.95 6.95 6.95 7.95

SLEEVElESS T'S (all sizes!

90219027

World Team Trials 85

6.95

Classic Casual Shirt , adult sizes only Veloure Pullover Top -adult sizes only White Satin Jackets USGF Official Warmup

21.95

APPAREl

5201 -5204' 5301 -5304 â&#x20AC;˘ 5401 -5407 5501 -5507

32.95 37.95 69.95

BAGS

5411 5421 5591 5592 5541 5551 5596 5597 5598 5599 551 1

USGF Tote Bag Official Workout Bag Ouffle Bag grey Duffle Bag blue Briefcase Travel Kit Carry-All Bag silver CarryAll Bag orange CarryAll Bag gold CarryAll Bag yellow USGF Garment Travel Bag

p lease all ow 3 -4 w ks for delivery

7.95 9.95 8.95 8.95 12.00 6.50 10.95 10.95 10.95 10.95 39.95


NAME _________________________________________ USGF Merchandising

PO . Box 5562 Indianapolis, IN 46255路5562

ADDRESS, ______________________________________ CITY _________________ STATE. _ _ _ _ _ _ ZIP _ __

GTY

ORD EIR =#

DESCRIPTION

PRICE

TOTAL

TOTAL AMT.

~ ~

FOf7 CREDIT CARD ORDER ONLY,

CAE-L

317-638-8743

ft .1

C HARGE MY:

. . .. 0 VISA D MASTERCARD

CA RD NO ._________________________ MY CARD EXPIRES :_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

NAME ________________________________________ ADDRESS CITY _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ STATE:_ _ _ _ _ _ ZIP _ __

OR [)JE ~ =If

GTY

DESCRIPTION

PRICE

TOTAL AMT.

FOIr CREDIT CARD ORDER ONLY,

CALL

317-638-8743

~ ~

fi .1

CHARGE M Y:

. . .. 0 VISA D MASTERCARD

CA RD NO ._________________________ MY CARD EX PIRE S: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

TOTAL


USGF Safety Certification Testing USGF SAFETY CER.""'lr'IFICATION PROPOSED CO UF&.SEITEST SCHED ULIE

General Points Of Information

Saturday, June 21, 1986 Indianapolis, Indiana -

9:00am-4 :00pm R ad i ~ n Hotel Indianapolis. IN Course Directors - R Ci>b ~ Cowan! Greg Marsden/ Paul Sp ~ aro Local Contact - USGF :3 t7-638-8743 (Lori Bradley or Becky ~ - 'til Saturday , July 12, 1986 Hautpague, New York _ - _ . 9:00am-5:00pm Art. stl.<=C Gymnastics Center Course Director - Paul ~lI=> adaro 718-8 16-6287 Oshkosh , Wisconsin9:00am-4 :00pm Ko lf ~ ~ rts Center University of Wiscon s i n -<IICJshkosh Cou rse Director - Ra l p h ~ ruecke­ H: 414-691-3398 VV : --4- 14-782-3430 Local Contact - Ken AII~ .-.. H: 414-233-3023 VV : --4- 14-424-1 034 Fort Collins, Colorad o - - 9 :30 am-4 :30pm Mountain Gymnastics 41 9 lEast Stuart. Ft. Collins . C O ~ 525 Course Director - M a.-c ~abi noH - B: 303-556-2930 Tuesday, July 22, 1986 . Gatlinburg . Tenn essee .il::) u"ng the Region VII I Gymnasil:l c = _ <;ongress Course Director - D. J _ IV!I E mH: 904-641-9984 VV : ~4 - 641-9966 August 23, 1986 Sacramento. CA Holiday Inn NE 5321 [J)a t ~ Avenue Sacramento . <:;.A Course Director - Janne= Stephenson W : 9 16 --<63~-.:a930 Hotel Contact - Holiday '""'" n 916-338-5800 Saturday, September 2 0 , 111 ~~6 Sacramento, CA Holiday Inn. NE 5321 Dal:~ Avenue Sacramento . ~.A Course Director - Janne= Stephenson W : 9 16 --<6 ~--.a930 Hotel Contact - Holiday .." n 9 t 6-338-5800 'Madison, Wiseons i n - 9:00am-4:00pm A r m ~ 1rY Building University of Wi scorl si n..-lI'\!.II adison Course Director - Ral p h IIC:) ruecke H: 414-691-3398 VV : ~ 1I 4-782-3430 Local Contact- Mark Pit' ILJghoeNH: 608-838-9825 W = <1608-262-6370 September 24-27, 1986 [K:l)uring the USGF Congress SI. Louis. Missouri Course Director - Ra y O __<e rman 314-569-1179 Contact the USGF for fu r1l:lt-1I er details 317-638-8743 (Lori I3r C3l.c::I l ey or Becky Riti) Friday, October 10, 1986 MI. Laurel . New Jersey - 9:00am-5 :00pm M t . L.c3Lou rel Hilton During the Region VII G Y rTlI nastics Convention Course Director - P a ul ~p adaro718-816-6287 Local Contact - Pat P a no'!dJ i 201-735-8978 Saturday, October 11 , 19~ 'Minneapolis. Minnesota 9:00am-4:00pm C O-<J>iI<e Hall University of Minneso~- Minneapol is Course Director - Ral j>(I--m DrueckeH: 414-691-3398 VIT= 4 14-782-3430 Local Contact - Fred Fil<C3€th lisberg erH: 612-436-8365 'I/\T = 612-625-9567 Saturday, November 8 , 1 ~'&6 Lake George. New York - 9:00am-5:00pm Sagsl.ln n ore Hotel During th e Region V I G y ll'lnll nastics Congress Course Directors - Ge r~ cd George 'W = :::3 18-231-5681 H: 318-988- 1220 and Paul Spadaro '7" \1 8-8 16-6287 Local Contact - Kath y F='~ l dmann61 7-784-5830

' If demand warran its . .an addi ti ona l certifi cati on course rTI.c3...:Y be held on the following day.

1_ 2. 3. 4.

The testing book for the Certification Course is the USGF Safety Manual. The course will take approximately six hours, including the test The Course fee is $100.00 (retest cost is $25.00) . Certification is good for four years.

Everyone Needs To Be Safety Certified 1_ 2. 3. 4.

Promotes a safer teaching/learning environment. Reduces insurance premiums. Identifies your commitment to your profession , your sport and your athletes. Implementation of stricter safety practices will help reduce the chances 0 ' accidents and/or injuries. 5_ Helps in membership recruitment

Dates, Times and Locations will all be listed in USA Gymnastics_ They can also bE checked by calling the USGF Department of Safety and Education at (317) 638-8743. An enrollment limit of 100 has been placed for each course, First come, first serve, (based on postmark of registration). Call course contact for more details.

----------------------------- ~ PARTICIPATION REGISTRATION FORM Name : Mr.lMrs.lMs. Address: ____ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _____________ _____

Telephone : .>. :.(H.:.J,)_ __ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _""(B=.,)L-_ _ _ __ _ _ __ Course Director _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ __ _ _ _ __ _ Course Location _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ Date ________ Organization Represented: _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __

If USGF Member, List Type and Number: _ _ __ ________ __ _ _______ __ _

Please make checks payable in full to : USGF Safety Certification . ' DO NOT WRITE BELOW THIS LINE -

FOR OFFICE USE ONLY'

Registration Form Received: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

Confirmation Mailed : _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ __ __ _

Technique Magazine - June 1986