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ARE YOU Receiving the latest in Natianal and International Gymnastic News, Photos, Conlpetition Results and I.nstruction far Men, Women and Children? Novice or Expert the Modem Gymnast 路is for You - So don't be an Outcast - and Don't Delnv-

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CONTENTS NOTES FROM THE EDITOR ................................................ Glenn Sundby 5 OLYMPIC RESULTS .................................................................................... 5 CHALK TALK .............................................................................................. 6 SCANDANAVIAN GYMNASTICS ................................................ John Hinds 7 BA<;:K HANDSPRING SUGGESTION ........................................ Chic Johnson 7 U.5GF DIRECTOR'S REPORT ...................................................... Frank Bare I 7 RESEARCH AND FITNESS .................................................... James S. Bosco 10 FOOD FADS vs. FOOD SCIENCE ............................................ V ic Josse lyn 11 HOW TO BE A GOOD SIDE HO RSE PERFORMER ................ Corl Patterson 12 SIDE HORE·· MOVEMENTS ............................................................ Don Tonry 14 TOKYO MEMORIES ................................................................ Larry Banner 16 WOMEN'S OLYMPIC REPORT ............................................ Vannie Edwards 18 OLYMPIC REPORT .................................................................... Bill M eade 19 OLYMPIC PHOTO ........................................................................................ 20 GYMNASTICS IN' PHYSICAL EDUCATION ........................A. B. Frederick 22 SCHEDULE F.I.G. DEDUCTIONS ........................................ A. B. Frederick 24 SOKOL GYMNASTIC FESTIVAL .............................................. Paul Leb loch 25 NORTHERN CALIFORNIA GYM CAMP ........................................ Irvin Faria 25 GYM F ITN ESS ................................................................ Margo ret Korondi 26 MEET CHECK LIST ................................................................ Glenn Wilson 28 GYM SNAPS ................................................................................................ 29 TRAMPOLINING ...................................................................... Jess Robin son 30 CONNECTICUT REPORT ........................................................ John Brodeur 32 VIC SAYS ............................................................... ................... Vic Josselyn 35 LETTERS ........................................................................................................ 36

COVER: Collecting a nd swapp ing National Pins is a friendly competitive event at all National and Internat ional gather ings. Thr ough the years coaches and sports enthusiasts. take pr ide in this wor ld w ide hobby and look forward to each meeting in anticipation of what new and outstandi ng pins they can add to t heir co ll ections. Some have close to a th ousand pins. Hundreds of different pins were available in T okyo, however the. true collector is v ery prudent and selectiv e and becomes a real horse trader when it comes to pin swapping and will seemi ng ly go to any length t o obtain a rare or special p in add t o his collect ion. Pictured here are just a few that were given t o you r Ed itor during t he Tokyo Ol ym pics wh ich we felt. wou ld make an interesti ng cover and perhaps stim ulate a few M.G . r eade rs w ith a desire to join in t h is h igh ly competitive hobby.


Publi sher GLENN SUNDBY -

A. BRUCE FREDERICK Educa ti on Editor


DR . JAMES S. BOSCO Research Editor


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THE M ODER N GYMNAST is pub lished hy Amer ican Ph ys ica l Filness Resparch InstilLil e, Inc., 410 Broadway, Santo Monica, Callfornio. Second clo~s po stage paid ot Son to MUlli ca, (oli f. Publi shed monthly except June, Augu st and Oc toher which orc cO llllllned wilh the previou s month's issue. Price $4.50 per yea r , 50c smg le copy . S Uh~crlp l ilill co rl c~pulldcncc. THE MODERN GYMNAST, P. O. Box 6 11 ,· ~an to M O IlI CO,

Col of " 'Jl'o. Copyrogh! 1964 by AMFRICAN PHYSICAL FITNESS RE SEARCH INSTITUTE , IN C . , 410 Hroudwuy. Sontu MWlIca , Co lif u rrll o. All pi c ture s Oild l11allu sc rlpl~ :-.uh milled heclIllle the proper t y I II litE M ODERN GYM NA ST 11l1lcs:-. '.LdllC


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OLYMPI C OBSERVATIONS : At one time Ol' other I guess we all do a little "Monda y m orning Quarterbacking" or Just Supp ose" . Well that's what yo ur editor did while fl yin g back on the plane from Tokyo, a bit of "Suppose'n ." An IBM machine could not handle all of the probabilities that flash through one's mind in such a situation , ho wever here are just a couple for yo ur perusal. Suppose .. . Endo had not goofed on his last All-Around event the side horse and had received a score in the high 9's, he would have been the first All-Around performer to total over 116 .00 in Olympic Competition .. . or Suppose .. . Endo had received below 8.8 the missed exercises could have warranted. There would have been another first in Olympics .. . A three way tie for first place in All-Around . .. Suppose . . . Our USA Side Horse judge had been a little more experienced internationally and of stronger personality whereby he could have been the top judge more often on the USA's team scor es and help bring up the average to what they deserved , even .a fraction more would have put Art Shurlock in the finals with a chance for a medal . . . Suppose Rusty Mitchell had not been laid up with a spider bite infection for a couple of da ys which was lanced only the day before the competition in order for him to compete which might have accounted for the very slightest bit of unsureness in his compulsory Floor Exercise routine giving him better score to go with his 9.7 optional score and a chance to get in the finals with a shot at the F. Ex. Gold Medal. (Rusty did a double back sommi mount, the first in Olympic histor y and struck it solid ). Suppose .. . The USA had had a coach with International experience, instead of just " a nice guy" and a manager who wo uld have helped to whip them into a team instead of just a collection of top talented Gymnasts that got lost somewhere along the way, ending up in seventh place instead of a sure fourth place or better which they were well capable of doing . . . J UST SUPPO SE . . . Do not have time or heart to carry this into the individual instances or the women's unfortunate situation of not having a manager or coaching assistant capable of h~lpin g the team to be a team .. .




GYMNAESTRADA: The big International event for 1965 is the 4th Gymnaestrada which will be held in Vienna, July 20th through 25th. The USGF is planning a special Tour for this great event . .. We hope to be there to cover the action for the M.G. and to see many M.G. reader s who are USGF member s also on hand for this wonderful Gymnastic Festival. .;.;.



SUBSCRIPTIONS: As yo u can see by the impressive list of coaches and individuals on the opposite page, many have taken up the M.G. Challenge to reach the goal of 10,000 subscribers. As we go to p ress our current total was brought up to 5,978 by subscriptions rolling in from Russ Pierce, Calif. (10); J erry Stansbury, Arizona, ( 11 ); and Ernest Furblur, New York, ( 11 ). We are about to go over the 6,000 mark which will mean an award for someone ... it co uld be yo u. We have a long way to go yet but if everyone will get just one other subscriber we will reach our goa l early in '65 ... HOW AB OUT IT ? DID YOU GET ONE YET? .;:.



OLYMPIC SPECIAL: Next edition will be our Olympic report in full . Leading off with a color cover of All路Around Champion Yukio Endo painted by a famous Japanese artist especially for the Modern Gymnast magazine. Plus the complete results and placings of every performer in every event (this I gotta see) and the winning and top routines of the final s.

MISS MICHIGAN Sally Noble, a young lady who has spent about five years in gymnastics, has attained a crown so ught after by many girls. Th e officials have stated that the poise, grace, and agility developed from gymnastics were important fact ors in her victory. She did an acrobatic- ballet routin e for her 'talent presentation. Sally received her training at Michigan State University und er George Szyp ula , as a member of the Acrobat's Club. Sally 's gymnastic career began when her Junior High School Physical Education InSally N ob le,

SOKOL STAMP The United States Government through its Post Offi.ce paid tribute to the many con tributions the Sokols made to America through its physical fitn ess program at the occasion of the 100 years of existence of the movement in the country, by having the P6stmaster General unveil the official de路 sign of the Sokol stamp which will be issued next year. The impress ive ceremonies were conducted in the Post Offi ce Auditorium in Washin gton, D.C. on October 27th before an audience of government officials and Sokols from many parts of the United States.

GRADUATE ASSISTANTSHIP The Arnold College Division, of the University of Bridgeport, announces a graduate assistantship in physical education for the 1965-66 school year for a man or a w.oman who has a B.S. degree, with a major in physical education, and who is desirous of working toward an M.S. degree, with a major in physical education. Thirty-two semester hours of tuition and fees are covered, as well as a stipend of $800 being paid. Duties will entail teaching in the basic instruction programs, assisting in intramural responsibilities, and providing leadership to a gymnastic club that we hope will develop into either a competitive or exhibitiona.l gymnastic team. Interested candidates should contact Dr. David A. Field, Director, Arnold College Division, University of Bridgeport, immediately. (Bridgeport 4, Connecticut) .


structor, Miss Finchbaugh, recom mended she join the Acrobats' Club at Michigan St~te University. That started her on a gymnasti cs career six years ago. She was only able to work out an average of an hour once a week. Her seven year background in ballet, under Virgiline Simmons in Lansing, track, and general sports ability enabled her to make rapid progress despite irregular ~ork .out.s at Michigan State. She competed III Michigan Association meets winning several firsts. She won fir sts in competition at the National Summ er Gymnastic Clinic at Michiga n State University and the National Gymnasti c Clinic in Florida.

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lVIalmahed 1964

SCANDINAVIAN GYMNASTICS 1964 By JOHN W. HI NDS, JR. DUrin g the summ er of 1964 whil e studyin g Scandinavian Physical Edu cation at the lnt ernational S ummer School in Oslo, Norway, thi s author became cognizant of the importance and significance of gym nasti cs in Scandinavia. In the schools, gymnastics appears to' be the nucleus of the physical education program with track and fi eld , skiing, orientee rin g, soccer, hand ball, and various other sports completing the program. From the tim e a student enters school until he leaves, he progresses through the basics of gymnastics. At the school level, gy mnastics does not consist of apparatus work. R ather it consists of exercises and stunts that lead to better coordina ti on, body tone, and body development, accord in g to physiologi cal p rinciples. Poise, grace and form which the students atta in during the program is derived mainly from va ultin g, tumbling, and fr ee exercise movements. Th ere is no co mpetiti on on the gymnasium (high school ) level. All competition is on th e cl ub level. These clubs are organized in the various areas by young and old alike. The cl ubs work with the respective loca l schools in obtainin g equipment and by using their fa cili ti es during the evenin g hours. Badges and awards are given cl ub members as incentive for their work , accordin g to their performances. At Frogn er Park, ilL Oslo, one can see th e members of a club working out during the evening hours. In the open air they perform giants on a hi gh bar, tumble in a sawdust pit, balance on a balan ce beam , and generally work in earnest on the variou s gymnastic events. With such a program from school years to club participat ion, it can easily be obser ved that gymnastics is a way of life that Scandinavians enjoy. T he em phasis on winn ing becomes secondary to th e values in body development and to the pure enjoyment of the activity. Such carry-over va lues in lerm s of physical fitn ess and sport participation are desirable end s of any phy-

sical education system such as we in fhe Un ited States have recently initiated. The club program is supplemented with gymnastic camps. Malmahed Gymnastic Camp in Sweden is a prime exam ple of such a camp. The author had the privilege of vi siting this camp for three days and was indeed thrilled by its operation. From this model gymnastic camp the United States Gymnastic Federation and individual gymnasts could learn much. A total of one-hundred and ten elite gymnasts, forty junior junior gymnasts, and thirty coaches were present from Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finl and , Canada and England. The camp, lastin g one week, revolves around two scheduled workouts eacl! day, . nine a.m. to noon and three p.m. to ' fiv e p.m. The parti cipan ts are divided into groups under resp ect ive coaches who work with them for the entire week as they rotate periodically from apparatus to apparatus. In addition to the planned workoutI', gymnasts are encouraged to work with their coaches on their own durin g the fre e time. Workouts are conducted under shelter ' and in the open, creating a cond ucive atmosphere for all. Much enthusiasm was sho'<j1n by the gymnasts in every part of the program. The camp ended with Olympic trials for the Swedish team. All camp participants lived on the camp grounds in dormitories an date together in a common mess hall. Evening activities of dancing and sin ging helped in creatin g a. wholesome environment for the camp. Each morning a fl ag raisin g ceremony for the co untries represented initiated the day. Two important gymnastic hints were observed. Number one was the importance of a ri gid, straight body, without arch, in perform in g giants, back-ons, dislocates, etc. The Swedish had just picked up this technique from the Japanese team. Thus the development of the stomach and back muscles become essential for the gymnast. Hint two involved the use of sponge rubber pieces in a pit below the horizontal bar serving as a safety fa ctor for the learnin g of dismounts. With camps of this nature and clubs throughout the Scandinavian Countries; the calib er of their gymnasts is ever improving an d enthusiasm for gy mnastics remain s high. Is there not a lesson for us to learn ?

Gymnastic Coach, Chico State College This movement, although very simpl e, causes a gymnast more fru stratin g mom ents, heartache, and disappointment than a lm ost any other sin gle move. If the tri ck is in troduced at an early age and via intelli gent progression there is never any pro bl ~ m, but for an individual to first encount er tlus move as a lat er adolescent, or when tryin g to correct a faulty back hand-sp rin g as a result of improper coa chin g, th en specifi c problem s ari se. First, suffi cient flex ibilit y has to h e asce rtained ,second ly the perform ers mental "picture" of th e move and proper concen trati on must be establ ished. Faults common to improperly thrown back handsprings are under-cuttin g, ( in su ffi cient backward momentum or leaning forward) and lookin g over one shoulder, resulting in a twistin g motion of the body. Two techniques th at have proven excep tionally successf ul in com batin g these major fault s are: (1) teaching back hand spring wi th a blindfold on. Strangely enough thi s works particularly well with individuals who have a jear of the move, or who find them selves landing too heavily. With the blindfold on the performer has nothing to distract their attention and as the back hand spring is easy to spot, they have confiden ce in thei r spotters. The result is they throw a me chanically correc t hack handspri ng. This techninue has been employe d with 路 excellent results over the past two years with high school and college students who " just co uldn 't get the feel of the move." Durin g thi s past summer Inez Caon also experimented with the blindfold and found herself landin g lighter than ever befor, and introducd it in her workshop instruction at the University of Oregon with great success. (2) When gymnasts see m to lose th e back hand spring after havin g thrown it a number of times successfully , excellent results may be entertained by hav in g th em preceed th e back handspring with a forward roll. This places them in fin e position for th e throw, and contrary to the other technique, does not allow them too much time for concentration . It appears, with this type of performer, that they "psyche out," and becau se they know th e proper position and correct throw, it is well to force them into the move, lettin g them rely on a previously establish ed natural habit pattern. This works well throwing a roundoff before the back handsprin g too , if the performer has a good roundoff. In teaching beginners who are havin g difficulty, or performers who consistently undercut their back handspring I recommend the first technique; for those who are dropping a shoulder, resulting in a partial twist, the second technique is recommended.


"Dues" . . . Active College Coaches _... $2.00 per year All others (Assoc iate) __ ._ .... $1.00 per year All paid members recei v e the new N .A .C.G.C. lapel pin. SEND DUES TO: ' Mr. Sam Bailie Sect-Trea s. NACGC 2 145 Calle Po lar Tucson , Arizona ' Make checks payable t o N.A.C.G.C.


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TOKYO ... and the XVIII OLYMPIAD ... are now his路 tory. The Japanese were the most gracious hosts imaginable : : . and the games were well-run and conducted in the most beautiful settings possible. All the superlatives we can conjure up are appropriate. The United States swimmers, and track and field athletes and basketball players and even the exhibition baseball team over there contributed to the picture of "greatnes~ in sp.orts" that has become the American image. Up untIl the tIme the gymnastics competition beO'an the United States was leading in total accumulated medals. There are some 42 medals (G old, Silver & Bronze ) in gymnastics .. . and the USS R walked away with about 19 of them and th~ U.S .A. . . . absolutely none. It's been thirty-two years smce 'we won a gold medal in our sport. We sent the finest possible team to Tokyo ... of that there can be no doubt . . . from our vantage point they were the third ?est group of gymnasts in the competition but they finIshed s~venth . Not one of our officials (AAU) voiced a complamt when the USA team members were obviously under路scored . Who's on whose side?






IT'S THAT TIME OF THE YEAR AGAIN! The WISCONSIN OPEN . . . always one of the nation's largest open championships is slated for February 20th, 196~ .. Last years meet had seven divisions and nearly 500 partIcIpants. The 1965 version of this outstandinO' event will be held at Brookfield East High School . .. '" and is U.S.~.F . Sanctioned. For good competition and one of the fl~est gy~nastic events held each year plan now on attendmg. Wnte: Mr. Joe Wenzler, Walker Junior High School, 1712 S. 32nd Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.






THE WESTERN GYMNASTICS CLINIC .. . the nation's largest and best! . . . will swing into action on December 26th an~ n~n five days. Send your registrations in early and arnve m sunny Tucson early for a real vacation where the sunshine spends the winter. The EAST vs. WEST ALL-STAR meet is on again and coaches are all worked up about the first coaches golf tournament! I wonder if there is any. co,rrelation between swinging around a high bar and swmgmg a golf club? For information wrjte .: Mr. Sam Bailie, 2145 Calle Polar, Tucson, Arizona. SPECIA,L NC?T~: Mr. G~orge Bauer, Gymnastic coach, U. of Wlsconsm IS the selection chairman for the East Team fo~ the East-West Meet at the Western Gymnastics Clinic thIS year. Gymnasts from the East wishinO' to compete in this competition please contact George Ba~er at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin.

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Keep yo ur eyes peeled for the following . . . . ~'-





TH E NORTH AMERICAN OPEN . .. three co untries and a great event slated for early 1965 in Los Angeles. Watch the M.G. and the U.S.G.F. Newsletter for final words on this one. TH E WORLDS TRAMPOLI NE CHAMPIONS HIP . . . also planned for ea rl y 1965 will be covered by the M.G. and the U.S.G.F. THE 1965 U.S.G.F. NATIONAL OPEN CHAMPIONSHfP ... is set for David Lipscomb College at Nashville, Tenn. . . . April 16-17th. Many inquiries have already been received . . . compulsories and final rules will be read y on J an~ary 1st. THE U.S.G.F. AGE-GROUP WORKBOOK contains the nation's first age-group gymnastics program. Compulsory routines and stick fi gures for boys and girls from ages 6 through high school. $2.00 ... and let's all get behind this program and have many thousands of youthful gymnasts who can perform basic compulsory routines . . . send to: U.S .G.F . PO Box 4699, Tucson, Arizona. Gymnastics faces a critical evaluation in the United" States at this time. It is difficult to understand why the U.S .A. is so advanced in many sports and so completely out of the running in gymnastics. This nation has long needed a unified national effort aimed at promoting and developing this great sport of ours. We have such an organization as has been needed now and it grows daily. The U.S.C.F. can definitely improve our performances by 1968 and will . . . despite the fact that the biggest handicap we must face is rediculous and completely unj ustified criticism from the AAU. It should be more obvious to the AAU than ever before that their system of "control" and "only control" is out dated, completely obsolete and indefensable. If we are to judge from their handling of the events in Japan in October . .. it should be the AAU that pleads with other existing organizations for help in correcting a national deficiency . . . yet they _play that same old broken record ... "we are the governing body of" ... and that's a good question for the AAU to answer if they can . . . governing body of what?






U.S.G.F. AWARDS SYSTEM now includes medals for every event with the events shown on the medals. Two divisions of awards . .. one for Class "A" and one for "FLITE" and one special set that will be available only for the USGF NATIONALS . We'll soon be carrying a picture story on these awards and a rather unique feature that they have . .. so watch the M.G. for this new series of USGF Gymnastics Awards. +:.



" KIl) NAPPED-one meeting" In the AAU's first effort in modern history to publish a gymnastics news . . . (we wonder where they got the idea) it is shameful to note that they started Vol. I, No. 1 with a gross misrepresentation. They show an AAU-FIG J UDGES COURSE (or clinic of sorts) and list quite a few prominent coaches from the East as being in attendance. We have been mailed a copy of the announceemnt for that meeting and it appears that it was the normal, annual Fall meeting of the college coaches of the Eastern Intercollegiate Gymnastics League and associated officials . .. and 10 and behold they had their meeting stolen from them. O~ly obvious AAU connection we can spot is the meeting was conducted by an AAU worker . . . the gymnastics coach at West Point, because it was he who attended the FIC judO'in a course in Switzerland this year. '" '"







20. - 24. 7. 106:;



USGF PLANS EU ROPE 165 VIENNA GYMNAESTRADA THE 4th A J JUAL GYMNAESTRADA in Vienna keys the USGF European Tour for 1965. USGF members will be participating actively Ilnd as spectators in this great -event which will host over 8,000 gymnasts from all over the world from July 20th thru 24th. A special fli ght has been arranged for a low cost USGF European Gym tour and vacation ... USGF GYM JAESTRADA SPECIAL: Flight to Europe from Chicago leaving approximately July 15th, 1965 including accommodations in Vienna plus tickets for the Gymnaestrada and the return fli ght from Europe to Chicago on August 30th ... $395.00. (A Special price has been arranged for USGF Members leaving from the West Coast of just $495.) EUROPEAN TOURS At the conclusion of the Gymnaestrada you will have your choice of three different full five week tours of Europe with all accommodations at special USGF prices of $450-$4.95, or you will have the option of touring Europe on your own and joining the group for the return flight to Chicago on August 30th, 1965.

TOUR "A": COACHES SPECIAL. Vienna plus VISitS to schools and camps in Switzerland, Germany, Denmark, Norway and Sweden with sightseeing stopovers in major cities and picturesque places of interest along the way (the applications will be limited, so sign up early.) ... $450.00.





TOUR "B" : CENTRAL EUROPE. Vienna plus Switzerland and all the Picture villages throughout central Europe including Paris. (This tour for the easy going sightseer. ) ... $475.00.





TOUR "C": SOUTHERN EUROPE. Vienna Gymnaestrada plus Italy, Mediterranean, Spain and France. (This is for the more active tourist, who want to send more post cards home from more places.) ... $495.00.

* * * * FOR FULL DETAILS WRITE TO: USGF Europe Gym Tour Director.





FOR FULL DETAILS WRITE TO: USGF Europe Gym Tour Director P.O. Box 611 Santa Monica, California 9

RESEARCH AND FITNESS James S. Bosco, Ph.D. San Jose State College

This is the first of a series of articles dealing with the effects oj participation in gymnastics activities on cardiovascular variables. Very little experimental research has been attempted in this area. The writer is familiar with the research done at the University of Illinois and will attempt to review these studies. Please forward material from other sources directly to the R esearch and Fitness Editor. BELL, Harry H. Jr. "The Effects of Gymnastics on the Cardiovascular Condition of Boys", Urbana; Unpublished M. S. Thesis, University of Illinois, 1958. Pp. 64

PROBLEM The problem of the st udy was to determine the effects of participation in tumbling and trampoline work on the cardiovascular condition of young boys as measured by the Schneider Test. METHOD The sin gle group experimental research method ,was used. When using this method , a singl e group is tested, the experimental factor is then introduced and the group is then retested. The subj ects included twelve boys ranging in age from five to eleven. They participated in the gymnastics program one day a week for approximately on e and one-half hours. The program continued for approximately eight months. PROCEDURE & SCOItING METHOD FOR THE SCHNEIDER TEST The subject reclines for five minutes, after which 1. The h eart rate is counted for twenty seconds. When two con路 secutive twenty second counts are the same, this is multiplied by three and recorded. 2. The" systolic pressure is taken by ausculation and recorded. Take two or three readings to the be certain. 3. The subj ect then rises 'lmd stands for two minutes to ailow the pulse to assume a uniform rate. When two consecutive fift een second co unts are the same, multiply by fout and record. This is the 'normal standing rate. 4. Standing pulse minus the reclining pulse gives the increase on standin g. 5. The systolic press ure is taken as before and recorded. 6. Timed by a stopwatch, the su bject next steps upon a chair 18% inches high five times in fifteen seconds. To make this uniform , th e subjects stand with one foot on the chair at the count one. The foot remains on the chair and is not brought to the floor again until after the completion of five steps. At each cou nt he brings the other foot on the chair and at the co unt " down" replaces it on the floor. This should be timed accura tely so that at the fifteen-second mark on the stopwatch both feet are on the floor. 7. Start co untin g the pulse immediately at the fifteen-second mark on the stopwatch and count for fifteen seconds. Multiply by four and record. ''8. Continue to' tak'e the pulse in fifteen-second counts until the rate has reiurned to the normal standing rate. Note the number of seconds it takes for this to return and record. In computin g t'hi s return, count from the end of the fifteen seconds of exercise to the beginning of the first normal fifteen-second pulse count. If th e pulse has not returned to normal at th e end of two minutes, record the number of beats 10

above normal and dl scolH inue co untin g. 9. Ch eck up points and路 enter final ratin g. 10. Enter history of case, includin g amount of slee p, tim e since last mea l, any persona l worries or any pathological condition which might affec t the subj ect's condition. RESULTS AND CO TCLUS IO S 1. On e of the twelve subj ects mad e a signifi ca nt improve ment in the lyin g pu lse rate va riabl e. Half of the subj ects mad e some improvement. 2. Half of the subjects improved in standing pulse rate, but non e was signifi cant. 3. Two subj ects mad e signifi can t improvemen t in lyin g systolic blood pressure. 4. Two subj ects made significant improve ment in standin g systolic blood pressure. 5. Half the subj ects had more stable blood pressures at the en d of th e traiDing peri od when comparin g standin g and lyin g sys路 tolic blood pressure. 6. One subj ect made significa:p.t improvement in pulse rate increase upon standing. Seven others improved but not significantly. 7. Five subj ects had pulse rate return to normal more quickly but the changes were not significant. 8. Eight subj ects improved the overall Schn eider score hut , aga in, th e changes were not significant. 9. When the group mean differences for all of the variables were compared, no sign ifi cant chan ges were obtained. TABLE I PRE-SEASON AND POST-SEASON COMPARISON OF SCHNEIDER TEST VARIABLES For Entire Group Significance



Lying PR 87.0 102.0 Standing PR Lying systolic 97.8 blood pressure Standing systolic 94 .5 blood pressure PR increase just lB.7 after exercise T ime of recovery to normal after Schne ider Test 55 S. Score taken from Schneider Table 6.6 , NS Means Nat Significant

7.82 11.49

-3.5 .8

83.5 102.B

Level of' CR




.477 .069



-4. 1





-4 .3

7. 14








-5 . S.







50 S.




Reclining Pulse Rate Rate


Po ints

50-60 -_ .... ......... .. 3 61-70 3 71-80 2 81-90 .-...... _._. _____ 0._._. __ I 91-100 .. -... _-0 101 - 110 --_ .. __ ..._--.".--- .. - -I C.

Standing Pulse Rate Rate



Return of Pulse Rate to Standing Norma l After Exercise

11-18 beats,


po ints

3 3 3 2 I 0

60-70 -- ........................ 3 71-80 3 81-90 ....... _- ......... ---.--_. 2 91-100 ........---- ............ I 101-110 ............ -------- .. I 11 1-120 ................ ---.-- 0 121-130 ............. -.. --- ... 0 131-140 .............. -.- ... -I E.

Pulse Rate Increase on Standing 0-10 beats,


3 2 2 I 0 -I

35-42 beats, poi nts

27-34 beats,

19-26 beats, poi nts


2 1 0 -I -2 -3

1 0 -1 -2 -3 -3

0 -1 -2 -3 -3 -3

Pulse Rate Increase Immediately After Exercis e 0-10 beats, points

11-20 beats, po ints

3 3 3 2 I I 0 0

3 2 2 I 0 -I -2 -3

21-30 beats, points

2 1 I 0 -1 -2 -3 -3

31-40 beats,


41 -50 beats, points

I 0 0 -1 -2 -3 -3 -3

0 0 -I -2 -3 -3 -3 -3

Standing Systolic B.P. Compared with Reclining Systolic B.P.

Seconds Poi nts 0-30 ....................... ...... .............. 3 31 -60 ......................... _........ ........ 2 6 1-90 .......................................... 1 9 1- 120 ..................... .................. 0 After 120: 2- 10 bea ts above normal. ............... -1 After 120: 11-30 beats above normal ................ -2

Change in Mm. Paints Rise of 8 or more .................... 3 Rise of 2 to 7 .......... _............ _ 2 No Rise ........................... ........... I Fall of 2 to 5 ....................... _.... 0 Fall of 6 or more .................... - 1

The author concluded that the gymnastics program did not have the desired effect on the cardiovascular路 condition of young boys, as measured by the Schneider Test. He offered the opin ion that the type of activity involved in his study was not continuous enough to improve cardiova scul ar fitn ess measurably.




by Vic Josselyn Why No t Be Your Own Nutriti on Scienti st ? Wh en 1 was a boy th ere was som e excuse for food fad dism, and even " macfaddi sm". !'I I odern sc ientifi c nutrition had not ye t ap · peared. Th e so uthern stat es were full 'lf pell agra becau se no one knew it was ca used by a la ck of the vi tamin niacin. In fa ct, no one suspected th ere wa s such a thin g as vitamins- pellagra was conside red to bf' an infecti on. We were so ignorant of nu trition th at during tbe fir~ t world war II leauin g military man didn ' t wa nt th e a rm ed forces to have milk becau se he didn't want to make " milk so ps" out of th em. Few peo pl e paid mu ch att enti on to nutr iti on until thl" faddi sts ca me alon g (w ith so methin g tu sell ) and claimed th ey could make supermen out of us. We boys who wanted to build mu scles wc re prett y easy suckers for that , and tried th em all. and did ourselves considerabl e damage. But sin ce that tim e ,hun dreds of th ousand s, in fact ma ybe milli ons, of ex trcmel y delicate laborat ory tests have been macl e on anim als and hum an bein gs, 'seek in g all th e esse ntial element s in food s, ancl th e best foods to ge t them from. Then th e rcsuit s have been tri ed out on entire popula· ti on groups. For exa mple, there was a tremend ous am ount of beriberi in the Phillippin es, and th e sc ientists di scovered th at it was du e to a lack of some food element, whi ch .in tim e they isolated and called it B· vitamin. Chemi sts then broke it down and id entifi ed it as thiamine, and lea rn ed to sy nth es ize it in th e labora tory. Th en th ey enr iched rice with syn theti c th iam ine, and suppli ed just the penin sula of .Bataan wi th thi s enrich ed rice , letting other peo pl e in the Phi lip pin es ea t as they had been doin g. And within one year , beriberi di sappeared from Bataa n, while it was as preval ent as ever in th e oth er part ~; of the island s. Th e experiment wa s proven, the case was closed . Over 50 essential food elements have now been isolated, the bes t so urces of each discovered, our needs under varied circumstan ces determin ed, and many of them syn· thesized so we can use them as suppl ement s if we do not care to bother with a wellround ed diet. The science of nutrition ha s been so in cred ibl y refined that "Meals for Million s" now suppli es a bal an ced di et for 3c a day. Yet, amazin gly, fo od fad s are again on the upswin g, with utter disregard for th e science of nutrition. Again there are faddists (with so methin g to sell) who claim they have discovered super-foo d that cures everything from baldn ess to flat feet, and everyth in g between, includin g mali gnant neo plasms (as the many diffe rent types of ;rrow ths which we used to lump under "cancer" are now li sted in th e International Li st of Diseases). Th ey do no laboratory work, wouldn't know how to isolate a sin gle food essential , have no proof- they just claim , and th ey will say anythin g. I noted an amusin g, and eq uall y amazin g, exa mpl e of that a few years ago. Th ere was an illlmensely popul ar H ollywood food faddist who wrot e a book pushin g a screwball "mi rad e" di et. He go t so popular that he had a sy ndi ca ted column in the papers, and in one he wrote an exc itin g blurb about ge ttin g so me " in sid e dope" smu ggled out of one of the Iron Curt a in cap tive co untri es-to the

effeci that a ca pti ve scientist named Szent Gyorgy i (St. Geo rge in En glish ) had ju ~ t discovered vitamin P , and that it was of I rf' mend ous signifi can ce, and he would publi sh more as soon as it could be smuggled out. As a matter of actual fa ct, vitamin P was discovered way back in 1936, an d had long been chemically id entified as citrin , an d is so in significant that to this day there a re no kn ow n requirements for a nor mal indi vidual- th ough it has · medical uses in some hemorrhagic conditi ons. Furtherm ore, Gyo rgy i was not a cap ti ve behind the Inlll Curtain - he was a well·kn ow n nutritional resea rch sc ientist in the United States. And all of thi s material was rea dil y availahl e in any standard tex tbook on nutntlOn. My hroth er di scussed Vitamin P in one of his book s as ea rly as 1941. On e of the grave dan ge rs of th e new breed of food faddi sts (who have someIhin g to sell, let me repeat aga in ) is that they have modern food science to di stort int o pse ud o-science. The old type of medicin e man just shou ted louder and l o ud ~ r Ihat hi s concoction would cure warts, snakehit e. hydrophob ia ancl hee biejee bies. But nowada ys everyon e has heard about such thin gs as vitamins, so the medi cin e man prostitu tes the scientifi c facts by sellin;! super· vi tamin foods-o n the theory tha t if one vitamin is good for yo u, ten vitamins are ten tim es as good for you. Most unfortun ately, even th e so-call ed " reputabl e" drup: co mp an ies have taken advanta gf' of

thi s opportunity and built up a da ngerous and expen sive vitamin racket. Th e other day I noted a hi ghly adverti sed vit amin pill which contained up to 12 times as mu ch of som e of th e vitamin s as you need, and the price was 14 times as mu ch as another produ ct whi ch provid es the proper daily needs of the vitam in s. But peo pl e go ri ght on swallowin g the theory that if mea t i ~ good for yo u, a ton of it would work miracles. Fortunately, th e amount of mea t one can ea t is limit ed. But in one swallow a pcrson ' can take a th ousand tim es hi s vitamin needs-and kill himself. Yea rs ajl;O I r~ ­ member several arctic explorers dyin g from eating polar bear liver , and the theory developed that it · was poison. Now we kn ow it is iu st too rich in vitamin A. Prob ably there will always be peo pl e who rath er believe in mira cles than exercise their !load sense. That is cert a inly th eir privilege. But those who do want to exercise th eir goo d sense, and do not want tu be taken in (at a good price), should not be vi ctimized for lack of a very little, and very simpl e, knowledge. There is a very simpl e way to kn ow what food elemen'5 you need, how much of each , and wh ere to <Yet th em- as determined by the co mbin ed ~on sideration of all the best food scientists in th e entire lUorld, based upon million s of laboratory experim ents, and studies of populations over th e world running to billions of people . u

RECOMMENDED DIETARY ALLOW.ANCES Food & Nutritio n Boord Nat ional Research Counc il




Average man, 154 # Sedentory Moderately ac ti ve Ve ry active Average woman, 123 # Sed entary Moderately acti ve Ve ry active Pregnant 4months Lactation Children (infants, medical 4 -6 y rs. (42 #) 7-9 yrs. (55#) 10-12 yrs. (75 #) Adolescents Girls 13-15 yrs. (108#) 16-20 yrs. (119 #) Boys 13- 15 yrs. (103 # ) 16-20 yrs. (141 #) THIS can 't appl y store

V1. £



cD E E'u 0-





0. :::c .- 0




'" c'

E'0 >




E 0


"'< Eu




.2'"u =0




.-"'~ 0 =u









.-c= .t0 ::J>

2,500 3 ,000 4,500

70 70 70

0.8 0.8 0.8

12 12 12

5,000 5 ,000 5 ,000

1.2 1.5 2 .0

1.6 2.0 2.6

12 15 20

75 75 75

400 400 400

2, 100 2,500 3,000 2,500 3,000 care) 1,600 2,000 2,500

60 60 60 85 100

0.8 0.8 0.8 1.5 2. 0

12 12 12 15 15

5,000 5,000 5 ,000 6 ,000 8 ,000

1.1 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.0

1.5 1.6 2.0 2.5 3.0

11 12 15 18 20

70 70 70 100 150

400 400 400 800 800

50 60 70

1.0 1. 0 1.2

8 10 12

2,500 3,500 4,500

0.8 1.0 1.2

1.2 1.5 1.8

8 10 12

50 60 75

400 400 400

2,600 2,400

80 75

1.3 1.0

15 15

5 ,000 5,000

1.3 1.2

2.0 1.8

13 12

80 80

400 400

3,200 3 ,800

85 100

1.4 1.4

15 15

5,000 6 ,000

1.5 1.8

2.0 2.5

15 18

90 100

400 400







:.= 0 :-=..0


:t: . c::t::

IS YOUR KEY TO SCIENTIFIC NUTRITION. You can't eat any super-duperer because yo ur body use it, and may be harmed by it, if you figu re a lot more is a lot better . .AII you need to this chart of recommended all owances is any standard textboo k on nutrltlan-yo ur baak or li brarian can supply you . It will contain a lengthy table of the compos ItI on of foods .

With pencil and paper you can put down what you ate today, and the amount o f minerals, v lt<;Jmln s,

etc., your food suppl ied . (The tables are calculated in 100-wam portions (3Y2 .ou nces), conSIdered an a ve rage serv ing.) If yo u did not get an y milk you will fInd that yo u dId no t .get . enough ca lc ium. If you did not get one o f the acid fruits (citrus, strawberries, etc.). you will find . yau did not get enough vitamin C. And so o n. You will di scaver that there IS practIcally no v Itamin D in foods-your body is supposed t o manufacture it, but must have some sunshine t o do so. It IS easy t o get that at the store. And you need iodized salt for iodine. You need traces o f other VItamIns, bu t on a good a verage American diet deficiencies of these vitamIns do not occu r. If you do not wa nt to bother figur ing vitamins, you can get v i-Jon's Daily Multiple Vitamins at man y grocery sto res, 100 tablets for one do llar--a penny a day. These are the right dasage for diet,?r y. supp lement . Higher dosages may be necessary for therapeutic

re'Qsons when


ha v~



or impairments, but that is a problem for your doctor . But remember that a . v ItamIn supplement is no excuse for not eating a b road and varied dIet . A dentIst of ':Iy acquaIntance fell for the t ood fad s, and put his g row ing adolescent nephew on a fad dIet. I fIgured hIS calcIum . Intake--It was 1/ I 0 of requirements. If you must be a food faddist , laok Into nutrit Ional SClel1Ce fir st so you won' t hurt you rse lf . II

LOO PS ON THE END, Ma rk Cohen

" Haw TO. BE A GaaD SIDE HaRSE PERFaRMER" hy A. Carl P atterson Coach of Gymn asti cs Templ e Univ.ersity

TROMLET, Miroslav Cerar Mos t gymnasti c or ganiza tions in the United States have adopted th e Federati on of In· tern ational Gymnasti cs ( F.LC. ) co de of points and operate under modi fied F.LG. rul es. These rul es state that a sid e horse exercise, in ord er to receive a perfec t score of ten , must have the followin g qualifica· ti ons: It must incl ud e at least eleven skill s, fo ur of which are class ifi ed as " B" or dif· fi cult , kills, an d one "C" movement of ex treme di ff iculty. The exercise must be con tinuous, wi th out stops or pauses, an d cover all three sections of the horse. Scis· sors mu st be don e both forward s and back· wards with two of either one or th e other heing done consecutively. Douhle leg cir· cles shall he predominant Opposite circles

although desirable are no longer a req uire· ment There are four skills that every good side horse worker should be ahle to do. They are douhl e leg circles in hoth directi ons, and scissors done forward and hackward . A great deal of tim e and eff ort should he given to stri ve for perfect execution of th ese four hasic skill s. Th e sid e horse work· er circles in both directi ons from th e be· ginnin g. A good sid e horse man is lik e a goo d hasketball player, he should be ahl e to do everythin g equall y as well both ways. Learnin g to do scissors hoth ways is a must. To excel in performing hi gh scissors with proper form and without scrap in g or bumpin g the horse is on e of the most dif·


LOOP. Hans Kunsl er

MOORE, Joe Cot vs

SCISSORS, Joseph Stald er


fi cult sk ills that can be done on the side horse. A great deal of tim e mu st he spent in perfecting th ese movements. The decidin g fa ctor hetween top caliber side horse men is usuall y the executi on of the sc issors and oth er leg work. Th e gymn ast must consid er the require· ment of coverin g the entire horse. There are two skill s that should be given top pri· ority. Th ey are the " Stockli" or "Douhl e· Rear In", and the "Tromlet" or " douhl e leg travel". These two skill s, even though th ey are classi fi ed as " B" or di ffi cult skill s. are fundamental to most of th e really diffi· cult sid ehorse skills, and are most useful in movin g from one part of the hor se to an · other.

Th" loop di smuunl (Moore. on tilt' <'nell is vcry imporl a nt. Allll o' l a ll di ' I11!)Unl s frol11 lIlt' sid e horse HI:e va riati ons or re fin eme nt ' of Ihe bas ic loo p di smount. Th e loo p ca n a lso lw used in th e middle of an exe rcise. Tt ca n b" Iwrfo rnwd on any secti on of tIl!' horsf'. W hen thi s is pe rfornl!'d on a POIllI1H' l. il i, known a~ a "JVfoore", T would recolllmend Ihat any hil1h sc hool .!.!y llln a~ t

who want s tn exc("l on Ih (' ~ id( 路

hors{' Sf' t tIlt' followin !! ro utin e or a s illl il a r one as hi s fir' l hi g 110a l on th e roul e to beco l11in l1 a s id f' horse champ ion: Frolll Ihf' end of th p horsf'. moun I with a " douhl f' r ea r in " to douhle leg circl p, . Do onp a nd a half or two a nd a half doubl p lpg circles to a sin gle leg cut forwa rd int o onp or t wo reve rse dou bl., leg circles. Cut one leg ba ckward to 3 ,c isso rs Cut fo rwa rd leg hack ward to I\\'o sil; !!le leg cut s fon~ard to rel! ul a r douhle k !! circles. Do onp a nd a half or two ~nd a half doubl e leg circle" to a down-hi ll Troml e t to a n imm edial<' loop di smount or one or llIorp douh'" circles In a loop di smount. Thi s exe rcise mee ts the requiremenl s of Ih e F.T.e. code of point s exce pt for t wo Ihin '!s. Th e fir st i, that it onl y ha s ,> igh l part s, and second , it is lackin g a "C" 1lI0ve. N!!)SI "C" move ment s on th e sid e hors" a re co mbinati ons of tw o <>r llI ore "B" , kill s. Th e foll ow in g is a li st of skill s or co mbin a li ons that ~an be use d to build a hi !!,h ca liber r ou tin e : 1. S in!!,le leg hop turn- "A" 2. S in!!'le leg " rea r out a nd in " (Shakelin el "A" 3. Troml et- doubl e rear in - "B" 4. Doubl e rear out-doubl e rear in - " B" 5. Moore ( Loop on pommel l - " B" 6. Moore- Moore- T ow " B's" 7. Doubl e Moo re ( Ru ss ianl - "C" 8. Moore- Doubl e rear out - "C" 9. Tri ple loop- "C" 10. Back Moore- "C" 1. Back Moore- imm ediat e Troml e t- "C" Th ese are nol all of th e skill s t hal ca n be don e on Ihe sid e horse. but th e gvmna!; t who ca n perform most of these has Ih e cont ent 10 crea te a really f;ne exe rcise. Th e yo un il gy mn ast who wa nl s to beco me profi cient on th e side horse should kee p the foll ow in g !; uggestion s in mind. Th ese mi ght be call ed ten steps to beco min g a champi on: 1. Si de h orse work ha s to swin!!,. so prac ti ce your swing. 2. A sid e horse man never !!e ls 50 good I hat he does not need to Dra r. ti ce sin gle leg work , scissor!;. and doubl e leg circle!;. '3. Never sacrifi ce form to lea rn a skill. Thi s leads to developin g poor ha bits which a re diffi cult a nd tim e-co nsumin g to correct. 4. lever scr ap yo ur old exer cise un til yo u are sure of th e new one. 5. Any new exer cise should be an out!!'rowth of th e old one. 6. Do not add a new skill to yo ur exercise until you have perfecl ed it as a sin gle movement. 7. Practi ce yo ur exercise as a complete unit. 8. A spra in of th e ann ural' li ga ments of th e wrist and the li gam ents attaching the uln a to the rad ius ( Fidler's It ch- Horse Bite) is th e most common injury to side horse workers. Proper warlll-Up, sensibl e practi ce period s, a nd planning ca n help prevent th ese condition s. 9. Plan all work -out s, a nd sti ck to th e plan. 10. Always be ready to perform yo ur side horse exercise.




LOOP DI SMO UNT, Greg W ei ss


Donald Tonry


AN INTERPRETATION OF THE NEW CLASSIFICATION OF SIDE HORSE MOVEMENTS by Donald Tonry Yale University In structor of Physical Education The current F.I.G. Rules that have just recently been translated seem to be a little disorganized. This paper is an attempt to translate the translation into an understand· able form: I have purposely changed some of the nomenclature from the text because. the F.I.G. tend ed to be in consistent with the use of their own terms. F or instance; a single leg hop with 1fz turn is called a SIMPLE SWISS. This term is not consistent with the sinJ5le leg CZECH which they call a split CZECH. I have given them both the term SIMPLE, because they are both ex amples of the simplified form of a similar but more difficult movement. I have also eliminated the use of the word CROWN because it was used interchangeably with the more popular term KEHRE. I have substituted SIDE TRAVEL for SIDE LIFT because travel is more explanatory and is oft en used in this country. I have added the term BACK-IN and BACK-OUT plus FRONT-IN and OUT. The F.tG. text calls the BACK-IN a SIDE TURN REARW ARD or BACK-KEHR£' This movement certainly is n ot the opposite of a front KEHRE, and the term SIDE TURN REARWARD defeats the purpose of giving these movements clear simple names. I have adapted the n'ame BACK-OUT because this movement is clearly the opposite of a FRONT-OUT which is described in the latter part of thi s paper but not in the F .I.G. tex t. At times the F .I.G. text fails to tell the read er about a halj circle which very often must be included between parts in order to make certain sequences possible. There is a definite lack of continuity in the degree of difficulty of various parts and sequ ences. Three or I our simple parts put together should never eq ual a truly difficult. 14

part in value; however, it does according to these rules. One good reason for this statement is that this situation does not exist in other events, only side horse. I feel that we should adapt very specific names fo r these movements wi th an emphasis on attempting to improve any inconsistencies that · we may find . so that our interpretation will be as concise as possible. TERMINOLOGY 1. KEHRE- from front support on pommels or end, 1fz turn right to r ear support pivoting on right arm , in a pike position and travelin g from one area of the horse to the other. 2. STOCKLI- K ehre-Out, Kehre-In or Kehre-In, Kehre·Out 3. SIDE TRAVEL-from front support on pommels pass legs under left hand, regrasp with left hand, pass legs over right pommel, shift right hand to left pommel, pass legs over neck and shift left hand to n eck to rear support. 4. TRAMLOT- Side Travel, 1fz circle, K ehre-In or Out 5. DIRECT .TRAMLOT-Side Travel, Kehre-In or Out (all on one pommel) 6. REAR SIDE TRAVEL- from front support on pommels pass legs over left pommel, place left hand on right pommel in rear support on right pommel. Place weight on left hand as legs pass over croup and right hand is shifted to croup in front support position. 7. BACK-OUT- from rear support on pommels pass legs over right pommel with weight on lett arm. Execute 1fz turn to the right (back portion of body leading ) place the right hand on the saddle in front support position. This movemen t is performed in a lay-out position. 8. FRO NT-OUT- from front support on pommels with weight on r ight arm, 1/2 turn to the right to front support on croup. This movement is performed in a lay-out position. 9. SIMPLE CZECH- from front support on pommels, pass right leg under ri ght hand with weight on left arm 1,4 turn




13. 14.


right, swinging left leg forward , pass right leg rearward over right pommel, place right hand on left pommel (palm forward ) pass- right leg over n eck , pass legs over right pommel with % turn right shifting left hand to right porn· mel to r eat support. CZECH- fr om ' front support on pommels, pass legs under right hand witl:~ weight on left arm 1,4 turn ri ght, place right hand on left pommel (palm forward ) , pass legs over neck , pass legs over right pomm el with 1,4 turn right shiftin g l eft hand to right pommel to rear support. Back CZECH- from front support on pommels with weight on right arm, pass legs over left pommel with % turn right around right arm. Place left hand on right pommel (palm down ) with 14 turn right, pass legs over left pommel and shih right hand to left pommel In fralit support. GERM AN-from r ear support on neck, ri ght hand on the left pommel, right hand on neck with support on the left arm pass the legs over the left pommel with 14 turn right displacing the right hand to the n eck, with support on the right arm pass legs over the left pommel with 1,4 turn right and displace the left h and to the left pommel to rear support. RU SSIAN-Czech to front support fol· lowed by immediate Czech to r ear support. SIMPLE SWISS- from front support sid eways on pommels ; pass left leg over left pommel with 1fz turn right, shiftin g hands (left hand on right pommel and right hand on left pommel) pass left leg under left hand to rear support, or inversely. SWISS-from front support, pass legs un der left and right hand s and 1fz turn right shifting hands simultaneously (left h and to right pommel and right hand to left pomm el) passin g legs over left pommel to fr ont support, or inversely.





F'o rwar d a n d b a ckSC ISSORS



S IMP LE SW ISS, ha lf circ le, STOCKLI



SW ISS, h a lf circl e, TRA M LOT


SW ISS b ut wit h Y2 tu rn in o ppos ite d irect ion


wa rd

SC ISSOR w ith Sing le leg h op Y2 tur n S IMP LE SW ISS


double leg h o p w it h Y2 t u rn SWISS










HOP SC ISSO R w it h T RAV EL and Y2 tu r n


Y2 circle in CROSS SUPPO RT o n end , 'i4 t urn , (S TOCKLI ) S IDE TRAVE L (to s.add ie )SID E TRA V EL t o end

KEHRE-OUT, circl e






STOC KLI (o u t and in ), TRAMLOT, S IDE TRA V EL








BAC K- IN , ha lf circl e CZ EC H


BAC K-IN , half circle D IRECT T RAM LOT


BACK- IN , half circle BA CK-O UT


CZECH , ~ o front p o rt FRO NT- OUT



CZ EC H , ha lf circle, FRO NT-O UT







su p -

ha lf

ci rcle, STOCKLI


RUSSIA N (CZ ECH to f ront su ppor t int o C ZECH )









RU SS IA N , ha lf c ircle SW ISS GE RMA N (C Z EC H o n e nd )




GERMAN , half c ircle , CZEC H, KEHRE-IN

GER MA N t o c ro ss sup port , circles

GERMAN , ha lf circ le , CZECH , GERMAN

GERMA N t o c ross sup po rt , FRO NT VA ULT D ISMO UNT

GERMAN , half c ircle, SW ISS, KEHRE- IN GERMAN , ha lf ci rcle, BACK CZECH , KEHRE - IN



BAC K CZECH , SIDE T RAVEL CZEC H, BACK ' CZECH (o n o ne p o mmel) GERM A N , ha lf circle , BACK CZECH, half c ircle, GERMAN


GERMAN , ha lf circle BAC K CZECH , KE H RE


Pre-fight trainin g faciliti es were ava;lable durin g the hours that coincided with actual competition schedules and , amazing as it may seem, there was very little overlappin g of teams in the gyms. Each team had th e gym alone for most of its sessions and , th erefor e, opportunity existed for suo premely concentrated gymnastic endeavors. On Thursday, the 15th of October, the competition fa cility at the Tokyo Metropolitan Gymnasium was host to a mock-up of the actual first day's matches. At this time, each team had opportunity to march and train


Author's Notes This is the first of three installment articles designed to provide an objective report of the gymnastic activities in Tokyo , Japan during the XVIlIth Modern Day Olympiad. By the nature of the report's objectivity, it is constructively critical and, at the same time, potentially able to dispel some of the many rumors connected with th e team's return to the United State s. PART I: THE MEET THE gymnastic competition in Tokyo was the zenith of modem day international co mpetition . Because in addition to superb organization and administration, the fight was blessed with team and individual performan ces unequaled in the history of these lnatches. Coura ge and determination seemed to be the byword for the day and, as the final men's competition s reached their spectacular climax, the cry was, "1st or 6th, and damn the criticism." Each arriving team found living quarters to match, in personal comfort, the most Id ealistic team fa cilities ever offered for international contests. Th e teams' sleeping rooms were arranged to provide for a maximum of communication with a minimum of interference. Gang showers and an abundan ce of hot water were available and could potentially help to fo ster good team identity.

All-Around Winner, Endo

U.S.A. Team in the identical ord er of their res pective competition schedules and, of course, work the meet apparatus. Sampling the meet apparatus was not so critical as in the past co mpetitions becau se the Japanese gymnasti c offi cials had identical equipment at all the training sites. There were four starting tim es in the first mornings's competitions. The Group A consisting of Korea , Yugoslav, Czechoslav, Italy, and a mixed group started at 8 :30 a.m. Croup B: Taiwan, Poland, Finland, U.S.A., Canada, and a mixed group at 10 a.m. Group C: Au stralia, Hungary, India, Germany , Switzerland, and a mixed group at 11 :30 a.m. Croup D: U.S.S.R., Japan, Rumania , Bulgaria , Cuba, and a mix ed group at 1 p.m. The beginning times for the var路 ious teams were , reportedly, determined by draw and would not, according to FIG regulatioI;ls affect the individual or team scores. In conflict with the FIG Cod e of Points, is another philosophy which experience has shown, comes into existence with the fir st starting sound of international competition. Any individual or any team that is performing and scoring between 9.0 and 9.2 will not be a contender for a medal. And only those gymnasts and teams who "are receiving scores of 9.55 and better will have the potential to be winners. This seems an obvious fact but, in the early sessions on both the optional and co mpulsory day s, there was an apparent hesitancy to iss ue scores below 8.95 and certainly there is no criticism when the performances warrent only 8.35-8.6. As a result, the later teams, the Japan ese, Russians, and Germans, wh o were certainly the first , second and third best, respectively, had their scores b ~ o sted to the 9.5 plus bracket by earlier performances of lessor teams. Referen cing the "Code of Points," these very high scores were very questionable. Each man on the best teams' had to score high in Older to give the team its just rights, but this completely eliminated the possibilities for individual gymnasts to obtain a position in the final s. By followin g a fallacious philosophy that no man of inter-

nati onal caliber will perform less than a 9.09.2 routine and combining this with an hones t effort to select the best three t eams, perso ns like Leif Koorn of Sweden and Wilh elm Wiler of Canada performin g on th e rin gs and long horse, respectively, had no chan ce to demonstrate their capabilities in the final co mpetition. With few excepti ons, the Russian and Japanese team s dominated the final days' competition s and this fa cl does not compliment their previous performan ces. Even though the winnin g teams are bound to have a maj ority of the individual medalists, no two team s in Tokyo had more than 3 men between th em wh ose work warren ted the final competition. The first mornin g's performances set th e scene for th e bitter and hard fou ght battle that wa s to ensue between the J a panese and Russ ian teams. Both teams obviously train ed with fire in their h ands and were

Th e German team, composed of peopl e of both East and West ori gin, was a surprise and a threa t. They carried themselves to new heights with flawl ess performances and preciseness of execution. F ew, if any, tea ms co uld match their steadyness and concentration of e ffort. If so me of the r outin es had just a little more perfection to the ultimate in various parts, this team may have pulled the major upset in beatin g th e Russians for the silver medal. The final scores do not refl ect th e propinquity between the Germ an and Russian teams, but neither do they r eflect the distance btween the Japan ese and Russian performances. determin ed to demon strate th e best ex ercises ever. Yuri Titov, a great Ru ssian champi on, bega n th e mee t barely on e kilo over hi s " absolute minimum" weight. H e was so ga unt , it looked as thou gh there was hardl y room between his skin and bone for hair to root. Hi s drive would have carri ed him into the top six but for a severe break in the opti onal fl oor exercise. The Russ ians wound th eir gy mnastic machin e, Bori s Chaklin , up exce ptionally ti ght, and by the tim e he had unwound , twelve excellent exercises were chalked up . But the J apanese team rece ives the medal of courage and determina ti on. T akashi On o, an unforgettabl e champion, de monstrated the kind of fortitud e that left even hard ened gymnasts breath less as he doctored a should er separation and with nothin g between him self and pain, save a set jaw, perform ed without a major error to save what the Russians were determined would be an upset.

Japan's Ono

Russia's Titov

Judges Conference If there was pressu路re upon the contenders, so there was upon the meet officials. They were very hard pressed to correctly gradate the team s and individuals. The contestents did nothin g to relieve pressure upon the officials. Ergo, questionable scores in relation to th e " Code of Points." Eukio Endo was strivin g for the all-around ~ old medal but needed some help to take it hom e. His last exercise on the pomm eled horse has been scored by various witnesses from 8.1 to 8.7, and one sideline expert declared that strict adherance to the rules of execution and exercise const,uction would result in a score of 7.7 to 7.9. Endo's score: 9:15, givin g him the sy mbol of absolute greatness. It - was as though the participatin g offi cials had to decide whether or not Endo should 'win the all -around medal. Chalklin and Litsitsky, observing Endo's last perfonnance, wisely waited to see Endo's score before claiming their just dues. The Russians fil ed an official protest, but as Meshikov, the Russian team coach, explained, not to fi ght for a score change-merely to demonstrate concern and awareness. Interestin g enough, an American judge was workin g the side-hrose. Most of the perennially present gymnastic fi gures seemed to agree that his ahility to plug a perform er into the right score was excellent; their evidence being the American's premeet activities in the judging school. I was personally impressed by his talents in this vein. However , his complete lack of experi ence and international " know how" was extremely vi sible from the first exercise to the last. His compromised score in relation to Endo's exercise was, perhaps, the best example of getting into a 8.9 to 9.2 rut and achieving absolutely no relativity in performance scores. We can be proud , as American s, of the rin g judgin g. The American, Maloney, and the West German , Stoddle, were r eally tough in the discussion sessions which began the sam e day as the competitions. Their 路 superior iudge, or opponent was LILO, a Czech . official. Stoddle is a gold medali st on the rin g event and really is knowl edgable and

ca pa bl e. Malon ey had had multiple exp eriences and combines his complete und erstandin g with a bold approach. (H e has been call ed "ruthless" by some interna tional offi cials.) Mal oney, r ecentl y r ecovered from a case of "swea tsuititi s," and Stoddle led the rin g judgin g with honest a ppraisals a nd many "nine plus" gymnasts were surprised to see an 8.7 performan ce receive 3.7. Stoddie and Maloney had 9.7's for K oorn's optional performan ce and a di scussion was ca lled. Malon ey argued 9.8 or 9.9 would be appropriate but for th e execution of an "a" type di smount and kept his score at 9.7. (A uthor's Note : the di smount was a straddl e fly -a-way don e from above the rin gs lik e the 1962 compulsory. Malon ey's interpretation of this bein g an " a" dismount wa s in correct as the rul es in eff ec t in Toky o li st~ d this as a " b" movement with no point deduction. '!aloney would have been justifi ed in a score of 9.8 or 9.9 by hi s own evaluation.) Lilo, fi ghting for just a .05 dedu ction. in the total exercise won wh en Stoddle, seemin g to tire of the lIrgum ent, drol"ed hi s score to 9.6. Koorn's actual performan ces were easily am ong th e second three but the .05 deduction slip ped him int o th e third three in total points and no chance for th e final s. Mal oney 's stand was observed by J ean Cron sta edt, th e Swedish coach .. However , one hi gh and correct score do not a total make. Th e last nights' competitions were genuin ely excitin g to observe. The leadin g contend ers in the individual events were switchin g places fa ster than the jud ges co uld score and more gold medals were flu sh ed awav then th e United States has won in all th e mod ern day Olympi cs. Miroslav Cerar, the Yugoslav with th e po tential executi on capabilities of a world chamoion , in any event dro pped the fir st medal wh en he turn ed too hard on a parall el bar pirouette and twi sted to the groun d. E nd o cam e on strong with a real gold mertal performan ce to co p the titl e in thi s event. It was a real comeback for Endo as he had just taken gas durin g his long horse vaults. Th e first som ersa ult was too strong and he overspun , runnin g almost off the platform. The spectators could alm ost cul the pressure with a knife as he began the run for the second try. Th e run was slow and his moti ons were tight. Too ti ght for the security h e was striving for and the result was a perfect posterior landin g. A real crowd stunner! The competition was highly clim atic. Th e horizontal bar event performances proved th e world all around champion's courage and determination. Eukio Endo needed 10 to win the gold medal after Boris Chalklin received 9.85 with a beautifully executed stock routine and a perfect landing. Endo was obviously "shootin g the works" with an ultra-diffi cult路 exercise. The crowd was on edge as the di smount approached. End o was a silver medali st 路until the dismount. His heckt over the bar with a full twist was a heart stopp er and the 10 points were getting closer as he hung for a fra ction of a second before the twi st, then, as hi s h ead and shoulders began the twist, it was apoarent to experienced eyes that th e lower body was n ot respondin g and adjustm ents would have to be mad e. All were mad e, every mu scle strained to contact th e mat with precision and exactn ess. To no avail! The twist adj ustm ents caused an off balan ce contact and a deduction great enough to slip End o below the medal winners. A fanta stic demon strati on of courage and unrelentin g drive. A fittin g end to a gymnast ics competition whi ch lucidly d epi cts the fortitud e and spirit r equired of an international champion. 17

OLYMPIC REPORT by Vannie Edwards 1%4 USA Womens Olympic Gymnastic Coach The United States Women's Gymnastics Team assembled immediately following the final trials at Kingspoint, New York, on August 30, 1964. The team remained in Kingspoint for a one· week practice which was conclud ed on Friday, September n, after a morning work·out session . The purpose of thi s week's work-out was to establi sh a similar style in which all members of the team wo uld execute compul sory exercises. My th eory was that if we did have a sli ght devia'tion from the intended interpretati on, at least our entire team would all interpret it in this manner. It was felt by myself and other members of the team that in the past each person worked her own style. Therefore, we felt that if there were any deviations, the judges would have th e impression that we as a team did not understand the comp ulsory exercises. The team reassem bled on September 21 at the Biltmore Hotel in Los Angeles. We had our first work-o ut on Tuesday, September 22, at the Los Angeles Athletic Club. The work-out conditions wer e very fine. The athl etic club was only a block and a half from the hotel, and Mr. Nissen furnished us with plenty of excellent equipment ; however, we were a little short of mats. From September 22 to September 30, we worked twice a day with primary emphasis placed on execution of movement of both compulsory and optional exercises. At this point several girls were still having trouble with their optional exercises. The FIG had passed a new rule that no two girls could use the same mount and dismo unt in optional work. This created son1e problem for us as, after th e selection of the team in New York, we had four of the seven girls using the same mount on th e parallel bars, a reverse kip mount. This, of course, meant that three girl s ' had to co me up with new mounts. Then too, on the balance beam we had two girls using forward roll mounts and two usin g a run·on mount which req uired some changes. During our stay in California, the team was in great spirits and could not be hap· pier. We had several injuries, most of which were only minor ones. Several girls had slight shin splints. On the twenty· sixth, Doris Fuchs had a fall on the un· even bars injurin g both elbows. This, of co urse, slowed down her work·o ut for several days. We left th e States and arrived in Tokyo on October 3. Our fir st work· out 18

was on October 4 in the Metropolitan Gymnasium, which was the gymnasium in which th e competition was held. Thin gs went very well in work-out considering the two day lay·off and the tirin g trip. Cathy Corrigan was a bit under the weather and Doris's arms hindered her work considerably. From the fourth thr~)Ugh the thirteenth, practice leveled off. During thi s tim e we began to stress working complete exercises, ttying to get at least two compulsory and two op tional exercises, along with some specifi c work on areas in which we were having trouble. This required organization by each gymnast because our allotted amount of time we had was two and a half hours per day. On October 13, we were scheduled for the main gymnasium again, and I told the girls that we would have a regular meet rehearsal with the fi ve minute warm·up period and rotation even ts as we were to compete in competition. I mad e the point that this was not a formal meet but one for me to make notes, as I had been doing for the past week to help me establish a competitive line up. Due to a below·par showing by several athletes that afternoon , it was decided that a furth er informal meet be held among certain con· testants to decid e who would be the alter· nate. One ath lete was hampered consid· erably because of injuries and was havin g trouble going full speed on all pieces of equipment. Following the October 15 workout in the Metropolitan Gymnasium which was a dress rehearsal or dry·run of the official competition , a decision was mad e as to who would be the alternate. Names of the six competitors were to be turned in the followin g morning. From October 16 through October 18, the final phase of our training program. we worked on fin esse, execution of exercises, mental coaching aids, and self·confid ence. I would say the disci· pline of the team in general was very out· standin g. As girls will be, ther e were a few flares of temper but nothing to the ex· treme. Our first event in competitIOn was com· pulsory floor exercise. Janie Speaks was the first girl to lead, receiving a score of 9.066, and Muriel was our sixth girl, r eo ceivin g a score of 9.433. We were the first team to compete at 8:30 A.M. and , as one can see, scores were not com ing t oo easy. We received scores of 8.966, 9.133, 9.300, and 9.333. A second event was comp ulsory horse va ult. Cathy Corrigan led receiving a score of 9.400, and Dale McClements was the sixth competitor receiving the same score, 9.400. Other scores were 9.333. 9.233.

9.333, and 8.800. The third even t in the compulsory program was the uneven bars. Cathy Corriga n led and scored 8.933. Mari e Walthers was sixth, receivin g 9.366. Other scores were 9.266, 9.066, 9.400, and 8.533. The final event of the compulsory round was the balance beam. Janie Speaks led, scoring 9.066 and Linda Matheny was six th, scor· in g 9.166. Scores ca me tough on the bal· ance beam whi ch r esulted in these scores: 8.933, 9.000, 8.933, and 8.900. Following the compulsory exercises, the Un it ed States Women were in ninth place. We repeated the same order in optional exercise. Cathy Corrigan led ·in the floor exercise receiving 9.066 and Muriel was sixth, receiving 9.422. Other scores received were a 9.333, 9.200, 9.300, and 9.333. The next event was the horse va ult. Muriel Gross· fi eld was the lead, scoring 8.600 and Dale McClements was sixth scoring 9.466. The rest of the team members r eceived these scores: 8.933 , 9.200, 9.033, and 9.300. The parallel ·bars were the breakin g point of the American team. At this point, we had cli mbed into the sixth place, but as fate would have it, three girls fell. Janie Speaks led and fell on her di smount scorin g a 8.166. Muriel worked second and fell on a drop kip scoring 8.133 and Marie Wal· thers, who worked last, had two bad breaks and fell on her dismount, receiving 7.500. Other scores were 9.100, 9.300, and 9.233. Our final event of optional competition was balance beam. Corrigan led, scoring 9.166 and Matheny was sixth, scorin g 9.533. Other scores were 9.366, 9.466, 9.233, and 9.300. I felt that we definitely blew at least three points in the un even parallel bars which would have made us fini sh possibly in sixth place; however, making no excuses, we fini shed ninth. Upon the conclusion of competition, the girls were given two days off havin g a light work·out on October 24. The United States Men and Wom en's team left Tokyo on the twenty·fifth with the German Men's and Czechoslovakian Women's team s. These groups were gues~s of the J apanese Gym· nastic Associatiun. We had an exhibition in Kobe on the twenty·sixth at thc dcdica· tion of a new women's university. All three team s participated together on the twenty· sixth. On the twenty·seventh the American tea m split 'with three wom en and three men go in g to Okayamo and the remainder of the team traveling to Osaka for a final ex hibition with th e German and Czechs. We returned to Tokyo the mornin g of the twenty·eighth and left for the United States th at afternoon.

OLYMPIC REPORT By Bill Meade President, Nat. Assoc. of College Gymnasti cs Coaches The following report regardin g the U.S. Gymnastic T eam is based on personal ob路 servation and th e conclusions drawn are my opionions. We offer them for yo ur in路 formation. Th e alternate member of the U.s. Gymnasti cs Team was physically unable to practi ce routin es from September 19 until th e day of th e Closing Ceremoni es. An in路 jury at any tim e to any of the six team members would have had us operating with only fiv e capable athle tes. Surely, if the committee in charge felt th at th e alternate had won hi s place and deserved to make the trip, then a second altern ate should have been selected in order to insure a full tea m. Th e six team members were acutely aware that th eir alternate co uld not perform if needed, and their own work was affected. In practi ce sessions, th e gymnasts worked out on a hit or miss basis. Th e team was schedul ed to give exhibition s while still in train in g in the United States in order to rai se money and th e schedul e was si.renuous. During the training sessions we witnessed and during the actual 'Olympic Competittion, I felt the athletes performed not as a team, but rather as three team members and three individuals. Th ere appeared to be little team spirit.

We are convin ced the quality of our gymnas ts was as good as th e German s, better than the Czechs, Italians, and Poles and yet- we fini shed seventh. If we continu e und er the present oragnizational se tu p for Olympic competition, we may be lucky to mak e the top ten in 1968. Do you find some irony in the fact that our No. 2 Gymnast, Rusty Mitchell, who was neve r a co mpetitor und er AAU au spicies scored th e highest optional exercise score of any American sin ce 1952. His 97.0 in op tion al fr ee exercise tied him with th e eventual Ol ympi c Free Exercise . Champion. Is he, alon g with the other two new international com petitors, Sakamoto and Barak, to be threa tened and brow-bea ted into compet in g in the once-a-year AA U Meet? Is once a year enough to strength en their com pulsory exercises for international competiti on-? Or would it perhaps be better for them to compete ANY-TIivIE, in ANY OPEN COMPETITION, AT HOME OR ABROAD in ord er to improve them and th e entire gy mn as ti c program for the task in Mexico City. If we fail to make ava ilabl e to present and upcoming gymnasts th e opportunity for organized , hi gh-caliber, fair and freq uent co mpetition- th ere is no place for gymnasti cs to go but DOWN. We can hide our heads in fear, turn the other cheek , and pretend the problem doesn' t exi st, but we can't do it and keep faith with our gymnastic program. A large part of the answer to our problem li es in the age-group program being sponsored by the U.S.G.F. We know that we \

have go t to build th e prol; ram from th" yo un gest age group up to th e hi l; hest If!vel of international co mpetition . It should I", our absolute and ea rn est effort to do all we ca n to enco urage age-group I;y mnasti cs; to lend our ef forts, talents, and tim e to it whenever we can. And, we ca n do thi s with out sacrifi cin g any part of th e fl ver-all program. In fact, our international com petition will improve as well. As long as the Olympic Committee continu es to approve th e practice of awarding hi l;h sco res for mediocre work in Ol ympi c Trials in order to in sure th e place of certain perform ers on th e Ol ympic Team, we will continu e to be rudely awaken ed when Olympic Competition scores r efl ect th e c al iber of ou r team 's work by international jud gin g. Our gy mnasts are so aghast at th e sco res they receive abroad , that they find no recourse but to cry " Bad judgin g." Wh en, in fact, the bad judging has taken place at home-creatin g a false ima ge for our athletes. It's just pla in stupid to continu e to de lude ourselves on this. It's th e easy way out to co mpare our scores to th e Russian s or Japan ese; but th e hon est way is to compare our scores to a perfect score of 10. It 's tim e we started! If we can lea rn from the gymnasti c leaders of th e world, then we mu st adopt th e Japan ese phil oso phy of train in g to such perfection that we cann ot co ntinue to be overlooked. Cont inu ally lamentin g the fa ct that the Ru ssians are overscored (a nd they were in Tokyo) will do nothing to improve American Gymnastics. WHAT WILL YOU DO ?

Rusty Mitchell





There seems to be no end to the current surge of gymnastic books_ Publishers who in the past have not considered sports of any kind in their publishin g programs, are now seriously consid erin g manu scripts on gymnastic topics. No less than seven titles have come across this editor's desk, non e of which are rev iewed below simply beca use th ey are not yet available ! This current interes t in publica tion should be welcome news for all of you who have taught and coached gy mnasti cs for so many years. T hings are lookin g up. We're not kidding ourselves any longer when we say that "Gy mnasti cs is growin g." The years 1964 and 1965 will probably be r emembered as ones in which the grea test number of gym nastic publications in the En glish language were produced. Unfortunately, not all of th e books are first class. For this reason, we will attempt in the near future an updated compi lation of those books we feel are worthy of bein g on the shelf so to speak. On the positive side, we do feel that every book we have seen does have a contribution to make, however sm all. Therefore, in reviewing th e many books which we receive, emphasis will be placed on these positive features even th ough they are not selected for " The Golden Lin." Anoth er indi cation of gymnastic growth is th e recent "Special" on gymnastics featured in the Journal of the American Assoc. for H ealth, Physical Education and Recreation. (October, 1964) . in our recollection thi s is the first tim e that th e JOHPER editors have seen fit to pla ce a special em phasis on the gymnastic area. They say, " . . . every physical education teacher, at both elementary and secondary school levels, should includ e a good unit on gymnasti cs in the annual plan." AAHPER will shortly release a publication, First National Institu te on Girls' Sports whi ch will be a com pil ation of papers presented at the In stitute many of which were on aspects of gym nastic instruction. Copies will be available at. S3 _00 . Write AA HPER, 1201 16th St. , N.W. Washington, D.C.) The reviews that follow will clear your editor's desk of current new offerings in print.


A rtistic Gymnastics by Mildred Prchal Floor Exercises The Author-2419 Scoville Ave., Berwyn, Illi. 1964 In his foreward to this new book, Paul Fina states, " In this book the author has blend ed the " race of ballet with gymnastics for arfistic free, flo or exercises and balance co mbination s. The illustrations are vivid and inspmng; graceful and flowing , action s are portrayed. The fi gures move in the direction of the action, e.g. forward move ments are illustrated from left to righ't and reverse movements from ri " ht to left. Thus the reader can fol lo~v the act ion as easily as in motion pictures." This work will be tim eless and endurin g because of its fundamental nature." We wo uld like to add our blessing to Mr. Fina's co mments. In short, if you want a deep insight to free exercise composition in the modern program of artistic gymnastics for wom en, you must have this book. The author's emphasis on composition may be seen by examining the content and organization of her work. You will find: Hops, Jumps and Leaps Turns and Pirouettes Co mbinations before Front Roll s Combinations after Front Rolls Com bin ations before Back Rolls Combinations after Back Rolls Com bination s before Handstand s Combinations from Handstands Combinations and Floor Exercises Usin" this interesting format of the basic elemenfs, the author proceeds to introdu ce diffi culty progressively in each of these section s. Under "Combinations" the number of mu sical measures is suggested as well as tl;e l em po. In a final chapter, application s of the fl oor exercise combination s are also described and illustrated for the balance beam. This section is so mewhat unique and a very logical n ext step. Miss Prchal is current Director of Women for The Amer ican Sokol Organization and plans to later develop for publication her notes on apparatus in Artistic Gymnastics for Women.




Competitive Gym nastics by Nik Stewart (British National Coach) Sta nley Paul & Co. Ltd., Lond on, England 1964 (S3. 00 ) A great perform er turns coach! No t only that . . . one of England's great all-time performers must now rank among the top teacher's of the sport judging by th ~ quality material found in abundance in thi s book. The unique feature of the book is a seri es of " Routin es of th e Future". '\Ie have noted th e inclusion of thi s sort of thing only once before in a book .. . Kunzle's book on po mmeled horse in The Olympic Gymnastic Series. Nik claims to have see n each of th e parts he has put together perform ed at least as sin gle stunts by leadin g gy mnasts the world over. For example we have see n th e front somey catch on th e hi gh bar performed by Frank Schmitz and this stunt was also described by Jim Farkas some tim e ago in the M .G. If N ick gets a boy even close to the performances he describes he will carry off a bushel of medals for En gland eight years h ence. Coaches and teachers lo ok in g for additional graded routines for their classes and tcam s will find them in Competitive Gymnastics. All events are covered. Th ere are nin e routin es presented for each Olym pi c event as well as a sugges ted progression for vaulting. A two-tim e Olympian, Stewart describes Ol ympic Gymnasti cs from 1936 to date in one of th e early chapters. Hi s word s of advice for obta inin g gym nasti c maturity for England can also be applied to programs in th e United States. Like so man y other gy mnasti c authors, ick has done a wonderful job of illustratin g hi s own book. All of the graded routin es are illustrated and we note in co nclu sion that Nick has also introd uced hi s littl e character-performer in a special pullout fea ture of THE GYMNAST which is the quart erly publication of the British Amateur Gymnastic Association . To Nick Stewart , performer, teacher, writer and coach, we wish the best of lu ck.

The Me chanics oi Athletics by Geoffrey H. 路G. Dyson Un iversity of London Press, L td ., London, England. 3rd Ed ition 1964 ($4.50) For th e avera ge coach or perform er who may not have had college preparation in physics and mechanics, Th e Me chanics of A thletics fill s a very definite gap in th e lit f'ra ture for th ese people. In few boo ks that we have seen a nd in onl y a very few articl es" do th e practical appli cat ion s of physical and mechani cal prin ciples become so ,ivid that even high school students will understand how to apply th em in th eir own gymnastic workouts. ., In add ition, the mechanics of runnin g a re analyzed. W e mention thi s because of th e poor runnin g techniqu es which have been observed in va ultin g. T his book should be a real aid in this area. Those of us who have been confused abo ut twi stin g movements will also benefit. Dyson mak es a very clear presentation of th e kind s of tw ists which origin ate from the gro und as well as those wh ich ori ginate in th e a ir. Mr. Dyson is presently conductin g a nati on-wid e sports training pro gram in Canada and he has given clinics in the United S tat e. We recomm end his book to all of t hose who aspire to excellence in teaching lZy mna s tic 1l1oven1ent.


Y our B ook oj Gymnastics

by Pau lin e and Jim Prestid ge Faber and Faber, London, En gland 1964路 $1.50) Tw o special fri end s of the M odern Grmnast, Jim and Paul ine Prestid ge, have combin ed th eir tal ent s to produ ce this introdu ctor y book whi ch emphasizes agility ( tulllblin g) and vaultin g. Th e hook is t'he only gy mn ast ic selection in th e " Your Book" seri es by Fa ber and Faber who speciali ze in books for the young. We recO lllm end it es pecially for th e school I ibrary where youngsters will read it to gain in sight to th e world of gymnastics and perhaps lead them to seek a class in wh ich th ey will attempt some of the stunts t bey have read about. T he book is well illu strated with photograph s of youn gs ters in action . Both autho rs have contr ibuted man y interestin g training arti cles to Th e Gymnast. We also note here that Jim Prestid ge has recen tly become fu ll tim e Assistant Secretary for The British A mat eur ~ymna s ti c Assoc.

PUBLICATION ANNOUNCEMENT Ex e rcise and Fitness. A statement of the role o f exercise in fitness b y a joint comm ittee of the American Med ical Association and the American Associati on f o r Health, Ph y sical Educat ion , and Recreati o n. Published N ovember 1964 by the A m er ican A ssociation for Health Ph y sical Education . and Recreation. , 12 PP. (242-07138 ) 3Sc-2-9 co pies , 10 % I

di scount ; 10 o r m o re co pies, 20 0/0. This pamphlet is a source o f convincing and autho ritati v e supp ort

u lar exericse, with

f or the benefits of reg-

t hese

prime values cited:

1. Weight co ntro l and improv ed cardiov ascu lar efficienc y . 2 . Dela y or retardation of degeneratio n and









o f o rgani c di sease , such qs diabetes and atherosclerosis. 3 . Release of tension and t herefo re improved mental health. 4. Better ci rculat ion and increased lung power. 5. Increased muscular support of body st ru c ture. 6 . Increased endurance, stre ngth , and agility . 7. Adaptation of nervous system to perm it comple x and v aried physical acti v ities. The booklet is a ppropriate f o r professional people t o use in interpreting to students. T o PTA groups, serv ice clubs, and similar groups. It gives sugges ti ons f or max imum enjoyment and benefi t from exercise and defines other componen ts of fitness f or effective l iv ing. The statement also appeared in the May 1964 issues of both the Journal of the American Medical Association and the Journa l for Health, Physical Education, a.,d Recreation pub li shed by AAHPER .

U.S. FITNESS PUBLICATioNS VIM ... A complete physical fitness plan for girls aged 12 to lB. Includes a basic workout and tips on figure development, plus information on diet, weight control and posture. Explains how being physically fit helps develop beauty and poise. 25c each, $l B.75 per hundred, Catalog No. PI' 35.B: P 56 / v 72. VIGOR . .. A complete physical fitn ess plan for boys aged 12 to lB. Includes a basic workout, plus sections on isometric exercise and weight training. Tests h elp boys cheek their fitne ss against that of other boys their own age. 25c each, $lB.75 per hundred, Catalog 10 . Pr 35.B : P 56 / V 6B Ord er from: Superintendent of Documents, Government Printin g Office, Washington, D.C., 20402,


SCHEDULE OF DEDUCTIONS (F.I.G. ) - - ---_. Reason For De duc t ion


Minor D eductions .1-.2

Me d ia n Ded uct ions .3- .5

Maj or Deducti o ns

Unnecessary Bending or adjustment

Toe po int; hand faults; head non a li ned; sl ight knee bend o r arm bend; slight body bend or leg st raddle (4 5 째 )

Medium bend in arms, leg s, body or leg straddles 45 째 _90 째 ) V - Pre-flight bend

Extreme bending V-Body bend before inverted support (M 1.00) V-B ending arms in support (M 1.00) V-A rms completely bent 2.50


Slig ht lock of height

Median lack o f height

Complete lack of heigh t V-Pref l ight (M 1.50)

Balance fau l ts

Slight imbalance on d ismounts but with no foot movement . 10 (same fault with step or hop .2) V-Heavy landing .2 S-Arm o r leg movements to main toin balance

Obvious shifts of trunk or arms (sans pieds ) t o maintain balance Fall a fter dismount with support o f one or both hands B- T ouch ing with hands for balonce .5 B-Support o f hands for balance 1.00

A r m support o n dism ount Landing with a f a ll H it floor with pe lvis or knees Unjustified support in any movement V-V-Knees t ouc h 1.50 V-Hips touch 2.00 V-Hand support (landing) 1.0


Slight r hythmic pause UPB- Each stop .2 B- Monotonous rh ythm

Stopp ing, between parts Lack o f continuity V- St opping, in handstand

Genera l

Touching f loor o r apparatus in vo luntaril y

Slight (to lev el position)

With support of fingertips V-Touch horse with feet

Extensive support with hands

Suppor t fau l ts

Suppor t with delay of an arm

Pr onounced

showing lac k of extension or height

stops or pouses

Hand repulsion & l eap e x tension faults



Poo r bea ri ng F.X. Steps out (.-10 each time)


difficu lty





" jerky"

per -

forma nee


Supp lemen t al support V-Gaining support with (M 1.00)


Extension incomplete Late repu lsion of hands

No extension Delayed hand push V-Failure to straighten body aft er fligh t ) 2 .00 V-Lacks push-off (M 1.00)

Coach speaks to performer F.X . Coach in area

Coach assists performer Music incorrect (M 1.00) Rev ersal of port of ex.

F.X. -Floo r

Exer cise

He lp dur ing v ault




Art. 1.-5 judges work; consult o n first exercise; elim inate high and low and average ot hers. Difference (l imits) fo r midd le averages-Regular Competit ion .. 3 (9- 10); .5 (8-8.9); 1. 00 (Below 8) For fi na ls (Even t ighter in O lymp ic compet ition) . .2 (9.5-10); .3 (8.5-9.45); .5 (7-8.45); 1. 00 (Below 7 ) COMPULSORY EXERC ISES and 111- 10 poin t s pe r fect ;

(technical) & of fau lts shall Art. IV -May only 2 vau lts


5 po ints 5 points (General Imp.) Table be prepared. repeat on beam and unevens; a llowed; F.X. not reepated.

V-Exerc ise




on ly


its enti rety.

OPTIONAL EXERCISES Art. VII- l0 points perfect; 5 points (3 fo r difficulty -:- 2 for composition and techn ical) ; 5 points (Execution and Genera l Impression ). Art. V III- Optional differs from com pu lsory; teamma t es d iffer on e from another; Elements of com p u l sory r eta ined on ly when in different comb ina tions. Art . IX-No force or strengt h (obvious use of) ; movement con t inuous; ' no repetition; exercise on proper technica l level. Art. X -Optionals contain 5 elements o f difficulty one of which is superior difficu lty; recommendation that this leve l i, not exceeded; deduct .6 for each missing part . Art . X I-Fau lts (See a t tached schedu le). Art XII-Va ul ting . Art. X I I I -Unevens. Art . X I V -Beam. Art. XV-Floor Ex . Art . XV I- In fl oor ex. a nd beam sig na l g iven when max. time is reached; another signal given 5 seconds later; Deduct .5 if exercise goes beyond this per iod. Exercises under required time will be penalized by a deduction of .05 po int for each second. Art . XV II- Reuther boa rd on mat allowed; reuther board in contact with f loor in vaulting; Unevens-Reut h er boa rd allowed but never when p laced on bose of unevens.






Z ero (Assis t o n land ing-2.00)


Art. II


EDITORS NOTE: Due to the time taken OUI tor the Olympics and his now busy schedul.e as teacher. and Gymnastics Coach at UCLA Art Shu rl ock could not prepare hiS regular article for this Issue. H owever , we did have a Graph Check picture of Art In ou r fli es taken when he was practicing a new Pike Back Sommersault on the P. Bars. Hope this will hol d you over until Art returns with his interesting " QUEST IONS AND PO INTERS. "

THE 1964 NORTHERN CALIFORNIA GYMNASTICS CAMP - CLINIC Heport by Ir vin E. Faria Unde r th e cumpete nt leau ershi p uf Frank Hailand, cl ini c ui rcctu r, th e ca mp·cl ini c wiI , both q ua ntit a ti ve ly an d qualitati ve ly sue· ce"s fui.· Fur th, · firH tim e th e cam p pe riod was ex tended tu tWI) weeh. The fir st week wa ~

cJ c vu tl'eJ to boys and g irl s ages fourt een

a nd und"r, whih' th e secu nd week was di · rec ted towa rd th e fif tee n a nd over age ~T U U" S . In g-el1 c r a l , with few t'xc ejJti un :--: Ih l' ~a I1H-' !-' I aff taught bOlh a ge gr oups.

Fran k. wi th th e as, ista nce of th e ho a r d of direc tor", s,>lec ted a nd cun tract ed an uut· standing sta ff for both women's and men 's gY lllna ~ li c~.


Sokol Instructors Schoo l, Potter Lake, Wisconsin


Central District Men's Director The Central District of th e American Sokol Oq;anization has units in Illinois, Wiscon sin and Mi ssouri. The Central District held its Ann ual Gymnasti c Festival "Slet" at the Riverside - Brookfield Hi gh School Stadium in Ch icago's Western Suburbs. The main demonstration was preceded by gymnasti c co mpetitions for chilo dren, juniors and adults. 356 gymnasts competed. The main exhibition wa s witnessed by 2500 spectators. '800 gymnasts participa ted in the pro gram which consisted of mass calio<thenics. appa ratus a nd free ca listhenic demonstrati ons, 440 relay race and the Czechoslovak folk dan ce Beseda. Each summer th e Sokol Distri cts conduct two week junior lead er in structor schools which pre pare the stud ents to assume positions of leadership in their r espective unit gymnasium s. Marching tactics, apparatus and calisth enic te rminology, gam es, pyram ids, a pparatus spottin g, judgin g, a rti stic gy mnastics and self improvement are taught. Thi s year the Central District held a combin ed course with the Distri ct Lud vic Stur· Slovak Gymnastic Un ion Sokol at the Slovak Camp in Pater Lake, Wi sc. The staff con sisted of Mildred Prchal, National Women s Director of the Ameri can Sokol ; J erry Polacek, mem-

be r of th e Wes tern Illinoi s Un iversity Gymnasti c team , Victor Kara bin of !lie Westches ter Co ll ege, Pa. gym team and Edward Konopa, a hi gh schoo l gy mnastic in stru ctor in ew Ha ven, Conn. Acti vit y in all So kol Gymnasium s has in· creased in prepa rati on for the Centennial of the Sokol Move ment in Ame ri ca. Th e fir st Sokol unit in th e United States was fou nd ed by Czech se ttl ers in SI. Loui s, Mo. in 1865. Sokol SI. Loui s has broken ground for a new, mod ern gy mna sium which will be rea dy for th eir 100th Anni ve rsa ry. Th e Central Distri ct's annual co mpe titi ons and ex hibiti on will be held a t th e Uni ve rsit y of SI. Lou is gy mn asium on th e 5th a nd 6t h of Jun e, 1965. P os tm aster Ce n ~ r a l J ohn A. Cronouski a nn ou nced th a t a Sokol phy sical fitn ess sla mp honorin g the Cent enni al of the Sokol ylove ment in Am e ri ca wo uld be iss ued in 1965. Th e design of the stamp was un veiled Octobe r 27 th in a P ost Offi ce De partment ce remony a tten ded at Washin g ton, D.C. by members of Sokol from all parts of the co untry. Th e culmination and hi gh li ght of the Centenni al year will be th e Natio nal Sokol Slet ( Gymnasti c competiti ons and festival) of all Sokols in th e Unit ed States and Canada to be held in Chicago, June 23rd -27th , 1965. The foll owin g nati onal Sokol or ganiza ti ons wi ll parti cipat e .in th e Centennial activiti es : Am eri can Sokol Organi zati on, Slovak Gy mn astic ni on Sokol, Polish Fal· co ns of Ameri ca, F ederati on of D.A . Sokol of Amer ica, Slovak Catholi c Sokol, Union of Czech Catholi c Sokol s, Canadian Sokol Orga ni za ti on s and th e Czechoslovak Sokols Abr oa d.

Th t' wU I1H'n's program , not


belittl e the n1<'n \, .was of exce ll ent quality. i\ weJcunH' add it ion to th e wo men's prog ram was Andrea .\ Iolin a r, furmer Hun ga rian Olympi c gym nast. H er pleasant personal · it y a nd "kIllful in"'ru cti on aud cd an extra flair to tlw camp a tm usph ere. Durin )! both ,~ss i u n s in stru cti onal cl ini cs, on s pec ifi c subj ec ts, we re prese nt ed by know ledgabl e peo ple. Lou P erschke, with hi s most abl e "s mi lin g" ass istant, Rick F ield , prest' nted a n uu tstand in g lec ture and de monstration on th e top ic of strength tra inin g fur th e gy mn ast. Oth er cli ni cs presented we re; un even bars by ln ez Caon ; sid e horse va ultin g by Don Nelso n; horizontal bar by Hal F rey ; sid e horse by Bob Dunnin g; bal an ce beam by Andrea .\1olinar ; di sc iplin e a nd tra inin g by Irv Faria; and judgin g a nu th e new F. l. C . Rules by Roy Davis.

Don Netson coaching, Joanne Hashimoto Lou Perschke coaching, Rick Fietd

Opening assembty of Centrat District Sokot Gym Festivat

Hal Frey co ndu cted a technique and meth· odol ogy gym nastics class, which was well a tt end ed, through th e extension school of the Un ive rsit y of Ca lifornia. The class was we ll re2e ived by teachers and coaches. It seems that each year the over all qualit y of th e camp-clinic improves. W e prf' a ll l o o kin ~ forward to next summers ca mp.


I /

GYM 路 By MARGARET KORONDI Olympic Gold Medal Winner

GYM FITNESS Durin g the past few months we have received many letters concerning fitn ess, exercise, di et and specific pr.oblems. We want to acknow ledge receipt, and will individually an swer yo ur letters. A few, co mlllon interest problems will be di sc ussed in this Magazine. Dea r Margaret, . . . I have your booklet and by fo ll owin g yo ur di et and exercisin g plan, I lost 8 lbs in the past 4 weeks. My problem is to get r id of the flabbyness of my stomach and thi ghs. Co uld you give me additional exercises? Exercise No .1. Li e on your back, arms at side, shoulder level. Begin crossin g the legs with kn ees straight and toes pointcd towards the ceilin g. Do this 8 times. For yo ur second se t, repeat leg crosses whil e slowly lowerin g the legs to the flo or. Exercise No .2. Th e foll owin g is a strenu ous exercise for more adva nced st ud ents. It not onl y strengthens stomach and thi gh muscles, but improves balance. Start kn eelin g on left kn ee, with your weig ht equally dis tributed between the kn ee and left arm. In thi s position extend the ri ght leg and arm upward. Hold it for 2 co unts. Kee p the right leg extended wh ile you lift yo ur upper body to a verti cal position, and twi st th e upper body 1,4 turn towards your right. Hold it for 2 counts. Repeat the exercise seveml times.


FREE EXERCISES for beginn ers According to the rules, the Free Exercise has to be organized and executed in a predetermin ed area 39_33 sq uare fee t. The tim e limit is 60-90 second s, and must be performed to -music. Th e Free Exercise is a well balanced co mbination of co ntinued tumblin g sequences, imagin ative steps, turns, leaps, fl exibility stunts and agility movements. These should be performed smoothly, continuou sly, and with grace, poise, and control. Th e movemen ts shoul d parall el the rhythm of the music. First learn the tumbling and conn ectin g movement s, improve your fl ex ibility, strength and dancin g technique, then practice small combinations. The followin g are combinations yo u may practice: 1. S tand on toes, arms in second position, do 3 runnin g steps, then jum p with feet together and execute a series of two frontrolls, and end in a V sit. From the V sit turn on yo ur stomach to the ri ght. 2. From a head stand roll into a squat positi on. The ri ght leg is ex tend ed to the right. Execute two leg ci rcles, then rise to a stand by bendin g th e ri ght leg and stepin g on the ri ght leg in front of the left. As yo u ri se, do a % turn to a full stand. Step forward with th e left leg, and skip twi ce, keeping kn ee lift ed hi gh. Arms in seco nd position. Ex erci ses are demonstrated by Candy Solomon.

Exerci ses demonsrtoted by Candy Solomon


9. A m edi cal doct or d oes not hav e to be


present , but one should be o n call in ca se of emergency. 10. The equipment m en t o work under th e fl oo r superv iso r or manag er. I I. Tow el room attendant and cu st odian .

MEET CHECK LIST By GLENN WILSON Gymn a st i cs Coach, University of Colorado

Coac h es a nd s t ud e nts w h o have h ost e d gym n a s tic co mp e tition in t h e past h ave d e "elo p ed many fo rm s of m eet operati on b u t in g e n era.! n o n e h ave b e qu eathe d u s a n in d icat ion of well or ga ni zed competiti on . Som e m ee t s h ave b ee n op e r a t ed with littl e t h o u g ht g iy e n to w h at it look s lil{e or h o w long i t t a k es t o r un. A s a co n sequ e n c e , people a r e c onfu sed as to wh at t h e s p or t in y olye s a nd h ave th e impression th a t on e Illu s t b e a co nn o iss e ur to e njoy a nd a ppr e c iat e it. E ffi c ie n t m ee t or ga ni zati on is a IlHls t i n th e rn od e rn gy nl1Hl s t i cs pI'ogn t 1l1 a nd t h e or ga ni zati on s h ould provid e for th e gy mnas ts , th e c oa c h es , the s p ec t a t or s , and fo r furlh e t路ing. t h e s port itself . About th e o n Iy way a. coac h can g e t ever y th ing d on e a nd r e m e mb e r a ll th e d e t a il s , unl ess h e h as


su p erhurn an 1l1 e lll o r y , i s t o u se a c h ec k

li st a nd d e legate r espon s ibility. A ty pi ca l du a l m e e t ch eck li s t an d a c h a mpio n s hip mee t c h e ck li s t a r e g iven.

GYMNASTICS A Dual Meet Check List EQUIPMENT I . Clip b oord , pencils and either scratch pads o r judging f orms for each o fficial. 2 . Flash cords, for judges assistants. 3. The public address system and a completed announcer 's f o rm . 4 . A stop watch for timing floor exerc ise and tumbling. 5. Cha irs for judges, assistants, scorers

and the onouncer. 6 . Tobie f o r announcer and scorers. 7. A ditto score sheet for the scoring table. B. Small sc o re cards for aiding the an-

nouncer and t o make sure the sco res are 'read immediately after the ev ent is compl eted . 9 . T icket booth. 10. Reco rd pla y er , backgro u~d music for t he warm-up period a nd a record of the National Anthem. (The schoo l pep band could perform both these functi ons. ) I I. Mag nesium Carbonate. (Chalk ). 12. Chalk receptacles. 13. Emery cloth. 14. An o fficial rule book . 15. A duplicating mach in e. 16. The floor exercise pad. 17. The trampoline. lB. The side horse. 19. The horizontal bar. 20. The long horse with taped zone s and a beat baord. 21 . The parallel b.ars . 22. The still rings. 23. The tumbling mats. 2 4 . Mats f o r replacement around each p iece of equipment and behind each bench for warm-up. 25 . Tape measure to check the height of long horse. 26 . A dry towel to wipe the grip zones on the long horse, and three wet towels t o place at either end of the tumbling mat , and at the end of the long horse

runway . ) 27. A floor

( ( (

plan of the gym , show ing placement of the apparatus for warmup and how the apparatus must be mov ed during the meet. ) 2B . The Judge's check for payment. ) 29. Overhead projector for indiv idual scores. ) 30. Control panel for score board to show

team scores. 31 . Uniforms -

cleaned and ready ,

PERSONNEL : I . You , the Coach and Meet Director. 2. The officials (usually four) . 3 . Judges' assistants to fla sh scores f or each judge. 4 . The announcer. 5 . The head scorer and one ass istant . 6 . The Floo r Manager. 7. Ticket personne l, usually one t o sell the ticktes and one or two to check the gates. Also. a program seller or di stributor. B. Th e Trainer.




I . V icto ry stand.


2 . Eve nt placards t o place on the v ictor y

I . W hen schedul ing the meet , be sure the gy mnasium has not been sch eduled for a prio r contest . Go through the normal reser v atio n procedure . 2. Write to your judges reminding them of the time, p lace, how much they will be paid , and any special instructions you might hav e. 3 . I nfo rm your business office who the o fficial s are so that they will be able t o prepare che ck s f or pa y ing them ). 4 . Secure the judg es' a ss istants and' the scorers. The judg es' a ssistant s are usu all y girls from the pep club o r from a sororit y. 5. Arrange f o r parking of the v isitors' cars . 6. Prepare duty I ists f or the personnel to prev ent confu sio n during the meet. The time f or arri val of th e workers should be made clear. All ow enough time f or the fl oor manager t o tal k with them before the meet starts. 7. If an y equipment is not standard, t he v isiting team shou ld be informed long before the meet to enab le them to practice under modified co.,ditions. B. Arrange to hav e bleacher seats read y for the co mpetitio n. 9. Arrange f or loc kers, towel s, and shower facilities f or the v isiting team 10 . Arrange f or a pre-meet meal for your team . II . Check your publ ici t y arrangements. 12. Check y our equipment before the meet and order an y supplies that are needed. Replace an y worn or dangerous equipment.(The equipment to be inspected is g ive n previously). 13 . Arrange t o hav e the training room facilities a vailable . 14. Arrange to introduce the opposing co aches and the judges before the meet. (any confu sing po ints concerning judging should be di scussed at this time.) 15. A floor plan should be drawn , showing the way in which the equipment will be arranged. 16. If v isiting t eam is planning to stay overnight I you can either arrange housing fac ilities o r send them information regarding th e av ailable facilities . This will aid them in making their own arrangements. ) 17. Print o r duplicate the program t o be used by the spectators. If the program is extensi v e and is to be sold, you will to make arrangements f or a program salesman. lB . Distribute passes f o r guests and officials , or prepare a pass gate list. 19. The final order o f competiti o n should be dupl icated . 20. Another remtnaer Sh OUld be sent t o all personnel regarding time , date, and their duties. 2 1. The sco re sheet should be pre-prepared. ) 2 2 . The announce r's sheet should be completed . ) 23. Prepare your team .


In add ition t o the items g iven a bove for a d ual meet, the f o llow ing items need t o be ch ec k ed f or a champio nship m eet :

I. Set up the equipment as shown on the floor plan and ma ke final check o f all preparations . A . Mark the boundaries of the floo r ex erci se area and the zo nes on the long horse. B. Check the height of the long horse , the side h orse, and the parallel bars. 2 . Place the scratch pads or judging forms , the clip boards, pencils, and the judge's pa y checks on their chairs in front of the floor ex erci se area. 3. Place the fla sh cards nex t to the judge's cha irs. 4. Di stribute the order of events and order. of competition t o the opposing team. 5. Present helpers with a li st of their tiuties. . 6 . Meet the jud ges and oppos ing coach a few minutes befo re th e meet . 7. Start the meet pro mptl y.

AFTER THE MEET I . Duplicate the results o f th e meet. 2. Clean up the fa c ility used f o r 1he meet. 3 . Call local papers, ra d io and t e lev ision stati ons. Giv e them a re sume of the action and the final results. 4. Return an y equipment loaned you for the meet. 5. Mail the results t o interest ed parties .

stand. 3. Master fla sh cards f o r t he seve ral sco r in g tables. 4. Flags. 5. Dupli cate apparatus f or the warm -up g ymnasium . 6 . M edal s and Trophies . 7. A scor e sheet f or each event . B. A schedule of ev ents, meet ings and oth er ac ti v ities associated with th e meet.

PERSONNEL: I . A Queen should be selected to pass out the medals and troph ies. 2 . A dditional sco ring tabl es need t o be m anned by at least t wo scorers t o each table. 4. A t leas t o ne run ner t o pass a long info rmation . 5. A tr ou b le-shoo ter t o wor k wi th t h e fl oor manager. 6 . So m eone to deco rate th e faci l ity. 7 . Super ior judges. B. A ddit ional Clerica l help.

ITEMS TO CHECK BEFORE THE DAY OF THE MEET I. Duplicate and distri bute the en tr y blank .

2. Order medals and tro phies. 3 . Secure a sanction fro m the USGF , if


5. 6.



9. 10.

appropriate. Write t o Frank Bare, Executi ve D irect o r, USGF, P. O. Box 469 9, Tuscon, Arizona . Arrange to hav e photographers f o r the meet. One f o r mov ies and one f or good action shots and especially pictures of the v ictors. Arrange protection f o r the ticket booth. Arrange f o r a refreshment stand. Set up the entire schedule in regard to: a. pre-meet work-out schedules b. time for preliminary and final sessions. c. judges' meetings - time and place d . coaches' meetings - time and piace e. scratch sessions. Arran ge f o r the equipment in both th e compet iti ve area and the warm-up area. (Equipment manufa cturers are usuall y ver y helpful in securing thi s equipment). A fter all entries are in, h old a fin a l draw ing. for the order of competit ion f or the preliminar y session s. Set u p the opening ceremony. (ih e sequence of ev ents which will ser ve as a starting po int. )





I . Distribute order of competiti o n t o coaches f o r scratch sess ion. Thi s co n perti nent info r.mation . A fter the scratch sess ion , the final order of com petit ion should be dup licated . 2. As events finish, haxe the c ler ica l h elp dupli cate the results and d istri bute th em among the coa ches. 3. A s events f inish , the equipment used be r emoved from the fl oo r. 4 . Arrange f or seating f or o ffic ial s, coaches, the press, and the partici pants. 5. Make sure the photographer gets gooo a cti on shots. (During the meet, a fla sh is u suall y n ot appropriate .) 6 . Clean th e fa c ility between a nd afte r preliminar y sessions. 7. The order of competition f or th e fina ls should be prepared and distributed a s soo n ofter the preliminaries as poss ib le. It s,",ould then be distributed among the coaches. B.-The Finals : ( ) I . Ceremon y sho uld be started a f ew

minutes befo re the designated time . (

2 . Items 2 , 3 , 4 , and 5 abov e should also be arranged for 'the Final Session . 3. Be sure the Meet moves al ong prompt ly.




I . Prepare a finan cail statement. 2. W rife up th e high po ints o f the meet and send the results t o th e M odern Gy m na st Mag az ine, P. O . Box 61 I , Santa M o nica , California . 3 . Call loca l newspapers, radi o and t e lev isio n stati ons and gi ve t hem a resume of th e actio n and the final results. 4. C lean up the facility .



I ~



Gym Snaps af 1960 Olympic Champion Takemoto showing a Hecht dismount and a German Giant sequence photos on the' Horizontal Bar. Takemoto since 1962 has. been the Japanese Olympic Coach. (Photos courtesy Frank Endo.)


By Jess Robinson Unusual Stunt or Wild Routine

Danny Millman wrote suggesting we devote a column to outlining various ways trampoline can be used as a teaching aid for other gymnastic events. He says, "Trampolin e is recogn ized as a teachin g aid by divin g coaches and all toprat ed divers spend many hours on the ap· paratus. However, most gymnastic coaches seem to confin e the trampolin e to a solitary niche; that of a sin gular gymna stic event, separate from the other six (Olympic) even ts. It should be brought to their atten tion and to the attention of fellow gymnasts th at the trampolin e is a universal train ing elemen t that can strengthen a gymnast in every even t with the possible exce ption of side horse. " If the gymnast does nothin g but boun ce straight up and down on a trampoline for short periods each day it will help him develop lon ger respiratory enduran ce and build leg muscles for better sprin g. But if h e learn s somersault s and twists h e will obtain a kines th eti c sense or "air minded ness" that will be as valuable to him as it is, to the diver. This sense is needed when executhe diver. This sense is n eeded when exec u-in g dismoun ts from high bar, parallel bars or rin gs ,for performing somersaults over the lon g horse and for tumbling free exer·· cise routines. Correct body posture and motion for front and back giants on hori zontal bar and over-bars on parallel bars can also be learned and practiced on trampoline a s well as long horse stunts. Hal Fry" my coach at Cal is stressin g trampolin e as a trainin g agent for nearly half of the gymnastic team. "Gymnasts here are discovering n ew u ses for the trampoline every day. For example, Ray Hadley, University of California grad uate student and nationally known gymnast, taught me the cast for a German giant by havin g me sit on the frame and cast back, pushing with the arms and landing gently on my head on the trampoline bed. " Perhaps you can list oth er uses in addition to these I have mentioned. If coaches make use of this tremendous apparatus it should be another step toward an improved gymnastic program in the United States." We feel what Dan says is true. Dan, George H ery, Frank Schmitz, Joe Nappi, K ent Umbarger and Mike Sullivan , all trampolinists we know, have turned in fin e performan ces in other gymnasti c events. The problem we face in addition to Dan's list is that we are familiar with trampoline but know very little about the other events. P erhaps our readers might suggest other moves that can be learn ed and practiced on trampoline. If so, write to J ess Robinson, c / o Trarppoline Inc., 4207 W. Magnolia Blvd., Burbank, Cal ifornia.



Double siu e somersault. Three or four of our boys have performed thIs fea t but Dar Robinson of Paco ima . Cali f., probably does it as well as anyone. In a double ~ id e so mersault perform er spots on an item out from sid e of trampolin e and watches it do a double revo lu tion as somersault is performed .

Canadian Trampoline Canadian National Trampoline Championships were held at Ottawa J ewi sh Communit y Center on Sept. 6th. Meet was sponsored by Ottawa Trampolin e Assn. and was limited to Ca nadian trampolinists. Rick Kin sman, RCAF Gym Club , won men's sen ior division ; Jack Charron placed first in boy's intermediate division, and Butch J acklin won boy's junior di vision. RACF Kangaroo Cl ub supplied both winners in girls com· petition wit h Rita Palmer winning intermed iat e and Susan McCo rmack taking junior honors. Ottawa Trampolin e Assn. evolved to Canadian Trampolin e Assn. w·ith Larry Martin presid ent, Dick Guest vice-president and Kathy King, secretary . The association h opes to promote trampolining in Canada and extend s an in vitation to all Canadian trampoline cl ubs and / or organizations to join.

Omitted from last month's column (abo ut movie stunts) was the above picture of Lorne Janes performing on set. Lorne did a large portion of stunts in "How The West Was Won" including the jump from top of train onto cactus . You might also remember him wrestling an Anaconda snake in "Swiss Famil y Robinson." Lorne, an ex-gymnast , s howed his private stunt films at a dinner meeting of Southern Ca lifornia Gymnastic Assn . last spring.


Speaking of trampoline instruction, above is picture of 32 page pamphlet written by Newt Loken. Performing stunts throughout pamphlet is Ed Cole, three times Big Ten Champion and National Champion.


Greg Friel made the "Miscellany" page in Oct. 23 issue of Life Magazine. Greg was bouncing on our trampoline at Los Angeles Coun ty Fair when a parade came by and Photographer Bud Gray knew it would be interestin gto show Greg " standing" in air above heads of the crowd. Only Greg's back is shown and trampoline is not in picture. Greg has been doin g wen this year competing in C class (10th grade and under) of pre-season gymnastic meets held this fall by Southern California Gymnastic Assn. H e throws a well-controlled double back somer· sault, back wi th full twist and Rudolph and h as been workin g conscientiously on im· provin g his form. He also has a double flyaway on rin gs at Muscle Beach.

Record of The Month 3 Rudol;:>h out fliffi s double front somer· sault with 1% twist on second somersault ) performed by Ri ck Sayers of Burbank.

Newt Loken

Gymnastic Coach University of Mi chigan








line champion , was invited as Cou rse Director to the First International Trampoline Clinic

held at Crystal Pa lace Nati onal Recreation Center , London, England , October 22 thr ough 25 . His report on clinic follows: " This was without a doubt the finest clinic of this t ype I have ever witnessed. Arrival at the Center was Friday afternoon and evening w ith a workout in afternoon and fi lms a ft er dinner. Actua l opening of the clinic was at 9:00 Saturday morning Oct. 23rd.

"Morning session opened with welcomes and introductions. There were abo ut twelve countries represented. Some representati ves were coaches, etc., and some were performers. Following this I prsented a demonstration and

Th ere are two big worries in teaching a beginn er a twi sting so mersault. First, that he will begin to twist before he leaves tram· poline bed and, second, that he will be thinking twist and perform only a portion of the som ersault. If he does not have a well co ntroll ed somersault to begin with he might complicate matters further by lean· ing forward or ba ckward on takeoff. A co mbinati on of all Ihree errors can be a lerrifyin g thing. A twi stin g so mersault should begin in cenl er of trampoline, should begin with no twist and twist should start after feet leave trampolin e beel. To explain it more vividly, once a trampolini st jumps strai ght up from bed, bed can be r emoved and replaced with fir e and no mail er how trampolinist twi sts or so mersa ults he will still come down directly into fire. So, in startin g novice on half twisting front or back som ersault, we like to use tu ck before twi st. It is more difficult to twi st afl er tuck Ihan in piked or layo ut somersault but we use tu ck (or touching of kn ees ) as signal to twist. Once performer tu cks, enou gh somersault has been co m· pleted to mak e landin g comparatively safe. After Ih ese twi sts .are accomplished in tuck position, layout back with half should be learned and front with half should be ,~ork e d into piked front with half, spot· tm g bed during entire somersault which, of course, is a bar any . BACK WITH FULL TWIST Once back with half twist is done m layout position and is performed high, in center of trampoline and with confidence, It should be worked gradually around from half twi st to full twi st. Th en, when full twi st is obtained performer should continue to work on it until he sees bed during entire twist. A good back with full twist should be no more difficult than layout back somer· sault, difference being that performer sees trampoline bed do a full turn. FRONT WITH FULL TWIST Biggest problem faced in turning bar any around to front with full twist is that per. fann er sees trampolin e bed upside down in barany and usually thinks he is twisting opposite to what he is actually twisting. Therefore, h e attempts to turn first half of full twi st one way and second half the other. As I wrote in an earlier issue, to tell wh ich direction performer twists a barany, stand beside trampoline and look for hi s stomach or back as he twists. What you see stomach or back) is same as you wo uld see if he 'yere standing upright turn· in g a half twist. If this is confusin g, tie a rope or strin g on trampolini sts side, stan d

at sid e of trampolin e holdin g same while barany is performed. Rop e or string bill end in front or ba ck of performer accord· ing to way he twists. (If barany is twisted in opposite direction to other twists, change barany by performing piked front with half twi st- not barany- until correct twisting direction is mastered . It is important all twi st are performed in same direction.) Assuming barany is correct, perform bar· any starting on kn ees and landing on stom· ach. Place hand s on bed durin g barany if concerned with safety. Upon landing on stomach after knee barany, turn another hall tw ist 10 back on seco nd bounce. Both twi sts should be in sam e direction and if un ce rtain use sIrin g method of testing. (String should be twi sted co mpletely around performer if twi st is correct.) On ce this stunt is perform ed easily and with ample height , attempt second portion of twist be· for e landing- knee drop , front somersault with full twist to ba ck drop. This will give feel of full twi st. On ce accomplished, at· tempt to turn baran y aro und to full twist, feet to feet. If not successful at first, work alternately from knees to back then feet to fee t until front with full twi st is obtained. OTHER TWISTING SOlVIERSAULTS Learning front and back with full twists in above prescribed manner is basis for learnin g other twistin g somersaults. Per· form er should add twi sts, half at a tim e, accomplishing each with height, control and confid ence before adding n ex t half. Barany, Rudolph , Randolph as well as back with full, double and tripl e twi sts should be lea rn ed with perform er spottin g bed before progressin g further. In adding twists it is quite common to inadvertantly add so mersault when adding Iwist. Back with half very likely will be· co me 114 back with fulL If thi s is the case performer should think % back with full and it will probably come out about right. It might also be well to note that it is easier to twist if somersault is performed on center spot. In other words, do not travel backwards in back twisters, do not travel forward in forward twisters. Also, try not to whip or cut twisting somersaults. The more height in somer· sault the more tim e there is to perform stunt and prepare for landin g. Don't bounce uncontrollably high but do u se full height of boun ce in somersa ult.


my th oughts on teaching and learning funda mentals and working into progress ions. Then there was a most interest ing and enl ightening talk by Mr. George Rockham on diving mechanics and their uses for trampoJ ining. " Afternoon session began with Doctor Braecklein o f Germany telling of trampolining dev elopment in Germany. Next portion of program was the most impressive and heart-warming thing I ha ve ever encountered. Miss Stal fo rd fr om St. Vincents' Schoo l o f the BI ind presented talk and film showing use o f trampoline with blind students. She starts them on trampo li ne when they are 11 years o ld . Film showed her teaching methods and some' problems she encounters. Trampolining helps her students gain confidence in themselves and a lso helps posture problems. After her film one o f her students, a very nice lad of 12 showed his prowess on trampoline. This fine young red headed boy named Joe displayed good body control on all basic landing positions. Under iutelage of some of th e international coaches he soon learned a front flip f rom feet to feet. " Foll owi ng this demonstration was a practice session where coaches an d performers both cou ld give vent to stored up energy . "Su nday morning was completely fitted with " Further Progressions and Progressing Into Routines" during which time I talked and demonstrated attempting to show several successfu l methods presently employed in the U.S. " Again the afternoon was filled with interest for all. Dr. John Buck gav e an excellent presen tation of "Some Medical Thoughts on Tramp ol ining ," f ollowed by a short session on " Psy chological Approach," most of which I r eceived from the educational psychologist of the physical education department at Universi t y of Iowa. Miss Sta lfo rd and Joe again presented their awe inspiring demonstration, followed by panel d iscussions on rules, statutes and judging. The panel, which consisted of Dennis Horne and Dennis Ralston of England, Dr. Heinz Braeck lein of Germany and myself, was asked questions and we tried to give suitable answers. It was evident from this discussion that we still have a long way · to go as far a·~ international rules for compe t ition and judg'ng go. ·" Clinic ended with a demonstration in which the · best performers showed their talents. Everyone at the clinic agreed that the clinic had on ly gotten a good start and could easily ha ve continued for another week. "C li nic preparat ions were very successfully performed by Rob Walker, assistant director o f ph ys ical education at Polytechnic of London. " The clinic was a tremendous success and I would li ke to see something of this nature in the United States."

TUCSON C1NIC We are certainly looking forward to this year's Tucson Clinic. We wi ll be there with most of ou r team and two of our former team members-Danny Millman, world amateur trampoline champion and George Hery, wor ld professional champion-have both prom ised to attend. We haven't heard from Schmitz, Johnson, Sanders and the rest but they attended lost year and it is our guess they wi ll also be there. H ope t o see you all there.


CONNECTICUT REPORT By J ohn L. Brodeur H ere in Connecticut we are presently engrossed in developing gy mnastic activities in schools, recreation programs and c1ubo_ We have establi shed local, regional and stat e cham pionships for elementary, junior and senior hi gh school stud ent s_ Along wi th the above program we have been exceptionally busy running clini cs for coaches, phvsical ed uca ti on teachers and judges_ Recently a few of us were called upon to present a clinic at the University of Conn ecti cu-t sponso red by th e Division of Girls and Women's Sports for Physical Edu ca ti on Teachers _ This Clinic was to be se t up for introductory material on women's event s and progressions for running classes and' possibly clubs. Along with the actu al instru ction we were asked to write up papers covering different even ts and phases of gymnas ti cs. Enclosed are tw o of the papers that were mad e available to all those attendin g as well as eventually being sent to all women physical education teachers in Connecti cut as part of the D. C.W.s. progra m to promote wom en's gymnastics. These papers met with such interest and comment that I wish to off er them to yo ur magazin e for poss iblt! dissemination to those who may be developin g as we are here in Connecticul. The one paper, written by myself, on beginnin g judgin g co vers men's and women's events and aids in givin g insight as to what wou ld be included in routine work. The second paper was written in coll aboration with Miss Mary J aron czyk, who is fa st beco ming one of the outstandin g authorities on wo men's gy mnasti cs here in th e easl.

BALANCE BEAM Mary J aronczyk Manchester High Manchester! Conn.

B. MOVEMEN T PATTERNS ON FLOOR 1. WALK 2. Run 3. Jump 4. Hop 5. Skip 6. Slide 7. Ga llop 8. Leap ( Have child do these pat terns on fl oor to ge t " kin esthetic feel" ) II. Hints: 1. K eep head in lin e wi th spin e 2. K ee p back straight 3. Legs & arms just move 4. Kee p shoulders down 5. Kee p hips tu cked und er a. WALK 1. Toes turn ed out & lead with toes 2. Look down with eyes but kee p head up 3. Shoulders down 4. walk in straight lin e (legs swin gin!( forward not sid eward) 5. Ap pendages just move 6. Back stays strai ght 7. Hips over feet

C. TURNS 1. Pivot- hi gh 11. Pi vot- low a. Hi gh- up on % toe-keep feet close toge ther - legs strai ght - buttocks ti ght - kee p hips over feet - back strai ght - ( think of liftin g & turning at the sa me tim e) b. Low-squat - up on half toe - turn with kn ees together - back straight-chest high {easier to do than high because center of gravity is close to beam} D. POSES OR HOLDS I. Arabesque II. Scale Ill. Kn ee Scale IV. V-Sit V. Hi gh Lun ge IV_ Low Lun ge VII. Medium Lun ge a_ Arabesque-chest high- l leg extended back below horizontal- up on % toe or may be flat (may be used as a turn ) b. Scale- up on % toe or flat-chest high- back leg hi gher than horizontal - (Never bend at wai st and than lift back leg_ Think of raisin g chest & liftin g the leg at the sam e time so student moves as 1 movement ) c. Kn ee scale-same as scale exce pt 1 knee is on beam d. V-Sit- may be done fr om a crotch seat mount or from a front roll.. H ands may be under the beam- on the bea m - onor out to side_ e. Hi gh Lunge-step forward & bend leg - foot flat- turned out & knees directly over foo t-back leg remain s straight and is in turned ou t contact with the beam. f. Low Lunge-front leg bent & up on % toe- back leg extends & inside arch is on beam. g. GETTING UP FROM KNEE SCALE - 1. release hands-strai ghten back 2. swing back leg forward to beam 3. stand up h. GETTING UP FROM LUNGE1. Same thing except that no hand s ar e used.

A. FLOOR WORK I. Learn Arm positions (l-2-3 -4-5 ) a. Hints: 1. Shoulders should be down 2_ Elbows should be rounded and held high 3. K ee p thumbs close to middle finger ( there should be tension between thumb & 3rd fin ger as though person were squeezin g a little rubber ball) II Learn feet positions (1 -2-3-4-5) a. Hint s. 1. Knees sh ould be straight except in plie or bent leg position 2. Buttocks should be ti gh t 3. Hips should be tu cked und er 4. Work for turnou t (kee p legs under ten sion as you go through plie position) 5. Do not turn ankles-keep ankles strai ght above fool.





E. DISMOUNTS 1. To be covered later

1. 2. 3. 4.

continuity of moves assured confiden t steps different levels creative hand movements


,HOUNTS A. SQUAT V A ULT -similar to side horse progression a. kn eel b. squat to stand 1. Spot 2 ways a. opposite side of beam- hold wrist & arm to side of pupil b. fr ont of beam-catch should er between bicep & deltoid (not reco mmended beca use pupil may hit spo tter with kn ees) 2. FA ULTS: a. Will hit shin s because they drive kn ees & keep arms back & bent 3. HINTS: a. Lift & tuck comes at the same time b_ Lean forward on shoulders


1. SPOT: opposite side of beam fa cing student- 25 arms hold student's shoulders between bi cep & deltoid . 2_ FAULTS: a. not raisin g hips b. bent legs c. not coming forw ard with shoulders d. legs too far apart ( hard to control) 3. HI NTS: a. land with fee t flat preferably with ball of foot on beam- toes curled over the beam 1. SPOT : 2 waysa. on same side as student is-l hand at waist & other on extended leg. b. 2 spotters-l spotter to assist pupil up to beam & another spotter on opposite sid e to prevent fall off. 2. FA U LT S : a. hands are too close to right knee or left kn ee (awkward position ) HINT: slide hands up b. Extension of legs will not be don e so 2 spotters are necessary for assist of elevation of that leg Pupil doesn't turn on knee - they bend too far forward with bent arms. They may bend but have to straighten up ri ght away after turn to knee scale.

D. STRADDLE SPLIT 1. SPOT : a. grasp guide arm with 1 hand & waist wi th the other

2. FAULTS: a. falling away from guide arm b. not having a good split 3. HINTS: a. Guide arm is opposite to direction of turn b. K eep wI. on guid e arm to secure self c. Feet may be on side or on top of arch d. Student usually feels insecure in split- balance fa ctor very importahl.

E. DIVING FRONT ROLL take wI. on arms-as wI. goes off balance hands chan ge to bottom of beamstraddle out. 1. SPOT: SAM E as front roll 2. HINTS: keep wI. even 2. HIN TS: keep wI. even keep hips high F. SHOULDER STA ND MOUNT (dia gonal position) to be covered later 1. SPOT: stand opposite side 2. HIN TS: keep diagonal - as student comes out of it the student tran sfers the diagonal to the strai ght- hips are hi gh_


1. Bent leg on beam ha s toe tu cked und~r 2. H ead goes between hand s ( En glish ) on top of bea m 3. K ee p tu ckin g head- ex tend bent l e ~ reachin g forward & push hip over 4. As roll goes past point of balance 5. H and s grasp un der be am 6. Legs are stra ight as they come over 7. Roll out to lyin g pos iti on with back on beam SPOT: Hand s on waist-as they com e over - remove hand on fa r side & kee p other hand on abd omen. Put pres· sure wh ere needed.

FRO NT ROLL with hips up 1: Done the same way as above exce pt th at for so me students havin g the hips hi gh in pos iti on already will mak e th e stunt easier.

FRON T ROLL jar a scale 1. Done the sam e as above exce pt that the leg th e student is standin g on is straight. If student has no fl exibility the kn ee mal' bend . K ee p tu ckin g as stud ent roll s. B. BA CK SHO ULDER ROLL (from lyin g on beam-supine) 1. Individual should lie out fl a t before shifting head 2. H ead drops to sid e of beam 3. Hand s grasp bottom beam & squ eeze arms cl ose to beam 4. Pike legs back over head strai ght 5. Opposite leg to beam as should er that takes wt. ex. head is on ri ght side of beamwI. on left shoulder- th en right leg hits beam 6. As wI. goes past point of balancehands chan ge to top of beam 7. T ouch toe to top of beam 1st- top of toe continues to slide along beam to kn eelin g position of knee scale. SPOT: opposite of fr ont- as fee t co me over- stabilize hip. Grasp wai st & guid e through. As student comes over kee p hand on back. FA ULTS : Don't let leg slide ( base of support is too small becau se knee is too close to hands ) Hands do not chan ge to top of bea mstart with tuck rather than pike ':""' Note: At start of back roll hands may be on top of beam- under - or 1 up & other on bottom Doin g roll with opposite head & leg is for compensation of balan ce Doin g roll with sam e head & leg is not wrong- it just de· pends on teacher & student C. SHOULDER STA ND (from supin e position ) 1. S tart for a back should er roll 2. To balance position in inverted pike then strai ghten up ( person is not quite strai ght up & down- always pul! on arms. SPOT: By hip just as back roll FAULTS: Pulling over too far hand s not in support. Not archin g up. D. SHOULDER STA ND from front roll 1. H ands are in English position 2. Place shoulder on- beam- head on eith er side 3. Rai se hips over shoulder to pike position (fee'! may or may n ot be on b~ am) 4. Legs are slowly rai sed to arched position (as feet come up th e wt. of hips com es back & settles toward the hands ) 5. As more wI. is placed on hands-th e less pressure on shoulder 6. Come out same way or to knee stand SPOT: Hand supportin g waist (doesn't matter which side you spot- but is usually on side where hea d is because spotter may p.ull , !;lush or twist student \

E. SHO ULER STA NlJ MOUNT 1. Is di agonal- keep in dia go na l plan e SPOT: Techniqu e is the sa me as above F. CA RTWHEEL (l eft sid e) 1. Turn as you go into beam 2. Ri ght hand leaves bea m as ri ght foo t makes II! turn & end up directly oppos ite from the way stud ent started 3.- Should be abl e to do on fl oor (o n a lin e -and well controll ed ) S POT : Gra sp th e wa ist on low bea m (grasp (deltoid ) up per arm for hi gh beam ) HIGH SPOT: Catch 2nd hand that co mes down & reach for hip

G. HANlJSTAND SPOT : Spot with 1st arm that touches bea m then gras p at delt oid s when stud ent is up. Stand in front of stud ent on opposite sid e of beam Come out with II! turn or the sam e way H . BA CKO VER (on fl oo r first ) on a line with hand s cl ose toge th er SPOT : On low beam 1st-get in stretch in upper back l sI. First few tim es spot by supportin g stud ent on shoulder. EX. S potter & student back to backreach up for waist as stud ent stretches back ,"ver spotter's should er. 2nd few times guide wai st-as stud-ent comes out gras p for near wri st & shoulder to stabili ze ':, ', DO NOT let stud ents lean backward s - make them stretch upper back

DISMOUN TS A. HITCHKI CK 1. Straight- fr ont stand- push off foo t on beam to % handstand positi on di s· mount- ki ck leg outward to clea r beam & stand si dewards to beam 1 hand remains on beam for sup port SPOT: opposite sid e of beam-catchin g arm or wri st. Other hand is in pos iti on to kee p feet from co min g back on bea m. 2. fr om KNEE SCALE SPOT : The sa me as above B. __ STR A DDLE JUMP SPOT : sa me as straddle vault ove r horse. Sta nd in fr ont of stud ent & catch upper arm s as stud ent jumps off. C. SID E SEAT 1. Push off beam with II! turn. S POT : hold wri st & arm. D. CARTWHEEL 1. The 2nd hand that lands is ve ry close to th e end of beam 2. S tretch up as stud ent pushes off beam 3. Hands should be forward pos ition SPOT: Ca tch 2nd arm as it co mes off & follow over holdin g arm FAULTS : 1. Pan cakin g (not pu s hin g throu gh hand stand position correctly) 2. Bendin g arm s (control fa ctor ) 3. K eepin g head up 4. Collapsin g on landing 5. Feet coming a par t- mu st keep handstand HI NT : Have stud ent take step & jump off beam to bent .knee pos iti on & at th e sam e time have her resist bendin g too low. E. 1 AR M CARTWHEEL F. CARTWHEEL WITH 14 TURN Or ROUN DOFF (handstand with II! turn off ) SPOT: sam e as D G. ENGLISH HA NDSTA ND (like a front vault ) 1. Up to a full hand stand & down eith er on beam or off SPOT : wri st & should er on oppos it e sid e of beam.

INTROD UCTOR Y PR OG R A ~ GY MNAST IC J UDG ING by J ohn L. Brod(· ur Jud gin g


gy mn ast ics


is probabl y


of th e most diffi cul t of all offi ciatin g u u t i.. " in sports. Th ere has been mu ch done ov .... th e last several yea rs to help elimin ate SO I1l <: of th e subj ecti vity in volved in jud l! in l! of adva nced ca liber gy mn as ti cs th oul!h th er.. are still many pros and co ns as to its e ff ect on th e creati vity of gy mn as ti cs. Fortu na tel" or unfortunately th ere ha s neve r been an ~ close agree ment on how to evalu ate th e b':ginnin g or intermedi a te gy mn as t. T he pro hlem stems from th e loss of int erest in IlYI11 nasti cs ove r a twenty or thirt y yea r pe ri od ; until rece ntl y th ere is before us a rebirth of acti vity with adv an ce ment· at such a fas t pace th at we find ourse lves ca ught up in a situation lackin g in adm inistrati ve pc r"o nnel of both coaches and jud ges. Our chan ces of findin g sufficient perso n· nel qualified and train ed in thi s area arc practically nil ; th erefore we must rely u pon those persons interested and willin g to give of their tim e and eff ort to beco me in volved in this area of the sport. It is obvious that there is a lot to learn and many mi stakes to be made and corrected. But in teachin g so meone to sw im yo u mal' lecture him , give him all there is to read on th e subj ec t, but unless he ge ts into th e water anu gets hi s feet , wet tryin g he will most likely drown. W hat I hope to offer in thi s pape r are merely suggestions on how yo u as a judge, mi ght handl e yo ur task a little more efficiently. I hope to off er so me valuabl e tip>; on wh at to look for in genera l and also fo r indi vidual events. In gymnasti cs th ere are three maj or co n· sideration s in evaluatin g the gy mn as ti c: routin e. These are as foll ows: 1. Fo rm an d executi on 2. Difficulty 3. Combination Consideration of th e above fa ctors are as follows: I. FORM AND EXEC UTIO N Our one great est area to stress in gy mnastics mean s legs straight and together as well as pointin g of th e toes throughout th e routin e. This does not hold tru e in stri ct r igidity in that man y moves require strad dlin g of th e legs, tuckin g or squatin g. Th ese instan ces will beco me self evid ent as one beco mes more familiar with the vari ous gymnastic movements. Body carri age and appearan ce of th e gymnast during his routine should be considered. This justly fall s und er ex ecution , where how he performs is co nsidered. The obj ect in routin e work is to make everythin g look easy and not to struggle through moves. Th e mount and di smount must be of special value in a- routin e. II. DIFFICULTY This area in beginnin g gymnasti cs is really a thorn in the side. In ad van ced gymnastics moves and co mbinati ons of moves are r ated, much as in divin g, so they can be more obj ectively scored. However, in beginning gY I,lna stics it is extremely hard to determin e what should be considered difficult for the beginn er and interm ediate gy mnast. This fa ctor can only be determined by judgin g the perform ers now and es tablishin g a fram e of r eference as to the level of perform ance of the group in their entirity.


:\1 this poinl il mi l! ht well Ill' r, 'membered Ihal fM Ihi " con, id,' ralilln ..r th e .!!\"mna~ls routint' we are al~tI ~('I ­ lin~ '; piclure of our 1.,;"'1 uf "O~dl ­ in~. For Ihi s pari of Ih ., mark in "

V. STILL RI NGS R outin e s hould co nsi , 1 of "lre n;! lh anti

hf'g innin g gy mna ~ li(' prog: ra lll it Illi~hl \\"<, 11 be com; id e red Ihat Ill(' in c lud in!! of difficult moves 10 Ihe <,x l"nl , l lack of consideration of furlll anti ex ec ution a~ well as th e t'IHlallgerill~.t of Ih e l!y mna st, by hi s coac h or hill; :,elf "hou ld be disco ura ged . 1Il. CmfB I NATlON Wilh a little experience and !.I<1 l"J.. g ruund iri watc hin g advanced gy III 11 il :-:tics Ihi s area will b ecome Illore apparent. In com bination the l!y mnas l'" crealivit y really show s it self. In jud;;:in g Ih is phase the fact ors to consider are: Does o ne muve lead in lu the nl'xl fluidly ? Noticing different ways uf ge ttil1 ;! into and out of mo ve ment pattern ". Do all Ihe movemenl s as a w!tok lend themselves to a well balan ce d routin e. ROUTINE S SHOULD BE STRESSED AT ALL LEVELS!!!

.v \.


SIDE HORSE A routin e should consist of a se ri eo of leg cuts, scissors, and travels. Th c gym nast should attempt to work all areas of the horse, movin g across. and ba ck. The routine should be conslantl y movin g and th e gy mnast should avoid sittin g on the horse-movem ent s should be free.

llI. HIGH BAR Swinging movements should be used and holds eliminated from the routin e. Some movements most lik ely to be seen will include: kips, leg and cro tch circles, front and ba ck hi p circles, % giant swings, giant sw ings, sole circles, and knee circl e,. IV.

PARALLEL BAR Swinging and vault in g movem ent s should predominate. Routine sho uld include a strength part (usually a lever or press to handstand ) and 1 10 3 hold parts. Some movement s that will mos l likely be seen are: kips above and below thi! bar, should er rolls, shoulder stands, han dstand , glides, front and back upri ses, casto and peach baskets.


again so is nul' ca lil ll-> r


~rlllna:' li (" .. .

II i;; imp or lanl Ihal Ihese Ihn'" fa(' lor .' he in c lu ded fo r nur jud gin g In ~i\ ,. th e jurl}!e::: Ih t" (~x p (' ri e IH'f' in w('i~hi:l;~

Ihe,;,· facio)"!, . This shnuld also s('n·,' to lIr ~(' Ih e gy mna st tn includ e Ih t':--t ' Ihin p:~ in hi 5 or hpr r outirlt:' . A~.nllr IIv mn a" ls imrrovt' ,,0 shoul d our jud~,· .- _

For women th e roulin e sho uld be done to mu sic and should fil th e Illu"i('. Roulin e should cons isl of tumblill!!. dance, and fl ex ibl e (a cro bali c) mo v;' ment s. Area sh ould be cover ed effecti vely. Gymnasls , hould lllove cons lallily w ith a minimum of h old llloves. "Iovemenl s ITl os l lik ely 10 be ,,('(' 11 are: Walk-overs. s plil S, fr ont & ba ck hands prin gs. ca rl wheels, dance se quen ce". leaps, jumps, roll s, and aerial s.


Tim e-l to Ph minul es Roulin e should move fr eely up and d own the bea m wilh a minimum oi Ihree (3) pa sses . V ery few h old s u5cd. Leaps and jumps should be in clud ed. So me movemenl s most lik ely to be see n are: Scales. front & ba ck roll s, squat turn ". run s, hitch-ki ck s_ s plil S, ca rlwlwel., and dan ce steps. ilL UNEVEN PARALLEL BARS In thi s event movement s shou ld be continuou s and ,ar iation s m ovinp: fr Ol.: upper to lower bar and back again. Some m ove menl s most lik ely to ",. seen are: Hip circles, leg & crotch circles, 5cales_ and turn s, hand s tands, & turm.

gori es-


:\ " a fina l nol e il "houl.! Iw -Ial,·" Ih a l for our purpos .. " a ralin ;! of .-, poinl s for form a nd exec ulion , 3 poinlfor diffi c ulty . and 2 point s for COlll · binalion he used. Thi s i" " Ii p:hlh diffen' nl frolll Ilw slandin!! ('oJ,' o f difficulty pul oul by til(> F. I. G ._ hu !

I. FREE EXERCISE Area 39' x 39' Tim e 50 - 70 ,eco nlk

Area 39' x 39' Time 50 to 70 second s

S ireng th- p res S e s to handstand , heads tand s, arm levers Balance-hand stands, scales, h eads land s, ches t stands, kneels & sits Flexibil it y-splits, limber overs, loe touch es, and chest roll s Agility-leaps, skips, and jumps TumbIing- h eadsprings, hands prin gs (front & back) som ersaults, cartwheels, and rolls of all types.



FREE EXERCISE The gy mna st should in clud e movem ents of strength , balance, fl ex ibility , agility, and tumbling. All mo ve ment s should be presented in rhythm and harmon y. The pattern should be CO IItinuous and fl owin g as well as utili zin g the area effectively-they sh ould minimize running steps. Th e following are so m e of the moves that may be seen in the various ca lc-

movem ent s.

Vault s wi ll be selecled fr om a tahl e of difficulty- as in di vin g va ull " art ' all prorated Thin gs to look for are: pre-flight, va ult it self. a ft e r fli;!hl &: landin g


!:'wi ng in g

Some movement s mos l likely 10 he seen will be: Di sloca te;-, inl oca les, back roll s, frunl and back upri ses, back l,' ve rs. shoulder s l ands. hand stand s. and iron crosse" .


SIDE HORSE VAULT As in men 's th e va ult s will be 5pl · ected from a table to difficulty and are pro-rat ed. Scor ed same as for nwn. Things to look for are: pre- fli ght, vault itself , after fli ght and landing


VII. TRAMPOLINE Routine to consist of from ten 10 twelve bounces com men cin g fr om Ih c first trick. On e move should lead to the n ext. Some movements lik ely to be see n are: Front and back som er sa ults, tWi 3 l ~, front and back drops, codies, doub ;~ backs, brani es, seat drops, cradles, kn ee drops.

VI I. TUMBLING This event is one of the most difficult to judge. The conve ntional form of tumblin g is so mewhat diffcrent from that of appara tus. Moves most lik ely to be seen are: Front & ba ck rolls, ca rtwh eels, roundo ffs, front & back hand sprin gs, so mi es, and aerials. WALK OVERS. LIMBER OVEJ{S, HEA DST A NDS . etc. are co nsid ered ground tumblin g and should not b L' consid ered in mat tumblin g.

NEW TRAINING SIDE HORSE A new lower-priced side horse designed for training purposes, but with the some working a rea as the Olympic competition style, has been developed by Nissen Corp., Cedar Rapids, Iowa. The No. 254 Side Horse has all the features of the No. 250 Olympic Standard h orse except the depth of the body is 3V2" sho rter . And, it se ll s f or abou t $100 less_ The body of the new horse is covered with a high grade leather, hand fitted by Nissen craftsmen for complete durability. By rem ov ing the Olympic sty le wooden pommels the No . 254 convert s to a long horse for vaulting _ Its height can be quickl y adjusted from 36" to 60" . Th e new h o rse has soft rub ber pads on the base t o protect shiny gym floors and provide maximum stability . One leg is equipped with Nissen's exclusi ve Leg Levele r , an adjustable base pad which

compensates f or any unevenness of the fl oor and assures a level, stable apparatus. Except for the depth of the body, the new N o_ 254 Side Horse meets all Olympic speci ficati ons and is highly rec ommended as a training horse for schoo ls and colleges . A bright. nickel chrome finish o n all metal parts prO Vides a maintenance- free operation yea r after year.

NEWS RELEASE NEW AMERICAN INSTRUCTOR LINE OF GYMNASTIC EQUIPMENT American Athletic Equipment Company of Jefferson, Iowa is presenting a new line of full Olympic size gymnastic equipment f or u se speci f ica ll y in physical education closs gymnastics. This new line is called the "American Instructor Line" serie s 200 . All of the major pieces o f gymnastic equipment are included. All of the item s are made of tubular stee l and are I ight in weight so as to be easi Iy handled in gymnastics classes. Finish on the American Instructor equipment is light tan baked Copo loid. Send for 1965 sc hoo l cata log.



EDITORS NOTE: We are sure our many readers who have been Vic Josselyn fans in the past will enjoy this interesting "VIC SAYS " article . . . Vic asked his brother D a n for a l ittle technical assistance on the mech an ic s of the pole for use in the artic le . . . . Below is an excerpt of a letter to Vic from Dan wh ich we found stimulating.

D ear Editor, .

I added a simplified bit on the mechanics of the pole . Comparing it to the arche ry bow seemed the simplest methlod, and the parallel is nndonbt· edly valid. It is amazing to read the argnments, pro and con, on the glass rod. Engineering is beyond the sports w riters. The same force which bends the glass rod is exerted on the still rod, and certainly some 0/ it goes io shee r waste . In th e glass rod it can be re covered with proper timing and adeqnate arm pnll. And this repre· sents "terminal velocity", where it is very nse/nl. Wlorked to an e/ /icient bend, agiass pole might well "p ro· pel!' the vanlter as mnch as a conple of feet higher. The middle bend, with sti// ends, is the worst one conld design. It wonld be interesting to engineer a pole . With the exception 0/ the hand hold, a flattened shape, like a bow, likely wonld be desirable. The actnal bow taper might be too jast, bnt some mlodijication conld be worked ant to snit the " hnman element". One conld easily demonstrate. Pnt a given weight in a bowl on top oj a pole, bend to a given ponndage, re lease and see how high it wonld throw the weight. Then engineer a pole, nse same weight, bend to same ponndage and repeat. It wonld be a " IJow" nsed difjerently, and there is no qnestion abont resnlts. Th e "/lat bow" design averages 30% more efficient than the longbow-which jar centnrieSJ was supposed to be a good bow. Snch are the results of design . I can't think of an)' way such fancy enginee ring as reo curvature could be applied to the vanlt· ing pole, bnt p~oper cross section shape, taper, and distribnti(fn 0/ bend undoubt· edly conld. Dan

Since the introduGtion of the fib erglass pol e to vaulting there have been many dire predictions in the press to the effect that it will soon be a "gym na sti c event"-or more often, " just a gymnastic event". The gen~ra l feeling seems to be that "gymnasts" should not be allowed .to compete, or fail· in g that, perhaps public support should be withdrawn. Some writers infer unlimited faith in the gy mnast's ability to turn champion vaulter over ni ght. One un signed article suggests that any day now some Ru ssian commisar will give a gy mnast a glass pole and say , "Okay, I van, now you're a pole vaulter-cl ear 18 fee t". Ju st like that! Could it be that the sports writers, who have long neglected the gym nasti c frat ernity, consider them supermen? Th e fa ct is that the fiberglass pole is not going to chan ge anything very much except the records. Is it not true that the fir st part of the pole vault, th e necessary speed of the run , has always been " track"; and the last part, liftin g the body above the hands to clear the mark , "gymnastic"? Lack in g either ability , no one is in CJJmpetitian today. Yet Don Bragg, one·time cham · pion, suggested that the glass pole be out· lawed, and wailed that the record would soon be held, not by a "regular pole vaulter" , but by a "gymnast swin gin g on a fiber· gl ass pole." And this from a man who could chin the bar 30 times-at around 200 ponnds we ight- and play Tarzan in the movies. Certainly he was a potential gymnast, and I would like to bet he had at least some gym nasti c ex perience. H e protested that he was " too bi g" for th e glass pol e, easil y an swered by supplyin g a stronger pole. What are the requirement.s for a record vault? Th e speed at which one approaches the take·off largely control s the fir st halfwhich th e li ghter glass pole migh~ in crease sli ghtly. As to th e last half, it of course has not changed , except that now "gymna, · tic" ability may well be better r ewarded. The pole is now strai ghtenin rr against whi ch propulsion th e vaulter must pull hard· er, but which he can utili ze if he has the timing and arm strength. There is little doubt that the man who beg ins with thp glass pole has an advantage over those accustomed to th e stiffer pole. The fir st record listed in The Encyclo· paedia of Sport is 9'7'''', in 1877 by McNichol. By 1900 Bascom John son was do· ing 11'3". In 1910 it was 12', and 13' in 1920, 13'9 112" in 1930. In 1942 Warmer·

dam did 15'2%" and Ri chard s in 1954 did IS'3'1h "- th e hi ghest reco rd ed in th e out· of·da te edition I consulted in th e New York Publi c Library . Don Bragg's J5 '9 1h " st"cms to be th e record with th e old pole. In an all·around track and gym nasti c meet held in Pittsburgh prior to 1900, Lou" Will s va ulted over 10 fee t. Will s, lat er dp s· tin ed to beco me perhaps th e most accom· plished of all th e professional understand er:,. started hi s gy mna sti c career at the age of seven workin" on all apparatu s and spe· ciali zin" on thOe hori zontal bar. At th e time of the "amateur meet he had already bee n one season with a small ci rcus, but such things were pleasantl y overlooked in thosp days. In thi s meet all entrant s were requlred to ent er all events, both tra ck and gy mna ~ ti c. This type of meet has of co urse lon,g Slll CC been discontinu ed, regrettably , I thlllk. In· cidentally Will s took first place, bei ng a goo d tr~ck man as well as an agile gym· nast. I vaulted some as a small boy and en· j oyed it-with a heavy pine tcnt pol eit could hardly have been worse. We thought the bamboo poles were miracl es of perfec· tion- as they were by comparison. I think it is a good sport to start a boyan youn;:>:. Boys "take" to this event. An elaborat e .Iand. in g pit is unnecessary for cas ual va ul~m ~ ­ the old·fashioned preparatIOn of dl gglll g a relatively soft " jumping pit" is stiffici enl. Boys enjoy vaultin g for di stan ce as well as height. Lon g vaults, ~s I recall, .ca n be very confusin g to Indians who l111 ght be on your trail-though I ga ther from mod ern TV that th e Redskin s are less pre· datory than th ey were when I was a boy. Small strea ms and deep ditches can easily be vaulted across. A ten·year boy, started with a modern pole, might well make mod· ern record s look easy ten years from now. A reasonably good pole could be made by wrapping bamboo with glass tape, or per· haps better "lass cloth and epoxy. A small pole for a s~all boy and of course a stiffer pole for a larger boy, Despi te the sudden increase of th e r ec· ord s with the advent of th e glass pole, and the many protests against its "unfairness". one sees many clumsy al'l!Uments as to whether or not it is an actual aid in higher vaulting. We may' point a parallel in the archery bow. In drawing the bow on e "stores ener!!y" , as the engineers say, to be released in the most effi cient mann er. Arch· ers now use fiber"la ss facing and backin;.r on bows-a very ;emarkable material. The distance record has gone hom about 650 yard s to 850 with fib erglass. The fiber glass vaulting poles also hendmarkedly. This also represents "stored. energy" . And fiberglass, alone amon~ mate~lal s, suffers no' hysteresis loss-that I S, m ening it gives back all the energy whwh went into the bending. As the vaulter gallls height, hi s pole straightens. If he . cannot take advantage of this strai ghtellln ~ .fm propulsion , it is his own fault- poor tJl111ng or poor "gymnastic" ability: . Since this possibility is mberent m the glass pole, and certainly used to some extent it seems rather silly not to make max· imu~1 use of it. But ask any boy what kind of an archery bow he would get if he tied a string to the ends of a broom .handle. That is how vaulting poles are still can· structed- the same diameter and strength throughout. Bows are carefully tapered fa rmaximum efficiency in bending. It seems inescapable that with a bit of engin· eerin g and experiment, vaulting poles could be made to bend, and to propel, more effi· ciently-and the danger of broken poles avoided entirely. The only objection I can see is that vaulters might go into orbit.




ON THE AIR D ear Mr. Su ndby, I thoug h t you would be inte r ested in knowin g that o n Nove mb er 5th over C hicago radio s tat ion WGN, The 'W a lly Phillips Program there was an inquiry as to w h e re on e might l eal'n Gymnastics. I welcom ed the opportunity t o g ive what inforIllati on I co uld , as I have been a.n activ e gy mn ast for the Sokols for m a n y year s. vVhen I In e ntion ed yo ur 111 ag-az in e it "went overlJ big and a.rou sed muc h c uri osity . The nam e o f Th e Modern Gymnast, address an d anlo unt f or subscription s and i es con t e nts were mention ed three d iff er e nt times, b e ing s ur e a nyone \"ho \vas g-enuinely int e r ested

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accurate infornl atiol1. I an1 a subscriber to yo ur ll1agaz ine a nd I s incer ely hop e I can in c r ease the number of s ub scripti on s to the MG. Vivian Nav ra til , S okol Tabor Berwyn, Illinoi s ED: Thanks for the plug, we appreciat<! your support first of all to Gymnastics and secondly to The Modern Gymnast. PUZZLED D ear Editor, I ca nl e acr oss an anno un celn e nt by th e Sarasota Gymnastic Clinic that there w ill b e films of the 1966 compu lsory exer c ises for th e ,\Vorld Champ ionsh ips s ho w n to those who wil l a ttend this coming December in Sarasota. Als o a t eam w ill be picked to compete against the Russ ia n g y mnasts id the USA. T h ere is a lso an inte rcontine nta l judges' co urse advertised. Wh y d o people ad vertise events that ca nnot tak e place? Why mis lead gymnasts and t each e rs ? I h eard th a t the 1966 vVorld exerc ises wi ll not b e r e leased b efor e e nd of Janua ry or F ebru a r y, 1965, th e Russia.n gymn as t s a r e not conling, the Sarasota Clinic has n o a uthority t o hold an " Inte r c ontine ntal judges co urs e." I a m puzzled. I s thi s Clini c s pon so red by th e "Modern Gymnast"? If so ex plain ! Sincer e ly, Panavano 446 East 76th Stre et N.Y.C . The Modern Gymna •.t does not sponsor the Sarasota Clinic . , . and do not agree with many of 't heir more recent policies and tactics . . . which have gone so far as to black out the name on their stationary of the founder and "Honorable Life Time" Prexy of the Clinic , Lyle Weiser . . . We are puzzled also and cannot explain.


THE GREATEST D e ar Mr. Sundry, I mu s t admit that I, probably like many oth e r g'ymnastH fro m L os Angeles, thought th a t th e b es t ringmen in the co un try li ve in en lifo rni a.. I s till guess a m ajority of t h e m r ea lly do, but my mind is now m a de up as t o w ho is th e be s t and h e does originally co m e from L os Ange les but do es not li ve th ere . He had hi s pict ure in the Modern Gym n ast seve r a l tiln es, but a s I r eca ll not once w h e n IOn the v ic tory stand . I think that t hi s is a tre l11endou s injustice (not o n your part-but p eopl e s hould have b ee n se nding in pic tures a lo ng w ith r e ports) . I'm r e f elTing to Dal e Coope r , whom I'm s ure i ~ th e gTeatest ringl11an to ever do a hand s ta nd in hi s t ory. Coope r m ay n o t have had th e b est gym nas tic a t t itud e as a senijor in NCAA' s which l11ay h nye been the r easo n f o r hi s downfall. but a.lth ough h e went down in d e feat, I r ea lly think that yo u owe it to yo ur r ende r s , to gy l11n as ti cs and to Coop e r ( \\'hOl11 .it unfortunate ly nlight not impress at t hi s time).

U p o n a rri v ing n e r e at MSU, Coo p er , for th e first tim e s ince NCAA, f,or th e first time let m e r e p eat again , jumped to the rings to d emo n s trate som ethin g for m e. S ince that time I' ve counted (thi s is an exact numb e r) twice out of p erhaps 150 dislocate s hoot hand s a nd g ia n ts that h e touche d t h e s tra p s . He t old m e that h e o n ce did 211 con secutive locked a rm s hoot h a nd stand s without hav ing t o bend hi s a rm s .or touch the strap s. After witnessing what h e can do after a fi ve m on t h lay off, I would s tak e m y ca lo u ses o n the tru th of this stat e m e nt. He was d efinitel y too conser vati ve . P e rhaps this fact is unkno wn in Ca liforni a . but a Za hm (di s locate s hoot inve rte d c ro ss) is r eally a Coo per as h e is th e o nly o ne I' ve ever seen do it with "omple tely lock e d a rm s and w ithout a fal se g rip. A s I understa nd it. Zahm fir st saw the stu nt p e rfo rm e d by Coo p e r (who as I said , I b e li eve to be th e fir s t to do it s u ccessfull y a nd in the mal111er which h e d oes it). Coo p e r h as in hi s unlimited r e p ertoir: s napri se to in verte d (loc ked arms co mpl etely ) , s n a pri se m a ltese , a nd w ithou t a doubt, t h e hig h est di s locate po ss ibl e (there is a n ,ob v iou s linli t). In high school he h e ld a cross f or thirty seve n seco nd s and more than like1y could have h e ld it lon ger w h e n in coll ege . I'm th inking hi s s u ccess is due to hi s incomparable w orko ut s. Th ese con s is t ed o f u s u a lly t,ve nty ring r out ines a. day, and on ce did seve nty co mpl ete r outin es i n one day . Also, this pa st season h e would d o a compl e t e routine except f or l et ting go of th e rings o n hi s di s mount and would w ith hi s a n1azing ab ility s tart and finis h a noth e r routin e with di s mount-all thi s b e ing d on e with out l etting g o of th e rin gs. I a s k e d why Coo pe r 's rin g sco r es ,ve r e so low t he firs t nig ht at L.A. State. Th e answer I go t froln a rece n t olYlnpic gy nlnas t who h as judge d seve r a l NCAA final s in th e p ast was that Coop er m a d e hi s routin e look " too easy ." H e said eve r ything was don e so asto unding ly easy there a pp ea r ed t o b e no diffi culty invo lved, fo l' Coop er t h a t is. I've s aid }lluc h too mu ch I imag in e, but p e rh a p s fo r t h e first time th e U.S. h as h ad. th e b est in th e wo rld o n a n oly mpi c eve nt and yet I kno,v 111an y s ub scrib en..; h "ve n ever h eard o f Dale Cooper. It h asn ' t b ee n so long- s in ce Cooper "retired " tha t yo u co uldn't put him on the cove r of y our nl ag-a zin e, 0 1' at l east d evote a " Gy m C h am p s" page to the b es t ring man in tlw ,,"o rld. S ince rel y, Eel G unn y, i\f.S U HIGH SCHOOL GYMNASTICS COACHES 3rd District Our district has only 15 members in the National High School Gymnastic Coaches Association. This is not sufficient to promote gymnastics in our seven state area. We need to join together more strongly and support th is fine sport. Wi th this small enrollment in our district, the sport cannot and will not grow to our satisfaction. We must ha ve a greater enrollment. Many gymnastic consious coaches a s well as teachers are forming o rganizations in their respecti ve states. To illustrate; New Mexico and Colorado' do have gymnastic associations on the state level. Kansas is finally getting on the band wagon, It's association is just beginning, but wi ll be soon completed and formally announced as functioning. A national association is mandatory for promoti on of 0 sport. To show each of the readers how important, this statement was taken from a letter sent to all corresponding secretaries by our NHSGCA secretary, Mr. Sidney Drain of Rolling Meadows, Illinois, "Gentlemen , it is my firm belief that this organization can move high school gymnastics into the national spotlight if we will work conscientiously toward promoting our sport through our schools, our community and the local and national newspapers. Let 's make this national organization one that does more than just exist ." He has stated the belief of all of us in the NHSGCA , it is now up to the high school coaches to join with us and help . Your Corresponding Secretary Third District NHSGCA Robert Manning 817 North Second SI. Atchison, Kansas 66002 Registration forms will be sent out upon request.





GRADED SYSTEM OF INSTRUCTIONS Ballet exerc ises and steps have been dominoting th e style of women's gymnastic pe rfo rmanc es for the past seve ral yeors. Our g irls ha ve been told by top coaching authoriti es to spe nd as much time on bollet training a s that is given to apparatus wor k. Th e trend of the men's wark is also show ing a chan ge in performance style.

BALLET FOR GYMNASTICS Technique - Grace Kaywell

No. 1000

Class C Only certain exercises out of classical ba ll et are necessary to the gymnastic athlete. How wi ll our many teache rs of the sport of gymn a stics in this country who have had no dance trai ni ng and no musical expe ri e nce gra sp this new concept and pass it on to the athletes?

The United States Gymna stic Federa ti on appOinted Grac e Kaywell to serve a s ballet consultant. Acting in thi s' capacity, she has put her classical ballet training to work, mod ifi ed it, and created a graded sy llabus far teacher and student. Th e system is divided inta Class "C", whi ch wi ll be ' considered beginner's work . . . Class "B", whi ch wi ll be considered intermediate work . . . and Class " A", which will be considered advanced work leading directly into the "E li te " division, whic h wi ll req uire Olympic and International cali ber of performance. All floor exercise music set at Inte rnati ona l timing of 60 to 90 seco nds.

The Stepping Tones Record Company, 2506 Overland, Los Angeles, Cal iforn ia, ha s been se lected to make the official recordings of the United States Gymnastic Federati on 's Ball et fo r Gymnastics Graded System. Th ese recordings were made under the p'e rsonal su pe rvis ion of Johnny Finke, eminent cOrTlposer and mu sica l director; Grace Kaywell, ballet consul tant; an d G le nn Sundby, ed itor of The Mode rn Gymna st Magazine. The contribution of Mr. Sundby, known throughout the wor ld for hi s cove rage of the gymnastic sport in his magazine, is uniqu e . . . it is his voice you will hear giving the instructions on how to execute the steps to the music. There is a writte n syl la bus of instructions where necessary.

Teac hers desi rous of perfecting th e ir teaching technique and obtaining a diploma and certificate may attend the teach e r's training clinic he ld eve ry su mme r in August in West Palm Beach, Fl orida . Grace Kaywe ll will conduct t he sessions, open both to men and women coaches. The examinati on will be in each grade, written, and with actual teaching classes. For info rma tio n of possible teacher training clinics in you r area, contact Grace Kaywell, 3 Tanglewood Court, West Palm Beach, Florida .

Piano - Johnny Finke

Voice - Glenn Sundby





No. 1010

Class B





No. 1020

Class A

SIDE A "ONC E UPON A TIME" (3/4) (Jennye McGriff-Jay Lee) 2 Bar Intro. 62 Bars Time 66 seconds S Rehearsal Bands "Light And Airy" (Johnny Finke) (4/4) 4 Bar Intro. 8 Bars (4/4) 16 Bars (3/4) 32 Bars (2/4) Time 71 seconds S Rehearsal Bands "MAZURKA" (3 / 4) I Chord Gliss. 69 Bars Time 68 seconds S Rehearsal Bands


I-DANCE OF THE COMEDIANS (2/4) 76 seconds 2-TALES OF THE VIENNA WOODS (3/4) 73 seconds 3-RHUMBA RHYTHM (4/4) 6S seconds 4-MY OLD KENTUCKY HOME (3/4) 68 seconds S-SKIP AND' HOP (4 / 4) 64 seconds 6-VALSE BRILLIANTE (3 /4) 81 seconds 7-FOSTER MEDLEY (2/4 & 3/ 4) 7S seconds 8-FUNICULI-FUNICULA (6/8) 60 seconds 9-HUNGARIAN RHAPSODY NO.2 (2/4) 90 seconds 10-THIS IS THE BLUES (4/4) 79 seconds II-CARMEN (2/4) 90 seconds 12-RAGTIME (4/4) 64 seconds



Record # 1000 is the first of the ball et tec hnique series . . . Class " C". Record # 1010 is the first of the ballet technique se ri es Class " B" . Record # 1 020 is the first of the composition music for ro utines o f the free exerc ise, Class "A" ".' . timed 60 to 90 seconds, Internati onal rul es. The United States Gymnastic Federation is publishing a book to augment the records. This will explain the why's and the haw's of the training, and will be fully illustrated . This may be obtained from the Executive Office, USGF, P. O. Box 4699, Tucson, Arizona.

MAl L1 NG CHARGE. •• 25~ 60lL 1 lLec.olLd and 1o~ nOlL adcL{,t.,tonai. lLec.olLd. Cali6. Re..6. add 4% Sai.e6 Tax. ~-""""-­

BALLET FOR GYMNASTICS Record # 1000 0 Record # 10100

P. O. Box 64334, Los Angeles, California 90064



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Modern Gymnast - December 1964