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Another AMERICAN known 'round the world This is an American trampoline. It is a fine trampoline ... part of a long line of fine trampolines. People in Africa, Europe, Asia, South America, Australia and North America use American trampolines. This is a strong trampoline. Children use them in school physical education classes and recreafion programs. High school and college students use them in competitive gymnastics meets and in physical education programs at

school. Adults use them to stay physically fit (and for fun) . This trampoline has quality built right in. It doesn't cost very much. Many schools hove several. Trampolining develops fine coordination, which is needed for all sports. (Coordination is important for dancing, too .) America's leading college coaches buy American trampolines. They think they're great. In a trampoline, it's performance that counts and American tram-

polines are tops. Get American trampolines for your program they're great. Your students will think you're great, too.








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1964 OLYMPIC GYMNASTICS TOUR Several reservation s are still a vailable t oward thi s wond erful Spec ial Package t o ur. An yone interested sh ould immediately contact. Mr . Frank Endo, 12200 So . Serendo Ave., Los Angeles 44 , Calif. , f or the complete tour brochure.

The same base, bars, neck and adjuster are used for both the regular and uneven parallel bars, In addition, this unit includes a simple extension sl eev e to fit the base upright. No weights or tie-downs required for performance of all competitive routines,


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NOTES FROM THE EDITOR .................................. Glenn Sundby


CHALK TALK ... .......... ........ ................................ ...........................


FLORI DA CLI N IC ............................................. ..... Jeff Hennessey


U.S.G.F. DIRECTORS REPORT ..... ...... ..................... Frank L. Bore


WESTERN GYMNASTIC CLINIC ...... ....................... .. -Sam Bailie


HELPFUL HINTS ... ... ......................... .... ....................... J im Farkas




PALMISTRY FOR THE GYMNAST .......... .......... Edword J. Scrobe




GYM FITNESS ............... .......... ... ....................... Morgaret Korondi


CARBON COpy ................................... ......... .............. Herb VogeL32 TRAMPOLI N I NG ............... ... ............ .... .................. .. Jess Robinson .... 34 LETTERS .......................... ..............................................................


W路ith this edition we we lcome Dr . James S. Bosco, Assistant Professor at San Jose State College (Calif. ) to our staff. Dr. Bosco will be editing the new " Research and Fitness" department of the M.G.

.. THE MODERN GYMNAST is published by American Physical Fitness Research Institut"e, Inc., 410 Broadway, Santa Monica , California. Application to mail at second class postage rates is pending at Santa Monica , Calif. Published monthly except ~une, August and October which are combined with the previ ou s month's issue. Price $4.50 per year, SOc single copy. Subscription corr espondence, THE MODERN GYMNAST, P. O. Box 611 , Santa Monica, California. Copyri ght 1964 by AMERICAN PHYSICAL FITNESS RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC., 410 Broadway, Santa M on ica , Califo rnia . All pictures and manuscripts submitted become the property of THE MODERN GYMNAST unless a return request and sufficient postage are included.

REPORT FROM WASHINGTON: A House Agriculture subcommittee recently recommended una.n imously a multi million-dollar federal research program on how to make cIgarettes safe. Rep. Harold D. Cooley of North Carolina (in the tobacco belt ), said $5 to $10 million would be needed this year to get the program under way.

Below is a copy of a telegram our Institute sent to: President Lyndon B. Johnson, Orvill e Freeman (Sec. of Agriculture ), Representative Harold D. Cooley and Rep. Alphonzo E. Bell, J 1'. (Our District Representative in the House of Representatives. )

DEAR SIR: THE AMERICAN PHYSICAL FITNESS RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC., SAYS YES TO THE PROPOSED MULTI MILLION-DOLLAR SAFE CIGARETTE RESEARCH PROGRAM RECOMMENDED BY SUBCOMMITTEE CHAIRMAN COOLEY. YES, IF THE MONEY IS RAISED BY AN ADDED TAX ON CIGARETTES AND THE SAME AMOUNT IS ALLOTTED FROM THIS TAX TOWARD RESEARCH AND EDUCATION ON YOUTH PHYSICAL FITNESS. WE CAN SEE NO OTHER WAY OF JUSTIFYING THE GOVERNMENT SPENDING TEN MILLION THIS YEAR ON THE STATISTICALLY PROVED PHYSICALLY HARMFUL "PLEASURE HABITS" OF OUR NATION. IF THIS SUGGESTED ACTION IS NOT FEASIBLE WE FEEL THE COST OF THIS STUDY SHOULD NOT BE ON THE TAX PAYER BUT SHOULD BE BORN ENTIRELY BY THE TOBACCO INDUSTRY. MAX 1. RUDERIAN , PRESI DENT AMERICAN PHYSICAL FITNESS RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. 410 BROADWAY, SANTA MONICA, CALIF. We hope our readers will also take action and write, or ca ll and let your Congressman and other Government officials know how yo u feel on the subject. We do not have the fa cts on the budget for the "Presidents Youth Fitness" program but doubt very much if in five years they have had 2 % of the amount to work with that the Tobacco industry is asking for one year to clean up their product. And even if they do clean it up it will n ot be an aid to health and well being ... It will just be a little less harmful and acceptable habit with government blessing ... I can hardly wait for the new TV commercials, "Our Cancerette has the . seal of approval of the United States Department of Agriculture" ... We think this is a very serious matter and a threat to our national health. We hope YO will also take action and add yo ur voice to ours in protest to the House Subcommittee's recommendation. If yo u at all doubt the seriousness of this smoking situation . . . get a copy of "Smoking and Health ," a recent report published by the Government Public Health Service .. . or write to us and we will send yo u free of charge a copy of the booklet "Smoking and Cancer Prevention" which was written by Warren Wells and published by The American Physical Fitness Resea rch Institute, Inc. early in September 1963.



With this edition we welCome Dr. James S. Bosco, Assistant Professor. at San Jose State College (Cali/.) to our. staff. Dr. Boscp will be editing the new "Research and fitness" de p'artment ol the M.G.- ED.


ilK TRAMPOLINE FEDERATION The First world's Open Trampoline Championships will be held on <larch 21st, 1964 at the Royal Albert Hall, London En gland. Trampoline teams from England, Sco tl and , Wale s, Germany, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Sou th Africa and the United States are expected to compete in the competition. Each team will comprise two men and two lady com petitors. According to meet director Ted Blake the event will be judged on a knock-out basis with an international panel of judges. Following the competition will be a meetin g to discu ss and organize plan s to establish the first International Federation of Trampolinin g as a sport in its own right.

The Nor thern California Officials Association has been doing a wonderfu l job in help ing to further Gymnasti cs in the Bay areas_ An item we found interesting was their proposed "Code of Et hi cs for Gymnastic Officials". We think you'll agree_ CODE OF ETHICS FOR GYMNASTICS OFFICIALS I . An official must not instruct without the invitotion of the host coach. 2. An officia l must not discuss the merits, qualifications, or faults o f other off icial s with those who are not officia ls. 3. An officia l must not conduct himself in any manner which is likely to injure the reputation of th e Association or any of its members. 4. An official may speak to competitors im mediate ly before, du ring , o r immediately after a scheduled meet only on topics pertaining t o the conduct of the meet. 5. An officia l should direct or recei ve any comp laints on the conduct of the meet through the meet

director I

meet referee .

or host coach.

6. An officia l is not t o toke part in gymnastics activities immediate ly before. during , or immediate ly after a scheduled meet. 7. An official should endeavor to make unbiased and independent decisions. 8. An off icial shou ld make every effort to facilitate the conduct of the meet . 9: An official should endea vor to honor every judging commitment. . 10. An officia l shou ld be concerned with th e general welfare and sa fet y of the competitors. . 1 1. An official should be systemat ic and prompt in his dealing with the Associa tion, coaches, and administrators. 12. An officia l should endeavor t o be prompt in reporting to assignmer:ts. . 13. An offici al shou ld dress In an appropriate manner.

RING POWER Pictured here is another do it yourself exercise idea for developing more power in the " Cross" position. These photos taken at the Finnish Gymnastic F ederation train ing site in Helsinki. Finland demon strat e the system of combinin g a spottin g belt, rope, pullies and a extra set of rings to lift or lower yourself to or thru the cross position . By placing the ropes behind th e back this same system could be used to pull up fr om a back lever to a " Maltese" cross, thru to a Planche and on up to a handstand . _ . sort of lifting yourself by your boot stra ps. It is not necessary to attached th e pulli es to ano ther se t of rings, they can be attached to ga rage rafters Hi-bar etc. ( but be careful not to attach them too low as with all your your added power you may bomp your head on the beam, ceilin g or bar. )_



FLINT OPEN Donna Schaenzer of South ern ' Illinois University was the Seni or Women's Ai l- Arou nd champ, in the Flint, Michi gan Open Championshi ps held in January. Don Friend of Flint was th e top scorer in the College men's AA divi sion and Ri chard Kihn of Toronto Tokal Club won the top All-Around honors in the Senior's Men's division. According to Doug Walker, Recrea tion Consultant of the Matt Program the meet was a real success and th ere was a large in crease of entri es in the hi gh school division.

_ BALLET FOR GYMNASTS "CAN WE IMPROVE OUR OLYMPIC CHANCES" was the title of a fine articie written by Grace K aywell and published in the November ed ition of DANCE MAGAZINE. If you can still find a copy around we suggest you pick one up_

1964 USGF NATIONAL CHAMPIONSHIPS The USGF National Championships will be h eld at the University of Iowa, Iowa City , Iowa _ .. April 16-17 & 18, 1964_ Make plan now to attend _ .. as a great time gymwill be in store for all. nast and spectator alike __ . don't forget the dates April 16, 17 & 18. Circle your Calendar now! ! ! For information or ~ched ule of events (which will be full y de拢cribed in March M路G_) write the USG F Office, also Please Send Publicity Photographs -and Requests for Entry Blanks To US _G _F_ P.O_ Box 4699, Tucson ," Arizona_ 6


v .-~ .::.;";:~ .... ','


Richard Scene

Don 路 Friend

K ihn from









11 1.1




Sa r asota

GY m

Space Ball Workout

THE 13th ANNUAL FLORI DA CLINIC A REPORT BY MR. JEFF HENNESSY Gymnastics Coach of Southwestern Louisian a Uni versi ty (This Clinic was conducte d from Decembe r 24th, 1963 through Decem ber 31st, 1963 in Sarasota, Flo rida) . T he South gym nasti c team, under the direc tion of LSU Coach Bill Bankh ead, lost a close one to the orth , Coached by Al Stumpf of th e Bu ff alo Tu rners, 51· 45. T he meet was in doubt until th e last event when Bett y Maycock, 1960 Ol ympic team member from K ent University saved the meet for the North tea m wi th a beaut iful free exercise ex hibition. T he slar·studd ed 15 men and 6 wo men members were behind until th e t rampolin e event when the South won th e first three places and went ahead 39 - 38. Representin g the So uth on the trampolin e were Wayne Mi ll er of La fayette, Lo ui siana, NAAU cham· pion and Jim Yongue, also of La faye tte, while th e North was ably r epresented by Jim Anderso n also of Lafayette. Miller and Yon· guc stole the show wi th the fin est exhibiti on ever seen at the National North·South mee ts 13·year history J im Yongue scored an average score of 9.25 fro m the 4 j udges. Yongue brou ght the house down wi th hi s fine per· formance. The 2000 gymn asti c fan s in the Municipal Auditorium in Sarasota were given a prev iew of thin gs to com e from the Lafay elte boys. Wayne Miller, who two nights before had scor ed an unbelievable 9.9 Oll t of a poss ibl e 10 score, was the fi nal compet itor on th e trampoline. He opened hi s rout ine wi th a t)Vo and a half tw istin g fron t


Space Ba ll Demo nstrat ion at N-S Meet

Trampoliners in N o rth-South Meet, Wa y ne Miller 1st, Jim Anderso n(n ) 5th and Jim Yongue 2nd (all from Lafayette, La:)

do uble so mersa ult and ended with a do uble twistin g dou bl e back somer sa ult and brought the house to its feet while the four j udltes were showing scores of 9.9, 9.9, 10 and 10 for an average score of 9.95 and the high est . score of the night. Jim Yonltue and Jim Anderson team ed up for th e So uth to win the National Gym. nas ti c Clinic spaceball championshi ps h eld at Lido Beach. Neither had ever played spaceball, a game of voll ey ball an d basket· ball played on a trampoline, but were abl e to adap t themselves to the skill s and won the tourn ament. T wo Lafayette H igh School students, New· to n Elbe rson and Donald Walters, placed 1 and 2 on the trampolin e in th e cl ini c 13 ·15 a ~e gro up championships. This year's National Gymnastic Clinic queen was Miss J oyce Yielding of Oklahoma City. The 17 yea r old 5 foo t 7 bea uty with brown hair, blue eyes, and 36·23·36 measure· ments is a seni or in hi gh schooL Miss Yield· in g has been interested in gym nastics all of her life, her ot.her pastim es are all outdoor sports, ballet and cookin g. The hi ghlight of the clinic competiti on was the Olympic Qualifyin g rounds and clos in g out the clini c was the 13th Annual lorth· South Meet. OLYM PI C QUA LIFYING Six teen gymnasts were named to tak e part in th e fin al U. S. Olympic Sq uad trials to be held at the World's Fair in New York in A ug ust of 1964. Lea din g the way in the Women's Division was 19 year old Marie Walther, who scored 74.80 to top the 10 other wo men co mpetitors. In second place was Olym pic Veteran Doris

F uchs with 74.10 p oints. Third place went to Avis Ti eber from Dallas, T exas, while Kathy Corrigan of So uth Weymouth , Mass. and Linda Metheny of Tuscola, JIlinois com· pleted the top five. Sixteen year old Makado Sakamo to topped the men qualifiers with a total score of 111.65. Makado won two events, the hori zontal bar and side horse. Durin g the evenin g youn g Wayne Miller , present Na tional AAU trampoline champion, and Ji m Yongue, 3rd in the NAA U, put on a crowd rousing performan ce. Both Miller and Yongue hail fr om Lafayette, Louisiana. On completion' of the demonstration , the judges scored Miller with a score of 9.9 for the hi ghest score of the night. As a fi nal eye catcher Miller exhibited his triple twi st· ing do uble back so mersault. OLYMPIC QUALIFIERS Wom en Marie Wall!her ........................................ 74.80 Dori s Fuchs .......... ... ......................74.10 Avis Tieber ............................... :................ 73.50

~i~tSr ~~;~~~~n . ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::~~:i~ Betty Maycock


... ..............73.15

~:~~~e R~b~~~s . ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::;6:~~

Bar bara Moonis ................. Carolyn Bowers ....

.......... 70.35 .......... 68.35

Men Makato Sak amoto Greg Weiss ........ ... . Abie Grossfield J ay Werner .... . Don Tonry ... .. Sam Sakamoto

........ 111.65 ........ 111.50 ....................... .111 .40 .......................... 110.40 ... . ................ 109.10 ............... .103.55

John Crosby Don T onry

Marie Walther 1st All Around Olympic Trials Rusty Mills





I st N-S Meet




closer. In the cu rrent method of scoring which calls for 6路4-3-2-1 as points a warded for places 1 tl~rough 5 th e team sco re for the hypothetical situation shown above wo uld have been - team "A" 9 points ... team " E" 6 points. Th e sixth man's sco re would not have counted at all even though he was only two-ten ths of a point below the 5th place man. If yo u begin to see sco res from eastern schools shown in the stati stics s ur veyo r th e news papers and it r eads in the hundred points ... thi s is how it was a rri ved at. You co uld then divide the team "core by the number of men on that team and arrive at an average team member's sco re . .::.

USGF Director - Frank


Mr. J e rr y Todd , gym nasti cs coach at Pasadena City College is doing another ou tstanding j ob of suppl ying gvmnasti cs people with weekly stati sti cal surveys of how the co ll egiate gym nastics teams are doing . .Terry did th e job last seaso n and its accuracy as determi ned by th e final standing of the NC AA Champ ionship was ver y good.






February 1964


The has adopted an official awards system and I hope all of you will soon have an opportunity to see these awards. The 1964 Na tionals will feature them. They consist of a plaque . . . for each place, in each event . . . showing an action fi gure of a gymnast working on that event. In this way the winner of the side horse, for instance, will receive a gold路colored plaque with the side horse illustrated on that award . I have seen the initial award s and they are absolutel y perfect. We expect this system of gvmna;,tic awards to revolutionize the gymnastics .system entirelv. The Januar y M. G. carries photos of two of these awards for your information.



We h o pe to encou ra!!e as many of yo u as possible to obtain and wear the l ' .S .C.F. sweatshirts in yo ur regional colors . I See M. C. for i\ovember, 196:1) . These sweatshirts ma y be o rd ered through th e L S.C. F. offi ce, and take a hout three weeks for deliver y in most cases ... availabl e in three sizes and in the following colors . . . red . dark blu e. light blue. cinam on (ta n ) " dark green. o ran ge, bla ck. Co~ t. " ~n路. 2 5 .. lettering is ' T .S.A. (emblem ) Cym nasti cs I:edt'l"fltinn " . .::.

In 1964- th e ( ".S.C .F. h opes to begin another session of its proj ected long-ra nge developmental plan. The "Eastp. rn Cymnastics Clinic" . .. to be conducted in the Easte rn and So uth ern portion of th e e.S.A. at the same time as th e " "II/ estern Cymnasti cs Cli nic" (now in it's third veal') is being cond ucted in Tucson , Arizona. Dec. 26- :10. 1964should see th e two ( ' .S.C.F. events goi ng at the same time with a g rea t li st of in structors at both locations. .:.:.


ATTENTION: U.S.C.F. registrants . . . we now have U.S.C. r. membership plaques (ivory on walnut colors) available for those of yo u who desire them, and the y may be ordered through the V.S.C.F. office. They are designed for wall display . . . say " Member" "United States Gymnastics Federation " and the January Modern Cymnast carries a sample photugraph for your consideration. +:. -x路 "* The Southern California Cymnastics Association is doin g a "tremendou s job of brin ging gymnastics into new areas in Southern California as well as providing voung gymnasts with numerous opportunities for competition during the entire year. They have developed a new scoring system aimed at development of better gymnasts and it is leading the way to mure and beLter gymnastics for Southern California.

The Second Annual U.S.G.F. National Championships . . . are scheduled for April 16, 17 & 18, 1964. At University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa. Plan now on attending!!! The meet will feature two divis'ions for men and two for women, the all-around, trampoline and tumbling and be conducted over a three day period with afternoon and evening sessions (compulsory and optionalsl. The awards for this meet will be the newly designed and adopted U.S.G.F. Offical Awards and if possible wear our regional colors as warm up clothing, or on blazers . . . let's all turn out for this great event and have a repeat of last years when it was the largest national open meet held in 1963.


The Eastern Intercollegiate Gymnastics Lea gue has adopted a new system of team competitions for their lea g ue. The system calls for three men from each team to be scored in each event as that team':; >,("nre. Jn short it means that team "A" might have a first place, third place and fifth place in the Horizontal Bar and the three gymnasts who scored those places had scores of 9.2, 9.0 and 8.3 . . . team " A" has a team score in the Side Horse of 26.5 (total of the three scores recei ved). Their opponents team "E" therefore took second, fourth and sixth with their athletes scoring 9.1, 8.8, and 8.1 for a total team score for team "B" of 26.0 This system is likened tQ the F.LC . (International) system and reflects scores of all three team members in each event . . . regardless of their place and it also serves to keep sco res 10

The P enn sy lva nia Coaches Association has really been working. The Eastern Intercollegiate m eet (hosted at Penn. State Univ. 1 will also feature the first Penn. State High School Champiomhip . . . for boys and girls. This meet should be a grea l s ucc es~ in its first ~lage. The Pennsylvania group has constructed a series of routines ... not compulsori es .. . but rather guides to allow one to qualifv themselves before enterin g the meet. They are shown in this issue of th e M. C. for yo ur information and they might well be used in other states as similar guides for beginning gymnastics progra ms. Congratulations to the P ennsylvania State and good luck with that meet in Coaches Association March. .::.


PARALLEL BARS From a few running 'steps, jump to upper CHm support in middle of bar, fo rward uprise (3), sw ing back to momentary shoulderstand (4), roll f orward and bock uprise, swing to handsl'and-hold (8),

forw upward to kip position, kip to st. arm support , on backwa rd sWi ng dismount with Y2 Inward turning rear vault over either bar (12-13), to a

cross stond sidewa rd.

"J"'f~ Y~'OO~~~O'{~~~*~~ ~ ~~~1

STILL RINGS Jump to straight hang, lift t o st. inverted hong, fa rw. downw. sw ing position and hold , press. bent arms piked (6-7 ), st ral (Jhten arms, fall back to pi'ke

body arched with bent Grms to bock uprise, lift legs to L body to shou lderstand (ho ld) ha ng . backward di slocate, to

QUALIFYING ROUTINES RECOMMENDED tor high school girls Interested in entering State meet on March 7th. Coach must d e termine whether her girls are capable of performing the below routines, or exercises of equ iva lent difficulty, before entering them in championships. Th e below routines have va lues of around 70 points when performed excellently.

l~~ ¥~

~...· ~ . ~. Ii 'U'


arched body lowered to back lever-hold (II), lower body ta German hong and with an intermediate swing lift body arch to inverted hang positi on ( 13), sw ing body f o rw. down to f o rw. inlocate, f o rw a rd double leg stradd le disount t o stand ( 16-17).

HO." VAm

~oo' .00" !A~ I!\ f

to rea r stand sideward.

ft ~~ ~~ I

. ~~~ ~ ~ ~r

FLOOR EXERCISE Crv>s right leg f o rward ci rc ling arms sideward upward, (2), step forward w ith L leg and c.c. full turn arms sideward with right leg extended backwa rd (3), 2-3 running steps skip to cartwheel (5), step forward to momentary handstand to forw. roll to figure four w nh legs (9), roll up on knee and lunge forwa rd on R. leg (10) , straighten leg, sma ll hop. f orw. ,. turn In new di rection with slide step . and hitch kic~



~ 'fD~ff1' t





"round (13), 2-3 ste'ps t o' gallop, to immediate single leg deep sitting position ( 16), backward rol l ove r ohe shou lder with arms Sideward t o knee scale (18), lower rear leg in di recti on of next length % turn and raise body with arms lifted upwa rd (20), 3 running steps to roundoff buu nce urward with Y2 turn (23), walkover forward to stand (24).


UNEVEN PARALLEL b.:..r<S Moun't with overhand grip to forward pullover', move rt. hand to H.B. rt. leg ove r L.B. It hand and It leg same to rear sitt ing positi on, extended hang from H.B. swing legs forward upward and sq uat under H. B. . to arch back front support, pi vo t around one arm to side saddle sitting position (7), turn to rear seat, place hands to H.B : with arched back ('I), place one f oor o n L.B. other lifted high

~o onto single leg kip to fr ont support on H.B. (11), f orward roll to thigh bounce circling both legs over L.B. to single leg hang on L.B . (14), fall backward in si ngle leg hang and return to straddle seat on L. B. (1 6 ), Y2 turn t o rear seat hands on H .B. (18), high underswing shoot with Y2 turn to sidestand faci ng bars ( 19 ).


Mount with It leg cut over bea'm to sit one.. :,ackward ro ll to neck stand (3), r oll f orward t o single leg stand (4), step f o rward to scale-hold (5), one step f orward with gallop, one step ond deep knee bend (7), Y2 turn arms sideward, forward roll (8), thro ugh straddle to backward ri se t o squat stand (9), straighten legs to stand , one step and hurdle leap (10), two steps f orward with body and arm swing forward (11), Y2 turn pi vot two steps upward kick o f leg to lunge f orward (13), straighten leg one step Y4 turn side kick, catrwheel dismount (15).


from PaQe"



the physical education profession has not studied intensely enough the effects of participation in the multitude of activities which it embraces. Some excellent work has already been done but remains relatively uninterpreted by practicing physical educators. With the current national concern about the physical fitness of the American public it behooves the physical education profession to analyze critically and report objectively the total effects of sports activities on participants.

PURPOSE . The purpose of this column is to offer a medium for the presentation and discussion of results of scientific ann. scholarly research in the field of gymnastics. It is also hoped that the exist. ence of such a medium will stimulate much needed research. The column is a Iso foreseen as a possible outlet for presentation of studies annually sponsored by three lational gymnastics organizations and several gymnastics equipment manufacturers.

SCOPE At present, a broad scope of subject areas is anticipated but future emphasis on specific areas may be influenced by reader interest. The present plan is to run a series of articles deal\2

ing with research in: a. The effects of participation in gymnastics on anatomical, physi. ological, and psychological variables. b. The mechanical analysis of specific gymnastics moves. c. The effects of various physical fitness (training programs ) on performance in gymnastics. d . The comparison of gymnasts with other athletes and nonathletes in various components of physical fitness and personality. The above list includes only a few of the specific areas to be included.

READER PARTICIPATION Send manuscripts or reprints of articles directly to James S. osBco, Men's Ph ysical Education Department, San Jose 14, California. Whenever possible, photographs, graphs, tables, charts and other visual material should be included, Manuscripts, etc., will not be returned but receipt of all materials will be acknowled ged. Original Theses will be accepted and returnen. but . this procedure is not recommended. Reader comments, ideas_ criticisms, etc. , will be most welcome.


1943-46 Member of gymnastics teomLawrence Turn Verein, Lawrence, Massachusetts 1947 -51 Member of gymnastics teomcaptain, 1951 Springfie ld Col lege, Springfield,Mass. 1951-52 Assistant Gymnastics CoochUnivers ity of Illinois, 路Champaign, III. 1953-54 Varsity Gymnastics Coach Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, Illinois 1954-61 Varsity Gymnastics Coach University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts Presently President, Northern California Gymnastics Officials Assoc iation DEGREES

B.S.-Springfield College, 1951 M.S.-University of Illinois, 1952 Ph .D.-University of Illinois, 1962 RESEARCH EXPERIENCE

1951-52 Mo ster's ThesiS, University of Illinois 1954-6 1 Research Assistant (summers) Full year, 1959-60 Physical Fitness Research Laboratory-University of Illinois 1959 C. H. McCloy Award for Research in Gymnastics 1960 Research on Olympic Athletes Rome, Italy 1961 to Present Sponsoring Master's thesis and conducting personal reseorah , Son Jos~ State College 1962 Doctoral Dissertation: "The Physical and Personality Characteristics of Champion Male Gymnasts"

A van full of Clinic partic ipants wh ich include: Ernesti ne Russell, Joe Nappi , Paula Crist, Carolyn HacKer, Joanne Hash imoto, V aleria Berea . Inez Coon, Glen Gail is and Coach dri ver Carl Strube a n the outside.

WESTERN GYMNASTICS CLINIC 1963 By SAM BAI LI E The 1963 Western Gymnastics Clinic was held December 26 - 30, in Tucson, Arizona . Hosted by the University of Arizona the clinic drew some 500 participants from eVf~ry part of the Un ited States. The fi ve-day event was marked by near 80 degree weather every da y and gymnasts thronged to the outdoors for work-outs at every opportunity. Highlight of the week-long clinic was the East - West All-Star Championship. This years meet was outstanding in every way and the U. of A. gym was packed to capacity with 2800 paid spectators to see the competition. It marked the first time in the Southwest that a packed house watched a gymnastics competition and sets the pace for the future. The instruction at the clinic was by far the outstanding feature . . . and it would be difficult here to illustrate properly the tremendous amount of work put forth by so many coaches and teachers. Just look at the followin g names and yo u will understand what made the 1963 Western Clinic the greatest ever . . . Coaches and personalities present . . . Don Robinson from Aurora High School, Colorado; Joe Giallombardo and Victor Lesch, from the Illinois High School League; Mr. Charles Ca lhoun , hom the Cleveland Turners; Bill Meade and Herb Vogel, from Southern, Illinois University; Dick H olzaepfel from the University of Iowa ; Dr. Ralph Piper from the University of Minnesota; Dick Smith and Chic Johnson from the Univ. of Oregon and Eugene High School respectively ; Mr. Erwin Volze from the Los Angeles 14

Turners ; Gordon Maddux from Los 'Angeles State College; H. G. "Brud" Cleveland from Santa Monica City Collf'ge; Inez Caon from L. A. State College ; Mrs. Ernestine Russell Carter from Lansing, Michigan; Harold Frey and Lou Pershke from the University of California;. Capt. Jim Tanaka from the Air Force Academy; Glenn Wilson from the University of Colorado; Jorris Steverson from Arizona State University; Jerry Todd from Pasadena City College; J erry Wright from San Francisco State College ; Charlie Pond from the University of Illinois; Bob Hazlett from New Mexico State University; Ro y Davis from Santa Clara High School , California; Ed Franz from Washington University of St. Louis; Dr. Donald . Boydston, President of the U.S.G.F. ; Mr. M. R. Clausen, Director of Athletics at Arizona and Sect.-Treasurer of the U.S.G.F. ; Mr. Glenn Sundby, Vice-president for Men of the U.S.G.F. and Editor of the MODERN GYMNAST Magazine; Rich Harris of the Tissen Corporation, Bob Fenner and Jack Woolery of the. Gym-Master Company; Mrs. Grace Kaywell, great ' ballet instructor from West Palm Beach, Florida and Bruno Johnke and famil y from Warrington, Florida. Cruz Alvarado of the University of Sonora, Old Mexico; G~ry Frank, Sports anouncer from KVOA-TV Channel 4 in Tucson; Ed Gallardo fr om the Tucson Daily Citizen and Bob Crawford from the Tucson Daily Star Newspapers; Jess and Abhey Robinson from Trampoline, Inc. of California; Martha Tuschi j a from Berkeley, California;

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Equipment was displayed from every major company in the U.S.A. and selection of equipment for each event was left up to the qualifiers for the East - West meet. Our thanks to the Nissen-Med art Corp., the Gym-Master Company, the Porter Company, the American Trampoline Company and Economy Gymnastics S uppl y for their cooperation , generous supply of eq uipment and assistance durin g the clinic. The outs tandin g performer trophy in the East - West meet was awarded to Glen Ga ilis of Iowa U niversity for a great performance . . . The women's counterpart was a similar trophy which was presented to Joanne Hashimoto as the most promisin g yo un g (girl ) gymna st as determined by instructors and judges during the entire clinic. The women's portion of the pro gr~m was very cap ably supervised by Herb Vogel . . . and a helpin g hand was provided by Mrs. Grace Ka ywell . . . who flew in from West Palm Beach, Florida to help with the "Ballet for Gymnasts" work which is h<;r specialty. Classes were available for officials . . . teachers . . . gymnasts at all levels . . . and intermediate and advanced instructors ... all were well attended and under Herb's guidance timely and effective. Under the Guidance of Glenn Wilson (U. of Colorado) th e East - West meet set many new records in attendance and performances. The ring event will still be talked about nex t yea r and brought the capacity crowd to its feet with Cailis winning the event as last performer in a competition that saw the lowest man of six scorin g in the 9.2 area. 'Most of all it was a yea r of recognition for the Western Clinic. Th e 1963 version of th e clinic l:epresents it's third year . . . and th e Tucson newspapers, radio stations and television stations gave maximum support to the clinic at every turn . The U.S.A. and U.s.G .F . fla gs decorated the front walk of the U. of A. Gymnasium and it made a colorful walk-in arrangement for gymnasts and spectators alike with th e red a nd blu e of Uniw of Arizona fla gs along side. The weather was grea t . . . the gymnastics perfect ... the crowd large ... the clinic outstanding. Text year the U .S.G.F. will begin to host our counterpart . . . the "Eastern Gymnastics Clinic" at the same time as our western clinic is held , only in the eastern part of the U .S.A. (probably Florida L Those of us connected with the "Western Clinic" welcome you all back next year and to th ose from the Mid-West and East who find the distance prohibitive we wish yo u much success in the new "Eastern Clinic" which will be held in your area . .::.

Mrs. Grace Kaywell of West Palm Beach, Florida and bo llet fame presents Dr. D. N . Boy dston (USGF Pres.) with an oil portrait which Grace did of the USGF's First President.

* T .Y . lights and cameras at work while KYOA-TY (channec: 4) Tucson's sports announcer Gary Frank interviews Coaches Ralph Piper (Minn .) center and Dick Smith of Oregon.

Sam Bailie, Clinic Director and ex-Iowo gymnast presents the Outstanding Performer award to another Iowan Glen Gaills, great young A ll -Around performer of the University of Iowa .

In a circle of conversation from left to right: Dr . Ralph Piper (Minn .), Charlie Pond, (111.), Glenn Wil so n (Colo,).



Director of Women 's activ ities presents outstonding performer award tropny to Joanne Hashimoto. At left, right, be low ond 011 arou 'ld Girls, girls, and m ore girls all having a wonderful time learn ing , practicing and competing (a lso posing for the M .G. camera) at the Western States Gy mnastic Clinic.

Above: East team with Coach with Coaches Gordon Maddux

Charlie Pond and md Haro ld Frey.


Helpful hints by "Jim" Farkas, Instmctor of Physical Education, of The Milwaukee Turners, Wisconsin

The Importance To Work "ALL-AROUND" Gymnastics - as we all know - is a demanding sport. As a matter of fact, its umnatched difficulty, its inexhaustible promise of new motion-sensations make it challen ging for the ablest athletes, although they hardl y ca n hope to learn all that is available. One simply tries to absorb as much as possible, so much as ambition dictates or psvchophysical limitati ons allow. But just how this absorption is taking place will determine whether we can regard gymnastic training a wholesome physical educational process, or only a self-centered competiti ve activity which, although athletic in character, is defective in purp ose and incomplete, if not harmful , in its physical effects.

To begin with, we h ave to rediscover the oft-forgotten purpose of gymnastics. It is physical education. A comp letf and unmatched system of formal exercises, designed , selec· ted and grouped with ana tomy, physiology and ed ucation in mind. It has been brewed in many countries of advanced civilizations and cultures; has evo lved with the progress of natural and social sciences. Gymnastics is then not a pastime. It is a tool b y which people's bodies can be molded and minds ca n be influenced in a definitely advantageous way for th e indi vidual and for the society. Similarly, as medicotherapeutic prescriptions ca nnot be selected without pro-

fessional interacti on, the use of gymnastics is also prescribed by (or should be) who are trained to know the phvsiological effects of gymnastic exercises, and who use them in a balanced system by which they predictably can reach desired physical ed uca tional ends.

Wherever the egOIstIc or chauvinistic impulses drive human individuals to eX'{;eIl , to appea r to b e better than others, competition can be emplo yed in a constructive way towa rd the realiza tion of secondary, eouca iiona:, goal . With such considera ti ons the physical educational gymnastics the competitive gymnasti cs. developed an offsh oot To fit a gymnastic competition into the time and space its events were limited to the necessary minimum in number!', but still complete in their total effect upon the individual. Thi s search and requirement for a total physical ed ucati onal effect is the most significant principle that the · F.I.G. , the highest internation al authority 'in competitive gymnasti cs, is determined to uph old despite such unconcerned deviations as our American indu Igence in the sponsorship of specialization. This specialization in single events of gymnastics has produced harmful effects half a century ago when kyph otic hacks w'ere popularly kn own as " Gymnast's Backs" (caused

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by shortened pectoralis muscles, derived th ro ugh specializati on in pred omina ntl y supporting exercises). The onesirled effects of only one gymn astic event will p r oduce a marked physical ch ange in one par ticular part of the human body with which th e rest of th e sys tem will lose postura l and fun ctional harmony. - There are, of co urse, gymnastic events in which speciali zation will n ot p r oduce h ar mful effects (like Tumblin g, Va ultin g, Floo r Exercises) but even tLese will develop inferi or gymnast specimens compared to th ose wh o train and compete in all (p resently 6 fo r men, t for women ) events. If the difference is not always a pparent in ph ysical dimensions, it is definitely m ore pron ounced in functional ve rsatil ity.

But, besides the all important ph ysical educati onal considerations co ncernin g many th ousa nds of yo ungsters who engage in this sp ort, there is such a thing as nati onal sportpolitica l interest. We h ave r ealistically recognized the need to imp rove our athletic achievements in all sports, so we could regain the respect of world opinion which is influ enced , in no small degree, by such exhibits of physical culture as Olympic Games and W orld Championships. Presently our high sch ools and colleges tu rn out scores of

competitors wh o are masters of single gymnastic events. Yet th eir skill is no asset in regard of a rati onal Team becau se internati onally only All-Ar ound gymn asts come into consid erati on. The number of All-Around American gymnasts is still quite small, compared to other na tions wh o ha\re abolished specialization ma ny decades ago. And , appa rently, this nu mb er will remain short of our minimum needs as long as high schools and colleges do not place mor e emphasis on the educational aspects of gymnastics and remai n unconcerned about long-range na tional sport-political interests. Sch oo ls succumb to the pressure of students who have a distaste to fa ce complex assignments. (Generll lly we can expect a man to be so capable, how tough the job is he is undertakin g. Little men select little ch ores) . - Rut let us suppose that we may gain an athlete of the first magnitude out of ever y 1,000 All-A round gymnasts. With this th ough t in mi nd we must see that something m ore is neerl ed than a gymn astic program ma tched to our wishes. We sh ould match our progra m rea listically to those with whom we compete, to the stand ards of the world. - That is, only if we wa nt to be a pa rt of the sh ow. ~:-



~ January '4, 1964 Herman L. Masin, Editor Scholastic Coach 50 W. 44th New York, N. Y.


Dear Mr. Masin, Upon my return last year from the National Institute on Girl's Sports (University of Okl ahoma - Nov. 4-9), I sat down to gathe r together materials for an article on caring for a gymnast's hands. This particular problem had been ment ioned by some coaches of. gymnastics for girls and women.

I started with the Japanese book on gymnastics (Takemoto) which has a short section on what to do about "gymnastic hands" but this was not satisfactory. Then, in a few days, I started catching up on "clipping" the various profe ss ional journals to which I subscribe and I happened upon the article by Ed Scrobe. His article, without doubt, is the most complete ever published in any language. It would have been silly for me to have attempted such an article after having read "Palmistry for the Gymnast." I would like your pe rmission to re - print the artic le in The Modern Gymnast. I believe many more people should be exposed to this-e:Kcellent article and our publication will probably get to ' a mo re selective gr oup of gymnasts than does the Scholastic Coach. In add ition, the a rticle will be ead b an e \7ho a r e p imarily conc €r nc d ;':i th co.omctics .. Unfortunately, many of our young me n in gymnastics think it's a sort of · symbol o f manliness to wa l k about with hands co ve'red wit h to rn skin. If a re-print is possibl e, we would also like to use your photos. Naturally, we will include an app r opriate reference to your magazine alon g with information about Mr . Scrobe who is well known to those of the gymnastic community a nd for whom there is the deepest re spec·t . We hope you will coo pe rate with us in this ma tter for I believe it would be a mi ghty long time before I could gather the same kinds of mate ria ls to p resent in an o ri ginal way , and even then I ' would probably be very tempted to "st e al" a great deal from Mr. Scr obe. Both he and your publication deserve full c redit for a.real contribution to gymnast ic,' ana. / '

., 'r em Very

Since:~' ;





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PALMISTRY FOR THE GYMNAST By EDWARD J. SCROBE On e of th e more vital concerns of every gy mnast is th e care and conditioning of his " too ls" - the hands. W ith trainin g becoming in creas ingly lon ge r and harder , the burd en on the hand s is constantly intensifyin g. The ravages of fri ction in the form of blisters and tear s (rips ) are consta nt gangers, and tbe perfect me th od for safeguardin g aga inst them has ye t to be devised. Jn seeking method s of extendin g th e capac ity of the ha nd s and palms, our athletes are co ntinu a lly picking up id eas from one ano th er a nd modifyin g them to suit thei r parti cular needs. Th e end result has been a wid e assortm ent of pract ices, none of which ca n be un conditionally gua ranteed . What work s for one a thle te won't necessarily suffice for anoth er.



IVfost gym nasts are currently utilizin g so me form of hand gua rd. Alth ough different in de sign and mat erial. all serve th e same purpose. Most wid ely use d is a ca lf·leather guard des igned to cover a broad area of the palm a nd encirclin g the two midd le fin gers, wit h a bu ckl e clas p to be secured around th e wrist (see Fig. 1) . W hil e this type of guard afford s broad coverage and protects the vital port ion of th e hand , th e fin gers a nd a djoin· in g pa rt s of hand alongs ide th e guard are le ft ex posed. Ano ther type of guard , mad e from the ,a me ty pe skin or similar fl ex ibl e lea ther , is des igned en tirely differently: Consis tin g of one pi ece of lea ther about 10 or 12 inches lonl!. th e guard is int e rtwin ed throu gh two slit s mad e throu!!h the cent er. It encircl es th e middl " finge;'- onl y and is secured by a bu ck le a nd clasp arou nd th e wri st (see f ig.

2l. Still a noth er ty pe is a home·made affair, easil y bui lt of rt'l!ul ar gauze, which can be used for one or two work outs. It's made simpl y by twi stin g an ord inary piece of gauze int o a lon g stra nd and placing it a rou nd any fin ger of th e hand , securin g it a bout tl1{' wri st with a kn ot or bow. Thi s will a fford so me protecti on. Tn fact, i f the gy m· nast des ires, he can improvise one for each fin ger ( see Fi g. 3). At bes t, hand guard s ca n onl y d elay the effects of fri ction. Th ey won't prevent the rips, tears, bli ster s, and crackin g of the skin. Even th e protected part of th e hands may becom e sor e and blistered , due to th e constant action of the guard s rubbin g agai nst

'h,Up,t", nfortunat ely,

the fingers are left un · protected. Whil e it 's true that they encoun ter mu ch less fri cti on th an th e palms, they are, however , subj ect to bli ster s, tear s and rips. Nevertheless, th e hand guard s serve a dis· tin ct purpose. Th ey all ow the gymnast to train longer before soreness sets in and makes th e hands susceptible to blister s and rips. Th e judicious gymnast, then , must look for ways that will eliminate fri ction and t hus save his hand s, givin g them time to r ecover for th e subse quent workout. On e simple pre· ca uti on is to terminate the workou t at th e first sign of soreness wh en grasp ing th e apparatus. Thi s will prevent a tear or blister ana in sure a n uninterrupt ed training regimen, At first th ought, it might seem th at the eliminati on of thi s troubl esome fri ction would solve the entire problem of hand car e. Such is n ot the case. The presence of fri ction is indi genous to th e sport. With out it, the gymn ast wou ld find it impossible to obtain the fa st, secure gri p that's essential to skill executi on - say, for exa mpl e, on the horizon tal bar and rings . W e mu st ther efore ac~en t fri ction as a necessary evil.

Fig . 1. Calf-leather guard that covers broad orea of palm and encircles two middle fingers, with buckle clasp secured around Wrist.

The problem now reverts to (l) th e con路 di tion of th e hand s BEFORE th e workout , (2) th e abuse th ey und er go DURING th e workou t. and (3) the care and conditi onin g of the hand s AFTER th e workout. BEFORE THE WORKOUT Th e hand s should be clean before th e trainin O' sess ion begin s. Magn esium carbonat e ( chalk" or maggy , as it's kn own in some areas ) will be more effective and be retain ed Ion O'e r if excess oils and dirt are removed frO l~1 th e hand s. A more secure grip will be th e end result. Removal of dirt particles will prevent thcm fr om bein g ground into the palms or int o any open breaks in the skin whi ch co uld later causp. infecti on. Th e chalk , or ma gnesium , , hould be appli ed th oroughl y to the gripping areas of the hand s. Hand guard s should he properl y fitted so that th ey're taut when th e h a nd ~ arp in th e grippin g positi on. They . hould he inspe cted freq uently for ir路 re!!ul a~ iti es: for ex ampl e. dryin g out of the l e~ ther' (causing it to become brittle and thus tear readily). thinnin g of the palm portion due to excessive use, stretch in!!; of the entire guard so that it no longer fits snu glv, and. lastly , buckle and clasp condition. Any overlap or roll of th e guard in the palm indicates that it's too large. Gymnasts utili zin g hand guard s constantly must be cp.rtain to maintain a minimum of two pairs in workin g condition , in the event one pair break s down. Alternating th e use of both pa irs will insure longer life 3nd , most important. comfort. Both will be broken in and relldy for use when needed.

With experience, the gy mn ast will learn when to divert hi s energies to another event that won ' t adversely affect the already sore condition of hi s " tools. " The more experienced gymnast has an advantage in that he doesn't have to grasp the bar as ti ghtly as the novitiate or less ex perienced gymna st. This, unfortun aely, comes only with tim e, practi ce, and experi ence. The relax ed hut secure grasp indisputably extends th e work capacity of the hand s. The ti ght grasp in creases fri ctionaly tcnsion and th ereby decreases the capacity of th e hand s. The specialist on the horizontal bar, for instan ce, has a peculiar problem. His work outs must be continuous and progressive, des pite the fa ct that the horizontal bar ex acts more a ttriti on th an any oth er event in th e fonn ' of ri ps and tears. This gy mnast, and the rin gs specialist as well, must ceriainly utilize the greatest of care in the conditionin g and ca re of th e hands, for the toll of specilization is exacting. AFTER THE WORKOUT Th e popular mi sconception th at building callous qui ckl y through brin e baths, medica-

Fig. 2 . Single strip of leather that encircles middle finger only and is secu red to wrist by a buckle and clasp,

Fig . 3. Ordinary piece of gauze twisted into a long strand , encircling any finger( s) and secured about wrist with a knot or bow.

DURING THE WORKOUT In the free exercise and long horse events, the athl ete doesn't have to worry about the problem of friction , since the grips are very fl eeting and don 't subj ect the hands to di scomfort. The side horse, parallel bars, hori zontal bar and rin gs, on the other hand, offer varying degrees of fri ction during trainin g. Many gym nasts wear hand guard s on all these events to r etard as much as possible the friction on the hands. As stated previously, blisterin g, tearin g, and rippin g of the hand s occur most , frequently when the dan ger signal is ignored - when the hand s become "hot" or feel a " burnin g" sensation. The gy mnast in his zeal, may dama ge hi s hand s. He'll then haye to pos tpone one or two training sess ions until the hands heal.


ti ons, and th e lik e, will prevent blisters, has ca use d seve re hand troubles for man y gy mn as ts. Ca ll ouses ser ve a two-fold purpose : II) th e prote cti on of th e layer of skin beneat路h from dam age in th e form of Tips and blisters, and (2) in sulation against th e ever-p resent forc e of friction. Th e soreness which foll ows a strenuou s trainin g session can be treated effec tively with a li ght coa t of vaselin e, which will soft en th e skin and allow it to recover its elast ic quality. The fl ex ibility of th e skin is condu cive to optimum effi ciency of the hand s for Ivorkouts. Since magnesium or chalk robs the skin of it s natural and n ecessa ry lubri cants, it beco mes hard and brittle after a long workout. Vaselin e, or any substance with these lubri ca tin g qualiti es, is a good remedy but not a palia cea for the subse quent blisters and or tea rs whi ch follo ws a poorly planned train in g session.

Th e presence of bunch ed-up call ous, or ca ll ous that ex hibits a definite " ridge" or protrusion fr om th e palm or fingers, call s for a treatm ent n ot uncommon amon!! gy mna sts - "shaving." Whil e thi s is a good techniqu e, th e Ti ght amount of pre~s ur e must be appli ed with th e razor hl ade . Onl y enough call ous should be removed so as not to exp ose th e next layer of new skin too lIlu ch. In usin g the bl ade ( alon e or within it s rece ptacle), the gy mnast lIlUSt exercise extreme ca uti on. Th e removal of too mu ch of the callou se d portion may ca use a blister durin g th e next workout. It goes without say in g th at the poss ibility of a hurried job of shaving may also result in a cut. sa fe r Illethod, perhaps just as e ffec tive is the use of an emery board , emery cloth, or any abrasive capabl e of sa ndin!! down th e call ous. Th ere's littl e risk here of remov in g an excess of call ous. In ord er to sarld effecti vely, th e hands should be in a semi-hard " ned or brittle state - th e usual cond ition after a work out. S till anoth er method currently in practice is th e soak ing of the hands in epsom salt solution, bath salt solution, or even plain war m wa ter. The call ouses so ft en and th en can be rubbed off wi th a rough clo th or material. How about the treatment for ' blisters, tears, and rips? This is of prime concern to every gymna st, since his rate of progress will be determin ed largely by the ability of his hand s to hold up over the extend ed train 路 in g periods he has to undergo today. It's und erstood that the trea tment of the hand s befor e and during the workout will determin e also the ext ent of damage to th e hand s. Scrupulous an d methodical attention to this will certainly help the gymnast move ahead without the ' inconvenience of many postponed workout s due to damaged hands. Let's begi n with the treatment for blisters. If th e blister i ~ still intact and not ruptured , it should be allowed to rema in in that state until th e pressure of th e fluid beco mes noti ceabl e. Th e blister will, due to the pressure of the fluid , soon become hard to th e touch. This is the proper tim e to lance it, usin g a sterili zed needle and puncturing it close to its base on the skin . Drainin g of all the fluid is important, but the resultant " fl ap" of excess skin shouldn 't re removed . It serves as a protecti ve cover for the new skin beneath and also prevents the entry of' dirt. Durin g the healing process, th e gy mnast should be wise enough to refrain from any gy mn asti c activity whi ch will aggravate the injured portion of the hand . Many gymnasts however, have been successful in con tin -


uin !! tra in ing by affixing an add itional coverin g of ga uze ove r the blister and und ernea th Ih e hand guard. Tn a day or two, Ih e ksin und er the " flap " wi ll have hard ened suffi cientl y to remove the " fl a p." This "hould be don e as carefull y as poss ibl y in order 10 extend the area of the injury. S uppose, however, Ih e blister tea rs from Ih e ha nd so that Ihe " flap " isn't intact but is att ached on ly at one point? T he " flap" mu st Ih en be carefull y removed. There may be, with thi s type of an injury, an oozin g of blood and fluid , whi ch norm all y stops after a few moment s. Exposing thi s open wound 10 the air will dry th e injured membrane and conse qu entl y cra ck or "s plit" the damaged area. A li ght app li ca tion of some lubricant is Iherefore indi caled to have th e skin retain it s elasli city. Four or fiv e appli cation s durin g the day will has ten th e healin g process and , again , prot ect again st infection. At any sign of splittin g or hard enin g, a lubricant should be appli ed. What about a "crack" in tha t part of th e palm which folds and creases? Thi s presents the In ost diffi cult probl em to many路gymnasts. The area around thi s crack mu st be shaved down as nea rly as po ssibly to the same level of th e dee pes t part of th e crack, and th e injury mu st be kept well -lubrica ted to prevent furl her and dee per spreading of the injury. On e experi enced gym nast had hi s own peculi ar method of dealing with thi s sort of haza rd. He wo uld press a circular piece of lap e (adhes ive), firml y over the area and allow it to remain while he continu ed to train , empl oy in g hand guard s. Occasionally, a~ tl e situ t"on denla ndf>d, he wnuld apply a fres h piece of adhesive tape. Another gy mnast , usi ng the sa me technique, appli ed a small amount of vaselin e directly on the wound and then over the adhes ive, changin g it peri odicall y. In both in stances, res ults were gratifyin g. Experi ence seems to be the best teacher, as always. The wise gymnast, however, will keep hi s ears open and exchan ge id eas WIth fell ow athletes until he can find the technique for him. Gymnastics is an individual effort and, logically enough, the care and maintenan ce of a gy mnast's hand s will alway s be an individual effort. There's littl e doubt that furth er research int o thi s problem will eventu all y eliminate it, an d thus enable all gymnasts to pursue their go al s undaunted and unhampered by the deteriorating effect of fricti on on Ihe " tools" of the ir trade - their hand s.


January 6, 1964

Qear . Mr.


Thanks v er y much for your kind words about Mr. Scrobe's article on palmistry for the g y mnast. It certainly was a fine p iece, and I'm glad you were so enthusiastic about it . t' li be glad to give you permission t o reprint it in y our journal. I' m including the photos herewith .

Cordia lly, HERMAN L. MASIN Editor, SHOLACTIC COACH , 50 W . 44th St., New York 36, N . Y .

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PRINCIPLES OF THE T EAC HI lG lVIACHl NE APPLI ED TO GYM! ASTIC I NSTR UCTIO N A. B. Frederick Th e teachin g ma chin e is a modern inn ovation in educa ti on. Th e diversit y in type and usage of th ese ma chin es has been described in a governm ent publi cat ion.':' Th e teachin g machin e is designed to be used with a prog ram med curri culum in which the authors have att empted to iso lale all of Ihe eleme nts of a parti cul ar subj eci area. These element s are so presented and a i ran 6c d th at the s tude nt is le d



mate learnin g of th e material in a se ri es of progressi ve steps. Th e appli ca ti on of th e uni versal conce pt of use for teachin g machin es presents a n int eresting chall enge 10 physica l edu cators who are e ngaged in the teachin g o f gy m-

na stics. Th e program mu st be of such a des ign that the stud ent will be success ful at each step. At any point at whi ch th e student does not experi ence success, th e se t curriculum diver ts him to a seri es of co ncep ts which are designed to cl ea r up specific and known areas of weakn ess. Students will progress at dlttenn g rates ot speed depending on the number of times th ey are diverted to such materi al. The r ole of the teacher is one of interpretation No machin e can be devised to do the complete job. At best, these devices are extremely useful teaching aids It is therefore the purpose of this paper to present a programmed approach to a selected gymn as tic skill which would follow th e principles of presentati on of modern teachin g ma chines The material below is an attempt to write such a program for the back hand spring. (Also known as a fli cfla c, fli p- fl op, 1,& back somersa ult and flip) In thi s paper the term , " flip". will be used to refer to the stunt 1. What is the back hand spring ( flip )? (Show pi cture seq uence or movies) A. Rather than being a true handspring, this stun t is better defined , as a jump. A loose translati on of foreign terminology for hand sprin g is a jump with the hand s. In the flip, the arms are used mainly for support with a sup plementary pu sh bein g supplied by fully extendin g at the should er joint. This la tter move* .. U.S . Dept o f Health, Education a nd Welfare, Tea ching Ma chines and Programed Lea rn ingA Survey of the Industry .. Washington: U.S. Go't Printing Office, 1962. ($.55)

7, Jum p

to straight arm support fr om: a. Tuck stand b. Pike stand c. Straight stand

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ment gives the feelin g of a boun ce from the hand s wh en the stunt is performed correctly. We have, th en, an arched backward jump through a momentary hand support fini shin g with a snap-d own to the feet. B. Elements of the flip 1. Physical characteri stics of the successful performer a. Demonstrates adequate ba ck fl exibilty; can do ba ck bend without collapsin g to floor. · b. Above a v era g e abdominal strength (Necessary to a proper snap-down) c. Can support weight on the hand s ; kick s to mom ent ary hand stand easily d. Demonstrates explosive leg and arm power 2. on-physical elements a . Displacin g center of gra vity of the body in th e backward direction b. Learning how to feel th e exact moment of loss of balan ce backward c. Jumping backward from flat footed drive d. Overcoming fear II. PROGRAM- In this section th e r ead er will find four groups of stunts. Ea ch group has a direct relationship to th e flip and should be mastered pri or to any attempt to start the flip progression whi ch is found in III. The groups of stunts below (A, B, C and D ) are not necessarily in th e correct order of difficulty. Th erefore th e abdominal seri es might be taught at the same tim e as th e weight support series. A. Weight Support Seri es 1. Movement task under theme of weight support- How many different stunts can you do from a front leanin g rest position with your knees bent?

2. From position in (1) students practice dropping and ' extendin g the should ers keepin g the arms strai ght. (Shoulder shruggin g) 3. Kicking to free support from one knee.

a. How many mo vements can you perform from a front leaning r est position? (Movement task




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Dur!ng thi s m ovement task, the arm s re main strai g ht as shown. The ob ject is t o ge t eac h s ~u de nt to d iscover how many different pos i-

tions o r movements he can do.

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Very Similar t o a lOW ' ": : ; :, forwa rd di ve and roll ~

8. Swedish Fall (Start on knees and progress to fall from stand) 9. From the lowest secti on of the Swedish box, kick to handstand wi th assistance at edge . With furth er assistan ce, jump to hand support on floor directly below box. If no collapse occurs, the gy mnast should be ready to with stand a similar support eff ort durin g a back hand sprin g. (Fi g. 3) B. Flexibilty series 1. From back lying positi on, bend to crab 2. From back lying position, bend to brid ge

3. Perfo-rm back bend from one kn ee (other leg extended forward )



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4. Same as (3). 5. Kick to momentary handstand a. Return to a stand on one strai ght leg. b. Return to pike stand, leg, stretched 6. Kick to momentary handstand fl ex kn ees and sna~extend to stand.

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Sho uld be practiced with a n alternati on of knees .

4. Backbend from stand- Prior to actual performance of back bend , students are tau ght to feel the necessary forward movement of hips to preserve balance when upper body moves backward . This sam e movement takes on an explosi·ve quality durin g the flip. Practicing hollow (arch ed) jumps will serve to prepare the novi ce for thi s feelin g of abrupt arch. Progression for ba ck bend : With spottin g (Knees and elbows bent ) A sin gle spotter of th e same size as performt'r or sli ghtly larger stand s in fr ont of partn er (legs straddl ed ) . Spotter th en clasps hands around partn er's waist to assist in lowerin g him to fl oo r. b. Same as " a" with minimal spot from the sid e und er small of back



c. Back bend with straight arms and bent kn ees d. Strai ght arm , straight leg backbend Note : "c" and "d" are not par· ti cul arly necessary for the suc· cessful co mpl eti on of the flip . It is more important that abdominal strength be devolped . A student with enough suppl eness to perform " d" but having littl e abdom in al strength will do a poor back handsptin g whi ch will resembl e a qu ick back limb er wit h little or no explosiveness wh ich is neces· sary for flip s don e in succession. 5. Flexibility in th e shoulder joint Note: Adeq uate fl exibility in the should ers will ass ure the proper arm whip whi ch is associated with th e fli p. Two poss ible exe rcises are shown below. They are especially recommended for th ose who cannot pass str aight, stretched arms (overhea d ) beyond the ea rs. Many hi gh calibre gy mn as ts ha ve been observed warm in g up with an att empt at the modifi ed back planche pos iti on. 6. Ki ck to hand stand and 'go over to brid ge 7. From bridge, attemp t to kick one kn ee up for ce full y enough to raise both fee t from fl oor. ( Early pro· gression step for back walkover ) C. Abdo min a l Strength- Tes t : Can stu· te d hold a h anging "L" for 5 econds; Can stud ent do " V" balance seat without use of hand s? ; Can stud ent lower to a ba ck lyin g positi on from sittin g in such a way that it is a slow deliberate movement with no sign of a sudd en collapse? 1. Fro m hang on an y overhead support , tuck one kn ee to chest 2. Sa me as a bove, tu ck both kn ees to ches t 3. Extend one tu cked kn ee to " L" positi on 4. Extend both tu cked kn ees to " L" positi on ; hold 5. From long hang, rai se stra ight legs d irectly to " L"; hold 6. Th ere are ma ny so·call ed abdomin al exercises but there are few whi ch r ea ll y place total stress on th ese muscles alone. T ll'! writer reco mm end s the exercise below as one whi ch places a def· inite load on certain abdom inal gro ups.









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b. Passive exercise

a, Active exerci se

D. Jumpin g Progress ions With Associated Arm and Leg Action 1. Sim ple coordinated jump- NI uch troubl e will be avol'ded latel' on if th e novice is ta ught to jump correctly from two fee t. Th e coordinati on of arm s and le"s is particul arl y import ant. The" primary obj ecti ve is to brin g the arm s fore upward as th e le"s are straightenin g. " 2. Rhythmi c jumping to a slow walt z (3 low hops alternated With one hi gh holl ow back jump) 3. Mom entary handstand , fl ex legs and snap to stand with an immediate high hollow back jump. Spotter stands to rear of jumper to ass ist with jump and to prevent overbalan cin u




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2. Practice of sitting .action


Objective: To .

d iscover exact poin t o f imba lance. Use either a wall as shown or work wit h a portner . The posi ti on shown is held f rom 5-8 seconds. Ve r y f ew people wi ll get as h ig h as shown, however.





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III. FLIP PROGRESSION ". I)alan ce A. Learnin g to place body off rearways 1. " Mill-the-Man"

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.A good prepa rator y exercise , known as 0 sk II ng exercise, is sometimes used. W ithout lea Ving the fl oor , Simply move from positi on N o . I (a r ms overhea d) t o position N o. 3 and bock to pos it ion N o. I.

3. From stand , arms extended upward , lose balance rearways with spotter in back to assist up to original posi tion again.

B. Assisted arch-over with body completely stretched. Note: In the suggestions which follow below the arch of the body must be maintained until a moment following the contact of the hands on the mat. These suggestions take precedence to" any use of a spotting belt. In the writer's opinion, the average tumbling belt is not constructed properly for spotting this stunt. A modified belt has been suggested by Kunzle of England which is more suitable. The methods suggested below have all proved to be safe and effective. 1. Hand spo tting 2. Arch-over apparatus ( Horse, buck, box, etc.)

Arrows show where support

is needed



Only one spotter shown; there should be a spotter on each side. When skill improves a single spotter as shown on the right will be sufficient

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Swing of arms shou ld be enough tq cause body to

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Again, core "shou ld be taken to see that " on arched bod y position is maintained untlll a m oment after the weight is token on the hands.


3. Partn~r~ of sa me' size 's tand backto-back, arms extended. P erformer places his hands in proper position. Partner grasps wrists and assumes a position with his hips lower than the hips of the other. Assisting partner bends forward forcin g the other to arch over through a handstand. OBJECTIVE TO THIS POINT To go beyond this point, the teacher" should observe sufficient flexibility 'and strength . A simple test to determine satisfa ctory progress is accomplished by a single spotter who, from a kneeling position, gives the learner assistance through an arch-over. If the spotter find s that he must expend considerable effort to get the tumbler over , he continues to practice the exercises above. If the spotter uses only a soft push, the st udent may go on. Sit off-balan ce and throw L A spotter kneels at each side of the performer. Each spotter places the hand of the arm most distant from learner so that the thumb catches the inner border of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The hand nearest the tumbler is placed on the back of the thigh just below the hip. Note: If it is apparent that the tumbler does not recognize thp point of imbalance he must continue to practice those exercises which will result in such learning. Spotters should also look for any twisting movement at this point. 2. Grasp low bar and throw back from the position shown below. (Arrows indicate points of support by the spotter. 3. Using the spring board as an aid at thi s step of the progression. OBJECTIVE TO THIS POINT If proper progress is made, the spotter should' definitely note that less pressure needs to be exerted on a one-hand spot from the side of the tumbler. The spotting hand should be placed n ear the small 6f _the back in the center of the back. If such is the case the solo flip should be enco ur-



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7l~ ,,,,",000.< aged. In the writer's experience, the "earlier this is encouraged the better. If all of the above steps are completed satisfactorily th ere should be no trouble. D. Solo Flip 1. Attempt with double thick mats 2. Single mat 3. Wooden floor or free ex. mat (When the tumbler feels he is ready to do the 'stunt on cement, you may be confident that he has mastered the flip. ) E. Snap-down; flip F. Round-off; flip lIt is recognized here that the round路 off should be mastered in a similar program of progressive steps. Although the stunt is not quite as involved, it must be done well in order to combine it with 'the flip . The last phase of the

round-off must be performed as a snap-down . If the round-off is don e in such a way that the learner bounces high at the end of it, he is probably ready for this combination.) G. Series of flip s~The first attempt will be for two in a row. Spot the second one. Progress -ivill be noted here wh en the end of a series of flip s builds momentum and speed rather than slowly losin g momentum. FINAL NOTE Bear in mind at all times that the coor路 dination and feeling for a good back handspring is often lost. It is a most di scouragin a thing for a gymnast. Therefore, the mst;uctor should be wary of any situation which will result in a poor flip, especially at the learnin g stages presented above.



arm up beside yo ur ears. turn from yo ui路 waist and bend forward on yo ur ri ght leg (as shown). Head is held between ai'ms, ba ck is strai ght. Hold this position, then repeat the whole movement several times. 4. Especially good for improvin g tumm y mu scles. Li e on your back , lift both feet 90 degrees off floor, after holding it for th e count of 4, cross your legs at ankles, once the left then the right leg should be on the top. Change your leg position 8 times, then slowly return to the startin g position. R epeat the whole movement 4-16 times.



So m.e tips on reducing: If you are on a r educing diet, here are the liquid s you may have: Fruit juices, such as apple, grapefruit. orange, plum , prun e, pineapple and apricot. Avoid grape juice. Soups: Clear so ups only, tomato soup made with water, clear bouillon, consomme c I ear chicken broth, clear beef broth , strained vegetable so up. No cream soup or bean soup, and remember crackers are not liquid. Dessert: Only one is allowed: J ella. Beverages : Take th e low calori e drinks or cold tea with artificial sweetener. The ALL LIQUID DIET is very effective; sameple menu follow s. Breakfast: 1 glass of fruit juice, 2 cups of co ffee or tea (no cream or sugar). Mid-mornin g di et rite cola, coffee or tea. Lunch: Strained vegetable so up , 1 cup plain jello with roilk, 1 glass hutternl ilk. Coff e or tea. Dinner: Tomato soup made with water, orange juice, large dish of plain jello. Coffee or tea .

By MARGARET KORONDI Olympic Gold Medal Winner

P ersons who d o not have r eal weight problems usuall y ga in a few lbs. durin g the Holidays. Who ca n res ist all the goo ui es around Xmas and New-Years tim e. Attending a lot of parties, in vitin g neighbors to your home, visitin g fri ends e tc. Let 's fa ce it, yo u take in many more calories than yo u should. At the same time yo u mI ss all yo ur activities, gym classes, with the excuse : " . . . have to get prepared for the Holi days." Durin g the Holidays of course yo u want to relax and enjoy yo urself and forge t th e usual daily routin e. Now that the Holidays are over and yo u are back in yo ur daily schedul e-perhaps yo u find your favorite dress .is too tight, yo ur tummy bulges are showing and yo ur thighs are curving out. Let's go to work. 1. Step on the scal es, then determin e how mu ch yo u should weigh. 2. Afr er you kno 楼 ho,,, In uch you hen" to lose, work out yo ur diet plan. 3. Ste p in front of your mirror and honestly determine the areas in which yo u wish to chan ge yo ur figure. 4. Make yo ur exercise plan. 20-30 minutes daily. After general warmin g up , do th e exercises for yo ur particular need. i.a. If yo u kn ow yo ur desirable we ight yo u will not have any problem to determin e whether yo u ga in ed to o much or not. For th ose who do not kn ow, and have not paId mu ch att enti on to thi s probl em before, thi s CHART will help to solve that problem.

To help you we are go ing to give you some EXERCISES. 1. Very effective for slimming waistline. Stand with feet apart, hands at sid e shoulder level. Bend and twi st from waistlin e, touch left toe with your right hand , left arm swings up and helps to increase the twi st. Turn and twist to apposite sid e, touch right toe with left hand, while swinging ri ght arm up . Repeat 8 times then return to starting po sition. Stretch, then repeat exercise 5- 15 times. 2. Tightens and firm s tummy and ' thigh mu scles. Lie on your back, then turn to your left sid for tw o seconds. Swin g arms above your head, arch, th en turn to yo ur ri ght side. While turnin g keep feet together, body straigh t. Roll from one side to the other for 30 seconds in the first two weeks, then wo rk it up gradually to 2 minutes. 3. Improves posture, and is a very goo d :,tI etching x r ':' . S ta d with f et apart bending your right leg. At the same tim e lift right arm and bend to your left side. Left arm is kept in line with your left should er. After holding that position bring yo ~r left

WOMEN 4 ft. 10 in. 4 ft. 11 in. 5 ft. 0 in. 5 ft. 1 in. 5 ft. 2 in. 5 ft. 3 in. 5 ft. 4 in. 5 ft. 5 in. 5 ft. 6 in. 5 ft. 7 in. 5 ft. 8 in .

92-104 94.108 96-110 99-115 102-119 105-122 108-126 111-130 114-135 118-139 122-143

Ibs. Ibs. Ibs. Ib, Ibs. Ibs. Ibs. Ibs. Ibs. Ibs. I bs.

2a. For each lb. you want to lose, yo u have to eat approx. 3500 calories less needed to maintain yo ur desiable weight. For example, if your ideal weight is 120 lbs.your daily calori c intake should be 1200 cal. -Now you gain 5 lbs., so you have to eat 17 ,500 cal. less in the next few weeks. Your daily intake will depend on how fa st you want to shed those extra lbs. 3-4a. You should do all around exercises. starting each session with warming up, stretch-in g and bendin g exerci ses. After deternming your " weak spots" yo u should do some special exercises to improve your ap pearance. If you are a beginner, join a Group Exercise Class-and write to the Modern Gymnast- for your fre e Illustrated Exercisp. Chart. 30


2 3 4

GYMNASTICS IN THE SC HOOL SYSTENIS Gymnasti cs is growing in popularity 111 the U.S.A ., but it has not as ye t taken it s proper place in the Ameri can schoo l sys tem. As an activity that in volves th e whole body it should be a part of every school Phy sica l Ed ucation progr am . In Europe, Gy mnasti cs plays a maj or role in th e school a nd in m ost co untri es it is introd uce d to th e children in the Kind ergart en. From thi s s ta rt they grow up' hea lthy and s trong with gy mn asti cs as a ba se for a n enj oyable exer cise pa tt ern and habit. M uch benefit is ga in ed by all from this earl y start in gy mnast ic fundam entals, espec iall y for those th a t later on find gy mnastIcs a wond erful sport and enter co mp eti on. Gymnas ti cs along w ith track and field ac ti vities should be a vigorou s and major part of a ll America n sch ool P .E. pro gram s, not j us t a lso in th e lower grad es but espec ia ll y in th e ea rl y formati ve years of a child s I i[e_ Chil dren in these earl y years a re ver y acti ve but in mos t ca ses knowl edge for va ri e ty move ment s is st ill limited . Th e ir movements a re usually to o slow or too fa st. un s ure, un coord inated a nd the enduran ce is poor. The ner ve syste m is und eveloped as well as th e system of controll in g the pu nctual movements and coordinati on. But th e ir im ag ination is very colorful. Th er efor e ,,'e wo uld like to suggest th e foll ow in g : 1. Use cr ea ti ve exercises to kee p th e a ttenti on 2. Use a bi g va ri ety of movem ents 3. Be sure to includ e th e basic exercises : wal k in g,

runnin g,

jumpin g,

hoppin g,

throwin g, cli mbin g and cr awlin g. Do di sc ipli nc an d ord cr excrcises a nd some rhythmi ca l dancin g preparati on . 4. In th is ea rly age group we do not teac h real sk ill s, excep t preparatory exerc ises and may be a few simpl e tumblin g skill s, lik e : r olls, ca nd le_ back bend, pre tzel, etc. 5. The gy m gam es are ve ry impor tant. [ wo ul d say th e mos t im portant in th at age group . Of co urse th ese gam es have to co ntain certain exe rcises, and th t' sa me tim e they will build th e chi ld s men tal qualiti es. Th e imit atin g ga mes improve the child s im ag in a ti on a nd cr eativity. Th e ta g and racin g gam es teach the child to take pa rt and be a part o[ th e group. Thi s developes the sense of gettin g alon g with oth er child ren and bein g sociabl e. Also improves will power, cou rage and dec isivness. Proper games ha ve to be selected kee ping in mind th e children's ment al ability. Start with sim ple ones, li ke : r unn in g in group to certain place, then runnin g a round an obj ec t and back to th e teacher. So me imit a ti on acti vities co uld be applied too, li ke : choochoo tra in , bir ds in the nes t, dog runnin g, ju mpin g like a r abb it, ca t a nd th e mou se etc. Yo u can also ma ke them stop- sit- li e d own to certa in signs or signa ls wh il e r unning, wa lki ng or skippin g

arou nd


r oo m. The mos t difficult games [or thi s agc g roup a re th e tag ga mes, pa ir chase rs, cha in chasers e tc. Do not bore the childr en by p layin g th e s ame ga me too long.

T he teachers j ob is th e foll owin g: 1. K ee p th e childrens interes t ali ve 2. Expla in and demons tra te clearly 3. Make the children practi ce th e learn ed movemen ts and skill s 4路. Co rrect m ista kes

Miss Greta Korondi (four year o ld) demonstrat es several

H er e are som e basics for beg inn ers : Startin.g positions Standin g with feet together Standin g on toes Squattin g Si t li ke an in dian Sit with strai ght路 leg in front of yo u Li e on yo ur tu mmy Lie on yo ur back Warming up movementss 1. Rin g th e church bell. S ta rting positi on : on the count of 1-2 stand with feet apar t, arm s abov e hea d, fin gers cla s ped, on the co unt of 3-4 bend for ward and d own. Return to startin g position. R epeat th e mo ve ment seve ral tim es. 2. H ori zont al arm sw in g. Sta rtin g posit ion. on the co unt o[ 1-2 sta nd with fee t apa rt , lift hoth hand s to yo ur left s id e (sh oul de rs level) for the cou nt :-4 swin g yo ur ha nds h ori zont all y to yo ur 'gh t sid e, turnin g fr om wai st. Co ntinu e win g ing from one side to th e oth er for 5-30 seconds. 3. Toe touch. S tarting position: sta nd wi th fee t apart , arm s hor izont al, [or the co un t 1-2 bend to you r left sid e, ri ght a rm stays leve l with ear, lef t arm will cross in front o[ bod y. For th e co unt 3-4 do the sam e to th e oth er sid e. Re pea t and chan ge sides se ve ral tim es.

of th e movements ti sted be tow.

Fundam ental .AoT/ns oj motions. (In;itatin g movement s. 1 1. Walking: a. Reg ular wa lking, b. Wa lkin g on toes, c_ Wa lk in g on heels, d. Walkin g like so ldi ers, (lif t kn ees hi O'h ) " e. Giant walk , (long, dee p steps) f. Duck walk, (in squatting po sition, back strai g ht as poss ibl e) g. Cra b wa lk, (sit down arms behind yo u, bend kn ees, th an lift yo ur "seat " a nd sta rt wa lkin g ba ck wa rd s on hand s and fee t l h . Ele phan t walk , (wa lk on ha nd s a nd fee t, liftin g le ft leg and left arm at th e sa me tim e kee pin g kn ees straigh t, re pea t leg a nd arm lift to the ri ght sid e. I 2. R unnin g a. Pl ain runn ing, b. Run li ke a dog, (o n hand and fee t ) jum ping a. H op on both fee t, h. Hop on one leg, c. Jum p lik e a rabbi t, (start from squ a ttin g POSItion. reach in fr ont with both hand s a t the sam e tim t'; than jlimp wi th both fe et close behind yo ur ha nd s ) We will continu e in our nex t Iss ue with mure fundam ent a l stunt s or t umb li ng and rh ythmi cal move ment s too. 31

CARBON COpy By HERB VOGEL Womens CQach Southern III inois University, Carbondale, III.

ADVANCED WOMEN'SGYMNASTICS BALANCE BEAM "Straddle Swin g Movements Continued" This article, the third of a series coverin g straddl e sw in g movements continu es to illustrate the variety of "stunts" that can be mastered through the developm ent of" a few simpl e principles of movement. The reader is referred to the last two M. G. issues for discussion of these principles and fundam entals r equired to master the advanced varia tions of th e "s traddle swing". Some of the variously covered are (1) to squat stand (2 ) Toe (foot) lever, (3) Arabesque, (4) Splits and (5) "Whip over forward roll". This particular article studies the "straddl e swing" to th e English Handstand . . . illu strating two methods which can be used to perform the stunt, with suggestions on teaching - sa fety techniques whi ch may be employed to ease learnin g.

Pt. 8 - As body nears 90 degrees, arms are strai gh tened. NOTE, th e forward bod y lean over the point of support (shoulders ahead of hand s) . It is at this point that the arms are straighteneg, pressin g down into the beam ( press in g down to go up ) which allows the body to ri se with minimum effort, stretchin g the body or extending the body up and out of the sho ulde rs. Thi s "static" hold position is a critical spo t in performan ce. The girl fears that the forward lean may result in a fall to th e fa ce or too grea t of swin g will produce uncontrolled effort. THIS POSITION CAN BE TA UGHT and the req uired strength and control developed with hand stand push-up illustrated.

A. Straddle swing to English Handstand (closed position) lVlethod 1. Saln principles of straddl e ~ vi in g apply ( cc previous cuticles) . Closed position refers to "legs to gether" .

Thi s type of handstand is more d ifficult to master as one tends to in po hi n of hand stand t 0 early and indi vidual mu st press, strai ght arm - strai ght body th e remaining di stan ce to the completed position. Many girls do not have th e strength or control of th e upp er should er and back required. Of co urse, as mentioned and illustrated later, this control can be developed and may be necessary, particularly with a g irl with minimum back fl ex ibility .

PI. 7 - WAIT, allow feet, legs and body to rise up and over point of support before straightenin g the arms. The arms at this point are bent in a "static" hold position .



lIt路 32


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'0 140"0 B. Straddle Swing to spl it leg English handstand, Me th od II. In this method, the gym nast is taught to rely on the "splitting legs" to assist in continu ation of th e "lift" of body to position and "back flexibility" to allow a cont.roll ed di stributi on of body weight up and over poin t of support. All of the straddl e swin g principles apply and the movement is similar to Method I, above, up to and including Point 7. Pt. 8 - Leg A is ex tended up and downward , and co uld be called th e "lead" or thrusting leg, simultaneously the oth er leg, B, is thrust upward and ba ckward and can be called th e " insuran ce" or control leg. Both legs are snapp ed up and down to the split posi· tion , the lead leg A reachin g for position with the " insurance" leg working as a counter· balance of control. The legs, as stated forced upward and into split and are locked into fin al position with a force· full arch of the back. The forward body lean over the point of support , the focu s of the eyes between hand s. the "static" hold of the b.ent arms is ex actly the same as explained in Method I, above. T he press down into the beam is timed to coordinate wi th the splittin g of th e legs and the lockin g into the arched back position. Pt. 10 - The final hold position is a position of balance with the perfect split of legs while in the in verted position. Pt. 11 ·12 - The " roll out" is accomplished wi th a quick closin g of the legs, straightening of the back, ·and momentary full ex tension of the b ody upward through the closed leg position. The usual for· ward roll principles then app ly to co mplet.ion .

I NSTR UCTIONAL A D SAFETY SUGGESTIONS The illustrations are selj-explanatory, but so me points should be kept in mind. A. Over head Mechanic: Pulleys should be located ahead of the start in g position to a point sli ghtly ahead of poin t of hand support. This allows the coach or spotter the advanta ge of "pulling assistance" to position and "spottin g control" in the roll out. A. Folded ]\Irat: P reviously shown can be used as a supplement in any of th e methods of instruction al ass istan ce covered or used as a " free" practice safety and confid ence build er for use in "solo" eff orts.

I. Hand Mechanic - Same as A, above. Hand s should be moved to as close to the wai st belt of the gymnast as possible, for great er control of the effort. II. ]\IIA UAL ( H and spotting) - 1. Left hand place on leg of perform er and follo ws th e straddle swin g of the legs down and up . 2. R ;ght hand place und er should er of performer, upward lift is appli ed at po int 7 in bo th methods described. 3. Ca re should be taken to avoid all owin g the perform er to split too earl y and use spott er left hand as a " booster" push off point. 4. A spott er on both sid es, keeps performance effort equal. III. STATIC POSlTIO 1 - The development of necl&<;sary strength can be obtain ed by : 1. Reg ular pushups 2. H and stand push·up, hand held or aga inst wall, attemptin g to keep back straight. . . 3. H andstand pushups in the, point 7, positi on (see illustration lIl a. 4. Hold poin t 7 positi on, emphasis on body lean and elbows held close to body. lIIIa l 5. " Hollow" back roll up to hand stand (see I1lb ) NEXT ISSUE: Option "Exit s" from th e Handstand , and S traddle Swing co mbinati on id eas.

lII'lt 1


InS. 4~

ADO 33

Frank Schmitz

By Jess Robinson Trampolinin g was great at the Tucson Clinic. tnstruction for trampolinists was constructive and given with great enthusiasm and performances by Frank Schmitz, George H ery, Steve Johnson and Fred Sand ers were oustanding. Both Schmitz and H ery started their routines with tripl e back sommersaults, Frank lifted a Rudolph (front sommersault with a 1% twist ) out of his and George performed a barany out fliffi s (double front sommersa ult with a half twist in the second sommersault) on his


second bounce. !t, was a pleasure to watch these top notch performers work. Frank Schmi tz surpri sed us-not wit h hi s work on trampoline as we had seen him perform and knew what to expect- but with his modesty . His word s of greetin a were " Why did you print tha t I have triple back~ in swing? Every time I walk into a gym so meone asks me to swing triple backs. I don't have that trick in swing." Thi s, of co urse, led us to ask if we had erred in printing he did perform two triple back in swing. "Well, I did them once but I don't have them, and the time I did them I was so dizzy I had no idea where I was. I'll probajJly never do them agai n." We said he deserved credit for performing the feat even once and also that we went alon a with his line of thinking- once is too much for a stullt like that. It was a disappointm ent that Danny Millman , last year's trampoline event winner, did not attend the clinic. H e had paid his registration fee and would have welcomed a "get even" meet with Frank. (Frank defeated Danny in the 1962 AAU Nationals in Seattle but everyone wh{) has seen them both work recently agrees that only the judge's predilection will decide the winner if they both hit their routines when they do meet.) When Christmas vacati on arrived, Danny, who is a freshman at the University of California at Berkeley, realized he needed that time to bring his studies up and decided on his own to withdraw from the clinic and spend all but one weekend of the vacation on campus. On that weekend h,e came to Los An geles to visit his folk s and , darin g the time here he spent Saturday rlfiernoon at the Los Angeles County Hospital doing a trampoline demonstrati on for bedridden children. A sort of form letter came in the mail from Ri chard Warner. He has a 'problem and would appreciate help in solving ' it. The letter reads : "Two years ago a ai r! in the junipr high school in our town : uffered an , injury while bouncing on the school trarv.p'oline. , Although the trampoline was not directly at fault , the school board banned the us.e of the trampoline in all East _1eadow . schools. In our hi gh school we have an almost ]j~and-new trampoline that has not been used ' sin ce. As there are many of us that would like to see it back in use, we would appreciate any comments or opinions on this situation and on high school trampoline use in general." It is normal for the school board to fear the trampoline if they don't know about it, and Mr. Warner is approaching the problem correctly by asking for information to show the benefits of using the apparatus. We are sendin g all material we have available. If anyone reading th e column can help, please write: Mr. Warner, 349 Prospect St, East Longmeadow, Mass. Routines for trampolin e competition on the So uth African tour as follows: Men(1) '%, back, piked, touching ankl es (2) Back co dy, piked (3) Barany (4) Holl ow back sommersault (layout) (5) Back with full twist (6) PI! front with full twist (7) Front cody, tucked (8) Straddle bounce (9) Back. tucked (l0) Double front. -Women-(l) '%, back (2) Back cody tucked (3) Back, tucked (4) Barany (5) H ollow back (6) Back with full twist (7) Barany (8) Back, piked (9) Swan dive (l0) PI! fron t.

UNUSUA L 'STUNT OR WILD ROUTINE A handstand back sommersault. At the Tucson Clinic Frank Schmitz bounced back and forth from his feet to his hand s until he go t exactly the right bounce and then threw a back sommersault from his hands.



RECORD OF THE MONTH 7 Back So mmersaults with tripl e twist performed by Fred Sanders of Michigan. SAFETY AND SETTING RECO RD S Pros and cons of publishing trampoline " Record s" and "Unu sual Stunt and Wild Routin e" each issue were disc ussed recently, Brought up III favor of the features was th e fact that everyone int erested in trampol ini ng would want to know what [ea ts were bein g accompl ished. Th e only con thought was the ,features might possibly tempt a trampolInists to attempt tri cks or try to set records that were beyond hi s capa bilities. . Our thinkin g on this is setting a record IS no more dangerous than swin gin g a routllle or on th e other hand , the consequences of attempti ng a back somersault c~n be just as di sasterous as attemptin g a triple tWistIn g double somersa ult if the perform er is not capable of performing the stun t. In either case, safety Ii s in tIl perform er usin g good judgment. An example was Fred Sanders at Tucson. H e want ed to repea t hi s record' of seven triple twistinrr ba ck so me rsa ults in swing but co uld do onl ~ four or five before he wo uld get off balance and stop. At no time was th ere any concern about hi s safety because he used aood judgment. For safety , good jud "ment ~ust be practiced from the first I~oment the tram polinists sets foot on the tram polin e. FLIP BOOKS Each day 's mail brings more requests for charts listing point-rated trampoline funda mentals. One came from England and anoth er from Australia last week. This shows th e demand for this type of material. This being the case, we are offerin " a flip book picturin g the back pullover. The book shows the progressions of learnin u th e pullover from sitting and from standin a then from bouncing and the pullover ~~ stomach d rop. There are eighty photos and each has a helpful hint written und er it. If yo u would like this flip book just send 10c to cover mailing costs. For fundam ental charts send a self addressed stamped envelope. Mail to J ess Robin son, c/o TrampolIne, In c., 4207 W. Magnolia Blvd. , Burbank, Californi a

1. Sior l

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3. Do not loke exc~u ive bOl.lnC~5 b~fore beginning Irick

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PEDESTALS ANYONE? Deal' S ir: In th e ="OY . - Dec. iss u e of Th e Mod ern Gymnast y o u wrote a n a r t ic le on h a nd stan d p ed esta ls praif' i n g their utility in d evelopi ng s tre ngth fo r th e rings. I am interes t ed in

acq uiring- a

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a ny informati o n you h ave avail a bl e r egardin g the manufac ture r 's l.oca ti o n an d th e ('ost p e t" se t. Thank yo u Da v id Scherb, R ialto, Ca lif. ED. We be li eve severa l of the equipment companies (who adverti se in the M. G.) would be interested in produ ci ng the pedest a ls if sufficien t int erest f ro m M. G. readers is f cr warded to them.

OLD DOG NEW TRICKS ]l ea r 1\1 ... S undb Y: I th ou g ht y OU wou ld b e in tel'este<l to k no\\' that the U niY e r s it y o f U tah (t h e oldest u niYer s ity west o f th e Missouri 1 ~5 0 ) ig finall y b ri nging itself up t o el ate by ~lar tin g a gynl t ea m. ' Ve' l'e g oin g to mak e up for l o s t tim e, so wa t c h for us 'Utes ' in t h e f u ture. S in cer e ly, I<eith Aho ne, Salt Lake C ity, Uta h



il e al' Mr. Sundb Y, This year we a r e sta rting o ur fir!jt- r t'H r In high school compe tition. I s ubscribed to the M. G. about a yea r ago a nd th e magazines have been a tre m e nd o u s h e lp. I beli eve that wittLo ut the M. G . we wo ul d s till no t be r eady for competitio n . I t hi nk that t h e "Hel pful H in ts " c olumn by Art Shul'loek is ver y goo d. vV e h ave lea rn ed very muc h fro m each of these, I think th e full pi c tured r outines on a ll events are p a rtic ul a rl y in s truct ive and we w o uld li ke to see more of t h e m if it is ' p oss ible fo r you. I would like to kn ow w h e r e in New Yo rk th e Olympi c Gymnast i cs tria ls a r e t o b e h eld a nd if s p ectat ors a re a llow e d a nd if th er e will be a ny ch arge for admitta n ce . Faithfu ll y a nd g r a tefully Bob Hic ks, Go l den High Sc h ool , Gold en . Co lorad o ED . The Olympic Gymnastic T ria ls will b e he ld at the Worlds F ai r in New York ......


THE MOPERN GYMNAST P. O. Box 611 Santa Monica, California 90406 Dear Sirs : Please send me a Subscription to the Modern Gymnast magazine : Name _____ __ _ _ _ _ __ Address City ___________ State _ _ _ __ PLEASE CHECK BELOW $ 4 .500 One Year (9 issues) $ 7 .50 0 Two Years (18 issues) $10 .000 Three Years (27 issues)

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D ea r Gl enn : What has ha.ppened t o Rop e Climbing?? Jus t two or thre e year s-- ag,o Gymnastic fa n s atending high sc hool, ju n ior college, c~ ll ege a nd t op - l evel natio n a l com peti tion l oudly exp ressed their e xcitement at the eve nt wh ich is no""v seldorn , if ever seen. It was t h r illing as a. s p ec tator event in which the gym resounde d with s houts of ellC'ou r agenle nt, s on1ethin g t oo ofte n laCk ing in sO lll e 'amateur s port ~ today. But t h e exc i t e m e nt of the opening r o p e c limb event in g Ylllnast i c meets h as died to a 111unner.

Th e only place in th e world where rope c limb compe tition still p e r s is t s is in high sehol s a nd juniol- co ll eges in the Southern Califo rnia a r ea an d a few other scattered are a s ,~ n a high sc h ool leve l. A ll in te r col legiate anel national co mpetition has b een r ece nt ly discontin u e d f o r o n e excuse or another: it i s n ot o ne of the s ix intern ational eve nts towa rds which o ur c,ountty 111USt gear its gyrn n ast ic progran1, i t i s n tim e d even t a nd t h erefo r e belong's in track a nd finally , it h as not b een a major ' eve n t in the E a stern U nite d S tat es a nd therefo r e the W e stern h a lf of the n a lion must r emove it from comp e titio n . T h ese moti ves ::for r emov ing nope c limb fro m hi g h er leve l s of c ompe tition seem bo th unju s tified and m eaning less in the eyes of hun dred s , yes hundre ds o f hig h school and college athletes who h ave b ee n act ively co mpeting in the spo rt. Sure ly t h ese athletes were not cons ulted when their s l>:)!'t was dr o pp ed from c ompe ti tioll. I s in cer e ly hope th at c ontrolling organiza ti o n s will in th e future em ph as ize we ll rounded athletics wh ic h. w ill a t-


. 'f , \





Scenes from SOKOL



by leading ties in the

1963 Summer Gymnostic Training School



froln \\"hi c h to c hoose. S in ce r e ly, Paul Davi s , G le ndal e, Ca lifo rni a ED . Our personal feelings are that although Rope Climbing is a wonderfu l early train· ing aid for Gymnastics, body condition in g physical












The M. G . wou ld we lcome further com· l11ents from readers on the subject . . . R o pe Climb in g in Gymnastics. First Ca ll1in e nt L eave it in Gymn as ti cs wh el'e it ol'ig inat eLl! It is })l'ilnarily :1.n i ndoor sp o rt an d as

slic h

wOlild tend to be more adapted to

th e gyn1 t h a n fh e la\\"n 01' tra c k. A l so thel 'e

is n o int e rpr e ting the c lo c k wh e n it comes to fin e p Oi nts sco l' ewi se . I am ce rtain that th e SRO c r owd in Tuc s on w lQuld hH \'C e njoyed th e c l ilnb an d w o uld ha\'e g iY e n t h elll one lllor e thing t o r e m e nlber an d pu ll th e lll bac }( n ext year-Linoty p e ope rato l'








Dear G lenn: EncLosed please find a few photos from our Firs t Training School, as well as our initial inform atio n b eing ,s ent out for our Second Invitati onal Summer Gymnastic Training School. We h ad a very s u ccessful sch ool in 1963 even though we were late in starting. We are exp anding o llr scho.ol this year to s ix individ ual weeks of training and hop e to out-do last year's efforts. If yo u h ave space for any of our material we wo uld app r eciate it if you wa uld help u s again with our public relatio n s. E ver)"one is en joy ing your expanded :Modern Gym n ast. .Things seem to be humm ing in the gymnastic field and you r maga zine is r eally pushing things a long. Wish you continued s u ccess and remain sin cerely, Nazdar! John M. Bab u ska Secretary Slovak Gymnastic Union S 0




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· 6

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the future ac h ievements and popu larity of Rope C limbing would far surpass it s past association






\ . :






event it belongs in Track and Field . We fully recognize wonderf ul part and g lories past history Rope C li mbing has played in competitive Gy mnastics especial ly in the high schools. H owever we truly believe that 'f accepted by Track and Field whel'e it would be more at home with events that

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Performance and Appearance ... a I N ISS E N I Tradition Sure Nissen gymnastic equipment looks great. Why shouldn't it with its bold, modern design and luxurious nickel chrome finish. But beneath this practical beauty is the rugged, dependable, proven craftsmanship that pays off where it counts-in championship perforrrtance. All in all, some impressive reasons why Nissen gymnas-

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Modern Gymnast - February 1964