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Vol. 4, No.4

Vol. 4, No.4

Table 01 Contents Inside This Issue

4-7 9-10 12-14

Considerations For Gymnastics Conditioning Implementing The Systems Approach Hand Temperature Observations of Rhythmic Gymnastics


The Virginia Experience 1962-63


USGF Schedule of Events 1965-86

By Hardy Fink Univ. of British Columbia By Eric Malmburg Courtland State Univ. By Andrea B. Schmid and Eric Peper San Francisco State Univ. By Edward Riccardelli and Frank A. Pettrone, M.D.

United States Gymnastics Federation Board of Directors: Executive Director, Mike Jacki, 1099 N. Meridian St. , Suite 380, Indianapo lis, In 46204; Athlete Representatives: Nancy Marshall; Brent Simmons; Larry Gerard ; Tom Beach; Lydia Bree; Kathy Jo hnson ; Diane Bijesse; Tim lafleur. Amateur Athletic Union: Jerry Hardy. American Sokol Organization: Norma Zabka. American Turners: Harry Warnken. Members at Large: Sue Ammerman and Linda Chencinski. NCAA Gymnastics Coaches路Men: Rusty Mitchell , University of New Mexico. NCAA Gymnastics Coaches-Women: Judy Avener, Penn State University. National Association for Girls and Women in Sports: Dr. Mimi Murray, Springfield College. National Association of Women's Gymnastics Judges: Dale Brown. NCAA: Sylvia Moore, O regon State Un iversity; Greg Marsden , Un iversity of Utah ; Jerry Miles, % NCAA; Wayne You ng, Brigham Young University. NAIA: Bonnie Morrow. NHSGCA: John Brinkworth. National Federation of State High School Athletic Assoc.: Sharon Wilch ; Susan True. National Jewish Welfare Board: Courtney Shanken. NJCAA: Dave Rowlands, Truman College ; Arlene Crossman, Linn Benton College. NGJA: Mike Milidonis. USAIGC: Ed Knepper. Men's Elite Coaches Assoc.: Jim Howard, University o f Nebraska. USECA for Women: Roe Kreutzer; Steve \'(!hitlock. Young Men's Christian Assoc.: Bud Wilkinson. Jr, Boy's Gym. Coaches Assoc.: Robert Cowan.

Technique Preparation of Articles for Submission: Pl ease follow a uniform format of preparing articles for subm ission in order to provide the most eff icient channel through the evalu ation and review process . Th e following should be included in submiss ion s: 1. 2.






An original type copy, double spaced on 8'/, x 11 in ch paper. an abstract , on a separate page , a short summary of procedure and explanation of study or article content (not more than 150 worlds) . A short biographical paragraph on a separate page of the author or authors accompanied by a small photo (2 V, x 3W ') of the au thor. References on a separate sheet double spaced in consecutive order, using Index Medicine style (author's name-last name first, name of book , ci ty , publisher, year , page numbers) journal references , shou ld follow same format (author, name of article, Journ al name, volume, pages , year) . Duplicates of pictures and diagrams or figures (black and white preferred) with sharp detail. Also include explanations (captions) of pictures and diagrams on a separate sheet. Photograph release-a letter of release from any identifiable subject in photos that are in cluded in the artic le unless the face or eyes are obscurred. Letter should be signed by subject, parent or guardian . Title page co nsisting of an informative title, author's name and complete institutional or professional address .

Submission of Articles for Publication : Written articles will be accepted for review and possible publication in the following procedure. First the articles are sent to: USGF Department of Publications 1099 N. Meridian St. , Suite 380 Indianapolis, IN 46204 Upon receipt of the article, to the USGF office , the research coo rdinat or will review and forw ard copies to the appropriate USGF Sports Advisory Committee members for review . On receiving th eir review , copies Of the article will go to 路th e Man aging Editor and Execut ive Director for fin al approva l for publication . I! it is necessary for the article to be edi ted or revised in order to improve the effecti ve ness of communication to a wide va ri ety- level of readers , the author will receive the edited article prior to publishing for their approval. 路 If the artic le or parts of have been subm itted and / or published by another publication , a complete name and address of the Editor and Publication shou ld accompany the artic le upon submission to th e USGF in order to follow proper procedures of publishing and to receive approva l to reproduce the article in the USGF publication . Editorial Staff Dr. Gerald George/ Educational Resea rch Editor. Mike Jacki , publisher Mike Botkin / Production Director. Unl ess express ly identified to !he contrary, all articles, statements and views printed herein are attribut able sole ly to the author and the United States Gymnastics Federation expresses no op inion thereon and assumes no responsiblity therefor .


"More outstanding young gymnasts have trained on our equipment than on all other brands combined! We at Nissen are proud to have played so great of a role in America's athletic heritage. We will continue to set and maintain the highest standards in gymnastic achievement."

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Considerations for (fpmnastics Conditioning By Hardy Fink University of Briti sh Columbia


n developing a basic conditioning program for any sport one must: 1. Analyze the requirements of the specific sport (energy systems, strength, skill , etc.) 2. Assess the athlete(s) with respect to these and other parameters. 3. Analyze the exact goal to be achieved at some specific future time . 4. Decide how the parameters of the basic program must fluctuate over time and changing conditions. In gymnastics, the analysis along these lines is exceedingly complex because the very essence of the sport is the individual and independent display of numerous specific complex skills requiring at one time great flexibility, at another great strength or muscular endurance, or power, or agility, or balance or any conceivable permutation of these and other factors. To further aggravate the complexities these attributes must be displayed in differeing intensities on four individual events for women and six for men. The necessity of learning compulsory routines on each apparatus makes matters worse yet. No matter the indimidating complexities : Sport analysis must be the first step. Accordingly, the following summarizes the gymnastics events along durational parameters. EVENT men 's vault women 's vault pommel horse rings parallel bars horizontal bar uneven bars men 's floor women's floor balance beam

DU RATION 5-7 sec. 25-3~


50-70 sec. 70-90 sec .

PREDOM INANT ENERGY SYSTEM alactic (~TP - CP) anaerob!,c (lactic)


Clearly, since aerobic metabolism does not become a significant factor unless some two minutes or more of steady state activity is engaged in, the energy demands for gymnastics performance must be supplied anaerobically and by the immediately accessible ATP and CP (creatine phosphate) systems. Thus, neither oxygen delivery systems nor oxygen extraction systems become serious limiting factors in gymnastics performances.


he energy demands over the course of an entire competition don 't change appreciably. A normal competition involves a warm -up period which is variously used for specific and/or general warm-up and then a competition period of some two to three hours during which the gymnast will present his/her various routines (6 for men ; 4 for women). Also entailed in this time is an opportunity for a specific 30 second pre-event warm -up at each event which may occur anywhere from three minutes to one-half hour prior to the actual competitive performance. Thus, in the course of a typical five hour competition period a gymnast would be performing at most ten to fifteen minutes of actual work on the apparatus and this short time is distributed among at least twenty or thirty "starts ": An average of some twenty or thirty seconds of activity every half hour. Not a heavy demand on the aerobic system! Nevertheless, aerobic mechanisms are somewhat active during short work intervals and therefore a certain level of aerobic fitness is necessary for gymnastics as well. Aerobic endurance is a limiting factor for an aerobic endurance. In gymnastics, the evaluation of the sport specific requirements does not end with a consideration of energy demand alone. A factor perhaps more important is strength, and, more specifically, relative strength: That is, the force a muscle can generate relative to the weight of the individual. Gymnastics consists , in some sense , of "throwing" one 's own body weight around. It is therefore never an advantage to be too heavy and it is always an advantage to have a strength reserve in the working muscles. Flexibility is another crucial factor to be considered in a gymnastics conditioning program; and not just flexibility in


the hamstrings or some other isolated location ; rather com plete flexibility in virtually every mobile joint-toes, ankles , hips, back, shoulders and neck. All other things remaining equal , flexibility (or strength , or both) increases immediately the skill repertoire of a gymnast without that gymnast ever having learned a gymnastics skill.

hours per week and may lead to a variety of overuse and stress injuries. For gymnastics, aerobic training can be kept at a minimum.


ower- the expression of strength quickly-is exceedingly important as well in virtually everyone of hundreds of gymnastics skills . Other factors such as agility, co-ordination , etc. are beyond the scope of this paper and fall , perhaps , in areas of discussion other than conditioning. Nevertheless it is important to stress the "skill " nature of gymnastics. In training for gymnastics competition it is not strength , or flexibility, or power, or endurance that is the goal. The conditioning factors are developed such that they will enhance the attainment, performance and safety of each of the multitude of skills . To train these factors for their own sakes may render certain benefits but not necessarily towards the improvement of competitive gymnastics performance. Thus "specificity of training " becomes the predominant conditioning and training principle in gymnastics. Because of the sport's tendency to tap virtually the entire movement potential of the human body, specificity has a meaning at once more and less restricted than it may have for other sports. It is less restricted because even training very specifically requires the training of all of the body's muscle groups along the four factors of endurance , strength , power and flexibility. It is more restricted in that the wide ranging sport specific requirements are so extensive that it is perhaps worse than useless to bother with any other training . The following discussion will clarify this statement further. Here, then , a brief discussion of training for these four factors .





n gymnastics it is "local muscular endurance" rather than cardio-vascular endurance that is all-important. Effective training can increase the free ATP and CP available by from 5 percent to 30 percent, can increase the muscles' ability to tolerate accumulated lactic acid , to postpone its accumulation and to accelerate its removal after an exercise bout. To train these systems it is necessary to have several sets of short duration high intensity repetitions in an approximate1 :3 work-relief ratio. It is useless to attempt to duplicate gymnastics routine requirements-as some have tried-with ingenious groupings of exercises. Performing the actual routine trains the skill repertoire and muscle groups as required , is of high intensity and provides an approximation of repetitions within each set (routine) because the "event" requirements and routines normally entail a sequence of some 10-12 skills . For gymnastics, therefore, it is best to do some five repetitions of the shorter duration routines and three or four repetitions of the longer duration routines. As fatigue develops the skills may begin to break down and the level of vigilance may be reduced. Continuing at that time is of no value because the integrity of the skills must be maintained at all costs. Possibilities to consider to avoid such undesireable training include : 1. Performing 1st half and then 2nd half of routines and gradually merging the two . 2. Using "watered down " routines (i .e., eliminate several major elements) initially or for the later sets in a training session. 3. Gradually increasing the number of routines to be performed. 4. Gradually changing the work-relief rati o from 1:5 to 1:3 or even 1:2. 5. Including only "automated " skills in the routin e repertOire. For an overtraining effect the possibility of performing sets of 1'/2 routines may be of value as long as fatigue does not lead to skill deterioration. Spending considerable effort on aerobic training- either by intermittant or continuous work-is excessively time consuming in a sport that already demands some 24-30 training



STRENGTH Ost strength in gymnastics is expressed dynamically and through a relatively large range of motion. Because of the varied orientation of the body during the expression of this strength most of the conventional weight training equipment has little specific value for gymnastics. Enough evidence exists that strength gained is specific to the movement pattern, velocity of contraction , type of contraction and force of contraction that one must conclude that gymnastics strength is best trained in the performance of gymnastics ; either in the performance of the exact skill or the approximate duplication of that skill on the various devices that have been developed by gymnastics coaches. It is important to realize that many of the skills require a very precise moment and direction of force application after which a minimal effort is required in the follow through to the desired end position. It is often possible to train the acting muscles in that precise range with more conventional equipment but the neural pattern for the precise force application is acquired only by repetition of the desired skill. The basic principle for strength conditioning-indeed , any condition ing-is the overload principle . This principle requires that the body be stressed (overloaded) and then the body makes adaptations to the imposed stress. Over time the resistance will become less stressful and the resistance should be progressively escalated. The adaptation takes place during the recovery period . Best strength increases are seen with relatively few repetitions performed at a high percentage of the RM (repetition maximum) however, these values are often impossible to determine in gymnastics. A number of devices exist for increasing th~ resistance during the training of gymnastics skills but some may interfere with the desired neural pattern for that skill. Where possible the high velocity movements should be trained specifically for neural adaptations but should be supplemented with slow velocity training for maximal muscle adaptations. A number of gymnastics skills require the expression of pure isometric strength or slow isotonic and/or isokinetic strength. These for the most part lend themselves well to conventional strength training methods (i.e ., several repetitions of 6 seconds holds at maximum intensity for isometric; several sets of high intensity, low repetition contractions for isotonic and isokinetic) .



The numerous "quick spring " type of skills lend themselves to eccentric or pliometric training and in fact this training for "bounce" in the shoulder and ankle area is a fre quent phenomenon in gymnastics gyms. I personally doubt its efficacy because the exercises commonly performed deviate conspicuously from the actual skill to be learned and may in fact lead to stress injuries and muscle soreness , The actual process of vaulting and tumbling is eccentric training and it is specific and is therefore much to be preferred. Since relative strength is all important in gymnastics, unrelated strength training should be avoided as it may result in undesireable muscle mass and body weight increases that could interfere with optimal gymnastics performance , POWER ower is a combination of strength and speed . The specific training of it has been essentially covered under the "strength" section. It is useful to pOint out that increased strength will allow a person to move progressively greater resistances progressively more quickly, thus increasing power.Training however should be velocity specific especially since, as has been pointf~d out, the application and direction of strength , for many gymnastics skills must occur virtually instantaneously at the appropriate moment.


FLEXIBILITY his important component of gymnastics performances must also be trained specifically. The general guidelines that apply to flexibility training are: 1. Train statically rather than ballistically. 2. Increase both the active and the passive range. 3. Stretch in a warm environment or after a warm-up. 4. Consciously relax the muscles to be stretched . 5. Use PNF methods where possible (specific gymnastics format described by Fink, 1978). It is worthy of note that effective flexibility training increases strength in both the agonists and antagonists.



he foregoing has discussed considerations for a gymnastics conditioning program relative to the analysis of the sport. To be considered at least as significantly are the athlete specific requirements . The gymnast's level, age, sex, maturational level, personality, previous training , physique , skill requirements , specific strengths and weak-

Biomechanics of Women's Gymnastics A Book by Dr. Gerald George, USGF Director of Education and Safety

Features Chapter 1 introduces the biomechanics of gymnastics and the " ideal model concept", maximizing the movement potential in gymnastics skills as an innovative approach in teaching as well as learning. o Chapter 2 presents four basic conceptual principles that can be employed to identify, refine and ultimately maximize gymnastic skill execution. They are: amplitude, segmentation, closure and peaking. These principles were developed over the past 15 years by Dr. George and have been proven to be highly successful. o Chapter 6 (the handstand) demonstrates and emphasizes the critical relationship between proper mechanics, techniques, and training of the handstand and success in learning gymnastic skills in total. o Chapters 7 (floor exercises) , 8 (balance beam), 9 (uneven parallel bars) , and 10 (vau/ting) provide progressive illustrations with descriptive analysis of core skills in each of the four Olympic events for women. o

Learning and Teaching Aids Over 170 technical illustrations based upon ideal models directly tie in with subject matter. • Comprehensive index assists students in locati"ng specific information. o Bibliography provides students with accurate and relevant information specific to the sport of gymnastics. o Price: 522.95 (includes shipping and handling) o


r----------------------Please mail orders to : USGF Department of Education and Safety ; 1099 North Meridian St., Suite 380 , Indianapolis, IN 46204. Yes, I would like to order Dr. George 's book. Biomechanics of Women's Gymnastics. Enclosed , fi nd my check or money order lor $22.95. Please mai l book to: Name _______________________________________ Street _______________________________________ City ________________________________________ State _____________________ Zip _____________


nesses and much more must all be assessed and an individualized program established. Basic factors to consider are: 1. A beginner will have greater energy requirements for each skill because of extraneous and inappropriate motor unit recruitment. 2. A beginner should concentrate on developing the prerequisite conditioning parameters as set out above before attempting advanced and complex skills.

3. Every new training program or skill introduction puts new stresses on the body systems and must be introduced gradually to allow for adaptation. This even goes to the level of training the hands such that the body responds by "laying down " callous. 4. Weaker gymnasts will use a higher percentage of their maximal expression of strength for some skills that advanced gymnasts may use as "rest" positions (i .e., L-seats) and thus be fatigued more easily in routines . 5. Beginners tend to need strength throughout a full movement and only with time will learn the exact moment that strength application is optimal. In some ways beginner gymnasts must be stronger. The terminal behaviour-the goal to be achieved-is also of importance. An attainable goal should be set for the end of the season (with short term goals in between) . In gymnastics, these goals always consist of the learning of new skills and their subsequent deployment in routines. Any conditioning program should reflect these goals and be established such that the possibility of achieving these goals be optimized. Each exercise in a conditioning program must be there to achieve some purpose-not busy work! Finally, the parameters of the gymnastics conditioning program must reflect the ever changing conditions in the course of a competitive year. Some of the possible factors that may mitigate a conditioning program are : -pre-season , regular season , off season -introduction of new skills , when? -injuries , stress, soreness -training cycles (micro-, mini-, macro-) -importance of impending competitions -peaking -holidays , exams , personal problems -motivation A gymnastics conditioning program is vital for: 1. reduced incidence of injuries 2. faster and more correct skill acquisition 3. reduced incidence of muscle soreness 4. prolonged period of participation 5. more sustained and intense participation A gymnastics conditioning program is not a "given ." It is and must be a dynamic, flexible tool to guide the training behaviour of gymnast and coach. It must be activity specific, goal oriented, scientifically sound and empathetic to the needs of the gymnast.

REFERENCES Black. R. & Johnson. D .. "Cardiovascular conditioning for gymnasts:' Gymnast, Sept. . 1975. Boone. T.. " Muscle strength and gymnastics ," Athletic Journal, October. 1975. Brown, J. R. , "Specificity of stress and train ing ," in GymnastiCS Guide, ed. by H. Strauss, World Publications. Mountain View, Calif. , 1978 . Einh eber, J .. "Weighllraining for gymnastics," in Gymnastics Guide, ed. by H. Strauss, Mountain View, Calif. : World Publicalions, 1978. Fink, H., " Physical preparation for gymnastics," chap!. 1 & 2, in CGF Coaching Certification Manual Level II, Otlawa: CGF, 1978. Gajdos, A, "Evaluation of training load of gymnasts aged 11-18," Teorie a pra xe telesne vychovy, 26(1) , 1978. Mead. P , "Circuit train ing of gymnastics," International Gymnast, Sept. , 1977. Shanker, R .. " Metabolic cost of head-stand posture. " J. of Applied Physiology, vol. 17, 1963. Sale, D . & MacDougall, D ., "Speci ficity of strenglh training : A review for the coach and the athlete," Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 6(2) , June , 1981. Shvartz. E .• " Energy cost of a handstand." Journal of Sport Medecine, vol. 8 , 1968. Spackman. R.. Conditioning for Gymnastics, Springfi eld . III. : Charl es C. Thomas Pub .. 1970. Starischka. S. , " Reflection on the construction of discipline specific strength training pro· grams for gymnasts." in Abstracts, Int. Congress of Sport Sciences, Edmonton. 1978. Ukran, M . L. & Zemskov, E. A. , "Some ways of developing specialized endurance in gymanstics " (abstract) . Yessis Review, Dec., 1975. Werner, W. K. et al., " Energy costs for men's gymnastics routines ," International Gymnast, Technical Supplement, # 5, Jan .• 1981 .



1985 USGF National Gymnastics Coaching Seminars There is a limited registration on a first come first serve basis

FEATURING: • These National sem inars are part of the USGF's new educational coaching series and will serve as the basis of our forthcoming National Coaches Certification Program! • Experts in sports medicine , biomechanics, exercise physiology and sports psychology will present "what research tells the coach " from the practical gymnastics standpoint! • Leading International and Elite coaches and gymnasts will present lecture-demonstrations on the latest movement techniques and teaching methods in gymnastics! • Three (3) hours undergraduate/graduate credit can be earned by participating in anyone of these seminars!

SEMINAR DATES AND LOCATIONS Please check applicable box:

D June 3-7, 1985 International Gymnastics Camp, Stroudsburg, PA.

D June 17-21,1985 University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. D July 8-12,1985 University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK.

D August 19-23, 1985 Tsukara Camp, Cable, WI.



ADDRESS ______________________________


CITY _______________ STATE _____________

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PAYMENT METHOD* Please check applicable box:

$20 Discount for USGF professional members!

D $110.00 No Credit/No Lodging & Meals D $150.00 3 Hrs. Credit/No Lodging & Meals D $260.00 No Credit/Lodging & Meals D $300.00 3 Hrs. Credit/Lodging & Meals Lodging request must be received by May 17, 1985

*NOTE: A minimum nonrefundable deposit of $50 must accompany this registration form. The remaining balance will be due the first day of the seminar.

Enclosed is my check for $ (circle one: Deposit/ Full Amount) made payable to: United States Gymnastics Federation. Return to: Department of Education and Safety United States Gymnastics Federation 1099 North Meridian-Suite 380 Indianapolis, IN 46204

A Must For All Gymnastics Professionals 8


Implementing The Systems Approach that event. Magyar, Li Ning, and Bilozerchev are members of the first generation to have used these newer systems. The Soviets, among others, are proud of the fact they use a systems approach in developing all their athletes . A systems approach is a way of stepping outside any program and viewing it as a machine with parts (systems) which interact. Too often coaches view their program as a mass of tasks and responsibilities, feeling secure handling some parts (coaching) while other parts are often neglected (business) . This is typical of a program which is not well-balanced from a systems point of view.

By Eric Malmberg Cortland State University INTRODUCTION ver the past 10 years , nothing has become more apparent than the innovation and change of our sport. More than ever, the coach must be able to handle the complexity and the ever-changing nature of our sport much like business and science have had to manage technological explosions. If business and science have succeeded in handling a "monster, " perhaps we can learn from them. Systems analysis was invented as a means of understanding and managing complexity. Let us explore how it can work for a coach .


STARTING WITH A MODEL Constructing a model is necessary-to begin implementing a systems approach . The following model is illustrative of " Gym X" a typical gym school and club. From a systems point of view, all the responsibilities of the owner/coach could be organized or listed in certain categories. These categories are actually subsystems which have an important interacting nature. The efficiency of these subsystems influence the effectiveness of the whole system .

TOWARD A SYSTEMS APPROACH s gymnastics coaches , we certainly know something about using various systems for teaching skills . We also know when new trends emerge, systems of teaching often change. For instance, the mushroom pommel horse devices have certainly chanQed our systems of teaching


Management System (Owner/ Coach)


Input /




Teaching/ Coaching Programming and Staff Facilities and Equipment



From observing the suggested systems model , it is easy to observe a program 's weak points . Obviously, from the model, Gym "X" is very vulnerable to the demands of large enrollment, i.e. income , business, publicity, etc. Good performance by the owner/coach outside the teaching system is actually more important than coaching, from a systems viewpoint. An owner/coach can quickly implement a systems approach by grading his past performance in each of the illustrated subsystems. Many coaches earn their highest grades in the "teaching/coaching " subsystem, while earning near failures in the publicity and business systems . It is important to note that poor grades in any of the major subsystems jeopardize the entire program (bankruptcy!). Setting yearly goals and mapping out yearly strategies in each area develops a well-balanced program. Diagramming in detail all the subsystems can be a simple and effective way to reorganize a total program . Remember , the systems approach was invented as a way to simplify and understand complexity .... go ahead , diagram a model of your own program.

THE MANAG EMENT SYSTEM-INPUT AND EVALUATION he management system (owner/coach) is the key to the success of the program . The owner/coach of Club X is the "engineer" of the system. His main function is to step away from the system and monitor the working of it in much the same wayan engineer monitors the systems of an experimental automobile. The management system must be aware of new changes in the business world, technical gymnastics, psychology , new programs , publicity ideas, etc.; and determine how that can best affect the system in a positive way. The ability of a system to adjust quickly has definite effects upon all subsystems. For example , microcomputers are now more affordable than two years ago. From a systems point of view, a microcomputer could possibly eliminate a paid bookkeeper (business) . It could monitor the skill development of students (teaching) and eliminate printers and paid secretaries by pumping out letters. Efficient office speed allows more


time to try new ideas to boost enrollment (numbers). On the other hand its purchase may necessitate new programming to offset its cost. Foam pits (facilities) have had a profound effect upon teaching systems. We also know pits affect numbers of students, hence business , and could even change the type of clientele to a more competitive-oriented population, which in the long run could drop numbers of students. In both cases the management system must determine impact upon the total system and make decisions. It has been my observation that competitively successful programs in the U.S. use input very effectively. From a systems viewpoint, these clubs have management systems which institute change quickly and bombard their system with input, particularly the teaching and programming systems. How good can a program be if it never changes (zero input)? How good can a gymnast become if he/she is exposed to one coach and one gym and never experiences different approaches or thoughts? The best gyms use input in many ways to help their athletes become knowledgeable , for example: magazines, charts, clinics, meets, guest coaches , technical articles, video tape centers and libraries, exhibitions, visits to other gyms, weekender mini-clinics ; and of course, the coach 's comments.

CONCLUSION othing is more descriptive of our times than the word "change." He who can manage change and its complexity will better survive. A systems approach is a versatile tool which can help a coach organize and evaluate a total program or just one part of a program. Anyone wishing help in increasing the effectiveness of their program by implementing a systems approach , please contact: E. Malmberg Park PER Center P.O. Box 2000 SUNY College @ Cortland Cortland , New York 13045


References C. West Churchman The Systems Approach. New York : Dell Publishing Company Inc .• 1968

Official Magazine of the United States Gymnastics Fede ration

Or'lf!r your subscription .to USA Gymnastics and receive FREE the Special Olympic Ed ition of US~ Gymnastl~s, PLUS !:I po~t~r of Mary Lou Retton. Six exciting issues of USA Gymnastics, a Special OlympIC edition AND a Mary Lou Retton poster. All for just $12.00.

Makes APerfect Gift Package Yes, I would love to order a year 's subscription to USA Gymnastics magazine. I understand I will re ceive a free . Olympic edition and a poster of Mary Lou Reitan. Enclosed is my check or money order for Just $12.00. Please matI my magazine to: Name _______________________________________________________________________ Addross ______________________________________________________________________ City ___________________________________ State _________________ Zip ------------Age _____________________________________________________________________ Orders received by January 25, 1985 will begin with the January/February 1985 issue . Those received after will begin with March/April 1985. Offer expires March 1, 1985.

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Competition Reaction Linked With Hand Temperature Study Done With Rhythmic Gymnasts


By Andrea B. Schmid and Erik Peper San Francisco State University


he question, how athletes react under actual competition , is of critical importance. Without this information one is hindered in developing appropriate precompetition training procedures . If one can investigate and discover psychophysiological parameters associated with actual competition , then one may be able to develop training strategies which would facilitate the performance in the athlete, as was done by Landers (1984) with world class rifle shooters. Usually psychophysiological monitoring can not be done just before a competition because it may interfere with the athlete's precompetition warm up procedures. However, recent advances in non-touching physiological monitoring instruments now allow researchers to monitor a component of the athlete's psychophysiological vasomotor reaction in the competitive setting without effecting the athlete. In preliminary research , Peper (1984) and Schmid (1984) have Q.bserved that peripheral hand temperature dropped X = 3.7 0 C for 14 elite foil fencers immediately before and after their competitive event. The data of peripheral temperature changes is important to coaches and athletes, since , many studies show that colder hands tend to reflect tension, anxiety and a reduction in performance. While warmer hands are associated with relaxation and a calm concentration during task performances (Green and Green, 1977; Peper and Schmid, 1983). This study investigated rhythmic gymnasts' peripheral temperature just prior to and directly after competition. SUBJECTS he subjects were rhythm ic gymnasts who competed in the 1984 California State Championships (N = 20) , U.S. National Championships (N = 32), U.S. Olympic Trials (N = 9) ; and rhythmic gymnastics finalists (N = 20) from 12 different countries who competed in the finals at 1984 Los Angeles Olympic Games.


METHODS: eripheral temperature was measured with a BioTherm Infrared Thermometer, Model C-600M. This is a battery-operated device for non-contact temperature measurements with a sensitivity of 0.1 degrees centigrade . The response time is one second, the measurements are made at a distance of W' to 1" from the skin ; consequently, many recordings can be taken rapidly without either touching or having the subject wait as shown in Fig. 1.




Fig.1 Fig. 1. Monitoring of hand temperature of rhythmic gymnast at the 1984 National Championships (USGF photo Š 1984, Dave Black) .



The athletes' dorsal palmar surface of their dominant hand was measured. The pre-measurements were recorded 10 to 90 seconds before the beginning and the postmeasurements within 15 seconds after the competitive event. Each athlete competed in four events-hoop, ball, clubs, ribbon. The competitive events lasted between 60 and 90 sec ; room temperature was also recorded . RESULTS Peripheral hand temperature dropped in all competitive events as is shown by the group data in Table 1.

and perspiration-a positive run away feedback system may have triggered more mistakes. 4. In most cases large temperature decreases occurred when athletes made a major break during competition . 5. There are major differences in individual data, therefore , it is not meaningful to compare individual data to the group average . However, the individual event data is very meaningful because it can indicate the athlete's consistency across competitive events. 6. Monitoring pre and post competition temperature is an useful measure to observe the athletes psychophysiological reaction to the pressure of the competition.

Table 1 Competitive Event Rhythmic Gymnastics

State National OIXm&iC Trials L. . Iympics competition X

Mean Temperature in Degrees C Pre Post Change Room

N-2O N=32 N=9

25.8 30.7 29.0

24.2 29.8 28.1

-1.6 -0.9 -0.9

23.9 25.8 23.1


31.6 29.3

29.9 28.0

-1.7 -1.3

25.7 24.6

Table 1. Group data illustrates the drop in peripheral temperature of athletes from just before (Pre) to right after (Post) their competition.


n some cases, increased temperature changes occurred when athletes made a major break during competition . For example, Table 2 shows the data of two top U.S. rhythmic gymnasts at the State Meet; Table 3 shows the individual data of two Olympians .

Table 2 Event

Hoop Ball Clubs Ribbon


28.2 27.2 27.1 25.0

Temp in Degrees C Gymnast B Gymnast A Pre Post Change Score Post Change Score

28.4 26.2 25.7 24.4

+0.2 -1.0 -1.4* -0.6

9.15 9.30 9.25 9.45

25.8 27.9 26.0 26.7

19.0 26.4 24.9 25.6

- 6.8** -1.5 -1 .1 -1.1

8.70 9.30 9.40 9.50

Table 2. Individual pre and post competition peripheral temperature and competitive scores of two top U.S. rhythmic gymnasts. Their greatest temperature decrease occurred when they made a major error. -Gymnast A's pianist made a mistake and skipped a section of the music, however she was able to continue in an un flustered way. --Gymnast 8 's hoop " rolled out" which influenced her performance for the rest of the routine .

Table 3 Event

Hoop Ball Club Ribbon


31.1 31 .8 31.6 32.6

Temp in Degrees C Gymnast B Gymnast A Post Change Score Pre Post Change Score

28.5 29.2 30.4 29.6

-2.6 -2.6 -1.2 -3.0*

9.70 9.90 9.80 9.25

31.8 30.9 31 .3 31.9

31 .1 28.6 28.8 29.1

-0.7 -2.3 -2.5 -2.8*

9.65 9.75 9.70 9.25

Table 3. Hand temperature data and official competitive scores of two Olympians recorded during the 1984 Olympic Games. - These athletes made major mistakes in their ribbon routine which corresponded to the drop in hand temperature and to their actual competitive scores.

DISCUSSION 1. There appeared no correlation between hand temperature of the gymnasts with level of competition and their cultural background . 2. In 79 .6 percent of the competitive events (N = 318) the athletes hand temperature decreased. Each athlete 's hand temperature was monitored for all four routines . 3. The mechanisms by which the peripheral temperature dropped was not investigated in this study. If a decrease was large (25 .8 to 19.0 degrees centigrade) such as occurred with gymnast B (Table 2) , while the room temp . was 23 .9 degrees centigrade, we speculate that she was overly anxious. This anxiety triggered both vasoconstriction


IMPLICATIONS: 1. Monitoring hand temperature of athletes during competition , one may learn to observe the optimal physiological arousal state for that individual. This data could then be compared to the athlete's arousal during practice. By observing pre and post competitive peripheral temperature of the hand, athletes may help develop personal strategies to attain their optimal arousal for performance. 2. Where there are large variation , the athlete can observe the mind/body interaction. For them additional skill training , strategies to cope, and attentional training may be needed so that they are not "jarred" by their competitive performance . 3. Peripheral temperature should also be monitored during imagery rehearsal. It is our hypothesis that imagery rehearsal of competition routines should be psychophysiologically similar to that observed in actual competition . In previous research Peper and SchmidJ1984) observed that finger temperature stayed the same (X = 31 .2掳 C) when rhythmic gymnasts mentally rehearsed their routine both with and without music. Therefore , when athletes are practicing mental imagery rehearsal , their hand temperature should be monitored. We speculate that optimum mental rehearsal would show a corresponding peripheral temperature decrease similar to what Suinn (1980) had observed in skiers with electromyography. 4. Temperature feedback can facilitate in elucidating the importance of mental training as well as monitor and encourage the learning of psychophysiological control that is necessary in peak performance (Landers , 1984; Peper and Schmid , 1983a). Temperature training may provide objective information of emotional arousal state and can be used for the following mental strategies : A. to monitor physiological relaxation B. to determine stress level which is ideal for performing the best routine C. to facilitate optimal arousal D. to demonstrate mind/body interaction E. to enhance and monitor imagery rehearsal Biofeedback training may significantly improve performance and consistency as well as awareness control of autonomic system . REFERENCES : Green. E. E. and Green, A. Beyond Biofeedback. New York: Dell Publishing Co., 1977. Landers, D. M. Sports Application 01 Biofeedback, Relaxation and Psychophysiological Testing with Elite Ath letes. Paper presented at the Fiffeenth Annual Meeting of the Biofeedback Society of America. Albuquerque, NM, 1984. Peper, E. Perform ance and Biofeedback-Imagery and Breathing. Paper presented at the Fiffeenth Annual Meeting of the Biofeedback Society of America. Albuquerqu e, NM, 1984. Peper, E. and Schmid, A. B. Mental Preparation for Optimal Performance in Rhythmic Gymnastics. Proceedings of the Fourteenth Annual Meeting of the Biofeedback Society of America. Wheat Ridge. Co.: BSA, 1983. Peper, E. and Schmid, A. B. The Use of Electrodermal Biofeedback for Peak Performance Training. Somatics, 1983a, IV(3) , 16-18. Peper, E. and Schmid , A. B. Psychophysiology of Imagery Rehearsal wi th Rhythmic Gym路 nasts, unpublished study, 1984. Schmid , A. B. Performance and Biofeedback- Developing Concentration and Consistency for Performance. Paper presented at the Fiffeenth Annual Meeting 01the Biofeedback Society of America. Albuquerque, NM , 1984. Suinn, R. M. Psychology in Sports Methods and Applications. Minneapolis : Burgess Publishing Co. , 1980. NOTE We would like to thank USG F and the gymnasts for their support in this study. Communications should be addressed to : Dr. And rea B. Schmid Professor of PhYSical Education San Francisco State University San FranCiSCO, CA 94132


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Gymnastics Injuries

The Virginia Experience 1982-83 By Edward Riccardelli and Frank A. Pettrone, M.D.

INTRODUCTION: articipation in women 's athletics has significantly increased since 1971 . The popularity of female gymnastics, specifically , has reflected this growth with a 460 percent increase in participation just in the past six years. A major factor in this dramatic growth was world-wide exposure


to the skill and grace of gymnasts such as Nadia Comenici , Olga Korbut and the Arllerican Kathy Rigby during the OlympiCS of 1972 and 1976. By 1980, gymnastics had become the seventh most popular female sport. Attendant with this increased popularity, however, was a concomitant increase in the number of injuries. The risks inherent in a sport which combines height, speed and precision are obvious . It is surprising to note that the injury rate in female gymnastics is double that of any other sport, and, compared with all high school sports 10 , ranks behind only football , wrestling and softball 9 . Although the frequency of injuries in female athletes has been well documented, there are few good studies which examine the types of injuries experienced by the female gymnast. Our study prospectively followed club level gymnastic injuries in the Commonwealth of Virginia over one season . This data will ultimately allow coaches and physicians to : (1) identify those physical parameters which predispose the athlete to injury; (2) identify those events which need closer supervision and spotting; and (3) emphasize the need for improved safety equipment and adequate conditioning programs. In addition, specific information on types of injuries as well as conditioning, skills and strength required for various levels of participation is provided . Our findings and recommendations will be compared with those of other studies. METHOD: e performed a prospective analysis of club level gymnastic injuries over a seven month (one season) period . Questionnaires and flowsheets were sent to 32 private gymnastic clubs in Virginia. We received complete responses from 15 clubs with a total membership of 2,558. Data on skill level (beginner, elite) , studentinstructor ratio, available safety equipment, and conditioning and warm-up exercises was collected in the questionnaire. In addition, flowsheets were completed for each club member. Data pertaining to physical characteristics, injuries sustained, and the event in which the injury occurred was elicited. For every gymnast who sustained an injury, additional information relating to setting




(practice or competition) , type of injury and duration of disability was documented . Using the University of Virginia Academic Computer System , we assigned a 34 character code for each injured athlete. Injury was defined as any gymnastic-related incident which prevented participation by the gymnast in any part of a workout or competition . Analysis revealed the following: (1) Injuries occurred in 12 of the 15 participating clubs ; (2) 62 injuries occurred among the 542 competitive and 2016 non-competitive level athletes ; (3) Of the 62 injuries, 51 were acute and 11 chronic; (4) Only nine athletes sustained more than one injury overthe season.



ur injury rate was 2.4 per 100 participant seasons , specifically 5.3 per 100 competitors (elite , advanced , intermediate) and 0.7 per 100 beginners. The distribution by ability level was elite : 1 injury ; advanced : 5 injuries ; intermediate: 23 injuries; and beginner: 15 injuries. There were 51 acute injuries, 41 at practice (80 percent) and 10 at competition (20 percent) . The event distribution of these 51 acute injuries were: floor exercise 21 , beam 13, vault 9, uneven parallel bars 6, and vault springboard 2. We were unable to find any statistically significant relationship (0.2655) between skill level and event. The acute injuries (51) were twenty-one sprains (15 specified as ankle 11 , knee two , neck one , and wrist one). 16 fractures , six contusions, four dislocations, and four acute muscle strains. There were 11 chronic injuries, five sprains , five tendonitis, and one stress fracture . We found that 19 injuries occurred at mount or dismount. The 16 dismount injuries occurred six in vault, seven on beam , and three on unevens. The type of dismount injuries were six fractures (lower extremity and foot three , upper extremity and hand two , and neck one) , four sprains (ankle three and neck one) , three dislocations, one contusion, and two unspecified. We were unable to find any correlation between skill level and type of injury (0 .8096). There was also no correlation between type of injury and event (0 .0943) . Thirty-three injuries occurred with learned moves while seven injuries occurred with new moves. The duration of injury (disability) was less than three weeks in 44 (71 percent) , and greater than three weeks in 18 (29 percent) . Ten injuries (16 percent) lasted greater than six weeks . There was no correlation found between duration of injury and skill level (0 .1553). Spotters were present in 33 of the 51 injuries and not present in 18 of the 51 injuries. Comparison of those clubs with the most injuries and those with no injuries: A. Two clubs had 32 B. Three clubs had no injuries percent of injuries Club #3 , #4, and #7 . Club #5 - 7 injuries Club #11-13 injuries I. Safety equipment Club #5 Club #11 Club #3 Club #4 Club #7 Mats Mats Mats Mats Mats Spot Belts Belt Bar Hand belts belts pads Overhead belts Bar pads There was no correlation found between the presence of safety equipment and injuries. II. Mats (no correlation was found). Club #5 Club #11 3 landing mats, 7 landing mats, 8" thick 4" & 8" thick 3 crash mats Club #3 Club #4 #7 15 base mats 13 base mats 1 12" landing mat 1V2" each 1W' each 1 4" landing mat 3 6" landing mats 4 4" basic mats 1 8" landing mat All basic mats should be 1114" thick. All landing mats should be 3%" with a minimum size of 6' x 12'. There were no specific deviations from NCAA, FIG and USGF mat specifications found.


III. We found no correlation between conditioning exercises and injury rate . Club #11 Club #5 Stretch (flexibility) Stretch Running Dance 45 min. 20 min. Pull-ups Dance strength Leg lifts running Club #4 Club #7 Club #3 Flexibility Flexibility Flexibility 15 min . 15 min . 15 min Dance Strengthening Dance IV. Duration of workout There was positive correlation between duration of workout and injury occurrence. Club #5 Club #11 1-2 hr. per wk. Class 2'12 hr. x 3-4 day/wk. IV 4 hr. x 5-6 day/wk. III, II , I. IV (beginners) 7.5 hr. x 3 day/wk . to 9.5 hr. x 4 day/wk. I, II, III (competitors) Club #3 Club #4 1 V2-2'h 1 hr'/wk. class x 3 1-1V2 hr. x 2 day/wk. team

Club #7 1 hr. x 2 day/wk. class 2 hr. x 3 day/wk. team V. We investigated the student/instructor ratio but found no correlation to injuries. Club #5 Club #11 Club #3 Club #4 Club #7 8:1 7:1 8:1 6:1 10:1 VI. All clubs stated that all participants had been exposed to safety instruction (how to fall, roll , etc.). VII. Size (correlation) There was a positive correlation between the size of the club and injury occurrence . Club #5 Club #11 Club #3 Club #4 Club # 7 300 230 120 65 72 DISCUSSION e reviewed the participation and injury rate in a representative sample of gymnasts in the Commonwealth of Virginia over one season. The injury rate , for all skill levels, was 2.4 per 100 participant seasons , with a rate of five per 100 for competitors (intermediate , advanced and elite) , and 0.7 per 100 for non-competitors. These percentages are consistently lower than those reported by Snook " Garrick 2 , Weiker3 , and Lowry4. However, each of these studies had a slightly different population. Snook looked at national caliber col lege athletes; Garrick at high school , club , and college athletes; Weiker and Lowry at six and 14 private clubs respectively. The greater incidence of injuries in these studies reflects the increased competitive level of the participants. The majority of our population were non-competitors, and one would anticipate a lower incidence of injuries among th is group. With this stipulation our data is similar to that found by Weiker and Lowry. An explanation for our lower injury rate is the observation that practice and competition were less frequent in all but a few highly competitive clubs . Therefore , a larger number of gymnasts participated less frequently and less intensely, and hence sustained fewer injuries. The significantly higher injury rate among competitors vs. non-competitors is consistent with Lowry's study which pointed out that non-competitors have closer supervision, additional spotting./ spend less time in the gym and hence a lower risk of injury . We demonstrated that more injuries occurred in the floor exercises (21) than in the beam (13) or vault (9) . This distribution of events parallels the studies of Lowry4, Garrick 2 , and others5.6. One would expect to see this, since the majority of practice time is spent on floor exercises. There was no correlation between skill level and the event during which injury occurred . All levels showed a majority of injuries occurring during floor exercises. In our competitors we noted an increased number of injuries on the height events, i.e. unevens and beam. In our non-competitors, however, only three of thirteen injuries occurred on the height events. This suggests



a greater degree of performance difficulty attempted by the competitor. The possibility of lowering the injury rate among advanced gymnasts by advancing to more difficult moves on a lower beam and with a lower progression warrants closer investigation 3 . Another significant observation is related to the severity of injury occurring at dismount, on beam , vault, and uneven parallel bars. Of the sixteen injuries , the most common was fracture (6) . In addition , the only two neck injuries in the study (one sprain and one fracture) also occurred at dismounts. Hunter's observation on the severity of injuries sustained at dismount parallel our findings 7 . She pOinted out that present scoring systems call for a level of medium difficulty for dismount with points deducted for non-compliance. In addition, bonus points are scored for high-risk maneuvers. We would question the risk/benefit ratio of this system . Less difficult, safer dismounts could be substituted without detracting beauty or level of excellence from the core performance. Garrick made the observation that while competition involved only 0.4 percent of the gymnast's time, it produced five percent of all injuries 2 . Our data likewise reveals that 20 percent of injuries occurred during competition . The intenSity of the competition, i.e. pressing for greater speed and power, and the execution of more hazardous and difficult maneuvers, explains this disproportionate percentage during competition. Our most frequently observed injury was sprain (26) , followed by fracture (17) , tendonitis (9), contusion (6) , and dislocation (4) . Many studies have shown similar distributions 1 , ,8 . In our study, ankle sprains were most common , followed by knee sprains. This is again consistent with the sites involved in Garrick's and Snook's reviews , but differ from Weiker's who found the knee to be the most common site , Some authors suggest a difference in the t짜P'e of injury distribution among different levels of gymnasts 2 , .4. We found no such correlation with type of injury to skill level , with sprains again being most common and fractures second-most common in both our competitors and non-competitors. Authors have not commented on the incidence of each type of injury in each event. Although we found no significant correlations with these two variables , several trends should be noted . First, the floor exercises accounted for the most number of sprains and fractures , paralleling the higher number of injuries in this event. The incidence of sprain particularly may be even higher in that the recording of injury was done by the club which may minimize injury or not obtain truly accurate follow-up . occurred in only the floor exercises and vault. If tendonitis is defined as injury due to overuse, this distribution parallels that found by Weiker where overuse syndromes occurred mainly in the floor exercise as opposed to the vault 3 . Most injuries occurring in our study resulted in a duration of disability of less than three weeks (71 percent) . Weiker noted that 50 percent of elite gymnasts were out of practice for more than 15 days 3. We could demonstrate no relationship between skill level and duration of disability. An area of conflicting data from several studies is that of the correlation between the presence of spotters and injury rate. Weiker's data shows that approximately 80 percent of all injuries occurred without spotting, We could not show this to be true . In our study 33 of 51 (65 percent) occurred with spotting and 18 of 51 (35 percent) occurred without spotting . Our view is many injuries are prevented by the use of spotters and any data to suggest spotting is of no value in preventing injury should be carefully questioned as most maneuvers are spotted in the gym 3 . The injury rate per unit time spent with spotters is lower than the same rate without spotters. Another point of interest to coaches and physicians is the question of which safety features , conditioning programs , workout durations, and studenUinstructor ratios are most useful in preventing injury. We compared the two clubs with the most inju ries (20, 31 percent) to three clubs with no injuries. We found that there was no difference in the amount or type of safety equipment, mat number or mat thickness. Likewise , conditioning programs , studenUinstructor ratios, and safety instruction were all comparable in the clubs with a high injury rate and those with no injuries. These findings are true across the board for all clubs in our study. Other studies 3 ,4 also found


no correlation with studenUinstru ctor ratios or safety equipment with injury rate 3 ,4 . Lowry suggests that lower studenU instructor ratios may mean greater pressure exerted on gymnasts by the instructor, such as more encouragement to attempt difficult skills , less time wasted in line, more time spent on performing with less time for recovery from fatigue . She also suggests that the presence of safety devices does not necessarily establish their use 4 , We did find that the duration and frequency of workouts in the clubs with high rates of injury were significantly greater than in those clubs with no injuries (up to 20-30 hrs per week vs . 4-6 hrs) . This direct correlation of number and length of classes per week with injury rate was also noted by Weiker3 . However, he found no correlation with injury rate to number of participants in a club. We did find such a correlation (300 and 230 for clubs with high injury rate vs. 120, 65, 72 for clubs with no injuries) , We believe that fatigue plays a major role in the finding that those clubs practicing over 20 hours per week had a sign ificantly higher injury rate.

CONCLUSION everal studies have acknowledged that women gymnastics is a hazardous sport 1,4 . To argue the varying incidence of injury in this sport is to ignore the fact that a significant risk of injury does exist. Our goals in this study were to highlight the caliber of the gymnast and the events which predict a higher risk of injury and to identify those factors which reduce that risk , We define a high risk gymnast as one who is (1) performing at an advanced competitive level ; (2) performing floor or beam exercises , (3) practicing greater than 20 hours per week. Weiker has further cited the risk to be greater in low weight gymnasts and greater during the second hour of workout 3 . Future studies should focus on specific maneuvers during which injuries occur, relationship of injuries to hours spent at practice, and identification of a male:female ratio of injuries. We advocate the continued use of safety equipment to meet NCAA or USGF specifications. The use of spotters whenever possible , and adequate warm-up and conditioning programs are sound , logical approaches to the prevention of gymnastic injuries, We also recommend weekly practice sessions be interrupted by " rest or light days" and daily sessions include hourly rest periods . It is our hope with the continued study of gymnastic injuries , coaches and physicians can minimize the risk and maximize the beauty and excellence of gymnastics.


BIBLIOGRAPHY: 1. Snook, G.: Injuries in Women 's Gymnastics. Am . J. of Sports Med. Vol. 7. NO. 4. p. 242. 1979. 2. Garrick, J. and Requa, R.: Epidemiology of Women 's Gymnastic Injuries. Am. J. of Sports Med., Vol. 8, No. 4, p. 26 1. 1980. 3. Weiker, G., Ganim, R., A Prospective Statistical Analysis of Gymnastic Injuries on the Cl ub Gymnastic Level. USG F Techn ical Journal, Dec. 82, p. 13. 4. LOWry, C. B. and Leveau, B., A Retrospective Study of Gymnastic Injuries to competition and non-competition in Private Clubs. Am. J. of Sports Med. Vol. 10, No.3, p. 237. 1982 . 5. Eisenberg , I. Allen, W. C.: Inju ries in Woman's Varsity Athletic Program. Physician Sportsmed 6:112-1 20, 1978 . 6. Haycock , C. E., Gillette, J. V.: Susceptibi lity of Woman Athletes to Injury. JAMP 236: 103-105 , 1976. 7. Hunter, L. F., Torgan, C. , Dismou nts in Gymnastics : Should Scoring be Reevaluated ? Am . J. Sports Med. 11 (4): 208. 1983. 8. Clark , K. S., Buckley, W. E.: Women 's Injuries in Collegiate Sports. Am . J. Sports Med. 8: 187-191 , 1980. 9. Garrick, J. G., Requa, R. : Injuries in High School Sports. Pediatrics 61 : 465-469 , 1978 . 10. Shaffer, T. E.: Summary in Sports Pages . Physicians Sports Med. 2: 23, 1974 . 11 . Wettstone, E. (Editor): Gymnastics Safety Manual, 2nd Ed., University Park pc, and London . Pennsylvania State University Press. 1979 .


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A MUST for every serious gymnastics professional Available JANUARY 1985! To be placed on the USGF Educational and Safety Programs mailing list, please fill out the form below and return to: u.s. Gymnastics Federation 1099 N. Meridian St. Suite 380 Indianapolis, IN 46204

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Coach _ Judge _ Gymnast _ Club Owner _ Other _



New From the USGF Bookstore s'.mltat1J


Coaching Young Athletes


Coaching Women's Gymnastics

Physiology of Fitness (2nd Edition)


Rainer Martens, Robert W. Christina, John S. Harvey, Jr. , & Brian J. Sharkey Becoming a successful coach is what Coaching Young Athletes is all about! And being successful doesn't just mean winning meets; it means helping young athletes to enjoy mastering new skills, to enjoy competing with others, and to feel good about themselves . You'll be challenged to develop a coaching philosophy and to learn the essentials of sport psychology, sport pedagogy, sport physiology , and sports medicine-all in a fun and interesting way!

Brian J . Sharkey

Bill Sands

Here's a fitness book that's different . One that's comprehensive, well-written , and easy to use. And , it's written by one of the foremost authorities on fitness . In addition to covering the basics of aerobic fitness, fitness and weight control, and fitness and lifestyle, this second edition includes new views on the causes of overweight and obesity , and a revised section on muscular fitness training . Sharkey also provides 100 pages of helpful appendices with tests , programs, and information on caloric intake and expenditure.

Finally! A common-sense approach to coaching women's gymnastics. The four-part book is directed at both novice and experienced coaches and includes the following chapters:

1984 • Paper • 384 pp • $12.95 - US & Canada

1981 • Paper • 200 pp • $12.00- US & Canada


In Pursuit of Excellence Terry Orlick Find out how psychological tools such as relaxation , mental imagery , and concentration can help both athletes and coaches in their pursuit of excellence . 1980· Paper. 326 pp • $10.95-US & Canada

Coaches' Guide to Nutrition and Weight Control Patricia Eisenman & Dennis A. Johnson Contains the most up-to-date information on the "whys" and "hows" of high octane diets , food fads and myths , achieving id eal weight , and more!

and Sadness in Children's Sports

1982. Paper. 255 pp • $9.95 -US & Canada

Edited by Rainer Martens

Edited by Richard A. Magill, Michael J. Ash, & Frank L. Smoll


A unique blend of informative and entertaining articles by well-known writers and athletes concern ing major issues in children's sports. 1978. Paper· 375 pp • SU.95-US & Canada

Children in Sport (2nd Edition) Twenty articles examine the current state of youth sports research and offer guidelines to be applied in sport settings. 1982. Paper. 327 pp • $10.95-US & Canada

Living Anatomy

I. 1. 2. 3. 4.

Philosophy Why Coaching? The Role of the Coach Commitment Setting Reasonable Goals

II . 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 .

Program Schedule and Training Load Facility and Equipment The Support Staff The Selection Process Talented and Enthusiastic Coaches Research

III. 11 . 12 . 13. 14 . 15.

Preparation PhYSical Preparation Psychological Preparation Technical Preparation Tactical Preparation Theoretical Preparation

IV. 16 . 17. 18 . 19 . 20. 21.

Applications Looking at Two Skills The Full-In: A Methodology The Gymnast and the Warm-up Overtraining Compositional Analysis: Uneven Bars Observations of Training : Female Foreign Gymnasts at the 1981 American Cup

Joseph E. Donnelly

Ergogenic Aids in Sport

This "nontraditional" approach to learning anatomy uses a "hands on" approach instead of relying on rote memorization . The liv ing anatomy technique is fun-and it really works l

Edited by Melvin H . Williams Learn about the latest research on 13 common substances or treatments used by athletes today in an effort to gain the "winning edge ."

Additional Information Epilogue. Daily Training Diary. Computer Programs • Associations • Magazines and Journals. Recommended Books • Bibliography

1982. Spiral · 207 pp • SI3.95-US & Canada

1983· Hard· 395 pp • S23.95-US & Canada

1984 • Hard • 288 pp. S17.95-US & Canada





Coaching Women 's Gymnastics


Physiology of Fitness

$ 12.95

Coaching Young Athletes


In Pursuit of Excellence


Joy and Sadness in Children's Sports



Living Anatomy



Coaches' Guide to Nutrition and Weight Control

$ 9.95

_ ity ________ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ ___ State _ _ __

Children in Sport


Zip _ _ _ _ __

Ergogenic Aids in Sport


Enclose check or money order payable to USGF Bookstore. Payment must accompany order. Return order to USGF Bookstore, 1099 N. Meridian St., SUite 380, Indianapolis, IN 46204. Amount enclosed _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __


Phone _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __







• World Championships Training Camps



FIG Congress

Montreal, Canada


Rhythmic World Championships

'10·11 ·Bulgarian Invitational Sofia, Bulgaria (R)

3· 10

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17· 19

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Ft. Worth, TX

'2 7· 29 Australian Garnes Cup (M/W) TBA

"5 ·6

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FEBRUARY Caesars Palace Invitational (W)

!.as Vegas, NY




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-International Mixed

USG F N atl. Gymnas ti cs Salt Lake City, UT Coaching Seminar U nive rs ity o f U tah

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Avignon, France

23·29 Junior Boys National Training Camp

Columbus, Ohio




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Junior Boys National Training Camp

'5 ·6


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London, England


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6· 7

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Various Shes


' USA Junior Boys vs. Italian Junior Boys



• Fair Cup of Poland

Poznan (R)


NCAA National Championships (M)


NCAA National Championships (W)


'13 -14 'International Tournament (R)



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Second Elite Zone Meet (W: C,J,S)

12th Maccabiah Garnes Israel (M/W/R)

National Sports Festival Baton Rouge, LA July 22- (M/W/ R) Aug. 4 World University Baton Rouge, LA Games Trials at National Sports Festival (M/W) Third Elite Zone Meet TBA (W : C,J ,S)


Fourth Elite Zone Meet Various Sites (W: C, J,S)


USGF Natl. Gymnas ti cs Cable, \XII Coaching Seminar Tsukara Camp


U.S. Classic Nationals (W: C, J,S)

Various Sites

Aug. 24- World University Sept 4 Games (M/W)


• USA Jr. Boys vs. Canada Jr. Boys


USGF National Congress / "J/C USA Championships

Colorado Springs, CO

FEBRUARY None yet scheduled.


McDonald's American TBA Cup (M / W)


International Mixed Pain; (M/ W)



Fin;t Elite Zone Meet (W)



Second Elite Zone Meet (W)



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'TBS Cup (M/W)



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Colorado Springs, CO

Alliance Ur. Boys) TBA

··Junior Training Camp Ur. Boys)



American Classic Nationals (W)


MAY 17

Third Elite Zone Meet TBA (W)


'Brother Cup (R)



.u.S, Classic Nationals (W)



Champio nships of the TBA USA (M / W)


Kolu, Japan




Jr. Boys Training Camp TBA with Canada



Various Sites

'20-21 • Rhythmic TBA Championships of the USA 2 7- 28


Grassroots Development Camp Ur, Boys)

3 or 10 "USA vs. China (M/W)

Wiesbaden, France

Class I Regional Championships (W)



'\3- 14 'International Tournament (R)





USGF Nad . Gymnas tics Norman, OK Coaching Seminar U nivers ity of Oklahoma

··TBA • *Junior Boys European




8-1 2

London, England





17-2 1

Pairs (M/ W) ' 2· 3





Valladolid, Spain

Salt Lake City, UT

World Championships TBA Team Trials (M/W: S)

21-23 Junior Olympic Nationals Ur. Boys)

"Atlanta, GA

24-30 Junior Boys Training Camp

• Atlanta, GA


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117 -





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Technique Magazine - No. 4, 1984