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THE MODERN GYMNAST MAGAZINE

MARCH,1969 60c


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notes FROM THE

-editor: INVITATIONAL WORLD CUP: Your editor talked with many World Gymnasts at the Olympic Games in Mexico and to FIG President Arthur Gander in Santa Monica while he was visiting us after the Olympic Games concerning an MG World Invitational. All agreed it would be a great. idea and that Southern California would be a good spot to host the competition. As the idea grew and received FIG approval it was obvious The MG was in no position cover the large financial obligation of transportation and the other expenses needed to stage such a tremendous event, therefore it was turned over to the USGF to assure success. NOW HERE IT IS! On April 26th, 1969 at the Long Beach Arena the 1 st ANNUAL USGF INVITATIONAL WORLD CUP Will take place. Several Olympic Gold Medal Winners and top AA performers have already accepted our invitation and will be on hand for the competition ... NAKAYAMA and KENMOTSU from Japan ... CERAR from Yugoslavia ... NISSENEN ... from Finland ... and we are still awaiting answers from several other top Olympic competitors (men and women) from around the World. We had hoped Caslovaska would be able to come, but as you know she got herself married while in Mexico and is now knitting baby cl othes for an expected arrival about June or July. Mr. and Mrs. Voronin and Diamidov and Kuchinskaya from the USSR were also invited but we received word that they were too busy getting ready for the European Championships to be held the end of May and could not take time out from their training for our " World Cup". Since the European Championships only accept two gymnasts from each co untry and we indicated we would accept top alternates from the USSR, it is your editor's opi nion it was more of a political position than a training factor .. . and this is too bad because how else can countries get to know and understand each other better than in an athletic event as wonderful as a GYMNASTIC WORLD INVITATIONAL? I am very sorry, but perhaps by the time next year rolls around and the SUCCESS OF THE 1ST WORLD CUP echoes around the globe we will have more top world Gymnasts asking to be invited to the 2ND USGF WORLD CUP IN 1970 ... See you in LONG BEACH .

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NOTE TO FOREIGN SUBSCRIBERS: Due to the Longshoreman strike on the East Coast of the US your past two or three editions of The MODERN GYMNAST have been delayed in delivery. We are sorry for this unfortunate delay, and we hope that the issues held up by th is strike have now arrived.

m

THE MODERN GYMNAST MAGAZINE

G Official Publication of the United States Gymnastic Federation

CONTENTS VOL. XI MARCH 1969 NUMBER 3 NOTES FROM THE EDITOR ......... ..... Glenn Sundby 4 CHALK TALK ...... ...... ..... ............... ... ....... ........ 6 SWISS AMERICAN TOUR ...... .... ... .. .......... .... ....... 8 USGF REPORT ............... .................. Frank Bare 11 CANADIAN REPORT ......... ............... ..John Nooney 12 THE MACHINE ...... ... .. ... ... ........ John W. Hinds, Jr. 14 PSYCHOLOGY AND THE GYMNAST Dr. Joseph L. Massimo 15 MG CALENDAR ................. ....... Akinoir Nakayama 16 THE ART OF GyMNASTiCS .. ... .. .. .. ..... ...Dan Millman 18 A SECOND LOOK AT SWiNG ........ Gerald S. George 19 ALL-AROUND THE WORLD ............. Werner Tuerke 20 TUMBLING TOPICS ...... .................... Dick Criley 21 FRONT VAULT DISMOUNT ON SIDE HORSE Don Tonry 21 NATIONAL GYMNASTIC OFFICIALS ASSOCIATION Jerry Wright 22 RINGS ............ .... .. .... ........ ........ Mickey Chaplan 24 THE ANALYSIS OF GYMNASTICS .... A - B:-Frederick 25 MG SCOREBOARD.. .............. ............ ................ 28 LETTERS ................. ...... .......... ... .. ... .. ...... ....... 29

COVER, Bob Manna of New Mexico University holding his "Manna Special " on the P. Bars at the UClA Invitational. Bob swings or presses into this position and holds it. he then presses out through a stiff-stiff press to a hand stand or several other va riations as the moment or inspi ration dictates.

PUBLISHER - EDITOR G LEN N SUN D B Y

ASSOCIATE EDITORS -Technical KEN SAKODA, Design

- ASSOCIATE EDITORS - Feature A. Bruce Frederick , Education; Dr. James S. Bosco, Research; Dick Criley. Statistics; Jerry Wright, Competition; Frank L. Bare, USCF; John Nooney, Canada.

THE MODERN GYMNAST magazine is published by Sundby Publications . 410 Broadway, Santa Monico. California 90401. Second Class Postage paid at Santa Monico. Calif. Publis hed monthly except bi-monthly June. July. August. and September. Price $6.00 per yeor, 60c a single copy: Sub scription correspondence. The MODERN GYMNAST. P.O . Box 611. Sonia Monica, California 90406. Copyright 1969Š all rights reserved by SUNDBY PUBLICATIONS, 410 Broadway, Santo Monico. Calif. All photos and manuscripts sub mined become the property of The MODERN GYMNAST unless a return request and sufficient postage are included.

4


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ABC TV Gymnastic Plans James R. Spence Jr. , Coor:linating Producer ABC's Wide World of Sports , has written in a communique to MG writer Dick Criley that they are tentatively planning to televise the North American Gymnastic Championships iris spring from Mexico City. So how about all you avid MG readers dropping a line to ABC 's Wide World of Sports: 1330 Avenue of the.Americas, New York , N.Y . 10019 .. and thank them for putting Big Gymnastic Comptititions on TV . ... But please let's even have more Gymnastic Competitions on ABC Television . HIGH SCHOOL GYMNASTICSEVENTS AND ALL-AROUND EMPHASIS VS. SPECIALISTS A recent study shows increasing emphasis on the all-around competitor in U.S. high school gymnastics. In four states, California, Illinois, Colorado and Pennsylvania, coaches indicated that their top performers were most likely to be all-around men. While indicating that they gave as much attention to specialists, they favored developing the all-around gymnast. A factor hindering all -around development was the lack of one or more of the Olympic all-around events. In California, AA is worked as an event in some sections but not in others. In Colorado and Pennsylvania AA is included for district and higher meets. Floor exercise and long horse are the eyents most likely to be omitted in the a;ll-around, but tumbling is frequently a part of the competitive program. In Illinois, the AA is composed of 4 events: SH, PE, R, HE. An interesting' comment was made by one coach who felt that the chance of getting a college scholarship motivated some boys to specialize. Surprisingly, no comment was made about requiring compulsory exerci"es in high school competition. (For other notes on high school gymnastics abstracted from Murray: A Comparison. of Interscholastic Gymnastics on the High School Level, see previous issues di Chalk Talk.)

A SHOWDOWN . By JOHN W. HINDSJR. Fron) across the prairies drove Indiana's Columbus High School gymnasts to cross a stateliIif and challenge the renowned reputation of' Illinois gymnastics by meeting their 1968 slate champions , Arlington. At the time of this competition , Arlington ranked first in the Illinois prep standing with an average score of 121 .57 and appears to be headed for another state tille. Columbus , the 1967 and 1968 Indiana state champions , also claimed an admirable record , having won all its meet during the current season. By all odds , they , too , are headed for another state title. This then painted the picture for what must have been one of the best high school dual meets in the country. A capacity crowd of over four thou sa nd spectators and the presence of several college coaches attested to the significance of this event - a showdown between the best of the two states. 6

Arlington Cooch Tom Walthouse shaking hands with Columbus Cooch John Hinds.

Dave Corter

Nick WoolI~

From the opening routine on the trampoline to the last routine in floor exercise the spectators were treated to above average performances by the Arlington Cardinals. The Columbus Bulldogs showed signs of nervousness and had several misses for a below-average team effort but still stayed in there to give the Cardinals one of the roughest meets of their season. On the trampoline Arlington's Terry Haines performed a near flawless routine earning 9.3 - undoubtedly the best routine of the day. Columbus' Nick Wools then won the side horse with a powerful performance that in路 c1uded a definite break. The second highest score of the day placed Jim Brousseau, a Cardinal , first on the horizontal bar with an 8.75 and a topnotch job. The Bulldog junior, Nick Woolls, after several bad misses on the high bar, performed one of his better routines on the parallel bars to win with an 8.0. The still ring event saw Cardinal Kevin Lindsey perform bravely with a broken finger and tie his teammate, Bob G leichman, for top honors. Long before the final event , floor exercise, it was clear that the spectators were thoroughly enjoying the meet. F loor exercise in Illinois

consists of performing on a 60-foot tumbling mat - often called strip floor exercise. By contrast the Indiana gymnasts performed within the traditional 40-foot square area on the floor. Although performing within different boundaries and on different surfaces brilliant routines were presented by both teams. Cardinal Gary Drake won with an 8.35 . The meet ended with Arlington scoring 134.85 for a new prep high in Illinois. Columbus, performing below average, scored 116.95 for one of the highest scores of any Cardinal foe. Without a doubt the meet was a rewarding experience for both teams and a significant event in U.S . gymnastics. It showed that the strength of a team does not depend upon the identity of the state it represents but upon the qualities and accomplishments of its team members. For the Indi ana C.H.S . gymnasts did effectively compete and challenge their rival from Illinois. The precedent has now been set for dual meets between the state gymnast ic champions of Illinois and Indi ana - it is hoped that this event may continue as originally initiated by this author.


OF THE PACI FIC OT EL

RESTAURANT

COCKTA\l S

WORKSHOP IN GYMNASTICS STANFORD UNIVERSITY , Stanford , Calif. -,-June 23-27 , 1969 - Two units , or w.o. credit Instruction will focus on teaching methods for apparatus and free floor exercise. Emphasis will be on new techniques , skills aJ"!d safety measures. Faculty: Heidi A. Klajls, George Hery, Dan Millman, Sophie Stahlman and guest instructors. Address inquiries to: Miss Heidi A. Klaus, Workshop Director, Women 's Physical Education Department, Stanford University, Stanford , Calif. 94305.

"Y" NEWS

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Mr. William Buffa, chairman of the National YMCA Gymnastic Committee has circulated a form to be filled out, which will be used in a survey of counseling, advising and assisting the hosts of the National YMCA Gymnastic Championships in the Organization and conduct of such championships. This type of survey has not been made since 1953. Once summarized, the information will be valuable to not only the National Committee but to all YMCA's which have a gymnastic program. The survey includes, among other things , questions regarding what level , what number and which events your gymnasts work. If interested in the survey you may contact Mr. Buffa at 53 Sky Meadow Place, Elmsford , New York. REMEMBER - PLAN NOW 1969 National YMCA Gymnastic Championships , April 11-12 - New Orleans , La. Men and Women - contact - Mr. W. P. Wortman, Physical Director - YMCA , 936 St. Charles Ave., New Orleans, La. 70130.

Swiss S.M. Stopover Although the USA touring Swiss National Gymnastics team did not have a competition in So . Calif. they did get out of the eastern snows and spend a few days in sunny (well almost) California. From their headquarters in the Monica Hotel on the Beach at Santa Monica they visited Hollywood and Universal Studios, Marineland of the Pacific , Disneyland and of course the MG office. Helping to show them around were Frank Endo, Jack Beckner, Susie Hager, Rowena Jackson and your editor. Coach Brud Cleaveland of Santa Monica City College opened the SMCC Gym for their practice sessions while in town and Susie and Rowena (of the SMCC girls Gym Team) ar-

ranged for an evening social of food and fun at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Hager.

NCAA ADOPTS TRAMPOllNING AS SEPARATE SPORT The annua l convention of NCAA Representatives in Los Angeles produced an important change in collegiate gymnastic competition. A motion by Southern California's Jesse Hill to adopt Trampolining as a separate sport was passed unanimously. Implementation of the ruling will be made by the NCAA Gymnast ic Rules Committee headed by Bill Meade of Southern Illinois. Other members of the committee include: Gene Wettstone, Penn State ; Gordon Maddox , Los Angeles State ; Glenn Wilson, Arizona ; and Hal Frey, California. 7


THE SWISS NATIONAL TEAM TOUR OF THE U. S. A. One of the finest teams we have had the pleasure of hosting in America, toured the entire United States during the month of January. ;A truly great young Swiss Team, under the coaching of their well-known coach Mr. Jack Gunthard, did an eJ:(cellent job of representing their nation both on the floor and off during their 21 days in America. They won each of their six-stops and competitions and even more, they won the hearts of a good many people at each stop. Delegation chief, Mr. Hanspeter Frey and Swiss National Federation delegate, Mr. Josef Huber, both contributed much to the smooth running tour. It was at times a test of patience on fheir parts, as the weather in the mid-West and 'West Coast realled turned off for them. Fog in Chicago, rain in Philadelphia:, ice in Iowa and' snow in Seattle, but no'ne-the-Iess the team worked hard, and continued to demonstrate great consistency at every stop. Pennsylvania State University was the first stop and they appeared at Penn. State before an excellent crowd of some 6,000 and won over the 'very impressive Nittany Lions by a little over one point. From University Park they traveled by limousine to Philadelphia where host Coach Bill Coco did a truly great job of hosting the competition at Neshaminy High School. Joel Baba, coach at Neshaminy was a perfect host as well, and the meet with Temple University was conducted before a capacity crowd of some 2,200. The team did some sight-seeing in Philadelphia and then they were held over one night due to weather. The next day, however, they arrived in fog-shrouded Chicago and sat at the airport for some time before departing for Iowa City on roads covered with freezing rain. Host Coach Mike Jacobson , at the University of low!'! did a fine job of conducting a meet under some of the worst weather conditions and his team worked well. The next morning, with the temperature at some 5 below zero the team headed for Ames, Iowa by bus and had an evening of rest before meeting Ed Gagniers fine young Iowa State University team. Coach Jack Gunihard of Switzerland made the comment that 路路Iowa State's team of four freshmen and two sophomores , all in the all-around was the finest Jr. National Team he had ever seen anywhere in the world . . . and it was not a national team: just Iowa State's ; so congratulations, Ed, and Iowa State, that's a real compliment. From Ames, to Des Moines, and a flight to Denver ... a brief stop at the airport to see the terminal and then on to Los Angeles. Glenn Sundby met them, escorted them to a location on the beach at Santa Monica and during the next two days they saw Disneyland, a Hollywood sound stage, Marineland ... and lots of freeways. Glenn worked very hard to give them some days of vacation ... in what was a hardworking trip for all. From Los Angeles, to Seattle, Washington. Natljrally, the Seattle area was experiencing the worst blizzard in 60 years ... and the team made a safe arrival in what looked like twenty inches of snow and still falling. Host Coach Eric Hughes, made the welcome , showed them good competition and good hospitality as we ll. Then from Seattle, the team proceeded to San Francisco and the University of California at Berkeley. There, Harold Frey's California team did a great job, and young Steve Hug did a tremendous job in winning the all-around title. The team visited downtown San Francisco after the competition and saw some of the 8

Meinrad Berchtold.

Penn State Vs Swiss - All-Around winners, 1st-Robert Emery, PSU; 2nd-Hans Ettlin, Swiss; 3rdRichard Swetmon, PSU.


The Swiss Notional Team Vs Temple University (scenes below)

Golden State's more notable sights. Here the weather was fine ... and the day they departed for New York C ity and , in turn , their home country, the su n was shining beautifully on the Bay area. Such exchanges as this s ure Iy mu st contribute a great deal to our young gymnasts. If nothing else the gymnasts from the U.S.A. who took part at each stop had to be impressed with the Swiss Team's great consistency. During the first four meets, I saw only two missed routines ... both on the side horse. On the observations side of the American teams, I came away from seeing all six meets with one comment. Our young gymnasts do great difficult y, and miss basic stu nt s. I cannot strees too much the observation of sitting and watching the performers do two and three "C" tricks in succession and then miss a kip. No one in the world has more youthful and promising gymnasts than the U.S.A .... no nation in the world has more competitions than the U.S.A .... and now all we need to concentrate on is development of a truly highl y-trained nat ional team. Such exchanges as this one will lead us to the development of that team ... we begin now to make plans for another tea m in 1970. 9


Scenes from Swiss Vs. Cal Meet.

Photos by Rip Searby

SWITZERLAND vs PENN. STATE UNIVERSITY - January 17, 1969 PENN. S1. UNIV. Total 270.25 Tom Dunn Robert Emery John Kindon Joe litow Richard Swetman Ed Isabelle Team e~ent scores路 SWITZERLAND Total 271.70 Meinrad Berchtold Peter Aliesch Hans Etllin Edwin Greutmann Roland Huerzeler Paul Mueller Team event scores路

FX

7.95 9.25 8.75 8.80 9.15 8.60 44.55

8.70 8.95 8.95 9.00 8.95 8.30 44.55

LH

SH

7.95 9.30 8.85 8.70 9.10 8.90 44.85

8.55 8.90 8.85 8.60 8. 15 9.10 44.00

9.10 9.40 8.85 9.30 9.00 9.15 45.95

9.00 8.65 9.30 8.80 8.95 9.30 45.35

8.95 9.00 9.10 8.35 8.35 8.95 44.35

9.30 9.20 9.10 8.80 8.75 9.10 45.50

PB

9.05 9.40 8. 20 8.20 9.20 8.90 44.75

9.15 8.80 9.35 9.10 9.40 9.15 46.15

HB

8.60 9.40 iU5 9.15 9.35 9.30 45.80

9.30 9.05 9.35 8.95 9.30 9.15 46.15

SWITZERLAND vs UNIVERSITY DF U. of IOWA FX Slt Total 253.05 Richard Scorza 8.85 8.85 Roger Ne ist 8.20 4.90 Neil Schmill 8.60 8.80 Bob Dickson 8.50 7.95 Fred Dennis 8.65 8.65 Event team scores- 42.80 39.15 SWITZERLAND Total 268.85 Peter Aliesch Hans Ettlin Roland Huerzeler Meinrad Berchtold Max Bruehwiler Edwin Greutmann Event team scores-

IOWA STATE UNIV. Total 256.55 Dave Butzman Jerry Fontana James Gilberto Dennis Mazur Brent Simmons Rick Simmons Event Team Scores-

SWITZERLAND Total 270.70 Peter Aliesch Meinrad Berchtold Max Bruehwiler Hans Elliin Edwin Greutmann Paul Mueller Team event scores-

SWITZERLAND Total 272 .45 Peter Aliesch Meinrad Berchtold Max Bruehwiler Edwin Greutmann Roland Huerzeler Paul Mueller Event Team Scores-

10

8.95 8.80 9.20 8.85 8.05 9.05 44.85

8.35 8.95 8.65 8.75 8.65 9.20 44.20

8.75 9.35 9. 15 8.90 8.60 890 45.05

9.00 9.45 9.35 9.45 9.00 9.05 46.30

9.05 9.25 9.00 9.30 9.10 9.20 45.85

9.00 8.45 9.20 8.55 8.90 8.30 44.10

8.90 8.65 8.45 9.35 9.05 44.40

9.35 8.45 8.10 8.40 7.45 7.15 9. 15 8.70 8.20 8.65 42.25 41.35

9.20 7.45 8.30 9.35 8.80 44.85

8.40 9.05 8.95 8.85 8.70 8.75 44.30

9.05 8.90 9.20 9.30 8.70 9.45 9.25 9.05 8.95 8.95 8.95 8.90 45.40 45.65

8.90 9.00 9.25 9.10 8.50 8.60 43.10

SWITZERLAND vs UNIV. OF WASHINGTON GYM CLUB January 3D, 1969 LH HUSKY GYM CLUB FX R PB SH Total 269.6D 9.00 Kanati Allen 9.20 7.90 8.65 8.65 8.75 7.95 9. 10 9.10 8.80 Gunter Bohrmann Mike Flansaas 8.40 7.00 9.05 9.10 8.75 9.00 8.75 9.00 9.00 8.85 Sho Fukushima Bob Hall 8.90 9.20 8.75 9.05 9.00 8.70 9.60 9.35 9.20 9.50 Mauno Nissenen Event Team Scores- 44.55 43.40 45.25 45.45 44.90

9.35 8.85 7.70 9.50 8.90 9.45 46.05

SWITZERLAND Tota I 275.20 Peter Aliesch Meinrad Berchtold Max Bruehwiler Edwin Greutmann Roland Huerzeler Paul Mueller Event Team Scores-

9.00 9.30 9.25 9.05 9.60 9.00 46.20

9.20 9.15 9.00 9.20 9.60 9.50 46.65 1, 1969 HB

9.30 8.85 9.15 9.10 9.05 8.50 45.45

8.95 8.55 8.85 8.55 9.30 9.25 44.90

8.95 9.00 9.25 9.00 9.15 9.45 45.85

9.20 9.35 9.25 9.00 9.20 9.15 46.15

HB

SWITZERLAND vs IOWA STATE UNIVERSITY - January 25, 1969

SWITZERLAND vs TEMPLE UNIVERSITY - January 20, 1969 R P8 TEMPLE UNIV. FX SH LH H8 Total 264.55 Ron Clemmer 8.30 7.15 7.95 9.00 8.85 8.75 8.95 9.35 8.55 8.05 8.65 8.90 Marc Cohn Pete DiFurio 8.80 8.85 8.95 8.70 9. 20 8.95 Jay Geist 8. 20 6.75 8.50 8.80 8.75 8.00 Fred Turoff 9.05 8.70 9.30 8.90 8.35 9.25 Barry Weiner 9.20 B.50 9.00 8.50 9.20 9.00 Team event scores- 44.30 42.55 44.30 43.90 44.65 44.85

8.70 8.70 8.90 8.90 8.75 8.70 43.95

9.10 8.90 8.85 8.85 8.85 8.75 44.55

IOWA - January 23, 1969 PB HB LH R

FX

SH

8.60 8.3 0 7.65 7.95 9.10 9.30 43.25

7.25 7.85 7.50 7.75 8.40 7.30 38.80

9.25 9.05 9.20 8.95 9.00 8.60 45.45

8.60 9.00 9.20 8.75 8.15 8.90 44.45

8.30 8.90 8.65 8.65 8.75 7.45 43.25

8.55 9.00 9.05 8.95 8.70 9.20 44.90

LH

PB

HB

8.90 8.65 8.50 8.45 8.95 8.80 43.80

9.00 9.00 7.50 9.20 8.70 8.60 44.50

8.70 9.20 8.60 8.05 7.80 8.40 42.95

SWITZERLAND vs UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA - February R SH LH PB UN IV. OF CALIF. FX Total 267.00 Richard Grigsby 8.70 8.30 8.55 8.80 9.10 Gary Diamond 9.05 7.25 9.25 8.70 9.00 Craig Dickson 8.50 7.65 8.90 8.65 8.35 George Greenfield 9.10 8.10 8.65 9.25 8.70 Steve Hug 9.20 9.25 9.20 9.35 9.50 Minoru Morisaki 8.60 8.15 7.95 9. 15 8.70 Event Team Scores- 44.65 41.45 44.55 45.2 5 45.00

9.10 9.30 8.85 9.10 9.40 9.30 46.20

SWITZERLAND Total 271.30 Peter Aliesch Meinrad Berchtold Max Bruehwiler Edwin Greutmann Paul Mueller Roland Huerzeler Event Team Scores-

9.15 9.30 9.10 9.10 8.85 8.90 45.55

8.95 9.35 8.85 9.00 9.40 9.20 45.90

9.05 8.65 8.85 8.55 8.05 8.50 43.60

9.10 8.40 9.25 7.05 9.45 9.30 45.50

8.35 9.00 9.00 8.65 9.10 8.70 44.45

9.30 9.20 9.20 9.10 9.20 9. 15 46.05

8.95 9.45 9.30 9.00 9.25 9.60 46.60

9.70 8.95 8.55 8.45 9.60 9.30 46.10

8.45 9.05 8.70 8.70 9.25 9.40 45.1D


The United States Gymnastics Federation P.O. Box 4699 Tucson, Arizona

the ir revi sed publication ... of intern atio na l rules (F IG) for women , plus interpretations of rules and lower leve l val ues and more. " INTERPRETATION S OF INTERNATIONAL RULES FOR WOMEN'S GYMNAST ICS ," price $2, is a mu st for any woman , coach, manager, offic ials, gymnast. Order from the USG F Office now . :::

USGF DIRECTORS REPORT FRANK L. BARE

E xecutive Director

THE NATIO NAL GYMNASTI CS COMM ISS ION . . . comprised of e qua l numbers of representati ves from the AAU and the USGF, met in C hicago , Illinoi s , on March 2nd for it's initial meeting. The meeting was one of work in a spirit of cooperation and friendship. A desire to see gy mnastics prosper was eVIdent throughout the meeti ng. So me seve n ho urs were spent in discu ss ions , exchanges, selections of coaches a nd managers a nd internationa l represe ntatives. Some of the information of importance a nd interest to each of yo u is related on thi s page. Although a great deal could be said for the future of gymnastIcs If thI s type of meeting is to continue , suffice it for now to sImpl y state that the National Gymnastics Co mmi ss ion is a reality and can continue to function fo r the betterment of gymnastIcs.

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NEWS ITEMS .. .

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THE U.S.G.F. WOMEN 'S COMM ITTEE has completed tra nslation a nd ed iting of a publi cation on the GYMNASTIQUE MODERNE ro utines to be used for the World 's C hampions hi ps in that event schedul ed for Varna, Bulgaria, Sept. 27-29, 1969. Information on th e price and avai labi lity of thi s publication wi ll be forthcoming, write to the U SG F for in format ion. :::

DAVE THOR and CAT HY RIGBY have been invited to take pa rt in th e Show of the " WORLD'S BEST GYMNAST S" as part of the 1969 Gymnaestrada , set fo r Basel, Switzerland , July 2-5 , 1969. :::

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THRE E AMER ICAN COACHES were in Macolin , Switze rland , from Marc h 19-23rd to atte nd the First F .I.G . Coaches Symposiu m, and they were e lected by their variou s assoc iations to atte nd this event. DI CK ARONSON (NACGC) of Lowell Tec h Institute was joined by high schoo l coaches TOM WALTHOUSE (Arlingto n Hts. H S) and JO E GIALLOMBARDO (New Trier West H S) from sub urba n C hi cago , Illinois , to take part in this firs t such course , and they will make reports soon on the co urse and their trip. :::

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THE STU DENT WORLD GAMES (U nive rsiade) ... formerly scheduled for Portugal, has been mo ved a nd postponed for one year. The Games will now be he ld in Torino , Italy, in 1970 ... reason given was a change of elected officers in th e govern me nt in Portugal a nd res ulting problems ... .

ISG F Representatives to the Nationa l Gym nastics Commi ssion : Mr. Ge ne Wettstone , M iss Sharon Wilc h, Mr. William Meade. Mr. Si d Drain , Mr. Frank L. Ba re. AAU Representatives, Mr. Jerry Hardy , Mrs . J a net Bachna , Mr. Tom Maloney, Mr. Don W ilderoter and Mr. Robert Tanac.

C HAMPIONSHIPS of the United States .. . LONG BEACH , CA LI FO RNIA , APRIL 25 -26th . Optionals only ... men and wo me n, a ll-around entries o nl y , with only s pecial event being trampoline. Top six men and women (A merican citize ns) will be declared All-Americans , and visiting foreigners placing in such pos itions will be declared " honorary" a ll-Americans. Meet will run Friday afternoon and night, a nd Saturday night wIll see a spectacular international a ll-around competition. Two gold med al winners from the 1968 Oly mpic Games have indicated they will be prese nt . .. should be a great meet.

WANT TO SEE GYMNASTICS GROW IN AMERICA? ... BE IN LONG BEACH AP RIL 25-26 ....

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USGF C HAMPION S HIP .. . mentioned a bove , a lso serves as one of two qua lifyi ng meets to select entries for the trial s for the 1969 CU P OF THE AMERICAS competition now set for MEXI CO CITY in June 1969 , with the trial s set tenta tively for May 16-1 7th . To enter the tria ls for thi s tea m, you mu st pl ace in the top six position s for men or women in either the U SG F N ationa ls or the AA U Nationa ls.

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SPECIAL NOTICE ... thi s meet will also serve as a qua lifyIng tnal for the se lection of the three men and women who will be invited to Toronto , Canada, for th e Canada-USA- Yugoslavia meet if th at meet comes to pas s in early Se ptember 1969. Send for Entry bl anks , now . . . from U SG F Office NEW F. I.G. D E LEGATE S FOR THE U NITED STATES . . . were selected by the National Gymnastics C ommission at their initia l meet ing. Mr. Jerry Hard y will re mai n USA Delegate ; Frank L. Bare is a lternate delegate . Mrs. J ackie Uphues is Women 's USA Representative to the FIG Technical Co mmittee : Mrs. E rna Wac htel is a ltern ate : Mr. Tom Ma loney as Men 's Technical representative , and Bill Meade is the alternate.

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THE NATIONAL GYMNASTICS COMM IS S ION has finalized a form at for the men 's 1970 World 's Games Co mpul sories . . . a nd is near completion of the women's. This printing of the routines is available from the U SG F Office or the AAU Office. THE USGF WOMEN 'S COM MITTEE . .. has co mpleted

BULLETIN 1ST ANNUAL U.S.G.F. INVITATIONAL WORLD CUP ... April 26 , 1969 .. . Long Beach , Cali fo rnia The U.S.G.F. is pleased to a nnounce the following internatIona lly famo us gy mnasts have acce pted invitations to attend a nd pa rticipate in the First U SG F World Internat ional. A KINORI NAKAYAMA, 1968 Ol ympic Gold Medal Winners - Rings; 1968 Olympic Go ld Medal Winner- Pal路alle! Bars ; 1968 Ol ympic Si lver Medal Winner - Horizo ntal Bar; 1968 Olympic Sil ver Medal Winner- F loor Exerci se: 1968 Olympic Bron ze Medal Winner- All Around. M I RO SLA V CE RAR , 1968 Olympic Go ld Medal WinnerS ide H orse; 1966 World 's C ha mpion-Side Horse : 1968 Olympic A ll-Aro und Place-9th. E IZO KENMOTSU , 1968 Olympic Bronze Medal WinnerHorizonta l Ba r: 1968 Olympics: 5th Place Para ll el Ba rs; 5th Place S ide Horse: 6th Place Floor Exercise: 6th Pl ace Long H o rse; 1968 Olympic All-Around Position-4th. There will be more names add ed to th e li st, but to date these three great gy mnasts have accepted our invita tion . Americans to take part in the great Saturday night inte rn a tio nal event will be selected from tho se tak ing part in the U.S.G.F. N ationa ls on Friday . 11


CANADIAN

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REPORT GYMNASTICS REPORT - OLYMPICS 1968 By WI LL Y WEI LER Nationa l Coach The first of the three trial s to selec t five men and five women gymnasts to represe nt Canada in Mexico were held in Ottawa in June. The competition was well orga ni ze d. Thirteen senior competitors in the men 's competition fought for the places: the women a lso had a stiff competition with nine seniors in the tri als. The second tri a l was in conjunction with the Canadian cha mpion ships in Quebec C ity in July . The number of both women and men had increase d in the senior class over the year before. Gilbert Larose proved to be the steadiest gymnast by winning the title of Canadian champion. Sandra Ha rtle y was the women's champion for 1968. Immediatel y after the competition the eight bes t men a nd th e 10 best women took part in a two-week tra ining camp held a t the Universit y of Ottawa's summer camp. The girls were instructed by th e nation a l coach Mrs. Ma ril yn Savage a nd the men were tra ined by Will y We ile r the nationa l men 's coach. It proved to be a fruit fu l tra ining pe riod but it should ha ve been later in th e year since its main purpose was as preparation for the Olympics. The women had another training period after the last tri a l but the men were not able to because it would necessi tate requesting more leave of abse nce. A final tria l was he ld in Toronto in August to select the five men and five women to represent Ca nada in Mexico. The competition was a tough one especially for the 5th pl ace on the men 's team. The men selected were: Gi lbert La rose of Montrea l, Sidney Jen se n of Montreal, Roger Dion of Quebec C ity, Ba rry Brooker of Toronto and Steve Mitruk of Ha milton who edged out Rick Kin s men in what proved to be a very close and inte resting du al competition for 5th place. More than a month passed before I was able to see the men 's tea m again since they could not get together for tra ining. The team arrived in Mexico on the 29th of September. Training sta rted the next day. We were a ll otted a da ily three-hour work-out schedule , which we did not a lways completely use s ince some tea m members found it difficult. Barry Brooker unfortun ately injured himse lf the seco nd aay and had difficulty training from then on . As we had on ly five instead of the usual six members on our tea m I was a little worried. If Barry had been unable to compete I would have been forced to pull out one more tea m me mber as a country is only allowed to compete with three individuals if it can 't produce a full tea m. Ba rry howe ve r did compete. He was still not recovered from hi s injury and was unde r much pressure with the awarene ss th at eac h of the member's scores mu st be counted towards the tea m total , so Ba rry did not sco re too we ll. Roger Dion a lso see med unable to perform as well as hoped. Ou r compulsOlY program at the competition was weak in comparison with most of th e European countries. The optional competition was sati sfactory. We began with pa ra llel bars and made a fair showing. The next event (high ba r) had a few frightening moment s when Gilbert Larose, our las t competitor up , pelformed flawl ess ly right up to the dismount where he released hi s grip too late , did a fly12

away di smount but st ru ck hi s leg on th e bar. The following eve nt s - floor , sid e ho rse, rings , and va ulting he performed und er seve re pain. G il proved him se lf to be a tough and re li able competitor. Three qu arters of a point prevented him from recei ving an F .I. G. pin. The pin is awarded to the gymnasts who pelform a 9.0 average in Ol y mp ic or World competitions in recognition as a world class gy mn ast. Sid Jen se n, the younges t gy mnas t on the tea m, did a fine all-around competition and was the second best on the Canadian team mi ss ing the 9.0 average by onl y 2.4 points. A surpri singly steady perfo rma nce was shown by Steve Mitruk in thi s his first big internation al meet as a sen ior. S teve shows much promise fo r the future. Transportation to training sites was quite sati sfactory . All our tra ining was don e at the competition building, to which regular bus se rvice was run . However, tra nspo rt ation for the officials from th e ir vill age was ve ry poor. The facilities were for the most part sati sfactory. T wel ve of us- gy mn asts a nd cyc lists we re toget her in an apartment. This proved to be a strain on tempers on the odd occasion. Mea ls were very good. Security in our building which hou sed variou s nation s was a lmost nil. The last two weeks th at we were there the vi llage was opened to the public to a certa in degree. Therefore, it was necessary for each country to make so me a rra nge ment s for the sec urit y of its building. Canada did not do thi s a nd , consequently , ma ny items were stolen from the rooms. Thi s shou ld be remedied at future competitions . Some of the 1964 re port recommendations

were followed through. There were fo ur offic ia ls acti ve in judging. However, th ey were not finan cially or materially aided by th e Oly mpic Association . F ay We il e r, Mari a Medveck y. Albert Dippong, and Jacqu es C houin a rd dese rve gre at credit for their fine showing in judging. The biggest step towards internat iona l recognition has been achieved as our judges proved to be well qu al ifi ed and did an excellent job. It is recommended that Canada ~end full gymnast ic team s to internationa l meet s, i.e. 6 me n, 6 women , plus I s pare each . Most tea ms in Mexico had 2 spa res. With a sixth me mber Ca nada would have had the chance to beat some cou ntries. With only 5 members it is too di ffic ult. In order to co mpete in the next Olympics we must ha ve some dual matches aga inst European teams during the next 4 years. Our biggest achieve ment, especially wit h only 5 competing gy mn as ts , was to have atta in ed fo r the first time a tea m total of over 500 points. I wo uld like to credit a ll the competitors for th e ir cooperation a nd behavior throughout the entire stay in Mex ico. They worked well togeth e r a nd trained industriou s ly. It made me please d a nd proud to be th eir coach .

MEXICO OLYMPICS - 1968 By SANDY HARTLEY Women 's N ationa l Champion Wh at a thrill to be an Olympic athlete' My most exc iting moment s came during th e actu a l Olympic Ce remonies, a nd Co mpetition . There


are so many me morie s th at it is imposs ible to even sc rape the surface of a n Olympic adventure -so perh a ps the best thing to do wou ld be for me to answer the ques tion s tha t el'el)'Oll e as ks.

First, hO\ll did \\Ie do ? The Canadian girls placed I I th as a team , mea ning th at we jumped up four pl aces from our 15th pl ace at the World G a me s. Bes ides that , our top girl was Jennifer Diachun , Toronto , who was 5 I st all round , (tota l 70.45) . I was 62nd (total 69.75). My hi ghest scoring eve nt was ba la nce beam (40th place). Howe ver, I felt my best events I had ever done , we re floor exercise and vaulting. We had several major handica ps that may have kept us from reaching our goal of tenth pl ace. Firstly , we had only five team members , a nd so each score, good or bad , counted. This would be hard for even the almost perfect tea ms to handle. We were not a pe,fectly stable team , and thus the press ure was even greater. A s ma ller tea m of five also made me fee l less powerful as a country a nd our spirit was not quite as strong as it would have bee n with s ix or sev en. A second handicap wa s the lack of a pianist. Seven days before the competition , we found out that our pianist was un able to come. We had been waiting two weeks for her arri va l a nd had been practicing very little floor ex erci se beca use we had no music. The ta pe recorder would not work in Mexico. Finally , we were forced to work wit hout mu s ic anyway. Not having a pi ani st was extremely damaging to my spirit especially. Music mea ns everything to my work , and consequent ly it was like working with a dislocated a rm, from which I was a lready recove ring. The Bulgari a n pi ani st hastil y learned our mu s ic, and played for us in the competition. He was a talented pi a nist , but under the circumstances , he had to cover up a lot on the spot. Thirdl y, I feel that we needed a training camp immediatel y prior to leav ing for Mexico. The U .S.A . te a m trained at Lake T ahoe for three to four weeks prior to leaving, and had become extremely unified at th at time. It was difficult for us to feel trained to max imum, as we were living in Vancou ve r, Toronto and Montre a l. School , of course, made thi s a n impossibility. The only alt ernat ive wou ld have bee n to drop school for one year. This , another problem. To be a devo ted gy mnas t, one mu st forsake work, sc hool , social acti vit y a nd fami ly life. As Canadians , we are brought up to ma intain these very things. I n other countries, athletes see m to have less trouble ma inta ining a li v lihood on th e ir owr, a nd in thi s se nse could be considered profess iona l. Thus yo u may look at it this way - Canadi a n a mateurs a re competing against profession a ls. You can see why thi s would ma ke winning for our country difficult I Fina ll y , we were handicapped in having onl y one coach. Mrs. Savage had he r hand s full , believe me ! Being a yo unger country , and th e newes t representative with a tea m in gy mnastics, we certainly needed the most help. The U.S. girls team had at least four coaches at 'every rractice - two me n and two women , and a ll four were the top coa.:hes of their nation . As a res ult they were battling for fifth pl ace all round! Linda Methen y was the first American girl to eve r make the final s , and she did thi s on bala nce beam. This would indicate th at Ca nada should have at least one additional coach. I n total , you can see th at Canada can be proud of how we did des pit e our weaknesses. For C anada , balance beam see med the most unst able , and pe rhaps the une ve n bars ne xt. However, our vaulting a nd floor exercises were not bad. In vaultin g, we need more a mplitude. In floor we need more mode rn gy mnastics , expressiveness , a nd work on composition . I think we a ll had our disa ppointments in

eve nt s, but in ge nera l we were pl eased with ourse lves. Persona ll y, I was terribl y weak on un eve n ba rs due to my e lbow injury.

H 0\11 did we like Th e Olympic ViI/a ge? Th e Vill age was perfect in eve ry respect , ex cept for plumbing a nd heating. In Mexico, drainage is a problem , a nd he atin g at ni ght is unhea rd of. Otherwise, th e food , acro mmodation aild a tmo s ph ere was grand . Ca n you im agine 10,000 ha ppy , hea lth y athlet es living together as a n I nternation al city of every s port , age , color a nd race ? It was a wonderfu l thirt y days . Special attractions were th e Inte rn ati onal Building (The meeting pl ace), Th e C ircl e of Huma nit y (Belgium 's C ultura l abstract , and the Hill of Flags. Th e co lOiful Village had its own thea tre, heated pool , fre e dentist , stores and bank s, information de sks, newspape r sta nds , a nd post office. Everything we could poss ibl y want was th ere, and I think we used our share. WhaT Wa s M exico CiTy Like? Mex ico C it y was d路iffe rent - I suppose we saw more than mo st, in the way of sight-seeing, because we had many Mexica n friends who cou ld show us the city . We visited the Pyra mid s of Teotij avan , the city of C uernevaca, the Mu se um of Anthropology , a nd ma ny sho ps and ma rket s all ove r the city . Many Ca nadian s went to Acapulco. We co mpeted at the ve ry end of th e ga mes, and had to train throughout th e whol e Ol ympics. Thus we watched other s ports on TV before and after workouts. The Mexican people a re either ve ry poor 0r ve ry rich. Mo st of th e officials with w ho~ we associated were of the latter group , and our view of Mexico may be sl ight ly one-s ided. We saw only a little of th e poor aspect , but a great dea l of th e upper cl ass areas. The Canadi an de legation gat here d at th e home of Canada 's Minister of Health and Welfa re, John Munro , and were a lso pa rtied at Ca nadi an shoot e r, H arold Wil se's home in Mexico. WhaT \\las Th e High lighT of Th e Olympics? I fi nd it hard to describe the prid e Ca nad ia ns fee l in rep resenting th ei r Co untry. We were one of th e s martest looking tea ms, boasting th e prettiest looking girls (so I heard many times!). Besides th at, we are well liked and admired from a ll over the wo rld , especially as we a re a neutral country , and we had nothing to fear in meeting foreign peopl e. Many were surprised that we we re not Es kimos. By the way , gymnas tics was th e most respec ted a nd admired s port there, because of it s s kill , beaut y and dynamics. I n th at se nse a lone we were so proud to repre se nt our sport. Since we we re so proud to be Ca nadian s, I guess the grea tes t mo ment s came when we could show ourselves off most. In the opening ceremony ma rch in, my head we nt up 2 inch es a nd my st rid e felt ten feet long. At the closing ce re mon y we linked arms, sang, ran , shouted , sk ipped a nd laughed a ll路 around the stadium track twice before we noticed that the Olympic Flame had died , and our audience had left. Soon the Spirit di ss ipated out of th e stadium walls to th e who le of Mexico C it y. Some of the Mexican Magic has re ma ined with me , but how can one ex pl a in magic? It happens , you fee l it , and you reme mber it, but all yo u do to express it is to say th at it was there. The Mag ic of Me xico will be renewed in another four yea rs , in Munich in 1972 . SeE you there?

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13


The "MACHINE" By John W. Hinds Jr. Gymnastic Coach, Columbus Sr. High School

It has been said that a picture is worth a thousand words. In the sport of gymnastics there is no doubt but that a gymnast benefits from viewing his work. Since the 'advent of the movie ca mera, gymnastic coaches across the land have used movies a s an important aid in their work. Now with the development of reasona bly inexpensive, yet efficient video-tape recorders a new era is present - instantaneous viewing of one's routine or work. As with the movie camera, there are innumerable ways in which a video-tape recorder may be used as an effective tool for a coach and his gymnasts. However, there is a danger, as with any machine - man must not work for the machine; the machine must work for man. It is therefore the purpose of this article to point out several ways in which the gymnastic coach can use the video-tape machine; not be used by it. In order to make the video-tape recorder work for a coach there are several factors or considerations in its use that should be provided for. These are : availability, mobility, and an operator. Availability - the video-ta pe recorder should be available when needed during practices and meets at a moment's notice. The "machine" should be set up and ready to use at any time gymnasts are working out. Much of the instantaneous value is lost if one has to wait for a certain day of the week to practIce a skill in order to view it. No matter how well planned a practice period may be there will always be the time when Li,., coach may not anticipate the need for use of the video "machine" , but will find its presence and availability the answer. Remember a picture is worth a thousand words. Mobility - a vailability will mea r little if the "machine" is located in a position where it ca nnot focus on the desired event, when needed. To overcome this potential handicap to the effe ctive use 14

of the "machine", it is suggested that the recorder and camera be located on a portable cart with a long extension cord that will permit ease of movement from one area to another when desired. One will also find that a mobile unit ca n be more easily stored. An Operator - as essential as availability and mobility is an operator traine d to use the video- tape recorder. A coach cannot afford to tie himself down to the "machine" every moment it is in use. A trained Video-manager ca n solve this problem for the coach and also prove to be a valuable asset to the gymnasts in the use of the "machine." Conscientious gymnasts soon learn to request video-taping of skills to check themselves independently of the coach. With a video-manager this can be accomplished, freeing the coach to I(coach. "

Assuming tha t the above considerations can be provided for, the video-tape recorder will become an immeasurable tool of the gymnastic coach in a number of ways. It can perform most of the tasks for which the movie camera ha s heretofore been used at a more reasonable price. The tapes can be reused time and again. Also there is not the disadvantage of movie cameras which can only run for a limited time before they have to be rewound or the film changed. This often results in an incomplete filming of a routine. Tapes are available that last for a full hour; thus routines are taped in their entirety. Stop action and slow speed tape recorders can provide for the analysis of individual skills just as slow motion pictures. Even the less expensive better tape recorders can be turned (the reels) by hand to provide slow motion viewing. Video-tapes of meets that have previously occurred can be used in several ways. The entire meet can be viewed by the team at a convenient time with the coach making the necessary comments

as the tape is shown. Or, the coach can preview the meet and add a udio comments to the tape and have the videomanager show the tape. This is the ideal way if the viewing of the tape is carried on during a scheduled practice period since it frees the coach for a more effective use of his time. Also, the majority of the gymnasts may be concurrently engaged in their workouts. The video-manager can call for the gymnasts when their particular event is being shown. From the previewing of the tape the coach can decide how best to conduct his practice, which skills to work to improve, and which gymnasts need special attention. In preparation for meets the "machine" can also be used to show weaknesses in a routine and skills or transitions to work on prior to the meet. The fine points of form will show up and can be improved upon, With the increase in numbers of gymnasts working out the coach can use a video-tape machine to check on the progress of each gymnast and how best he might help them during the next practice. Since a coach cannot possibly check the skills of every gymnast each practice session he can assign certain skills to be performed by specific gymnasts and recorded by the video-manager. Then, at his leisure the coach can check those skills and decide how best to help these gymnasts at the next practice when he is free to work with them. This use of the "machine" can reduce the burden of attempting to work with every gymnast each practcie period yet it still will effectively motivate the gymnast since he knows that the coach will be viewing his work and then working with him the next day. As has been inferred, a coach may use the "machine" during practices to direct the gymnasts' attention to certain skills. For example, the coach can request, while working on a flyaway, that the Video-manager tape several flyaways of a particular gymnast. Then the coach can direct the gymnast to view the tape and note the early release of the hands. Remember "seeing is believing." While the. gymnast is checking out this point the coach can continue to work with another gymnast. Once the gymnast has finished viewing his work he can return and the coach can then resume work with him on the flyaway. In the meantime, however, the coach has been able to help another gymnast and was not tied down to watch the flyaway again and again. Coaches may also use the "machine" to help a gymnast recognize progress during the season. Tapes can be purchased for each gymnast and a running record of his work recorded. As the gymnast views this progressive record , he will soon realize his progress and what skills need improvement. The above descriptions are but a few of the ways in which this coach feels one can most effectively make the videotape recorder work for him. Additional uses may be to show parents, clubs, etc., meets of past days. Video-tape machines can also be used effectively in judging clinics. They can supplement descriptions of deductions for particular faults or for practical experience in judging a routine. A final thought - one should realize that the video-tape recorder is a tool not an end in itself for the gymnastic coach.


PSYCHOLOGY AND THE GYMNAST

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Dr. JOSEPH L. MASSIMO

The significance of clinical and appl ied psychology in all sports is re lat ively obvious. The mystique which surround s certain well -known coaches is usually attributable to their extraordinary capacity to apply principals of psychology in their overall approach to interpersonal relationships as they pertain to the individuals on the team. It appears to this author that the use of these concepts is of particular import in the sport of gymnastics. Generally speaking, dedicated gym nasts are an interesting, if not odd lot, of high ly involved, somewhat self-centered, and at times , masochistic individuals, who would be a psychiatrist's delight I I t wo uld be of interest to carry out an intensive psychological study of national-level gymnasts , both male and female , to see if any particular personality configuration would reveal itself in analyzing the test protocols . It is easy to hypothesize about this , but only rigorous research can produce any valid conclusions. The gymnast, for a ll practical purposes, is on his own - a loner. Although he may be a team member, once he leaves the bench and approaches the apparatus he becomes a single entity "competing," in a sense, with himself aga inst an inanimate object. The objective: to execute a polished work of art which meets technical as well as aes thetic demands and which is to be evaluated by a panel of experts. Each gymnas t, referring here to both men and women , has a particular style or approach . Some are aggressive and attack the a pparatu s as if to throttle it into submission. Others approach the challenge more delicately , with a kind of finesse reminiscent of a person pacifying an unpredictable animal. Both method s can meet with success, each , and man y other such styles, reflect the individual gymnast's personalit y. The wise coach will build on such differences to emphasize the uniqueness of delivery and personal expression so important in artis tic gy mn ast ics. Due to the individual nature of this sport and the pelformance demands made upon the gy mnast , there are few other activities where the coach-athlete relationship is more crucial. It is a given that a good coach evaluates the a thlete's physical readiness. In addition , however, the successful coach shou ld carefully study the individual gymnast in an effort to determine some psychologically significant facts which will help define the nature of their relationship and even appropriate coaching technique. The coach should consider, for example: I. What is the gymnast 's preference in regards to communication? Some gymnasts require long exp lanations of a given stunt before attempting it - they want to know everything about mechanics and ask for relevant details of Newton 's Laws of Motion to be spelled out at length I Others want a minimum of verbage and prefer to fee l out the trick relying primarily on courage in the initial attempt. A happy medium, of course, is probably best. Some other gymnasts must simply see the trick with little verbal dialoque needed. This is the "show me" school. The coach stri ves to discover the mode appropriate for each individual. (In some cases pure operant conditioning is all th at is needed!) 2. What is hi s tolerance for ambigu it y? Probably in no other sport are things less definitive. The rules and regulations are quite clear, but

- - - ----- . the learning of movements and their expression proceeds at a " play it by ear" rate. The individua l variab les in terms of mastering an exercise are in exhaustible. 3. How doe s the gy mnast de al with fear versus anxiety? These are di stinctly different concepts. Fear is specific a nd object directed. Gymnasts can state specifically what they a re afraid of a nd be helped over this block . Some , however, have a diffuse , general a nxiety which predominates a nd which implies a state of tension which is irrational a nd ca nnot be related to a specific situation. (" I' m afraid of hitting my head on the bar" vs. " I' m ps yc hed out. ") The anxious gy mnast can be very producti ve with the coaches' help, but an overdetermined amo unt of anxiety can cripple any effectiveness . The art of spotting is pivotal in this area. I t is through this support that the gy mnas t gradually gains confidence in his coach. Again , each athlete is different in terms of the a mount of spotting he desires or needs (some wants belts, so me do not , etc.). 4. When does he work best - structure , schedule, conditions , etc. Some gy mnast s can practice their art under a ny and all circumstances. There are others who become immobilized if it is too cold, too hot or anyone of dozens of other such excuses. Many gy mnasts thrive on a rigid schedu le which is predictable ; others demand a greater se nse of autonomy. It is important that the coach consider the indi vidua l patterns preferred by the majorit y of his at hletes and plan his program accordingly. The overunderstanding coach , however, will be devastated by strong-willed gy mnasts. A middle-of-the-road position, again , is usually most desirable. It should be remembered in passing that so me gymnasts prefer a real boss and to work und er a " dictatorship" where little decision-making on their part is neces sary. 5. Is the gymnast compulsive? Ouserving gymnasts working out can be very amusing. Many develop idiosy ncratic ritua ls which suggest their mental sets . Some such concerns e.g. , the gymnast who always must approach the apparatu s from the same direl-tion , etc. if carried to extremes ca n lead to real problems.

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Repeated manneri sms, such as blowing on the closed fi sts after chalk ing up, touching the appa ratus in a special way , etc. ,althou gh not necessarily important in and of themse lves, represe nt mea ns of dealing with stress and can help the se nsiti ve coach beller understand. hi s gym nas t. The coaches' observation a nd quiet acceptance of these things can tighten a good rel ation ship just as does the co ntrolled use of humor. Too many such hab its on the part of a gy mnas t may suggest an infle xibilit y and a difficult coaching problem indeed. 6. How doe s the gymnast res pond to frustration , co nstructi ve criticism and fai lu re ? Some gy mnasts become so angry a t defeat in a ny form th at they throw the equivalent of a te mper tantrum . Others sulk and become depressed even unable to continue a workou t. Th ere a re few , if any sports, which can equal the frustration experienced in gymnastics . The gym nas t' s re sponse in these situations is a sa mple of how he copes with life in a general way . Often the coach may have to spend many hours li stening to his gymnast's concerns and problems , supporting him and helping him negotiate difficult periods. A critique of the ath letes exercise is part of the coaches ' responsibilIty. Some gymnasts like the " hard line" a nd have a psychological need to be severeIY." scolded" at time s. The resulting anger IS displaced and channeled into th e next effort often leading to progress . Some gymnasts , on the other hand , are psychologicall y fragile and on ly become dls cOUl'aged when treated roughly requIrIng. a "softer" a pproach. The coach mu st remaIn fl ex ible in his methodology and cognizant of the specific needs. Observing a gy mnas t's response to success is also revealing. Overreaction is often a n ominous sign. 7. How does the gymnast ha ndle pain? This is a fruitfu l area for observation. Some gymna sts seem oblivious to discomfort and work on under situations which would long ago have stopped the weaker. Others go into a near state of shock over a minor injury suggesting an Immaturity and egocent ri city which is somewhat Continued on page 3 0

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1968 Olympic Gold Medal winner - Rings and Parallel Bars - Silver Medal - Horizontal Bar and Floor Exercise, Bronze Medal - All-Around.

THURSDAY

APRIL 1969

6

SUNDAY

the MODERN GYMNAST magazine


THE ART OF GYMNASTICS DAN J. MILLMAN Gy mnast ics C oach, Stanford U niversit y A lthough gy mn astics has long been popul a r in Europe a nd in the Far East, it has o nl y recently emerged in the light in the United States. Because the s port is young, th ere has been some confusion about just what gy mn astics is. To John and Ma ry Public, gymnastics may be rope climbing a nd pushups: at bes t, it may be " flippin g, like in the circus." To physical educa tors, who have a more sop hi sticated knowl edge of body movement , gy mnastics may be a respected tool for developing th e coordination of young childre n. Even then it is a tool to be watched from afar, for the movements of gy mnastics are often too esoteric , complicated a nd intricate for the instructor to teach correctly unless he has studi ed the skills intensel y. All of the current trend s a nd innovations in gymnastic thought , ra nging from new deve lopments in equipment a nd teaching aids , to de ve loping structures of gymnastics organ izations, are too eclectic and numerou s to cover with in the scope of one pa per. Thus, this pa per will be limited to one " new" conception of gymnastic s: a conception which has far-reachin g consequences. It is hoped , th at upon completing thi s paper, the reader will see gy mnastics in a new and clearer li ght a nd on a higher plateau th an previous ly. I would like to s ho w that gymnastics is a n art form, no less tha n pa inting, music , or writing. The greatest gymnas ts of our time have one important tra it in common: gy mnastics to them is a way of life , not a means to an end. I n order for them to sha pe their lives around a pursuit , th ey must have a deep-rooted sense of pride in their activit y. In our country there seems to predominate a sort of self-co nsciou s, short-lived pride, as if gymnast ics is a spo rt to enjoy during the school years and then to pass on for " more important " (intellectual a nd economic) pursuit s. Let's take a second look at gymnastics to see if it doesn' t dese rve a more dominant place in th e world of ph ys ica l education . In order to arrive at a clearer picture of gy mnas tics, it is ne cessary to operati ona ll y define two co ncepts: 18

"Art" and " Beauty." (The " definitions " are the autho r's.) Art is that activity , recognized by others , that holds , as its primary function , the c reation or synthesis of aesthetic perfection ,.or beauty. Bea uty is more difficult to define briefly - in the most general sense, beauty stems from nature. All our concepts of visual, rhythmic , kinesthetic "beauty" come from nature. For example, tempo and rhythms all over the world are based upon regul ar cadence or fractions thereof. The first time we heard the regular cadence, it was the beating of our mother's heart ; we see regular rhythms in waving trees and fl a pping of bird's wings. Our concepts of balanced line and curve, of harmonious shapes and balanced co lors stem, too , from nature. Thus it is the author's opinion that Nature is the aesthetic absolute; the standard by which we measure what is " beautiful " and what is not. The a rtist is an individual who is sensitive enough to nature 's model of beauty to be able to synt hesize it. Why the artist is so "gifted" (or whether it is indeed a gift) is being inten sely studied empirically by psychologists, and intuitively by the artists themselves. It is importa nt to consider the artist not a~ a painter-artist or writer-a rtist or musici a n-artist , but simply as a sensitive human being who has cho sen one particular medium of creative express ion. To the reader who has seen fine gymnastics , it is readily apparent that gymnastics does have, as its primary funct ion , the creation or sy nthesis of aesthetic perfection. The overriding philosophy of gy mnastics is it 's not so important what you do , but how (beautifu ll y) you can do it. This philosophy is built into the rule s of gy mn astics. The routine is scored from 0-10 points. 3.4 points are awarded for difficult y, 1.6 points are given for composition, and 5.0 points are given for execution , or aesthetic appea l. Gymnastics is unique in th at it is one of the few athletic endeavors which co ncern s itself with aesthetic appea l. Ice-skating and diving are two others. The read er may ask, "Come now , you may call gy mnastics an a rt , and it see ms to be by thi s definition , but you really can 't compare a sweaty s port to the works of Shakespeare or a symphony by Mo za rt or a painting Van Gogh' " The answer is, th at while the final product of a rt is quiet , clean , containing a peaceful dyn a mism, it takes sweat , pass ion , and exhaustion to form a ny work of art : painting, sy mphony , or gymnastics routine. The finished work is effortle ss because the energy was expe nd ed in its birth. It should be added here that art is th e quality of the endeavor, not th e ca tegory. Simply because someone paints, writes , plays an instrument or practices gymnast ics, does not make him an artist. The a rti st has reac hed the quality we can agree on as beauty. The budding artist can often be recognized in his or her work hab its - a striving for perfection , an immersion in the work at hand. How many chi ldren we see with the se traits ! What becomes of their artistic dri ves in the first throu gh the sixth grades? Some a rti sts chose the brush a nd pa ints as a medium of express ion because they a re exposed to thi s medium. Some chose the pencil and paper or typewriter ... a nd some chose their bod ies a nd the ground a nd the air as their medium and fi e ld of expression - the gymnasts. "A ll right ," the reader may answer. "So gymnastics is an art. Th at's very nice , but what's the significance of thi s?" There a re two ge neral ra mifications from the new conceptuali zation of gymnast ics . First , that the "s port" is something very specia l and unique - that it goes far beyond the co mpetitive drives and " s imple" movements of most popular American sports.

The second ramification is even more farreaching: Of all the pursuits which we call art , every single one is an individual effort. Many questions may be rai sed about our present organi za tional framework of gym nast ics : should gymnas tics be a team sport , or should we remove team competition from the universities and clubs and simp ly hold many open meets for individuals? (One would still get the enjoyment of training with friend s or a "team.") Should the schools and universities have the right to tell the individual competitor how to dress a nd how long to wear hi s hair, etc.? (If he wants to be sloppy, that is his business) . Of course, while the individual represents the school and it foots the bill , the school does have the right to dictate certain rules to the individual ; that is why I que stion the ideals of team and university competition . These and other controversial questions may be asked about the art of gymnastics, and the a rtists who give it life. Gymnastics has burst, rather than emerged, into the American sports scene. When John and Mary Public's taste grows sophisticated enough to enjoy a good play instead of a night at the fight s ; when they would rather visit a museum of art than see a Doris Day movie , when they can differentiate between William Shakespeare and Mickey Spillane, then gy mnastics will take its place in the American art and sports scene. For the moment, gymnast ics reaches out to spectators with its " thrills and spills " aspects, leading many to believe it is a dangerous s port. I t has grasped audiences with the team competition and boi sterous rooting aspects. If the trend continues in thi s direction before the aesthetic values of the sport are appreciated , it may sink into the quagmire of commercialism and politics that now plagues the " businesses " of football and baseball and basketball. Hopefully the phys ical" educa tors of our country can study the problem by studying the sport. Perha ps the young will learn gymnastics not as " thrill s and spills" or just doing tricks , but doing someth ing well, with form and style , with grace and pride.

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A SECOND LOOK AT SWING Š By Gerald S. George Varsity Gymnastic Ooac.h Louisiana State University

OVERGRIP STALDER But, coach , I keep clipping my hee ls o n the come-in ... or it is, I keep coming out too soon . a nd the coach re plies greater hip fl ex ibility w ill keep you from hitting you r heel s on the c ome- in a nd try not to come out of the s traddle so soon . . . nice try , coach , but we a ll have a firm grasp of the obv iou s . Let's take a second look , a nd perha ps we' ll discover what we don 't know .... Problems on th e s tra ddle-in stem from three general so urces: I . The obvious lack of hip flexibility; 2. Coming in at the wrong time , either too soon or too late ; 3. An ins uffic ient ly in creased s houlde r a ngle during the stra ddle-in. This action is mo s t simi lar to a straddle-in from a han d stand in floor exercise. Try in on the floor a nd remember to keep the legs as close as poss ible to the outer aspects of the ha nds. Problems on the s traddl e-o ut a lso ste m from three ge neral sources : I. I mproper body position during the " Bottoming Effect" of the swing ; 2. Failure to utili ze a visual and/or kinesthetic cue in directing the body to the ha nds tand position ; 3. Failing to straddle la terally on the come-out. The straddle-out is most s imil ar to a free hip circle to the handstand on the ho ri zo nta l bar. An attempt mu s t be ma de to th row the bar away witho ut actually releasing o ne's handgrasp . In a ddition , the gy mnast must a tte mpt to straddle out as wide as poss ible and th ereby lessen the c hance of hitting the bar with the feet. Cons ider gy mn astics from the concept of " dynamic posture. " A pe rs on assuming the correct standing pos ture renders himse lf easy on the eye. The same hold s true for sk ill execution . The proper utilization of one 's full anatomi cal range of motion is the a nswe r in a nuts hell a nd of cou rse thi s is easi er sa id than don e . It takes constant work , s tudy a nd dedication to the task a t hand . . I believe the philosophers call it " humilit y" . . . you know , a wi llingness to wo rk on the basic leve ls until they a re trul y mas tered . . perhaps th e n we won ' t need to t ake t ha t second look . . . .

Illustrations A-B-C-D-E have been omitted in order that a more vivid presentation of the Overgrip Stalder be realized. Illu stration F depicts the body cocked as in an archer's bow ready to re lease its potential force in coordination with the upward circular swing. As the gy mnast swings through the " Bottoming Effect" of the bar, the slightl y arched body posi tion is released. The gymnast must immediately fo llow up this action first by decreas ing very sligh tly the shoulder angle and then by quickly driving the feet and legs in a for-upward direction . Illustrations G-H depict the "foot lead" position. As the body transcends the parallel, the aforementioned decreased shoulder and hip angles begin to increase simultaneously and proportionate ly with each other. The hip angle continues its increment until prescribing a direct straight-line relat ionship with the trunk . T he shoulder angle continues it s increment until prescribing a forward-o pening angle wit h the trunk. Illustrations /-J -K reveal these increments relative to the total body position on the bar. T he above angle increments yield a feeling of weightless ness. It is at this time, Illustration K, that the slip-grip action of the hands is realized. The wri sts are arched onto the top of the bar to provide support for the oncoming body weight. Illustration s L-M-N-O-P-Q relate the "straddle-in" action. Observe that the bac k is kept as fl at as possible and that the gy mnast attempts to straddle the fee t about the hands as narrow as possible . Such a cons ideration will position one's center of gravity farther away fro m the bar and thereby allow for a more powerfu l "bas ket action." The vigorous for-

dQwnwardlush against the bar serves toiacilitate the inward all upward straddling of the legs. Illustrat ions R-S-T-U depict the rap-id decent of the body through the " Bottoming Effect" of the swing. Th e straddled legs continue to be driven in an upward direction. The illustration s relate the obvious need to utilize one's full anatomical range of motion with references to the hip region . Illustrations V -W-X-Y -Z demonstrate the "straddleout" action . As the body passes through the " Bottoming Effect" of the swing, the resultant downward bow of the bar serves as a tactical cue in initiating the straddle-out action. The shoulder and hip angles begin to increase simult aneously and proportionately with the upward circular swing. The shoulder action is similar to the concept of " throwing the bar away, as hard as possible, in an upward and backward direction ." The hip action is similar to the concept of " straddling ou t the legs usi ng only the lateral plane of movement straddle as wide as possible on the straddle-out. " The above vigorous hip and shoulder angle increments continue until both prescribe a direct straightline relationship with the trunk. In terms of directing the total body unit to the desired handstand position, eit her or both of two methods may be employed: I. During the " Bottoming Effect ," one may choose to utilize either the ceiling or the floor in relation to the body as a visual cue for handstand direction; 2. One may choose to utilize kinesthetic feel. The final illustration depicts the gymnast in an extended handstand position. Hence, he is ideally set to perform any of the sequentially related skills.

GYMNASTIC CLASSICS Volume I - Horizontal Bor

Section F - Basic Stolde rs Numbe r 2 - From on Ove rgrip Giant Swing - to on Ove rg r ip Handstan d Posi Tion

I

I

OVER GRIP STALD ER

,I

~lŠ Copyright

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From left ro right , Ka rin Ja ny, Marianne Noack, Moritto Bauerschmidt and Christine Schmitt are among the youngest gymnasts in the GDR who have already made a name for themselves.

GYMNASTICS IN EAST GERMANY By WERNER TUERKE (Editor's note: The fo llowing information was abstracted from the East Cerman publication , "Sports in th e CDR ," by form er MC Editor, Dick Criley .) Only two of the East German wome n from the Tok yo team , Ute Starke a nd Bi rgit Radochla , were on the 1968 National Team in Mexico City , the ot hers having been replaced by young , up-and-coming ta lents s uch as 16year-o ld Karin Janz and Ma rianne Noack bo th of whom st ill attend high school. Among the men were Tokyo representatives Klaus Koste , Siegfried Fulle, Peter Weber and newcomer Matthias Brehme who first came to prominence in the 1966 World Games in Dortmund. The period fo llowing the 1964 Olympics was noted for developments in two respects. The men 's te am , whi c h in Tokyo was an all-German team from both West and East German y, developed reliable and consistent performances. The women's team work ed o n building outstanding individu al pelformers who attracted attention through difficult and daring exercises. The success of the se programs was the third place (beh ind J apan and Russia) finish for th e men and third place finish (be hind Russia and Czechoslov ak ia) for the women in Mexico C it y. Nonetheless , the Eas t Germans are striving to overcome the gap wh ich they fee l exists between them and the top two tea ms. For so me years , the GDR G ymna stics Association has had a fixed c las s ifi ca tion program whic h has promoted the best gy mn asts from children 's gro ups to you th groups to the nation 's elite. More rece ntl y, the program was supplemented by th e Spartaciad movement which was designed to draw as many children as possible into various competitions to inspire them for regu lar training and to prepare them for adva ncement to the National Team. The sys te m produced a num ber of candidates for the Mexico C it y co mpetitions. The GDR Gymnastics Association claims abou t 292 ,000 membe rs, but only 53 ,000 are said to go in for gymnastics on apparatus , the

Siegfried Fuelle four time GDR Title is the twelve Olympic exercises, ce rtainly the most reliable of the GDR Gymnasts.

remaInder partIcipating in acrobat ics, exercises , other gy mnast ic ele ment s and games. Gym· nas ti cs has bee n particularly att racting as a s port wh ich meets the wishes of wo me n a nd gi rl s for physical exercise. A large portion of those who acti vely take part in gym nastic exercises a re women and girls of various age grou ps. Such women have been ins pired by Ute Starke who has been in gymnastics for over a decade and 25-year-old Birgit Radochl a. The rapid ge neral progress of gy mnastics has led to the rapid progress of modern gymnastics a nd to s uc h re prese nt at ives as U te Lehmann who won the silver medal in the 1967 championships. The respect for GDR efforts in women 's gy mnast ics led to the selection of their Gym· nastics Association to work out th e compulsor} exercise on the uneven parallel bars for the 1968 Olympics. Add itio nall y, the G D R tea ms have been act ive in ;nternational co mpetition with the me 1 competi ng in 17 official internat ional mat hes between the Tokyo Olympics and May, 1968, a nd th e wome n in 14.


Co noon used wiTh pe rmiss ion of The SaTurday Eve ning Post.

PhOTO:: : permission of Allyn and Bacon, Inc., publishers

2. The "Russian" front somersault. (Pike or tuck, B diffi culty). The important parts of the mave are the timing of the arms through the hurdle and lift and the bady position, particularly the hips, through the chest during liftoff. Common faults would be incorrect timing of the orm lift rearward

(too early) and throwing the head dawnword instead of lifting the body (hips) upward . Next, the front handspring, front somersault.

Technique one

THE FRONT VAULT DISMOUNT ON THE SIDE HORSE By DONTONRY Gymnastic s Coac h, Yale Un ive rsit y There seems to be two basic s tyles of pe rformance for th e front va ult di s mount on the side horse. One st yle in vo lves th e use of a pushing motion prior to the lift , a nd the other sty le require s a strong hip raise (pike) as a means of a tta ining lift (e levation) . Both tech niques a re used effec ti ve ly by va rious top gymnasts. Pre-requisite: A we ll -contro ll e d German (loop) around the end of the horse . TECHNIQUE NUMBER ONE: (C lock w ise) I Initiat e th e first phase of the loop. 2-3 A s th e right han d contacts the end of the

TECHNIQUE NUMBER TWO: I Same as Technique Number One. 2-1 As the right ha nQ contacts the end of the horse, the lower body trails , as in Technique Number One, but the hips are ra ised slightly highe r. 3 The hips continue to rai se as til e upper body turn s a nd the arms a nd a bdo men are not tOl/ch in g as in Technique Num ber One. The body weight is equally distributed over both a rm s. 4 The hips are extended forcefully a nd body weight is shifted to the right arm. The right shoulder s hould not be allowed to drift far beyond the horse (right shoulder over the r ight hand - a pproximately). 5 Full hip extension is achieved a nd the left arm may be ex tended out to the side slightly earlier th a n on Tec hnique Number One.

hO Lie . the lowe r bod y is trailing behind. T his po sition presu pposes tha t the gymnast leads th e turn with hi s upper body and pl aces th e ri ght ha nd on the horse as early as po ss ible. T he hips are fle xed slightly more th a n usual a t this point. 3-4 The legs are then whipped backward as the body continues turning. The upper body leans forward further over the su pporting a rms. The arms make cont act with the abdominal a rea (t he right a rm mainly-elbow a rea) and the back cont inue.路 to a rc h. 5 The gy mn ast s hould not allow his head a nrl shoulders to drift pas t the horse becal"' :': thi s will cause a n unstab le su pport. As 1 'l e thrust from the pike into the arch occurs , :1 is wise to watc h the horse in order to stabilize th e upper body. Abo ut The Illu stra tion : Pos ition number fi ve cou ld be impro ved considerably by push路 ing or not a llowi ng the shoulders to drift as far forward of th e hands as it is indicated. The left a rm may be ex tended out to th e si de once the maximum lift has been acquired.

Write to Gymnastic Aides, Northbridge, Massachusetts fo r gymnastic wall charts, books, and physical education gymnastics material - boys and girls.

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Tech nique two

" 1


NATIONAL GYMNASTICS OFFICIALS ASSOCIATION Report ByJERRY WRIGHT

INTERNATIONAL GYMNASTICS JUDGES COURSE Penn State University January 15-19, 1969 Over 78 persons officially registered (over 100 attended) for the International Gymnastics Judges Course offered over a five-day period at Penn State University. Approximately 30 of these were tested in the International category and were candidates for the FIG card as internationally qualified judges. Approximately 40 were tested in the national category for national competition. All participants received state and local certificates merely by attending. Those applying for international certification were interviewed personally by either Arthur Gander (usually with Mr. George Gulack translating) or with Ivan Ivancevic (with Mr. Helmut Roenisch translating). National candidates were interviewed by either Tom Maloney or Frank Cumiskey. The structure of the course was on such a fundamental level, to encompass both beginning judges and experienced judges, that the structuring itself caused the course to be of great value to some and quite boring, at least at times, for others. In the opinion of this participant the abilities of the instructional staff varied greatly. Mr. Gander presented some very informative lectures and some that he should not have bothered with. Frank Cumiskey appeared to be the most knowledgeable of all, although he was not permitted to handle the more meaty subjects , Gander 路and Ivancevic reserving these for themselves. Tom Maloney presented two very good lectures, one on proper technical execution of stunts and a practical lecture concerning the parallel bars. Ivan Ivancevic appeared almost totally inadequate! In spite of his very spirited presentations Ivancevic contributed little if any to improving the participants understanding and interpretation of .he code of points, especially the SH . COURSE CONTENT AND INFORMATION ITEMS The reader's attention is called to Article路65 of the Code of Points and to the explanation following the Still Ring A-B-C illustrations . Example: In the drawing of a felge to handstand if the handstand is not held 3 sec. , the "B" value is not given and the move does not satisfy the requirements for a swing handstand.

Feige upward swing to handstand

In addition, if there are technical and/or execution deductions , these also are made. If no errors, other than duration of hold, are made, it is A plus A but does not satisfy requirements,

22

Ivan Ivancevic lecturing at International Judges Course, Penn State, January 1969.

and no other dedudions are made. Frank Cumiskey and I, for two , do not agree with thi s entirely. Frank did not relate his interpretation , but we certainly need further discussions on this one.

Cross, arms horizontal and straight, 3 sec. hold

Another example is a cross which , if held with good form and technically correct but for only 2 seconds , it loses the " B" value and becomes an " A" part, and it fails to satisfy the requirements for a B hold , but no other deductions are made. This is supposed to apply to any movement in any event that requires a 2or 3-sec. hold. This again is subject to question because with a press to handstand on the rings , parallel bars or floor the difficulty is not in the holding of the handstand but in the pressing to the handstand position. Important note: The preceding does not apply to compulsory exercises in that if a cross is not held 3 seconds, the gymnast does not lose the value of the part, the deduction is only for being short. 2. Mount and di smount should be of special value: The mount can be an A move, providing it is commensurate with the routine. 6-A parts , I-B part - A mount and A dismount 6-A parts , 3-B parts - A mount B dismount 6-A parts, 4-B parts , I-C part '- B mount, B dismount In other words the mount cannot be without value. 3. Parts without value: While it is not quite a part without value a routine that contains 6-A , 4-B and I-C should receive a deduction if it contains 3-A moves in a row. Example of parts without value (10.0 routine): A. Shoulder stand on parallel bars B. Kip , lay-away on parallel bars C. Excessive arm waiving in floor exercise. 4. Article 30 Code of Points - SH - should read, "The exercise must be composed of clean swings without stops ," "Circles of one or both

legs must be etc. , etc." 5. Deductions depend upon the difficulty of preceding parts only in two cases: A. Stops or hesitations (.2-.5) B. Intermediate swi ngs (.3-.5) I n other words if a stop occurs on the side horse after a "c" part , the deduction is .2-.3 ; if after a "B" part , the deduction is .3-.4 , or if after an " A" part, the deduction is .4-.5. Intermediate swings are deducted as follows: A. Before or after "c" part - deduct.3 B. Before or after " B" part - deduct .4 C. Before or after " A" part - deduct.5 The deduction for sitting on the apparatus does not depend upon the difficulty of the preceding part. 6. The gymnast must be given credit for a part if the part is completed. Deductions may, of course, be severe , but credit is give n (example) Czech on the side horse on which gymnast sits after completion of the stunt - deduct .5-.7 but give " B" credit. 7. Leniency: This relates only to the entire routine. In other words as one judges a routine one must deduct for all faults one sees. At the end of the exercise one may reduce one's total deductions by up to (but no more than) .3 if executed with risk , originality and virtuosity. One may not apply this leniency to each movement in a routine, only to the entire routine (see articles 32 and 40). 8. Touching the apparat us: The difficulty of the preceding part does not affect the deduction in this case. 9. When the same part is executed the seco nd time in a routine , there is no deduction except that the part cannot be used to satisfy difficulty requirements. (This statement seems questionable because it was felt by some that if a part is executed the seco nd time but in a different B or C combination , it would count for difficulty). 10. Performing outside the FX area: If a gymnast performs a sequence outside the FX area, the sequence is not di sregarded as rumor might have it. The deduction is . I for each part performed outside the area - i.e.: round off, back handspring, back saito-all performed outside the area (in the middle of a routine), deduct .3 in addition to the initial deduction for


first landing outside the area. It is also important to note that one does not deduct . I for each foot or each hand that touches during such a sequence. II. Still Rings: The swing handstand requirement can be satisfied from a support:

15. Yamashita vault : Mr. Gander went to great lengths to point out to those in attendance that the degree requirements for the angle of take-off on the croup (near end) does not apply to the Yamashita vault???? ??

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Kip tq rearward swinq to hand'stand, effective swing and held 3 sec.

12. Intermediate swings: (con't): Intermediate swings are allowed in only two cases: A. When required in compulsory exercises. B. After falling off the apparatus. When a gymnast falls off the apparatus, he is permitted to take one intermediate swing to resume his routine. Example: if a gymnast executes a "swing to handstand and then performs back saito on parallel bars" but misses his regrasp and lands on the floor on his feet , he may remount, swing to handstand and complete the saito (he may decide to leave out the saito also). The point is that he is permitted to continue with the last part completed ; in this case he did not complete the saito so he may do it over. Sample deductions for intermediate swings: A. PB - front uprise, swing rearward , swing forward to stutzkehr to handstand , hold 2 sec.-deduct-.3 B. PB - front uprise, swing rearward, swing forward , swing rearward to handstandhold-deduct-I.O. 13. Please read Ariicle 43 paragraph 2. This refers to an intermediate swing that facilitates the next part. This applies only to compulsory exercises and not to optional exercises. 14. Horizontal Bar requirements: Rumors are going around that a H B routine must have a part in which the back is to the bar, a twohand release and an in-bar movement: This rumor is misleading:

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Mr. Gander stated that the printer did not get the change in time and that the artist made the mistake in the Code of Points. That last year's requirements are still in effect for the Yamashita (and Yamashita only).

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r1~3 Yamashita

However, most judges in attendance decided to judge according to the book until an official change , in print, comes out from the FIG. Such a printing is expected in the near future. 16. Families of vaults: When one is in a meet that requires two different vaults, the two may be from the same family but must be from different categories. A Hecht vault and a Hecht with a full twist are from the same family but from different categories: Families

Russian Giant swing

C or neck

Categories twist salta

Straddle Stoop or sq. Cartwheel

Here is the correct interpretation: A. H B routine should have part with back to bar. B. H B routine should have 2-hand release. C . H B routine should have an in-bar movement. In other words these movements are not required , but a good routine would be expected to have them. At the same time it is possible to present a good routine without all of these parts.

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Yamashita

17. The Yamashita is different from a handspring with straight body. However, the straight body handspring in which the body is piked after the hands push off is in the same family and same category as the straight body handspring:

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Free hip circle backward to hand路 stand

Gander feels the handspring with the pike after the push-off should receive a deduction? ?? ???

Back uprise in mixed grip and rear vault aver bar with V4 turn to swing forward in hong

18. A guide for commensurate dismounts: A. If routine contains 6-A, I or 2-B , then A dismount is OK. B. If routine contains 6-A , 3-B , then B dismount is preferred. C. If routine contains 6-A , 4-B , I-C , then B+ is required and C desired. 19. Ivancevic commented that three loops in

succession would be a "C" part as it was years ago. However, most judges in attendance felt this -was unacceptable, and coaches are encouraged not to use this.

Double leg circles in cross sup路 port frontways on end of horse

20. If a team does not appear in the same uniform , the deduction can be .3 for each man in each event, that amounts to something like 7.2 for a meet. Many feel that this could apply to beards and long hair. 21. Miscellaneous: A. New safety mats commonly in use nowadays are illegal: the ' maximum thickness allowable is 4 inches, however, this does not preclude coaches and officials agreeing to allow thicker mats. B. The coach is allowed to talk to a gymnast between vaults. C. In the Eastern League the coach is required to talk to his gymnast after the gymnast falls off the apparatus - sounds like a good idea. 22. Stops on the parallel' bars: The comment was made that when a stop is required to satisfy the requirements of a part (i.e.: straddle cut on PB-"L" )

Stemme backward to support and forward swing to straddle cut and "L" support

It is not considered, by the FIG, as an actual stop. This was very confusing, and the Northern California judges association decided to call any stop an actual stop to avoid confusion. 23. " C" swing on Parallel Bars: If one performs - back saito, to stutzkehr at 30 degrees, this is a " C " swing combination and satisfies the "C " swing requirement. If these two moves are split to form two " B" parts , the gymnast still can be given credit for satisfying the "r " swing requirement. 24. I vancevic stated that 45 degrees on back saito on parallel bars is desired , but tllat only 30 degrees is required. Again the judges felt that they would follow the book until official notice changes the book. 25. Does one deduct for the cau. . If a fall when a gymnast falls off the apparatu, - not necessarily always! 26. The coach is not permitted to join in at a judges conference without the permission of the superior judge. 27. The superior judge is the only judge authorized to call a conference of the judges. 28. Stops on the side horse: The terms stops is not the best term here ; th e interpretation should probably be HOLDS. Most of us know that a hold is not appropriate on the side horse such as a planche, but this was not always true, I understand. 29. Long Horse: 20 meters minimum required. 30. Deduct .1-.3 for too many holds on PB. 31. Peach Basket mount on PB - give " B" credit if 45 degrees or better and not held 2 sec. 32. Release of grip requirement on parallel bars - cannot be satisfied with a dismount. 33. Gene Wettstone stated that only one spotter is allowed in college meets. The Eastern judges association states they will not deduct for two spotters on H B. 34. IN CLOSING: In spite of the fact that the course was a disappointment in many ways to many people, but one could not say it was completely constructed on parts without value. Continued on page 30

23


rings By Mick ey Chaplan, UCLA Gymnast Filth , Rings - 1968 N CAA Championships

THE HOLLOWBACK PRESS T he holl ow back press o n rings s hould start from a n " L" . lo werin g the feet to a stra ight body full s upport a nd then lifting the hee ls toward th e ceiling (i. e .. keeping the moti on goin g from the " L" ). T he rings should be turned outward (i.e. , pa lms forwa rd , like a reverse grip on the high ba r as o pposed to a regular grip) . Th e a rms should be ke pt stra ight for as long as poss ib le , and a n effort s hould be made to kee p the rings away from th e body. Ducking the head s lightly will al so facilitate the action. Do not a ll ow th e bod y to s ink below the rings as in a back leve r as the action is initi ated s ince thi s may res ult in attemptin g a 'scale-up or in verted pull from the in ve rted ha ng pos ition. I f th e press is e xecut ed prope rl y. the performer will find him self slightl y more than halfwa y betwee n a shoulde r sta nd a nd ha ndstand : the rest of the press consi sts of a hand stand-pushup . Good exerci ses for thi s press to ha nd sta nd would in c lude rolling or still hollow bac k press to hand sta nd on the floor a nd hand stand -pushups fro m the " L" position w ith co nsiderable whip from th e legs. gradu a ll y decre as in g the a mount of whip until the action is a ll press Stiff bod y forw ard roll s are useful in teach· ing thi s move. The y are e xecuted by starting from a n .. L" a nd lowe ring th e legs to a full support a nd. kee ping th e heel s leading. press up toward a bent armed pl a nche (also known as a French le ver). With the heels still leading. sink through towa rd a back lever (retain the false grip) continuing towa rd an inverted hang. As the body starts to approach the front le ve r position. pull on the rings while keeping the body as straight as possible to bring the body back to a half support pos ition . Workin g these in repetition will increa se the strength of the performer for the ho llowback press.

FALL OR CAST FROM HANDSTAND FOR RMRSE (FORWARD) GIANT SWING What would be your reaction if someone came up to you and told you that 2 + 2 = 6, a nd then proved it to you ? My reaction was about as strange when Fred Dennis of Southern Illinois explained th at the reverse giant I had been doing for 4 years on the rings was technically incorrect and then showed me a technique whic h sent me free swinging (no, it wasn't LSD) a nd locked arm to a handstand from a handstand with an output of one-third the effort. In the first place, it is assumed that the performer is in control of a back uprise to a handstand and is not afraid to fall out of a handstand. Additionally, the performer should be well spotted. Starting from a straight body handstand position, he initiates his fa ll by pulling his shoulders a bout one inch in front of the straps. 24

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l>ob('T/oN. From the performe r' s point of view , in the handstand if he ducks hi s head, he is looking back ; if he picks it up , he is looking in front. If the performer was in a balanced handstand, the shift of !he .shoulders should +- Back Front -+ Initiate a loss of balance in a forward direction. At this point, his head is still up (ne ver ducked) and his hands a re pushed backward. The arms are nearly together and straight as a wide position, such as an inverted cross, or bent arms would kill the speed which he is trying to initiate by falling from the handstand. At this point, the performer's body should be held as straight as possible, fall ing as one un-

broken unit. While his shoulders did initiate the fall, he attempts to have his heels catch up and to avoid having his hips or shoulders hitting bottom first. In other words, he wants his heels to lead in in the lorig circular motion of a giant swing around the rings instead of below as would be the case if his hips or shoulders dropped below the rings (in the manner of a lower dowri invertedly = scale down), and he attempted his swing from the approximate position of an inverted hang. When the performer hits the dead hang position, the timing of a back uprise handsta nd takes over. If he has any pike at all, he should attempt to explode out of it into a hard arch and go for the handstand. Summarizing: Shoulders one inch in front of the straps, head up, rings all the way back, long extension, heels lead at the way to the hang, and, indeed, even to the handstand again. A spot is required until the performer knows what he is doing and why he is doing it.


THE ANALYSIS OF GYMNASTICS A Survey of the Literature by A. B. Frederick The body of literature dealing with the problems and techniques of gymnastic analysis and related areas has developed very slov'ly from the late 1930s. During the "Thirties" early leadership in the study of mechanical analysis was nurtured and encouraged by T. K. Cureton, then at Springfield College, and C. H. McCloy of the State University of Iowa. Initial Master's theses and articles in those years reflected the enthusiasm of these two men. It was not until the "Sixties," however, that a true interest in mechanical analysis and the general synthesis of gymnastics was truly revived. Again the influence of both McCloy and Cureton was evident. For the student who wishes to get a general view of the whole stream of analytical technique as it relates to learning of all kinds, one might consult Smith and Smith. I Prior to this Century we find some of the men who comprised the gymnastic leadership of those days taking bits of interest here and there in gymnastic analysis. Baron Nils Posse wrote on the mechanics of gymnastics as did Braune and Fischer.' Most of their thoughts were recorded in journals devoted to "Turnen.- " (Gymnastics) The Deutsche Volks-Turnbucher published in Leipzig, Germany and proudly displaying Turnvater Jahn's picture on the cover is one example. At the close of the last Century some of these German instructors were beginning to ask questions about analysis and their descendants in Germany today are closer to analytic truths than those who left the Turnverein to come to America. The latter concentrated more on the "physical" side of gymnastics and contributed much to the victory of the North in the Civil War but little to gymnastic analysis. The first three displaced Turners, Follen, Beck and Lieber, did not write much in the area of gy mnastics even though they helped establish early programs of physical education at the Military Academy at West Point and other Eastern Colleges. McCloy particpated as a'Turner but the writer suspects he developed his own "feel" for gymnastic analysis which was independent to the Turner movement he knew as a young man. Another German, Kohlrausch , wrote Physik des Tumen in 1887 and Hans Bollin in the very first edition of Mind and Body translates from the work of Weber and Weber (Mechanik der Mensch or Human Mechanics , 1894) The written work of this pair first appeared in Guttingen, Germany in 1836. Th e chronology of events important in the development of interest in gymnastic analysis and the analysis of sports' skills in general began in this country after the late "Twenties." A. V. Hill had already contributed his widely quoted Muscular Movement in Man and somewhat later wrote Living Machinery. It was not until the mid "Thirties," however, that serious research in cinematography began. This may have been due to developments in photographic technique (Smith and Smith trace this particular development with great care.) and the fact that teachers were now becoming familiar with home-made films of all kinds. Dr. Cureton wrote a series of articles for Scholastic Coach in 1935 dealing with the mechanical analyses of a variety of track and field skills. He "opened the door" for others who were to contribute much to the literature shortly thereafter. He also developed a Lab Manual which 1. Smith, Karl U. and Margaret F. Smith, Cybernetic Principles of Learning and Educational Design. New

York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston Inc., 1966. 2. For Example ... " Location of the Center of Gravity" 1890 (Leipzig)

was used · in analyzing move ment by his students at Springfield. As early as 1930, Cureton wrote about the mechanical analysis of swimming in Beach and Pool (Now Swimming Pool Age). The first Master's studies dealing with mechanical analysis were done at Springfield College under Cureton. The work of McCloy was also acknowledged in some of these. (e.g. Heidloff 1938) John Bunn was coaching basketball at Springfield in the "Thirties. " When his book, Scientific Principles of Coaching was published somewhat later, the Cureton influence was once again noted as he frequently referred to his aritcles. In 1938 Eugene Wettsfone opened another door to gymnastic analysis. He was interested in gymnastic anthropology. Edward Williams, one of Wettstone's graduate students, did some follow-up work in this afea in 1963 (As did Furbler, 1964) and the combination of their works do much to explain or give one a good picture of the kind of individual who has gymnastic potential. Other studies following the Tokyo Olympics by Criley add to this a great deal. (e.g. The Modem Gymnast, Mar'c h, 1965, " 1964 Olympics-Means, Modes and Medians.") When Cureton moved to the University of Illinois, cinematographic studies began to appear once again. Most of the work was accomplished under the guidance of Alfred Hubbard but the Cureton influence was unmistakeable. A rash of these studies appeared from 1953 to 1965 by University of Illinois graduate students. puring the same period no cinematographic studies per se were done at Springfield College although several movies were produced there on a variety of gymnastic topics. Side Horse investigations were also undertaken at Washington State University under the guidance of Victor Dauer. During the "Fourties" Loken and Ryser attempted to establish an order and grade for movements done in tumbling and on the trampoline. It seems as if the time for synthesis ha d begun. Although these men used the questionnaire technique they non-the-less caused_some people to beg-in to think about the scope of gymnastics and later in their careers both men wrote books which have been widely used by teachers of gymnastics in the United States. Griswald's Trampoline Tumbling and LaDue and Norman's Up in the Air, both dealing with trampoline, give much credit to McCloy for chapters dealing with mechanical analysis. The analysis of twisting is presented in both of these texts and they provide a base for current interest in twist analysis research. The "movement" movement which has gained considerable momentum in the United States in the last fifteen years has much to contribute to gymnastic analysis arid particularly to gymnastic synthesis. Most of the interest in movement both here and abroad can be attributed to Rudolph Laban, who by contributing Labanotation (movement notation) and the excellent text Effort to the world , caused much thinking about synthesis in the fields of dance, industry and of late ... gymnastics. A number of women have "hitch hiked" on Labaniana but only a few men have done so. One of this latter group is Muska Mosston who has written Developmental Movement and presents a new gymnastic "system" for one to ponder using the creative technique known as morphological analysis. The reader will note a host of women contributing to the literature of movement in the bibliography which follows these remarks. Metheney and Broer have contributed much as well as a number of English authors which except for Monroe (Pure and Applied Gymnastics) are also women. Much of the content of these texts parallel the earlier workofBunn but tend to synthesize more. Movement patterns, programmed learning;

perceptual cueing; attempts to taxonomize the psycho-motor domain and educational objectives pertaining thereto; mental practice and the cybernetic theory of man all have contributions to make to the concept of gymnastic arialysis. These relatively new directions combined with the unusual potential for future uses of television will undoubtedly make former attempts at gymnastic analysis look primative. These are the areas which will be explored in depth in the near future. The bibliography which is attached represents the bulk of the literature available to us today. As some rough indication of "w here we are" and "where we are going" please note that two thirds of the references have been contributed in the present decade while-the rest has oozed out very slowly in the thirty years preceeding the "Sixties." BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS AAHPER, Research Methods Applied to Health, Physical Education and Recreation. Washington, D.C AAPHER, 1952 pp. 535. Especially Chs. 7, B, 9 and 10. Second Ed. has Ch. entitled Lob Research (pp. 326·345 Kinesiology and Activity Analysis) BALEY. James A. Gymnastics in the Schools. Boston, Allyn and Bacon, 1965 pp. 297 Principles from kinesiology are found an pp. IB-24. BROER Marion R., Efiiciency of Human Movement. Philo., W. B. Saun· ders, 1960 pp. 351 Author particularly interested in polterns of movement which she fully develops in her electromyography studies published by Chas. Thomas publishers. BRUNER, Jerome (Director-Editor), Le"nin~ About Learning. Washing ton, D.C U.S. Dept. of H.EW .• 1966 Especially Crutchfield's paper pp. 64·70 "Sensitization and Activation of Cognotive Skills" (Horvord Cognative Studies) BUNN, John, Scientific Principles of Coaching. N.Y., Prentice-Hall, 1955. pp. 306 One of the first (U.S.) proctical treotments of physical and mechanical principles. Gymnastic analysi s (pp. 192·210) reo fleets Cureton's influence. Many practical problems are suggested throughout. Append ix "e" contains some photographic principles with on example from gymnastics. COOPER, John M. and Ruth B. GLASSOW, Kinesiology. St. Louis, C. V. Mosby Co., 1963 pp. 310 John Beckner's material used in portions dealing with gymnastic mechanics. (Pp. 123·124, 131 ·139, 170175) CRATTY, B. J.. Movement Behavior and Motor Learning. (2nd Ed.) Philo., Leo and Febiger, 1967 pp. 367 1,000 references in Bib. Discussion of mechonical (and other) principles on learning on p. 52+ Gym· nastic references p. 271 and p. 102. . DUCHENNE, G. B., The Physiology of Motion. Philo., J. B. Lippencalt Col, 1949 Classic reference in mechanics most rec·ently referred to by Jokl in JOHPER. Jokl olso discusses the work of Duchenne in JAP&MR 10, I 54, 1956. DYSON, Geoffrey, The Mechanics of Athletics. Landon, U. of London Press (3rd Ed.), 1964 pp. 210 Designed primarily for track and field but fi rst half of book equally valuable for gymnastic analysis. Used by gymnastic org anizations throughout the British Commonwealth. Twisting material very clear. (pp: 79·9B) GRISWALD, Larry, Trampofine Tumbling. NY , AS. Barnes & Ca. 1962 pp. 120 McCloy credited for insight to principles outlined in Ch. 3. (pp. 15-23) Ch. 4 contains excellent ideas for student projects which help d ev~lop concepts of mechanical principles. HALLIDAY, David and J. RESNICK, Physics for Students of Science and En~ineerin~. NY , Wilev Pub .. 1960. . HART, Ivar, The Mechanical Investig.tions of Leonardo daVinci. London, Chapman and Hall Ltd., 1935 (See also O'Malley, C. D., Leonardo d.Vinci on the Human Body. N.Y., Schuman Pub. Inc. 1952.) HILL, A. V., Mu!cul,r Mavement in Man. NY, McGraw·Hill, 1922. (Also Living Machinery published by Bell of Landon in 1939.) JOHNSON, Barry L. A Beginner's Book of Gymnastics. N.Y., Appleton· Century-Crofts. 1966 pp. 121 Fallowing each chapter the aulhor lists mechanical principles which apply. KUNZLE, George, Olympic Gymnastics (Series) London, Barrie and Rackliffe Vols. I·IV have been published between 1956-1964. (Freestanding, Horizontal Bar, Pommel Horse and Parallel Bars) Meehan· ical principles are mentioned throughout these volumes which to dote are the most exhaustive treatments of the individual events they represent in English. Kunzle also tends to organize by synthesizing the movements in the events he describes. Jos. Stalder is photographed in sequence action in mast of the volumes which help the student to analyze the m9vements. LaDUE, FRANK and Jim NORMAN, This is Trampolining. Cedar Rapids, Iowa, Torch Press (4th Ed.) 1959 pp. 171 Ch. 6 (pp. 64-93) is credo ited to Dr. McClay and might be applied to all phases of gymnastics. LOCKHART, R. D., Living Anatomy. London, Faber, 194B. (See also appendix in Wells' Kinesiology or a new text by Royce entitled Surface Anatomy published by F. A. Davis in Philo.) MAULDON, E. and J. LAYSON, Teaching Gymnastics. London, Macdonald & Evans. 1965 pp. 192 An excellent Ch. on movement observation is presented as well as a complete expose of the tasks and themes adapted from the work of Laban. METHENEY, Eleanor, Body Dynamics. N.Y., McGraw-Hili, 1952. One of the first American works dealing with concepts ("kinecepts'1 of human movemen t. METHENEY, Eleanor Connotations of Movement in Sport .nd O.nce. Dubuque, Iowa, Wm. C. Brown Pub., 1965 pp. 229 Especially pp. 9B· 101 . On p. B6 the author presents her idea about the nature of gymnastics. MONROE, A.D., Pure and Applied Gymnastics. London, Edward Arnold Pub. Ltd. (2nd Ed.) 1963 pp, 2B7. An e~cellent treatment of all prin· ciples related to gymnastics w(th complete documentation covering and suggesting implica tion s of a variety of related areos. Ch. 7 provides clues for gymnastic analysis. MORTON, Dudley J., and D. D. FULLER, Human Locomotion ,n. Body Form. Baltimore, Williams and Wilkins, 1952.

25


MOSSTON, Muska, Developmental Movement. Columbus, Ohio, Merrill

Books Inc., 1965 pp. 317 The author's concept of progression in the areas of agility, balance, flexibility and strengt h are presented. Mechanics ex. on DD. 5-9. MOSSTON, Muska, Teaching Physical Education - From Command To Discovery. Columbus, Ohio, Chos. E. Merrill Books, 1966 pp. 238 Uses many gymnastic examples as he unfolds his concept of "gu ided

discovery " MUYBRIDGE, E., The Human Figure in Motion. N.Y., Dover Pubs., 1955. OXENDINE, Jos., Psychology of Motor Learning. N.Y., Appleton·Century· Crofts, 1965 pp. 366 Ch. 9 deals with mental proctice. Ch. 10 gives hints for programm ing movement.

State U (Pullman), 1963, 69 pp. BliEVERNIGHT, David, Side Horse Leg Circles , A Cinematographic Analysis. Unpublished Master's thesis, U. of Wisconsin,

J 964,

ISO pp BURNS, Patricio, The Effect of Physical Practice, Mental Practice and Mental-Physical Practice on the Development 01 a Motor Skill. Unpub· lished Master's thesis, Penn State U., 1962,56 pp. BYERS, Karl, The Relationship of Hand and Eye Dominance to Direction of Circling on the Side Horse. Unpublished Master's thesis, Washing ton State U (Pullman), 1962,51 pp. CARDINALI , Geoffrey, The Development of a Motion Picture and Accompanying Manual of Selected Skills Executed to and From a Handstand

RANDALL, Marjorie, Basic Movement -A New Approach to Gymnast ics.

Position on the Parallel Bars. Unpublished Master's thesis, Spring-

london: G. Bell and Sons Ltd., 1961 She discusses her interpretation of three questions posed by Monroe (see above) on the specific

field College, 1963, pp 70 CRATTY, Bryant, A Comparative Study of the Relationship of Learnin g a Fine Motor Skill to Learning a Similar Gro ss Motor Skill Based on Kinesthetic Cues. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, U.UA, 1961 , liS pp. DRURY, Francis A, An Evaluation 01 Visual Aids in the Teaching of Tumbling. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Sta te U. of Iowa, 1959.

nature of skill.

RASCH, Philip and Roger BURKE, Kinesiology and Applied Anatomy. Philo., leo and Febiger, 1963. SCOTT, Gladys M., Analysis of Human Motion. N.Y., Appleton-CenturyCrofts, 1963 pp. 443 In addition to her appraisal of sequential muscular action in a variety of activi t ies including gymnastics, there is a

Ch. on gymnastics (Ch. IS) SINGER, Robert, Motor Learning and Human Performance. N.Y., McMillan Co., 1968 pp. 354 Chapters 7 and S include teach ing methodology and application of learning theory to P E. thus providing substance for a study of gymnastic analysis.

SMITH, A. W., The Elements of Physic s - Part 1- Mechanics. N.Y., McGrow Hill Soak Co., 1935 pp. 790. SMITH, Hope, (Editor) Introduction to Human Movement. Reading, Mass., Addison-Wesley Pub. Co., 1965 pp. 204 Chap. II "Movement Behavior Under Conditions of Minimum Support" contains gymnastic examples

TAKEMOTO, Masao and Seiichi HAMADA, Gymna stic s Illustrated. Tokyo, SanYu-Suppan Co. ltd., 1960 pp. 359 + Now out of print the introduction fa the book (written in Japa nese) contains much of the Illechanicul urlulysis wisdom gleaned from European coun tries and especial ly Germany Sequences found in great number throughou t the book and drawn from filmed performance gives one a good pictu re of the ma jority of apparatus events. Tumbling is thoroughly presented in much the some way in Mat Work another Japanese book treating everything from movement exploration and mimetics to the double twisting back somersault on the floor.

WEllS, Katherine, Kinesiology. Philo., W. B. Sounders, 1960 Perhaps the most popular of all current texts on the subject and widely referred to in the literature of physical education. W ILLIAMS, Marian ond Herbert lissner, Biomechanics of Human

Motion. Philo., W. S Saunders Co., 1962 pp. 147 A very sophisticated vol ume which con be used for in depth study of gymnas tic analysis Center of gravity pro blems clearly presented as well as on au dio visual device for some. "Sports in the German Democrotic Republic. " (No au t hor) An abstract from an East Ge r man magazine indicates that teachers in Leipzig may once ago in be sett ing the pace in gymnastic research. The gymnastic research center in Jena is described through pictu res of trock·

ing devices etc. M.G., Jan., 1968, p. 10 SALTl, E., and S. E. NEWMAN, "The Effect of Prior Learning of Sym· bois on Perfo r mance in Reasoning ." American Jo urnal of Psychology,

123,91-9, March, 1960. SCO TT, M . G., "Measurement of Kin esthesis." R. Q. , 26:3 24, Oct., 1955 Description (and statistics for) of 26 tests devised to measure kinesthesis. Generally cancluded that kinesthesis is composed of a se ries of specific functions. SHURE, Gera ld, et 01, "Man-Computer Deri vations of Tree Structure from Multivaria te Data." Santo Monic a, Col.: S.D.C., Public Document # TM 3864, 1968. Potential design for investigating gymnastic pa ra meter s and computer programm ing thereof.

SPENCER, R., "Ballistics of the Mot Kip." (Abst ract) M.G., Sept.-Oct., 1965, pp. 26- 27. START, K. B., "Kinesthesis and Mental Practice." R. 35,316·20, Oct., 1964. STEINHAUS, Arthur, "Your Muscles See More Than Your Eyes." JOHPER, Sept., 1966, p. 38 +. SU LLIVAN, Robert, " The Forward Somersault on the Parallel Bars." M.G., March, 1966, pp. 16·20. VANIS, Geo., "A Cinematographic Analysis of the Yamashita Vault over the Long Horse." (Abstract) M.G., Nov.·Dec., 1965, pp. 18·19. VINCENT, Wm., "Kips in Gymnastics." Scholastic Coach, April, 1965, p.5S + .

a.,

WE TT STONE, Gene, "Anthropomet ric Measurements and Gymnast ic

Ability" R.a., 9,121, Dec., I 93S. WETTSTONE, Gene, "Flexibility and Gymnastic Abi lity." R.a., 9,120, Dec., 1938. WETTSTONE, Gene, "Kinesthetic Sense and Gymnastic Ability," R. 9, 11 9, Dec., 1938 WIC KSTROM, R. l., "Comparative Study of Methodologies for Tea ching Gymnastics and Tumbling Stun ts." R.a., 29, 109-19, March, 1955.

a.,

94 pp. Three visual aids were equally effective in teaching tumbling .

EGSTROM, Glen, The Effects 01 an Empha sis on Conceptualizing Tech niques During Early Learning of a Gro ss Motor Skill. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, USc.. 1961,121 pp FERRITER, Kathleen, A Cinematographic Analysis of Front Handspring Vaults of Women Gymnasts. Unpublished Master's Thesis, U. of 111., 1964, 5S pp. fRIAL, Paulo, Prediction of Modern Dance Ability Through Kinesthetic Tests . Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, State U. of Iowa, 1965,

S9 pp. fURSlER, Ernest, Flexibility as a Measure 01 Success in Gymnastics. Unpublished Master's thesis, U. of Moss, 1964, 34 pp. GISSON, Theodore, The Relationship Between the Height of The Center of Gravity in the Body and Performance in Selected Sport Motor Skills. Unpublished Master's thesis, Penn. State U., 1958 GODBOUT, Paul, Organic Effects 01 Gymnastic Circuit Training. Unpublished Moster's thesis, U. of III., 1965, 144 pp. GOODYEAR, Alan H., A Compari son Between the Whole Method and ProgreSSive Lead-Up Skills Method in Teaching the Front Somersault on the Trampoline. Unpublished Master's thesis, Springfield College, 1960,32 pp. GRAVES, Oard c.. The Effects of Initial Testing and Knowledge of Mechanical Principles Upon the Performance of a Motor Skill. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Colorado State Coliege (Greeley), 1962 GROSSFELD, Abe, The Underbar Somersault on the Parallel Bars. Unpublished Master's thesis, U. of III., 1962, 55 pp. HARRIS, Bob, The Eflects of Selected Isotonis and Isometric Exercises for Developing Strength lor the Iron Cross. Unpublished Moster's thesis, Mich. State U., 1965,45 pp HARRIS, R. C. Cinematographical Analysis of the Up st art (Kip ) on the High Horizontal Bar. Unpublished Master'S thesis, Springfield College, 1939. Described in Appendix in Bunn's book listed above

PERIODICALS BEYER, E. F., "Six Pitfalls in Learning a gymnastic stunt. " The Modern

Gymnast (M.G .) April, 1959 pp. 32-33. SEYER, E. F., "Using Physics in learning Gymnastics." M.G. June, 1960 pp. 20·21 . BEYER, E. F_, "Us ing Mechanics for Learning Gymnastics." M.G. Nov. ,

1960 pp. 22·23. BIRD, Pot, "Some Thoughts on Research in Gymnastics." The U.S.

Gymnast. Aug., 1967 pp. 23·25. BRODEUR, John, "Study of the Bock Somersault." M.G. Feb., 1962 p. 19. BROWN, H. S. and lloyd MESSERSMITH, "Visual Aids in Teaching Tumbling." Research auarterly (AAHPER) 19,304, Dec, 1945. ClE IN, Morvin, "Mechanical Analysis in Gymnastics." JOHPER Jan.,

1967 pp. 67-6S. CLIFTON, M. and Hope SMITH, 'Viewing Oneself Performing Selected Motor Ski lls in Motion Pictures and Its Affect Upon the Expressed

Self-Concept of Self in Performance." Research auarterly (R.a.) 33,369-75, Oc!., 1962. COLVI LLE, Frances M., " learning Motor Skills as Influenced by Knowl· edge of Mechanical Principles." Journal of Educational Psychology 4S,321-27, Oct., 1957. COOPER, John and Bob SORANI, "Use of Dichroic Mi rror as a Cine· matographic Aid in the Study of Human Performance." R.a., 36,210II ,MaY, 1965. CURETON, T. K., "Mechanics of the high Jump." Scholastic Coach, April, 1935 Note: Cu reton wrote six articles far each issue of S.c.

in this Vol. CURETON, T. K., "Elementary Principles and Techniques in Cinema· tagraphic Analysis as Aids in Ath letic Research." R.Q., May, 1939.

W ILEY, Joc k, "Cinematography - Backward Somersault with a Double Twist and Mechanical Comparison of a Backward Somer sault, Full Twisting Backward Somersault and a Double Twisting Back

DAHLEM, Glenn, "Gestal t Approach to Gymnastics." JOHPER Jan., 1960, p. 3S DEVRIES, Herbert, "A Cinematog raphic Analysis of the Dolphin Swimming Stroke," R.a., 14,207, May, 1943. EllFEL T, Lois and Eleanor METHEN EY, "Movement and Meaning, Development of a General Theory." R.a., 29,264- 73, Oct., 1955.

Somersoul!." (Abstrc:t) M.G., June-July, 1966 p. 31 .

ESPENSCHADE, Anna, "Kinest hetic Awa reness in Motor Learning."

W ILKIE, D. R., "Ma n as a Source of Mechanical Power." Ergonomics,

3,I. Jon., 1960 (Published by Taylor and Francis ltd., Red Lion Court, Fleet St., london, E. C. 4, England. WINTER, F. W., "Mechanisms of a 31', Somersaul!." Athletic Journal, Jon., 1965, p. 19+. WYNESS, Jerry, "learning Through Analysis." The Physical Educator, Ma rch, 1963, p. 35. . ANDERSON, T. M., "Human Kinetics and Analyzing Body Movements." Heinemann (Incomplete source) an nenda.

UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS AUSTIN, Jeff, Cinematographic Analysis of a Double Back Somersault. Unpublished Moster's thesis, U. of 111. , 1959 BAllE, Sam E.. Spotting of Selected Advanced Gymnastic Stunts. Unpublished Master's thesis, State U. of Iowa, 1960, SI pp. A handbook was developed to be used for spott ing.

BARE, Frank l ., A Cinematographic Analysis of the Stutzkehre on the Parallel Bars. Unpublished Master's thesis, U. of 111., 1959,61 pp. BARRETT, Mildred, A Study on the Effects of a Knowledge of Mechanical Principles on Learning to Perform Specific Swimming Strokes. Unpublished Master's thesis, U. of Md., 1959, 105 pp. Experimental group showed greater improvement in all strokes.

BEN SON, Jock, An Analysis of the Olympic Event Routines of Various Gymnastic

26

Champions. Unpublished

Moster's thesis, Wash ington

Perceptual and Motor Skills, S, 142, June, 1955. FARKAS, Jim, " Hints About Toke-Offs." M.G., Jon .. 1962 pp. 22-23. FI ELD, David, "Annotated Sibliography on Gymnas tics." R.a., 21-112, May, J 950 Excellent refe rence.

FREDERICK, A B., "Some Practical Applications of Physics and Mechanics in Gymnas tics Instruction." M.G., Jon., 1964 pp. 18-28.

FREDERICK, A. B., "The Principles of the Teaching Machine Applied to Gymnastic Instruction." M.G., Jan. 1964; pp. 26-29. FREDERICK, A. B, "The Vaulting Continuum." M.G ., Nov.-Dec, 1965, pp.38-41. FREDE RICK, A. B., "A Checklist for Spotting and Learning Gymnas-

tics." M.G., Nov., 1966, p. 19. FREDERICK, A B., "The Gymnastic Eva luation." M.G., Nov., 1964, pp. 24-26. FREDERICK, A. B., "Basic Elements and Progressions in Vaul ting." M.G., Nov.·Dec., 1963, p. 42 FRE DE RICK, A. B., "Using Films Effectively to Motivate Students." M.G., July-Aug., 1963, pp 26-2S. GALLI, G., "Comporitive Study of the Peach Sosket and the Casl." M.G., March, 1967, p. 22GEORGE, Jerry, "A Second Look at Swing-Back Giant." M.G., JuneJuly, 1968, p. 36. GIRARDIN, Yvan, "The Relationship Between the Abil ity to Perform Selected Tumbling Skills and the Ability to Diagnose Learning Diffi-

culties in these Same Skills." (Abstroct) U.S. Gymnast, May, 1966, pp.22-24. GOMSOS, Ed, "St raight Sody Vault - Hecl." M.G., Sept.-Oc!., 1962, pp. 23- 25. GROVES, Wm. H., "Mechanical Analysis of Fancy Diving." R.a., May, 1950 p. 132 (MS at State U. of Iowa.). HAINFELD, Harold, " Inexpensive 8mm Movies to Analyze Elementray

Tumbling Skills." U.S. Gymnast, May, 1965, pp. 29-30. HARPER, Don, "The Physical Principles of Diving." Athletic Journal , Nov, 1966, p. 34. HARRIS, R. c.. "Cinemotographical Analysis of the Upstart (K ip) on the High Horizontal Bar." (Abstract) M.G., March, 1965, pp. 22·23. HARRISON, Virginia, "Review of Neuromuscular Bases for Motor

learning." R.a., 33 ,59-69, March, 1962. HATANO, Yoshiro, "Mechanics of the Double Bock." M.G., Nov., 1962, p. 27 HElLE BRANT, F. A. el. 01., "Methods of Recordin~ Movemen!." American Journal of Physical Medicine, 39, 17S-S3, Oct.:1960. HEllEBRANT, F. A et 01., "The Autonornous Component 01 Willed Movemenl." The Physical Educator, 19,25-27, March, 1962. HELLEBRANT, F. A. el.ol., "living Anatomy." auest, Monograph I, Dec., 1963, pp. 43-59. HILDESRAND, Milton, " How Animals Run." Scientific American, 202, 14S, 1960 Cheetah and ho rse compare d by mechan ical analysis.

HUBSEll, Josephine, "Cen trifugal and Centripedol Forces." JOHPER, Oct., 1967, pp 79·S0. HUGHES, Eric, "Instan t Replay TV in Gymnastics" M.G. Feb., 1965, p. 64. HUNT, Valer ie, "Movement Beha vior: A Model for Action." Quest,

Monogroph II, NACEPW-NCPEA, April, 1964. HUXLEY, H. E., "The Contraction of Muscle." Scientific American, 199,67, 1955 One of the best mechanical explanations of the mechanics of the contraction of muscle.

KUREROV, N. A, and Y. YAlOVSKI. " The Sockword Somersault with a Full Twist." (Abstroct from Yessis) U.S. Gymnast, Feb., 1965, pp. 26-27. lUNDIEN, E. c.. "Cinematographic Analysis of the Sack Somersaul!." M.G., Feb, 1966, pp. 26-27. 'McC LOY, C. H., "The Organization and Teaching of Apparatus Wo rk and Tumbling." Journa l of Physical Education C'lMCA), 34,60-62 + April, 1937 McCloy outl ines a simple set of mechanical principles for gymnastic instructors with examples.

Modern Gymnast, (Glenn Sundby, Ed,), "Sequence Special" M.G., Aug., 1967 Entire edition is devoted to sequence routines of the world closs gymnasts of the yea r . Sequences can be adapted to ca rd analysis needs of mechanics closs. MOHR, Dorothy and M. Barrett, "Effect of Knowledge of Mechanical Principles in Learning to Perform Intermediate Swimming Skill s."

R.a , 33,574-S0, Dec, 1962 MOORSE, A. c., "C inematographicol Analysis of a Full-Twis ti ng Backward Somersault." M.G., Jan, 1966, pp. 12-13. NOSS, J.. "Control of Photographic Perspective." JOHPER, Sept., 1967, p. SI +. PlAGENHOEF, S. c.. "Methods for Obtaining Kinetic Data to Analyze Human Motion," R. a., 37 , 103-11 2, March, 1966. PLANT, Harvey, " The Barony Dilemma." M.G. June-July, I 96S, p. 29 Thoughts about sidedness and twisting .

POND, Charles, "The Double Back," Athletic Journal, Feb., 1966, p. 44 + . ROETlHEIM, Sill, "Gymnastic Ant hropometry." U.S. Gymnast, March, 1965, pp. IS-20. ROGERS, Martin, "So sic Body Mechanics, An Interpretation." JDHPER, Dec., 1967, pp. 20-22 An excellent appraisal of the parameters of body mechanics including mechanical analysis.

RYSER, Otto, " Teaching the Front Flip to large Groups." Scholastic Coach, May, 1963, p. 72. RYSER, Otto, "Teach and Spot the Front Somey Catch on the Parallel Sars." Athletic Journal, April, 1966, p. 74+. HE IDlOFF, R. E.. Logical Application of Physics to Selected Tumbling Stunts. Unpublished Master's thesis, Springfield Coliege, 1935 Iso· lated te n principles, ForWa rd and backwa rd handsprings and forward and backward somersaults ore descri bed. A de vice is introduced for the ana lysis of f ilm and film drawing.

HOYlE, Mary Ann, The Use of Labanotation for Synchronized Swimming. Unpublished Moster's thesis, U. North Carolina (Greensboro), 1963, 84 pp. In troduction of a variation.

HUBER, Joanne c., The Effect of Skill Improvement in the Back Walkover on the Response Patterning of Selected Shoulder Girdle Musculature. Unpbulsihed Moster's thesis, University of Wisc, 1966,40 pp. JENKINS, Robert, Affect of Shouting on Motor Performance. Unpublished Master's thesis, U. of 111., 1964 4S pp. JENNETT, Claire, An Investigation of Tests of Agility. Unpublished Doctorol dissertation, State U. of Iowa, 1959,90 pp. LAFLER, Josephine, Mechanical Analysis of Diving Techniques. Unpub lished M oster's thesis, U. of Iowa, 1943.

LANOUE, Fred, Mechanics of Fancy Diving. Unpublished Moster's thesis, Springfield College, 1936. LILLY, Ann l ee, A Method of Notating Synchronized Swimming Based on Principles Adapted from Labanotation. Unpublished Master's thesis, Ohio State U., 1964, 106 pp. LITTLE, Neil, A Longitudinal Case Study of Selected Physical Fitness Characteristics of a National Tumbling Champion. Unpublished Master's thesis, U. of III., 1966, 74 pp. LOC KHART, Aileene, The Value of the Motion Picture as an Instructional Device in Learning a Motor Skill. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, U. of W isconsin, 1942

lOKEN, Newton, Order and Grade of Trampoline Stunts According to Their Difficulty. Unpublis hed Moster's thesis, U. of Michigan, 1946 Used su r vey sta t istics rather than empirical methods.

MOORE, Johnna, The Relationship of Design to Movement. Unpublished Master's thesis, U.C.LA, 1959. PALAITH, Margot, The Discovery of Movement Forms from Visual and Auditory Responses to a Verbal Stimulus. Unpublished Master of Art s in Dance project, U. of Utah, 1965,33 pp. ROBICHAUX, Woldean, Relationship Between Sports Ability and Ability to Learn a New Motor Skill. Unpublished Independent Research, USC (Aileene Lockhart advisor), 1959, 203 pp. RUSINO, Kenneth, Comparitive Learning Speed in Attainment Level of a Swing Kip on the Horizontal Bar. Unpublished Master's thesis, U.C. l.A., 1961,S5pp. RYSER, Otto, A Progres<ion of Tumbling Stunts for Boys in Upper Ele-


mentary Uraae s. Unpublished Master's thesis, U. of Indiana, 1946. SARVER, Robert, A Cinematographical Ana lysi s of th e Double leg Circle on the Side Horse. Unpublished Moster's thesis, Washington State U., 1962,89 pp. (Pullman). SAYED, Aloe- Eldin, A Mechanical An i lysis of a Floor Exercise Rout ine, Unpublished Moster's thesis, Spri ng field College, 1964, 105 pp. Found dist ur bance of equili brium 7 times; act ion-reaction 16 times

and increase d momen t um 10 times. 27 lo ws of principles of

mechanics observed. SPENCER, Richard, A Study of Ballistics of the Mat Kip. Unpublished Moster's thesis, U.C.LA, 1959 Found visual judgments by teachers to be O.K. but found confus ion in the literature. SULLIVAN, R. N., Th e Forward Somersault on the Parallel Bars lrom a Handstand to a Handstand. Unpublished Moster's thesis, U. of III., 1953,68 pp. Thoroughly discussed in 2nd Ed. of AAHPER's Research Methods (pp. 128- 145). TODO, Jerry, A Guide for Teaching Tumbling to High School Boys. Unpublished Master's thesis, U.S.c., 1958, 59 pp. TRNKA, Milan. The Effect of Rebounding from Variou s Heights. Unpublished Master's thesis, U. of III., 1960, 33 pp. VANI S, Geo., A Cinematographic Analysis of the Yamashita Vault. Unpublished Moster's thesis, U. of III., 1965, 73 pp. VINCENT, Wm. J" Classification 01 Gymnastic Stunts. Unpublished materi al prepared by the au thor, (San Fernando Volley State College, Col.) WALKER, Wm. J., Affects 01 Music on Phy sical Perlormance. Unpublished Moster's thesis, Northern Illinois U. (DeKolb), 1960, 26 pp. WENDEL, Robert E., Anthropometric Measurements 01 All-Around Gymnasts and Gymnasts who Specialize on the Side Horse. Unpublished Moster's thesis, Washington State U. (Pullman), 1964, 54 pp. WESTFALL, Korlette, The Influence 01 an Auditory Pattern on Learning 01 Gross Motor Tasks. Unpublished Moster's thesis, U. of Cal. (8er keley), 1963, 47 pp. WILEY, Jock, A Cinematographic and Mechanical Analysis 01 the Back Somersault with a Double Twist in Tumbl i ng. Unp ubl ished Master 's

thesis, Sacra mento (Col.) State College, 1964, 66 pp. WILLIAMS, Edward c., Relationships 01 Certain Body Proportions to Success in the Sport 01 Gymnastics. Unpublished Moster's thesis, Penn State U., 1963. Adds material to Wettstone's work of 1938. WILSH IN, David 8., An Experimental Study to Determine th e Force Necessary to Hold the Crucilix on the Rings. Unpublished Master's thesis, Springfield College, 1964,45 pp., WILSON, Glenn, A Cinematogri phic Analysi s 01 the Round Off. Unpublished Moster's thesis, U. of III., 1959, 38 pp. WOlCOTT, Fronk, The Development 01 a Motion Picture and a Manual of Selected Competitor Skills Executed lrom Double Leg Circles on the Side Horse. Unpublished Moster's路 thesis, Springfield College, 1961, 41 pp. Very slow speeds ore used in the fi lm to clearly show side horse movemen t s.

ZI EGLER, Yvonne, A Comparison 01 Two Methods 01 Teaching Gymnastics. Unpublished Master's thesis, U. of Wisconsin, 1965, 125 pp. UNIVERSITY OF OREGON MICRDCARDS Note: If a name below is simply followed by the Microco rd number, t he reader wi ll fin d the t itl e, institut ion and dote of t he original st udy in the list of unpublished materials above.

BERLIN, Pea rl, Allects 01 Varied Teaching Emphases During Early Learn ing on Acqui sition 01 Selected Motor Skills. Unpublished Doctoral dissertat ion, Penn State U., 1959 PSY - 105 BLiEVERNI GHT, D. l. - PE- 662 BONO, Marjorie H., Rhythmic Perception and Gro ss Motor Perlormance. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, U.s.c., 195B PSY - 67 CARTER, Fra nces H., Selected Kine sthetic and Psychological Dillerences Between the Highly Skilled in Dance and Sports. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, U. of Iowa, 1963 PSY - 251 CASADY, Donald R., A Battery 01 Tests lor the Prediction 01 Potentialily lor Trampolining. Unpublished Moster's thesis, State U. of Iowa, 1955 PE- 239 COlVILLE, Frances M., The learning 01 Motor Skill s as Inlluenced by Knowledge of General Principles 01 Mechanics. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, U.s.c.. 1956 PSY - 80 CUMBEE, Frances Z., A Factorial Analysis 01 Motor Coordination. Unpublished Doctoral disserta tion, U. of Wisconsin, 1952 PSY - 15 DOSS, Wayne S., A Manual 01 Physical Principles (Applications of) lor Physical Education. Unpublished Moster's th esis, Springfield College, 1949 PE - 39 DRURY, Francis A, PSY - 125 EGSTROM, Glenn H., PSY - 191 EVERETT, Ma rg aret, A Film lor Use in Developing Ability to Analyze Common Elements in Sports Skills, Unpublished Doctoral dissertati on, State U. of Iowa, 1957 PSY - 60 FINLEY, F. Roy, KineSiological Analysi s 01 Human Locomotion. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Springfield College, 1961 PH - 77 FLANAGAN, John 1, A Descriptive and Mechanical Analysis 01 the First Three Dives in the Reverse Group_Unpublished Moster's thesis, Florida State U., 196 1 PE - 617 FRANCIS, Robert l., An Analysi s of Certain Time, Motion and TimeMotion Factors in Eight Athletic Sports. Unpubl ished Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State U., 1952 PE - 11 9 FRIEDRICHSEN, Friedrich, A Study 01 the Effectiveness 01 Loop Fi lms as Instructional Aids in Teaching Gymnastic Stunts. Unpublished Moster's thesis, State U. of Iowa, 1956 PSY - 49 GROSSFELO, Abe, PE - 620 GUSTAFSON, Wm., A Mechanical Analysis 01 Selected Gymnastics on the Horizontal Bar, Parallel Bars, Side Horse, Still Rings and Swinging Rings. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, State U. of Iowa, 1955, 153 pp. P. E. - 219 HILL, Rose M., Educational Gymnastics l or the Teaching 01 Physical Education. Unpublished Moster's thesis, State U. of Iowa, 1962 PE - 623 HOYlE,MoryAnn - PE -675 HUBER, Joanne - PSY - 268 KINGSLEY, David B., Flexibility Changes Resulting lrom Participation in Tumbling. Unpublished Moster's thesis, U. of Oregon, 1952 PE - 163 McCRAW, Lynn w., A Factor Analysi s 01 Motor Learning. Unpublished Doctoral dissertati on, U. of Texas, 194B PE - 47 MIKESEll, Delores J., EIIect 01 Mechanical Principles Centered Instruction on the Acquisition of Badminton Skills. Unpublished Moster's thesis, U. of 111., 1962 PSY - 220' MOORE, Roy B., An Analysis 01 Modern Theoretical Approaches to Learning with Implications lor Teaching Gross Motor Skills. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, State U. of Iowa, 1949 PE - 52 NELSON, Dole 0., Studies of Transler of learning in Gross Motor Skills. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, U.s.c., 1957 PSY - 96

RYSER, Otto, Standards l or Nomenclature, Teaching Hints, Spotting Technique s and Progression for Apparatu s Stunts. Unpublished Ooctora l dissertation, Indiana U., 1953 PE- 130 SARVER, Robert, PE - 604 STEINDLER, Arthur, Mechanics 01 Normal and Pathological Locomotion in Man. Spri ng field, III. , Chos. Thomas Pub. PE - 20 VAN ALLEN, Mart ha, An Investigation Using the Movement Exploration Approach in the Teaching of Selected Swimming and Diving Skill s. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Springfield College, 1966 PSY -'273 WICKSTROM, Ralph L AComparati ve Study 01 Methodologies lor Teaching Gymnastics and Tumbling. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, State U. of Iowa, 1952 PE - 133 ZIEGLER, Yvonne P. - PSY - 247 FILM COOPER, John, Mech anic 01 Human Movement. Universit y of Southern Califo rn ia Cinema Dept., .los Angeles, Col.

HISTORY An excellent historical source avai lable at the University of M innesota Education library is a set of two German books publ ished in l eipzig-Vienna in 1928. It is a kind of Encyclopedia of Turnen and

related activities. Mechanical analysis hod been established by 1928 and film analysis was not uncommon.

GASCH, Rudolph, Handbuch des Gesamten Turnwesens (Bond 1). A-N Leipzig-Wien, A Pichlers Witive u. Sohn(Pub.), 1928, pp. 569 GASCH, Rudolph, Handbuch des Gesamten Turnwes ens (Bond 2) O-Z Leipzig-Wien, A Pichlers Wi tive u. Sohn (Pub.), 1928 pp. 554 796.4 G2 1. EQUIPMENT FOR DEMONSTRATIONS

USGF 196 8 Men's OLYM PIC GYM NASTI C FILM J ust $1 6.00 for 400 .ft. 8mm (black & wh ite) All the top f inal rout ines of the individual Championships from the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico Cit y, ORD ER FROM : USGF Men's Olym pic Fil m P.O. Box 777 Santa Monica, Ca. 9 0406

The rea der w ill find a number of unique ideas for the demonstrati on of mechanical principles. The articles by Byer in the Modern Gymna st con tain a number of these. A chapter of Griswold's Ti ampo line Tumbling is devoted to this subject also. An instrument t o demonstrat e the low of falling bodies is found in Bunn's Scientific Principle s of Coaching. The film analysis device used by Heidlaff in devel oping his study has already been mentioned. The following refe rences also are helpful in t he demonst ra tion of pr inciples via equipmen t.

GLASSOW, R. and M. BROER, "A Convenient Apparatus for the Study of Motion Picture Film." R.Q., 9,2, 193B. Twi st Away - A conven ien t and inexpensive turntable capable of supporting a la rge man ca n be used for CG. st udy and twist in g prob-

lems. Sunlight Plastics, 1506 W. Pierce St., Milwaukee 4, Wisconsin.

ADDENDA The following refe rences come to the attention of the writer during the w r iting of t he paper.

GANSLEN, Richard, The Principles of Mechanics Use d in Gymnastics. Unpublished material from the au thor then at U. of Ar kansas in

Fayett eville. IMEl , Elizabeth, Construction of a Programmed Learning Uni" Introduction to Specil ic Mechanical Principles and Their Relationship to Selected Physical Skills. Unpublished Ooctoral dissertation, U. of Iowa, 1966, 119 pp. Students repo rted that this was on en joyable study aid. PARSONS, Howard L., Relative Effectiveness 01 Teaching Motor Learning Throu gh Tele vi sion. Unpublished Moster's thesis, U.UA, 1961, pp. 90 TRI CKER, RAR. and B.J.K. TRICKER, The Scienc e 01 Movement. l ondon . Mills and Boon, Ltd., 1966. The conten t given above should serve the reader as a starting pai nt for the development of a t horough course in t he mechanics of gymnast ics.

Submitted 1011 4/6B

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of Hamilton, Ohio. The meet was managed by Mrs. Linda Graff and George Jefferson, Iroquois coaches. Dot Steinlage, of Louisville Turners served as girls referee and Bob Wason of University of Lou isville coach, directed the boys and mens division. PARTICIPATING TEAMS, PARTICIPATING TEAMS ,

SAN JOSE STATE INVITATIONAL GYMNASTICS MEET Bob Peavy - Meet Director The 7th San Jase State Callege Inv itati onal played host to twenty west coast colleges and universities on Dec. 13, 1968. Univ. of California and San Fernando Valley State College, respective 1968 university and co llege diivsion NCAA championship teams, provided outstanding campetition for the meet. The meet's all - around champion, Rich Grigsby of San Fernando Valley, showed mid-season farm by winning the horizontal bar

Walnut Ridge High, Columbus, Ohio; Two Rivers High, Nashville, Tenn.; Hanover Gym Club, Hanover, Ind.; Indiana Stote Uni versity; Pleasure Ridge High, louisville; Lincoln School, Ken tucky; Bryon Station High, Lexington, Ky.; louisville YMCA; Ben Davis High, Indianapolis; Ea stside YMCA, Cleveland, Ohio; Iroquois High, Louisville; Koywodden, Atlanta, Ga.; Atherton High, louisville; Swiss Turners, Cleveland, Ohio; Lakewood Y, Cleveland, Ohio; Moore High, Louisvi lle; Columbus Gym Club; Thomas Jefferson High, louisvi lle; Parkersburg High, West Virginia; Jeffersonville High, Indiana; MCKinley YMCA, Illinois; Male High, Louisville; Noblesville Jr. High, Indiana; Clarksville High, Indiana; Finley YMCA, Ohio; Ashland Gym Club, Kentucky; Doss High, louisville; St. Matthew's Y, louisville; lafayette High, lexington, Ky.; Marilyn-Dennis, Hamilton, Ohio · 1st Presbyterian, Charles town,

w.va.

Temple went still further behind on Rings, with Vex ler of State coming through with a 94.5 . This was actually a dissapointment for th e crowd, who was looking for an even higher score out of Vexler. He did an inverted cross that was out of this world (See picture). Score after rings, Penn State B3.4, Temple BO.2. They stayed close throug h LH , with the only thing of note being a rhubarb aver a score. On PB, Temple started to rally, led by Weiner who turned in a 9.25, bringing the score to State 137, Temple 135. It was on HB that the pressure went on . State's men somehow started missing, and the Temple gang came through. With only Bob Eme ry left to go State needed a minimum of 8.3 to win. Now an B.3 is nothing at al l for a superlati ve gymnast like Bob, but what if he broke? Shades of last yea r's Easterns .... the crowd was on edge. Well, Emery came through. with a 9.65, and the crowd went wild. Final score, State 163.875 .... Temple 162.475. The pqrtisan Penn State crowd started chanting in unison , 'We're number one ... we're number one!' Everybody startea

Penn State this is why gymnastics at State is a major sport. We should do everything we can to encourage partisanship, rivalries, and emotional involvement on the part of the fan s. If we do ... and succeed, we may someday see our sport become just as important as baseball. A gold medal to Gene Whetstone for getting hi s fans so involved.

UCLA INVITATIONAL FEBRUARY 15th, 1969 Coach Rusty Mitchell's New Mexico University team dominated the annual UCLA Invitational to fake the top team honors and first places in 5 out of 7 events. Coach Hal Frey's Cal team from Berkeley placed second and Coach Bill Vincent's San Fernando Valley State team placed third. In the All-Around Greenfield and Diamond from Cal placed one and two with Betters from USC placing Third (Betters was ahead in the AA all the way until a slip on his last event the PBs). Events were run two at a time in team squads. Event

and rings and placing second in exercise. Minoru Morisaki, Japanese

gymnast preparing t a enter the University of California next fall, won the hearts of the fans by dominating free

exercise and pressing

Grigsby ta his 9.4 win on high bor. While the entry list averaged 37 per event, the meet was completed

in just over three hours. This "season opener" for the west coast has certainly grown in reputation and will be even BIGGER and better next year.

SECOND ANNUAL RAIDER INVITATIONAL GYMNASTIC MEET Sponsored by Iroquois High School louisville, KentucKY on Saturday, February 1 The 1969 Raider Invitational Gym· nastic Meet drew 432 gymnasts from seven states (Indiana, Illinois, Ohio, Wes t Virginia, Tennessee, Georg ia, and Ken· tucky) who competed in three divisions. Thi s marked a startling growth over last year's Raider Meet which consisted of around 200 gymnasts. Although the meet ran on schedule it has outgrown the facilities and a change in format is planned for 1970. The loui sville YMCA coptured the junior high girls division cha mpionship with Lakewood Y of Cleveland taking second and Ashland Gym Club finishi ng thi rd . Faye Hensley of Lou isville Y was top All -Around performer Jon Reeves won the All-Around trophy and led his Swiss Turners of Cleveland to the team Championship in junior boys Columbus Gym Club (Ohio) took second and Kaywadden Camp of Atlanta was third. Vero Willoughby was top Al l-Around in the high school girls division as her Ben Davis High team of Indianapolis captured the team Championship. Clarksville (Indiana) fini shed second and host team Iroquois was third. Iroquois High won the boys Championship, helped by Chris Hiller's strong finish in rings and high bar. South High of Parkersburg, West Virginia was a close second with Pleasure Ridge of Louisville third. Gene Coyle of Howe High in Indionopolis was All-Around Cham pion. Louisville Y won the women's open over Louisville Turners as Adele Gleaves took All-Around honors for the Y team The sen ior mens division was an outstanding meet as Columbus Gym Club came oway with the big trophy. Swiss Turner took second and Louisville Turners and Loui sville T tied fo r third. Spencer Gera ld of Parkersburg, West Virginia won the AI I·Around trophy. The lorge crowd was especially pleased with the tumbling exhibition of Joe Latella and John Sositka. Latella representing Columbus and Sositka of Marilyn-Denn is 2B

Raider Invitational, Chris Miller (top) and Mike Gregory (bottom) of Irwquios High School, Louisville, Kentucky ... Penn State Vs Temple , Barry Weiner (top) Temple, Bob Emery (bottom) Penn State ... UCLA Invitational , Rich Grigsby (top) SFVS, Jim Betters (bottom) Usc.

ACLOSE ONE PENN STATE·TEMPLE Report by WALT ZWICK EL What a meet i Like most Temple/State meets of recent yea rs, the pressure was on every moment. The gym was filled to the rafters with a loud, enthusiastic, highly vocal, crowd. Temple went in wi thout Pete DiFurio, who was red shirted after a double knee operation. They went in heavily favored to lose, but determined to fight like Hell. Temple's Weiner took FX w ith a 9.5 .. hitting his Arabian with his usual class. Barry could well wind up the number one FX man at the Nationals. Score after FX was State 2B.0, Temple 27.7. Penn State's Bob Emery took SH with a smash ing 9.7. Personal ly, I couldn't see where the judges could find where to deduct the .3 .... Emery just hit it so perfect that he made it look easy. Score after SH was State 55.7, Temple 53.4.

running all over the place congratulating each other, and the Temple bunch started vowing victory at the Easterns. . and they just might do it, too. The Penn State crowd: This crowd cheered, booed, moaned, groaned, oohed, aahed, and hissed ... every minute of the meet ... to the annoyance of many of the real afficiandos who particularly objected to the boos and hisses. After all, it detracts from the dignity of the sport. However, I think the crowd's reaction, hisses, baas and all was great. Let them hiss, stomp, and carry on any way they want ... it means that they are involved. It means that they care . . it means that if every crowd were this deeply emotional over a meet that gymnastics would become the number one sport. The reason for the success of major professional or college sport .. . such as baseball, football, or basketball, is because the crowd can identify with the team ... and this is what happened at the

winners were, FX- Eaton, SH-Galioto, R-Carrier, PB-Manna, LH-McConnell (all from New Mexico U.) and HB-Sanchez from Va lley State.

SUNDBY PUBLICATIONS

m

THE MODERN GYMNAST MAGAZINE

G


LETTERS NEEDS TO BE SAID Dear Glenn. You may not want to publish such a candid letter as this, but it needs to be said. I am sure that I am not the only one who feels this way. Cordially, Mike Willson Odessa College Gymnastics Coach Odessa, Texas

One Coach's Candid Reply to Two Olympians In the last few issues of the Modern Gymnast magazine two Olympians have severely criticized some of the shortcomings of the gymnastic teachers of the country. Although they are both well traveled and highly skilled, I am not certain that these two qualities necessarily qualify one to open the hunting season on all the gymnastic teachers throughout the coun,try. Criticism to b.e valuable must be constructive; if a teacher knows no other thing he almost certainly knows that pedagogical principle. Thus it appears our experts may not be heard as perhaps they would like to be because they "turned off' 1heir audience. Since they may have some words of wisdom to relate to all those concerned, it is perhaps a tragedy that they can not communicate any better than we can teach .. can teach. While I am certain that th eir issue of imp roperly taught fundamenta ls may have some substantiation, as teachers we know we are only able to reach between 60% to 80% of our class in any teaching situation , so perhaps these two fine athletes were in the 20% that we were unable to communicate with, or perhaps in their eagerness to advance and excell they skipped over the fundamentals despite the urgings of their coach to not neglect certain phases of each skill area. Besides having a communication problem with each and every group he teaches; a coach of a variety gymnas tics team also has the problem of a limited tim e period in which he can work individually with his students or team members. The average gymnastic situation has five (5) three (3) hour practice sessions a week. Thus the practice time allotted to this group adds up to fifteen (J 5) hours a week . For a squadfor fourteen gymnasts that adds up to approximately thirteen (13) minutes of complete individual attention for each gymnast each day, or one (J) hour and five (5) minutes of individuaf attention each and evelY week. Perhaps coaches are not much better off than th e average classroom teacher, unless of course they have a number of assistants. Now that problem is an excellent one for our Olympians to try and solve. The teaching profession has tried for over a century to solve similiar problems involving students. As yet they have not come up with any reasonable or usable solutions, but we certainly are openfor some suggestions. Secondly Japan is a country of 142,741 square miles, which is an area considerably smaller than Montana or California, and afewother states. It would not appear to be too difficult for the Olympic caliber Japan ese gymnast to meet weekly at a common spot to develop uniform team techniques and exchange a great deed of insight into new teaching techniques. Unfortunately our Olympic caliber gymnasts do not have a situation which is that conducive to learning new and uniform

gymnastic techniques. Another consideration is: should the goal of American Gymnastics be to win the Olympics, or is winning the Olympics a highly selective goa l related to only highly competitive gymnastics? The very successful United States swimming, track , and basketball programs do not have as their main goal to win the Olympics, rather they win the Olympics as a concomitant result ofvelY good programs with very scientific teaching techniques. The goal of winning the Olympics may be fine for a few select individuals, but how about the rest of the performers. Shou ld we as coaches discourage their participation merely because they cannot work all around or do not have the potential to be Olympic pelformers? With the number of gymnastic participants increasing daily perhaps the coaches and teachers of gymnastics are not nearly as inadequate as our two well traveled experts would lead us to believe. As to a coaches role, in which we are apparently grossly inadequate, assuming he did not have to teach seven or eight classes a week, make preparation for these same classes, grade papers, keep up to date on new material in all fie lds, and still prepare for the varsity practices , I am sure that all of the beautiful platitudes Mr. Cohen mentioned might just be possible in a 28-hour day if one had a full time secretary. We coaches could spoon-feed our gymnasts the way it was suggested, help them with their studies, solve their emotional and social conflicts, and walk them to class everyday. However, thousands of other young men and women make it through college without these valet services, and they consider it .a va luable part of their co llege education and scholastic maturation. If we are to build good solid citizens who strongly believe in our way of life and the democratic processes, perhaps we should let them learn to solve some of their own problems. In any event how about a few less interviews, and a few- more factual and scientific teaching articles to help us desperate and uniformed coaches in the country, who are not quite meeting the expectations of our Olympic caliber gymnasts . Mike Wilson, Odessa College Gymnastics Coach, Odessa, Texas

FUTURE ALL-AMERICAN Deal' Glenn, Enclosed is a photo of an outstanding AllAround Gymnast from Linton High. Mike Williams is a Junior here with B+ grades and excels as a musician. He finished 2nd in AllA round Competition in last season's Section 1/ NYPHSAA Championships as a tenth grader.

This year he won the AA title at the Christmas Invitational over many good area gymnasts. He is undefeated in the HB and FX events this year. Mike is taking the college prep course here (a program that has produced All Americans in other sports). We feel that Mike has a great future in Gymnas tics and may be our first "All American" in Gymnastics to come out of Linton H.S . Mike is 16 years old, 5'7", 1351bs. Best wishes, Steve Tierney Linton High School Schenectady, New York

GHOST HORSEMAN Dear Glenn, Enclosed you will find an interesting picture, fortheM.G . It was taken last summer by a local newspaper photographer for a story on gymnastics and our club. The gym was darkened and small lights were placed on the wrists and toes of the gymnast (myself) and the lens was left open during the entire routine, making the trails of light . Just after the Chris Keher mount a flash was set off (producing the image and ghost effect). Sincerely, Gmy Hutchison Director, Columbus Gymnastic C lub Columbus, Ohio

FIG CODE OF POINTS The F.I.G. Code of Points for Men ... 96 pages of the International Rules for men .. . all the "A-B-C parts" included. Order from the U.S.GJ., P.O. Box 4699, Tucson, Arizona 85717 . $3.50 per copy. The Official Code of Points. 29


Continued from page 1 5

atypical. Again , such knowledge about the individual gymnast's response pattern can help guide the nature of th e coach ing interac ti on. 8. How does the gymnast relate to other members of the squad? This is really self-explanatory. It is through this dimension that the greatest usable information can be gained abo ut the indivi dual athlete. 9. Many , many others too numerous to art iculate in thi s paper. In most cases gym teams are relatively small enab ling the conscie ntious coach to pay atte ntion to such cons iderations and app ly growing psychological insights about individuals to his coac hing technique with them. It is well worth the effort. It is important. to remember that the coach-gymnast interaction is a relationship , but that the coach is not a relative' Although he will become invo lved with the gymnast, he cannot allow him se lf to overidentify with the compe titor. That is, the coaches' personal success or fa ilure is not contingent on the success or failure of his gymnast. (It is interesting to note here that the mature male coach working with th e female gymnas t can often produce wonders; it would be naive not to recog ni ze that such a relationship partiall y re-creates the fatherdaughter a nd/or c lassic mal e-female constellation. The astute coach can utilize this involvement in a positive fashion. Need less to say it can also be disastrous if poorly handled or if the emotional transference is hi gh ly neurotic in character!) Many good coaches working today a lready practice , almost on an intuitive leve l, principals of psychology as suggested herein. My point is sim·ply; the more knowledge the coach can gain in this area and the more aware he can become of just what he is doing and why , the better he will be ab le to function and ass ist hi s gymnasts. I a m not suggest ing that gymnastic coaches become clinical psychologists or psychotherapists , but that they give more conscious thought and study to this aspect of their behavior as it applies to their everyday coaching. It may well be that when the young gymnasts of today protest that there is a " lack of good coaches," they may not be referring so much to technica lly incompetent instruction as they are the abse nce of men who are ab le to communicate what they know a nd demonstrate a personali zed unde rstan ding which is a deeper and possibly more important component of coaching. In summation , it is clear that psychology plays a major role in all sports. For the gy mnast and coach it can be sensitively app li ed in a meaningful way which facilitates th e enjoyment of the multiple benefits of gymnastics and even , perhaps , in the eventual achievement of real excell ·. ,lce. Continued from page 23

The mount (introduct ion ) was of no va lue deduct .3. The discussion of article 65 (even though questionab le) constituted a "e" part. This was followed by an " A" part (art. 71) as it was new to some participants but of no spec ia l value to most. No deduction s. Ano ther A part followed with I vancev ic discussing the event requirements. Deduct .2 for two successive " A" parts. Maloney followed with A "B" part for hi s lecture on form an d technique. I vancevic followed with another part without value - deduct .3. Gander suffered a .3 dedu ction fo r repetition on Long Horse lecture . T wo" A" parts fo llowed with discussion of strength and swing - deduct .1 . Discussion on exercises without dismounts earned a "B" rating and no deduction s. I vance vic discussed the SH next and the course s uffered a .4 deduction for intermediate

swing and .3 deduction for part wit hout va lue . Maloney picked up the routine with a " B" on a parallel bar practical lecture. The course finished with a low " B" which r::-:--:-:-;----;:-=-:-:--:------------, was commensurate with th e rout ine but execut- Bind Your MG Volumes ed poorly (the practica l test) a nd suffered .3 We w ill bind you r complete set of MG's in deduction. hard binding w ith your name embossed and Final score - 8.1 for entire exercise. choice of color(red,blue,green brown) for just I must point out again that much of the dis$7.50 per volume. Send your sets and specify agreemen t wit h th e course was a result of the colo r and narre imprint desired. fact that the course was geared at too Iow a SEND TO: leve l and not eno ugh interpretations we re MG BOUND EDITIONS given. At the same time the course did serve Box 777 many useful purposes. It cou ld have used a Santa Monica, Calif. 90406 question-and-answer period a lso.

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EIN.SSEN I

Modern Gymnast - March 1969  
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