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~RllDnOGIH ' TABLE OF CONTENTS Volume XVI / Number 12/ Dece mbe r 1974 FROM THE PUBLISHER, G lenn Sundb y VIEWPOINTS, Dick Cri ley WHAT'S HAPPENING 1974 USGF CONGRESS, Dick Cril ey 18th WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS 14. Re p o rt on th e Competition, Fra nk Endo 16. Int e rvi ew with Mr. Takashi Ko ndo in Varna, Frank Endo 16. An Appraisal of th e Girls' Performance, Minot Si m on s, II 21 . ACTION PHOTOS FROM VARNA 24. CENTER FOLD-OUT POSTER, Dia ne Dunbar 28. VIEWS AT VARNA 29. NEWS 'N NOTES, Re nee Hendershott 32. RESEARCH: A Comparison of Selected Factors Re lat ing to Success of Running Forward Somersaults, James Brown , Ed.D 34. CLUB CORNER 36. INSTRUCTION: The Free Hip Circle, Jo n Ait ken & Dav id Black 38. DOUBLE SALTO DISMOUNT, Dr. H.J. Biesterfeldt , Jr . 39. NACGC: Special Service Awa rd , Bob Peavy 40. NEW REGULATIONS GOVERN ELITES, Jack ie Fi e 41. REBUTTAL, Joan ne Pa squa le 42. BOOK REVIEW, Dick Cr iley 43. MEET RESULTS 44. LEITERS 46. CALENDAR 5. 7. 8. 10. 14.

Cov e r: Wayn e Young, top sco re r for USA m e n at World Championships in Varna , Bu lga ri a



Publi she r: Glenn Sund bY Associate Editors Dick Cril e y Renee Hend e rshott Resea rch Editor: H.J. Biesterfeldt , Jr. Education Editor: A.B. Frederic k Junior Gymnast EditorL Joe Sweeney Mode rn Rhythmic Gymnasti cs Editor: Ann e li s Strange Hoyma n Me n's Instructional Coordinator: H.J. Biesterfeldt Instructional Editors: AA: Bi ll Ba ll e ster, FX : Paul l ien , PH: James Hesson, R: Mike Jack i, LH: Jim Turpin, PB: Bill Roe tzheim , HB : Bill Ho lmes. Layout : Ter i Jo h nson GYMNAST mag.uine is publishe d b )' Sundby PubJiccllions. 410 Broadway, Santa Monied , Ca . 90401. Second Class POSlilgc pa id At S.mla"" on i t.~ . Ccl. Publish ed monthly. Price S 1.00 iI singl e copy. Subscription co rrespondence, GYMNAST· P.O. Box 110, Sa nl Monica, Ca 90406.CopyrighI1974 ~ .111 rig hts reserve d b y SUNDBY PUBLICA Tl ONS, 410 8ro,ldwdY, Sanla ....·\ uni( ... Ca . All Photos and manusCfipls 5ubmilled become th e propert y o f GYMNAST ~ nleS5 re turn request and sufficient postage are included.

U.:).:).R. TOUR PROGRAMS: GYMNAST magazine published the program for the recent 1974 USSR-USA tour. Using material developed in this office, we were able to come up with a beautiful 48-page program which featured a giant foldout color poster of Olga, plus 24 other color photos, and five full page color photos of Turischeva, Korbut, Andrianov, Klimenko, and the one of Shugurova on the opposite page. These programs (a beautiful souvenir record of the U.S.S.R. '74 U.S.A. tour for your collection) are available to GYMNAST readers who could not get to one of the exhibitions.... lust send $2.00 (for each program) to: USSR Gymnastic Program '74 Box 777 Santa Monica, CA 90406

From The PUBLISHER WONDERFUL THINGS .are still happen in g at GYMNAST m agazine for 1975. As mention ed in our· las t ed it ion, we are all exc it ed abo ut co lor covers and foldout posters in the comi ng iss ues of GYMNAST '75 . W e ju st were a bit op timi st ic abo ut sc hedule, and got bogged down in o ur printing and ma ilin g. Even th oug h ":Ie got to th e printer b efore the first o f Nove mb er· w ith ou r layo uts, we did no t anti cip ate that it wou ld tak e co n siderabl y longer to print th e co lor form s and in se rt the po st er into the magazine. We also hit o ur pr i nter at a tim e w hen hi s presses we re tied up on his big pub li ca ti o n. If th at w asn ' t enou gh, we de signed and publ ished the U .S.S.R. GYMNASTICS 1974 U.S.A. Tour pro gram that had to b e worked into the printing sc hedu le. So, yo u see we have be en busy w ith wo nderful gy mnasti c h appenings at GYMNAST, and we h ope yo u enj oy th e new co lor format and forgive u s for being a little late w ith o ur Nove mb er m ailing. W e sh ou ld be so m ew hat soo ner in Dece mb er (but holi day mai l may slow delivery), and do even bet ter in th e Janu ary '75 edit ion which will inc lud e an EXTRA BO NUS SURPR ISE for you.

* * * U.S.S.R. GYMNASTIC TOUR of the U.S.A. " OLG A KORBUT & CO ." as the tour was b ill ed, m ade a seven-city , t en-s how exh ibit ion across th e U.S.A. in fourteen d ays. Showin g to ca pa city c row'd s at alm ost eve ry stop with a record-break ing 20,200 for one p erfo rm ance in C leve land , it pull ed ove r 26,00 fo r two shows in one day at the Capita l Centre in Washington D .C to wind up th e tou·r. !A lth o ugh the ca lib e r of performance and sch ed ul e of wno did w hat and where va ried with the different stop s, th e overall ex hibiti o n was e nthu sia sti ca ll y received. In Lo s ange les, afte r fl yin g in from San Francisco and spendin g the day at Disney land , th ey we re al l a bit tired and sho wed it. The Washington D.C rlJ '!tinee was a li tt le rough , but rhe y wound up w ith an exce ll ent eve nin g pe rforman ce. Althou gh we we re all di sappo int ed that Wor ld Cha mpion Ludmil a Turischeva did not come along as p lann ed , th e audi en ces were thril led to see Olga and other top Sov iet gy mn as ts. They were also pl eased w ith the added att raction s of rh ythmic gymnastics with the bal l, h oop, and ribbon rout in es. The biggest hand of th e fin al p erform ance at Was hingt o n D.C exh ibi tion we nt to ac robatic World champion s Yuri and Ga lin a Save li ev for th eir bea utiful duo ba lan cin g ex hibition . " Ol ga, we love yo u," still echos across the nati o n, and in the ne xt ed ition we wi ll bring you a photo report wi th further com m ent s o n thi s exci ting Soviet tour o f the . U .S. A. DEAR READERS ...

Many strange things h ave happened at the GYMNAST office durin g the 18 year s of the magazine·s publication (some fun n y , som e sad), but the day I walked into Glenn 's office to ta lk with him and cou ldn 't find th e body that went with the voice I kept hearing was both funny a nd sad. Finally, fro m und er an a bso lute mountain of mail on his desk there appeared a feebl e h a nd. I foll owed the h and up the arm, and fin a lly to the body of our bewildered publisher who said, " You see what m y problem is? There is n o way I, single-handedly , or even in concert w ith m y present staff, can possibly answer a ll this m ail from my beloved s ubscr ibers. If you can rescue me fro m this avala nch e , you ' re hired." ' Said, I, trying to be modest, My form er boss call ed m e ··R uby ,·· ·cau se he said I was a gem. I can be your little gem, too." And that is h ow I got th e job of looking after G lenn 's most important friends , his subscribers. Now, I'm buried under all this mail. We welcome your lette r s , and each one is read. H owever, each an d everyone cannot be a nswered individually . If we hired e nou gh r esearche r s to look up a ll the information you have been askin g for and answer each a nd every lette r individually , the cost of your GYMNAST m agaz in e would skyrocket, a nd Glenn is trying h ard to keep the cos t as low as possible for you. H e is a lready pay ing higher costs for paper , p ostage , a nd labor, a nd the end is not in sigh t . So, to keep o u r costs (and thus yo urs) down , we a r e con t inuin g o ur poli cy of printing everything we know in the magazine. If you keep reading it, yo u w ill find a nswers to most of your qu estion s. Many of o ur subscribers h ave bee n asking u s to sen d them n a mes and addresses of gy mn astic coache s. clubs , schoo ls , and camp s . We can ·t possibl y a,nswer them all indi vidu a lly. so we are giv ing coach es, clubs , schools. and can'lps an o pportunity to list thems elves in a forthcoming D I RECTOR Y SECTION of the m agaz in e for your convenience . We r eceive a lot of inquiries for ticket informati o n regard in g special gymnastic events (like th e USSR team to ur of the USA, a nd th e upco ming gam es in Montreal). We always publish s uch info rIll a Lion as soon as we get i t. Imp o rtant questions of a special n ature will be a n swered in this co lumn from month to month by Yours Truly . We hope y o u will understa nd this method , a nd forgive us for n ot a nswer in g you r ever y letter . A sp ecial word to a ll o ur friends w h o have asked us for s pe cial informatio n to include in their term papers a nd s p ec ia l r e ports: We pr int ever yth ing we know. We have an indexof all o ur issues, which we w ill mail to you upo n r ece i pt o f $1.00. Much as we would like to accommodate you , we cann ot do y o ur research for you , (Your teac h ers wouldn 't a ppreci ate that.) But, rtl do m y best for you each month in this column, ok ay ? A nd whenever we get enough requests for the sam e info rm ation , we 'll print a specia l story on it. Fair enough? We l ove yo u all. Gymnastically yours . RUBY

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Meeting at USGF Coaches Congress, Chicago.

Th e lar ges t USGF Congress eve r - close to 600 peopl e in att enda nce ... lo ts o f wo rthwhil e informati o n o f all kind s - if yo u could sit thro ugh it all. W o uldn 't it have b ee n th e grea tes t.. . if Liudmilla Turishcheva had been abl e to co me? H er tea mm ates we re app earing in Phil ade lphi a and brea kin g th e rai ls o f Bill Coco's un eve n bars. USGF Exec. Director Frank Bare to ld Co ngress parti cip an ts th at n ea rl y 20,000 spectators viewed th e Ru ss ians in th e Cit y o f Bro th erl y Love, but Chicago was un abl e to hos t th em d u e to conf l ic tin g sc hedulin g of the th e spo rt s ar enas. Muriel Grossfeld unfold ed her tale o f th e Varna trip w ith pr op er cr edit to all in vo lved . Sh e ce rt ainl y ha s a way o f ex pl ainin g thin gs . Betwee n Muri el and Delene Darst, w ho judge d in her fir st i nte rn ati o nal co mp etiti o n, th e Co ngress had 1-'14 h o urs of th e fi nes t de tail s. U nfo rtu na te ly, th e M en ' s Coach, Rusty Mitchell, arri ve d too lat e to repo rt to th e Frida y morning sess io ns, and Te am M anage r, Gene Wettstone, ill fro m th e Va rn a drinkin g wa ter, se nt Ed Isabelle to read hi s repo rt. Gen e' s report took all o f 15 minutes to pr ese nt, but it offere d i nsig hts from intern ati o nal auth o rities such as Rum ani an co ach Baldiewscieu, Balsinger (Sw it z.), Mrs. Ivancevic (USSR ), Dr. Joseph Gohler (OI Ympisch e Turnkun st), Dr. Olavi Liemuvierta (Finland ) and Mr. Lind (Swe d en ). Dr. Gohler noted th at th e W es t G ermans se nt 6 coac hes, o ne to cove r and report on each eve nt. A great se t o f p resent ati o ns from th e Biom ec hani ca l Task Fo rce was o rga ni zed by Dr. Gerald George. Sp eakers included Mike Jacki, Dr. Gerald Calkin, Vannie Edwards (ju st hours b efo re hi s app end ix was to be remove d ), Dan Speraw, and Dr. A. Bruce Frederick plu s Dr . Geo rge. Th ere was so m ethin g fo r bo th men and wo m en coac hes althou gh no t eve ryt hin g was biom ec hani ca l. Dr. Fred eri ck had to improv ise a majo r part of hi s talk w h en a slid e projector w o uldn ' t w ork. Frank Bare's In te rn ati o nal Rep ort left few ho les b arred . H e did note th at th e Jap anese m en ha ve bee n in vited to co me to th e US in Janu ary 1975 . I lea rned fro m Frank Endo, howeve r, th at th ey pr efer M arch b eca use it mark s a se mes ter br eak and th ere is a longer vacation. It is diffic ult to reco nci le Frank ' s GYMNAST Dec. 1974

sta tement th at th e USGF is ove rstaffed w hen o n e sees all th e wo rk th at nee d s to be don e .. . I ncid entall y, Frank took on all co m ers in an o p en qu es ti o n and answe rs sess io n - more o p en ness of th at so rt is needed .. . perh aps a So u n ding Boa rd sho uld be sch ed ul ed into f utu re Co ngresses. Fro m th e Hi gh Schoo l co aches m ee ting ca m e an int erstin g app roac h to so lvin g th e restri cti o ns on practi ce seaso ns impos ed b y state athl eti c assoc iati o ns (see last month ' s VIEWpoint s co lumn ) ... take it to co urt. Su ch restri cti o ns were dro pp ed i n Colo rad o . (In cidentall Y, thi s appro ach mi ght b e o ne fo r th e w rit ers o f thi s mon th ' s gu es t edito rial to loo k into.) I did not ge t t o th e USAI C meetings but ap parentl y th ey we re bu sy. Pat Yeager was amo n g those spear hea din g th e secti o n on boys p rogra m s. A se t of sta te directo rs fo r d eve lo pm ent of th e boys ' progra m are b ein g nominated ... reg ret was e xpressed that th ere had be en littl e co mmuni cati o n w ith th e USGF M en 's Techni ca l Committee. I th o ught it interes ting th at Igor Solidov men tio ned m any o f Ru ss ia' s to p gymn asts co me from spo rt s c lub program s. Apparentl y it sh ows that t he co ll eges don 't have to be th e onl y trainin g pr og ram for int ern ational gymn as ts. Igor (o n leave from th e Ph Ysi cs D epartm ent at M oscow Stat e Uni ve rsity) spok e to th e NACGC o n th e Ru ss ian way o f d o ing thi ngs and no ted th e long co m pe tit ive life of th eir gy mn as ts, o ft en a deca d e o r more, becau se of t he o utsid e o ppo rtunit y for comp etiti o n. Paul liert introdu ce d th e new Junior Ol ympi c compul so ry ex ercises w hi ch lo ok as if th ey w ill be accep ted by th e AAU , YMCA, and hi gh sc hools as we ll as th e USG F. Paul spent more th an 100 ho urs drawin g the fi gures w hi ch w ill be includ ed in th e n ex t ed i ti o n o f th e USG F Rul es & Po li cies fo r M en. A n excell ent j o b o f interpretin g th e new Ol ympi c compul so ri es was d o ne by Masayuki Watanabe, Abie Grossfeld, and Rusty Mitchell fo r t h e asse mbl ed coac hes of th e NACGC. Th e N GJ A Techni ca l Co mmittee spent m an y ho urs compilin g additi o nal d ed u ct ions to th e Tabl e of Dedu cti o ns fo r th e 1976 co mpul so ries. Thi s labor of love is intend ed to fo rce gy mna sts in thi s country into upgrad ed techniqu e. th e

coac hes of th e N ACGC w ho hea rd Jon Culbertson's prese ntation agree d w ith th e need to minimi ze di scus sion, but many disag reed w ith interpretation s whi ch mak e the exercises mo re d if ficult. Dave Thor was on e w ho co uld hard ly co ntain him se lf. I wo nd er how eve ryon e w i ll reac t to Frank End o' s rep o rt tha t th e FIG Tec hni ca l Co mmitte has decid ed to brin g out new co mpul sori es aft er M o ntreal (thu s g ivin g abo ut 4 yea rs to prepare for th e 1980 Games in Moscow). Th e Co ng ress o ffer ed mu ch o ppo rtunit y for ge t-t ogeth ers and everyo n e enj oyed th e hos pitalit y roo ms o f Gymnastics Supply Company and th e GYMNAST and GYM-KIN. Walt lwickel provided br ea kfas t snack and th e Nissen and American equipm ent co mpani es hosted a coc kt ail part y prior to th e banquet. Hi gh powe red di sc uss ion s br o ught toge th er a batch of GYM NAST editors in cl udin g Drs. A.B. Frederick, and H.J. Biesterfeldt (a nd yours trul y) plu s cont rib utin g editors Bill Ballester, Miki Jacki, Jim Turpin, and Paul liert. W o men' s Edit o r, Renee Hendershott was kept bu sy takin g ph o tos, reco rdin g talk s, and takin g no tes. Glenn Sundby r ecruit ed Skip Ray to p rov ide us w ith repor ts from th e Illin o is area . Bruce Fred er ic k offe red th e interesting comm ent th at gymn asts (a nd / o r th eir coa ches ) seem to e nj oy sec reti ven ess - knowing so m ething so m eone else doesn ' t kno w . I wo nd er if thi s help s ex pl ain so m e o f the pr ob lem s U S gy mn as ti cs is fa Cin g ... at th e very leas t, it co nt rib utes t o th e turm o il. I wo nder, too, ab o ut th e p arall el in requ es ts for ano nymity o f a coac h ' s compl aint about local jud gin g (in th e Nove mber GYMNAST) and Frank Bare ' s requ es t fo r press sil ence o n U.S. co mpl aint s abo ut th e w om en 's judging in Varna. Th e USGF 's h o nored gu es ts at t h e banqu et we re President and Mrs. Olle Areborn o f th e So uth Afri ca n Gy mn as ti c Federati o n. Mr . A rebo rn enli ghtened th e A meri ca n as to th e rea l natur e o f So uth A fri ca's spo rt s p rog ram , some thin g few o f us kn ew an ythi ng abo ut. Co ngra tulati o ns to Mrs. Mildred Prchal wh o was pr ese nted th e U SGF 's M as ter o f Sport awa rd fo r h er many yea rs se rvice o n behalf of mo dern gymn asti cs. Mrs. Prchal n o ted how proud she w as th at th e U .S. could now take part in co mpetiti ve m o dern gy mna sti cs. 7

New Gymnastic Supply Company located in San Pedro, California


GSC At hl eti c Equipm en t has move d into th eir new manufac tu rin g and wa rehous in g fac ilit y. Th e new p lant , situ ated o n a hill ove rlo o kin g Los A nge les Harb o r, d o u b les th e all -a ro und produ cti o n, wa reho use and adm ini strati ve ca pa cit y of GSc.

Sty li sh Gy mn as t ·· awa rd at th e Maritime Acade my in Massac hu se tt s. Linda works o ut six hours a week wit h t he YMCA·s team and supplem ent s her acti vit y w ith exe rcises at h o me and th e Preston Plain s Schoo l tea m . Her fath er gave h er a b alan ce bea m fo r Chri stm as wh ich she use s in th e family' s backya rd. For her floor exerci ses th e 1976 Ol ympi c hope ful u ses th e Tardif{" s front lawn cxp laincs Lin da·s coac h and mo th er Donna. A t first glance, th e·blond haired yo uth looks li ke th e Ru ss ian Gold Medal w inn er Olga Korbut , w ho is Linda·s idol. Eve ry tim e sh e co mpetes m embers of th e audi ence app roac h Lin da and as k her fo r h er aut ograp h beca u se o f th e simil ari ty, accor ding to Mrs. Tard if f. Lin da first start ed her ca reer w ith o n e of her b ro th ers who se rve d as a partner in her dance tea m. She start ed dancin g when she was eight years o ld and wo rk ed h er way into gymn as ti cs w hen she was ten. Linda al so be lo ngs to th e Lui s Pad en troop o f dance rs and trave ls New En gland w ith th em ent ert ai nin g. On Sunday durin g th e fa ll she is also a chee rl eade r for th e Pee W ee Foo tball tea m in Pres ton.

lisa Rix, LA Class I Champion


Li sa Ri x, 16, is th e Los A ngeles Cit y Class I floo r exercise champion , ba lance bea m champi o n, and un eve n bar champio n for 1974. Li sa, w ho also pl ace d second all aro und , co mpeted for EI Ca mino Rea l Hi gh Schoo l in Wood land Hill s, Ca lifo rni a and was th e o nl y tripl e w inn er in th e Lo s A nge lesCi ty Fin als. Li sa , coac hed by M rs. No rm a Fenwi ck, is also th e U.S.G. F. - Lo s A nge les League Cla ss II · fl oo r exercise champion fo r 1973 and 1974.


linda Tardiff, Connecticut gymnast


On Feb ru ary 21 and 22, 1975, Wi chit a Hi gh Sc hoo l Sou th w ill h os t th e So uth In vit ati o nal. Th e first day w ill be th e all-aro und co mpe titi o n, w ith th e seco nd day bei n g tea m and fin als. Th is is th e first 2 day m ee t in Kan sas hi story.


Young 12 yea r o ld Ol ympi c as pirant Lind a Tardiff from No rw ic h, Co nn ec ti cut , had a ve ry ni ce three co lu mn w rit e- up in th e loca l pap er th ere last m o nth . Th e w rit e- up to ld h ow the 4 foo t six inc h yo uth wo n two bron ze meda ls in th e AAU Juni o r Ol ympi cs las t yea r. The mo st rece nt titl e ca pture d by Lind a was th e " Most

Thi s yea rs Ma rdi Gra s In vitation al Gymn as ti cs M ee t will be held at th e Lo ui sian a St ate Un ivers ity Assembl y Ce nt er starting Fr ida y, Janu ary 31, 1975 at 7:30 p.m. La st ye ar· s mee t in cl ud ed su ch fin e allaro und p erform ers as Ma rshall Ave ner, Rand y Belh orn, Steve Bonham, Da ve But zman, Mik e Car ter, Renato Gi ess (Sw it ze rl and ), Jim Ivice k, Gary Morava, Rick Russell, Brent Simmons, Jim Steph enso n, and H emo Walters. Thi s yea r we are hopin g to includ e some new faces in W ay ne You ng, Steve Hu g, and Ri chard Lo yd . We are looking l orwa rd to thi s disp lay of hi gh ca libre America n p erfo rm ers and anti cip ate large crowd s. Thi s yea rs Mard i G ra s w ill have th e n ew addition o f six of th e out standin g female gy mn asts in th e U nit ed States, w hi ch sho ul d make it an exceptional yea r for Mardi Gra s. GYMNAST Dec. 1974

Long Isla nd Gymnas tic Demo nstrati o n

SOARING AMBITION SOAR ING AMB ITIO N. .. Yo un gster, w ho fl ipp ed over th e gy mna sti cs demonstration g ive n by th e m en ·s varsity team f ro m Long Island U ni ve rsit y"s Brookl y n Ce nter, b raves a trY at f lyin g through the air him self. With the stea d ying h and s of L1 U gymna sti cs coac h· Tom Franqu i and hi s ass istant s, th e littl e lad was laun c h ed int o a w hirl of hi s ow n. Th e show, given at the SI. Marks Ave nu e tri an g le park during Brook ly n ·s Fab ul o u s FIJtbu sh Ave nu e Fes ti vJ I, drew th ro ngs of in tere sted adu l ts, w ho probab lY wo uld lik e to g ive it a w hirl them se lves.

Joe l Pearson a t Arizo na Big Su rf

RELAXING? For m e r NCAA r i ngs c hamp, Joe l Pea rso n sitting down on th e job as h e wins th e cross co nt es t at th e Big Surf m eet , Ar izO ll a. Joe l h e ld thi s posi ti o n for over 20 seco nd s.

SHOES #Tl-2 (as illustrat ed) .......... $4.95 pro #Tl-3 -A a ll leather s hoe with rubbe r sa le ........ 8.50 pro #TL-4 Ladies' gym shoe Ny lon w / leather sa le ..... 3.50 pro #Tl-3SP all leath er shoe , world s finest .......... 12.95 pro #N B Nylon booty , w / lea the r so le Size 1-12 · ........ 3.75 pro LEATHER HANDGRIPS #A-Good (m ost popular) ......... $2.50 pro #B-Be tt e r (o ne-pi ece) ....... 3.00 pro #C-Best (ex tra st ron g) ...... .3.75 pro Lampwick handgrips (S -M-L ) ...... 2.25 pro PANTS Cotton/ acrylic stre tc h ........ $9.50 pro Ny lon stretch pant s Wh ite or Cream ........ 15.50 pro With toe-pc. , add $1.00 extra SUSPENDERS \I" . e las ti c w / meta I clips. Adjustab le and detachable . Comes in white, blu e o r red ......... $4.25 ea. WOODEN RINGS Meets all specifica ti o ns ....... $24.95 pro CHALK Block o r powde r ...... Lowest prices T-SHIRT White w / gymnast ic figure s in blu e ..... $3.50 ea. Sizes: S-M -L GYM SHIRTS Cotton with adj ustable flap ...... $5.25 ea. Ny lon ste p-in , w hit e or cream ...... $7.50 ea. GYMNASTIC TRAVEL BAGS 6y," w x lO y," H x 16" L Avai lable in Blu e on ly ........ $7 .95 ea. FtLMS 1970 Yugoslavia World Gymnas tic Championships Super 8 - in color The wo rld 's most exciting combinatio ns, tw ists and new techniqu es have been recently filmed. See the winni ng and top option al routines, fo r all O lYmpi c events, in semi-slow m ot ion taken from the best locat ions. No Rent a ls. M e n's - #14 - 400 ft. $38.00 Ppd. $38.00 Ppd. Wom e n's - #16 - 400 ft. 1974 USA FINAL WORLD GAMES TRIALS Super 8 film - in color America·s top women gymna sts are featured in thi s film. tn lcud es all fo ur Ol ympic even ts. Comp le te optional ro utin es only. Held a t the Anaheim Convention Cent e r Sept. 27-28. These are our wome n gymnasts that competed in Va rna , Bu lga ri a on O c t. 21-26. #28

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GYMNAST Dec. 1974

Lon g Island C ity Turnvereins

plac e o f th e A m er icd n TUlilers (a Ge rm an Ogani za ti on) in th e Di str ict of I ew York and ha s also ac hi eved num e rou s indi vidu al awa rd s at th e Me tropo lilJn A rea·s USG F and AAU co mp e titi on s.

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these committees function for the in te rn aional leve l gymnasts in this co untry. 7. Qu es ti one d on the issue of arbitrary decisions, Mr. Bare conceded he does m ake decisions on suc h thin gs as rai sing mone y and when tim e is of th e esse nce, but noted he does consult Mr. Cumiskey and Mrs. Fie and the Governing Council on nearly all ot h er matters. 8. Mr. Bare reported that he is in favor of the Pea rson Bill (Amateur Ath let ic Act of 1974) because of the financia l input. H e indicated he doesn' t worry abou t increased gove rnm ent involvement in sport. Th e various bills affecting amateur sport ha ve not passed Congress ye t and still may not do so.

Our leader Frank Bare

1974 USGF Congress By Dick Criley In hi s we lcoming remarks, Frank Bare, USGF Exec uti ve Director, noted that there were many positi ve and some far less positive items to report on at this yea r's meetings. He noted that the appearance of the Russians scheduled for Chicago was cancelled be cause profess ional basketball and ice hockey contracts had tied up the appropr iate spo rts arenas. In addition, Tuishcheva had not joined the tour although Olga Korbut was along. Mr. Bare pointedly asked the news media not to reprint his and other speaker 's unflattering remark s concern in g the judging of women 's events in Varna . (we refer our readers to the USGF Program for th e Congress for those.) He noted that " Gymnastics worldwide is facing seriou s problems of a political nature. " He reviewed the steps lea ding the the establishing of the World Games in Varna, Bulgaria . Especially important was the vote of the Third World count ri es (mostly African and Asian, w ithout gymnastics teams) at a specia l congress of the FIG which reversed the ea rlier decision to remove the Games to Munich , West German y. The political tone of this meeting set the stage for the champ ionships in Varna. I mportant announcements for US gymnasts wi ll , of course, appear officiallY in the USGF News, but the GYMNAST brings our readers these ea rly, unofficial reports. Additional cove rage will appear in our January issue. International Report (Frank Bare) Gymnastics is recognized as a major sport for the Ol Ym pics in Montreal as it is only one of 3 sports to use the large (15,000 seat) spo rt s arena. There is not word Yet on ticket distribution but it w ill be tied into having secured hou sin g. Th e U.S. faces co nsiderable work, not only in developing gymnasts, but in its actions in the FIG. W e shou ld try to place representative s on the men 's and women 's Technical Committees. A recommendation is being made that only neutral judges be used in the finals for women. Th ere are constitutiona l amendments proposed for the FIG May '75 meeting which 10

w ill reduce the mid-sco re sp read , req uire 51 % (instead of 7 members) membership to ca ll for specia l Congresses, and require a visible and gymnastics program for m eas urable membership in the FIG. Th e FIG needs a full time director to run it o n a businesslike basis in stead of as a club. Tours: In 1975 both the West and East Germans have been in vited w ith the East Germans tentative ly sch eduled for De ce mber. Th e Japanese men are being in vited in January. The USGF is proposing to the FIG an annua l Am erican Cup (like the invitationa ls held by South Africa, Japan and Russia) to w hi ch wou ld be invited 10 men and 10 women. A sponsor has been found already. Mr. Bare reviewed USGF history, budget (including its drop into th e red for the Russian tour ), staffing , plans, and answered questions from the floor (a USGF Fir st and a brave mo ve on his part! ). 1. USGF Coun cil meet s in December chief ly to review the past yea r's actions . They don ' t want to be bothered with the day-to-day operation . 2. The NCAA does not control the USGF. Only 4 votes out of 21, less than 10% of the USGF budget comes from the NCAA. 3. Each constituent members has its own program and the USGF does not force them to change. It tri es to encourage cooperation . 4. W e now ha ve much better cooperation with the USOC because they appreciate the organization of the USGF and the fact that it pays it s half of the expenses. 5. Emp loyee status: Frank Cumi ske y (fullt ime), Shirley Bryan (0.6), Marlene Bene (0.5 secretary) , Frank Bar e (0.5; the other 0.5 is USCSC) plu s var iou s contract and part-t ime help. Mr. Bare considered the office as " overstaffed " in term s of the sa lari es but admitted it would be desirab le to ha ve 3 fulltime directors plus a full-time secreta ry. 6. The USGF has a men 's Foreign Relations Committee and is forming a simi lar committee for women. As set up by th e USGF Constitution ,

USOC - Men - Karl Schwenzfeier The 1975 Pan American Games site has been shifted from Brazil to Mexico City on 12-26 October. Men 's qualifying rounds will utili ze th e Ol ymp ic compulsor ies as th e published Pan Am compulsories are incorrect. The national champion ships of all USGF - affili ated organizations using these compu lso ries w ill qua lif y gymnasts into the sem i-final s if a 104 sco re is attain ed. Th ere is a proposal to drop compulsories for th e Pan Am Games which will be acted upon later. A summer tra inin g camp for elite gymnasts is being proposed . The USOC Gymnastic Committee is also conS idering a trip to China in June 1975. USOC - Women - Shirley Bryan The official meeting was sc heduled for the end of the Congress; the official decisions wi ll be announced by Mrs . Brya n via the USGF News. Th e highlights of the past yea r, including seve ral international trips, were repo rted in th e USGF News. A new concept, Junior Tea m development, was implemented by sending a team to an in vitational meet in Japan . Elite women gymnasts in the 7-12 rankings will also be se nt to international competit ions so that the US wi ll get more exposure. Another innovation to be implemented is a coaching symposium at the international leve l. Reports on the World Games (Muriel Grossfeld, Delene Darst & Gene Wettstone) Both th e US women and men had very steady performances which were the more remarkable for the problems encountered en route to and during th e Games.

Just a few of the gang at the banquet GYMNAST Dec. 1974

Th e women we re aided by a trai ning cam p at McKinley YMCA in Champaign, Illinoi s. Muriel ack nowledged th e ass istance of many peop le in th e preparation o f the team and in their activit ies in Va rna. H er d esc ription of the tri als and tribulati o ns and joyS of the trip was recounted in an inimitable style, ending o f th e note th at a benefit from Varna was that we lea rn ed how much work we still have to do. Gene Wettsto ne' s report, w hi ch was read by Ed Isabelle, noted a dec line in th e co ndi t io ni ng of th e men gy mna sts ove r the summer befo re the fin al trial s in September, but remarked upon the fine sh owings of Wayne Yo un g and Steve Hug 1 & 2 for us in Varna. Most of th e Wettstone repo rt dealt with ana lYsis of th e US by va ri ous international offic ial s whom he had interv iewe d. Of note from th ese interviews: Oth er t eams are older and stro nger, th e U.S. appea rs less matur e and now needs more diffi culty; th e team looked too simil ar and lack lustre. Hi ghli ght men are needed. A sys tem atic approac h is needed and th e team should be kept toget he r fo r longer peri ods of t ime. Th e U.S. n eeds more trips to Europe. It was no ted that gy mna sts in the US are not wi lling to sac rifice the b est years o f th ei r life. East Ge rman gymn as ts do not train toget her fo r long periods before ma jor co mpetition s beca u se of personality prob lems.

an essenti all y circ ular sw in g to a lift swin g. Discipli ne enabl es th e gy mn ast to use th e driving force of the beat swin g to best advantage. Beat sw in g can be u sed on all the other eve nts but some are more co m plex and difficult to identify. Vannie Edwards " Psychology of Gymnastic Coaching " Motivation and communica ti on are important element s. First, es tabli sh in th e gymnast's mind th at she (he) can physicall y do the trick. While repe titi on help s, it pun ishes th e bod y. Use th e mind to con tro l th e matter (bod y) once it is appa rent that the tr ick ca n be don e. Reinf o rcements i nclud e vid eo -tap es, also notebooks for r ecor ding experi ences. Keep the gy mn ast 's mind full of positi ve th oughts. An imp o rt ant role of th e coac h is develop in g a complete person for w hen compe titi o n da ys are over. Gerald George Tec hni q u e for co nve rtin g hori zo ntal to vert ica l motion. Th e legs are usually regarded as most important beca use o f the b locking actio n and the act io ns of the t runk and arm s have not been given as much att en tion . One mu st cons id e r th e horizonta l disp lacement (speed) and th e an gle of li ft-off w hen striving for greates t verti ca l eff ect. The fo reward-upward ac tion of the ar ms help s co ntro l and gove rn li ft whet h er on a back sa ito from ff, forward saito, or in Biomechanical Task Force Presentations va ultin g. The bodY posit io ns at li ft -o ff are Mike Jacki "A Systems Approach to Gymnastic si milar in all 3 t ri cks. A nothe r key - - as the time Exec ution Tec hniqu es " of take -off dec reases, the vert ical height Th e mechani ca l vs th e hum an fa ctors : A in creases. In va ulting, this wo ul d m ean : fas t mec han ica l approa c h is eas ier to systemat ize. ru n, sho rt h u rd le, fee t contact board ahead of Use body segmentat io n. Ski ll s invo lve va riou s bod y mass, vigo rous upwa rd and fo reward numbers of body segme nt s. Iso late indiv idua l ex tension at the right tim e to p revent lean. parts and improve th e motor sk ill s in the parts Dan Speraw "A n Ana lysis of Uneven Parallel need in g improve m ent. Progressions red u ce Rai l Act ion " skill s to th e smallest number of requ ired As noted in Fritz Reiter's November 1974 segments. A sys tems app ro ach becomes a co nt ri buti on to the GYMNAST, there is a method of teach ing and lea rnin g motor skill s rh ythm to the def lec tion of a ra il and ret urn to which is co nsistent, invites se lf-eva lu ation , norma lcy th ro ugh damped v ibrati ons. M r. prov ides an ave nu e for progressio n, and Speraw used a hi gh speed camera to film co mbin es skill learning w ith th e requirements gymn as ts perform i ng the w rap arou nd to hec ht of tec hniqu e. dismo unt. The deflection of the rai ls was very Gerald Calkin " Half vs Full Beat Swing on th e noticea bl e as was the act io n of t he gymnast's Parallel Bars" body. In th e best pe rform an ces, th e sto m ach Th e hal f best sw in g u ses an early pi ke then thrusts against the bar as it rises above the arch to the handstand while th e fu ll beat u ses a normal - - thi s impli es a "wait" on th e bar for pike to a sli ght arch to pike to hands tand. Th e its actio n. The gym na st should not arch too latte r prov ides a greate r lift fo rce by chang in g mu ch or too soon if she is to achi eve greatest


Mr. Olle Areborn of South African Gymn astic Assoc iation

GYMNAST D ec. 1974

Je rry Tod d prese nts Judges top Ho n or Award to Bill . Roetzheimm

lift-off. A stomach w hip and rebound from the bar leaves it vib rat i ng; o ne mu st co nsider w hat happens if the ra il is con tact ed o ut of phase - often it breaks! New moves are p lacing grea t er st ress on th e bars. Greater sa fety is needed. (A t this point Larry Fie, speaking for the manufacturers, pointed o ut that a co mmittee is stud yin g bar safety. Th e FIG specifies wood but in th e state of the art wi th woo d toda y we ' ve gone abo ut as fa r as possible. I t is unl ik ely that a cou rt of law wou ld uph o ld the need for wood ju st because the FIG says so nor wou ld the FIG necessa ril y bac k so m eone in co urt in an accident case involv i ng a woode n bar.) Do we need a labe l stating, " Warning, thi s wood rail can be dangerous to yo ur h ea lth !" ? A. Bruce Frederick " Qualitative A nal ysis in Gymnastics" From hi s int e r es t in q u alit ati ve general iza ti ons, Dr. Frederick looked at va ri ous families of m ove me nt, e.g., Kippin g Actions. H e gene rali zed that patterns of kipping acti o n are alike. From th is a model ca n be built, programmed into a co mputer, and an " idea l" patte rn gene rated. A lthough thi s quantifies what is basica ll y a human judgement it may lea d to co mp uteri zed judgin g. Fi ve qualitative eleme nts w h ich yie ld quantifying starti ng points are: Effort (in force, time, an d space), Fo rce (as a co ntinuum fro m relaxation), Ba lance, Flexibil it y, an d Sw ing . Th e kipping ac tion on U PB and H B was give n as an exa mple for the aud ien ce to wor k out. Unfortunately Ernestine W eave r was unable to be pres ent to give her pa per o n " Dan ce Posture and Its Effect on Gymnastic Style."

National Association of High School Gymna stic Coaches Their actions appear to open up th e way' for wo men coac hes to take part. It was noted th at many states are usin g the rul ebook developed by the National Federation of State Hi gh Schoo l Assoc iat ions. The NFSHC A is pub lishing a newsletter. New co mpul so rY exercises are being d eveloped. The possibil ity of a national in vitational fo r HS se ni o rs is being investigated by th e Illi nois HS Association. The id ea is to put on a good show rat her than es tab lish w ho is best. Th e problem of restrictions o n practice seasons has been ta ken t o co urt in Co lorado,

Don Robinson Pres. NACGC presiding over t"chnical disscussion session


but th e sc hoo ls dropped th e restri c tion s before the co urt s ac ted. A simi lar approa ch ma y reso lve thi s prob lem in o th er regio ns. More sti cky is the prob lem of club gy mn asts co mp etin g o n hi gh sc hoo l teams alth oug h th e reve rse is proba bl y, also appli ca b le. Most sc hoo ls hav e no rest ri ct io ns w hi ch ca n app ly durin g the summe r. Junior Olympics and Age Group Development Program Seve ral pr ob lem s of com muni ca ti on (o r lack th e reo f) surfaced w he n it became appa re nt that the Men 's Techn ica l Co mmittee h ad no sp ec ific rol e in d eve lop in g new co mpulsory exe rcises and had no t b ee n co nsulted whe n th e bo ys sect ion of the US Ind epend en t C lub s Assoc iation was asked by Fra nk Cumiskey to nomina te stat e techn ica l di rec tor s for boys age group d eve lopment pro g ram s. The compu lso ries grew o ut of a specifi c req uest from Frank C umi skey to seve ral coaches (in cludin g Paul Ziert, Masayu ki Watanabe, and Franci s A ll en) at th e Ol ympi c D eve lo pm e nt Ca mp in Lin co ln , Neb ras ka , thi s summ er to prepa re a se ries of wa te red -down exe rcises from the 1976 Olymp icComp ul so ri es . Th e re are 3 leve ls of co mpul so ri es: begin ne r, int e rm ed iate and advanced . The comp ul so ri es are aim ed at all boys from 10 to 18. Th ey w ill re m ain in effec t until the nex t se t of co mpu lso ri es ca n be drafted from the 1980 Ol ympic exe rcises. Th e tex t is w ritt en in FIGe se w hi ch does m ake it so mew hat diffic u lt to interpret, but fine illu strations were p repa red by Paul Ziert and a tabl e of deductio ns by Frank Cumiskey. Th ese compu lso r ies have bee n accepted b y th e USG F, AAU. and YMCA for their bo ys program and probablY w ill be accepted by th e hi gh sch ool s in th ose areas w he re co mpul so ri es are used. Th ey w ill b e publi shed b y th e USGF Press th is wint e r. Th e Age Group D eve lo pm ent pro gram was mod ified by th e independe nt club s to pa rall el th at of th e girl s' program : 3 age divis; n ns - lO 11 , 12-14,1 5-18 (th e AAU not es that it w ill also co ntinue it s 9 & unde r pro gram ) and in ea ch di visio n th e re are 3 classes: II/-beg inners, 1/ int e rm ediat e, and I-ad va n ced. (In ad dition , th ere are Jun ior and Senior Na tion al leve ls, but th ese are co nsid e red beyo nd the d eve lop ment leve L) Thi s prog ram fun ctions during the bulk of the compet ition seasons and gives away (so m ew hat) to the Juni or Ol ympics during the summer. Th e Juni o r O lYm pi c use C lass 1/1 for 10-1 1, C lass /I for 12-1 4, and C lass I for 15-1 8. Onl y at 15-18 will opt iona ls be use d. Th e USGF Stat e JO 's wi ll be held in June, Regio nals in Jul y, and Nat io nals in August. Bot h th e USGF and AAU wi ll run th eir ow n JO ' s and both wi ll u se th e sa me exercises. I n some states both programs wi ll o p erate and provid e boys seve ral oppo rtuniti es to advance. There are man y d etail s st ill to be wo rk ed o ut in th e USGF Prog ram alt ho ugh th e 1974 prog ram was co nsidered success fu l. Boys

Murie l Grossfeld and Jack ie Fi e at head tab le during banqu e t honors

Ballet tips for gymnastics

Jack Miles and Il ene Taylor


Interpretations of the 1976 Olympic Compulsory Exercises for Men . (Masayuki Watanabe, Abie Grossfeld, Rusty Mitchell) Th is was a most va lu ab le part of th e m ee tin g for man y co ll ege coac h es. A summary w ill app ear in a future iss ue of the GYMNAST. Th ese sess ions ran on so lo ng th at 2 o th e r sessions for coac hes we re ca nce ll ed. Thi s was unfortunate for coac hes in progra m s not geared toward s co ll ege or in tern ati o nal co mp etition.

Th e Tabl e of D edu cti o ns to th e exe rcises was ex pand ed by th e NGJA and presented (by fiat) to the NACGC meeting by Jon C ul bertson. It w ill be published by the NGJA & USGF . NACGC Meeting Membe rship o f th e NACGC now stand s at 142. More th an 50 co ll ege coac h es atte nd ed the meetin g w hi ch was presided over by Do n Robin so n . Fred Orlofsky reported on th e USCSC format for choosi ng gymn as ts, coac h es and officials for the FIS U U ni vers it y Games in Belg rad e, Sept. 11-21 , 1975. Th e NACGC w ill have 2 repr ese ntati ves on th e Ga m es Co mmitt ee w ith o ne each from the coac hes associat ion s of th e N AIA and ju ni o r co ll eges. Selec ti o n of th e US represe nt ati ves wi ll be made b y t he Gam es Co mmitt ee rather th an by trial s. Roger Cou nsil r eport ed on th e progress of the 1975 NCAA Di visio n I Champion sh ips to be he ld at In d iana Sta te U ni vers it y in Te rre Hau te, Ind iana, Ap ril 3-5, 1975. Th e o ld warm -up procedures w ill be use d as th e re is no t a se parate war m-up gy m . Jerry Wright w ill rece ive all the dual meet resu lt s fo r t he sta ti sti ca l report in g se rv ice . Art Aldritt report ed that the resea rch aCwa rds in gymn ast ics are ope n for U.S. researc he rs o nl y. Th ere are 4 of th ese $100 awa rds given at the 4 m ajo r Chr istmas gym na st ics clinics. Coach of the Year ba ll ots wi ll go out in th e first wee k in March . A sp ecial se rvice awa rd for me ritoriou s se rv ice to t he NACGC we nt to A rt Aldritt. A n NAC GC Ho nor Coac h Award was m ad e to C huck Keeney, a 1935 Tu mb li ng C hampion, trampolini st, coac h, teac her and author, and lo ng-t i m e cham pi o n o f gy mn as ti cs. Eric Hu ghes (U ni versi ty of Was h ington) announced a resea rc h st ud y of shou ld er injur ies sus tain ed o n rin gs and asked fo r coop erato rs. Offici al score shee ts are obta inab le from Bill Roet zhe im. Th e NACGC coac hes approved as an for champ io nship use alt e rnat e board (mea nin g th e reg ul ar board wi ll al so b e ava ilabl e) a new bo ard w ith a sprin g steel base. It meets NCAA spec ificat ions. Don Rob i nson , NACGC Pr es id e nt , undertook th e tas k of fie ldin g th e Sounding Board for th e Ru les Co mmittee. Gymnastic s in Russia Igor Solidov, a Mast er of Sport in gymn astics from Moscow State U ni ve rsit y has been in th e U.S. fo r most of thi s yea r stud ying in hi s special tY, aco ustica l phYsics. Du ring this tim e he was abl e to visit man y uni ve rsit y gymn astic prog ram s and took part in m any d isc uss io ns. H e spok e to th e NACGC o n th e Russi an system and field ed questio ns from the coac hes d iplom at ica ll y and wi th humor . Youn gste rs start gy mnast ics in ele m e nt ary sc hoo l aro und th e age of 7. At 9 th ey are refer rred to sports schoo ls if th ey ha ve ta lent. U ntil age 11 they lea rn bas ic sk ill s w hil e th e teac he rs dete rmin e w ho ca n lea rn gymnasti cs . There are 6 ca teg ori es (3 each for yo unge r and o lu e r gym nas ts) utili zin g compu lso ri es unt il th e age 16. A t 16, they become e li g ibl e fo r th e Candidate of Mast er o f Sport progra m and, if wor kin g, ma y join a sport soc iety or, if in co ll ege, ma y compete for th eir co ll ege . Co lle ges wi ll have o nl y a half do zen m ee ts a yea r. Th ey are not rushed int o the Maste r o f Sport Prog ram w hi c h m ay b eg in at 20-22. A gym nast m ay compe te ove r 11 yea rs whil e in co ll ege and m ay co mp ete longe r by j o inin g o ne of th e soc iet ies aft er leaving co ll ege. GYMNAST Dec. 1974

U.S.G.F. Banquet An honored gues t of th e USGF was Mr. O ll e Arebo rn , Pres id ent of th e So uth A fri ca n Gymnas ti cs Fede ratio n. H e spok e of th e improve ment in Sout h Af ri ca's spo rt s sce n e w hi ch permit s all races to repr esen t th e coun tr y at th e nati o nal leve l w hil e permitting a more ethni c leve l co mpe titi o n at th e lowe r leve l. H e co nd em n ed int e rn ati ona l politica l int erference in sport s and noted that South A fri ca does permit cr iti cism o f th e gove rnm e nt w hich is a far cry from t h e situati o n in th e Eastern Block co untri es. Th e NGJA p resen ted regiona l Jud ge o f the Year awards to: Bob Stout, Eas t; To m Chirko, Mid-East ; Gene Harl ac h er, Mid-West; and D o n Allin , W es t. Indu ct ed into the Fr ank Cumiskey Ju dging Hall of Fame we re Bill Roe tzheim and Les Sa svary . Th e USG F presented its thir d Mas ter of Sport awa rd (a nd th e first to a wo man ) to Mrs. Mildred Prchal, w ho, at th e age of 79, still remain s acti ve and int erested in co mpetiti ve m ode rn gy mn astics for wome n. Nex t yea r's USG F Co ngress w ill b e at th e n ew Marriott H otel, Den ve r, Colorado, probablY

Mrs. Mildred Prchal with h e r friends after re ceiving "Maste r of Sports Award"

In th e Ru ss ian nation al Prog ram th ere is on e H ea d Na ti o nal Coach but seve ral assistant Na tion al Coac hes plu s a choreog raph er and tumbling coac h. Th e wome n ha ve more choreog raph ers. Th e re are abo ut 10 ce nt ers of co nce ntrati o n of gym nastic acti v ity ; for m en around Moscow and Kiev and for wo men aro und ByeloRussia. Communication is car ri ed out thro ugh mee tin gs of the coaches, sc hool s o f coac hin g, plu s th eir Fed eration and publi ca ti o ns. Their pub lica ti o ns are difficult for outs iders to obtain. Th e top gym nas ts are somewhat m o re lik ely to co me from th e club s than th e co ll eges because of the poorer faciliti es at th e col leges and th e more coac hes in th e clubs. Th e Ru ss ians p lace more str ess (th an do th e Americans, for instance) on sa fet y, and prese rvin g th e h ea lth and psycho logy of t h e gymnas t for a lo ng caree r. Mr. So lid ov, w hen pressed , reco mmend ed that the U.S. institute a sYst em of p rogression from th e eleme ntary sc h ool thro ugh to sport societi es and sports club s, th at gymnasts ca n be give n the o pportunitie s to compete ove r a lon ge r peri od of tim e, and that coac hin g in th e U .S. should be improved.

Nove mb e r 7~ .

Don and Barbara Tonry


Gre tch e n Dowsin g

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WALNUT HILL SCHOOL 68 Hi g hl and St./ Nat ick , Mass . 01760 GYMNAST Dec. 1974



Photos by : Frank Endo and Ca rl Hab e rland

18 th World Report on the Competition by Frank Endo After a week of r est and sightseeing in Frankfort, Vienna and Sofia , I finall y arri ved at my destination on Oct. 19th in Varna , Bulgaria , a resort c it y of appro ximatel y 220,000 population . Since Gl enn Sundby was un able to att end, I represented th e GYMNAST magaz in e for thi s Gam es. Upon checking into the Shipka Hotel, about supper tim e, I mad e my way to th e dinning room . I immediately saw and m et th e Au stralian , Great Britain, Swedish and th e Italian coaches. Thi s was th e first tim e that I had met Men ec helli , th e Italian coach, who won th e Gold m ed al for th e floor exercise in the '6 4 OlYmpic Games . While dinning, th e entire j apan ese women ' s team approached me. Yamashita sa id he was th e coac h and Mrs. Ch ieko (ada) Tsukahara as th eir team leader. Both are presently in structors at th e Un iversity of Ph ys ica l Edu ca tion in Toky o. Walkin g. out in th e lobb y after supper, I noted a bu s tha t had parked in front of th e hotel. The entire japan ese men ' s team had just return e d from their workout . Boy, was thi s a surprise and a reunion fo r me! Tak emoto, Endo, Tsurumi and their gymna sts, Kasamatsu , Tsukahara , Kato , Honma, Kenmotsu and Kaji ya ma . Th e entire men 's and women ' s teams were all in top co ndi tio n, I was informed. Th ey arriv ed early in Euro p e se ttin g up their training ca mp in Bud ap es t alo ng w ith on~ ~JS hibiti o n , prior to th ei r arrival in Varna . Kajiyama was th e newest member of the internation al tea m replacin g Nakayama who had rece ntl y retired .




Onl Y havin g be en in the hotel for tw o hours, I alreadY heard rum o rs that th e japan ese wou ld win, fo llowed b y th e Ru ss ians and East Germ any. I was told th at th e gym for workouts were loca ted at vario us loca ti o n s. Th e fo llowing day was the day of th e Op ening Ce remon y when all of th e parti cipating nation s march ed in and sp eeche s

Going into the floor exercise, Carr did well with a score of 8.95 after which the others all made it in the 9's. we re mad e by di gnataries. Fo llowin g thi s, va ri o us group gYmnastics, tumbling, and handbalancin g took pl ace. On O ct. 21st., the American women prepared for the co mpul so ry competition. Th ey were join ed with East German y, Rumani a, and West Germany, in th e evening sess ion . Th e USA started from th e un eve n bars, and it was felt that judging was hard on us. Eve n th e japanese felt th e same. Dunbar w as d efinitel y undersco red at 8.95 . On th e bea m , we started off bad lY with a fall , Rice lost balance a co upl e of tim es. And erso n did ve ry we ll and on ly received 8.9. Thi s was o ur weakest eve nt of th e evenin g. Going into the floor exerci se, Ca rr did well with a sco re of 8.95 after which th e o th ers all made it in the 9' s. This was o ur best eve nt. Th en H oward sta rt ed o n th e va ultin g w ith a 8.9 foll owe d by three ad diti o nal 8.9's. Fik e received an 9.05 and ended w ith Dunbar w ith 9.15 being undersco red aga in .

Th e hi ghest sco re for the compu lsories went to Turishch eva w ho received an 9.85 for th e bars. Th e Russian s were by far the bes t team ther e. The Am eri cans and the j apa nese ended up on ly 0.4 apart when th e compulsor ies en ded . Th e Amer ica n and japanese delegatio,ls hea rd rumors th at Titov of th e USSR, had informed al l of th e communist judges to keep th e sco res down on the j apanes e and Ameri ca ns. Although the scores were lowe red non e of the FIG authorities did anyt hin g about it. All of the gymnasts and officials were billeted in the b est hotels located approximately si x mil es from th e competition site. Th erefore , each day we all board ed the bu s and I was able to see the gy mnasts and offi cia ls dail y. It is regretable that due to the distance, not very man y Engli sh spea kin g spectators attended the Gam es to Bulgari a. On Oct. 22nd , the men 's compu lsory competition started. Th e Am eri ca n m en were in th e first eve ning sess ion with the Ru ss ians and other top nations. This made it difficult to watch the Am eri ca ns as I wanted to see how well th e Ru ss ians were. We started with the vau ltin g and did well with Hug receiving the high es t sco re of 9.25. On the parallel bars, we again did we ll with no breaks. Howe ve r, go in g into th e high bar, our first three gymn as ts had poor dismounts and th e oth ers hopped. Hug again had th e hi ghes t score of 9.25. Floor exercise wa s one of our weak even ts . On th e side horse we lacked swing and Hug was at 9.0, ou r best scor e. I did not see much of the rings so am unab le to report on thi s. Our USA gi rl s rooted all the way for our boys . I would hear th em ca lling th e gymnas t name

GYMNAST Dec. 1974

forgot about th e USA Team until th ey we nt into th eir th ird even t w hich was the pommel horse. Actual lY, o ur me n did fa irl y we ll with no ma jor breaks toward our total team sco re. The y looked good and I eve n had t i me to film Way n e on th e pommel horse . The Japanese men that were in the last gro u p of the eve ning ju st did a magnificent perfo rm ance and eas il y won the Team Champ ionships. Kasamats u w ho acc umulated th e highest to tal sco res ave raged an 9.765 for his optiona ls. Our team ended up in eighth place whe n th e compet iti on end ed.


Steve Hug, USA


and USA, in unison, each tim e prior to the gymnasts exercise . Th e Russians had many bad breaks . Klimenko broke and th en fell off the sid e ho rse. The Japanese were in a class al l by themselves w ith two 9.8 's o n the parallels and hi gh bar. On O ct. 23rd, th e wo m en 's opt io nals began. Our women began o n the bea m. Carr and Dunbar lost balanc e and Anderson fe ll off. This was to b e our wo rst eve nt of the eve ning. Going in to the floor exe rcise D unbar hit and the crowd reall y enjoyed her routine and rece ived a 9.6 from t he judges. Rice fo ll owed and topping it w ith a 9.7. In the va ultin g, Ca rr did an

o utsta nding round-off piked somi and only rece ived a 9.4. The crowd booed and hissed for twe nt y minute s show in g dissatisfaction over the sco re. Protest was made b y the USA imm e diatel y, in wr i t in g. To ou r disappointment, th e sco re was not chan ged and the meet cont inu ed. On the ba rs Rice and Dunb ar had major breaks. When the co mpetition was over, the Russ ians won easil y fo ll owed by Ea st German y and the Romanians. We came in seventh. On Oct. 24th th e me n's o ptionals began. I was too excited to watc h the US men w hil e fi lming t he Ru ss ians, Hungarians and the Bulgarians who were do in g so we ll that I alm ost

INDIVIDUAL All AROUND FINALS MEN C&O Avg. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.

31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 38. 41. 45. 57.

Kasamatsu, S. JPN Andrianov , N. URS Kenmots u, H. JP N Haji ya ma , H. JP N Tsukahara , M. JPN Mikae lian, E. URS Thune , W . RDA Szajna , A. POL Ma rche nk o , V. URS Shamugia , O. URS Molnar , I. HUN Honma, F. JPN Safronov , V. URS Gie nger, E. RFA Magyar, Z. HU N Handsc hk e , R. RDA Moessinger, W. RFA Grecu , D. ROM Ro hn er, P. SU I Netusi l, M. TC H Jaege r, B. RDA Mack, L. RDA Donath , F. HUN Boe ri o, H. FRA Young, W. USA Hug, S. USA Grosze, O. RDA Jorek , E. RFA Bretsche r, R. SU I Spies, G. RFA Vock , A. SU I Kiss, I. HU N Ta nn en be rger, G. TCH Klotz , W. RD A Oprezcu, N. ROM Arnabo ld i, M. SU I Whelan, G. USA Whelan, J. USA Simmons, B. USA Ivicek, J. USA

GYMNAST Dec. 1974

58.050 57.475 57.250 56.900 57.050 56.875 57.100 56.675 56.750 56.225 56.325 55.900 55.625 55.825 55.900 55.500 55.350 55.800 55.500 55.275 56.450 55.275 55. 125 54.975 55.075 55.000 54.675 54.200 55.050 54.675 54.700 54.375 54.700 55.900 54.725 54.450 54.325 54.150 53.750 53.425


1. Japan UPN) 2. USSR (U RS) 3. East Germany (R DA ) 4. Hun gary (HUN) 5. West Germany (RFA) 6. Romania (R OM ) 7. Switzerland (S l "' 8. United States (USA) 9. Czechoslovak ia (TC H) 10. Poland (PO L) 11. France (FRA) 12. Bulga ria (BU L) 13. Yugoslavia (YUG) 14. Ita ly (ITA) 15. Great Britain (G BR ) 16. South Korea (COR ) 17. Canada (CAN) 18. Finland (FI N)

571 .40 567.35 562.40 552.80 552.65 547.25 547.10 547.10 546.65 545.65 540.25 535.55 527.10 525.55 507.35 506.70 504.25 427.80




57.450 115.500 57.900 11 5.375 57.500 11 4.750 57.750 114.650 57.550 114.600 57.300 114.175 56.900 114.000 57.050 113.725 56.950 113.700 57.150 113.375 56.550 112.875 56.700 112.600 56.950 112.575 56.150 111.975 55.850 111 .750 55.850 111.350 55.850 111.200 55.400 111.200 55.650 111.150 55.850 111.125 54.600 111.050 55.750 111.025 55.750 110.875 55.800 110.775 55.550 110.625 55.550 110.550 55.850 110.525 56.000 110.500 55.400 110.450 55.350 110.025 55.100 109.800 55.300 109.675 54.950 109.650 52.850 108.750 46.150 100.875 80.700 26.250

Free Exercise 1. Kasamatsu, S. JPN 2. Kajiyama , H. JP N 3. Kera nov, A. BUL 4. Marchenko , V. URS 5. Hand sc hk e , R. RDA 6. Mikae li an , E. URS Pommel Horse 1. Magyar, Z. HUN 2. Andr ia no v, N. URS 3. Ke nm otsu, H. JPN 4. Kasamatsu , S. JP N 5. Molnar, I. HUN 6. Thune , W. RDA Still Rings 1. Andrianov , N. URS 1. Grecu , D. ROM 3. Szajna, A. POL 4. Tsuk a hara , M. JP N' 5. Bors, M. ROM 6. Thun e , W . RDA Side Horse Vault 1. Ka sama tsu , S. JP N 2. And ria nov, N. URS 3. Hajiyama, H. JP 4. Szajna, A. POL 5. Kenmotsu , H. JPN 6. Molnar, I. H UN Parallel Bars 1. Kenmot su , H. JP N 2. Andria nov, N. URS 3. Marche nko, V. URS 4. Haji yama, H. JP 5. Jaege r, B. RDA 6. Thun e , W. RDA High Bar 1. Gienge r,E. RFA 2. Thun e , W. RDA 3. Kenmotsu , H. JP 3. Szajna , A. POL 5. Jaeger, B. RDA 6. Tsukahara , M. JPN

9.675 9.525 9.525 9.550 9.500 9.500

9.700 9.800 9.700 9.600 9.400 9.300

19.375 19.325 19.225 19.150 18.900 18.800

9.675 9.575 9.575 9.650 9.475 9.450

9.900 9.800 9.650 9.300 9.400 9.050

19.575 19.375 19.225 18.950 18.875 18.450

9.725 9.725 9.575 9.575 9.500 9.475

9.800 9.800 9.650 9.550 9.500 9.450

19.525 19.525 19.225 19.125 19.000 18.925

9.700 9.725 9.600 9.675 9.625 9.625

9.625 9.525 9.625 9.500 9.450 9.125

19.325 19.250 19.225 19.175 19.075 18.750

9.675 9.725 9.550 9.475 9.550 9.525

9.700 9.600 9.300 8.800 8.550 8. 100

19.375 19.325 18.850 18.275 18.100 17.625

9.650 9.700 9.575 9.625 9.600 9.750

9.850 9.750 9.700 9.650 9.650 9.150

19.500 19.450 19.275 19.275 19.250 18.900



Frank Endo: When was the final Japanese World Games Trials held and who made the men's team? Takas hi Ko nd o: O ur fin al tri als was held in Ju ly . K ~sa mat s u em erged as o ur b es t gymn as t to be represented in Va rn a. O th ers w ho made the tea m are Kenmo tsu, H o nma, Ts u ka hara, Kato, Kaji ya ma and Fujim o to as our altern ate. Endo: There are two new members that have not competed on any World or Olympic Games - namely Kajiyama and Fujimoto. How old are they and where are they from? Ko ndo : Kaji yama is 21 yea rs o f age and is pr esentl y a stud ent at N ihon Un ive rsity . H e is presentl y o ur co lleg iate champ io n. Fu j imoto is 24 yea rs o f age an d is pr esentl y empl oye d by th e Ki yo Ba nk . H e p laced 7th in the A ll-J apa n Na ti ona l Champio nshi p s. E: What kind of training have the teams gone through before arriving in Varna? K: We have had severa l tea m wo rko u ts in Japa n. H owever, p ri or to th e co m pe titi o n, we train ed fo r two wee ks i n Bu dapes t alo ng w ith o ne ex hibi t io n th ere. A t thi s tim e, all of o ur men and wo m en are i n good co nditio n. E: Do you expect any strong challenge? K: Th ere are seve ral good gy mn as ts b ut le t us wa it as good gymnas ts do brea k and fall u nde r p ress ure. . E: Did you have an FIG meeting to make any changes in the rules, etc.? K: No mee tin g was held . E: Then, when will the new Code of Points be made available and how long will it be good for? K: It w ill be ava il abl e i n th e o fficial langua ge of French late in 197 5. Th e En gli sh sp eak ing countri es w ill th en translate it for th eir gro up. So it will p ro babl Y n o t b e until ea rl y in 1976 w hen yo ur country rece ives th em . E: During the recent Asian Games that you attended, the Japanese men's team lost to the Chinese. Are the Chinese really that strong? , K : Our first tea m was prepa rin g fo r th e Wo rl d Games so o ur seco nd tea m we n t. We had an injury so no ne of o ur gy mn asts co ul d affo rd a mi stake. However, we we re surp ri sed to n o te th at th e Chi nese make very few b rea ks. We take more ri sks so we have to be ve ry ca reful. E: Do the Chinese receive any gymnastic aids from the Russians or any other country? K : I do no t beli eve so. Prev io uslY, th e Ru ss ians di d t ra in th em. Now th ey are travelin g to m any co untri es and are lea rnin g a great deal. Sin ce th eir bo d y stru cture is practi ca ll y th e sa m e as th e japanese, I wo ul d say th at th ey co ul d beco me a wo rl d p owe r in th e nea r fu tur e. E: If they compete now in a World Games, how strong would you say they would be?


K: They are good gymnasts . Th e me ns team cou ld p r oba bl y be t he fo u rth bes t. E: Since th ey are not a member of th e FIG, will they be able to become a member so that they can compete in th e World and Olympic Games? K: Taiwan is p rese n t ly th e mem ber and o nl y o ne Chin a is recog ni zed at t hi s tim e. Since thi s is a po liti ca l matter, it is best th at we wait and see. E: Why is it that so many good Japanese men and women gymnasts leave Japan after graduating college? K: Coachi ng pos iti o ns are lim it ed b u t sin ce we have ma ny good gymnast s, . many ta ke t he adva nt ag e o f hi gh er ed uca ti o n along w ith th eir gym nas ti c expe rie nce and travel ab road. W h ile th ere, t hey receive coac hin g posit io ns. E: What do you think of holding the n ext World Gymna stics Championships in Japan? K: We ce rt ain lY wo ul d li ke to hos t it. H oweve r, th e co untri es pa rti cipat ing are mos tl y fro m Europe. It wo ul d cost t hem too m u ch m o ney to make suc h a tri p . The st ro nger co untries wo uld come b ut many o f t he wea ker tea ms wo ul d no t pa rti cipat e. W e have thought of t hi s bu t have no pl ans in th e nea r fut ur e. E: Can you add anythin g that you would like to add in closing? K : Yes . We have wo n fo ur Ol ym p ics as far as th e men 's team is concerned. If we win t hi s Wo rld Ga m e, it w ill be o ur fou rth also . Th is w ill be an int ern ati o nal reco rd . We mu st w in ! Ke nmo tsu won th e A ll- A r o und in th e last World Games. W e are ho pin g th at o ne o f ou r gymnas ts w ill aga in w i n t hi s titl e as we ha ve a very strong team .

Mr. Takashi Kondo (l e ft) g reets Mr. Frank Endo


An Appraisal of the Girls' Performance by Minot Simons II Sh o rtl y b efo re left fo r Varn a, Bud Ma rqu ett e tal ked ab o ut th e girl s' poss ibiliti es and sa id we ' d be lu cky if we pl aced ninth . Well, I guess we we re lucky in a back-h and ed so rt of way : we pl aced seve nth. Th e bitt ern ess and fru strati o n still remain , h oweve r, be cau se, of co urse, we sho ul d have pl aced third . It was ano the r lesso n in p ol iti ca l sports but thi s tim e it w as mu ch wo rse. W e suffered fro m prejudice d judgi ng in M uni ch w here we pl aced fo u rth ; at Va rn a we suffered fro m an o p en an d b latant ex ercise of raw p owe r an d we dro pp ed three pla ces. It was not all bad news, however. Th e Eight eenth W o rld Champion ships o f Gymnas ti cs held O ctob er 20th through 27th in t he G o lden Sand s reso rt ar ea o n th e Bl ack Sea coast ju st west of Varna , Bulgari a, was th e first tim e since th e Ol Ympi cs th at th e Ameri ca n girl s had co nfro nted th e Soviets, th e East Germans , and oth ers in a m ajor international comp etition . It was an oppo rtunit y to appraise wh at has happened sin ce M uni ch and to gain an unde rstanding of w hat is likel y to happen in M o ntrea l. Th e o rd er o f eve nts o f th e meet was as fo llo ws : th e m ee t las ted seve n days, eight if you inclu de t he n ig ht o f t he o penin g ce r emo nies. Days on e and two we re fo r compul sory exercises, wome n and m en. Days three and fo ur we re fo r o p tio nal exercises, wo m en and men. Days fi ve and six we re fo r opti o nal exe rcises fo r th e to p thirty -six co mp et ito rs, wo men and men. Th e seventh day, or rath er eve nin g, wa s rese rved fo r th e in d ivid u al eve nt f ian li sts, ~ i x wome n an d six m en for each eve nt. Th e t ea m titl e was decid ed aft er th e third da y fo r wo men and th e fo urth d ay fo r men. Th e allaro un d in d ivid ual tit le was decided alter th e filth day for wo men and th e sixth d ay for men . A nd th e ind iv id ual eve nt ti t les we re decid ed on th e seve nth day fo r bo th wo m en and m en . Th e . cl os in g ce rem o ni es and special aw ard s we re on t he seventh day. GYMNAST Dec. 1974


It was not possible, of co urse, to see everything. The American gir ls were always on at the same time as the East Germans and the West Germans. So in mentally pulling for the American girls, one cou ldn 't do more than catch a glimpse of the Ge rm ans. Sim il arly, during the top thirty-six competition , the American girl s were always performing at th e same time. Consequently, it was like watching ping-pong to trY to observe, for examp le, Diane Dunbar o n beam , j oan Rice on floor, and j an ette Anderson o n bars all at the same time. However, ce rtain co nclusions we re evident. 1. The Soviet girls are sti ll far and away the best. Ludmill a Tourishcheva and Olga Korbut are number o ne and number two and they continue to fight th eir own private battle. They are appa rently good friends but Olga wants so desperately to be number one that it cannot help but create a st rain. To the American team, it appeared she was up aga in st the same pre-

On the unevens, both Ludmilla and Olga had to bow to Annelore Zinke of East Germany. At 5'1 ", 961bs, this 15 year old girl from Berlin was the charmer of the finals.


second vau lt was a half turn followed by a back somie which she missed. It is hard to co nceive of Ludmilla 's getting an 8.6 in anyth in g but that was w hat she got and wit h a 9.6 average, placed second. Actuall Y, Olga would probab ly ha ve won even if Lud milla had not stumbl ed but h er fault clinched it for Olga. During clos in g ceremonies , Ol ga r eceived a special awa rd for her vau ltin g. A greater in crease in difficult y in comparison to Munich was observed in vau lting th an in th e oth er events. Thi s was und oubted ly due to the downgrading in difficulty of the ya ma shita from 10.0 to 9.7 and to the requirement that optional vau lt s inc lude a turn. Most of the路finals vaults, other than those of Olg a Korbut, were hand spring full turn , yamas hita fu ll turn , or half turn back so mi e. 3. On the unevens, both Ludmilla and Olga had to bow to Anne lore Zinke of East Germany. At 5'1", 96 Ibs, this 15 yea r old gi rl from Berlin was the charmer of the fina ls. H er figure is reminiscent of Karin j anz; her face and smile, of Audrey Hepburn. She won 9.9 in the fina ls and a special awa rd for the difficulty of her routine. H ere, thanks to the photographic memories of Debbie Fike and Barbie Myslak are both routines:


Zi nk e: mount front som ie over low bar, catch high bar, half turn , drop, g lid e kip double shoot, kip to high bar, squat on high bar, Korbut back sam ie, eagle catc h full turn catch, drop glide double leg shoot, kip cast handsta nd, half t urn b ea t front somie between th e bars, long hang kip cast he cht dismount, feet together. Olga 's routine was virtuall y the same one she used at Munich, during her 1973 U.S. tour, and at Expo: kip ca tch, k ip to high bar, stoop on fron t sa le ci rcle to back som ie regrasp high bar, wrap to eag le, drop double leg shoo t, kip to hi gh bar, stoop throu gh, drop forwa rd roll to low bar, cas t hand stand on low bar, layover hi gh bar, frOllt roll , st raight body cas t hand stand on hi gh bar, half turn , stomach w hip on low bar, stoop ove r, k ip stoop back sa le circle, back som ie .off, lay -out positi o n. There was cons id erable discussion among the American girl s as to whic h is the more difficult. Olga won a 9.8 and placed second. I leave it to the reader to decide hi s or her own opin ion. In any case, Zinke is a girl to be reckoned w ith . It will be exciti ng to see how she has developed by Montreal when she wil l be all of 17. Lu cky Penn Staters w ill see her in

arranged judging as we were. It was as though the judges had decided Ludmill a w ill be champ ion but th at we ' ll throw Olga a bo ne. Thi s is hard for me to say because I am an ardent fan also of Ludmill a. Neverthe less, in fairness to Olga I think it shou ld be sa id . 2. Olga won vaulting finals with a superb demonstration of ski ll and trainin g. Her first va ult in clud ed a full turn in pre-flight with a back somersault off; her second vault in cluded a full turn in pre-flight with a full turn off. Both va ults were faultlessly executed and she earned 9.85. Ludmilla 's first va ult was a handsprin g followed by a full turn and won her a 9.5; her

GYMNAST Dec. 1974

Olga Korbut, USSR


D ecember 1975 when th e Eas t Germ ans are slated to co m e th ere. 4. Al l t he o th er Sov iet girls - Tou ri shcheva , Saa di , Sikh arulid ze, Dr o nova , and Kim empl oyed o ne and a half tur ns d urin g t heir ba rs ro utin es. In fact, Touri shcheva used two o ne and a half tu rns. 5. Th ere we re n o startling n ew tech n ica l d eve lo pm ents o n bea m . My prin cip al recoll ectio n of bea m is th at it was an event in w hi ch o ur gi rl s we re gross lY und ersco red . Ou r average during co m pu lso ri es was 8.90; during option als it was 8.85. joan Ri ce, our hi ghe st score r, received 9. 2 in optio n als fo r a superb rou ti ne o n w hi ch at A naheim sh e got 9.55. Thi s 0.35 di sparity was typ ica l of o ur t rea tme nt thro u gh o ut t he m ee t. (M ore on judging late r). 6. It was perh aps in f loo r exe rcises th at th e Sovi ets m ost viv idl y d emon strated their superi o rity. M ost n ot iceab ly t hi s occurred during th e fir st nigh t's co mpul so ri es . Co mpulsori es are ge nerall y not known fo r th eir exc itement; thi s is r eserved for o pti o nals. H ow eve r, to m e the most elect ri fy in g moment s of th e w ho le mee t occ urred during t h e Sov iets'


Diane Rice ... Janette Dunbar, ... and outdid Anderson ... themselves and were well received. co mp u lso rY floo r exe rcise . Th ese girl s were on fire. Th eir m otio ns were d azz ling, in tense. Perh aps it was t h e element of ,urpri se t hat most affect ed m e; but w hatever it was, I had no argum ent w ith t heir scores: th e Soviets ave ra ged 9.7. Th e nea rest co m pe tito rs, th e East Germ ans, averaged 9.3. If yo u have a chance to see m ov ies ·o f th e meet try to see th e co mpul so ry f loo r exe rc ises; t he o pti o nals, of co urse, yo u w ill see d urin g t h eir U.S. to u r. 7. In o pti o nal fl oo r exercise, I wo ul d not have b een so ge nero us. In fin als, th e Sov iets swe pt th e field , tak ing t he fir st five pl aces. An gelika H ellmann of East Ge rmany p laced sixt h. A ft er I had wa tc hed t he fin als, I co ul d n o t help thinkin g th at j oa n Ri ce wo uld have p laced third , fo u rt h, o r f ift h if she ha d had th e chan ce. Wh y she d id not have t he chance is exp lai ned later. In fa irn ess, I wo uld li ke to say t hat O lga • Korbu t' s ro uti ne is as ca pti vat ing and d ifficult as ever; she pl aced seco nd w ith 9.8. Lu d mill a wo n fin als w ith a 9.9. Ludmill a surpri sed us in th ird ni ght o pti onals and th e co mp etiti o n o f th e to p thirty-six girl s w ith two se parate ro ut ines - o n e ·to jazz and th e second to a cl ass ica l pi ece, th e fir st m ove ment o f Tc haik ovs kY's First Pi ano Con ce rto . At a press co nferen ce she sa id she had still ano the r ro ut ine but wo uld rep eat her third ni ght's routin e durin g fin als beca use it had been so we ll rece ived. Lu d mill a sa id she th o ught a gy mn ast sho uld be ab le to p erfo rm more t han o ne ro utine. The So vi et ro utin es durin g fin als we re all simil ar in style - se t to m ode rn or Sp an ish m usic th at enab led t hem to u se m o d ern d ance rath er th an class ica l eleme nts. A ngeli ka H ellmann was th e o nl y finali st to u se cl assica l mu sic. Th e A merica n girl s received th ei r best sco res in flo o r exercise. Durin g th e co m pe ti t io n o f th e top t hi rty-six, j oan Rice rece ive d 9.6, Di ane Dunbar 9.55, and Janett e A nde rson 9.40. A ll three girl s o utd id th emselves and we re we ll rece ived . In parti c ular, th e aud ience was turn ed o n by D iane D u nbar 's d eli ghtfu l, p laYful 18

thin k th ey were all a bit dem o rali zed fro m th e grossly u nfai r j u dg ing of t he fi rst n ight's co m pu lso ri es. Th en th e re we re th e we ll orga n ized , lo ud , and lu sty ch ee rin g sect io n s o f t he East and Wes t Ge rma ns, w ho se tea ms were on at the same time as t he Amer icans . It was not so effec ti ve d uri ng floo r exercise w hen o u r girl s had t he be nefit of Art Maddox 's p laY in g to sustain th em . H ow eve r, in o th er eve nt s, o u r gi rl s cou ld be in t he III id st of a ro uti ne and al l of a sudde n a deafe ning sho ut wo ul d go u p aso ne of t he Ge rm ans fi ni shed an even t. This is all part of th e ga me, of co urse, and is pa r t of t he season i ng p r ocess of in te rn ationa l co mp etiti o n. On th e o t her hand , th e d oze n o r so A meri ca ns pr ese nt co uld hardl y lend mu ch suppo rt and I thin k o ur girls mu st have felt ve ry mu ch alo ne. In fa irness to o ur good fr iend s t he West Germans, I sh o uld say th at th ey appr eciated th e un fa irn ess of t hi s sit u ati o n and th e grossly unfair jud gin g we had been subjected to . Co nse quentl y, th ey bega n to cheer for us w heneve r th ey co uld. Th e Sov iets, w ho ca m e o n in th e next gro up, had t h e lo ud est cheeri ng sec tion o f all. Eve ry tim e a Sov iet man o r girl fini shed an eve nt, Ludmilla Turish c heva, USSR

ro ut ine, abo ut w hich I have w ritten befo re, ana we re all clappin g in rh ythm . I' m sure if h er na me had b een D unbarova, he r 9.55 wou ld have bee n 9.85. A ll o ur girl s did we ll d uri ng opt io n al floo r exe rc·i se o n t he third , o r op ti o nals day of wo men's co m peti ti o n. j oa n was tops aga in wit h 9.7, Di ane received 9.6, j an ett e A nderso n 9.55, and th e ove rall average was 9.51. We we re firs t up on f lo or and see in g th ese sco res, I t ho ugh t we we re fina ll y off to th e races . However, the nex t eve nt was bars and we ran in to th e sa me sto ne wa ll of harsh ju d gi ng t hat we had had on M o nday ni ght, th e ni g ht of th e co mpul sories. Ou r average was 8.91. D eb b ie Fi ke was awa rd ed a 9.05 fo r a ro u tin e w h ich she herse lf described as t he bes t she'd ever don e. U.S. Na ti o nal Tea m coac h M uri el Grossfe ld sa id she had had no breaks. W here o u r girl s may no t have don e th eir best, th ere we re ot her elements in vo lved besides rough j ud gin g. I

loan Rice, USA

GYMNAST Dec. 1974

countr ies or the Sov iet Union. It was a simple matter for these judges to boost the commun ist countries and to knock down those that posed a threat. And make no mistake about it: the United States is rega rded as a definite threat to their hegemon y of gymnastics. Consider this one example: During the floor exerc is e of the thirty-six, both Joan Rice and Nina Dronova of the Soviet Union scored 9.7 . Their averages from the

there would be a great shout and yo un g men wou ld stand, waving red flags and chant ing : "Go, SovYETT! Go, SovYETT! Go, SovYETT ! Go, SovYETT! " What effect this had upon the judging is hard to say but it certa inl y made the Soviet girls feel at home. Time now to talk about judgin g. Judging Th e judging at the Eighteenth World Championships at Varna will , I think , be remembered as the worst the United St ates ha s ever suffered. We were ca ught betwee n the solidarity of the commu ni st co untri es and the determination of Madame Nagy to see to it that Hun gary won the third spot. We had no counter-plan of our own ; we were li ke lambs led to the slaughter. Madame Nagy' s determinat ion on behalf of the Hu ngarian team was evide nt whenever that team was on the floor. As President of th e Women ' s Technical Committee of the F.I.G., she was senior judge present on the floor and was in te lephone communication with all her judges. Frequent phone ca ll s were especiall y

An impartial audience consisting largely of Bulgarians, other East Europeans, and West Europeans began an immediate protest. Whistling was almost instantaneous;

TEAM FINALS WOMEN Team 1. 2. 3. 4.

Ludmilla Turishcheva. USSR


noticeab le during Hungari an performances and more than one sco re wa s se en to ha ve been raised. Looking at the li st of judges, one co uld see that of the four judges for each event, in almo st every case, two were from the east ern block INDIVIDUAL EVENT FINALS WOMEN


C&O Avg. Finals TOTAL

Korbut , O. URS Tau ri shc heva , l. URS Pe rd ykulo va, B. TC H Goreac, A. RO M He llma nn, A. RDA Siharu li dze, R. URS

9.600 9.700 9.475 9.475 9.450 9.450

9.850 9.500 9.600 9.550 9.400 9.450

19.450 19.200 19.075 19.025 18.850 17.900

UNEVEN PARALLEL BARS 1. Zink e, A. RDA 2. Korbut, O . URS 3. To uri shc he va, l . URS 4. Hellmann , A. RDA 5. Schm e isse r, R. RDA 6. Medved skY, R. HUN

9.750 9.775 9.700 9.650 9.600 9.550

9.900 9.800 9.800 9.700 9.650 9.500

19.650 19.575 19.500 19.350 19.i 50 19.050

BEAM 1. Tour ishc heva, l. URS 2. Korbut, 0 1. URS 3. Kim , N. URS 4. Dron ova, N. URS 5. Goreac, A. ROM 6. He llma nn , A. RD A

9.875 9.725 9.450 9.500 9.350 9.525

9.850 9.800 9.750 9.600 9.550 9.100

19.725 19.525 19.200 19.100 18.900 18.625

FLOOR EXERCISE 1. Touri shc heva, l. URS 2. Korbut , O. URS 3. Siha rulid ze, R. URS 3. Saadi , E. URS 5. Dro nova , N. URS 6. He ll man , A. RDA

9.875 9.800 9.750 9.750 9.575 9.600

9.900 9.800 9.800 9.800 9.700 9.600

19.775 19.600 19.550 19.550 19.275 19.200

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

GYMNAST Dec. 1974

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11 . 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.


USS R (URS) East Germany (R DA ) Hun gary (HU N) Roma nia (ROM ) Czec hoslovak ia (TCH ) Japan (lPN) United States (USA) West G e rm any (RF A) Bulga ria (BUl ) Poland (Pal) Canada (CAN) Ho lland (HaL) Ita ly (ITA) France (FRA) Switze rland (SU I) Norway (N OR ) Grea t Brit ain (GBR) Yugoslavia (YUG) Be lgium (BEL ) Spain (ESP) Austra lia (AUS) Swede n (SUE)

384.15 376.55 370.60 369.30 368.45 362.90 362.50 361.00 354.90 353.65 351.25 347.65 344.55 343.80 343.05 340.10 337.95 336.05 335.20 328.00 327.50 325.45

EIGHTEENTH WORLD GAMES CHAMPIONSHIPS VARNA, BULGARIA WOMEN INDIVIDUAL FINALS C&O Avg. Touri shc heva, l . URS Korbut , O. URS He llmann, A. RDA Saadi , E. URS Siha ruli dz e l. URS Zin ke, A. RDA Dronova, N. URS Go reac, A. ROM Sch mei sser, R. RDA Medvedsk y, K. HU Ro e hri ch, B. RD A G ri go ras, A. ROM Ge ri sc h, .H. RDA Abel , I. RDA Knopova , J. TCH Dob re , A. ROM Nagy, Z. HUN Rice, J. USA Dornakova, Z. TCH Egervari HU Smo li kova , D. TC H Csaszar, M . HU Schorn , U. RFA 23. 24. Matula i, Z. HUN 25 . Hayas hi da , F. JPN 26. Dunbar, D. USA 27. Perdykulova, B. TCH 28. Yabe, N. )rN 29. Ca mpe lea , E. ROM 30. So u kupova, V. TCH 31. Ba nfai , A. HU 32. Sabu, R. ROM 33. Buj nackova , Z. TCH 34. lo n, P. ROM 35. Anderson, J. USA 36. Matsuhi sa, M. JP 41. Fike, D. USA 42. Howard, K. USA 48. Carr,A. USA 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11 . 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.



39.150 39.300 78.450 38.900 38.750 77.650 38.225 38.225 76.875 37.875 38.550 76.425 37.850 38.550 76.400 37.7 25 38.600 76.325 37. 775 38.350 76.125 37.625 38.300 75.925 37.475 38. 050 75.525 37.525 37.950 75.475 37.300 38. 150 75.450 37.325 37.800 75.125 37.025 37.900 74.925 37.025 37. 150 74.175 36.725 37.450 74.175 36.300 37.850 74.150 36.950 37.200 74.150 36.225 37.900 74.125 37.275 36.800 74.075 36.625 37.450 74.075 36.725 37.250 73.975 37.375 36.450 73.825 36.525 )7.050 73.575 36.575 37.000 73.575 36.175 37.300 73.475 36.200 37.250 73.450 36.350 37.050 73.400 36.300 37.050 73.350 36.475 36.850 73.325 36.500 36.700 73.200 36:325 36.800 73.125 36.225 36.250 72.475 36.375 35.900 72.275 36.350 35.300 71.650 36.150 35.350 71.500 36.225 27.350 63.575 36.025 35.950 35.575



* BULS " ;S

lA D


. . ---I路HSU

Olga Korbut, USSR

previous nights' compet itio ns were also the same. Consequently they were tied and it happened that they were tied at sixt h pl ace. Thi s would ha ve admitted Joan ie to th e finals of the floor exercise on the last night. Madame Demid enko of th e Sov iet Un ion, th e Superio r Ju dge, actua ll y ca ll ed one of the judges over and instructed her to ra ise Dronova 's sco re. Thi s was done. Dronova placed sixth in fl oo r and Joan ie, seve nth ; she was, th erefo re, knock ed out of the fina ls. Our own judge, D elene Darst, was one of th e floor exe rcise judge s and so w itn essed thi s who le proceed ing. We all had our chance loud ly and strong ly to protest th e judging of the American gi rl s during the optiona l va ulting. Ann Carr performed a beautiful va ult which includ ed a half turn on with a back somie off. It was perfectly executed and all of us expected her to get a 9.7 or a 9.8. She got a 9.4. This was the straw that broke the 路 came l' s ba ck. An impartial audience consisting largelY of Bulgari ans, other East Europeans, and West Europeans having for two da ys witn essed the outrageous scores being given the Amer ica n gi rl s, began an immed iate protest. Whistling was alm ost in stantaneo us; this was short ly followed by


loud booing; and then by rh ythmic clapping of hand s. Thus bega n a demonstration that went on for twenty minutes and brought the m ee t to a standstill. A Czech girl tri ed to begin herfloor exe rcise but was shouted down and had to quit becau se she co uldn ' t hear the music. Muriel Grossfeld played th e demonstration for all it was worth and resolute ly refused to let Diane Dunbar, our nex t va ulter, do her vau lt in spite of the vigoro us urging of Madame Nagy who had come to h er after a confe rence with the judge s. Muri el coo lly and calmly sa id there was just too much noi se and besid es the judging matter had not been resol ved. I must say I was bursting with pride to see her standing up to all the press ure th at was being brought to bear on her. It was h ea rtwarming to see the concert of action between coac h and spectato rs in this emotional outpo uring of protest against out rageous judging. In the end the me e t co ntinu ed. The sco re was not altered and it was so me time before the place becam e quiet aga in . It was really the culmination of damage that had been largelY done Monday night. The strategy had obv iously been to hit the American s hard right off the bat so they would quick'l y cease to be a threat.

Readers of "Gymnast" magazine are too well awa re of the situation for me to prolong a repetition of th e fact that we do not get a fair shake in major inte rnational compe titi ons. It is necessary to emphasize, however, because we need to be remind ed th at we are not go ing to do well at Montrea l mere ly by se nding a topnotch team w hic h then performs - in topnotch fash ion. We cou ld st ill be seve nth . Thi s bu sin ess of int ern ati o nal athletic compe tition is not simpl y ath let ics on a grander scale. For the comm uni sts it is a deadly se ri o us business whic h for athletes, coaches, and officals decides w hether they con tinue to receive th eir pa y and privil eges . Consequently, they not on ly do their b es t but also bring to bear on jud ges and officials all the influen ce they can. One thing we need, I think , is a broader basis of suppo rt. Instead of being a t ea m of gym nasts sent to a competition b y a hardworking but small gy mn astic federation , we sho uld ha ve at least the vocal support of a considerable se gm ent of the Federal Government. And the comm uni sts should kn ow about it too. The personal presence of Members of Congress would be ext remely beneficial. It is an unfortunate co inc idence that the Olympi cs and the World Championships take place right in th e mid st of elec tion s. Ju st th e sa me, their support cou ld help and gain in g that suppo rt is someth in g that can be undertaken by anyone and everyone in our fifty states. A few words to Soviet Ambassador Anato ly Dobrynin by a senior Senator would not do any harm at all. After all, when th e Soviet teams co mpete, th ey have the backing of the entire Soviet government. This ed itoria li zin g is app ropri ate , I think, because we must realize first that we cannot go on as we are and seco nd that a contest like Varna severe ly damages the morale of our girls. The girls who went to Varna had spent from a third to a half (for Joan Rice and Janette And erson) of their young li ves preparing for this event. They came away wondering whether it had all been worth it. The girls we send to Montreal wi ll come away feeling th e same way unless we undert ake a strategy of winning that goes beyond the selection and training of athletes. There is so me enco uragement in the fact that everyone knew w hat was going on at Varna. West German correspondents filed stories describing the judgin g against the Am eri cans as scandalous. And , of co urse, there was friendship among the gymnasts themselves. At th e official party ce lebrati ng the final night , one tended to forget about the judging in watching , for example, attractive .Janette Anderson dancing with Greek god- like Niko lai Andreanov. What about the future - the 1976 OlYmpics at Montreal , the 1978 World Championships, and of co urse the 1980 Olympics in Moscow? Something is going to have to be done and it will take th e clearest thinking of all of us to reverse th e process . ~ GYMNAST Dec. 1974

Action Photos from




OlOP x PIIlC18A ,

~ ,.




iii 00




v .'"c:



prese nt s

o ~

Mrs. Renee P. Hendershott 17605 Fries Avenue Lal.ewood, Ohio 44107

S.*New penalties for


fIG Code of p(Jints '71f75 Rules


Rules as they stand fo r all under - National Class I, II and III meets *Some of the ru Ie changes in the right hand col umn are also effecti ve fo r lower levels. Th ey are marked'

Changes in FIG Code of Points effective for all Elite and national competitions during 1974-1975 ( Fr om Septemb e r 20th bulletin put out by Mrs. Jackie Fie , USGFWTC Cha irman)

V(Ju/t 1. " Class I, II, III wi ll continue to use th e lower level FIG va ults ma in tain ing their sa m e va lue. " (USG F-WTC June 1st meeting)

2. Use old va lues for these vaults: Handspring 10 .00 points Yamashita 10.00 points Giant cartwhee l 9.80 points 3. No special rul es for vau lting finals Meets at under-national levels do not have "Finals" as a rule.

Changes 1. The fo l lowing va ult s have bee n eliminat ed: #1 - Str add l e (hori zo nt al) #2 - Layout Squat #3 - Layout Stradd le #4 - Stoop (horizontal ) #5 - Layout Stoop #8 - Hi gh Fr o nt through Handstand #14 - H and stand V, turn 2. New Scori ng of va ult s: Handspring 9.70 point s Yamashita 9.70 point s Giant Cartwheel 9.70 point s 3. Presc riptions for va ultin g final s: a. Two different va ult s performed by each gymna st. b . On e of the vaul ts mu st includ e a lengthw ise or crossw ise turn . c. Th e va ult s may be of the same kind , one simp le, the ot her wi th a turn. d. It is permi ss ible to

exec ut e


va ult s

w ith turn s, but in thi s case th e turn s mu st be different.

GYMNAST Dec. 1974

o nl y

turn out

12. Yamashita

one ,

13. Yama shita with \I}

there wi ll be a penalty of 1 point o n th e mark awarded. 4.• Tea m - Of the 12 vau lt s exec ut ed by each team n o more than 6 ma y be th e same. Th e penalt y is 0.3 '-or each va ult in excess of 6. 5. *Ne \v penalties for landings: (vaultin g,

4.* Team Use new ru Ie listed on right. ...

news 'n notes


6. Giant Cartwhee l w ith V, turn out 7. Gia nt Ca rt w hee l w ith fu ll turn out 8. Hand spr ing 9. Yl turn into hand stand w ith \I, turn out (\1, - \1, ) 10. Hand spring w ith full turn out 11 . Yl turn into hand stand w ith fu ll

e. If gymna st execut es two simpl e vault s J nd one turn is la cking , th e better vault wi ll b e subj ect to a penalt y of 1 point. f. Scor in g is appli ed to th e two va ult s. Th e bett er exec uted one co unt s. g. The gymnast is ex pected to pe "form two vault s. If she


turn out 4. Yama shita w ith iull turn o ul 15. Giant Ca rt w hee l w ith Jj., turn off 16. Hand spring wi th l V, forward tu ck somersa ult out 17. Handspring w ith l V, fo rwa rd p iked so m ersault o ut 18 . V.1 t llrn inl O hand stand w it h 1 \I, b ackwa r d tuck somersault out 19. \I, turn into hand stand wit h 1 \I, ba c kw ard piked so m ersault o ut 20. V, turn into handstand with l Yl back ward streteched somersault out 21. Giant Cartwhee l wi th 1 y, ba ckward tuck so m ersa ult out wi th \I,

f loor exe rc i se, b ea m ,

Use new rule s list ed on rr ght

bars) a. Fall o n th e buttocks 1.00 poi nt b. Di stin ct support with on e o r two hands. 1.00 c. Tou ching the floor w ith o ne or two hands. 0.50 po int d. Fall on the knees 0.50 point e . Tou c hing th e apparatu s with the bod y after landing on the floor. 0.50 f. Th e same mi stake s co mmitt ed durin g th e floor exerc ise will be



turn inward

p e nali zed in th e sa m e mann e r.

6. Use old vault numbers as found on pages 12 to 18 in FIG Code of Points but remember to use th e 10.00 value fo r th e handspring va ult.

6. New Tabl e of Va ult s 1. Hec ht va ult 2. H echt Vault with a full turn 3. Giant Cartwheel 4. Giant Cartwhee l 1;4 turn out 5. Handstand w ith \I, pi vot turn to Cartwhee l o ut.


22. G iant Cartwheel wi th 1 V} backward piked so mersault out with 14 turn in wa rd 23. Giant Ca rt w heel with 1 \I, side tuck somersau lt o ut 24. Giant Ca rt w heel wit h 1 V, side piked some rsa ult out 25. handspring w ith full turn to optional second flight 26. 1 V, forward tuck somersault to hand stand w ith optional second ili g ht

New score requirements for USGF age group program Approved at June 1st Meeting USGF-WTC MEET Class III



No ne




Compul so ry 6.00 A ll-Around 24.00

No compe tition at thi s leve l

No com pet ition at thi s leve l

The mandate score for moving to Class 11... Class II



Compul so ry 6.00 All -Around 24.00 Optional 6.00 A ll-Around 24.00

m andate sco re for

Class I


moving to Class

Compulsory 7.00 A ll-Around 28.00 Optiona l 7.00 All-A round 28.00

Compulsory 7.50 I AA 30.00

Compu lso ry 6.50 All-Around 26.00 Optiona l 6.50 All-Around 26.00

No compet iti o n at thi s leve l

No co mpetiti o n at thi s leve l

I. .. Compulsory 8.00 I AA 32.00 Optional 7.00 I AA 28.00 Compu lso ry 7.50 A ll-A rou nd 30.00 Optional 7.50 A ll-Arou nd 30.00

• Or a minimum fl a t lowe r than 31.00 total in compulsori es and 31.00 total in op tional s w ith a co mbin ed AA tota l not less than 64.00.

'Co mpul sory 8.00 A ll -Around 32.00 Opti o nal 8.00 A ll -Around 32.00

"Comp 8.30 A A 32.20 Op t 8.30 A A 33.20

·'·Or a minimum Ilot lowe r th a ll 32.00 total in co mpul sories and 32.00 in Option als w ith a co mbined AA total no t less than 66.40.


are both in #8, and aeria l cartwhee ls are in #7. )

8(/IS Rules 1. Has been an anyway. Nothing new. 2. Does not apply


2 stops are sti ll allowed before very difficult moves. 4. Old rule still in effect : Dismount not character ist ic of bars (ie ., standing back saltos off) penalty ... 0.5 point

5. Still a superior


Was anywa y. An example would be: Glide on LB (faci ng in) to sq uat on LB , grasp the HB and jump to straight bodY position, come down and beat on LB and rise to a fu ll ,turn, reg rasp H B. 7. Superior


Refer to USGF Judging G uide for chan ges in difficu lty since publication of the 1970 FIG Code of Points

See Page 31 in USGF Judging Gu ide. Nothing is actuallY sa id about what to doH Yo u see t wo super iors in a seri es. It exp lai ns only abou t the combinat ion of two medium s without a pause being a superior move on beam. Also see top of page 34 in guide. It ta lks abo ut th e co mbinat ion of mediums and a superio r in a pass as being called o n e superior in the upper levels. (FX)


Series com posed of ele ment s from diffe r ent structure gro u ps w ill ha ve a va lu e of tWO superior difficult ies. (So .. acco rdihg to the expla nat ion from Mrs. Fie.. if a gi rl did a ro un doff back handspring back fl ip wit h a hal f twist to an ae ri al front walko ver, she wo ul d be credit ed w ith two superior difficulties.)

Changes 1. H ec ht jump from the lower bar wi th turn is a super ior difficultY. 2. Dismount fro m the com pul so ry exe rcise, executed w ithout thi gh repulsion ( actuall y ha nd repulsion) and upward fli ght : Penalt y.. up to 0.5 poin t

3. N o StOP is permilled during the exercise: penalt Y... 0.2 po int 4. D ismount w ith pu sh off from feet (sallO), starting from a strai gh t o r crouched vertical pos iti on are not tolerat ed . penaltY ... 0.4 point 5. From a straig ht o r crouched positio n on th e lo w ba r to establishment of a hand stand position on th e hi g h ba r is to be co n sidered as m edium d iff ic ult y. 6. From a straig ht or crouch ed pos ition on the low bar, us ing a second sw ing or sprin g to cont inu e the exercise is co nsidered to be as inter m e dite sw ing . Penalt y .. 0 .5 7. Di smount - fron t ';, sole circl e to back som ie is a med ium d ifficult Y 8. A ll ot h er movement s 'rema in as in pr ese nt Code , incl ud ing LB hand stand s as supe rior s. (Ed. , Refer to USGF Judg in g Guide for changes in d i fficult Y si nce publi cat ion of th e 1970 FIG Code of Point s.)

SERIES DEFI N ITI ON (for app lica ti on to bars, bea m , and floor) A"se ri es" is the tota l of all e leme nt s executed in cont inuity. The se rie s ca n be "s impl e", w hen th e r epetit ion is of on e element on ly. Th e se rre s is " compos it e", w hen the eleme nts w hi ch form one "se ne s diffe r from eac h other. (Ed. I asked Mrs. Fie about w hat makes eleme nt s "d iffe r. " She said that th ey are elem ent s from the different ca tegori es number ed in the Code ... exa mpl e: back fl ip s are in #11 in floo r ex and fro nt fli ps and aeria l fro n t walko vers

This is nothing new ..... pg 15 in Guide.

Sim ple se ri es co m psoed of elemen ts from th e same stru ct ure group wi ll ha ve a va lu e of on ly one superior d ifficu lt y.

8e(/m Rules • All levels use time limits see right... ..

Changes new

Nothing new .. . Gu ide... p g. 31 .. . " Movements should not be repeated , unless in succession. two wa l kovers i n successio n are rated as one su p erior difficulty, il there is not a pause inbetween. A se ries of e l e m ents with interruption s are considered repetition 01 movements. This rul e is app licab le to all medium diff icu lti es execu ted in a seri es. . ' Ai"! element · may 1Jerepea ted once, but with different linkings before a nd a fte r. Many medium diffic ulti es in series make a supe rior difficulty .. such as cartwheels very high leaps, walkovers, fo rwa rd th en backward t insicas ." (Ed . It might be assumed here t hat... sin ce one is not supposed to repeat an elem ent except in a series tha t th ere will be a pena lty if she does. So if the gymnast does stop between ele m en ts in an inte nded serie s, she w ill not only lose credit for her superior, but will draw a deduction for th e repetition w hich m ig ht amou nt to the sa me as b .

Time prescr ip tion s: minimum duration: 1 :15 minutes (75 sees) Max imum duration: 1 :35 minutes (95 sees) 2. compo si t ion of optio nal exerci se a. Th e same eleme nt ma y be presen ted only once. It ma y be used in a se ri es o r as a single element. A se ri es can on lY be recog nized as a se ri es as lo ng as th ere is no StO P between th e eleme nt s. b. A SlOp betwee n the elem ent s of a ser ies w ill alwa ys inc ur a penalt y of 0. 2 point.


Pg. 31 in Guide ... "A series of walkovers (2) and later anot her wa lkover is credited w ith 1.5 difficulty, but the general composition pena lty would be .2. A n add itional penlty of 0.2 for monotony co uld be assesed." If we look above on page 31... " An elem'ent may be repeated once, but with differe nt link ings before and after. " ... I (Ed.) think we can d raw the concl usio n that d & e are really nothing new... just a litt le clearer and a litt le less seve re ... and you r Ed. would not be more severe on a lower level girl than on an Elite girl!

"c. Two to three static ele ments are allowed, but not before or after a difficul t acroba ti c element, o t herwise the penaltY w ill be 0.20 point each time. (Ed. I asked M rs. Fie fo r cla ri fication o n thi s point. It mean s th at th e gymna st is not allowed to wa it before she does a d ifficult trick in a lo ng p au se to get up the nerve to throw il. " Stat ic element" does not appl Y, for exa mple , if she should be in a held hand stand just before she goes int o a su perio r move .. smoothly comes down out of it and goes ri g ht in to the trick. "d. An e lement wh ich alread Y fea tures in a ser ies and w hich is presented as an ind ependen t e lement in the same way is conside red a repetition. The penalt y in thi s case is 0.30 point. **e. However, it is permissible for the sa me ele ment to be presented in a modified for m (from a different starting position or if this e l e m e nt lead s to anothe r final position. )

At the lower leve ls... at least in the Gu ide nothing is sa id about not giv in g credi t for two superiors if done in series, but let us think a minute. Say ... Yes.. we can give credit for the two superio rs if the gi rl has · ·no others in her routin e and needs that extra one for credit ... But... has she spread her difficulty well ... has t he ro utin e progressed indifficu lty toward t he end ... did she bunch her difficulty in the beginn i ng of her rout ine???? Yes she maY get credit fo r th e difficulty bu t certainly she will be deducted under composition if those are her only 2.

f. A se ri es co rr esponds to on ly o ne difficultY. Its compos iti on has no influence a ll it s va lue. A se ri es is o ne superio r diff icu lty. whet he r it s co mposition is 2 average or 2 superi o r difficulties.

There is no specific penalty listed in the Code or Guide fo r lack of o ne o r anoth er eleme nt. There is a penalty for OVERUSE of a particular tYpe of element of up to .5. In an older gu ide ... think it was in "Note s from

g. An opti ona l exe rcise shall conta in three acrobat ic elem ent s (o r thr ee se rie s ma ximum ), but the ove rall compos iti on of the exercise mUSt co mply w ith all th e prescript ions specified i n th e code of Point s:

GYMNAST Dec. 1974

Rome " there is a penally listed: For lack or overuse of an element. .1 to.2 po int. If you have studied your Guide and judged a lot of meets, you know what to expect in a good beam rouitne . For examp le, the Guide says there should be one 360 0 turn .. . if You don't see it , you might take off a tenth. You should see some nice jumps and leaps ... maybe three .. . If you see only one .. . You might take off .2 .. . etc.

At the lower levels you cou ld give her credit for two supe riors if she did two superior jumps in ser ies ... but then again if those were her onl y ones, there would be penaltY in composition. 2. is nothing new

Serie s never compu lsory


With th e o ld ru les this is not the requirem ent ... however if a girl has a superior mount and a superior dismount and no superiors during her routine, there would b e a deduction under composition even if she does have the tWO required superiors.

one 350 0 turn , o ne jump, movem ent o f the bod y, wa lk ove r, in ve rt ed str e tc h ed support, etc (Ed . fr om form e r commun ica tion .. th e rest are: roll , w hee l movem ent. m o unt , and di smount) (USGF . co mpOSitiona l p enalty for no acrobatic e lement or series betw ee n mount and dismount =0.3; for onlY one ac robatic element or se ri es between mount and dismount = 0.2 point; for only two ac robatic elements or series betwe en mount and dismount = 0.1 point. ) 1. A ser ies of gym na stic jumps w ill have th e va lu e of a Sing le superior difficu lty.

2. Links or repea ted lilli e hops are no t co nsid ered as a se ri es. 路"h. A seri es is no t compulsory for th e beam exercise . It ma y contain 3 ind ependent acrobatic elements. i. W ith rega rd to th e compos iti o n , th e fo ll owin g are demanded: 3 superior diffi culti es (between the mount and dismount \.

Same, but rem ember if 1M is missing she gets .2 off; if 2M are mi ss ing.. .3 off; 3M missing .. .4 off ; or all 4M 's mi ssi ng .5 off under co mposition.

**4 m edium difficulti es, whic h ma y be r epl aced by supe ri or difficulli es. - ac robatic e lem ent s, i.e. all kind s of ae ri al wa lk overs and flipflop s

Tuck allowed at lower levels too

- Th e tuck some rsa ult i s allo we d as di smount Th e tu c k somer sa ult as an element in th e exe rcise is al so all owed w ith these provisions: 1. Respon sibi lit Y for the injury, if in curr ed, mu st be accepted by the individu al o r in case o f int ernati o nal me e t s by th e Federation .


~ n

GYMNAST Dec. 1974

2. A stop before or after w ill be pe nali zed by 0.2 each time. 3. La ck of amplitud e and tec hni ca l fau ll s in w ill be exec uti on pena lized .

free Ex. Rules


On the lower levels, judges have been looking for front, back, and side ... or mixed tumbling passes and penalizing if anyone tYpe is miSSing. The gymnast is also penalized if she just runs and does a single skil l as opposed to doing a combination ... so ... rea lly 2. is not a new rule ... just wrillen for the first time!

1. See Serie s Defin ition "2. Twoto three se ri es of d i fficulties is d emanded.

. On lowe r levels it is still a superior. .. no matter where it is used.

3. The backward tuck saito used as an exit or dismount w ill be awa rded an average difficu lty.

Di stribution of the 10 points i n judgin g of the option al exe rci se. For appli ca ti on to bars, beam an d floor.

Use old point breakdown See FIG Code page 6 article 7 See USGF Judging Guide for further explanations

new point U se brea kdown 1. The opt ional exe rcises mu st includ e 3 e lements of superior diff i cul tY and 4

element s of medium difficu lty. The medium difficu lties ca n be repla ced by elem ent s of superior difficu lty. 2. 3 e lements of superior difficult y at 1.00 point each. 3 point s 4 e lement s of medium difficu lty at 0.50 point each. 2 point s = 5 points 3. Co mp osition, . originalitY and va lueof the connect ion 2 points Exec ution and amplitude of th e mo ve m e nt s (exec ution 1.50 point and amplitude 0.50 point 4. Genera l Impress io n 1 point = 5 point s Total 10 point s

NOTE: Th ese changes lake inl o co nsid era lion all FIG WTC Bull elins Ihrou gh Jun e 1974. Th ere is still so me discre pan cy as 10 numbe r of superiod credi" for a "co mposit e" se ri es of b Cd lll .


What have I done? What I am trying 10 co nvey 10 you is that the new rul es (with the exce pti on of the n ew bea m tim e, the new rul es on vaulting falls, and th e team rule in vaulting) are to appl y on lY to the national and Eli te levels, some of th e " new ru les" are not truel Y new.. and so do app ly to under national leve ls, and , in cases where there are differences, I ha ve pointed them out.

NOTE: The old rul es will be in use for all preliminary meets in the Jr. and Sr. Cla ss I Division. A t the Jr. and Sr. Naiona ls, th e current (new) FIG ru les wi ll be eff ect.

Why did I do it? To straighten o ut som e of the lower l eve l coaches, judges and gym na sts who h ave read Ih e new rul es and are co nfu sed ... AND to gi ve yo u NATIO NAL JUDGES WHO SOMET IMES JUDGE LO WER LEVEL handY MEETS... ref erence to w hat 's going on below yo u so you wo n 'l be unjustl Y severe with these kids.

AT ANSWERED CARBONDALE ON JUNE 1 Found in Ohio USGF News " Can th e PIA N O PLAYER fa ce th e gymnast wh il e she is perform ing? ... Yes."


... more news n notes Short t erm coach ing position wanted by D an ish fellow "Erling H esgaa rd - Ranked ~2 in Denmark PreOl ympi c Irials, is return in g to the USA, and wou ld be int eres ted to be hired for short terrn . He is a ve ry hard work er and ha s many sc ientific and pra cti ca l tec hniqu es. Listening , and watchi ng hi rn is a great learning ex pe ri ence. H e will be ava ilabl e aft e r th e Coaches Congress. Wr it e him A ir Ma il or see him at Congress: " Er li ng Hesga ard How il zve j 67 G 2th 2000 F Copenh agen, D enmark , Europe Young lady seeks informatin on eastern coll eges which offe r gy mnastic programs Plea se forward an y info or brochures yo u might wis h to se nd to: Patri cia Guth eri e, 281 Thornton Rd. , Rochester, NY 14617. In rea ding news lett ers from all over th e co untry corne upon int eresting things. After th e 72 Ol ympi cs, Ro xa nn e Pi erce went from Ruth A nn e M cBrid e 10 Muri e l Gross fe ld . ow she has apparentl y swung ove r to th e Mannettes for some furth er poli shing . Judgi ng Guide for gy mnastics. A compiled dittoed bookl et by Caro le Li edtke f rom all th e po ssib le so urces about j udgi ng. Include s notes on psycho logy, phYsiologY, and tec hniqu es of gymnast ics as w ell as judg in g dut ies and rul es. $1.75 6805 Moorhaven Dr. Louisvill e KY 40228. N ew Clubs Jon Culbertso n ... 8521 N. Hwy. Sara so ta , Fla. Kim Chace Boyles ... W. Palm Beach Fla. area M asay uk i Walanabe ... Conco rd CA area Jud y Darwi ck and Susie Kin sman .. 4135 Aurora Ave. , Coral Gables, Fla. News has it th at Bob and Joan Rice have purcha sed the K.E .G.S. gymnastics club in Edina, Minn esota . On November 1, 1974, th ey wi ll assume th e co nlrol s from Keilh and Kay Larso n w ho ha ve built K.E .G.S. int o one o f th e better cl ubs in MinnesOla. Thi s marks a step forward for Minn eso ta gy mnastics. " (Minn esota news) U"IMllfllllllllllllll lftllll Ull1f11Ufllllll ml llllllll tl ltl l llllllllllllllllllllllllllll1111111111 11


DR. H.J. BIESTERFELDT, JR . "GYMNAST" RESEARCH EDITOR Athletics Department - SIU Arena Carbondale, Illinois 62901

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EDITORIAL COMMENTS Dr. Brown 's article covers two of the three familiar lifts for a running front: Russian and overhead. The for/ upward lift is not included, and it would be a good addition if someone made a study of similar nature for such a frontunfortunately hi s subject did not execute that front as sa tisfactorily so that its inclusion would not tell us much. It would also be helpful if someone did an angular momentum study for the hand spring front, checking out the subtle differences in the two basic takeoff techniques. HJB A COMPARISON OF SElECTED FACTORS RElA TING TO SUCCESS OF RUNNING FORWARD SOMERSAULTS by James R. Brown, Ed.D. Gymnastics Coach, Indiana University INTRODUCTION I n th e 1956 Ol ympi c Games a memb er of th e Ru ss ian G ymn as ti cs Tea m introd u ced a new meth od of p erforming a fro nt somersa ult in th e floor exercise . Since that tim e it has b ee n used by oth er o lYmpi c ca liber gy mna sts, and is now ca ll ed a " Ru ss ian." Th e effecti ve ness of thi s type so mersa ult was imm ed iately no ti ce d because in add iti o n to bein g aes th eti ca ll Y d iffe rent, it app ea red th at the " Ru ss ian " co ul d obtain more height in a mu ch shorter space . Thi s is ex tremely important in floor exe rcise , sin ce th e gy mna st is limit ed to a 40 ' x 40' area , and is penali zed fo r taking long run s i nvolving few stunt s. Purpose. Th e purpo se of thi s stud y was to co mpare th e "R uss ian " type front so m ersa ult (herea ft er ca ll ed the ru ss ian) w ith th e traditi o nal tYpe so mersau lt (ca lled th e reg ul ar), usin g se lec ted factors w hi c h are im portant to th e successf ul co mpl eti o n of th e stunt. Th e fo ll owin g hypotheses were formulated prior to initi ating the stud y ; 1. Th e ru ss ian front all ows th e tumbl er to execute hi s tak e-off at an angle close to the vert ica l, wh ich provides maximum height and force (since th e force is throu gh the ce nter of gravity). 2. Beca use of th e angul ar adva n tage m enti o ned above, the ru ss ian wo uld be hi gher and tra ve l less di stance. 3. Th e techni q u e emplo yed in th e ru ss ian wo ul d be m o re r ea dil y adaptabl e to th e gy mn as t w ith less leg str engt h, beca use it wou ld invo lve a small er angle of leg flex ion. Subject. Th e subj ec t used in thi s ex p erim en t wa s o ne of th e fir st A m eri ca n tumbl ers to perform th e russ ian co mp etiti ve ly, usin g it in th e 1959 NCAA Gymnas ti c Meet. A furth er reason , and p erhap s the mo st important, was hi s immed iate ava ilabi lity. Techniqu e. In or der to stud y and compa re th e d ifferen t t ec hniques of executin g fo rward so m ersa ult s, it was dec ided th at 16mm . mo vie phot og raphy wou ld b e employed. Th e actu al filmin g was done Jul y 18, 1967, by Ri chard Behnk e. H e used a Bell and Howe ll ca mera se t at 128 fram es/ seco nd . 32

Sti ck figures were drawn in o rd er to co m pare angles found in th e so mersa ults. These fig ures we re fo rm ed by co nn ec tin g lin es at the fo ll owing refe rence p o in ts; (1) ankl e (lateral mall eol us) , (2) kn ee, (3) hip (cres t o f ilium ), (4) should er (acro mi on process), (5) ea r (top ), (6) elbow (o lecronon process), and (7) w ri st (s tyloid process). A ll point s are from the tumbl er' s ri ght side, since it is ass umed that th e stunt is don e sy mm etri ca ll y. limitations. Th e fo ll owin g are offe red as limitation s to th e stud y; 1. Th e angle o f th e ca m era va ri ed, sin ce it was fixe d and th e gy mna st was perfo rmin g in a linear pattern, perpend icul ar to th e ca mera. 2. Perhaps th e m ost impo rt ant adva nt age w hich th e r uss ian o ffers was nega ted , becau se no limit was fi xe d o n th e run prior to start in g th e stunt. 3. Th e factors dea lin g w ith time wo u ld have bee n more acc u rate had a clock b ee n utili zed in th e p icture. Instead, time was ca lcul ated b y usin g th e fil m spee d as a co nstant. 4. Th e exa mpl e o f each typ e fro nt was arbitraril Y se lected fro m a fi lm co nt ainin g three exa mpl es of eac h type. This se lec ti o n was mad e o n th e ba sis w hat th e wr it er beli eved to be the " bes t " of each tYp e. 5. Th e measure of height used was th e ce ntral position at th e hip. co nsistency was attemp ted by usin g th e perfo rm er's trun ks as a reference point , 'b ut it is ass umed that so m e error was i·n vo lved.

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ANALYSIS Before ana lyz in g th e va riou s parts of th e soe mr sa ult s, it ma y be prof itab le t o gen erall y examine th e two stunt s used in th e stud y. Figures 1 and 2 show draw in gs whic h utili ze sti ck figures to show th e var io us b o d y positions in vo lved in both typ es. Th e most obvious difference in the two stunt s is the position of the arm s through o ut the stunt. The regular f ront begins with th e arms flexed and over the head, and the y staY in approximate ly that sa me position until th e land in g. Th e ru ssian sta rts with th e arms extended in front of th e body. As th e tumbler flexes hi s kne es the arm s co ntinu e downwa rd. Th e arm s co ntinu e in a circul ar path and are goin g upward as th e tumbler ex ten d s hi s legs and leaves th e mat. At th e top of hi s height, th e bod y ca tches hi s arm s and t he fini sh is ident ica l to that of th e reg ul ar front _ som er sa ult. t-Jrqhl>lpf. ( 0' 1"')


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Take-off. Figures 3 and 4 show sequ ences of th e take -off taken at eve ry third fram e. Th e fir st drawin g (labe led 1) was taken from th e first frame i n wh ich th e fee t tou ch th e gro un d in th e approac h. Th e fin al frame was the las t in wh ich he wa s sti ll in co ntact wi t h th e mat. In both instances th e co mpl ete take-off use d 30 frames. Thi s m ea nt that co ntact w ith th e gro und las ted.23 seco nd s fo r both so mersa ult s. A co mpari so n of th e bod y an gle at th e initi al conta ct indi ca tes th at th ere is less lea n rearwa rd in th e ru ss ian; ho wever , in the ru ss ian more of a sitting positi o n is attain ed if th e ang les at th e kn ees are co mpared (142 and 147). Thi s GYMNAST Dec. 1974

difference in angles is to a d eg ree co mpen sa ted for by th e increase d flexion at th e hips in th e ru ss ian. So it appea rs that b y o n e meas ure th e initi al take -off p os iti o n of th e ru ss ian is more nearl y vert ica l, but by the latt er measure th e reg ular fron t is more upri ght. Th e distan ce between th e hi gh es t and lowes t puint s of each figure we re also m easured, and th e results we re identica l.

doing th e ru ss ian was moving fas ter in o rder to cove r a great er di stance in the sa m e amo unt of tim e. The path of th e arms during th e fli ght is plotted in Fi gure 7. Afte r th e first 30 frames (.23 sec.), th e arm actions are very simil ar as are th e o th er bod Y positi o ns.

The last frame co mpleting th e take-off is also out lined in Fi gure 5. A co mpari so n of the arm posit io ns revea ls that thi s is th e time when there is th e grea tes t differen ce between th e two stunt s. Figure 3B shows the p os ition of th e arms of each so mersa ult. It is no ted that a lin e draw n through the sho uld er of each figure to th e w ri st is almost straight (180 degrees). Th e bod y angle, m easured from ankle to sho uld er, indi ca tes a 6 degree lea n at 'take-off for th e reg ul ar flip , and a 10 d eg ree lean in th e russian.

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- -- --\- - - + - -

\(e<>.v\l>.r - 'Ho/5eC. Figure 6 shows th e path of the arm s durin g the thirty fra m es of th e ta ke-off. This fi gure shows th at durin g thi s tim e th e arm s move 20 d eg rees in th e reg ular so m ersa ult and 130 degrees in th e ru ss ian . The angul ar ve locit y has been ca lculat ed at 90 degrees/seco nd in th e former and 619 in th e latter. Fi gure 6 al so points out th e adherence to th e ' principle o f lengthening th e radiu s of rotation on th e d ow nswin g, and short enin g it on th e upsw ing for improve d angu lar ve locit y. Flight. Fi gures 1 and 2 r evea l that the greate st height (as m eas ured at the hip) of th e ru ss ian was 6 feet and 3 in ches. Th e reg ular fro nt had a co mparable heig ht of 6 feet and 1 Vl in ch es. Th e tot al distance cove r ed by th e ru ss ian was 14 feet and 1 inch, and th e reg ular front was 13 fe et 6 inches . Both we re in th e air for a total of 35 frame s, or 1.06 seco nd s. Therefore, the gymn ast GYMNAST D ec. 1974

landing. Figure 8 shows th e lan ding of each somersa ult at the first fra me where co ntact w ith the mat is made. That the gy mnast is slightlY more upright in the ru ssian is evidenced by the lesse r total bod y angle (measured from ankle to shoulder). Thi s angle is 15 degrees in the russi an and 18 degrees in the regular front. Thi s co nte ntion is also supported by less bend at th e hips and less hip fl ex ion . At the landing position th e arm s are behind th e hi ps in th e ru ss ia nand in front o f th e hips in the regular front; thu s, th e finish of each st unt approxim ates th e po sition in th e beg inning . FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION Th e follo wing finding s are' offe red w ith a brief d isc uss io n related to th e previo u sly posed hypotheses (see page 1). 1. The first hYpothesis wo uld app ea r to be nullifi ed fro m th e findin gs. Figure 3 revea is that there is actu al ly a grea ter fo rward lea n in th e ru ss ian than in th e reg ular fron t. Thi s lean is grea ter at th e to tal bod y (from ankle to sho uld er), at th e hip, and th e h ea d is b ent to a grea ter degree. Thi s exp lains th e find in g that th e russian tra ve le d a grea ter di stan ce th an th e

regular front , b ut did not ge t apprecia bl y hi gher. 2. The russian front cove red 14 feet and 1 inc h as co mpared w ith th e 13 fee t 6 in ches of the regu lar front. Thi s w rit er feel s th at this is w here th e gymn as t 'attain s a great adva ntage by usin g th e r uss ian techniqu e. A lthou gh maintaining approx im ately the sa me height , th e ru ss ian trave led co nsid erab ly farther. He is th erefo re landin g w ith grea ter forward mo m entum , w hi ch would be advan tageou s in gy mn as ti cs . 3. Th e third hyp'o th esis appear s to ha ve been substantiated by th e finding th at the russian in vo lved less kn ee fl ex ion during the take-off than did th e reg ular front. Thi s co nfirm s th e w rit er 's empiri ca l fi nding th at yo un ger pupil s and gy mnasts w ith wea ker legs tend to obtain be tt er somersa ults u sin g the ru ss i;lIl techniqu e. 4. The ang ular ve loc it y of th e arm s at th e take-off is mu ch grea ter in th e ru ss ian (see Figure 6). Wh ereas th e arms in th e reg ular front trave l on ly 20 deg rees for an angu lar ve locit y of 94 degrees/ seco n d in th e take -o ff of th e reg ul ar fron t, in th e ru ss ian th ey cove r a di stance of 130 deg rees. Thi s pro vides an angul ar ve locit y of 619 degree s/ seco nd in th e ru ss ian. Thi s wr iter fee ls th at h erein li es the grea test adva nta ge in usin g th e ru ss ian techniqu e. Thi s t ec hnique all ows the gymn ast to deve lop co nsiderable energy by the ba ckward rotation of the arms befo re the take- of f. In add ition th e effect of " impac t " which is related to the prin ciple of action-reaction , is ve ry effecti ve, since the arms are b ein g rotated aga in st the re st of the bod y. In comparison , the gymnast doing th e reg ul ar fron t mu st first lift th e arm s upward , th en fo rce them downward to o btai n angular momentum. 5. At th e la st fram e, before contac t wi th th e mat is lost, th e rad iu s of th e arms o f eac h so m ersa ult are in a positi on w hi ch is almo st direc ty oppos ite to th e o th er (see Fig ure 3B) . A t thi s po int in th e ru ssia n t he arm s are p u lIi ng th e bod y upward. In th e reg ul ar fro nt the arms beg in pulling th e bod y down wa rd .

RECOMMENDATIONS 1. Furth er resea rc h is nee ded in w hi ch th e ce nt er of grav it y is accurately ca lculated to dete rmine th e actu al height of the two so m ersa ult s. . 2. It would be adv isable to have a co ni ca l tim er project ed in th e f ilm. Furth er r esea rc h in compa rin g th ese tec hniques shou ld limit th e runnin g roo m to that actua ll y used in floor exe rcise. ~


Ch ampion ship s. Golu M eua l All A ro und , 1964; Ol ympi c Tea m, Tok yo , 1964; Nati o nal Champi o nship s, Golu M edal Balan ce Bea m , 1965; Pan Am eri ca n Gam es Team, Br o nze M edali st Va ulting, 1967; Wom en 's Co ll eg iate All A m eri ca n, Go ld Med ali st U neven Bars and Bron ze Med ali st Fl oo r Exer ci se, 1969. Mark D . 'S to rm y' Eaton received hi s B.S. d eg ree in Ph Ys ica l Edu cation fro m th e U nive rsit y o t 'ew Mex ico. Amon g hi s li st of acc ompli shment s are : A ll Ameri ca n 1969, 1970 (tw ice), 1971, 1973, 1974. He was Na ti o nal Tumbling Ch ampion 1973 and 1974; USA Tea m to Ru ss ia , Bron ze Meual ist USA-USSR Comp etiti o n. 1973; Silve r Meda li st World Champi o nships 1974; Assistant G ymn as ti cs Coa c h - U.S. ava l Acad em y 1972-1974; and he is an Int errl ati o nal Trampolin e Judge. Th e D ese rt Dev il s see m to have a fin e future, with bo th coac hes being World Cla ss Competit o rs in th eir ow n right , th e tea m n ow has th eir lirst W o rl d C hampi o n in eight ee n yea r old Pam W enze l, w ho along with thirt een oth er youn g gy mn as ts fro m th e tr ainin g ce nter co mpeted in th e Worlu Trampoline and Tumblin g Champion ships in San Fran cisco thi s pas t summ er. Th e D ese rt Devil s to o k mo re pl aces th an any o f th e oth er team s prese nt at th e co mpe titi on. Desert Gymnastics Training Cpnter in Tempe, A, .. ,'on <l

dESERT dEviLs Th e D esert 'Gy mnastics Training Center USA , Inc. , Te mpe, A ri zon a, is o w n ed b y M ari e Walth er Bil ski and St o rm y Eat o n, Th e trainin g center ha s classes in beginnin g girl s, intermediat e girl s, ad va nce d girl s, tin y to ts, adu lt ladies, anu boys, and at th e pr ese nt tim e ha s 210 girl s anu 25 boys enro iled in classes. Th eir o th er in stru cto rs ar e Ri ck Fair, EI Paso Texas; and Sa ndra H arp er, Gradu ate o f ASU. Trampolin e is a pa rt o f th eir all arou nd progra m an d th ey co mpete in th e USGF, USTA an d AAU. A bo ut th e ow ners: Ma ri e W alth er Bil ski has a B.A. deg ree in Ph Ys ica l Edu ca ti o n fro m Ar izo na Stat e U ili ve rsit y, 1970. She co mp eted N ati o nall y and Int eril ati o nJll y startin g in 1962 at th e W o rld ChampiollShip s in Eu ro p e. So me of th e hi ghli ght s o f th ese comp etition s are th e Pan A meri can Ga m es - Tea m 1963; Na ti o ll al


The walls of the Desert Devil Gym are en ha n ced with murals by Rick Fair

GYMNAST D ec. 1974


A gy mnas t in action at the Desert De vi l Gym. l arge mirrors and a mural cover the wall. John and Nancy Numetko, new coaches of the SCA~PS














"Stormy" Eaton and Marie Bilski, co-owne rs of th e Desert Gymnas tics Ce nte r,

GYMNAST Dec. 1974

The Owego Sca mps cel ebrated th eir 10th yea r thi s summer, according to Pr es id ent Jack M ansfi eld . Th ey are also ce leb"ratin g th e arri va l of two new co aches. John and Na ncy Num etk o o f Roc h es te r, N ew Yo rk, have taken ove r th e Sca mp organi za ti o n in O wego, N Y. Jo hn is th e n ew head coac h, whil e Na n cy is filling th e newly crea ted pos iti o n o f A ss istant Coach and Se ni or Dance In st ructor. Bo th Jo hn allli ancy are hi ghl y qualili ed to fill t hese po siti o ns, and th e SCJ m p s are ve ry p lease d to h ave th em w ith th em.

Phil ade lphia, Penn sY lva n ia - th e "C radl e o f Li ber ty" - has added to it s lin e- up of stars ano th er cha m p ioilship team, t he "Phi lade lp h ia Gy mnas ti c Ce nte r," a m erge r of th e Mannetles Gym Club and th e Tumblebees Gym Club, it w ill give Phil adel phi ans a chan ce to suppo rt and take p rid e in a wo men 's gym n as ti c tea m . Th e Tum b lebees b rin g to Phil ade lph ia Na ncY Jo nes , t he 1974 Penn sy lva ni a Int ersc ho las ti c At hl eti c A ssociati o n 's all aro un d Cha mpi o n, alo ng w ith Peggy Finni gen, th e state's sil ve r med ali st , Debbi e Al ston , Lesli e Harri s and their out standing coac h, Don Pet ers. Th e Ma nnell es, wi nn ers of fo u r co nsec uti ve Na ti ona l Tea m C ham p io nshi ps, and four co nsec uti ve Ind iv id ual all aro un d Na ti o nal Champ io nships, w ill b ecome eve n stro nge r thro ugh th e merge r. Th e Mannell es we re w inn ers o f th e U SGF Na ti o nal Team titl es in 1971, 1972, 1973. Th ey wo n th e AAU Na tio nal Tea m titl e i n 1973 and 1974. The Ma nn et tes we re fo unded and have been coac hed by Gi nn y and Bill Coco, Bill is a member of o ur co untry's Ol ympi c Co mmitt ee, and G inn y is o n e o f th e four memb ers o f th e USG F Fo reign Relati o ns Committ ee. Both Coco 's we re o n th e coac hing staff o f th e 1972 Ol ym p ic Tea m . Th e Ma nn ett es have tra in ed such fin e gymn asts as Joa n Moo re Ri ce , U nit ed States Na ti o nallndi vid ua I A ll -A ro un d Cha mpi o n fo ur co nsec uti ve Yea rs. She was also an Ol ympi an at M u nic h , Ge rma ny, in 1972 . A nn Ca rr , member o f th e U nit ed States Wo rl d Champ ions h ip Team th at compe ted at th e Wo rl d Games in Va rn a, Bul gar ia. Roxa nn e Pi erce , a m em be r o f th e 1972 O lym pic Tea m , A Il- A ro uIHJ Champi o n and w inn er 0 1 eve ry Go ld Med al awa rd ed at th e 1971 pJn -A m eri ca n G am es. Phil ade lp hi a is also represe nt ed by Shell y Bier, the 1973 USG F Jun io r Na ti o nal A ll- A ro und Cha m p io n, Jan A nt hO Il Y and Barb ie Ca nt we ll (Ba rb ie is th e yo un ges t gy mn ast ever to q ualif y fo r Elit e level co m p et iti o n ). Thi s year th e team w ill car ry Phil adelphi a's, name and it s Li be rt y Bell logo o n th eir u ni fo rms.


Instruction: Dr. H.J. Bi esterfe ldt, JR .

W e are fo rtunate thi s month to b e abl e to prese nt o ne arti c le to se rve a d o u b le. p urpose : compul sory in stru cti o n for wo men and bas ic in stru cti o n o n ho rizo ntal bar fo r m en. Two in stru ctors o f wo men 's gymn as ti cs as ked th at w e pr epare ph o to se qu ences to help th em w ith th e teaching of th e fr ee hip circl e fo r th e w om e n 's co mpu lso ry. One of th em , Jon A it k in , was NC AA ho ri zo ntal bar champio n a co upl e o f yea rs ago . He is th e de mon strator . A ft er usin g th e phot o se que nces in in stru ction fo r a month, each o f th ese coa ch es w ro te o ut all articl e o n th e fr ee hip circ le as h e saw it. W e here repro duce both articles, sin ce no t infreq ue ntl Y o ne m an ca ll make cl ea r w hat an o th er makes mu d d y. HJ B THE FREE HIP CIRCLE Jon Aitkin, Coach, Wichita Girls Gymnastics Club Befo re yo u teach th e fr ee hip circle to hand stand, let 's stud y the sequ ences and an alyze w hal b o d Y position s sho u ld occ ur al cert ai n part s o f th e ci rc le. I had perfo rm ed a larg e number o f FHH s and also taught quit e a few, but Ihe sequence ph o tos br o ugh t o ut a detail I was no t eve n awa re o f. Fi gure 1, #1. Th e cas t is as hi gh as ca n be controlled . Th e bo d y should be slraight, pi ke and arch mu st be eli m in ated throu gh th e d ro p. #2. A rm s and shou ld ers mu st staY straight up above th e ba r as th e bod y d ro ps d own. IMPORTANT: Watc h for should er s mov in g forward - thi s w ill ruin the sw in g. #3 . Bo dy is alm os t in ve rti cal, should ers begin fa lling ba ckward s to the most criti ca l part o f th e FH H. Bo d y is o ne fo ot awa y from th e bar. Refer now to Fi gure 2, #3. Sh o uld ers are falling ba ck HARD. Bod y h o llows and stays about o ne foo t away (fr ee) from th e ba r, w hi ch is directl y above th e thighs. Refer to Fi gure 1 aga in , #4. Hea d dri ves back with sho ul ders as th ey fa ll hard. Ho ll ow body is more p ro no unced now, but nOl e that th e ba r still has n o pr ess ure o n it ye t. Thi s ph o to shows th e m os t crili ca l part o f th e FHH . I fee l as thou gh th e ent ire tri c k is se t up here, and if thi s part is do ne correctl y, the gy mn asts w ill be thrown to a hand stand, eliminating streng th and a " mu sc led " swin g trick. #5. Pr ess ure beg in s to bend th e bar, hea d sli ght lY back and th e bod y is p iked to in su re that th e po wer d oes n ' t pull you away fro m th e bar to o ea rl y. No te th at th e legs are alm os t to uching th e bar now w hi ch is be nd in g. #6. Th e bo tt o m . H o ld o n ti ght beca use look at the press u re be ndin g th e bar at thi s po int. Th e gy m nast snaps o p en th e bo d y pike now, and tha t shoo ts him up . #7. Th e straight b o d y app ea rs to sh oo t ove r th e bar (flat). M any gy mna sts arch at thi s part. #8. Th e feel ar e co min g back up to th e hand stand as Ih e should ers ri se up. #9. Th e fee t sli ll com e up as th e sho u ld ers dro p in .




6 7 8 THE GYMNAST'S FEELINGS A ny good coac h sho ul d rea li ze th at th e visual ap pea rance o f th e tri ck is not always w h at th e gymn ast actu all y fee ls. Fo r th ose of yo u w ho are lucky enou gh to b e th e o nes hangin g o nto th e bar ford ear life, I'v e inc lud ed w hat I fee l w h en I do a fr ee hip. I trY to staY as fa r away fro m th e bar as I ca n w hen I am dro ppin g d own and un de r. Wh en dro ppin g dow n, Im ake su re I rea ll y let m y bo d y dro p free ly - it 's easy to slow down here, so d o n 't ge t ca ught. Co nce nt ra te o n d ro pp ing under Ih e bar, keepi ng th e ba r away fro m yo ur legs. It is ve ry easy still as th ere is no we ight o r p ull Yet. Loo k at ph o tos #5-6. ow yo u sho ul d pik e into th e bar, but as soo n as yo u d o, yo u mu st o pen up har d aga in st a stro ng pull. Tr y thi s! St and o n th e gro und , bend ove r with a heavy we ighl in yo ur hand s, hangin g it by you r thi ghs. Keepin g legs and arms str aight , use your back mu sc les to snap u pr ight. ow turn #5-6 up side down and loo k at th em. Thi s is th e o pen that will sh oo t yo u w h ere yo u wa nt to go. It is th e stro nges t, m ost d y nami c pa rt o f th e tri ck . If yo u d ro pp ed un de r co rrecll y and o p ene d hard , th e res t is sim p le. I relax co m p letelY except fo r th e mu sc les tha t kee p my body straight in a hand stand . Three thin gs to think abo ut are: Keep your arm s straight, th e drop under, th e ex plo sive ope nin g up. QUESTIONS AND COMMON MISTAKES Q: Wh y d o m y fr ee hips end up as hip circl es ? Look at photo #3 . Yo u are pro babl Yve ry clo se to th e bar w ith yo ur hip s, and yo ur should ers are leanin g front wa rd s ove r Ih e bar. Wo rk on body pos iti o ns show n in #3-4 and yo u w ill ge t a bi g surpri se. Q : Wh y d o m y w ri SIS end u p bent and I ca n 'l ho ld o n Ihen ? You have n 't crea ted eno ugh swi ng w hen d ro p p in g und er Ihe bar. Loo k at #6. We figure I am pulli ng aro und 500 po unds here beca u se I've dro pp ed under hard . II is no t p oss ib le to bend yo ur w ri st h ere, th e bent arms an d w ri sts occ ur aro und #8 usuall y. Th e bar is no t bent , all th e pr ess ure is of f. Kee p th e arm s straighl and lift up w ith th e back o f yo ur hand s. Th e mo re sw in g yo u crea te, th e m o re we ighll ess yo u w il l






be at th e end , so if yo u sw ing und er co rrec tl y, yo u wo n 't have th dt problem. Q: Wh y d o I aIways co me ou t to o ea rl y? liS pos iti o n shows a pike that almost to uches th e legs to th e ba r, and #6 shows th e legs ju st as clo se. I o fte n tim es t o uch the bar ri ght h ere. Wh en o pening up o ut o f th e p ike, wa tch th at yo u d o n 't ope n to an arch (argh! ). Th e fee t mu st go ove r th e bar as though th e free hip is flal o r low (#7), th en later on th ey com e b ack up. Q: W hy do I always co m e o ut too late (flat)? Thi s is th e easies t to answe r, the hard es t to co rr ect. O p ening u p th e pik e in 1'5-6 is no t d o ne soo n eno ug h, and also n ot do ne w ith eno ugh PAZAZZ! Q : Wh y ca n 't Im ake it to th e hand sl and ; I am hea ding slraight up and ge t heavy and collapse? Ma ybe yo u are 100 h eavy for fr ee hips bett er trY ca rt w hee ls on th e ground. Or it mi ghl be th at yo u didn 't se t up #3 -4-5 ri ght. If Yo u d rop un de r ju st as th e ph o tos sho w , and m ake it thro ugh th e bo tt o m w ith o ut hav in g yo ur bo d y ripped off th e bar, yo u w ill ge t thr own up to a hand stand so fas t th at littl e gold en stars will app ea r in yo ur eyes. TEACHING A FREE HIP HANDSTAND OR " HOW TO AMAZE ALL YOUR GYMNASTS" I have see n many exce ll ent w ays to teach thi s tri ck - thi s is o ne that gets good res ults (es peciall y with girl s o n a fat un eve n bar). Use a low bar, and stand upon a fo ld ed mat so th at the bar to uches yo u about the bott o m o f th e ribs. Stand in a stradd le tou chin g th e bar with yo ur sid e and a gy mn as t in support o n th e o th er side. Reac h d own and grab both hand s o n th e ti ghs w h en th e gy mn as t is in pos iti o n. 116. Li ft th e thi ghs stra ight up int o a hand stand . Take a few Irys to lea rn thi s spo t, it is rea ll y fun. Befo re lo ng yo u ca n make any thin g p erfo rm a fr ee hi p hand stand . Make th e gy mn as t sho ot o ut ea rl y and late and d ro p under too fa r away and also too close. A free hip is a fee ling, unlike so me t ricks . Teac h il ea rl y as a ba sic (teach it fl at). D o n't save Ihis impo rtanl action (s tald er s, toe on , toe o ff , el c.) fo r ad va nced gymna sts. I t is too easy. GYMNAST D ec. 1974


David Black Coach, American Gymnastic Camp, Johnson City, New York

Th ese two sets of seq uence photos are ext remelY informa ti ve to th e understandin g of th e mechani cs of a f ree hip shoot. In th ese p hot os, Jo n start s from a cas t rath er th an a giant sw in g to sh ow th e power is n o t gene rated from th e giant. Since girls do not u se a giant as m en do, th ese photos and art icle wi ll ad op t to both m en 's and wo m en 's gymnas ti cs, In exa mi n in g th e photos of figure #1, we find th e cast is take n to a J/ , handstand w ith th e sho ulders p laced directl y ove r th e ba r, Th e head is in a neutral positi o n loo kin g at the bar (P hoto li l ), Th e seco nd photo finds j on's sh ould ers sli ghtl Y farth e r ove r th e bar th an before w ith th e hea d still neu tral (fo ll owin g bodY line) (Ph oto #2) , The third photo shows j o n 's should ers still over th e bar w ith the head still neutral (Ph oto #2). Th e third photo shows j o n 's sho uld ers still over th e bar w ith th e head sti ll neutral (Photo #3). During th ese firs t th ree seq uences, j o n 's we ight is ove r th e bar and pu shin g down ; not e th e bar be nd is down and away fro m him . A t thi s po int, I w ill refe r to Phot o ;;2, Fig ure 2. H ere jon 's shoulders are still ove r the bar and hi s hea d is neut ra l. A t thi s po int , th e free h ip ac ti o n begins (Ph o to #3). Th e sho ul de rs and head are thro w n bac k out of th e neutral


po sition. Not ice th at the speed in crease is extremely dynamic between Photo #2 and ;;3. j on's we igh t is now bei ng pull ed away fro m th e bar. o ti ce th e bar bend in the fo ll ow in g photo s is toward j on. Most girl s ha ve ex treme probl ems w ith be ndi ng th eir w ri sts during thi s tri ck. Rememb er, if a pe rso n is b ein g pull ed away from the bar, as j on is, the wr ists sho uld never break. On ce the p ressure is pull ed back into th e bar (bent arm s), th e w ri sts w ill fo ll ow by bending and a loss of th e fo rcef ul ac ti on needed to co mpl e te tr ick to handstand. Not ice from Ph o to 113, Fi gure #1, to Photo #4, j o n 's hip s are FREE from th e bar. I h ave fo und at thi s point , if a gi rl bring s her hips too close (less t han 10 inc hes), she wi ll lose al l momentum away from th e bar and res ult in bent arms and bent w ri sts to trY to co mp lete the tri ck. Photo 115, Figu re #1 shows j on 's pre vio us holl ow positi o n more pi ked. Thi s ex treme ho ll ow o r sli ght pike positi o ns hi s feet ove r th e ba r and d irects hi s momentum u p and ove rth e ba r. Ph o to #6 and #7 crea te th e powe r nee ded to reach a hand stand posi ti on o n top of the bar. Th e open in g action from pik ed to straight body is t he sa me as li ft in g an object. If Ph o tos #5 -6- 7 are looked at upsid e down, th e ac ti on of li ft in g w ith the back is shown . be This straight en i ng ac ti o n shou ld ex tremely dy namic to c rea te max imum powe r. On ce th e body is straight (Ph oto #7), ope nin g from t he should er begin s. Th e fee t and sho uld ers m ove to a hand stand positi o n.






GYMNAST Dec. 1974

By Bob Peavy Special Service Award USGF - Chicago - November 1974 SPEC IA L SERV ICES AWARD prese nted to A rt Aldr itt at th e nati o nal Assoc iat io n of Coll ege Coaches Mee tin g d urin g the 1974 USG F Coac hes Congress. Lyle We lse r, Chairman as ked Don Robin son to make th e prese ntati o n at th e mee tin g. A t thi s tim e it is ind eed a grea t pl eas ure to pau se for a few m inut es to recogn ize and honor one of o ur mo st indu stri ous fell ow wo rk ers, all of wh ic h is in keep ing w ith th e policy of th e ACGC Spec ial Se rv ice Awa rd s Com mitt ee. Thi s award is give n on th e b as is of th e co ntributi o n to th e NACGC as approved b y pop ul ar vo te of th e membership . Art Ald ritt is t he honored recip ient and hi s reco rd as a th ree- tim e Sec reta rY-Treasurer merit s thi s awa rd . Bri e fl y, A rt 's background is mo re comp lete ly listed i n "W ho 's Who in Gy mn as ti cs" where h e is li sted as a Team Ca pt ain of hi s Hi gh Schoo l and as A ll- A ro und Cham pi on of th e junior O lympi cs, Oak land Ath leti c Leag ue, o rth ern Califo rni a and Pacific AAU Circles. His ca reer at th e Uni ve rsity of Cal ifo rni a in c lud ed aga in hi s bein g Tea m Capta in and All-Aro un d AAU and Pacifi c Champio n. H e wa s a Hi gh Schoo l Coach fo r seve n years and is prese ntl y rounding o ut hi s tent h Coachin g yea r at the Un ive r sit y of Ca lifor ni a at Sa nt a Barbara . H e was e lected W estern Reg io n Coac h of th e Yea r in 1970 and ho ld s Na t ional and Int ern a ti o nal ju dging ca rd s. Thi s award , however , is prese nted in recog ni tion of hi s o ut standin g co nt ribu ti o ns as our SecretarY -Tr eas urer from 1970 throu gh 1973 . Ma inl y, hi s co ntributi o ns are as fo ll ows: 1. Dupli ca ted and d istributed first co pie s of 1972 Ol Ympi c/ NCAA co mpul sories to all NACGC and NCAA coac hes as soo n as th ey were made ava il ab le. 2. Resea rche d , ca tego ri zed and averaged all pas t Treasur y Expe nditu res and in co mes, so as to fo rm a base fro m which to pr oject future (T his c larifi ed the nee d for b udgets. es tablishi ng travelin g fun ds to help off ice rs att end symposium s, USG F m ee tin gs, et c.) 3. Insti ga ted comple te lin e-it em fin ancial report s fo r the bi- annual pre se ntati on to the membership. 4. In co njunct io n w ith th e exec u tive co mmitt ee, updated, revised, and redi stribut ed th e bY- laws three tim es so that cur rent practice s and statu tes we re reco ncil ed and cla rified. 5. H elped appo int ed chairm an Roger Co un sil in sti ga te and co-o rd in ate th e NACGC stati sti ca l se rvice. H elped co-ord in ate and promote th e und ert ak in g of o ur new 1974-75 stat isti ca l se rvice by j erry Wright. 6. Made se mi- annual mail in gs of flYers publici sin g th e funct ions of the ACGC to all 'CAA Coaches in the co un try. (For exa mpl e: many coaches, ex pe ri enced and new, d idn't know tha t it is th eir associa ti o n, not the CAA , tha t p rovides All Ame rica n recog nition for th eir G ymna sts as we ll as Na ti o nal Awa rd s fo r Coac hes.) 7. H elped in stigat e dlld dera ll ge fo r the p rese ntati on of plaq ue s to each of th e four reg io nal Coaches of the Year. Resea rch ed o ld reco rds so as to ma ke t he plaqu es ava ilab le retro-a ct ive to fonner regio nal w inn e rs who had here tOfo re not been p rese nt ed w ith a materia l award. A rt , o n behalf of you r fe ll ow Coach es, it is w ith great hOll o r and respec t that I p rese nt thi s awa rd to such a deserv in g pe rso n. Lyle Welser. Chairman Spec ial Serv ices Award Co mmitt ee


Double Saito Dismount By Dr. H.J. Biesterleldt, Jr. Certain as pects of th e m echani cs of the double sa ito from r in gs are no t understood by either pe rform ers o r coac hes, and th ese error s in understanding of mechani cs lea d to p oo r execut io n. In thi s no te we w ill trY to cl arif y th e mechani cs and thu s help p erfo rmer and coac h to do a b ett er job. Th e first question for any di smount is how to obtain h eight. On rin gs th ere are two ways: b y a powerful pull when th e bod y is ju st about atth e bottom of the swing, or by a push (toward a handst and) after th e bod y ha s rotated V2 sa ito . Fir st, if we ro tate ~, sa ito o n th e rings, th en pu sh to ge t height , we ar e rea ll y not d o in g a double sait o , but 1 ~, sa it o o r less. If yo u exa min e th e se qu ence photo s in Fi gure 1, yo u see that th e perform er has ba rely release d th e ring s in pi cture 5, and has o nl y l it. sa ltos Ye t to do. I reca ll at th e FIG jud gin g co urse th at we we re taught to d owngrade do ubl es don e by thi s technique, ye t mo st of th e fairl y high doub les th at I see are do ne in thi s wa y. By cont rast, se quence photo 4 in Figure 2 is at relea se tim e, and th ereafter th e per former ri ses becau se of the mome ntum he ga in ed as he sw un g throug h th e bot tom . No ti ce th e mu ch

mor e co mpac t tu ck, and th e conside rab lY grea ter height. Th e re is alm os t no arm bend in th e " pull" Esse ntiall y, th e height co m es from th e vigorous pike in frame 3 and from a pull wi th th e sho uld ers I ro m th e ex tr emely stretched position of frame 2. The criti ca l t hing in obtai ning height th ell is th e ex tr em e str etch before reac hing th e bo tt o m . In fa ct th e pu ll is almost automa ti c if suffi cient str etc h is obta ining beforehand . Th e sli ghtlY hollow po sitio n 01 frame 1 se rves no " m ech ani ca l " purpose . But it does help to se t up th e refle xive sho uld er contra cti o n at bottom th at wi ll give height. It might b e 0 1 i Ilteres tto give a few numeri cal va lu es th at w ill illdicate ju st how much force is i nvo lved. Stud ies indica te that at th e point of ma ximum l o rce, as mu ch as 10 (ten ) bod y we ight s 01 lorce are exe rt ed on th e rin gs. For a 125 p o und gymna st, that mea ns 1,250 pound s. Su ch a lorce give lot s of impetu s for a high di sm o unt. it th at force is exe rted w hil e th e bod Y ri ses 6 inc hes, there is suffi cient mom entum ga in ed so that the bod y w ill ri se 54 inc hes more by it se lf befor e it start s to fall. Th at is a to tal rise 0 1 Slee t, from a pull durin g th e

bottom 6 in ches. If th e pull lasts throug h 9 in ches, th e ri se w ill be 7 ~, feet. From th ese figures it is clear that p lent y of height ca n be obta ine d merel y b y proper use of th e downsw ing, and o f shoulde r and bodY act io n as th e performe r sw in gs through th e bottom . Now le t us con sider th e matt er o f rotati o n. New ton 's Laws tell us th at on ce we release th e rin gs we mu st alreadY have e no ugh angul ar mom entum , l or n o additi o nal angul ar momentum w ill b e ga in ed. But w ith a cert ain amount 0 1 angu lar m omen tum , we w ill rot ate fastest in the most compact position possible. For exa mpl e, th e po siti o n in Figur e 1 fram e 5 is much slower tha n th at in Figur e 2 frame 5. In a forthcoming resea rch note we wi ll publish a tabulation of relati ve speed s of rotation for var ious positions. H ere I w ill on ly give th e end res ult : to rotate as fast as possib le in a tuck , d raw the knees tight to th e chest , wit h ba ck a b it bounded , grasp legs so mewhat below th e knees , so th at the arms w ill pull n ot o nl y knees to chest, but also shins toward chest. MOREOVER keep th e h ead down . Spin is faster wit h the head near knees in th e tuck .

FIG. 2


GYMNAST Dec. 1974

FIG. 3 Our d em o n strator actua ll y shows a n eutral h ea d positi o n in Figure 2, fram e 3, and fo ll ows w ith a n e utral o r sli ghtl Y dow n h ea d p os iti o n in th e fir st sa ito. In frame 5 h e is no lo n ge r try in g to do a la st sa ito. H ere h e is look in g b ack to see th e g rou nd lor hi s landin g. WHAT WE HAVE JUST SA ID IS OF SUC H IMPORT ANCE TH A T WE W ILL REPHRA SE IT. The h ea d pos it ion for fastest rotation is not ba ck , but forward. The h ead shou ld b e back before th e open ing, not for speed of sa i to but so th e p erform e r can see hi s landing ea rl y enough to co ntrol it. Al so n o te th at th e h ead po siti o n is n eutral d urin g th e und e rswing and p ull. Other po siti o n s are aw kward , and co nt r ibut e ve ry littl e . Aga in in Figur e 2, 110tice th at b e tw ee n fr am es 3 and 4 th e bod y was in front of th e lin e of th e ring ca bl es. IF A l ANY I NS TANT THE CENTE R OF GRAV ITY OF lHE BOD Y IS IN FRONT OF TH E LI N E OF THE CABLES, AND THE PERFORM ER PULLS O N THE RI NGS, THAT PU LL TENDS TO REDUCE THE BACKWARD ROT A liON . That is w h y we sw in g fr ee in front of th e rin gs, and pu sh back o n th e m for a shoo t to hand stand : we wa nt to k ill all th e rotati o n b y th e tim e we reach the top. II a performer tri es to sw ing out in fr o nt of th e rings (w hi c h is good) and also pull s as hi s bod y is out i n I rOllt , h e GREATLY REDUCES HI S SALTO SPEED. So il h e wa nt s to pull fo r a lo n g tim e, he mu st sw in g c lase in lin e w ith th e rin gs, as in Fi g ure 1. Loo k n ow at th e se quen ce of a pik ed doubl e, Fi gure 3. Fram es 6 and 7 diffe r g rea tl y frolll th e ea rli er o n es, lor th e should e rs we re pull ed b e hind th e rin gs; th e lin e of th e ca b les m o re

GYMNAST D ec. 1974

n ea rl y p asses t hroug ht h e ce nt er of gra v it y. Betwee n Irames 7 and U th e ce nt e r of gra vit y ac tuall y m oved b ehin d th e lin e of th e rin gs. Th at me an s th at th e pull don e b etwee n frame s 7 and 8 ac tu all y i n c rease d th e sa it o sp eed. Note also that th e grip was re leased ju st before fram e U so that th e p e rfo rm er ha s ju st about 1 \'2 sa l tas to do free in th e air. It is also wort h noting th at th e to es after 1 ", sa l tos are ju st b e low th e top of th e ring strap s and th e e ntir e bod y is sti ll abo ve th e r in gs.

rotation w h en th e bod Y gets to th e bottom. Eith er by pullin g h ard befor e th e bod y moves out fr o n t , o r b y keep in g the ce nt er o f grav it y in lin e w ith th e ca bl es in th e pull , we ca n ga in he ight wi th ou t loo sin g thi s rota ti on. A nd th e re is q uit e a lo t 0 1 ro tat io n th e re. I re m embe r a few yea rs ago put tin g a man ill th e b e lt to start o n a doubl e . H e was sca red. H e did a di sloca t e and re lease d ait e r ju st th e leas t bit of a pull , c lo se d hi s eyes and tu c ked tig ht. H e did th e o nl y trip le of hi s lil e acc id e ntall Y o n hi s fir st tr y at a double.

In thi s sa ito th e p e rforille r h as hi s h ead back as h e pu lb. Thi s DOES OT I NC R EASE SAL TO SPEED . It do es mak e it eas ie r to keep th e should e rs be hind th e rin gs durin g the pull , and that does h elp . Ac tu all y th e p e rformer h ad hi s h ea d back too long , and showed a somewha t slo w sa ito as a res ult. It wo uld be better if the head we re n e utral or dow n in fr am es U, 9, 10, so that it onl y move d back for fr am e 11 , to get se t for the lalldin g. Instea d , h e saw th at h e was n o t quit e around i ll Iram e 11 , so h e ti ght en ed th e p ik e, thi s tim e w i th h ea d d ow n a bit as in fram e 12, to brin g it aro und to a stre tch ed landin g. Th e sa ito sh o uld have turn ed furth e r soon er, to allow an earli e r and m o re co mpl ete ex tens ion before landin g.

On th e m att e r o f safe ty : I find th at un less I ha ve br o u gh t d m an Iro m th e beg innin g up to hi s c urr e nt leve l, I am un able to pred ict hi s ac tion s rel iabl y. A h and sp ot fo r a d o ubl e is quit e sale il th e perfor m e r is pr edi c ta b le. I f not , u se a be lt. A nd re m emb er th at th e belt is n o t onl y to keep th e p erfo rm e r from landing o n hi s head. It also sho uld g ive en ough support at landing in stant th a t eve n if an ankle is turn ed o ut of position the re w ill be n o all k le injury. A brok en an k le is still a brokell ankl e, eve n if th e p e rfo rm er stalld s up th e di smount w hile br ea king it.

TH E KEY TO TH E PIKU) DO U BLE IS I THE MA ER OFI H E PU LL. SHO U LIJ ERS MUST REM A I BEHI D LI E OF CAB LES. THE O N LY PRACTIC A L A LTER NA li VE IS TO H AN G O N FOR O N E SA L10 AND DO A PI KED BAC K OFF FROM THE lOP (a 11 0 t ve ry va lu abl e di smount ). One lin al word o n ga inin g o f an g ul ar mom entum : " th e di slocate is don e so th at in th e down sw ill g th e ring s are clo se togeth er, bod y stretch ed , th e ll th ere is alrea d y lo ts of

I n l act. th e b elt ca n b e d tr e m e n dous h e lp in giv in g th e perlo rm e r th e feeli ll g of h ow to gai n height. ~ or il the spotter m erely pull s in abou t 6 i nc hes 0 1 ro p e ju st bel ore th e Ill an p dsses through the bottom. th e belt wi ll dss ist in th e powe rlul bottom pull. Th ere is no loss of sai to du e to a pull b y t h e b e lt at thi s ti m e, ju st as th e re is no ne due to th e perlo rm er 's pu ll . So th e man ca n sta rt ou t I rom th e lirst or seco ll d tr y, doi ng a do ubl e th at lee b ju st about ri g ht. A nd making thin gs l eel ri g htlr o m th e ve ry b eg illllin g iso n e of th e m os t v,liuabl e thill gs th e teac h er c an do lo r a p e rl o rm er. ~


"ew Regulations Govern Elites (Approved September 26, 1974) Fro m: M rs. j ack ie U . Fi e, USGF Women 's Techn ical Commit tee, Box 312, j efferso n, Iowa 50129 CALENDAR (A p p roved at Ma rch 20, 1974 M ee tin g of WTC) First Phase - M id -Nove mber (after Co ng ress of Coac hes) - Elite Clinic at th e Regiona l Leve l, Novemb er 16-1 7 or 23 - 24. First Regional PreQualification Meet - j an uary 11-1 2 o r 18-19. First National Elite Qualification Meet Feb ruar y 14-1 5. Second Phase - Ea rl y March - Elite Clinic at th e Reg io nal Leve l, M arch 1-2. Second Regional Pre-Qualification Meet - March 14-15. Second National Elite Qualification Meet - Apr il 25 -26. Third Phase - Elite National Championships jun e 12-14 or 19- 21. USOC Pan-Am Trials March 21-22. REGULA TlONS 1. On ly those gy mn as ts who ea rn ed a 72. 00 point AA score at the May, 1974 Elit e Mee t w ill be all owed to di rect ly e nt er the 1975 Elit e national Meet. Th ese gYmnasts are : Ri ce, Dunbar, Carr, Pi e rce, Gayner, Thie s, Yocum, H owa rd and Cain. H oweve r, it is necessa ry for th e m to e nt e r th e First nati o nal Elit e Qu alification M eet in o rder to q u alify for th e Pan-Am Tri als. 2. Only th ose gym na sts who earned a 70.00 point AA score at th e May, 1974 Elite Meet wi ll be allowed to directl y e nte r the 1975 Elit e Nationa l Qu a li fication Meets in Feb ru ary and Apri l. Th ese gymnasts are: Walk e r, Hill , Israel, Pay to n, Archer, Govin, M ys lak, Dowa lib y, Gross, Phillip s, Bleame r, Sh otwe ll, Casey. H oweve r , it is necessary for th em to enter th e First Na tion al Elite Qua lifi ca tion Meet in order to qua lify for the Pan-Am Trial s. 3. If a gYmnast attain ed less th an a 70.00 point AA sco re in May, 1974 Meet, she wi ll have to requalify f or the 1975 Elit e Compet iti on thro ugh a Regional Elite Pre- Qu alifi ca tion Meet in Janu arV o r March. Note: Th e above m eas ures we re ap pro ved at th e j anuary, 1974 WTC Meetings ... 1,2,3. 4. Th e U SGF juni or and Se nior Nationa l C hampion ships w ill no longer qualify gy mna sts into th e Elit e nati ona l Meet. (Discussed at th e jun e, 1974 WTC Meet in g.) 5. An Elite gY mn as t, w ho fai ls to qu alify for th e 1975 Elite National Meet in eith er th e Feb ru ary o r Apri l Nationa l Qualification Meet, ma y further compete in the followin g m anner: a. Enter th e Reg ional Cla ss I Meet (us in g USGF/ DGWS Advan ced Compu so ri es) and be e li gi bl e to q ualify for ju nior o r Senior Nationals. Note: OnlY thos e gy mn as ts who d rop out of th e Elite Program after th e February


Nat iona l Quali f icat ion Meet are so eli gib le. If a gymnast competes in the Reg io nal C lass I Meet, she m ay not compete in th e Nat io nal Elite Qu alifi cat io n Meet in April. b . Ent e r th e Elit e Divis ion of th e Reg ional Meet in Apr il provided she ha s not ent e red th e Regiona l Cl ass I Meet. Note: Any gym na st qu alified fo r th e Nat io nal Qu alifi catio n Meets ma y e nt e r th e Elit e D ivisio n of t he Reg io nal Meet, provided th ey do not drop o ut and c hoose to ente r th e Class I Di visio n. c. Enter dir ec tl Y int o the juni o r o r Senio r N ti ona ls prov id ed she has attained a 66.40 AA score (8.3 ave rage) at either one of th e Feb ru ary o r Apr il Nat io nal Elite Qualification Meets. Note: She is then in eli g ibl e for the Elite Nat io nal Meet. Note: Measur es 5a, b , and c were approved at th e Jun e, 1974 WTC Mee tin gs. 6. In o rder to qu alify fo r the 1975 Elit e Na tion al C hampion ship s, a gymnast mu st ea rn a 70.00 point AA score (8.75 ave rage) at e ith e r th e Feb ruary or Ap ril n ati ona l Elit e Qua li fication Meet. Note : Approved at th e jun e, 1974 WTC Meeting. 7. An y gYmna st se lected to th e Pan-Am Te am durin g th e March, 1975 Tr ia ls w ill automa ti ca ll y qualify for th e Elit e Na tio nal Championsh ips, in case she ha s n ot done so already. Note: App roved at th e jun e, 1974 WTC Meeting . 8. An y gY mnas t se lec ted to the World C hampionship Tea m will automatically qu alify for th e Elit e nation al Championships in case she has no t don e so already. COMPULSORY AND OPTIONAL EXERCISE REGULA lIONS 1. Both Compu lso ry and Opti o nal Exercises will be co mp eted at all Elite Meets during 1974 and 1975 . 2. Th e Comp ul so ry Exercise w ill be as foll ows : Vau lt H ansp ring Vault (Pan -Am Comp ul so ry). Th e handspr ing is an exce ll e nt developmental va u lt. Yamashita Vault (OlYmp ic Compulsory) . The Yamashita w ill give a head start on the Ol Ympic Compulsory. Th e gymnast w ill th e n begin ex ploring o th e r kind s of 10 point va ult s fo r optiona l p erfo rm an ce in 1975-76. Eac h va ult w ill be execu ted on ly o nce and the order is op ti o nal. The score of the best va ult w ill co unt for Co mpul so ry Tota l. A one po int penalty w ill be taken f rom th e bes t va ult sco re if o nl y one va ult is p erform ed or th e sa me va ult is exec uted twi ce . Uneven Bars - Pan-Am ve rsion o f th e World Games Compu lsory (m ou nt-straddl e va ult LB to catc h in h ang o n HB ; d ismount - f ro nt hip circ le, stoo p th ro ug h to rear suppo rt , basket, st radd le cut to front stand. )

Note: As you m ay have noted , n o thin g is sa id about how an adva nced gymn ast ca n break int o th e Elit e program. After talkin g w ith ou r Regio nal Chairman it has bee n d ete rmin ed th at a hi gh leve l gy mn as t m ay att end th e Elit e C linics to lea rn th e compu lso ri es and th e n compe te using them plu s op tionals at th e Reg io nal PreQu ali fy in g Meet s in j anu ary and March. NEW PUBLICATIONS NOW AVAILABLE Rules and Policies for Girls Thi s book has b een co mpl ete ly rew ritt e n and co n tains 78 pages of rul es, po li cies and sugges ti o ns for runnin g a highl Y effi cie nt m eet. No one must be w ith o ut thi s book! $4.00 1976 Montreal Olympic Compulsory Exercises Officia l Translation $1.00 1975 Pan-American Compulsory Exercises: M en & Women $ .50 1974 FIG Table of Vaults for Women (USGF ve rsion m ay have stick s) $1.00 1974 EXPO - Sou ve ni e r Program o f Ru ss ian Ex hibiti o n co nt ainin g co lored ph o tos, sto ri es and arti c les of int eres t $2.00 Th e above are all avai lab le at USGF in Tu cso n

Wed! d ¥llmnDGIi~ \" shi!t/$5.0~;~: 410 Broadway Santa Monica CA 90406

Pl ease se nd me th e Gymnast 'T' shirts I have c heck ed abovea t $5.00 ea. ppd . I am enclosing a c hec k for th e tot al amount: $ ___ . (Ca lifo rnia res ident s add 6'X. sa les tax.)

$5.00 ea. ppd. Order NOW! JUNGLE



Balance Beam - Pan-Am e lemen ts w ith o rde r and co nn ec tion s as in th e World Games Compul sory Ve rsio n. Floor Exercise - Pan -Am e lemen ts w ith o rd er and co nn ec ti o ns as in th e Wo rl d Games Co m p ul sory Ve rsion. Note: Th ese above exe r cises w ill be u sed at Regio nal Pr e-Qua lifi cat io n Meet, national Qu alifi ca ti on Meets, and Reg io nal Elite Di vision Champion ships. A lso, th e USOC PanAm Tri als. 3. Th e Compu lso ry Exe rci ses fo r th e Elit e Na ti ona l Champion ship s w ill be th e 1976 Ol ympic Co mpul sory Exercises. 4. Optional Exerc ises for the Regional Pr eQu ali fication Meet, national Qua li fication M ee ts, Regional Elite Division Championships, and USOC Pan-Am Tri als w ill b e jud ged on the current FIG Reg ul ati o ns: 5 point difficu lt y, 3 point exec uti o n , amplitud e, general impress io n, and 2 point co mpos iti o n ; new beam tim e; new va ultin g p enalti es, team rule s, fin al rules, and Table of Va ult va lu es and numbe rs. 5. Optional Exercises fo r th e 1975 Elit e national C hampion ships m ay be jud ged on th e 1975 FIG CODE OF POI N TS , provided th e forthcoming Code is rece ived in tim e to arrange and in st ru ct for it s app licat ion. END OF BULLETI N

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Zip - - - - - - School - - - -- - -- -- -

GYMNAST Dec. 1974


EBUTTAL___ _ _ _ _ __ BECAUSE OF THE CONSCIENTIOUS, KNOWLEDGEABLE PEOPLE TRAINED TO OFFICIATE AND ADMINISTER OUR SPORT, GYMNASTICS IS AN "EQUAL OPPORTUNITY" SPORT. Rath er than b e anonymous, I am Joanne Pasquale In the statement b y Ms. Anonymous o n page 46 of th e November iss ue o f Gymnast magaz in e the integrit y of two very fine USG F Women 's Comm itt ee office-holde rs is being questio n ed. Because of the deta il ed descript io n offered in the sa id article, anyone from the state of wo uld know w ho is bei ng accused and by whom. Th e "coach " / crit ic, who co ul d successf ull Y double as a knif ethrowing iH t is t at t imes, used ve ry poor judgement (nea rl y as poor as tha t w hi ch she accused her RTD and STD of demonstrat in g). She ha s th e ri ght , of co urse, to her op ini on, but I am sure t hat few, if an y, wou ld be in agreement wit h her " cr itica l analysis" . It wou ld seem that if th ere is a prob lem w ith the qua lit y of judging that on e cou ld use ad ult methods of p rob lem-so lvin g tech ni ques. Hurling sca thin g critic ism hardl y see m s ad ult nor prob lem so lv in g. What th en does such an art icl e accomp li sh ? In Reg io n I, whe re I am in vo lved, we have man y differences of op ini on. Together, coac hes, judges an d USG F personnel have lea rn ed that eve ry pro blem has a so lution . Because of th e shortage of jud ges and the growth of o ur spo rt we w ish to enco u rage our people in thei r work . M s. Anonymo us refe rs to the ESTAB LI SH ED cl u bs rece ivin g prefere ntial tr ea tment by th e jud ges. I am co n fident , know in g th e i nteg rit y o f the judges in q ues ti on, th at w homever rece ived th e hi ghe r sco res ea rn ed them w ith su perio r performances and not wit h th e 'co lor' of their leo tards. So met im es th is is a b itter pill fo r a yo u ng ambiti o us coac h to swa ll ow. It is nea rl y imposs ibl e to rema in unbi ased w hen one is a coac h and, to be sure, tha t is no t th e coach's job. Th erefo re we, as jud ges have

lea rn ed to to lerat e so m e of th e exaggerations we ha ve been mad e to hea r. A nd we, b ein g human, are subj ec t o t erro r. Thu s we may ad ju st a sco re if a prot es t uncove rs o ur error. It is un fort unate th e USGF per sonne l w ho wou ld give of th eir time , ta lent, and effo rt shou ld be rewa rded with unfair, unnecessa ry and, w hat is worse, anony mous att acks o n th eir characters. On e does not beco me an RT D o r STD by comp romis ing one 's eth ics or standard s. Nor does o n e b eco m e such an office-holder by weari ng th e prop er- co lored leotard . One does howeve r becom e eli gible for such an office by d emo n strat in g th at she is a person of integ rit y w ith ex pe ri ence and knowledge and a w illingness to up ho ld the rul es and poli cies of th e USG F. She stud ies and spends time in a gy m , ever-refres hing and growin g so th at she ma y b e most fair and capab le at th e nex t compet ition. Some tim es th e RTD or STD is " un lucky" eno ugh to hav e a daughter in vo lved in t he spo rt. Sho uld she be punis hed for all owin g her daug ht er to affil iate w ith a gym club? Sh e is pla ced i n a mos t un comfo rt ab le posit ion. It has been m y p leasure to ha ve been gymnas t and to n ow se rve as a coach and a judge and a USGF RTD, an offi ce I ho ld in hi gh esteem . I have a daughter who has become a gymnast and is co mp etin g for a So uth ern Californ ia team. Perhap s thi s is w h y I fee l ob ligated to wr it e t hi s lett er. God w ill ing th e RTD and STD w ill deve lop ve ry " thi ck skin " 'and not suffer by th e i ll -c hosen remark s of o ne skeptic. In closing I w ish to m enti on th at we ju d ges. are required to pass a test to p rove we are qua li fied. There is no te st sco re to qua lify o ne to assume th e titl e "gYm nas ti cs coach " befo re a perso ns name ! A nd yet I wou ld be the last to cri tic ize or beli ttle th e coac h, Ms. Anon ymo us, in h er wo rk . It is m y humbl e w ish that she wou ld be stow, o n my co ll eagues th e 'sa me court esy. Thank yo u, G lenn , for th e op port unit y to respo nd. I wou ld we lco me o th er readers' opin io ns. ~

USGF NATIONAL CHRISTMAS CLINIC Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona December 27-30, 1974 SPONSORED BY : All -Ame ri ca n GymnaslicCamps and Arizona Stale Univ e rsity in coop eration with th e United Slates Gymna stics Fede ration

Co-Directors: George He rr, former wo rld trampolin e champion , fo rmer N isse n Corp. , Consu ltant . cu rrentl y Di rec tor of

GYm nastics, San Ju an United Sc hoo ls. Rusty Mitchell, 1973 Wo rl d Un iversit y Ga me s Coac h, 1974 United Sta tes Wo rl d Games Coac h, fo rmer O lympian, GYmna st ics coach , Un iversity of ew Mexico. Stormy Ea ton, Uni ted Sta tes Tumb li ng Champion, Coach of Desert Gymnastics Trainin g Center, USA, World Silver Medalist.

Inslruelion Instru ction at all levels from th e ver)' beg inner to the most advanced. Teach ing will be designed to meet Yo ur needs. Ages: 6 yea rs through adul t. Compe tit ions for all levels: men , wome n, bo ys, gi rl s. age groups - all eve nt s. Special AUraelions "Night of Stars" Christma s Clin ic Meet Top In stru ctors performing along with se lected clinic part icipant s. Featuring the top O lYmpi ans in the US A.


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GYMNAST Dec. 1974


by Dick Criley RULES OF THE GAME. By th e Diagram Grou p . 1974. Publi shed by Paddington Press, Ltd. of th e Two Contin ellts Publi shin g G roup. 320 pp. $14.95.

Bill ed by it s publi shers as th e complete illu strated encyclope di a of all th e spo rt s of th e wo rld , Rules of the Game is a we ll-illustrated compendium describing th e rul es of p lay, so m e strat egy, important term s, officials, tea m co mposition, uniforms, sco rin g, penalt ies, and dimensio ns of pl ayin g field s and equipm ent. On e of th e interesting as p ec ts of the book is it s organi za tion. The spo rts are gro uped into 13 categories: A thl eti CS, GYmn as ti cs, Comb at, Targe t, Targ et Ball,Co urt, Tea m , St ick and Ball, Wat er, Winter, Anima l, Wh ee ls, and Air . More than 400 sporting eve nt s are cove red, and if thi s doesn 't in clude all of th e sports in the world , it isn ' t b eca use th e Diag ram Gr oup hasn 't tri ed. The y ma y lump a few togeth er or omit some: hang-gliding and remote-contro ll ed mode l aircraft und er air sport s, or Hobi e-cat ra cing and surf-sa ilin g in th e water area, the Soapbox D erby in th e wheels ca tego ry, and Fri sb ee - but ba sicall y they 've got ju st about eve rything from A ikido to Yacht racin g. The illu stration s are we ll don e although a few ca ption s co uld ha ve bee n expanded to mak e clearer t he p o int of th e illu stration. Th e tex t is mo re free of typographic errors than one would ex p ect in suc h a di ve rse assortment of covera ges. Having watched our own layout artists at work, I can app reciate th e job of their artists. It is difficult to keep a sport down to a few pages and do it justi ce; therefore th e reason for the se lec ti vity of w hat w ent into thi s book. Th ere simpl y would not have been room for hi story, heroes of th e sport, national var iati ons (as ide from form s o f football ) and details of the sport (which a real fan of the sport will alrea dY know).

In the acknowl ed ge m ent s, d grea t man y sport s gove lilillg bodi es dre cit ed . It is difficult to d etermill e il th ese are o nl y th e o nes w hi ch co n tr ib ut ed or ju st w hy th ey hdve bee n cited as th ere are mdn y impo rt dnt Oll es wh ich have been omitt ed il th e li st is m ea llt to be co mpl e te. I ass ume th e lo rm er to b e th e case, but still wonde r abou t omiss io ll s su ch as the Ca nad ian Gymna sti cs ~ e d e rdtion o r U.S. Trampoline Assoc iation (to Il dme a co upl e in o ur sport s area). Now, to th e redso n I was asked to review th e book: it s cove rd ge of gym nas ti cs and trampolilling . First, th e 10 eve nt s are we ll -descr ibed and illu strat ed w ith th e 1972 Ol ympi c co mpul so rY routin es in th e co urse of so m e 7 pag es. Littl e or no empha sis is give n to th e all-around (men tion ed o nl y in co nnec ti o n w it h th e Ty p e II Co mpe tition <lnd still no t adequatelY d escribed). '1he d escription of penalti es rea d s as if it ca me Irom th e wo men 's Co d e o f Points ' usin g th e examp le of " lack of assura nce o r e lega n ce" fo r ge ll e ral fault s and acknow led gin g " fault s specific to th e apparat us," but go in g on to more spec ifics on each event in turn . Th e mos t recent Comp lement to th e FI G Code see m s to be in co rpo rat ed so thin gs are up-to-dat e until th e nex t iss ue. '1he dpparatu s specifi cd ti o ns are given both in th e me tri c an d Engl ish sys tem s w ith a ma ximum size but no millimum, Th e height s fo r K ami HB are low as 104 in ches now seem s to be standJrd. A dditi o nall y th ere is no mentio n of co mpetiti ve rh ythmi c gymnastics or Gymnastics Mode rn e as it is ca ll ed i nt ernat ionall y. I rea d the trdmp o lin e sec ti o n cJre full y and co uld not lind d clea r di sc uss io n of th e ba sis for sco rin g (10.0 l or exec ution plu s the to tal deg ree of ditticu lt y). The sy nc hro ni zed and indi vidu al co mp etition s are mi xed toge th er in so me d escri ption s so it is diffic ult to se parate th em. Sin ce int ernati o nal co mpul so ry routin es ex ist for thi s sport , it wo uld have been va lu ab le to ha ve includ ed them as gymnastics was accorded thi s treatment, b ut th ey may have been trimmed fo r concisell ess . Th ere is no

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This years National Gymnasti c Clinic in Sarasota , Florida w ill be held December 26-30, 1974. Teaching director Abie Grossfeld, Coach of Sout hern Conn ec ti c ut Gymnastics Team, along with Jeff Henn essy, " Mr. Trampoline " , w ill hea d this yea rs li st of fine coaches . Ass isting Abie and Jeff will be such peo pl e as: Di c k Aronson, Ken Allen , Jim Yongue , Pat Signorelli , and Jerry Manasce. Also in attendance w ill be outstanding gymn as ts such as: Peter Korman , Jay Wh elan and Ma llory Perkins. For more information co nta ct: Rick Wells, REGISTRAR 406 Rollingsgate, Apt. C-1 Andalusia, Penna. 19020

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menti o n 0 1 co mpetiti ve tumbling ill eith er gymna sti cs o r trdillp o lillill g. One other as pec t o f th e gymnastics sec tion which intri gued me was the in clu sio n o f weight-lifting. I suppose it had to fit so m ew here, but gymnast ics? Th e po tential audi ence fo r thi s book should in c lude Phys i cal Education teachers , Recrea tion Di rec tors, n ewspa per sports desks, librarie s and th e all-a ro und sports fan . Ther e is a wea lth of information th erein.


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GYMNAST Dec. 1974


,\\eet I~esillts, 197 4 ILLI N OI S COMPULSORY M EET O ct. 261h, O ak Par k, Illinois 14 yrs. & und er Team : America n Aca dem y of Gymnastics ; AA: Jeff Van yek 49.4; Jim Bloyd 43.7 ; Ron Barsiak 42.3. FX : Ron Bart siak 8.1 ; PH : Jeff Van yek 8.4; SR: Jeff Van ye k 9.0; V: Jeff Va nyek 8.2; PB : Je ff Vanyek 8.6; HB: Jim Bloyd 8.1. H igh Schoo l: Team: Park District of Oak Park . AA: Do n

Osborn 49.35; Tr oy Chovan 42.25; Martin




Gonzalez 38.00. FX : Richard Bradle y 8.15; PH : Dal e CorkiI17.95; SR : Don O sborn 7.9; V: Don O sborn 6.45; PO: Don Osborn 9.0; HB : Jo hn Biggs 8.55.


College Di visio n : Tea m : N orthern Illinoi s Uni versit y, AA: Glen

Tidwe ll 44.42; Lance Gar rett 44.15; John Ranck 43.96. FX : SIeve Shepherd 8.6; PH :

Ton y Han son 9.26; SR: Tom "Va re 8.96; V: Glen Tidw ell 9.2; PO: Mike KUl1zweiler 8.85; H8 : Paul Kaho vec 7.8.

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GEORG IA: .3007 North Druid Hills Rd . Atl an ta-3 0329



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WOULD YOU LIKE TO COMMUNICATE WITH THE READERS OF " GYMNAST"? " GYMNAST CLASSIFIED", a monthl Y fea ture, is yo ur opportuni ty. Rates are 20<1 pe r word for th e first 25 wo rd s ($5.00 mini mum ) and 10<1 for each addition al wo rd . (Ads are accept ed at the discreti on of th e publi sher). Check or mon ey ord er must accom pany coPy and be rece ived pri or to th e closing date, which is th e 10th of the month p receding iss ue date. Send ord ers to Class ified Dept. , " GYM AST" Magazin e, P.O. Box 110, Sa nta Mon ica, CA 90406.

. REALLY CARE! Dea r Mr. Sundby , ... Our tea m is a y ea r old a nd it 's ca ll ed the " Specs". Our coac hes a re Mr . a nd Mrs . S ind ori s a nd we' re proud to have coac hes tha t rea lly ca re. Ka thy Swobod a Leslie T r a nc hini Anna nd a le , VA . LE T DO WN Dea r Mr . Su ndby , I was a li tlle le t down when I d id not see t he r es ults 0]' the Boys State Gymnas ti cs .Meet in Vermont ente re d in your m agaz ine. I a m a Sta te Champion gym nas t, a s ubscribe r a nd a Vermonte r - I ca n onl y a ss um e th a t th e Ve rmon t Hea dm as te rs a r e ve ry in compe tent - or lazy for not se ndi ng t he r esul ts to your m agaz ine. Ther e fore as a form er hig h sc hool com pe ti tor I will send the res ults to you a nd hopefull y you will e nte r them in yo ur next maga zi ne. T ha nks , R ay Vlj ven II Lynd on Sta te Coll ege Lyndon vill e , VA . Boys Res ults Tea m Sta nd in gs : Northfie ld , 72.78; Bu r li ngton , 71.65; Esse x, 70.92. All -A r ound: Cr ev ier , SB, 3.93; Mendic ino . Essex , 3.87. FX: Bli ven , MM : Duke tte , N: ewton , B. SR: Ki r by , F: Ahea rn , R: Mendi Cino , E. HB : Sid Br a d ley , N: Ahea rn , R: ti e - Ba ker , E: De F e lice, N. PH : Kirby , B: Ri c ha rd , H: Asse lin , N. V: DeFe lice, N: F . m e ndi cino , E: Goodin , B. P B: Kirby , B: Cr ev ie r , SB: Me ndic in o, E. E D. Were very ha ppy you s e nt these , thi s is the fir s t r epor t we 've rec eived of thi s m ee t. Too ba d you didn ' t sent the gir ls too . Nex t tim e se nd a picture if you ca n. 1IIIIIIIIIIIIIIJllillUllfllUnltlHlllllllllllllllllllllllUIIIIIIUltllllllllllllllllllii1111111111


MONTREA L (O IYmpress 76 ) - Orders fo r ti cke ts to t he 1976 O lym p ic Ga m es will be ta ken aro un d th e wor ld beg in nin g in th e sp ri ng of 1975. Pri ces and n u mb e r of ticket s avai lab le w ill be released earl y in 1975 , says M au ri ce Fo rget , directo r-ge ne ral. of sp ec tator se rvices fo r t he O rga ni zin g Comm itt ee o f th e 1976 O lympi c Gam es (COJ O - for Comite Orga n isate ur d es Je ux O lympiq ues) . Tic ket o rde rs wi ll b e mad e thro ugh nationa l ag encies reco mm e nd ed to COJ O by nati o nal O lYm p ic comm itt ees in ea ch co u ntry. T he age ncies w ill b e ann o unced w ith in · a few mo nth s. There w ill b e ad van ce sales pe ri od s p ri orto th e Jul y 17 - Au g. 1, 1976 Gam es. Th e f irst pe ri od, starting next sp rin g, wi ll r un u nt il t he end of t he summer of 1975. Th e second w i l l be from someti m e i n t he fa ll of 1975 until th e e nd of A p ri l 1976. A ti m e gap betw ee n t he two o rd e r pe ri ods wi ll all ow CO JO to assess ti ck et sa les and rea dju st all otm e nts. Peop le w h o p lac e t ic ket ord e rs w ill receiv e vou chers that w ill be exchanged fo r tick ets afte r Jun e 1, 1976 at th e o ut lets w here t heY mad e t he ir o rders. A ft er th e las t advan ce sa les period e nd in g i n Ap ril 1976 , ti c kets w il l hav e to be p u rchase d f rom a ce nt ral o ffice in Mo ntrea l. D u ring t he Gam es, t ick et off ices wi ll be lo ca ted at all O lYm pi c co m p eti ti o n sites.

JUDGIN G GU IDE fo r G Ylllnas tics - a com pi led dill ocd b ook let by Caro le Li edtke fro m a ll of the po ss ibl e so u rces abo u t Judgi ng. Inlcud es no tes o n ps yc ho logY. ph ys io log y, and tec h ni qu es of g)' mn asti cs as we ll as judging duties, and ru les. $1.75 i ncl ud es postage and ma ilin g. Sen d m o n ey and add ress to Carole l ied tke. 6805 Moorhaven Dr. lou si vill e. KY. 40228.




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Dec. 13-14 Rocky Mo ull tain Ope n D ec. 14 I ntcrmin is l ry Xm as part)' 6:00 Dec. 26-31 Ca m pus Chr isl mas co n fe ren ce Jan 5 Moose hea rl Jan 7 o r 9 10 a.lll. W heal o n Chr isti an H ig h Schoo l

Chape l Jan. 14 \" ' healO l1 Ch ristian H igh school even in g prog ralll fo r pa rent s Jan. 16 10 :1~ a. lll. \'V healOn Nonh H igh School assembl)' Jan. 22 Greg Hi cks (l e l1l.) Fe b. 11 8:00 p .m. Chri stia n Yo uth Ce n te r M ar . 1 USGF Comp ulso ry meet (wom en ) M ar. 20-21 A l A \·v \'Vo rn c n 's Inle rco lleg iate Regiona ls M ar. 27-29 NCAA Coll ege D iv isio n Na tio nal s Ap r. 3-4 A lA Ca bin et Apr. 3-5 A IA vV vVo llle n 's In te rco ll eg iate I ati onal s

Apr. 6-12 AlA Week - To ledo A p r. 3-5 o r 10-12 NCA A U ni ve rsit y Di visio n N ational s M ay 1-5 Virgi n ia. Ivti nn eso la To u r (tent ati ve) Ma y 19-30 A l A Staff Tra inin g (tenta ti ve) Jun e 16-1 9 A li\ A th lelic Con fer ence


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Mr. Daile Va n Patt e n (607 ) 797-2616 Ca mpl' ilie Roa d Box 244 Endicott, New York 13760

Mr. C harles Froe ming (319) 337-7096 1900 Sou th Ri ve rsid e Drive Iowa C it y, Iowa 53340

Hampshire Gymnas lics Sc hoo l

Barb Kn o th e (412) 672-050 2 326 31st Street McKeesport , PA 15132

Bucks Gymnas ti cs Ce nte r (215) 322-2486

Ann e Vex le r (413) 256-6990

Mr. D ave Kehler

21 Gra nb y H e ights

4432 Bristol Road Oakford. PA 19047 Lancaster Gymnasti cs School (717) 394 -7380

Gran by, Ma ss. 01033

.Stri gg ows Gymn as ti c Wear (313) 856-2558 9496 Secor Road Temperan ce, Michigan 48182

l inda Zook & Jack Brunn er 555 North Prince Street Lancas ter, PA 17603

Chalp- U p Sho p (201 ) 381 -6644

Nitt a ny Gymn asti cs Sc hool (814) 238-B995

211 Elmer Street Westri e ld , New Jersey 07090

linda Vi lla

Centur y Sc hool or Gymnas tics

Mr. Pel Mead (914) 357-2382 Ca mp Hili Da), Camp Ca mp Hili Road Po mo na , New York 10970

412 West College Sta te Co liege, PA 16801 Pa rk e tt e Gymn astics Club (215) 779- 4210 Vicki Yocum 3200 Str ee t Law rence A ve.

Rea di ng. PA 19606

Early Dec. Firsl USGF Pre-Qualifying M e el a nd Qualifying round fo r Wo m e n fo r Pan-Am G a mes 1975 Dec. 3 or 4 Th e Ru ss ia n m e n 's and Wo m e n 's Na ti o na l Tra mpo lin e a nd Tumblin g te ams w ill be a t Ke nt Sta te U. o n o ne of these d a tes ... M o re Info later Dec. 7 Th ird An nua l W este rn New Yo rk Wo mens Inte rna tio na l Invita ti o na l Gymn as tic M eet. Opt io na ls o nl y. USG F Sanct io ne d. Spo nsore d b y Bri g ht Rave n Sc hoo l of Gy mn astics, Be rt Veg h, coach . 2780 Pe n fie ld Rd .. Fairport , NY 14450.716-377-1 948.

1571 Golden Gate Plaza Cleveland, Ohio 44124

Feb. 14-15 EI Paso KENOS OPE N G YMNASTIC ME ET.. . o pe n, boys an d g irls, co mp let e age g ro u ps. Pa t Ha mil ton, 701 E. Montna, EI Paso

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with all the Gymnastic equ ipment. Gymnasiu m apparatus . such as Volleyball & Basketba ll equipment In our other p roduct includin g Athletic路s . Tralnlng's and Canoe . which we re used for Off icial competit ions. especially for OLYMP ICS .


WRONA'S Gymnastic Apparel RD " 1 lImhro()~ Vrlldge Bpd\pr f dll, . PA 150 10

41 2 846- 7078 All GYMNASTIC NEEDS Serving Pittsburgh and Tri-Slale Area

30 Years Experience

Feb. 14-15 1st Elite qualification meet (East of Mississ ip pi ) l o p 20 to Pa n- Am Tria l o n Ma rc h 21-22) Feb. 28-Mar. 1 No rthri dge I nv ita tio nal to be h e ld in No rth ridge, Ca li fo rni a usin g 1975 co mpul so ries (so und s lik e thi s mi g ht m ea n th e Pa n Am co mpulso ri es) a nd o pti o n. Is. Tea m tYpe com petiti o n w ith fin a ls fo r the to p six in each event. Entry fee $45 .00 pe r tea m. Co ntac t Da n Co nn e ll y. Offi ce 213885-2051 o r h o me 213-344-0435. Mar. 1-2 Elile Regional Clinics Mar. 21-22 Final Trials for Pan-Am Games Mar. 21-22 (PreL) USGF State Meets or Mar. 28-29 Mar. 27-29 NCAA College Div. Me n, Man ka to . M inn . Apr. 3-5 NCAA University Div. - Men. ISU Apr. 3-5 AIAW Nationals Apr. 5-6 Eas te rn Sta tes Inv ita ti o nal Cha m p io nship s in New Yo rk thi s yea r. Apr. 11 -12 USGF Regional Meets Reg io n Reg io na l Ch a mpi o nships. Uni ve rsit y of Uta h Special Eve nts Cent e r. M ee t Directo r : C ha rli e Pond, 8418 Supe rn al Wa y, Salt La ke Cit y. Uta h 841 21. Apr. 18-19 YMCA Nationals a t Wri g ht Stat e Un ivers it y in Day to n , O hi o. Wr il e M r. Do u g las Lew is, Camb ri dge , O hi o 43725 (Compe tition will in ci ud(' a ll gym nasli c eve nt s a nd iram p o lin e) . Apr. 25-26 2nd Elite Qualification Meet 10 be he ld WeSi of M ississipfJi May 8-10 USGF Ir. Nationals 10 be he ld Ea" o f M ississippi May 15-17 AAU Sr. Nationals at Ke nnedy Sr. H. S.. Ceda r Ra p ids, Iowa May 22-24 USGF Sr. Nationals to be h e ld Wes t of Ih e Miss issi p p i lune 12-14 USGF Elite Nationals or lune 19-21 luly 1-5 Berlin - 6th Gymnaestrada Ocl. World Cup, Ma d rid , Spa in MIDWEST CALENDAR Dec .. 14, 1974 Fi rs t A nnual Fi esta Bow l - Ari zo na Tw iste r In vita ti ona l Wo m e n's GYmna sti cs m ee t, a t th e Scottsda le Sag uaro Hi g h Sc ho ol. III. Ian. 18-19 Midwest Open for Jr. t,;irls AA Ad va nced Co m p ulso ries a nd Opti o na ls. 10-12 o n 1H th and 13- 14 o n 19t h Ame rica n Acad e m y of Gym nas ti cs PH : 312-H27-6H43 1300 O a kwood Ave. Des Plaines, II I. 6001 6. Feb. 22 Midwest Open Specialists Mee t fo r Ir. an d Sr. G irls ... Op li o na ls o nl y A m e ri ca n Academ y of Gy mnast ics (See a bove). Mar. 16 51. Palrick's Day Open for Boys .. O pti o na ls Onl y (age 13 a nd ove r) Ba rr y Kee ley PH: H32-9430 or H34-5773. Gym nas ti cs Unlimit e d , Sc hau mbe rg, III. March 2 Intercollegiate Regionals for Women ... Illinoi s Sta te U (I). Mar. 22 Illinois USGF Open for Boys up to 1H a nd 1H a nd over Pa ul Firld PH : 447-0607 Co ll e ge of DuPage LS'IOO La mbe rt Rd ., G le n Ell yn . III. Mar. 22 Eiche Invitdtional for Girls AA o nl y O pl io na ls Ro lf He lmk e PH : 264-Y493 Ei c he Turn ers, 165 E. 11 5t h ~ t. , C hi c,l gO , III. 60b2H. M a r. 23 Eiche Invilalional for Boys AA o nl y O p ti o nal, (See a bove). April 26 Elite National Age Group Tumbling Championship .. no sil e .. n o MD ye l.lune 14- 15 Turner Camp Invitalional Ro lf He lmk e PH : 264 -9493 a t TU I ner Ca m p. Mar. 29 Class I State Meet, Nevada. Meet Directo r AI Lan sdo n, 1301 Va ll ey Roa d Re no, Nevada 89502. Mee t site sa me. May 2 Class II State Meet, Nevada M ee t Directo rs Mi ke a nd Da le Fl a nsaas 2284 Oppi o St. Spa rk a, Nevada . M ee t sit e 1593 Gre g 5t. Spa rk s, Nevad a.

GYMNAST Dec. 1974


NEW VINYL BALANCE BEAM A one inch layer of specia lIy formulated cushioning material is laminated into the beam to give greater comfort and protection during long hours of training.






A QuiCk Performan~e Check .






.•. ,'


.. -



*'- . . . '



' -,


for Yourt;NiS$en'Mats .


; ~:'~f,.'. -,{. ~ ::"', i:'-,t,':,\j~',~- "::i'


" "

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Yaur Nissen tumbling, wrestling, and' flaor exercise mats afe:; the f.iresL :qu3rity Cf!Jailable. Hawever, the pratective value af any filler ar faam can diminish .av!,!ra period af{ time. These '~a~s shauld be inspectea ' regularly far saft spats that may develap and be kept serv'ice'abie with firm . faam. ' . ~




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Why nat take 10 secands naw to. try the Thumb and Ruler. 'rest. Place a six-inch waad dawel, ane-half inch in diameter, in representative areas af the mat. .If the dawel can be pressed dawn~ard . with yaur thu'mb (using maderate pressure) 'belaw the battam edge af the rule f "when the ruler, is placed acrass the dawel;' furthE:ir investigatian is indicated. Yau shauld call aur TOLL FREE phane number listed belaw fo.r adoi ianal 'i nf0tmatian: .,.;\



930 27TH AVENUE S.W., CEDAR RAPIDS, IOWA 52406 Region 1-Mass., Conn., Vermont, N. Hampshire, Maine, Rhode Island . ..... .. , . .! • , , Region 2-Pennsylvania, NYC~ L. Island, Delaware, New Jersey .. , . ... -~ ... , , .. . S.C., N.C.j Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Virginia . I . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . In Maryland, D.C. . . ... : .. . .............. . ...... .. ...... ...... . .. .

!'! .

Phone: 413/ 733-7927 I

Phone: 800/ 638,9170 Phone: 800/ 638-9190 Phone: 263-5685


Region 3-Michigan, Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, Kentucky, W. Va:, Tenn . . ..... .. , Phone: 800/ 348-2814 In Indiana ............. "., .. " . , ...... . . . ............. , .. .. ..... Phone: 800/5~2-7.826 J

.:.~.;:", " ~. ,l~-",' I:


Re~io." 4-~inl~~~a,i~\~J~:: .~ i~:~: ~~'~,". ~.a.~.: ~~~~.:;~r.k.. ,. ~i~~:,. ~,k. I~:,.~~~~~: .~~~' . '.


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Phone: 800/ 553-7991 '. Phone: 319/ 365-7561

Region ~Ore., Wash., Ca,.,'·Col., N. Mex., A'riz., Idaho, Nev., Utah, Mont·:, Wyo . . . Phone: 800/ 553-7901:


In Alaska, Hawaii .... I. . . . . .

. ....... ' .


................ . ....... . . .

Phone: 319, '3;:,

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Gymnast Magazine - December 1974