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Gymnastic Trophies New cu stomized sculptured male and female figures in Gold tone, Si Iver tone and Bronze tone, mounted on: hand some molded bases (available in blue, red, white), sculptured walnut cube base or delu xe scu lptured walnut pedestal on wa lnut base with metal sculptured date . Indicate Men (M) or Women'~ (W) figure and place: Firs t Gold tone (G), Second- Silver tone (S), Third-Bronze tone (B) . (i.e. MS = Men 's figure in Silver tone) Molded base at $3 .95 @ _ _ , -

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Gym Shop Jewelry Fill in event(s) desired in provided blank spaces, circle Gold tone (G) or Silver tone (S) and indicate quantity and total price below. Be sure to see event code for men and women . WOMEN: WFX (floor exercise) WUPB (Uneven Bars) WBB (Beam) WTR (Trampoline) WSHV (Vaulting) WAA (All-Around) MEN: MFX (Floor Exercise) MSH (Side Horse) MSR (Rings) MPB (Parallel Bars) MLH (Long Horse) MHB (High Bar) MTR (Trampoline) MAA (All-Around) KEY CHAIN with _ _ in G. or S. _ _ at $2.50 each. TIE TACK with _ _ in G. or S. _ _ at $1 .50 each . TIE BAR (not shown) with _ _ in G. or S. _ _ at $2.50 . LAPEL PIN with _ _ in G. or S. _ _ at $1.00 each . CUFF LINKS with _ _ in G. or S. _ _ at $3.00 a pair. CHARM BRACELET (one charm included) with _ _ in G. or S. _ _ at $2.00 each .


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, - -, - -, - -, _ _ , _ _ , in G. or S. _ _ at $1.00 each .

SWEATER PIN with _ _ in G. or S. _ _ at $1.00 each. CHARM PENDANTS _ _ in S. _ _ at $1.50. DELUXE CHARM PENDANT: Round , Oval or Square __ _ in G. or S. _ _ at $2.50 each .

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Handsome event medals with brightly colored ribbons mounted in special presentation boxes . Indicate event code in blanks below. Event code: WOMEN : WFX (Floor Exercise) WUPB (Uneven Bars) WBB (Beam) WTR (Trampoline) WSHV (Vaulting) WAA (All-Around) MEN : MFX (Floor Exercise) MSH (Side Horse) MSR (Rings) MPB (Parallel Bars) MLH (Long Horse) MTR (Trampoline) MAA (AIIAround) FIRST PLI,CE (Gold tone, blue ribbqn): _ _ , _ _ , _ _ ,

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SECOND PLACE (Silver tone, red ribbon): _ _ , _ _ , _ _ , THIRD PLACE (Bronze tone, green ribbon): _ _ , _ _ , _ _ , FOURTH PLACE, FIFTH PLACE, SIXTH PLACE (Metal gray, white ribbon): _ _ , _ _ , _ _ ,

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Please send me the items I have indicated above. I am enclosing a check for the total amount: $ (California residents add 5 % sales tax) . I understand that I should allow up to 3 weeks delivery on the items I have ordered. Name'______ _ __ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___ Address; _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __

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NOTES FROM THE EDITOR: USSR TEAM VISIT: After many invitations, personal contacts, telegrams and frustrations the Russian Gymnastic team of 5 men and 5 women along with officials arrived in the USA on February 2nd for a brief USA tour of ten days. What had been originally planned as a 21 day cross country tour with stops at Penn State, Chicago, Denver and Los Angeles, was vetoed by the Russian home office down to a competition at Penn State and Temple (the Temple visit was a last minute booking to take advantage of their brief stay on the east coast). In the original schedule the USSR men were to compete against a Penn State team (including alumni) and the official USSR vs USA match was to be in Los Angeles with the other stopovers as regional competitions and exhibitions . Because the USGF could not be sure the Soviet team would arrive (even up to one week before the Penn State Competition) it was impossible to arrange a USA National team effort, therefore the Penn State Meet became the official USA-USSR Match. The Penn Staters did a great job, and came so close to winning that it would be interesting to speculate on the outcome of a USA-USSR competition with Sakamoto, Allen, Tickenoff and others of the World Games team taking part.




Dr. Joe Massimo, our MG reporter for the USA-USSR match had a few afterthought comments to make about the competition that arrived too late to be included with his article . . . " The Russian men were not as strong as one would expect. This quickly assembled Penn State team did an excellent job and with the addition of some gymnasts from other parts of the country we well may have captured a victory. In any event the Russians knew they had been in a meet. One controversial aspect of the competition involved the performance of Voronin on the High Bar. Because of a shoulder injury he had scratched from the parallel and high bar events . However, when the meet tightened following a 5 .0 posted by one of the Russians on the horizontal bar, Voronin came onto the floor and competed in high bar. This is against the rules of international compet ition but was allowed in this case by the superior judge . Voronin did a clean exercise without any dismount (8.65) and assured the Russian victory . The audience was pleased to see him perform but I'm sure our gymnasts were not overjoyed!" When I questioned the superior judge on this point he said the FIG rule states that an injured gymnast (under medical supervision) has up to 30 minutes to recuperate and can then return to the competition. However I am not sure how technically correct this ruling would be in this case as the gymnast in question sat out one event between injury and resuming competition . It would be interesting to get further FIG interpretation of this rule .




MARCH 1971
















MG SEQUENCE PHOTO Sergej Diamidov, U.S.S.R.















Cover: Featured on the March MG is Penn State Gymnast Marshall Avener. Marshall took a Bronze Medal at the recent U.S.A.-U.S.S.R. meet (featured this month) and was on the U.S.A. World Games team. PUBLISHER-EDITOR: Glenn Sundby AS$OCIATE EDITORS, STAFF: Kenneth Sakoda, Dick Crlley ASSOCIATE EDITORS, FEATURE: A Bruce Frederick, Education; Dr. James S. Bosco, Research; Jerry Wright, Competition; Frank Bare, USGF; John Nooney, Canada; Andrzej Gonera, European; Gerald George, Dan Millman, Don Tonry, AA Instructional; Bill Roetzheim, Instructional. THE MODERN GYMNAST magazine is published by Sundby Publ icati ons , 410 Broadway , Santa Mo~ i ea . Cal ifornia 9040 1. Second Class Postage paid at Santa Monica , Calif, Published mon thly exce pt bi -monthly J une, July, August and September . Price $6 .00 per year, 60e a si ngle copy. Subscription eoroespondenee, The MODERN GYMNAST , P.O . Box 611 , Santa Mon ica, Cal ifornia 90406 . Copyright 1971 Š all rights reserved by SUNDBY PUBLI CATIONS. 410 Broadway, Santa Monica , Calif. All photos and manuscripts submitted become the property of The MODERN GYMNAST unless a return request and sufficient postage are included.

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Blessing in Disguise Last summer Gym Master was hit by an extensive fire in their plant. This was a major set back for them, but rising from the ashes of the old, Gym Master has doubled the company's capacity as one of America's foremost manufacturers of specialized gymnastic equipment. The new structure contains approximately twice as much floor space as the old, and incorporates a continuous flow line which speeds raw materials from receiving docks through sewing rooms to assembly and finishing lines and back to shipping docks at twice the speed which was possi ble in pre fire days. "In that respect, the fire could be considered something of a blessing in disguise."


The great Czech clown act we saw in Basel, Switzerland during the Gymnaestrada has recently been duplicated in part by gymnasts at Wisconsin State University. (Superior) The Superior gymnasts are shown during the spiral pyramid which corresponds to the Czech 'version we saw in 1969.

~ indoor competition

open· air competition

u.s. National All Around Rankings Men: --~~~


-'to -




Standing: (L-R) AI Leistikow, Bill Blakely, Bob Leu. Bottom: (L-R) Paul Dro::'ot, Mike Jarvis, Dave Halverson, Bruce Lanham, John Simenson.


Compiled by Jerry Wright 1. Mokoto Sakamoto * 2. Yoshiaki Takei * 3. Maysayuki Watanabe * 4. Yoski Hayasaki 5. Paul Tickenoff 6. Kanati Allen 7. Steve Hug 8. Dave Thor 9. 'Fred Turoff 10. Marshall Avener 11. Brent Simmons 12. George Greenfield *13. Hidi Umeshita *14. Sadao Hamada 15. Bob Emery 16. Fred Dennis 17. John Elias 18. Tom Lindner 19. Gary Anderson 20 . Jim Culhane 21 . Mike Kimball 22. John Crosby 23. Ron Clemmer 24. Dave Butzman 25 . Rich McCurdy 26. Rich Scorza

111.65 108.35 108.30 108.25 109.00 107.65 107.20 106.40 107.80 105.20 105.15 105.00 104.75 104.10 108.00 103.25 103.20 102.15 102.75 102.75 101 .85 101.35 100.95 102.45 101.50 101.50

27. 28. 29 . 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.

Ju an Sanchez Jim A m eri ne Joe Litow Ro n Baretta Craig Ritte r Dave Repp Joe Hu ghes Ken Snow Rob ert M ackey M ax Magd eleno

100.70 100.40 98.65 98 .05 97.50 97.70 95.75 95.40 95 .05 94.50

37. Do n Ferre *38. Sid Jensen*3 9. M inoru Mo ri saki 40. Mike Flansaas 41. D an Co nn ell y 42. Bernie Peters 43 . D ana A lexander 44. Jam es Bette rs 45. To m Wi ll ia m s * Not U.s. cit ize n.

93.70 93.70 92 .05 89 .50 88.80 88.75 86.05 84.80 75.90

Titan Coach Wolfe Wins Uphill Gymnastics Battle Tryi ng to boost a spo rt like gym nast i cs into t he li melight in a boom in g sports secto r li ke Ora nge Co un ty wo uld see m to be a futi le task at best, but no o ne ca n co nvin ce little Full erto n State coac h Di ck Wo lfe . " M y goa l is to w in t he nat io n al t it le and f ill our gym w it h abo ut 3,000 peop le." The Laguna Beach father of one is using eve ry idea he ca n th in k of to get peop le to attend meets, clai m ing m ost of th e m wi ll retu rn once t hey lea rn abo ut th e sport. He eve n has organi zed a booste r club and has a mai ling list of 5,000. A b ig reason for his success may be t he awa reness of w here his spo rt ranks in co nt rast to m any co un terparts in so-ca ll ed " lowe r in te res t" sports but he refuses to co nced !:: t he power of co ll ege footba ll and bas ket· ba ll . Accepta nce of h im an d t he team hav!:: co m e rap id ly. The Titans are bei ng in vited to ma inl y unive rsity m eets and are be ing co ntacted by the m ajo r powe rs for d uals. He has no st rict rul es, bu t fi nds o ut wh y if athl etes ca n.not p racti ce ru les . Lo ng h air is no prob lem " unl ess it in te rferes w ith perform ance." H e tries to .treat ath l e te~ from all c lasses of life " l ike h uman b eings." Gai n ing any m o re recogni t io n f o r the sport would see m unlike ly b ut do n't bet aga in st D ick Wo lfe .

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Paul Tickenoff Honors : 1969 Cu p of A m eri ca Tea m m ember, M EX ICO 1970 St ude nt World Gam es (Un ive rsiade) ITA LY 1970 Wo rl d Ga m es YU GOS LAVI A Year in school: Sen io r in Co ll ege Major: Ph ysical Edu cat io n Began Gymnastics : So ph o m o re in H igh Schoo l, age 15

Began Competition: Sophom o re in H igh School, age 15 H igh school and Coach: Be ll H igh, Bell, CA, Kar l Pa las College Coach: A rm on d o Vega, Northwestern State Un ive rsity Height:

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NHSGCA Suggested High School Compulsory Routines Bill Ballester, President NHSGCA The main objective of the National High School Gymnastic Coaches Association is to promote and aid in the development of gymnastics at the high school level throughout the United States. Many problems confront us when attempting to attain thi.s goal : the proximity between gymnastics centers, inconsistency in rules, various levels of development, different teaching methods to correspond with expectations, and the lack of qualified teachers. In an effort to alleviate some of these problems, the NHSGCA is preparing a set of compulsory exercises that will be made available to all interested coaches. Such a set of standardized compulsories should contribute to the total growth of the national gymnastics program when used as a comparative measure of progression throughout the United States.

Basic Philosophy of the Compulsories These compulsory exercises were selec.ted.with two basic criteria in mind:

1. The level of the routine should be such that it is possible for every boy to perform them and yet be a challenge to him. 2. The routines should lead to signifi cant movements for optional routines. These routines were constructed by your NHSGCA President. Many of the sequences were adapted from the USAF Age Group text and the AAU Junior Olympic pamphlet.

Use of the Compulsories These compulsories are constructed and distributed as a means to supplement your program in any manner you may see fit. The exercises can be used as teaching aids, as competitive compulsori~s, or possibly adapted as optional routines. It is NOT the intention of the NHSGCA to dictate the use of these compulsories in any manner. They are simply made available to all NHSGCA coaches to use as a guideline to better gymnastics. It IS the intention of the NHSGCA to recognize those boys who successfuly complete these compulsories (to their coach's discretion) with a certificate of merit. These compulsories when completed will be written in a specific, detailed manner, illustrated with stick figures and assigned point evaluations for each movement. The first draft of these compulsories, however, is written in terms that are more easily understood and more quickly interpreted. Five compulsories will be presented for each event : the first four original, the fifth, the current Olympic compulsory. When you have received' and reviewed this first draft, your help as a NHSGCA member coach is needed to complete these Compulsories. I have developed these exercises as I feel they will benefit


By far the largest body of coaches and competitors in the sport of gymnastics lies at the high school level. As coaches, and leaders of our sport it is our obligation to promote and direct gymnastics in the best interests of all. Up to date, however , little has been done effectively to organize high school gymnastics on a national scale and the potential good that would result from such an association has gone untapped. The National High School Gymnastic Coaches Asso : iation (NHSGCA) now exists as a means to organize and make effective the ~ tren~ th and influence tha t is inherent in the high school gymnastic coaches as a body. The tasks that lie ahead for the NHSGCA are numerous and monlll1lental , but the good that can be accomplished for gymnastics through the association are deserving and long overdue . Please find my $10.00 annual membership dues to the National High School Gymnastic Coaches Association enclosed and include my name and high school on the NHSGCA roster with all the privileges granted thereof. Coach:: _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _

High School: Add res s:; _ _ __ _ _ __ _


everyone ; however, there is room for improvement in regards to particular movements and sequences. Your suggestions and criticisms will be greatly appreciated. 'The first draft of the suggested High School Compulsory Routines will be sent to all new NHSGCA members for evaluation .

Indiana High School Gymnastics Report By John Hinds, Jr. A high school compulsory program for reserve gymnasts is no longer a dream in the State of Indiana. During the month of January two reserve invitational meets using compulsory exercises will be held, one at Lowe ll High School and one at Wabash Jr. High School. The compulsory exercises in use this year were adopted from the AAU age group program. To assist the high school coaches in teaching these routines an 8mm film is available from Jim Everroad of Crown Point High School. Featured in the fi'lm are Indiana State University gymnasts. Another' first in Indiana gymnastics was the recent Indiana Collegiate Gymnastic Invitational held at North Central High School. Sponsored by the Indian a High School Gymnastic Coaches Association the meet proved to be a success. Taking part in the invitational were Ball State University, Indiana State University and Indiana Univers ity. Team scores were not kept. The individual winners were: FX - Fred Hend ersonISU ; SH - Kevin Murphy-ISU; SR - Dave Seal-ISU ; LH - John Pellikan-ISU ; PBTom Thomas-ISU, and HB - John Pellikan -ISU. On the varsity level of competition most of th e Indiana High School teams are beginning to "key- up" for the State meet February 20 at Warren Central High School of Indianapolis. This year' s state meet promises to be one of the most closely contested ever. Come and see it ; you will enjoy the competition .


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HI REPORT by John Nooney 18 Lavington Dr. Weston, Ontario

Here and There Did You Know Canada has been a member of the P.I.G. since 1899 at which time she was the 14th country to join. The Canadian Gymnastic Federation is now the national ruling body having taken over this role a few years ago from A.A.U. Canada, which by the way is now disbanded. All sports are now under their own Federations.

Saskatchewan Joni Cushway and Neil Sedgwick were nominated as the outstand ing gymnasts in the provi nce for 1970. Preparations are well in hand for Canada's Winter Games Feb . 17-21 to be held i,n the new building of the University of Saskatchewan.

Ontario Winter Games Etobicoke Now over, teams were selected for the Canada Winter Games. These games proved to be a tremendous success; 1200 athletes took part. Hosting of the gymnastics events was done by the Dept. of Education, O .G.F. and host Club. The Etobicoke JayCees Gymnastic Club, Martingrove Collegiate, Etobicoke, did more than their share . A special word of thanks to Moke Zulauf of the Phy. Ed Dept. The cooperation between the Dept. of Education, the O.G.F. and the local township club was excellent and set a pattern for the hosting of future provincial games.

Names In The News Fred Rodney has graduated from the Univ. of Michigan with a masters degree in phy. ed . and is now teaching at Masterville H.S., P.Q. Dianne Masse now graduated from Centenery College, Louisiana, is coaching in Montreal. Her address is 8806 Hochelaga, Apt. 6, P.Q.

Two Important Events The CG .F. executive in conjunction with a delegation of Winnipeg business men have bid for the World Games in 1974. Now that we have the Olympics in Montreal in 1976, a World Championship would be a good lead up and allow us to gain experience. Who knows, maybe the F.I.G . will realize that Canada is one of the foremost countries in the world and proved it when we hosted the World Invitational meet recently. The second event was our very popular Prime Minister Tru-

deau performing a very nice two elbow planche at the opening of the South Nahanni Olympics. He has done a big selling job for our sport when he allowed the press to give it national coverage.

A Change In Venue National Championships Ontario has now placed a big for the '73 National Championships, and has bowed out this year in favor of Arvida, Quebec, who will host this year's National championships. This Northern Quebec town is an ideal location, a company town where excellent facilities exist. Also it will bring gymnastics to the Northern parts of Canada and our sport will grow in the Quebec north .

The History of Gymnastics In Alberta Jeanne Fortier The first gymnastics club in Canada appeared in 1858, thanks to the enthusiasm of F. S. Barnjum, a European . immigrant. He along with 40 other men settled in Montreal and formed the Montreal Gymnastics Club. Actual competitive gymnastics began in 1862, when R. J. Wichstead offered $100 in prizes and medals to the leading gymnast of the graduating class from the vario'us faculties at the University of Montreal. The most significant development in competitive gymnastics on the prairies began in 1927 with the establishment of the Young Mens Christian Association (Y.M. CA.) leader conferences. These conferences, which included gymnastics competition undoubtedly stimulated interest in this sport as well as helped to keep it alive in its slow starting years. After World War II, gymnastics finally started to grow in popularity. There were increased members of competitors at the provincial, national, and international levels. Alberta made her debut in gymnastics in 1912, at Frank, where a gymnastics club was formed. It had the following purpose " . . . the combining of good training with the development of good moral qualities, voluntary discipline and patriotism." In 1948, the province was active in the further development of gymnastics in the Y.M .CA., and the University of Alberta had a club of 24 members. In 1951, Alberta started provincial competition, and in 1957 had a total of 40 registered gymnasts. The year of 1957 brought the formation of the Edmonton Gymnastics Club which catered to the different age groups and skill levels. The provincial championships were held here six years later, and 1964 boasted of 113 registered gymnasts and two sanctioned meets. Intercollegiate competition in gymnastics raised the calibre of this sport by performing against top competitors. In March, 1967, the first National Intercollegiate" Championships were held - at Edmonton, Alberta. This competition was won by the Western Conference. Rick Danielson, a Physical Education student at the U. of A., was sent to the World Student Games in

Tokyo in 1967, to represent Canada in the gymnastics events . A closer look at th e gymnastics of present day can be observed by noting the main purposes and objectives of the Provincial Gymnastics Association upon which the events in this sport are based . These include: 1) To perpetuate and improve the sport of gymnastics in Alberta. 2) To stimulate the interest of the people. 3) To represe nt Alberta gymnastics as a member of the Canadian Gymnastics Association and to abide by the rules of the F.I.G . 4) To supervise and administer a continuing gymnastics program for all age groups. 5) To unify and co-ordinate the efforts of all agencies interested in furthering gymnastics. 6) To promote pleasant national and foreign relations through encouraging national and international competition under the highest possible standards. 7) To create and maintain research projects that will benefit all parties interested in gymnastics. 8) To establish an annual series of gymnastics cl inics. 9) To train and certify competent gymnastics officials. (The above 9 points are only a summary of the actual purposes and objectives of the Provincial Gymnastics Association .)

Alberta Newsletter By Betty Peters The men and women Phy. Ed. teachers in Calgary are doing a great job for the sport of gymnastics. The women Phy. Ed . teachers in Edmonton are also doing a great job promoting gymnastics. WHAT ABOUT THE REST OF THE PHY, ED, TEACHERS IN THE PROVINCE? Do you realize that Gymnastics has become an A sport in Canada? Or don' t you know what that means? Then look elsewhere in the newsletter. Are you a QUITTER, because you don't have equipment-well Free Exercise doesn ' t need any equipment. It is done on the floor in a 40' x 40' area and you don't have to be good at gymnastics to enter this event. Put a few simple tumbling stunts together with some jumps, turns and dance steps and you ' re in business. CAN 'T afford to buy equipment? Well take-off boards, box horses, and balance beams can easily be built in the Industrial Arts shop generally for the price of the wood. Now you ' re entered in 3 events for the gi rls and 2 events for the' boys-what better way to start gymnastics? You DON'T KNOW anything about gymnastics?-Well buy some books, borrow or rent some films and attend the CLINICS ctosest to you. Better sti II-don't forget that the Edmonton and Calgary gymnasts are willing to travel to you for the price of some hospitality and car gas. NOW YOU DON 'T HAVE ANY EXCUSES! Except you are a " team sport" person-if you are a Physical Education teacher, or just plain good old TEACHER stuck with a job-"you are narrow minded" then and that's not very professional for a TEACHER is it????


By Dr. Joseph Massimo State College, Pennsylvania is a geographically intriguing place located in the physical center of this large eastern state in an area dominated by beautiful hilly terrain. On a good 'day it is a reasonable journey, say from Boston, Massachusetts. However, on a typical Northeast winter day, the kind your author always picks to travel, it can be tortuous-for instance 18 hours including an early morning snooze in a Harrisburg bus depot! The trip can be worthwhile for Pennsylvania State University is a great school with an air of excitement around and within its impressive campus. On the weekend of February 5 and 6 something very special was in that air. The Russian gymnasts had arrived, both men and women, for a competition with the Americans. A team of girls from our National group had been selected to face the Russians on Friday evening and a group of current and past Penn. St. gymnasts had been brought together for the men's competition on Saturday. Penn . st. has enjoyed the reputation of being a mecca for gymnastics in the United States. Those of us privileged to attend and participate in this event can attest to the fact that this reputation is well deserved and that Mr. Gene Wettstone is the undisputed master showman of gymnastics in the nation and indeed , perhaps the world . The organization and grandeur of this spectacular international match, from opening to closing ceremonies, was a very moving experience and the 18,000 plus people who attended the contests (not even standing room available) would surely agree. A personal note if you will forgive me the indulgence. On one evening I approached the Recreation Hall gym through the huge locker room facility. It was unusually still in this ordinarily bustling area. My heels clicked on the tile floor and echoed through the gaunt grey lockers. As I approached the main gym entrance the sound of music became


An Internat U.S.A. vers

PENN. ST. GYMNASTS Gregor Weiss Ed Isabelle, Assistant Coach Marshall Avener Joseph Litow William Mitchell lames Culhane


Alexander Maleyev Eugeni AnansJ<ikh Viktor Klimenko Mikhail Voronin Mikhail Klimenko, Coach Georgi Bogdanov

ional Match ~ns U.S.S.R. USA WOMEN GYMNASTS Cathy Rigby Muriel Grossfeld, Coach Bud Marquette, Coach Kim Chace Adele Gleaves Joanne Moore Wendy Cluff Roxanne Pierce Art Maddox, Pianist

USSR WOMEN GYMNASTS Larisa Latynina, Coach Vladislav Rastorotsky, Coach Rusiko Sikharulidze Olga Karaseva Larisa Petrik Lyudmila Turisheva Zinaida Voronina Yevsey Vevrikh, Pianist


Viktor Klimenko clearer and my senses were bombarded upon emerging into the apron section beneath the stands. The powerful. sounds of the fine Penn. St. Blue Band playing Russian melodies, the shine of extra gymnastic equipment waiting to be utilized if needed, the rising voices of literally thousands of people, the incredible network of T.V. cables running out to the main floor (ABC Wide World of Sports was filming the event) and then, of course, the competition area itself, lit with the brilliant brightness of a great arena, the entire setting stirring with anticipation-all of these things combined to make this time an unforgettable experience with few equals. The Russian National Women's Team won the team title 151 .25-148.90. Miss Turisheva won the A.A. title as she had at


the World Games. Miss Cath y Rigby captured the first place position on the Balance Beam with a 9.65 score. In general th e American girls made a good showing. (See write-up in Mademoiselle Gymnast for complete report - scores, tricks, etc.) The Russian men were also victorious winning the team title 225.90-221 .95 . Marshall Avener, World Game Team member, scored a 56.25 in the A.A. for a third place. A fine accomplishment for this young American gymnast. The Russians w ere quite rough in spots, more so than one would have anticipated. Their overall depth , however, was overpowering. First place went to Viktor Klim enko (younger brother of th e coach) and second went to Georgi Bogdanov the Russian junior national champ . To this author Bogdanov

was the most impressive of the Russians and may well be their next " number one". His floor exercise was outstanding highlighted by dynamic tumbling (he opened with a double back that was landed standing up). Voronin received the highest score of th e evening on the Rings with a 9.8. Although his swing work (straight arm) was flawless the rest of his routine lacked real " polish" expected of a near perfect routine . Klimenko's work was great as indicated by his 57.70 A.A. score. His cartwheel on the horse with piked back saito off is quite exciting and scored a 9.7. There was really nothing new shown -Ring dismounts were all fulls or doubles with one front saito. Maleyev's standing back layout saito step out was inte resting but that's about all in the way of tricks

Gregor Weiss worth reporting. Once again it all boiled down to delivery and consistency in the last an a lysis. (See attached score sheet.) It warrants mentioning that the Russian men and women highly enjoyed their visit and that this trip was good for American gymnasts from all points of view. P.S. In addition to the International match there was also a meet on Friday afternoon between Univ. of Mass. and Penn . St. (men) with Penn. St. winn ing. Also on Saturday afternoon a women ' s tri-meet was held (Penn. St., Brockport, and West Chester) with West Chester coming out the victor. This was truly a gymnastic weekend at State College, Pa.

-- ..- -- â&#x20AC;˘-



37.20 38 .00 38.40 37.90 37.05 37.35 225.90

U.S.S.R. Klimenko , Viktor Bogdanov, Georgi Avener, Marshall Maleyev, Alexander Weiss, Gregor Mitchell , William Litow, Joseph Culhane, James Ananskikh , Eugeni Voronin, Mikhail


36.90 36.90 37 .20 36.80 37.10 37.0S 221 .9S


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.


U.S.S .R. U.S.S.R. P.S.U. (U .S.A.) U.S.S .R. P.S.U . (U .S.A.) P.S.U. (U .S.A.) P.S.U. (U.S .A.) P.S.U. (U.S .A.) U.S.S.R. U.S.S.R.

9.50 9.60 9.40 8.95 9.05 9.25 9.20 9.00 8.80 9.05

9.60 9.45 9.60 9.30 8:75 8.55 9.25 9.30 9.40 9.55

9.60 9.50 9.30 9.50 9.3 5 9.30 9.05 9.25 9.30 9.80

9.70 9.55 9.10 9.30 9.20 9.25 8.95 9.25 8.95 9.35

9.60 9.40 9.35 9.50 9.65 9.20 8.90 8.65 8.55

9.70 9.60 9.50 9.40 9.40 9.15 9.00 8.80 5.00 8.65

57.70 57.10 56.25 55.95 55.40 54.70 54.35 54 .25 50.00 46.50 13

Training Habits of Soviet GYlUnasts by Andrzej Gonera Poland

In the past several years we have observed a tendency towards increasing the training load : the quantitative amount of training, the exercises, combinations, and duration . This is understandable because the training load is a pre-eminent factor in deciding 'who is to reach the top . At present the tentensity of training is limited by the endurance of the individual. Soviet scientists are working up a new method to shorten the renewal period . In the 1950's and early 1960's, th e Russian Team had very good results and set the pattern for Japan and other countries. What follows is an example of the training program of one member of the National Team at this time. YEAR


1961 1962 1963 1964

927 1193 1450 1992.

* An exercise, for example, is 2 double leg circles or 2 giant swings on horizontal bar. Otherwise, any ' non-repetitive move is counted normally.

Some gymnasts such as Lisitsky performed 2600 exercises a week during the preparatory period . Training effectiveness is strengthened through a system of increasing the percent of time spent on exercises during the total workout. For example, if the gymnast practices 120 minutes but spends only 6 minutes on exercises, the effectiveness rating is 6% . As on e can see, the effective ratings changed from 7.8% in 1961 to 8.4 % in 1964. At present, the average is something like

1.6 training sesstons a week for 180 minutes each session . The percent of this t ime devoted to exercise is 12 %. In each practice 500 exercises and 20 combination s are performed. One of the first gymnasts to follo w such

a training pattern was Chukarin who made more than 500 exercises in practice and 25-28 combinations. As a result of his training, he' won all competitions. A Table follDws recording the trainin g load of three additional gymnasts. TSAPENKO












Average time spent on exercises on each event



53 ' 45"




Number of exercises on each apparatus










Number of exercises in all combinations


































Numb.e r of all combinations (full routines) Number of times on each apparatus Average number of exercises for each t ime on apparatus 14




Specified Exercises CONCLUSIONS

1. Success in gym nastics is possible on ly if the training load is suffic ient ly great. 2. The training program must have a rationale that is dynamic in the preparato ry and compet ition period. 3. At the beginning of eve ry period , many in div idu al exerc ises are performed but few combinations . Near the clim ax of training, the number of sepa rate exe rcises is sma ll er but t he number of comb in atio ns is in creased . An ana lysis of the training sched ul e of Boris Shakhl in supports these conclusions . In the following hi stogram of his preparation for the 1966 World Games, each bar represe nts a training day. The height of the ba r sig nifies the num ber of exercises, the darkened portion rep rese nts al l the combinat ions, and the dot indicates that on this day, va ultin g was also practiced. Th e norms appl ied to Soviet gymnast ics fitn ess are as follows:

Very Good

For Strength

Estimate Good


15 times



2. Cro ss on the rings

6 sec.



3. Ordin ary hang position on the rin gs

6 sec.



4. Front horizontal lever with straight arms

6 sec .



5. Rope climb with hands only

8 meter



1. From shoulder stand , press to handstand

For Speed and Jump



4 sec.

6. Sprint 30 meters Standing long jump

3.2 meter



For Endurance

8. Double leg circles on end of the horse

25 circles



9. Double leg circles on pommels

50 circles







3 min.

10. 1000 meter run For Suppleness

11. Bridge position feet

distance between hands and

90 cm


SAFETY IN GYMNASTICS Dan J. Millman Gymnastic Coach Stanford University

Probably every coach has been wracked with painful conflicts as he sat next to a disabled gymnast in the training room or sometimes in the hospital emergency ward . For a few short seconds, he may have thought, as I have, " Is gymnastics really worth seeing this boy" in pain? Why couldn 't I have . . . (watched him more closely, spotted quicker, insisted he not try the move yet, etc.). Accidents are unpleasant, and unfortunately have been present in our sport more often than necessary. Because accidents are not usually "accidental ;" because they can be prevented, I' m writing this article. Some readers may feel that a sport which cons ists of " dangerous" movements will inevitably have yearly accidents. Are there really " dangerous" moves in gymnastics? Very few. If the average person were put in a satellite and then told to space walk, he would probably step out of the capsule and promptly kick off the capsule, begin gyrating, and kiss the capsule good-bye. Yet the astronauts can perform " dangerous" activities because they have practiced, and practiced progressively. Danger may be defined as the probability of injury, or the amount of leeway between safety and injury. This " danger-line" then, is variable; that is, depending upon how we go about training for gymnastics, we can render almost any movement dangerous . .. or safe. The key then, is progressive achievement. Is a full twisting double flyaway from the high bar dangerous? No! Not if the gymnast has an excellent back with a full and an excellent double fly.away. Not if he has done many, many correct full twisting doubles on the trampoline, for timing. Naturally, the gymnast has also progressed up through the gradual steps of learning correct basic swing mechanics on the high bar, correct flyaway lift, correct bouncing mechanics on the trampoline. Danger then can be redefined. Danger in gymnastics is proportional to the gap existing between the last lead up movement performed correctly and the one being attempted. The word " correctly" is important. If our gymnast has learned a correct back somersault on the trampo line, but nevertheless has poor mechanics on flyaways, double flyaways and full twisters, he is going to be attempting a "dangerous" stunt. A word here on the spotting belt. it's a "safety" device ; not a teaching device. If a coach does not feel the student is ready to throw the move out of the belt, he should not put the student in the belt! The belt cannot compensate for incorrect mechanics, nor substitute for basic steps in the learning progression. It is probably true that the student may be able to finally take the trick out of the belt, (generally


fearfully and underconfident), but he may impossible for a stiff gymnast to work corbe doing the trick in an incorrect groove rect mechanics! So for brilliant technique that has become " safe" (temporarily) and confident work, stretch. through sheer repetition . The correct way Work strength (some off season strength is the only consistentl y 'safe way. exercises, but preferably by repetitive overSometimes the belt will serve the same load in workouts) . The strong gymnast purpose as the after d inner. martini " belt; " often has the ability to save himself and -courage. If your . kid is going to change work more consistently. Build the gracehis mind in the middle of a first time ful-animal attitude. attempt of a move, perhaps he should be 2) Gradual progressions with perfectionin the belt-or off the team , because this ist mechanics are a key. (These are possible only if the gymnast has proper flexibility) . kid may have a ~' danger prone person ality." This writer feels that a combination Gradual is the key word . As a gymnastics expert, beer connoisseur, and general manof non-rushed basic progressions, stressing correct body positions and mechanics and about-town named Katsuo Yamanaka once crash pads is the 'ideal combination . Natold me, "When in a hurry, take the long turally, if the coacli is not stressing gradual way around ." learning steps, the belt will still be needed 3) In general, know what you are going to bridge the learning quantum gaps, but to do before you do it! I ILke to see a gymnast concentrate on the entire set of hopefully belts will be used less in the future. This bears repetition once : Only movements he is about to do before he stop using the belt if correct and gradual gets on the apparatus. Try to feel the move progressions are substituted. A novice with your muscles as well as thinking without either is in stormy seas! about it. 4) Be aggressive! When in doubt, go A word on spotting. There are two types : Assistance spotting, in which the for it! You shouldn't be on the apparacoach moves the gymnast's body through tus attempting a move unless you are reasonably sure you can successfuly perthe correct position, so his muscles can form it. Once you get on the apparatus, begin developing a " memory. " This can you should be unswervingly committed to be very useful in early stages, so long as the coach is not doing what the gymnast's giving everything you have toward getting through that sequence. Never quit in the muscles are supposed to be doing. The middle! second category of hand spotting is the Connected with this idea is the concept " saves." Many coaches are quite proud of of being confident on new moves . " Hyptheir ability to catch their gymnasts as they notize" yourself if necessary. Convince fly unexpectedly from the apparatus. I yourself that you have just performed the feel this is like a driver being proud of move and are now going for it th e second getting himself out of da,ngerous situatime. tions he has, only moments before, gotten The comments which follow are in addihimself into! Coaches who are good spottion to the general comments above: ters have had a lot of practice, because warm-up, flexibility & strength, mechanics their gymnasts need " saves" often. Gymand progressions, and attitude. nasts don ' t need saves if they are performFree exercise: Don 't work tumbling ing correctly and confidently. These spotting geniuses might profit by spending when fatigued, or when any tendons or muscles hurt badly or when you are famore time on prevention than " cure. " voring any foot. Because this writer is a small coach , he must work on prevention. He tends to be Side Horse : Be very sure (and quick) with hand placements. Knee socks help squashed like a bug when retrieving flying prevent injuries and scrapes to knees. gymnasts! When falling off, watch where you reach Rather than spenQing time telling what with your arms and keep ankles together. else isn 't, or shouldn't be needed , let's get Rings : Proper warm-up. more constructive for a moment, and list P Bars : As in side horse, keep the fingers some essential asp ects of safe gymnastics . together and make sure you have quick, 1) Be in conditioh! in order to ensure definite hand placement. Keep your wits oneself of the fewest injuri es, minor or major, acute or chronic, it pays off to be about you. There are only two bars sitting there. They are not going to come up and in shape. Off seasQn and on, run! The swat you. Closing your eyes and straddling tired gymnast is the slow, careless gymnast. your legs is not a wise safety maneuver. Build cardio-vascular endurance. Running Vaulting : Run fast, go for height, and will also strengthen ankles, stomach musget tough! cles, and determination. Work flexibility as a regular circuit every High Bar : When in doubt, get a mixed day for warmup. A more supple muscle grip and hang in there! will have better tone, increased circulation, I've learned about 100 different double dnd will have far fewer pulls or rips. It is somersaults with twists on the trampoline,

thrown double backs on the ground, full twisting double flyaways off the high bar . .. these have been learned without the aid of free spot or belt, except for very early in my career. This is in no way a function of my personality. Anyone can learn the same movements (probably with a great deal more artistry) without " spots, " if they have the same background, and build a solid foundation of -mechanics, progressions, mechanics, and progressions! Consistency,- artistry, and safety are one

and the same. Perhaps the major means by which we can generate all three qualities is through compulsory routines, especially on the junior and high school levels. Through compulsories, we take the em-. phasis away from rushing into big tricks, and place the importance on leaming compulsory movements which are important basics. The stress is then on form and execution rather than difficulty. If a panel of national experts would design U.S. high

school compulsories (perhaps based upon the current international compulsories) this would lift a great burden off the shoulders of many high school gymnastics coaches who are also coac hing baseball , etc. and don ' t always have the time or inclination to become experts themselves. In the opinion of this writer, the addition of well-composed compulsory routines for the first two years of high school would be the one most important step we could take in developing the best gymnasts in the world.

Vaults of Maximum Difficulty "The Fly-a-Way" Robert B. Davis Gymnastic 'Coach La Serna High School Shown here is the Fly-a-way. It is definitely C+ difficulty! This sequence shows very elegantly the parts to watch in this move : contact angle and body position, initiation of flight and extension through flight. The landing after such a flight deserves special attention to avoid crash or injury.




By James S. Bosco . Ph.D. San Jose State College San Jose . Ca liforn ia 951 14


4 0



Shoulder Ankle Head To e Knee Hip Center of Gravity


Austin, Jeffrey M .. . "Cinematographical Analysis of the Double Backward Somersault," Urbana, M.S. Thesis, University of Illinois,

1960. The purpose of this study was to analyze, by the cinematographic method, the doubl e backward so mersault on the tum bling mats and to determine the essential facto rs on w hich successful performance depends. Motion pictures were taken of fo ur subjects, ea ch a nation al cha mpi o n in tumbling, as they performed th e round-off, backward handspring, double backward somersa ult sequence. Since all subjects could ' perform the trick, their performances were analyzed and compared to determine th e common characteristics which contributed to better performance.


Literature relating to the double backward somersa ult in diving, trampo linin g, and circus teeter board work was reviewed to fi nd out what had gone before. Much has been written in these related fields, but littl e was found specifi ca ll y regardi ng the double backward somersault. No previous analytical study of the double backwa rd some rsau lt was fo und in the research literature concerni ng tumb ling. The literat ure pertaining to the location of the center of gravity was reviewed, since part of the analysis invo lved locating this point as the subjects were in flight.

Positive films of the double backward somersaul t were projected through a microfilm reader onto graph paper, where body positions were reco rd ed. Calcul at io ns we re made for the ce nter of gravity location during flight from take-off to landing. A compos ite of one subject was made and ana lyzed to illustrate the body positions for each successive frame. Tabl es were co nstr ucted summarizing the significant data and findings to give a total picture of the movements characteristic of good perform ance.

RESULTS PROCEDURES Cinematographic recording was used beca use the double backward so mersa ult was comp leted in about a seco nd , too fast to follow in suffic ient detail with the eye. With the necessity that an ove rh ead safety mechanic be used, the fi lm ing was done indoors, o n a regulation tumbling mat and in front of a neutral background . A syn chro nous clock was placed in v iew of th e came ra to time the frames; a high j ump cross bar wit h one foot markings was placed in front of the mat to provide a scale, and a chalk mark was p laced o n the mat to show the performer whe re to place his hands during his round- off. Twe lve f loodlig hts provided the necessa ry illuminati o n.

At take-off, a strong driving extension of the legs created impact with the mats (rebo und) of short duration (.04-.08 second ). Th e body was nearly perpendicular to t he mat (82 ° _95 °), almost fully extended (hip angle 170°-180 °, kne angle 160 °170°), and the arm s were above the head . Except for contin ui ng in the essentia ll y extended position abo ut .06 seco nd s, the arms were brought to the knees and the hip and knee angle rapidl y reduced (in .15 seco nd) to 70°_80 °, increasing the angul ar rotation . Th e fi rst somersault was co mpl eted at from 54 to 61 pe r cent of the time in flig ht. The elevation of the center of gra vity above the leve l at take-off ranged from 83.2 to 101.4 inches. A ll performers increased their tuck (decreased hip

and knee angle 10°_30 °) during the second somersault. Three performers kept their head and neck extended throughout both somersaults. As the body approached the horizontal on the second somersault, the knee angle increased to about 150°, but the hip angle stayed near 90 °. This decreased angular rotation, and by having the body trail (rather than erect) perm itted recovery to a stand. The horizontal travel from take-off to landing ranged from 168 to 366 inches, with some tendency for the better performers to have less horizontal and definitely more vertical travel.

CONCLUSIONS After analyzing the double backward somersaults of four subjects and comparing the essential performance characteristics in each case, the following conclusions seemed justified: 1. The found-off, back handspring pre-

ceding the double backward somersault must be fast enough and of sufficient control to·translate this energy (lift), so that the center of gravity during vertical travel exceeds essentially that of the height of the performer. 2. The body is approximately perpendicular with the mats on take-off, with the I ift created by the extension of the legs creating impact with the mat (rebound). 3. There is a decrease in knee angle following take-off, with the performance head and neck extended throughout tne somersault. 4. Recovery should be maintained very near 90 ° and the knee angle increased to 150°, thus decreasing angular rotation by keeping the center of gravity well behind the trick. 5. Following take-off the performer must go into the tuck sooner, rotate faster in the double backward somersault than. the single backward somersault.



Coordinates Hip Knee Vert. Horiz. Angle Angle

4 5 6 7 8 9 10

.00 .4343 .03 .4040 .06 .3737 .09 .3434 .12 .3131 .15 .2828 .18 .2525 .21 .2222 .24 .1919 .27 .1616 .30 . 1313

57.6 49.4 42.2 35. 7 29.8 24.7 19.4 15.0 11 .2 7.8 5.3

.0 8.9 15.4 21.4 27.9 33.0 38.3 42.6 46.4 49.8 52.3

.0 3.4 6.8 10.2 13.6 17.0 20.4 23.8 27 .2 30.6 34.0

164° 171 151 144 128 108 95 84 .74 74 67

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

.35 .1010 .36 .0707 .39 . 0404 .42 .0101 .45 .0202 .48 .0505 .52 .0808 .55 .1111 .58 .1414 .61 .1717

3.0 1.4 .5 .0 .2 .8 1.9 3.7 6.1 9.0

54.6 56.2 57.1 67.6 57.5 56.8 55.7 53.9 51 .5 48.7

37.4 40 .8 44.2 47.6 51.0 54.4 57.2 61.2 64.6 68.0

70 70 65 62 62 61 56 53 54 54

68 67 61 59 58 61 63 64 68 64

21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

.64 .67 .70 .73 .76 .79 .82 .85 .88 .91

.2020 .2323 .2626 .2929 .3232 .3535 .3838 .4141 .4444 .4747

13.1 16.3 21.0 25.9 31.3 36.4 45.3 52.0 60.5 68.4 -

44.5 41 .3 36.7 31.7 26.3 21.2 12.3 5.6 2.9 10.8

71.4 74.8 78.2 81 .6 85.0 88.4 91.8 95.2 98.6 102.0

46 49 44 48 43 43 39 39 42 54


31 32 33 34

.94 .97 1.00 1.03

.5050 .5353 .5656 .5959

77.1 - 19.5 • •

105.4 108.8 112.2 115.6

62 69 74 81

114 135 148 149


o 1

2 3




168 ° -Take-off angle 95 ° and 145 Passing from Flexion to 127 Hyper-extension of the 110 Head and Neck on 94 Take-off 89 88 83 81 81 75


53 55

49 53 65 69 72 98

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-Recovery Initiation Minimum Hip Angle During Second Somersault

Horizontal Travel and -Total Performance

Time = elapsed time from take-off (in seconds) t = time (duration from high point) Vertical and horizontal coordinates from center of gravity at take-off in .05 inch units (19.5/20 inch = 1 foot) Hip angle = shoulder-hip-knee angle Knee angle = hip-knee-ankle angle • Assistance was given during last three frames , so further fall stopped.



by Pel Mead Gymnastic Coach, Kakiat Jr. High Spring Valley, N.Y. One of the路 greatest challenges for a gymnastic coach is starting a gymnast on the side horse . A great deal of instruction time could be wasted if an effective schedule of progressive skills is not set up. Experience has proven that by developing a series of "priority skills," a gymnast can more readily develop a good "single leg level " routine. Competitive rules require a minimum of 6 A parts, 4 B parts, and 1 C part. The 6 A parts would be a practical goal for a beginning routine with a possible perfect score of 76. To achieve this goal in the shortest possible time, the following skill progression is suggested: 1. Right and Left Single Leg CutsEmphasize the swing of the leg cutting on the non-support side. Work this skill over the ends as well as the saddle. 2. Right and Left Single Leg Undercuts Forward and Back - Attempting to swing the hips above the pommels and gain height with the leg being undercut will aid in correct execution of this skill. 3. Single Leg Circles - Right and Left - Good leg swing and quick transfer of weight from hand to hand are the major elements which must be mastered . 4. Single Leg Undercut Circles - Right and Left - Practice this skill from a rear support position and from a feint position . This skill may be perhaps the most challenging to master. 5. Left Leg Single Leg Cut Forward To Right Regular Scissor (A) Teaching a scissor out of a single leg cut is justified by the momentum developed for hip lift in the scissors. 6. Right Leg Single Leg Cut Forward To Left Regular Scissor (A). 7. Left Leg Single Leg Cut Forward To Right Regular Scissor To Left Regular Scissor (A & A Value). 8. Single Leg Travel (Right to Left). 9. Single Leg Travel With Undercut Circle (Right to Left) . 10. Simple Swiss - Single leg skill with hop exchange of hands. From support frontways: under cut right outward with 1/2 turn left and hop around with change of support. 11. Mount - Drehflanke to support frontways on the pommels. 12. Dismount - Back stock Ii off. Rather than executing this skill out of double leg circles, it is executed from a rear support position with a 1/2 double leg circle to immediate back stockli off.



1. Drehflanke (Mount)

FIG Skill Value


A&A 2. Scissors Right and Left 3. Double Support To Undercut Circle Travel To Right 4. Single Leg Travel Toward Pommels With Undercuit Circle and A or 5. Immediate Reverse Scissors A & A A 6. Simple Swiss 7. Rear Stockli Off (Dismount) A KEY TO PICTURES 1. Drehflanke - position of the hands, right arm on the end and left arm in an "L" grip on the pommel. 2. Drehflanke - illustrating the turning on one arm and both legs together. 3. Drehflanke completed to front support. 4. Cut left over to immediate. 5. Right regular scissors.

6. Left regu lar scissors. 7. Double support to a left leg undercut circle (travel to right e(1d). 8. Left leg undercut circle. 9. Beginning of single leg travel toward the pommels. 10. Double support. 11 . Pushing off for a right leg undercut circle to immediate reverse scissors. . 12. Right leg undercut circle during travel. 13. Immediate reverse left scissor (continue right leg look to front support). 14. Sim'ple Swiss. 15. Close-up of hand grip in turning process of simple swiss. 16. Completing the simple swiss. 17. Rear support (swing back to front support). 18. Back stockl i off. 19. Turning out in back stock Ii dismount. 20. Close-up of hands in back stockli dismount. 21 . Finis.


Parallel Bars. From a Handstand Position LAY AWAY STREULI to a Handstand Position .

Illustration A assumes an extended handstand position with all body segments in a direct straight-line relationship. The fordownward push against the bar depicted in Illustration B serves to offset the gravitational line toward the intended direction of movement. As the body begins its pendulum descent, Illustration C - D, observe that the shoulder angle begins to decrease slightly with a corresponding "foot lead" position. The continued descent reveals that there is a progressive, lateral decrease in the elbow angle. This progressive elbow decrement should be only to a point which affords adequate power in the upperarm support position. In an attempt to adhere to my concept of " pendulum amplitude," it is suggested that the shoulder region remain as far as is mechanically possible away from the hand grasp. Refer to Illustrations E - F - G. As the upper arms make contact with the parallel bars, the hip region is vigorously driven forward and the leg region begins to slightly trail. Illustrations H - I - J relate that the leg-trunk region is cocked as in an archer's bow ready to release its potential force in coordination with the upward pendulum swing. An important point is

By Dr. Gerald 5. George Dept. of Physical Education Old Dominion University Norfolk, Va. 23508

upperarms are freed from the bars, observe the vigorous hip angle increment and the movement of the head to a slightly backward-tilt position . These actions, in addition to the continued push of the hands against the bars, serve to project the total body unit in a for-upward airborne position.

that the gymnast must maintain a forceful and steadfast girdle depression against the bars throughout the entire upperarm support position . This consideration will significantly facilitate the recoiling action of the oncoming " bottoming effect" and thereby allow for a greater upward pendulum swing.

The release-regrasp actions revealed in Illustration P - Q - R must be instantaneous with respect to the upward body movement. In other words, the total body unit should be still rising as the hands regrasp the bars. It may be of assistance to conceptualize the regrasp in terms of "punching the bars" with open hands . This will help insure a continuous upward movement. And finally, observe that the regrasp is complete before the total body unit transcends the upper vertical line. Such a consideration not only allows the performer to exhaust the potential of his . " pendulum amplitude" relative to this skill, but also it allows for a more continuous movement pattern relative to sequentially related skills.

The rigid shoulder girdle depression and leg-trunk fixation will aid the gymnast in attaining a true perpendicular "bottoming effect" from the pendulum swing. The double vertical arrows included in Illustration K depict that this " bottoming effect" causes the bars to bow downward slightly and to recoil vigorously as the body unit rises up the pendulum swing.

Illustration 5, identical of course to IIlustration A, is indeed a "moment of truth" in that the perfo~mer is ideally positioned for the above noted sequentially related skills.

Upon transcending the "bottoming effect" of the pendulum swing, Illustrations L - M - N depict a most vigorous " foot lead " as revealed in the progressive hip angle decrement. This action is supplemented with a forceful downward push of the upperarms and hands against the parallel bars. Observe that the head is in a slightly forward-tilt position. The transition action between Illustration O--<lod Illustration P iLa..single most important aspect of the "Streuli". As the body rises up the pendulum swing and the

Gymnastic Classics Volume II Section E Number 1 -


Š Parallel Bars Upperarm Support Saultos From a Handstand Position - LAY AWAY STREULI - to a Handstand Position



a better horizontal bar?

WHOSE? Coaches and gymnasts agree, a comparison is inevitably one-sided . For example, only System Nissen has adjustable tubular steel guy braces (instead of cables) for greater safety and stability. Only System Nissen has a Floating Counterbalance in each upright to make height adjustments by one person almost effortless and safe. Only System Nissen has the unique capabilty of converting from a fixed, floor plate attached bar to a portable, free standing bar in a matter of minutes. And ... only System Nissen is so mobile it can be quickly folded and transported by one person. Interested in more information?

r-------------------, D Send me information about System Nissen Gymnastic Apparatus. Name ................................ ........................................... Position ............ ..... School or Organization ......................................................... ........................




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MG SCORE BOARD Washington vs. California January 30, 1971 FLOOR EXERCISE: 1. George Greenfield (California) 9.25, 1. Minoru Morisaki (California) 9.25, 3. Yoshi Hayasaki (Washington) 9.20, 4. Hide Umeshita (Washington) 9.05, 4. Brad Moses (California) 9.05 , 6. Bruce Brinton (Washington) 8.85. SIDE HORSE: 1. Doug McGirr (California) 8.95, 2. John Regan (California) 8.80, 3. George Greenfie ld (California) 8.30, 4. Minoru Morisaki (California) 8.15 , 5. Yoshi Hayasaki (Washington) 8.05, 6. Chuck Sanders (Washington) 7.95, 6. Hide Umeshita (Washington) 7.95, 6. Ron Hunter (Washington) 7.95. STILL RINGS: 1. Yoshi Hayasaki (Washington) 9.45, 2. Kerry Leiman (Washington) 9.05, 3. George Greenfield (California) 8.85, 3. Tom Gardner (California) 8.85, 4. Sho Fukushima (Washington) 8.80, 6. Carl

Dupage Invitational

University at Platteville, Triton College, Satta (California) 8.75, 6. Barney Peters Milwaukee Area Tech , Marquette Univer(California) 8.75. PARALLEL BARS: 1. Hide Umeshita sity, and College of DuPage. The top gym(Washington) 9.30, 2. George Greenfield nast of the meet was Ron Keinigs, the Uni(California) 9.25, 2. Phil Rockwell (Califor- versity of Chicago's Co-captain from nia) 9.25, ~. Yoshi ~ay~saki ~Was.hington) Tampa, Florida, as he won the all-around , -evenr-wiln---a-4S-:-45-total~R()flWola, - a9.-15,- 5. M 1I"l0~U-MO~lsakl-(Gallf0FF1la)-9.106. Ron Hunter (Washington) 9.05. freshman from Triton College was a close HORIZONTAL BAR: 1. Yoshi Hayasaki second. Keinigs was the winner of the floor (Washington) 9.50, 2. George Greenfield exercise event with an 8.75 average, and (California) 9.45, 3. Bill Carpenter (Wash- scored a first on long horse with a 9.15 Yamashita vault. The side horse event was ington) 8.40, 4. Minoru Morisaki (California) 9.35, 5. Hide Umeshita (Washington) 8.30, won by Carl Bobkoski from University of 5. Sho Fukushima (Washington) 8.30. Chicago. The winner on still rings was LONG HORSE: 1. Lars Kolsrud (Wash- College of DuPage freshman Gene Sievers with an 8.3 average. Marquette University's ington) 9.30, 2. Rich Gaylor (Washington) 9.20, 3. Yoshi Hayasaki (Washington) 9.10, captain Terry Hake was the top parallel bar 3. Brad Moses (California) 9.10, 3. Dan man with an 8.5 average. Triton College's Bowles (California) 9.10, 6. Minoru MoriRon Wold topped the field on the horizontal bar event, by scoring an 8.3 average. saki (California) 9.05. ALL-AROUND: 1. Ron Hunter (Washing- The trampolin~ event was led by DuPage's ton) 56.80, 2. Yoshi Hayasaki (Washington) TIrT~ Raffen with an 8.65 score. The com54.45, 3. George Greenfield (California) petition wa~ well-b~lanced In e~ch .event. 54.10, 4. Minoru Morisaki (California) 53.15, Floor exercise routmes w~re hlghlight~d 5. Hide Umeshita (Washington) 52.95, 6. by three double-full tWisting backs-Still Barney Peters (California) 48.55. rings showed some stra~ght-arm shoots and TEAM STANDINGS: 1. California, 162.90, several double-back dismounts. Many . of 2. Washington, 161 .55. the competitors showed style and flair with baSIC movements. FINAL RESULTS AND ROUTINES January 23, 1971 FLOOR EXERCISE College of Dupage 1st-Ron Keinigs (U of Chicago) (8.75) Invitational Gymnastics Meet RO, ft, full (stick), ff , arch dive to stand, Report by Dave Webster turn to splits, stoop out, run , full twisting Coach , College of DuPage dive roll , jump, front headspring, step out, A good-sized crowd was on hand on Swedish fall , turn to straddle, st-st press to Saturday night, January 23rd , to see the handstand, step down, run , cariwheel, side College of DuPage Invitational Gymnastics aerial, step to corner, run , RO , ff, piked Meet, which was highlighted by some outback. standing routines by gymnasts from the 2nd-(Tie) Jim Lillig (DuPage) (8.15) RO , Un ive rsity of Chicago, Wisconsin State ff, double twisting back (stick) , back X roll

to stand , st-st press to handstand , Japanese handstand, forward roll to run , RO, back V4 turn, cartwheel, back walkover to corner, run, RO , ft, Arabian back to ti 'nsica, front (stick), back X roll V2 twist to handstand , pike down to cradle, kip VI/full twist, valClez, run , RO~ft;-fUlnWisling-l5aci{~.- - - .John O'Brien (Triton) (8 .15) RO , ff, double twisting back (stick), ,Swedish fall , turn to stand , run, front, front headspring to seat, V2 turn to st-st press to handstand, step down, run , RO, backV4 turn, kip V2 twist to cut-catch, straddle sit, back X roll to handstand, step down , run, RO, ft , full twisting back. SIDE HORSE 1st-Carl Bobkoski (U to Chicago) (7.95) moore, side travel, loops, loop V4 turn, uphill travel, downhill travel, khere-in, forward scissors, reverse scissors, circles, side travel , loop dismount. 2nd-Bob Wrzosek (DuPage) (6.6) loop mount , loop V4 turn , uphill travel , side travel , direct tromlot, circle, forward scissors, reverse scissors, hop, circle, side travel, loops, loop V2 twist dismount. 3rd-Chris McLaughlin (DuPage) (5.7) moore mount, circle, (khere-out, khere-in) stockli , tromlot, circle, scissors , forward , reverse, circle , side travel, loops, loop off with back turn. STILL RINGS 15t - Gene Sievers (DuPage) (8.3) straight-arm, straight-body pull, ' back rise to handstand, back giant handstand (straight-arm) , back roll , German to front lever, inlocate, back rise L (straight-arm), hollowback press, lower to cross, dislocate, straddle off. 2nd-Ron Wold (Triton) (7.8) dislocate, shoot handstand, back giant handstand:


back roll, dislocate to bird-up L (straightarm), st-st press to handstand , back roll , back lever, pullout to back rise, double dislocate , double back dismount. 3rd-Bill Pappas (Triton) (7.0) dislocate, shoot handstand, back .giant handstand , lower to inverted handstand, Maltese to L cross, bac;: roll L, hollowback press, lower to back roll, double dislocate, double back dismount. LONG HORSE VAULTING 1st-Ron Keinigs (U of Chicago) (9.15)

Yamashita (far end) 2nd-Bob Barr (Milwau~e Tech) (8.8) Yamashita (far end) 3rd-Mark Sackett (U of Chicago (8.45) Yamashita (far end) PARALLEL BARS

1st-Terry Hake (Marquette) (8.5) jump to support, cast (straight-arm), cut-catch L, hollowback press, stutz handstand , back toss, cast to back rise, cut-catch, swing handstand, stutz handstand, immediate layaway, front rise, swing handstand , back off. 2nd-Ron Keinigs (U of Chicago) (8.25) glide kip (on end), back cut to support, cast support, swing handstand pirouette, stutz, cast, disengage to glide ~ip, L support, press handstand, stutz, immediate layaway, front rise, front off with V2 twist. 3rd-Ron Wold (Triton) (7.9) peach, glide kip, cut-catch to layaway front rise swing handstand pirouette, cast, back rise , cut-catch L, st-st press to handstand , pirouette to cast, back rise, cut-catch, layaway, front rise, front with V2 twist.



Dear Glenn: Many thanks for the great help your magazine gives to gymnasts down under! I gather most of my ideas for my T.V. program from it. Lately, it has been lacking the 'guts' of articles such as " Helpful Hints," " Research and Fitness," etc. YOU KNOWLEDGAB LE GYMNASTIC COACHES-HELP! DO SOMETHING! Kevin Williams Channel '0' Brisbane, Australia 'Jumping Gymnastics'

Dear Glenn : I thought you might b.e interested in this picture taken by one of our gymnasts while I was performing on the trampoline one evening. The mural in the background is approximately 25 ' x 20' and is located in our newly equipped gymnastic room here in Washington State University. I started painting these monsters while assisting Dick Wolfe last year at Cal-State Fullerton . I am presently substituting for Bob Peavy who is on sabbatical at the University of Utah. I would like to extend my services to any coach who is in need of a one year substitute while embarking on the higher levels of education . I am single, flexible, and highly qualified in the areas of coaching and instructing gymnastics. I would be more. than willing to travel, correspond , or send information to any person interested in my services . Gymnastically yours, Rea Anders Gymnastic Coach Washington State University Pullman, Washington 99163


1st-Ron Wold (Triton) (8.3) stem, stoop into eagles, hop out, immediate forward stalder, forward giant, pirouette, back giant, X change, immediate Dna to rear vault, back kip, German giant, disengage V2 twist, to straight-straight kip to handstand, forward giants, pike front barani dismount. 2nd-Ron Keinigs (U of Chicago) (7.6) cast, full twist, catch, kip w/hop to forward giant, straddle on and off, pirouette, back giant, X change to pirouette, double back flyaway dismount. 3rd-Terry Beckwith (Triton) (6.95) stem, stoop into eagles, hop out, reach over, rear vault, catch, Y2 turn to straignt-straight kip, forward giant, change to pirouette, X change to giant, stalder, hop to underswing-front dismount. TRAMPOLINE

1st-Tim Raffen (DuPage) (8.65) Y2 in , V2 out fliffis , pike barani out, rudolph, full twisting back, tuck barani out, double back, rudolph, full twisting back, full-in H~ to stomach, double cody dismount. 2nd-Don Gardiner (DuPage) (8.4) pike barani out, tuck barani out, rudolph , pike back, double twisting back, double twisting back, rudolph , pike back, pike in 1 % front, ball-out rudolph dismount. 3rd-Jim Lillig (DuPage) (7.8) 2% front to shoulders, rudolph-out, Y2 in , V2 out fliffis, barani out, rudolph , barani out, back, full twist back, double-full twist, triple-twisting back dismount. ALL-AROUND

1st-Ron Keinigs (U of Chicago) (45.45) 2nd-Ron Wold (Triton) (43.80)

28 .

New Lime Green Leotards We now have in stock our new Princess cut Lime Green leotards and trunks. They are different and most attractive. He outstanding looking and send for your sample uniform today. Be the first in your area to use these. We still have the lowest prices on all gymnastic uniforms, and the fastest delivery .

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Ideal for practicing hip circles. Only 15". Long enough to r:>rovide amr:>le r:>rotection yet will not interfere with hand position. 9.50


Ny-O-Lite filler with bonded Powerhyde cover , and velcro fasteners. Lightweight padding allows bar to flex, yet gives complete-protectiQn-for-beginJ:le~s-as-well-as-advanced-pe~,", - ------足

formers attempting difficult routines. Set of four, five foot sections.



Manufactured to fit late model parallel bars. Provides added protection while practicing skills and under bar work. Will not interfere with adjustment and locking devices. Manufactured from tubular Ny-O-Lite filler with bonded Power hyde cover. Velcro fasteners secure pads to uprights. Set of 4 pads.





Added protection in learning backward rolls, hand stands, and other skills. 5'5" in length for partial beam covering. 21.00


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SHOES ....$2.15 pro #TL-2 (as illustrated) . #TL-3-A all-leather shoe ...... 4.00 pro with rubber sale .. .... _.. _.. #TL-4 Ladies' gym shoe 2.00 pro Nylon w/leather sale . #NB Nylon booty. w/leather sale 2.25 pro Sizes 1-12 . LEATHER HANoGRIPS #A-Good (most popular) ............. .$1.50 pro #B - Better (one-piece) . ... 1.75 pro #C - Best (extra strong) . .. . 2.25 pro Lampwick handgrips (S-M-l) .. ... .. . . 1.50 pro PANTS Colton/acrylic stretch ............ .. .. .. .$1.50 pro Nylon stretch pants ...... 15.00 White or Cream With toe-pc., odd $1 .00 extra SUSPENDERS 'l'a" elastic w/metal clips. Adjustable and detachable. Comes in white, blue or red. .. .$3.00 ea. WOODEN RINGS ........... 22.95 pro Meets all specifications . CHALK . lowest prices Block or powder .


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1910 USGF National Championships Super 8 film - in color Complete routines of the highest scores, on each event, can be observed. See our finest gymnasts in semi-slow motion (24 fps) held althe fabulous Los Vegas 'Canvention Center. 1970 world compulsories included in women's events. Men's - 265 It. .. ....... ... .............. .$20.00 Ppd. Women's - 255 It. ..........................$20.00 Ppd.

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100% nylon suit, designed for a full ranQe of sports and casual wear. This Olympic-grade suit features a contrasting double stripe, raglan sleeves, knit collar, cuff and waistband with contrasting stripes. Zipper legs with straight cuffs and stirrups. All sizes available in five colors.

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1' 77~

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Modern Gymnast - March 1971