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FITNESS for youngsters GUEST EDITORIAL BY JIM FARKAS Considering a program on "Physical Fitness For Youngsters", I do not think my ideas are special, but I am ready to give a few hints, although they may not be popu 10 r. First of all physical fitness is not something you can acquire through a crash program. It is the result of permanent habits gained by appropriate physical education, and preserved by the encouragement of an enlightened community. A few steps toward (the hope of) physical fitness (practiced in the educational systems in most civilized countries - excluding us) : 1. Revise the training program for Phy . Ed . teachers : (a) place more emphasis to use physical educational sports : track and field, gymnastics, swimming and full participation athletic games (football, basketball, soccer, etc.); (b) train teachers, who are not just specialists of a few ball-games, but are thoroughly familiar with the techniques and teaching methods of the above physical activities; (c) deemphasize the training of Phy. Ed. administrators . Make the physical educators teach actively, not preach and sit in offices. 2. Revise the aims ar.ld philosophies of physical education in schools . (a) Curtail and deemphasize Athletics; push compulsory, all-around physical education for all ,including the partially handicapped; (b) put the weight of importance on the elementary and secondary educational institutions, where the solution depends. (90% of our elementary schools have no gymnasiums and no trained Phy. Ed . teachers); (c) Instead of scheduling Phy. Ed. classes of a short duration every day, organize formal classes of at least 90 min . activity, 3 times a week, plus extra-curricular activities; (d) deemphasize curriculums in so called "recreation" . This sort of service belongs to the sphere of social workers, not phy . educators; (e) improve the standards of girls' physical education. "Cheer Leader" squads defeat the aims of Physical Education. In general the girls are criminally neglected in this respect; (f) evaluate activities for use according to the needs of the growing human physique and national assignments, not by following desires for pleasure, and community "interests" in spectator sports. Education is not a matter of "like" or "dislike" but rather necessities and must-s o 3. Planners must understand that Physical Education is not so much a financial problem as it is a matter of muscular effort. For this reason we do not need overly expensive buildings, fancy athletic equipment and uniforms ; rather plenty of room and the selection of such activities which will give plenty of jump, run , climb, turn and wrestle about . 4. Besides the need to overhaul the system of Physical Education in schools; it also matters what people do in off-school hours . Fishing, baseball, bowling, archery and similar popular activities have little to contribute to physical fitness . Sweating, sore muscles, bruises and black eyes are needed to pay for physical health .









Ciiiii,.,,,,,.§-, January

1962 Volume 4 . Number 1

CONTENTS Physical Fitness for Youn gsters ... 4 Notes From. Th e Editor .. .. 5 ... . 6 Chalk Talk ..... ........... .... Swedish Gymna sti c F ederation ........... 9 Gymnastic Camps in England and Switzerland .. ... 10 ... ......... 12 Western States Gymnastic Clinic M.G. Photo Contest ...... 18 ............... 19 Flint Sparks .. .... Ballet For Gymnasts .. .... .... __ ..... ........... .... 20 Helpful Hints __ . ........ ........ .. .... ... 22 World Compulsories and Jud gin g Quiz . ..24 N.A.G.C. News ... .. ....... .. .. .. ..... ....... 25 Gymn astic Statistics and Judgin g Reports .. .... .. ..... 26 Book Review .. . ....... 27 ......... 28 Meet Results and Letters

COVER: Howard Hardie of the Berkeley YMCA winner of Horizontal Bar and S ide Horse events for boys II and under at the fT/ estern. States Gymnastics efinie, Tu cson, Arizona. .

•••••••••••••••••••••••• Max J. Ruderian '" .. .............. ..............Publi~her Glenn Sundby ...... .. ....................... .............. Editor Charli e Simms . ............ .. .... ..... Associate E:litor Kurt Baechler ........ .. ..... European Editor Feature Contributors : Grace Kaywell, Jim Farkas, Glenn Wil son, H erb Vogel and Bud Marquette.

•••••••••••••••••••••••• THE MODERN GYMNAST is published in the U.S.A., nine issues for $3.00, 35c the single copy . All pic "tures and manuscripts submitted become the property

of THE MODERN GYMNAST unless a return request and sufficient postage are included. Published ma terial becomes the property of THE MODERN GYMNAST. . Copyright 1962 by Glenn Sundby, P. O. Box 611 - Santa Monica , Cal ifornia



THIS EDITION ... We feature a report on the first Western States Gymn as tic Clinic which was a' great success. Much of the credit of thi s success must go to the Na tional Gymnasti c Clini c in Sarasota , Florida for their years of hard work in past Clinics which helped inspire and make thi s Western Clini c possible . .. At left is a guest editorial by M.G. contributo r Jim Farkas expressing hi s thou ghts of how we can improve our physi cal education pro gram toward better fitn ess for youn gsters. We have asked Jim and other s for their thou ghts and views which we will publi sh in future editions of the M.G. in keepin g with our efforts to promote better ph ysical fitn ess throu gh Gymnastics . . . You should find th e report on the Swedish Gymnastic Federation by Karl-Axel Rydell ve ry interesting along with our reports on the Gymnasti c camps in En gland and Switzerland . .. Pi ctured abo ve are the men, women junior boys and girls from the tenth American Sokol Slet held on Sunday, June 25 , 1961 at Hoffman Stadium, Berwyn, III (see M.G. letters Nov.-Dec. , 1961) Mrs. F.. W. Schnabl sent us these photos to assure us there is a fine program of exer cise and cali sthenics to music in America for all a ge groups throu gh the American Sokol Organi zation . . . In tryin g to catch up to date on our M. G. editions we did not have time to complete our planned Junior Gymnast Pro gram section for this issue but should have it read y for the next edition .





MIDWEST CLI N IC .. . Tom Ha irabedian now coach· in g at Central Missouri State Coll ege is tryin g to get Gymn astics started at Central with a Gymnastics Clinic and Exhibition March 24th featuring the University of 'Io wa Gym Team . Proceeds will go toward the purchase of Gymnastic equipment. He is invitin g all colleges and hi gh schools in the state of Mi ssouri . f,-


NEXT EDITIO N ... Will contain photos and rep orts from th e • lational Gymnasti c Clinic held in Sarasota. Florida , plus a special article by J ames Baley entitled " An y School Can Have a' Complete Gymnastics Program " alon g with the man y other M.G. regular in stru ctional and news features . . Ameri can Gymnasti c Federation ?


MARDI GRAS OPEN The 1962 Mardi Gras Open Invitational Gymnastic meet will be held Friday and Saturday, March 2 and 3 for boys and girls, at Prescott J r. High School, 4155 Prescott Road, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. All entries will close Saturday, Feb. 24, 1962. For further information write to Arnold R. DiDomenica, 2701 Hiawatha St., Baton Rouge, Loui siana.


••••• NAMES 'N NEWS Coach BOB MAYS Tallahassee Tumblin g Tots reviewed in last month's M.G. went to the Central Florida Invita· tional Gymnastic Meet at Leesburg, Florida (sponsored by the Leesburg recreation department ) . They came home with eighteen awards including six firsts, three seconds and five third place honors. Little twelve year old KITTY GRUBBS was the top scorer with three fir st place awards. SHARON LAWSON, LINDA HATSFIELD, and TWINKLE FREEMAN were al so first place winners . . . KEN HOLLIS, Central YMCA , Cleveland, Ohio, has started a Gymnastic Newsletter to provid e a medium of communi· cation between associations in the Ohio·West Virginia area. Ken is awarding The Complete Book of Gymnastics by Newt Loken to the person who sends in the best title for the Newsletter . .. The December 10th edtition of PARADE had a wonderful article entitled "Kids With Courage" which deals with the Physical Fitness program for the blind conducted by LAWRENCE FRANKEL in his gym· nasium at Charleston, West Virginia .

*' WORLD GAMES TOUR Becau se of the success of the National Gymnastic Clinics tour to the Olympic games in Rome and Europe the Clinic is now off erin g a tour to the World Championships in Prague plus oth er parts of Europe. The 29 day National Gymnasti c Clinic 1962 World Games Tour is availabl e to all members of the ~ational Gymnastic Clinic and their immediate families at the price of just $698.50. This 29 day all·inclusive first class tour includes all tran sportation , hotels, meals sight·seeing, entrance fees, transfers, porterage of baggage, taxes and services of ex· peri enced tour conductor. Admissions to World Champion· ship Games, travel and baggage insurance. The tour will depart from New York Jun e 29, 196;l visiting Prague, Vienna, Kl agenfurt, Venice, Florence, Milan, Lucerne and Paris returnin g to New York July 27, 1962. For further information write to Mr. Vincent D'Autorio, Flight and Tour Chairman: 231 Ferris Ave., White Plains, New York.




SCANDINAVIAN CHAMPIONSHIPS . . On December 2·3 there have been a gymnastic contest for men betWeen the four Nordic countries Finland, Den· mark, Norway and Sweden. Finland won with 222.15; then Sweden, 219.40; Norway, 212.55 and Denmark, 206.55. Individually: 1. Aage Etorhaug, Norway, 55,85; 2. Eugen Ekman, Finland, 55.30; 3. Leif Koorn, Sweden; Sakari Olkkonen and Kaino Heinonen, Finland, 55.40. In the last contest, about a ye<jr ago, Finland won with 10 points be· fore Sweden, so they have shrunken the gap. Sweden won individually in 4 events: Rings, Leif Koorn, 9.55; free exerci se, Will-iam Thotesson, 9.7; long horse, Leif Koorn and Storhaug, 9.45; and hor. bar, El'ert Lindgren, 9.5. Finland won 2 events : side horse, Eugen Ekman, 9.6; p. and par. bar, Kaino Heinonen, 9.4. Because of new postal regulatiohs which have increased the postage on returned undelivered mail, we cannot continue to guarantee forwarding postage as we have done in the past. Therefore, it is the responsibility of each subscri ber to notify us well in advance of any change of address to insure deli very of M.G.



CHICAGO'S NEW GYMNASTICS MECCA By Ted Muzyczko A new concept of competitve gymnastics is solving an old problem. The problem . . . what does an active gymnast do if he still wishes to compete and work out seriously, but has since graduated from college or high school and is now pursuing a nine to five schedule or perhaps an advanced degree? The problem is further compounded by a lack of available "good" equipment, suitable practice hours, and the all important work· out environm ent, which consists of teammat es with similar interests and goals. Chicago Turners has solved this prob lem in a somewhat unique manner. After a brief probing and planning period, the feasibility of forming a -group of this kind looked better and better. Using the Chicago Turners gymnasium and other facili· ties as a focal point, Coach Art Boettcher saw to it that a complete set of "Olympic Standard" equipment was pro· cured. This also included the necessary women's apparatus, rueter boards, a trampoline, etC. The next step was to assemble enough interested gym· nasts who were in the same predicament and were willing to pool their resources into this new group effort. This proved to be a relatively painless task and an avant guard of several past national champions and other prominent mid·west gymnasts formed a nucleus of a squad that now numbers fifteen (including three women). Scheduled work·outs on Tuesdays and Thursday from seven to ten and Sunday afternoons from two to five , plus a full itinerary of meets and exhibitions have helped main· tain interest, promote the necessary conditioning, and advertise the sport. During the summer, week·end work-outs shift to the outdoor apparatus of the Turn er Camp at Algonquin, Illinois (thirty miles from Chicago). The out· door atmosphere helps provide additional incentive to stay in shape durin g the summer. Some of the familiar faces that will be seen represen ting Chicago Turn ers at most of. the Major Meets this year are : Jon Culbertson and his wife Barbara . . . Jon was an Olympic alternate in 1960 and is now fini shing up his Doctorate in Protozoology at Northwestern University. His wife, Barbara, past NAAU Trampoline Champion and now an all·around performer, is finishing up her terminal medi· cal illustration course work at U. of I. Medical Center . . . Marsh Claus, form er top performer from Iowa is now teaching and coaching at Waukeegan High School . . . Bill Buck many times national side horse champion and now working all·around, is working on his Masters in Math at Iowa . . . John Davis, past NCAA side horse champion is now in the paper carton business . . . Ted Muzyczko, past parallel bar champion from Michi gan State is now doing Polymer Research . . . Don Ohannes, Al J uodekis, Ron Halworth, Larry Spiegel, Gail Fisher and Judy Boettcher round out the remaining portion of the team. Additionally a number of promising high school gym· nasts participate directly in many of the Chicago Turner activities and reap the resultan t benefits. The Chicago Turn ers progress report to date boasts of its first encouraging success - that is the team trophy for the Mi.dwest Open Meet held on December 1st and 2nd. Amon~ the defeated teams were powerful Southern Illinois University, the University of Illinois and Michigan State. The point of this article is to emphasize that groups such as the Chicago Turners organi7.ation can be formed in any sizable city in the country. Most foreign countries have a very definitive gymnastics structure made possible by the exist.ence of a great number of organizations ,simi· lar to the Chicago Turner group), which offer teachin g and competitive schedules for all ability groups. These serve as a wellspring for future top gymnasts and a continual source of incentive and guidance. Further European coun·

Chicago Gymnasts in action at the Turner Camp at Algonquin, Illinois: Boots Culbertson doing a straddle hand stand on the beam : Left to Right on the Parallels, Don Ohannes, Ed Ward, Jon Culbertson, Ray Hadley, Augie Thomas and Ted Muzyezko; Ned Duke is holding the Cross (I II the rings and Judy Boettcher is shown doing a scale on th e beam.. tries seem to have little or no informal pressure to quit the sport ( that is stop competing) because a certain mythi· cal age of no return is pre·set . by popular misconce ptions. Indeed Victor Tchoucharin's thirty·eight years of gym· nastic existence did not prevent him from winnin g the all·around gold medal in the 1956 Olympics. Nor did the forty odd years of Tak emoto stigmatize his rating as one of Japan's best. gymnasts. Only if we can start our gy mnasts at an earlier age and keep them competing longer than we do now, can we keep the sport alive, growing, and on a comparable level with th e best in the world. GYMNASTICS IN DELAWARE . . . A PROGRESS REPORT by A. Bruce Frederick In recent years Gymnastics has been given an unusual amount of attention in · our State. Some of the signs of this increased enthusiasm for the sport are outlined below. It is. my hope that others who are now attepting to pro. mote gymnasti cs in parts of the country where it is literally unknown may benefit by some of the activity ideas which have made 1961 the most important gymnastic year in Delaware's history. Over the years Delawareans have attempted at times to do a little extra to stimulate interest in this most basic of all activities. We have had ·our profes~ionals. The Three

Littl e Bakers, a loca l triple act, have been one of the highest paid trios in the business. Several Delaware boys have made the grad e in the circus and even today we may still occasionally see " Whitey and Walt". Although we may have the great est respect for the pros as a rule, they have never provided the leadership necessary to make gymnastics the type of activity which would be beneficial to the vast number of people. This situation has changed here recently, due to the interest of Whitey Caron and Walter Galuska. In other parts of the country, I am sure other professional gymnasts have also contributed a great deal to the development of the sport. (Ed. of M.G. notwithstandin g) . , Wilmin gton Junior High Schools competed intersch olasti· cally in tumblin g from 1932 to 1936. Leadership was pro· vided by the physical edu cation teachers in these schools among whom were E. B. Cantwell, J acob Warner and Josep h Bradshaw. · Some of Cantwell's boys later enter ed the professiona l ranks and some, includin g the author, are still active today. The activity died out, however, and we reall y don't know why. Teams were orga ni zed so that each school actually had tea ms at four levels (A, B, C and D ) with those on the "A" tea ms competing int erscholastica lly. The first attempt at an int erscholasti c gym na~ti c meet for girls was held at Oak Grove School in Elsmere, Dela· ware in 1957. In that same year the Newark High Gym· nastic team for boys. Two years ago, Brandywine High School also started a club and floored a tea m thi s year.


Brandwine High School Gym Club

A .great deal. of credit ~hould be gi'ven her.e to Ray Ciesinski, ClIff Brownmgand Jim Snyder who were the organizers of these gymnastic teams. Although they did not have strong Gymnastic backgrounds, they did supply the invaluable elements of enthusiasm and zeal which often times prove to be enough to get things rollin g. The Un iversity of Delaware, which formerly had a team competin g on the collegiate level has not had b team for some time .Dr. C. Roy Rylander , who formerly coached the team, .has been a great help to the Newark Gymnasti c Club. The Wilmin gton, Delaware YMCA purchased the first tra~npol!ne in the State's hi story and was the first organizatIOn m the State to provide instruction in Rebound Tumbling. The Wilmin gton Turn ers, an organization which had c?ndu cted Gymnastic classes for one !J.undred years, was vIrtually unkn own to Wilmingtonians as recently as three yea rs ago. The Turners have been on the move since then and now provide key leadership in State Gymnastic affairs. What then, ha ~ made 1961 a year to remember? We who are interested in the growth of the sport in Delaware have capitalized Gymnastically on the followin g : 1. Requests for clinics and workshops ' on various aspects of gymnastics have been more frequent. Some of the reques ts have come fro m teachers whose interest has been aroused. Still others have been arranged at the State level in order to promote Gymnastic acti vities. Th e State's Supt. of Public Instruction, Dr. George R. Miller, Jr. , recently permitted early dismissal for those teachers of physical . education who attended a State Wide Gymnasti c clinics for secondary youth. Dr. Miller has recently stated, "Gymnastics can make an excellent contribution to th e fitne ss goal of youth . . . " A statement like this from a leader in education is most beneficial. It is a rarity to get such an endorsement from someone not directly involved wi th Gymnastic programs or physical education curricula. 2. There has been great interest shown for touring teams of internationally known Gymnasts. Three of these teams (Russ ians, Japanese and Danes) have appeared at nearby West Chester State Coll ege in West Chester, Pa. in 1961. High school students and teacher who have seen these ~ro up s. are determ in ed to do somethin g. about gymnastics m th eIr school s. The Russians in particular have . done more to foster a feeling of urgency where Gymnastics are conce rned than any oth er of these groups possibly because of our country's present relationship with the Soviet Union. H~ving seen these Gymnasts in action, there were immed Iate requests for workshops on Uneven Parallel Bars for girls. We get the feeling, in Delaware at least, that even bar work for girls is on the way out. This is as it ~ h o uld be. 3 . . Two of the last three annual conventions of the Delaware State Education Assoc. have included sections devo ted to gymnasti cs. Guest instructors, both from outside the State and from our own professional tanks, have been 8

included. Carl Patterson, coach of Gymnastics at T emple University in Philadelphia has visited the State on several occasions as a consultant in gymnastics. It should be a relatively easy matter to schedule Gymnastic sections for state education conventions. Program chairmen are usually very receptive to ideas. One need only suggest. 4. Interscholastic Gymnastic com petition began in Delaware in 1961 on the high school level. With a little plannin g and organization, most schools can sponsor an interscholastic Gymnastic squad as a natural outgrowth of Gymnastic instru ction in physical education classes. Our present difficulty in this area is due to an insufficient number of people in the public schools who have enough background to proceed confidently with a Gymnastic pro~ram. ~ ence our present emphasi s on clinic and workshop mstructlOn. Teacher training institutions in our immediate area do seem . to be placing a greater emphasis on Gymnastics, espec~ally those Gymnastic activities which are appropriate for gIrls and women. Some of these institutions have just recently begun to offer courses to prepare young <Yraduates to adequately teach skills on the Balance Beam and Uneven Parallel Bars. There are no four inch Beams to be found in any of the State's school s. The Wilmington Turners owns the only Olympic Beam in the entire State! 5. Speaking of the Wilmington Turners . . . This club now in !ts second hundred years, has begun to supply th~ leadershIp necessary to promote Gymnastics throughout the State. At the Turners we are especially proud of those boys and girls in our classes who are living proof th1\t' a program ?f gymnastics can keep one physically fit. In a ~vay, they are our best salesmen. They have participated m many clinics and demonstrations over ' the past few years and are always very well received. Another important step the Turners have taken is the ~o n struction of a new gymnasium which will be opened m a month or so. The new gym will be outfitted to be the most complete Gymnastic facility in the State. We hope it will set th e pace for Gymnastic programs of all types here. 6. Members of the Wilmington YMCA attended the first Gymnastic camp to be sponsored by the Central Atlantic Area council of YMCA's last Labor Day weekend. To our knowledge this will have been the first camp within easy reach for Delawareans. The camp was a success and it is the hope of the council that it will become an annual event. We had a great gymnastic year in Delaware. If one co uld sum it all up in a word, I suppose it would be " I ~a d e rs hip." Gymnasts are a minority sports group in t~IS .country. It is not enough just to know that gymnas路 tICS IS probably the best all-around sport in the world, you have to act upon these truths. We in Delaware have acted and are making great strides of progress in Gymnastics and are lookin g forward to even more progress in '62. . Bob Haldeman, a Delawarean, will captain the Spring/!eld College Gymnastic team this coming season. Another Delaware boy is a gymnastic candidate ;or the Air Force Academy's squad.

Newark High School Gymnastic Club

SWEDISH GYMNASTIC FEDERATION By Karl-Axel Rydell Here's a little about our organization. About 175,000 active gymnasts belon g to our society, registered in about 2,500 unions or clubs, spread about all over the co untr y. To small unions belon g sometimes only some 50 members but in the bigger ones, there can be up to 1,000 - 2,000 members. Usually there are 100-200 members. There are clubs with only gymnasti cs on their pro gram, but there are also clubs which also have athletics on th eir pro gram. These 175,000 gymnastics in 1961 may be divided in 4 categories : Men under 16 years, 19,500; men over 16, 33,000 ; women under 16, 45,400 ; and women over 16, 77,500. These gym · nasts practice gymnastics of elite, yo uth , children, recr eational or housewife type and they do their gymnastics in the evenin gs an y time between 5-9 p.m . They do the gymnastics voluntary and pay to the union a duty for it. The leader is sometimes a professional one, examined from our Ro yal Gymnastic Institute in Stockholm, but mostly he is a layman-leader; that is he does this work because he is interested in gymnastics. He is educated as instructor by passin g throu gh one or several of our di strict's short courses. Mostly he is or has been an active gymnast. Under our central organization depend 24regional districts, which in broad coincide with the geographical division of the governmental administration. The clubs, situated in a district, obey in first hand to that very district. Every year we have a con gress to which the districts send their representatives. We have a government consistin g of a board of 9 members and there are then special commitees for elite, recreational and yo uth gymnastics and then a secretar y's office with a personnel of (just now ) 8 persons. Amon g them you will notice a gen. sec. as boss. I have mentioned our short courses for educatin g of leaders. Every springtime we present our courses in a brochure to our union s. Then they notify their candidates on special forms to us and we pick out those which we think are qualified for a course. They must belon g to a club, and be or be willing to be a leader. They pay about 100 sw. crowns for thi s course, 8-10 days lon g, and this money is man y times payed by the candidate's own club. Then

they are called to the course and take part in this special kind of gymnastics to which they have notified. As you see th ere are several co urses of different types on each course period. That is in short our organization.




SHORT SUMMER-COURSES AT LILLSVED, SWEDEN ARRANGED BY THE SWEDISH GYMNASTIC ASSOCIA TION The Swedish Gymnastic Federation every year arranges short summ er-courses, 8-10 days lon g, at people's gymnastic high·school of Lillsved situated at a distance of 4 Swedish miles from Stockholm. There are courses of va rious kinds as elementary, advanced and special courses with the aim of training and ed ucatin g gy mn asti c leaders. The l essons are held in Swed ish, because th e courses are intend ed for Swedes, but for eigners are welcome to parti cipate. Tht" teachers and instru ctors usually speak English ra ther well and every year some foreigners follow these courses with acceptabl e results. Every foreigner ca n app ly for a short course at Lillsved. No tice ought to be sent in good time before the commencement of the co urse to Sven ska Gymnastikforbundet, Kungsholmstorg 6, Stockholm K. F ees: Th ere is a registration fee of 15 sv. cr., which can be pa id in ad vance or at your arrival to Sweden. The fee for food and lod ging is 20 sw. cr. per day of the co urse. For furth er information write to Svenska Gymnastik· forbund et, tel. 51 11 11 or to the dean directly : R egtor Erik Westergren, Gymnastikfolkhogskol an, Lillsved, Sweden. From September 1st to Jun e 20th th ere are also possibilities to follow the educa tion at th e Roya l Gymnastic Central In stitute for a week or two. Further information are given by Kung!. Gymnastiska Centralinstitutet, L indingovagen 1, Stockholm. We are preparin g our summer·co urses for 1962; here in short how they will look like: L June 26 . July 3: a. and b. Train ing of leaders of housewife·gymnast ics. Beginners and advanced. Only Wal1len.

2. July 5 · 13. a. and b. Training of l ~aders of r ecrea· tional·gymnastics " K eep Fit". Beginn ers. One co urse for men and on e for women. c. Trainin g of rythmical gym· nastics for women. Beginners. d. Tranin g·gymnasti cs for men. 3. July 16 · 24. a. Trainln g of leaders of children·gy mna s· tics. b. Special gym nasti cs·co urse for Frenchmen. 4. July 26 . -{\ ug. 3. a. and b. Training of lead ers of :ecrea tional·gy mnasti cs with special accent on gymn asti cs for old people. Men and Women. c. Training of lead ers for recreational·gymnastics for boys. d. Trainin g of lead ers of youth gy mnastics. For women. S. Aug. 6 - 14. a. to d. Tra inin g of leade rs of youth gym· nasti cs. Beginn ers and advanced. 6. Aug. 16·24. a. and b. Trainin g of leaders of elit e· gymnastics: a. for men ; b. for wom en. 7. Aug. 6·12. Scandina vian cam p at il'Ialmahed. 8. Probably in June. Youth cam p for 400 boys and girl~ 14·17 years old at Malmahed.


* 9

Gymnastic campers at Bisham Abbey, Buckinghamshire, row middle, Mrs. Prestidge to his right, Jim Prestidge

GYMNASTIC CAMP AT BISHAM ABBEY. MARLOW, BUCKING HAMPSHIRE , August 5th to 12th, 1961 This course is held annually at one ' of the National Recreation Centres of the Central Council of Physical Recreation, under the control of the Amateur Gymnastic Association. The students, both men and women were at varying stages of performance, some raw beginners ~d others 1st class performers. Ages range from I~ years upwards. The course is a personal performance holiday course, with two compulsory sessions per day of t):ll'ee hours in the mornin g and 1% hours in the afternoon. The re~t of the day is spent as you wish, playing tennis, clock golf, padda tennis, swimming, canoeing and dancing. The centre is a 13th century abbey, which has maintained its original state, and is set on the edge of the river Thames, in very lovely countryside. The lawns are spacious and the turf is soft, and with the sun shining (which it does do even in England) workin g out of doors is a deli ght. - The camp caters for 25 men and 25 women, with fiye coaches between them. The coaches give their time voluntarily, and this year were Miss Pat Hirst, eight times British champion; Mrs. Paulin Prestidge, A.G.A. coach; Mr. Walter Walsh, Physical Director of the Swansea Y.M.C.A. S.S.I.; Mick Munn of the Army Physical Training Corps and .. Denis Butcher of Norwich Priory. The course lasts :/.' a. week and the students are resident for th,at time, ' ''',' "at a cost of 拢9. 10.0 (or $28.) The food IS good, four meals a day, served in the banqueting hall beneath the minstrel gallery, with the original tapestries adorning the walls. The highlight of this year's course was the visit of the Vice-President of the Japanese Gymnastic Association. He, Mr. Takashi Kondo, traveled to London from Stuttgart and Lisbon. He very soon became popular with ;the gymnasts and the men 10

to his right}.

received some very useful hints. Mr. Kondo stayed for two days during which time he played golf and presented many gymnasts with the Japanese gym路 nastic badge, gestures which thrilled the students. JR. GYMNASTS TRAINING CAMP AT MACOLIN Situated high in the mountains overlookin g the beautiful valley village of Bienne and the Alps on the horizon is Macolin, the Swiss National School of Gymnastics and Sports. Here in picturesque resort atmosphere amid graceful rolling hills and woods are gymnasiums, playing' fields, tracks, courts, swimmin g pools, dormitories and administration buildings. In 1944 the Swiss Federal Counsel decided to build a Gymnastic and Sports School and in 1946 construction began at Macolin with class activities under way in 1947. Since then almost all of the top Gymnasts of Switzerland have at one time or another attended the school as a student or m路 structor. Durin g the first part of July this year nearly a hundred Gymnasts and instructors were on hand for the boys J 1'. training camp at Macolin. Here for a week these J r. Gymnasts age 15 to 20, worked, ate and dreamt Gymnastics. Under the excellent guidance of instructors, Joseph Stalder, Clemente Gilardi, Peter Diem, Heinz Lehmann , Roger Fehlbaum, Arno Darms and Ernst Hertig the boys were tau ght all phases of Gymnastics from theory to competitive action . Switzerland, a wonderful setting for Gymnastics is a land long famous for its grandure and beauty. Plan to visit there one day and be sure to try out the gym and equipment at the National Gymnastic School at Macolin. If you can go in reality instead of just dreams, you can get more information about courses and class sessions by writing to: The Director of the Federal School of Gymnastics, Macolin, Bienne, Switzerland.

Above: Scenes from Gymnastic training camp at Malco!n. Below: Instmctors and stlLdents irom Junior Boys training cam.p.

IV. The hi ghlight of the youn ger age gro up was the Gi rls Program and Meet which was directed by Mr. Bud Marquette and the Boys Meet which was directed by Ernie Maranoni. Seeing this fine gro up of yo ung boys and girls, we are sure that these will be among our future Olympians. The Clinic ended with an organizational meetin g at wh'ich time an executive board was elected to shape the policies for next year's Clinic. Other appointments were al so made. At present the Clinic organization looks like this:

Clinic Bare, Glenn Faria,

Instructors: Erwin Volze, Jerry Todd, Frank Bob Justice, Don Carney, Martha Tsucheye, Wilson, Bud Marquette, Gordie Maddox, lrv Mike Pickering and Sam Balie.

WESTERN GYMNASTICS CLINIC By Sam Bailie, Clinic Director The first Western Gymnastics Clinic, held at the University of Arizona in Tucson , was blessed with fine weather and 210 registrations from all over the West. The first clinic must be termed a success, and at present many are already workin g toward ma~ing next year's clinic even better. We did have our first year problems, such as havin g more instruction for the younger groups and more areas for the women. Many of these problems are already bein g solved. Next year the women wiII have their own gym complete with apparatus for all classes as well as having some apparatus in the men's gym for informal workouts. Clinic Highlights 1. The Research Committe~ headed by Dr. Fred Roby of the University of Arizona, and assisted by Dr. Dunn of Washington State University and Dr. Gustafson of San Jose State College, announced that the recipient of the Gym Master Research Grant in the amount of $200.00 was to go to Mr. Pat Bird, Graduate Assistant at the University of Illinois, for his study entitled: "A Comparison of the Physical Fitness Characteristics Between a Varsity Gymnastics Team and Superior Olympi cLevel Gymnasts." II. Clini'c sessions which drew much prai se were the judging classes which were directed by Gordon Maddux of Los Angeles State and assisted by Jerry Todd of Pasadena City College and Irv Faria of Sacramento State_ III. The Clinic hi ghlights for the public was the Championship Met which was directed by Glenn Wilson of the University of Colorado- and despite two equipment mishap s was very well run in 2% hours. Gold watches were awarded to the event winners in each event. Some of the championship standouts were Bill Wolf of Pasadena City College on the Still Rings; 1st p lace, Harvey Plantt of Arizona State University and 2nd place, Don Carney of Iowa on the Trampoline; and Terry Hale, the All-Around winner from the University of Southern California. 12

PERMANENT OFFICERS Sam Bailie ... ............ Clinic Director Frank Bare ..... ...... Assistant Director EXECUTIVE BOARD lrv Faria ... .......... ..... .... .... ... .Clinic President Sacramento State J erry Todd ..... ............ .. .............. Vice-President Pasadena City College Don Robi~ s~ ;l ... Vi ce-President

" A~;;~~~' c;i~;;;i;

Bud Marquette .................... ....... Women's Director Dr. Ruby .... Head of Research Committee Unive rsity oj Arizona Dr. Dunn ..... ............. Research Committee Washington State University Dr. Gustafson ............. ..... ......... Research Committee San Jos e State College Marion Kin g ... ........... Recreation Chairman T exas City, Texas Glenn Wil son .. .. ...Director of Competitions University 0/ Colorado


Held December 27 , 1961 - University of Arizona By Glenn Wil son, Meet Director Approximately 600 people in Tuscon attended the Western Gymnastics Clinic Championships held at the University of Arizona's Bear-Down Gymnasium. These people got a glimpse of the great thin gs to come in this Clinic, and of course, they witnessed 2 hours of the West's finest gymnasts. No team championship was computed as this meet was to be for individuals only. However, a casual observer could easily see that the fine gymnasts from Pasadena City College were dominant on the victory stand. 1;'he All-Around Champion, with 486.5 points was Terry Hale from the University of Southern California. Gold watches were given to the event winners, so I believe I can say that Terry will have no trouble tellin g the time: Mr. Hale won three watches. Terry Hal e

Besides Terry Hale's fine pei-forman ce in the all-around.- severa l ou tstanding performances and routine ~ were turn ed in by Bill Wolf on th e Rin gs; Harvey Plant on th e Trampoline; Dick Glu skoter in Tumblin g. Prohably most outstand in g was Bill Wolf's rin g wo rk which included several "C" moves. Listed below are the results of each event:

ALL-A ROUND : 1. T erry Hal e, 486.5; 2. Verle Inm an. 475.5; .~. Gary Buckn er, 462.2. FREE EXERCISE: 1. Bill Ja ckson. 88; 2. Curt Rebhan . 85 .5; .~. Bill Cornelieus, 85. TRAM POLI NE: 1. Harvey Plant, 93.5 ; 2. Don Ca rn ey. 88 .5; 3. Keith Sulli va n, 82.5. . SIDE HORSE: 1. Karl Byers, 87; 2. Stevp Doty , 85: 3. Terry Hal e, 80. ROPE CLIMB : 1. John Sunderla nd, 3.6 ; 2. Sam Holl and. 4.2; 3. Bob Brown, 4.4. HIGH BAR: 1. T erry Hal e, 92.5; 2. Verl e Inm an, 89: 3. Gary Buckner, 87 .5 . PARALLEL BARS: 1. Terry Hal e, 88; 2. Verlp Inm an. 87: 3. Dick Nicholas. 83. STILL RI NGS: 1. Bill Wolf, 92.5; Ti e 2. Jim Amerin p. 85.5 and Gary Buckner, 85.5. TUMBLI IG: 1. Dick Gluskot er, 83 .5; 2. Denn y Sulli路 va n, 80.5; 3. Ga ry Benhett , 77.5. LONG HORSE : 1. Gary Buckner, 79.75 ; 2. Verle In路 man , 76 .0 : 3. Terry Hale,' 72.5. Compe tition .fudges: .ferry Todd , lrv Faria. Bud Marquette alTd KelT Bartlett

WESTERN STATES GYMNASTICS CLlN IC TRA MPOLINE PROGRAM By Bob Justice The tramp olin e program had a very large gro up participating, with th e majority of the gro up in the 11 an d under age group. Th e group , as a whole, had a large number of beginnin g and intermediate performers. Th erefore, much time was spent on basic work ; that is, back an d fr on t so mersau lts, and elementary twistin g work. There was a n emphasis placed on safety while arou nd a nd performing on th e trampo lin e. This is exemp I ified by th e fac t that even wi th seven trampolines (whi ch included a giant 10x20 web bed Gym Master) in use almost co nstantly, th ere were no acciden ts. Durin g th e regular trampoline in struct ional period s there were eno ugh qualified instructors a\'ai lab le to use one a t each tramp olin e. In thi s way the popuils were ab le to receive more p e r~onal a ttenti on and in stru ction tha n usin !! an y other method. Ri ch Harris, from Nissen Tra;"polin e Co mpan y, was th e hea d instructor ,assigning th e oth er in stru ctors to th eir respecti ve tra mpolin e fo r instruction. Th ere were a few instructors who had had no previous traJlllllg in tra mpolin e instru ct ion techniques. The program in th e cli nic was especially helpful to th ese inst ru ctors. Tt ilave th em an opportunity to ask question s an d lea rn techniques fr om persons wh o have had much exp eri ence in both teachin g and performing, giving them some insight into teachin g meth ods for va rious stunts. A small group was interes ted in "doub l e~" work for shows a nd exhibiti ons. Althou gh th e participation was n ot grea t. th e work was benefir.ial for th ose interested. This first clinic was a real success with near ly a ll persons goin g home enri ched and ready to g~ to work. With th e closin g day's wo rk ou t, one phrase was heard several tim es th at reflected everyone's attitude toward the clinic and the new-made friend s - "SEE YOll NEXT YEAR". L


Ernie Mariononi instructing cLass

COMPETITION FOR BOYS 16 AND UN DER AND 11 A lD UNDER By Ern) e Marinoni, Meet Director Boys 16 and und er : These boys will soo n be Rich Impson of makin g Gymnastic history Pheonix won the All-Around and was ver y impressive in winnin g Side Horse, P_ Bars, Lon g Horse and H. Bar; Paul Mayer, 11 year old from the Berkel ey YMCA' who won Tumbling and FreeX and was second in Side Horse, P_ Bars and High Bar is another boy to wateh. Don Dunfield from San Jose placed 3rd in the All-Around; Kent U mbarger was 4th All-Around and Tel McQuisten of the Berkelev Y and Don McAlister of Madera ti ein g for 5th AU- Aroun d with McA lister winnin g first place in the Trampoline and a secon d in Free-X. Warren Beers placed first on the Rings and Steve Parr, P erry Robbi son, Ron DeWi tt, Mel Dunheld and Randy Wentzel were .also among the place winners. Boys 11 and under: In the boys 11 and under we ha ve boys not on ly capabl e of repla ci ng our present old er boys, but even surpassin g them. We must reali ze when we get our boys into better work habits we will be an even stron ger World P ower in Gymnasti cs. In thi s class we had Mike Event prace winn ers in the boys competition


Sullivan from the Berkeley YMCA who won 5 events. Mike just had his 11th birthday and is headed for the "68" Olym pi cs. Howard Hardie also of Brekeley won first in High Bar and Side Horse (Mike took second in th ese events) . Howard is a real worker with real work habits that make Champions. As soo n as we will a dmit to ourselves that Champi ons a re made (thru hard work and intelli gent guidan ce) not born , we wiII achi eve the goa l of World and Olympi c Champions from Ameri ca. We ha ve just picked out a few of the outstanding performers but others such as place winners: Kurt Edwards, Jim Beli love, Kevin Moore, Steve Boatwright, Steve Kromorowski, Gery Bishop, Jeffery Wentzel, Russell Hull and Dann y Connor will be at the top one da y with a little more of that 01' tr y and Hard Work. These meets for boys were judged by th e older Co l lege and Adult Gymnasts who did a grand and inspiring job for the yo un gsters. There were 27 boys entered in this meet which gave them very good ex perience in a well run competition. Ha vin g seen many of thees boys for several yeal's it amazes me what these Clinics do for them and we wou ld like to thank Sam Balie and the U. of A rizona for the pri vilege of bein g part of thi s Clinic. WOMENS GYMNASTICS AT THE FIRST WESTERN GYMNASTICS CLINIC By Bud Marquette First of all may we ' say " Hats Off" to Sam Bailie and Frank Bare, co -chairmen of the Clinic, for a tremendous job, well done. The Western Gymnastics Clinic has come and gone - but the memories will indeed lin ger on. Ma ny new friends were made and old acquaintan ces renewed. Approximately 100 girls and young women alon g with their coaches participated in the women 's di vision . Most all were newcomers on th e gymnastic scene. Thei r quest for know led ge and actual workouts were wonderful to watch . Sincerity and devotion in their learnin g was some thin gs we ha ven't seen in a lon g time. Over 240 boys and girls working out in the huge U niversity gymnasium and upon entering one would hardly

A {f路A round winners

realize that so man y yo un gsters were hard at work. There was a di stinct lack of voice. confusion and mullin g around which is so common' at a great number of our gymnasti c activities. One of the contributin g fa ctors to th e good behavior of the parti cipa nts was th e complete separation of the men and women's program. Although working ou t six hours a da y in the same gymnasium, each held their own classes, jud gi ng panels discussions, etc. and in no wav interfered with one another. Yours trul y' directing th e women's program was ably assisted by such co mpetent instructors as Mr. Ami Leso, Martha T sucheya, and Lola Beth Wentzel of No rthern , Calif. Mrs. Marion Kin g of T exas and Mrs. Ferol Kent of Arizona. A most surpri sin g and welcome guest was Mrs. Mildred Prchal of Chicago, Director of the Women's Di vi路 sion for the Sokol Organization. Her hi gh regard and comments to all the girls were deepl y appreciated. From an in structional viewpoint, we are aware of the need for more dedicated instructors and women's equipment throughout the U.S., a situ ation which we feel sure will improve. The girl s performance in most events were quite goo d, but noti ceabl y weak in vaultin g and un evens. Coaches and participants viewed gymnastic film s every afternoon and held open discussions, mainly on spottin g and th eir own gymn asti c problems. The girls competition was divided into two age groups, eleven and under, tw elve and over. Some of the girls showed remarkable comp lete r outines. Paula Crist, Stevi Peterson. Cando and Maria Huffman were the outstanding' all around performers. Due to a state ruling concern in g High School girls all of the young ladies from Arizona and New Mexico were not abl e to participate in the competition. A situation which will be rectified in time for the next clinic. Other hi ghli ghts of the clini c were the va ultin g table and mini-tramp dem onstration given by the high sch ool boys and girls of Lovington,' New Mexico , under the coachin g -' of Ross Black (see last issue of M.G.) A fittin g climax to a grand and glorious clini c was the invitation to have a few of the newl y crowned champion s perform durin g half time ~t the basketball game between the U niversity of Arizona and Brigham Young U niversity. Paula

Panla Crist

Ste vi Peterson

Crist, Maria H uHman and Stevi Peterson never performed more beautifully. A most appreciative a udi ence of some 2500 made th e games officials hold up the start of the seco nd half in order to allow the girl s a final bow . The atmosphere of the beautiful campus, the friendliness of the residents of Tu cson and the wonderful weather did a great deal to inspire all the participants to hi gher achievements. So successful was th e First Western Clinic th at officers and directors we re elected to head up next year's program and actu all v ha ve it far under way. Plan now to attend th e ' 1962 Western Cymnastic' Clini c. RESULTS WOMEN'S DIVISION J UDGES: Martha Tsucheya, Berkeley, Calif. ; Marion King. Texas City, Texas; Ferol Kent, Tucson, Arizona; Pauline Faria, Sacramento State ; Loa Beth Wentzel, Sacramento, Calif. HEAD SCORERS: Charl otte Probst, Ri verside, Calif.; Vada Crabbe, Sacram ento, Calif. JUDGES SCORER: Bob Probst, Riverside, Calif. FLASHER: Jenny Kent, Tucson, Arizona. 11 and und er FREE EXERCISE: 1. IVlaria Huffman , 7.9 ; 2. Nora Truss, 7.7; 3. Sandra Jephson, 7.6. BALANCE BEAM: 1. Maria Huffman, 7.2; 1. Sandra J ephson, 7.2; 3. Judy Ell ard, 7.0. VAULTING: 1. Mar ia Huffman, 7.1 ; 1. Carol l'vloorhound , 7.1; 3. Kerry Moore, 6.9. TUMBLING: 1. Carol Moorhou nd, 8.5; 2. Nora Truss, 8.2 ; 3. Maria Huffman , 7.9. 12. and over FREE EXERCISE: 1. Paula Crist, 8.6; 2. Lea Truss, 7.5; 2. Canda Roush, 7.5. BALANCE BEAM: 1. Paula Crist, 8.3; 2. Stevi Peterson, 7.8; 3. Cand a Roush , 7.3. VAU LTI NG: 1. Paul a Cri st, 8.8; 2. Stevi Peterson, 8.6. TUMBLING: 1. Pa ula Crist, 8.2 ; 2. Ca nda Roush, 7.8; 3. Lea Truss, 7.4. UNEVENS: 1. Paula Crist, 7.~ 2. Stev i Peterson, 7.0. TRAMPOLINE: 1. Stevi, 8 .4"'~. Paula Crist, 7.8; 3. Canda Roush, 7.6. ALL-AROU D :- 1. Paula Crist ; 2. Stevi Peterson ; 3. Canda Roush. Bnd MarqlleUe in structing class at clinic

Leit to Right: Stevi Peterson, Lea Truss , Canda Roush , Panfa Crist, K endis Moore, Sandra I ephson, Nora TrlLSs, Ind y Ellard, Mar ia Huffman , K erry Moore, Karen Gallaway, Carol Moorlwund, Oliva Walk er.





THE MODERN GYMNAST PHOTO CONTEST FIRST PRIZE thi s edition goes to J. Blies of Amsterdam, Holl and, for this photo he entitled "The Flying Dutchman, balancing on his nose". SECOND PLACE AWARD goes to J im 路.Fraser, Asst. girls gym coach, Seattle, Wash. YMCA for this photo of Dale McClemments in a Flying Splits over Marilyn Miller in the Side Splits. The picture was taken ,vith fla sh at f路16 usin g Royal Pan film. THIRD PLACE AWARD was won by Rick Tucker of West Covina, Calif. for this 'picture of himself doing a Branny dismount from the Ring set路 up (eighteen路foot frame, cable ropes, wooden and a sand pit ) in Dennis Roby's back yard. Photo taken with a Brownie Kodak Hawkeye camera.







s. ADVANCED GYMNA STICS FOR WOMEN By Herb Vog~l An illusion is an advanced acrobtic skill which can be incorporated into a free exercise routine with ease. It blends well with dance element and more difficulty, but with beauty. with acroba tic stunts. Due to its nature it should not be attempted unless you have patience and excellent fl exibility of both back and legs. Note that #4 illustrates a full , if not greater than full split position). PREPARATION: Develop total body fl exibility fully. LEADUPS: (1) Mastery of front work路overs. (2) Mas路 tery of split. PROGRESSION: (1) From standin g position raise arm s and left leg forupward. (2) Swing arms down and simul路 taneo usly with the left leg downward and backupward. (3) Swing the head and body down toward the right leg, swing the left arm between legs continuing backupward, the left swings back and up as high as possible. (4) The left leg continues upward, through the "split" position; elevate to the tow of the right foot, pivot on the right foot to the left. (5) Left leg continues swinging "over the top" so to speak, as the full pivot left on the right foot is com路 pleted. The swin ging left leg as the arms continue on to the original starting position or to various options indi ca ted. HELPFUL HI NTS : (1) Coach or assistant gra sp left hand and arm of the performer loosely so that as the illusion is attempted the per form er is kept in allignment in proper positi on and removes the fear "of bein g lost" durin g practicing the stunt. (2) By placement of left ha'nd along the side of the right foo t total body position and balan ce is maintained. Some performers use this " crutch" in actual competitive performance of the stunt . . . thi s then is not a true illusion. The performer must rely on the "crutch" as another mea ns to learn the stunt.








N) ,.

A. WJ\LKOVER, 6. ARIAl. \NIH-KOVER C. ~WII\~ ,"~ Wf\l.\('OUf~


SWUl~ -n\RU

RR1RL WR\.l(.ovE'R 19


Gymnasts By Grace Kaywell 3 Tanglewood Court IT' est Palm Beach. Florida

GRACE NOTES With dance bein g such a vital part of the gymnastic performan ce it is my desire to sa lute - the outstanding teachers of the nation and ask them to write some of their . favorite exercises for this column. In that way gymnasts located in our fifty states will become acquainted with the outstandin g teachers in their comunity. If you have any special teachers whom I do not know please show them thi s article_ and ask 'them to forward suitable pictures and information to me at my home address, not to the magazine. This month we salute Gus Giordano of 614 Davis Street, Evanston , Illinois. Mr. Giordano began his professional career 'at the Roxy Theatre in 1948 . He was choreographer in sum~er stock in Rochester, New York with " Brigadoon", and "On The Town" (starring Nancy Walker) which were especially noteworthy. On TV he was with the Dean Martin, Jerry Lewis, Ed Sullivan , and Perry Como shows. He had a featured dance roll in "Wish You \Vere Here". You can see him currently on the commercial for the Bell Telephone TV Hour. He has been a regu lar judge on Chicago's Harvest Moon Ballroom' Festival, and he choreographed Northwestern University's famous W AA-MU show. Like other relentless perfectionists, he is never satisfied . He aims in his teachin g for a "Rega l Look" in the torso and head, isolation of parts. His students are taught to move the body part separately - hands, head, shoulders, etc. Beginnin g students seldom have the capacity for this feelin g, and he begins each of his classes with body stretches on the floor , working with ba~k and neck vertebral stretches_ This serves to warm up the body before any isolation movements are attempted. Body warm-u p progresses from a floor position to sitting, to kneelin g, and finally to standin g. At the barre there is a seco nd warm-up using the pelvis and thi gh to build body stren gth. It is at the barrethat the releve' foot comes into action. Once the student has sufficient stren gth to hold his balance he is tau ght to work without the barre. Such demanding bod y discipline teaches the student to "think" phys ically. It is question ed whether hi s dance techniques are ~ uitable for women since it uses stron.g move-


Gus Giordano

ments. Savs Gus Giordano " It is true that men look very" masculine if they are well trained and do this type of wo rk, but one has only to look at Cyd Charisse, Carol Haney, and Gwen Verdon , to realize how very feminine it can be too ". "The imp ortant thin g to keep in mind is the purity and the discipline of this technique. It mu st be worked at and absorbed"_ Tt has been my plea sure to work several hours under the direction of Mr. Giordano and I found his classes most inspirin g. He is a friend of Mr. Bud Beyer who also wri.tes for thi s magazine and is deeply interested in helpin g gymnasts. You can tell by the photos of Mr. Giordano ' that he can attain great elevation by usin g his own techniques which are described on the nex t pa ge. We salute you Mr. Giordano, and man y thanks for your inspirin g work. ..:-


MODERN J AZZ WARM-UP EXERCISES Presented by Gus Giordano Counts Are In Brackets. - Arm Movement In Itali cs Lay on your back on the floor. Arms stretched straight over your head. (1) Arch your back, raising your vertebrae as far off the fl oor as possible. Stretch as lon g as you can. (2) Bend your knees, round your back so that all

vertebrae touch the floor. Lay on your back on the floor. Arms are folded in back oj yonr head. (1-4) Pull head fwd. as far as you can, and stretch your neck muscles. (5·8) Relax and lay your head back on the floor. R. leg is in the air. A rms in second, palms on the floor. ( ll Point toe and str. knee. (2) Bend knee and fl ex heel so that it is parallel to the ceiling. Bring the leg as close to the chest as possible. When you str. knee, keep leg pulled fwd . Rpl. L. Lay on your back on the floor. Arms in second, palms on th e floor. (1 ·2) Kick R. leg and hold it up . (3) Lower leg to fl oor. Rpt. L. Rpt. without holding (in 2 co unts) . Lay on the fl oor, feet str. out on the floor. A rms in second, palms on the floor. (1) Bend R. knee in to chest. (2) Str. leg up and point toe. (3) Bend kn ee back into chest. (4) Lower leg to floor. Rpt. L. Rpt. fl exin g the toe so that the heel is parallel to the ceiling on count 2. Lay on the floor, bot h legs str. up in the air. A rms in second, palms on the floor. (1) Point toes. (2) Bend knees and fl ex toes. (1·20 ) Lower legs slowly. Lay on fl oor. A rm s in second, palms on floor. (1-4) Arch back and lift thru vertebrae to a sittin g pos. and then continue and place your head on your knees. (5·8) Round your back moving thru the vertebrae first, lower to start· ing pos. Sit on the floor, feet str. fwd. A rms str. over head. (1 .4) Stretch up very taly. (1·3) Bend fwd. with head on knees and bounce. (4) Return to startin g pos. Sit on the fl oor, legs in a wide second. (1·4) Holding on to R. leg, stretch to the R. side. (1.4) Holding one leg in one hand and the other in the other hand, stretch fwd. (1-4) Holding on to L. leg. stretch to the L. side. Bounce the calves of the legs on the floor to relax the muscl es. K eeping the knees str., walk fwd . on th e buttocks and then bkwd. Sit on floor, legs in second. A rms in second. (1) Face str. fwd. (2) Face R. leg. (3) Touch head to R. knee. (4) Come up still fa cing R. leg Rpt. alternating. Sit on the fl oor, feet str. fwd . Arms hold on to feet. (1) Bend fwd. with head on knees. (2) Lift head with back rounded. (3) Still hold in g on to feet , arch back. (4) Return to startin g pos. Sit on flo or, feet in second . Flex R. toe, L. is pointed. R . arm is on R. ankle . Elbow is on the floor. L. ann is over head. L. ann comes in to chest. Stretch L. arm up to the ceiling. L. arm comes in to chest. (1) Stretch to R. foot. (2·3) Arch back. Sit on flo or, fee t str. fwd . A rms in second. (1) Raise legs, only slightly. (2) Open legs to 2nd. (3) Bring legs together. (4) Lower legs. S it on fl oor, feet in second. A rms in second. (1 ) P oint R. toe. (2) Flex toe and bend knee. R pt. L. Rpt. both at the sa me time. Rpt. both at the sa me time in one co unt. R. leg on 'floor in bk. attitud e. L. leg in second. (1·4) Bend fwd. to L. knee. L . ann is on the floor. R. arm is fwd. over leg. (1.4) Lay bk. to R. leg. R. arm is bk. on the floor . Squat on your heels. Hands on the floor. (1·4) Bounce. Keep your back str. and your head up. (1-4) Str. knees and put head on knees. Rpt. in one count. Kn eel on both knees. slightly apart. Arms in second. (1) Push pelvis bk. (2) Str. pelvis and lock it. (3) Go bk. as far as you can without releasing the pelvis. (4) Str. up. Kneel and sit on your heels. Head on the floor. (1·4 Round bk. and come up to a sitting pos. Arms on the floor. (1·4) Push through pelvis and arch your back. Arms on floor behind body . (14) Leading with chest. return to startin g pos. Kneel on L. knee. R. leg is in second. (1) Stretch over to R. side. L . arm over head. (2) Bend fwd. L . arm in high first. (3) Contract, placin g head on floor. Both arms on fl oor. (4) Come up to a starting pos. , Standing, feet in first· plies. Hands in low fi rst. (1) Demi plie. (2) Releve keepin g knees bent. (3) Still in releve, str. kn ees. (4) Lower heels. Rpt . in 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th, Feet in second (1) Bend fwd. Arms in second. (2) Str. up. (3) Bend to R. ·side. L. arm over head. (4) Str. up. Rpt. alternating.

Feet in 2nd . (1.4) Bend to R. side. L. arm ove r head. R. arm in high fir~t . Rpt. L. Rpt. in 3 counts, 2 co unts and then 1 count. Jazz port de bras. Feet in second. A rll/.s in second. (1 ·2) Bend arms sharply in front of chest. (3-4) Push both arms str. up over head. Palms face body. (5·8) Lower arms to sides.



.'ltJODERN JAZZ ISOLAT IO N All iso lations should be done carefull y. Be sure that you move on ly that part of the body which is supposed to move. HEAD ISOLATIONS For all head isolati ons, the feet are in 2nd. For all head isolations the arms are str. down at your sides. (1) Look· ing down stretching the muscles in the bk. of the neck. (2) Look up stretchin g the muscles in frt. of the neck. (1) Look sharply to the R. keep head high turning on ly in the neck. (2) Look str. fwd . R pt. L. (1·2) Ci rcl e head to the R . st retching as far as possible in each pos. Rpt. circl in g L. SUNDAR I H EAD lvlOVEJlIJEN TS For all Sundari head movements, th e fee t are together in a small pie. For all Sll l/ dari head movements, the arms are over the head. Palms oi the hands touch, elbows square. (1 ) Keeping everything eise sti ll, push the head str. fwd . Do not tilt the chin up or down. (2) Return to normal pos. (1) Push ht:ad bk. Aga in, do not tilt the chin up or down. (2) Return to normal pos. (1) Push head fwd. as in the first Sund ari movement. (2) Push head directly bk. as in the 2nd Sund ari move· ment. (1) Push head to th e R. sid e. When doing this move· ment , do not tilt your head. Think of touching your R . arm to your R. ear. (2) Return to normal pos. Rpt. L. (l ) Push hea d fwd . and return to normal pos. (2·4) Rpl. pushin g head to the R, bk. and L. Rpt. pushing to the L. side fir st. (1·4) Circle head to the R. hittin g all of the positions in between. Accent count 4 by pushin g the head distinctly fw d. Rpt. circling L. FI NGE R ISOLATlONS Feet in 2nd. A rms in second. (1) Spread fin gers apart and stretch them. (2) Clench your fist. S HOULDER ISOLATIO NS For all should er isolati ons, the feet are in 2nd unless otherwise stated. For all shollide r isolations th e arms are in second with the lingers stretched. (1) Lift both shoulders str. up. (2) Return to normal pos. (1) Push both shoulders fwd. (2) Return to norm al pos. ( Be careful to move onl y the shou lder and not the entire arm). (1 ) Push both should ers up. (2) Fwd. (3) Dow n. (4) And bk. Feet in 5th pos. in a small plie. R . arm ilt second, L. arm. On thigh. (1) Pull R. should er diagonally bk. (2) Push shoulder diagonally fwd . RIB CAGE ISOL ATIO NS ' F eet in 2nd. Hands on hips . (1) Lift the rib cage and move it to the R. Do not move the shoulders or any other part of the body. (2) Return to normal pos. Rpt. L. Rpt. movin g from R. sid e to L. side without stoppin g in between. PEL VIS ISOLA TIO NS Feet in second . Arms in second. (1) Contract . push pelvis fwd. Arm.s go str. fwd . Take a small plie. H ead is down. (2) Return to normal pos. Feet together in a small plie. Arms in second. (1) Push pelvis fwd . (2) To the R. side. (3) Bk. (sway bk. ). (4) T o the L. side. Rpt. in the opposite directi on. Rpt. walking fwd. on toes with knees slightly bent. K NEE ISOLATIONS Feet in 2nd, pointing str. fwd. Arms in second. (1) Bend R. knee 'str. fwd . Keep L. knee str. (2) Return to normal pos. Rpt. L. Rpt. turning knee in. Rpt. turning knee out. Rpt. turning kn ee out and then in. (1-4) Circle R. knee out. (Start by turning knee in. Then circle it and return to normal pos.) . Rpt. L.








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L:J HINTS ABOUT "TAKE OFF"-S Much has been written about the techniques of different vaults, but little emphasis was given to improve tak e-off techniques (especially at girls) _ We must realize that after a gy mnast left the " take-off board", actually little can be done durin g the fli ght to shape the appearance of the vault ; the fate of the fli ght will be decid ed at the moment of the " take-o ff " when all the powers, leading to the vault, will be generated and aim ed_ Nothing is more important in thi s respect th an understanding and trainin g a correct take-off_ The illustration, drawn here, shows the problem and the comp onent s. In order to avoid lengthy and too theoretical , let me explain in practical lan guage what you see here_. In order to va ult, you need a runn ing approach. This will give yo u forw. speed (Sp 1). To change ,the forw. motion of this speed into a high and expl osive fli ght ( b 1) vou will have to boun ce off at an appropriate place. This "bounce-off" requires very serious considerations in order to select the appropri ate angle for the vault (beta) and to in crease the after-contact speed ( b) instead of losing it by the contact. We face certain non -adjustable fa ctors, such as the springiness of the board (PT ), the distance of the board from the apparatus (it must be predetermined depending on technical requi rements of the vault_ Althou gh the distance is optional with the gymnasts_ still there is a mechanically precise distance which must be met for best result s), the height an d length of the apparatus and also the weight of the athlete itself (G). The other fa ctors can be adjusted by the gymnast itself. Th e take-off an gle (beta ) will be determined by the incoming an gle (alpha ) and by the powers and the speed of the incomin g obj ect


by "Jim" Farkas , Instructor 0/ Physical Education, 0/ The Milwaukee Turners, Wisconsin


:~ (a ) . The take-off speed and power will be th e consequence of the combined powers of the hum an body and the liftin g capacity of the board (AT and PT ) in addition to the infl uence of the " delay" or travel" signifi ed by (gamm a) - totaling alpha and beta. In order to decrease ( beta), one must in crease (alpha) at the sam e Sp 2 (fli ght speed ). This must be done in case one wants to increase the height of his vault. To in crease " b" powers, one mu st increase the powers of "a" by increasing " LJ" (the length of preparatory jump) and also "Sp 2" (the speed of the preparatory jump) . The LJ will gradually grow with "epsilon" (angle of elevation) increasing up to about 45°; aft er that it will be gradually shorter ( this can be significant at other than Reuther type of boards ). With the increase of LJ, however, the Sp will gradually decrease; so, in order to assure an appropriate high takeoff speed, Sp 1 must be proportionatly increased. Actually here two " power-fountains" (a horizontal and a vertical) , acting in a right angle, must be r elated so that the resulting merger will give us the desired direction and power, to complete a task assigned by the technical requirements of a particular vault.




, Most vaults with a high degree of difficulty (for men as well as for women ) will require fast and powerful take-off s_ T o assure success, a fairly lon g running approach will be needed, durin g which sufficient velocity can be built up to conclude in a long preparatory jump tow ard the board_ Fast boards will need lower fli ghts, while slow boards must be approached with higher preparatory jumps. At the contact with the board the extension of joints involved in the take-off (ankle, knee, hip) (Ex, Ex 1, Ex 2 ) mu st immediately begin and concluded in half of the time r epresented by the speed of the board, so that when the compressed board returns (springs back) all the above mentioned joints are already completely extend ed and by this ali gnment the lifting power of the board can be 1000/0 transmitted (without any loss through bent joints) . Only the fore-upward swinging of the arms must coin cid e with the second phase of the board action, by which the take-o ff power s can be increased, directors modified and appropriate rotations determined (signified by " delta" ) . There is still one more thing I would like to mention about " take-off" s : the visual control (lookin g at the r ight thin g in the ri ght moment ) . Before one starts the runnin g approach, one must pause and size up intensely the enti re assignment ahead. During the run one must look at the board to assure precise contact with it; but before actually getting there, at the moment, beginning the preparatory jump toward the board, one must shift lookin g up to the spot on the apparatus ( horse, buck , box, table, etc.) where the hand-support will be taken up. This practice will eliminate erroneous tak e-off s and hand supports.

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RINGS 1. From straight hand, slowly raise straight body forward , arms slightly bent, to straight inverted han g; bend body and kip backward to free support. , 2. Swin g fore-downward (cast) , lowering to han g; swin g backward and inlocate to bent inverted han g; kip forward to L support; HOLD. 3. Slowly press bent ~rm, straight body handstand - HOLD. 4. Lower to horizontal support above the rings and descend slowly (below rings ) arms bent or straight, to horizontal back lever hang - HOLD. 5. - 6. Dislocate; swing forward to straight inverted han g, bend body to half-inverted hang;' dislocate and shoot up to handstand (Streuli) - HOLD. 7. Drop forward through hang and back uprise to support. , 8 . Swing legs forward and drop backward to bent inverted hang; dislocate, strai ghtening the body; swing forward and 9. High straddle dismount to stand. RINGS ANALYSIS 1. Muscular control is very important on the rin gs. Each movement sho uld show that the gymnast has his body under perfect control at all times. The word slow, means just that. A ve ry slight pause at the end of the pull, and then a qui ck bend and snap to the back kip. 2. Hit the kip as high as possible in order to get the swing forward in a straight arm position before dropping to the inlocate. TIP: it is. better to stop completely after the inlocate and set for a good kip , than it is to hurry the kip and wind up swingin g in the "L" position. 3. It is a press, not a swing. H old handstand "3" count. 4. Work here to hit the horizontal position before passing below the rin gs. Many gymnasts drop almost to the inverted han g hefore comin g into the back lever position. Hold "3" count. 5. - 6. Take your time here, but remember that there are no stops in this series of movements. Swing as high as possible before bending the body for the second dislocate, and work for solid control of the handstand when shooting up from the bottom. 7. Wait for the uprise to come to you instead of thinking about getting to the support position. Waiting will enable you to evolve a good straight arm rise with smoothness ,and an easy drop to , 8 .. 9. the inverted han g. Swing high on the dismount, a jack-knife on the come-down will make for a good straight landing.

SUBSCRIBE NOW! THE MODERN GYMNAST P.O., BOX 611 SANTA MONICA, CALIFORNIA Enclosed find $3,00 for Nine (9) issues of The Modern Gymnast Cash_


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QUESTIONS - GENERAL Circle correct letter on multiple choice questions, and write in correct an swer as required: 1. A compulsory exercise on the Sid e H orse, Parallel Bars, H orizontal Bar, and Rings : A-May not be repeated B- May be repea ted without penalty C- i\'fay he repeated with a penalty of 1.0 2. Falling off an apparatu s on eith er a prescribed or op tional exercise : A- Terminat es the exercise B- P ermits a gymnast to remount immediately and start his exercise again C-P ermits a gymnast to remoun t without delay (although he may quickly replenish ma gnes ia on hand s or replace 'hand protectors) and continue his exercise at the point where it was interrupted - with penalty of 1.0 3. In a compulsory exercise;. if a supple, swinging movement is performed with strength and force, or vice versa: A- The p enalty is 1,4 to % of the points alloted to thi s part B- Th e penalty is 1.0 . C- The gymnast loses all credit for this part 4. In optional 'exercises, unnecessary or intermediate swin gs are: A-P enalized 0.1 to 0.5 B-Not penalized C- Penalized 0.3 5. An optional exercise on Side Horse, Parallel Bars, Horizont al Bar and Rings: , A- Must consist of at least 10 prin cipal parts B- Must have at least 7, and not more than 12 parts C--May not consist of more than 15 parts 6. Optional exercises on Side Horse, Parallel Bars, Hori zontal Bar, Rings, must include: /1 - -2 "B" parts and 4 "c" parts B-路At least 4 "B" and 1 "c" parts C--6 "A" parts, 4 " B" parts and 2 "c" parts 7. The penalty for omitting a "c" part in an optional exercise is : A-1.0 B-0.3 to 0.8 C--0.6 8. The penalty for " HOLD" positions being held less than 3 seconds is :

A-O.S B--At least 0.2 to 0.4 C- O.l to 0.3 9. The omission of a movement in a prescribed exercise is penalized: A-At leas t the extent of points allotted to thi s part in th e eval uation of the exercise B- 1.0 C- O.S to 1.5 10. An optional exercise: A- May n ot include an y parts of the prescri bed excise B-May include parts of th e prescribed exercise if the combinations befor e and aft er these parts are different from those of the prescribed exercise C-Will be penalized 0.5 for each part of the compulsory exercise used


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Name Address, _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ __ City

JUDGING QUIZ ' Below continuing our series of Quickie Qui:res on your Judging ' kn owhow. Every Gymnast should have a fair kn owledge of the rules under which he competes. If he read s between the lin es, he can al so learn those little extra ti ps that improve his competitiveness. Questions are based on the F .I.G. code of points as outlined in the 1960 A AU Handbook.

_ _ _ Zone_. __ State _ _ __


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GYMNASTIC GUIDE for 1962-63 is now available from the amateur Athletic Union, 233 Broadway, New York 7, N. Y. at the price of $1.50.

Glenn G. Wilson

National Association


Gymnastics Coaches NAGC NEWS by Glenn Wilson Gymanstics Coach, University of Colorado

of California, Berkeley 4, California. Whether yo u participate or not the reports will be mailed to each member, but it would be much more accurate with yo ur help. For those who aren't familiar with the N.A.G.C. statistics pro gram I'll attempt to give a brief explanation. Each week colleges report the results of their dua l meets to the statistics chairman who in turn computes them and puts them in final report form each week. The weekly reports include: (1) dual meet results; (2) gymnasts with the best season average; (3) teams with best averages; and (4) unbeaten teams, etc. The reports were mailed to participating coaches only last year, since the program was merely experimental. Those coaches in the program felt that it is was good, so it prompted us to send the reports to all of our members.

1962 N.C.A.A. RULES The 1962 N.C.A.A. Rule Book is now available. If yo u haven't already received a copy yo u can do so by writing to the American Trampoline Company.

NEWS ITEMS Durin g the Christmas holidays your SecretaryTreasurer attended the Western States Gymnastics Clinic, held at the University of Arizona. I'm sure the Clinic will be reported elsewhere, but there are several observations about the Clinic which may be of interest. Many fine 'pieces of gymnastic equipment from several companies, includin g experimental apparatus, were made available for practice durin g the Clinic. Speaking from the coaches' point of view, I don't believe we have ever had it so goo d. The equipment shown at this Clini c was made to be better lookin g, move easier' and more qui ckly, and had a better engineering desi gn. Also, the manufa ctu rers' representatives seemed to be eager to hear our suggestions and comments about each piece of equipmen t. The most interestin g pieces of equipment were presented by Nissen-Medart and th Gym Master Corporation. The Nissen Medart Company demonstrated an experimental twistin g belt which promises to be a boon to the body landin gs on the trampoline and a useful aid to teachin g on Parallel Bars and the High Bar where other belts could not be used. The Gym Master Corpora. tion (formerly Fenner-Hamilton Co.) presented a new portab le Horizontal Bar with an attachment for the Still Rin gs . In a gymnasium where the 18 foot han g is inadvi sable this is exceptionally fine. The Hi gh Bar was very stable w1th only one drawback - the rubber pads sitting on the floor were a littl e slippery, but the bar did not need people standing on it to keep it still. Nuff sed about the Clinic.

I'm sure that many I.A.G.C. members have interestin g news items, but so far I heven' t received them. Any news yo u have would be appreciated, including reports of meets, clini cs or camps. In order to get yo ur items printed in the next issue you should get them in to me before February 1,


MEMBERSHIP (j UESTIO NNA IRE Returns from the questionnaire sent out by Mr. Wettstone are comin g in rather slowly, I'm sorry to say. So far only 67 member have returned the card. Since this is a very important building block for the state of gymnastics I would urge yo u to return this ca rd immediately. Part of our campaign depend s upon our organization presentin g a united front. The N.C.A .A. officials who need this information co uld use it late in January, so hurry.



APPLICATION FOR MEMBERSHIP INTO THE NAGC Enclosed find $2.00 for 1961 dues. N'~~~"""" " """"' ('pi~~~~' ~~~'~"~~" ~;i~~i'"' '''

......... .

Mailing Address

Renewal. ............. Membership

New .......... _...

(Check One)

STATISTICS The statistics chairman tells me that the response to the initial letter is good, but not 100% yet. So , all yo u coaches get on the ball and send your team roster and two copies of your schedule to John Ostarello, Dept. of Physical Education, University

Send: to:

GLENN WILSON Gymnastics Coach University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado



The Japan Intercollegiate Gymnastic Meet Date: August 3·6, 1961 Place: Okayama, Japan A Study On Free Calisthenics Composition {male} reported by: Tadao Uesako, Coach-1960 Rome Olympic Game Performances 174 Frequencies of C moves Scores Persons None 32 6.00-8.80 1 70 7.60-9.75 2 7.20-9.55 50 21 7.65-9.60 3 4 1 9.30 Most frequently used C moves Persons . 47 Fonvard handspring- Front somersault 44 Inverted cross handstand 32 Back handspring-back somersault-back handspring 14 Back somersault half twist 12 Back handspring- backward dive half turn to forward roll 11 Straight body press handstand 10 Back somersault full twist Forward somersault-fonvard roll-forward 7 somersault 8 One·arm handstand Most frequently used combination of two C moves Persons 17 Two tumbling moves 21 Inverted handstand-one tumbling move 2 Inverted handstand-one arm handstand Most frequently used combinations of three C moves Persons 10 Two tumbling moves- inverted handstand 4 Inverted handstand- press to handstand with straight body-tumbling 3 Three tumbling moves AN EXPLANATION By Yoshiro Hatano Assistant Gym ' Coach Michigan State University In Japan, the Intercollegiate Gymnastic Meet is con· sidered easier than the National Meet (A.A.U.) . Only the champion of this meet, Nagasawa, made the team against the Russian team this fall. But the other representatives such as Ono, Aihara, and Endo have close contact with these collegiate gymnasts. Therefore, the trend of routines and performances are supposed to be similar between b9th two groups. Gymnasts are taught to use two or three DIFFERENT types of C moves in a routine. The statistics show that the most frequently used ' C moves are combinations of handsprings, somersaults, and inverted handstands (cross h·andstands). Though tumbling moves are more popular than , other types of C moves, fewer twisting skills are used than in America. It can be said to be the Japanese trend, which comes from the lack of r ebound tumbling and twisting belt application in training. A routine with one C move can make as 'high score as several C's. This shows the importance of execution. Gym· nasts should work out not only for difficult moves, but also for better executions. All of the top gymnasts in Japan are perfecting twisting skills. For example, all of the Japanese men's gymnas.ts who visited the U. S. this May used a half or full III their free ex routines. As time passes they hope to perfect more twisting skills. '


THE JUDGING OF THE 1961 WESTERN CONFERENCE AND NATIONAL COLLEGIATE ATHLETIC ASSOCIATION GYMNASTIC MEETS John A. Faulkner and Newt Loken University of Michigan Ann Arbor, Michigan Four judges judged the contestants in the Western Con· ference and in the NCAA Gymnastic Meet. Positions were assigned on the basis of the two day gross net score. The net score in the preliminaries and in the finals is determined by dropping the high and the low score and taking the average of the middle two scores. The net score of the preliminaries and the net score of the finals are averaged to obtain the gross net score. Gymnastic competition always has and always will be plagued with the problem of subjective judging. When competent and unbiased judges assess the performance of competitors of different abilities there is little danger of gross inequities in judging. How· ever, when ,national championships are held and places are decided on the basis of fractions of points one is not assured that judges are capable of such fine discriminations in performance. Hun sicker and Loken* found correlations of 0.777 to 0.975 among the five judges of the six events in the 1951 NCAA Championships. The horizontal bar had the greatest and tumbling the least agreement among the judges. The authors suggested on the basis of the relatively high correlations that "since the judges are purported to be experts it appears irrational to ignore the ratings of two because they happen to be high or low." In the present study, we have used four statistics to assess the distribution and consistency of the judges' estimates of performance. The average or mean indicates the central tendency of the data, the standard deviation indio cates the amount of dispersion from the mean, the average deviation indicates the amount of dispersion of each judge's score from the net score, and the coefficient of correlation indicates the degree to which the judge's score ,and the net score place th e competitors in the same order of finish. The rationale of the last two measures is that gymnastic authorities have accepted the net score as the best measure of the "true or actual" score of the contestant's, ability. Therefore, we have determined the ability of the judge (1) to mark on the same scale as the net score by aver· aging his deviations from it and (2) to arrive at the same result as the net score in determining the order of finish of the contestants by calculating the coefficient of corre· lation. The average of the four julges' scores was also correlated with the net score to assess the effect this pro· cedure might have upon the final outcome. The standard deviations indicate that the finalists in the NCAA meet were of more homogeneous ability than the finalists in the Western Conference meet (less disper· sion of scores). The only exception was the horizontal bar, an event in which there were two NCAA finalists with incomplete performances because of fall·offs. The most tightly contested events were the NCAA parallel bars and tumbling. The judges of these two events showed little deviation from the net score (low average deviations). They did, however, differ considerably on the order of finish (low correlations). In the trampoline and swinging rings, although the judges marked .an widely different scales, their assignment of places showed great consistency. In both only one judge appeared inc'o nsistent in his judgments of an event. This conclusion was based upon his inability to mark on the same scale as the other three judges and to assign a similar order of fini sh. Compared to the net score, his average deviation was 0.35 and his correlation was 0.60. This judge did, however, demonstrate adequate competency in the judging of another event. In both meets, major discrepancies were noted in the assignment of scores in the event of a fall·off. Under these

circumstances individual judges differed as much as four points (6.0 to 2.0). Although such discrepancies will rarely influence the final placing of contestants, it does raise considerable doubt in the minds of coaches, competitors, and spectators on the objectivity of the judging. Conclusions. On the basis of a statistical analysis of the Western Conference and, National Collegiate Athletic Association Gymnastic Meets the following conclusions are warranted: ' 1. The majority of the judges in both meets and in all events display little deviation from the net score in their assignmen t of scores. Judges of the parallel bars, the side horse, and the still rings had the least deviation. whereas, the judges of the trampoline and the swinging rings had th e most deviation. 2. The majority of judges in both meets displayed good agreement on the order of finish of the contestants. The lowest correlations between the order of finish assigned' by individual judges and that assigned by the net ,score occurred in events in which the competitors showed little range in ability. Thus the judges agreed on the level of ability of the competitors but the differences among competitors were so small that they were interpreted differently by the individual judges.

sometimes it is rejected. If the judge is unbiased and competent, this is not logical. We advise that in national champion,ships the scores of the four judges be averaged. We have not analyzed international events and at this time are not prepared to theorize on the effect of this procedure where judges of different nationalities are involved. 6. A judge may be competent to judge competitors of national caliber in one event and incompetent to do so in other even ts. 7. Judges require more direction in the scoring of inco mplete performances to reduce the ran ge of scores assigned in th e event of a fall·off. 8. A statistical analysis of the scores of gyninastic competition can provide valuable assessments of the quality of the judgments and insight into problem areas and areas of misinterpretation. The analyses can aid in the selection and improvement of judges. *Hunsicker, Paul and Loken, Newt. "The objectivity of judging at the National Collegia te Athletic Association Gymnastic Meet." Research Quarterly. 22 :423·426, 1951. The statistics appear in abbreviated form in Table 1. A complete analysis of the data may be obtained from the authors.

3. The majority of judges who had high average devia· tions from the net score had high correlations with the net score. These judges, consequently, ranked the competitors approximately the same way as the net score but on a higher or lower scale. 4. Several studies have now substantiated the ability of unbiased judges to make consistent judgments of championship gymnastic events. We, therefore, reiterate that the avera ge of the four judges' scores would give essentially the same result in events where the competitors demonstrate a spread of ability. In events where the competitors were closely packed in ability, it would probably give a better estimate of the final order of finish than the average of the middle two scores. Whatever objective criteria are provided, each judge must apply his own subjective interpretation of these criteria to the performance. With the net score, sometimes his interpretation is accepted and

Table 1. The mean (average score), standard deviation, average deviation from the net score, and the correlation of the sum of the scores of the four judges with the net score.


Table 1. The mean (average score), standard deviation, average deviation from the net score, and the correlation of the sum of the scores of the four judges with the net score. Event Mean Standard Average Coefficient of DeViation Deviation Correlation Parallel Bars 8.81 Big Ten 0.335 0.985 0.18 9.23 0.983 6.183 , NCAA O.ll Side Horse 0.936* 0.999 8.36 Big Ten 0.22 0.996 0.672 NCAA 8.97 0.12 Horizontal Bar 0.672* Big Ten 8.84 0.998 0.14 2.50* NCAA 1.000 0.23 8.89 Trampoline Big Ten 0.742* 8.09 0.990 0.14 NCAA 7.54 0.998 0.557 0..33 Free Exercise 0.339 Big Ten 0.994 0.13 8.92 0.982 8.98 NCAA 0.322 0.18 Still Rings Big Ten 8.34 1.320* 0.998 0.16 0,415 NCAA 9.12 0.994 0.13 Tumbling Big Ten 0.998 0.514 0.20 8.13 NCAA 8.48 0.234 0.939 0.20 Swinging Rings Big Ten none 8.13 1.23* 0.32 0.995 NCAA *Standard Deviation is increased by one or more fall·offs. NOTE: One standard deviation above and below the mean encompasses approximately two· thirds of the scores. A correlation of 1.00 indicated an identical assignment of scores and position by both methods.

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19&1 MARIT ME CHAMPIONS HIP4i.............

"y" Team Trophi es at Maritime Championships


The following a l'e the first two place w inners from the 3rd Annua l Maritim e Gymnast ic C hampion s hips held at the H a lifax YMCA, Saturday, ~~~~~b~~in~~r~nd th e first three all JUNIOR BOYS Bob Currie, YMCA, 1st All-Aro und - vauiting, high bar, 2nd free cali sth e nics, rings and para ll e l bars. Chick Wadd ell, YMCA, 1st Free Cali sth enics r ings, parallel bars, 2nd All-Around, high bar. Wayne Dacey, YMCA, 2n d Free Calisthenics, 3rd ' All-Around . Paul Theri a ult and Pat Delaney (City Recreation), tie for 路 2nd v a .u lting. INTERMEDIATE MEN Don Engle, YMCA, 1s t All - Around rings, fr ee ca listh enics, p a rall e l bars. Bob' Coombes, YMCA, 1st high bar , 2nd All-Around, s till rings. Harry Dunbar, YMCA, 1s t vaulting , 2nd fre e calisth e nics, 3rd All-Around . D avid O 'Connell, YMCA, 2nd high bar. Bob Waddell, Independent, 2nd vaulting and parall e l bars. SENIOR MEN Staff Sgt. Mac Dona ld , Army, 1s t . .All -A r o und - fre e calisthen ics, vaulting, rings, . 2nd high bar and para lle l ba rs . Ernie Smith, Navy, 1st high bar, 2nd free calisthenics, vaulting, A II -' Arou nd. Cpl. Cliff Vandal e , Army, 1st para ll e l bars, 2nd rings, 3rd All - Around. TROPHY WINNERS L . R. Hayter Trophy, Junior Tea m , YMCA: Takashi Ono Trophy (Ja p a nese ), Interm ediate Individual, Don Eagle; Boris Sh.akhlin Trophy (Ru s-


s ia n), Inte rmediate T eam , YMCA: Masao T a k e m oto Troph y (Japan ese),' S e nior Indiv idua l, Staff Sgt. MacDon- , a id ; J a n\ es Hoyle Trophy, Senior . Team , Army: .Joseph Stald e r Trophy (Swiss ) , Best Cluh. YMCA. ' . COMPETI NG CLUBS Army (Gage town), Navy (H.M.C.S! Gatine a ux) , C ity Rec r eation (North Dear Sirs: End Gymnastic C lub) , School for the Here in Lovington our students are Deaf (Amh e r s t) , YMCA (Ha lifax). SACRAMENTO INVITATIONAL

The meet took place on December 4 at Sacra mento State College a nd was called the Camellia Bowl Invitational Gymnastics Championships. There w e r e 1500 people a t the meet so it was quite successful. We h ad T .V. coverage and all turned out well for a ll. H er e are the results of th e meet: ALL-AROUND: Bob Lynn, USC, 548; Terry Hale, USC, 525 ; Roy Davis, S.F. Olympic Club, 459. FREE EXERCISE: Bob Lynn, USC; Curt R e bh a n , Sac ramento State; Bill Borden, U. of California. TRAMPOLINE: Bob Ju s tine, S.F. Olympic Club; Jerry Person ius, Sacramento Sta te ; D ave Loskutoff, U. of California (tie for 's econd). ROPE CLIMB : Paul D a vis, U. of Californ ia, 3. 0 sec. ; Mik e Nelson , U. nf California, 3.7 sec. ; Bill Brady, U. of California, 4.1 sec. . SIDE HORSE: Jim FairChild, S.F. Olymp ic Club ; Bob Lynn , USC (tie for first); T e rry Rale, USC, 3rd . HORIZONTAL BAR: B o b Lynn, U SC ; T elTY Hal e, USC; E'arl Hobbs , Sacra m ento State . STILL RINGS: Rich'a rd Schmidt, U. o f California ; R. Golden, U. of California ; S. Zahm, U . of California. PARALLEL BARS: Bob Lynn, USC; E a r l Hobbs, Sac ramento State ; Terry Hal e, USC. TUMBLING: M . Suthe rla nd , U . of Ca lifornia; Bob Lynn, USC; B ill Bor- ' de n, U. of Ca.l ifornia,

very interested in Gymnastics. At the first of the school year we had 227 girls and boys turn out for our Gymnastic Club in the lunior High . . . this from a student body of approximately 500 students. Sincerely, Miss Vonnie Robinson Instructor Lovinl!ton lunior High New Me:tfco

* Dear Glenn: * My instructor at the Lincoln Turners told me his November-December issue of "Modern Gymnast" arrived on the 30th of November. On the same day I received my luly-August and SeptemberOctober issues. Since late deliveries mean missing out on some of the important current' activities, I would appreciate it if y_ou would account for not sending mr November-December issue and whr the preceding two issues were sent so late. I remain a loral sup parter of "MG" Roy K. Uenishi ED. : Your instructor seems to get M.G. before we print them. (We're sure he just presumed it to be the Nov.-Dec. issue because of the timing)

Dear Glenn: Dear Glenn: Gentlemen: 1 have been an interested ,reader of Just line to say hello and compliment Perhaps you can help ~e. 1 am tryyou on the progress of your magazine. The Modem Gymnast for the past two ing to locate a gymnasLUm summer 1 am after, assistance from you if years . 1 find it useful as well as entercamp for boys in the eastern part of possible. Is it possible for you to let taining, and it serves as an 'aid in the country. My sons have been to the National Summer Palaestrum 'in Michi- , me have detailed information of move- motivating our program. We have a unique program here ments for Hoops, R ibbon and Ball gan, but 1 und~rstand that there is at Work as performed by the Hungarian called The Early Bird Program. This least one gymnastic camp in New York and Czech Girls at the Olympic Games? is a coeducational gymnastic and physistate. It will be sincerely' appreciated if you can supply any information con- I feel that if a series of Mass work cal fitness program open to all of our suitable for general display were in- students in grades from 7th-12th. With cerning any and all camps specializing in gymnastics and apparatus training. , eluded in your Magazine, it would 200 signed up, an average of ' 60-80 help promote general gymnastics, and usually appear at a time. They are Alfred J. Weintraub it is from the masses that you will gain dressed and in the gym at 6:30 A.M. Ed.: We would appreciate it if all three mornings a week. your Olympic Sper;ialist. camps or clubs which have a summer The floor is covered with mats for R egarding the Ball, Hoops, etc., any gymnastics training program would suggestions as to where 1 can get good tumbling and balancing, trampolines, 4 send us the dates and places. We will variety of material on items suitable for climbing ropes, weights for lifting and put all information into a speci.lll school gymnastic displays, pageants training, 4 sets of rings, one side horse, camps and clinic calendar which will would be gratefully accepted. There one set of parallel bars, medicine balls, run continually in the M.G. as a is plenty of material on Olympic Work jumping ropes, and an area for freeservice to camps and our readers. like Bars, but it is the free work, Folk exercise. Every student must learn to spot, and Dances and Agility suggestions, espe* , cially in girls work, as six of my schools to know the lÂŁse for spotting devices. ', are all girls. Pyramids like opening of Each person must also learn to teach Dear Sir ~ a Rose which I saw on a Russian Film what he knows, and each must help Please. find enclosed a picture of the is an example. 1 will leave it to you the other. Michigan High School State GymnasOur intention with this program is with your resources to advise me. tics Champions from St. Clair High to help the students form the habit of Yours, School. ' exercising, to help them improve their Allan E. Goldby This meet was held at Ionia High " physical condition, and to develop 425 Sturt Street School. Alpena H.S. was the runner up skills in the activities of their own Ballarat, Victoria, Australia and Ionia H.S. was third. Some 16 ED.: Thanks Allan for the sugges- choice. teams took part in this meet. After 31 Tho'u ght . 'You would like to hear tions, we will include some of these years this was the first officially recognized State supported ' High School ideas in near future editions of the about us. Sincerely. FRANRAYE M.G. . . . In the meantime if any of Championship Meet. Director of Physical our teacher or foreign readers have any Sincerely, Education and Athletics special information on these subjects Ed Bingtson, Gym. Coach Blodgett Vocational High send them on to us . .. or to Mr. GoldSt. Clair High School, School Syracuse 4, New York by in Australia. Michigan



Coach Bingtson and his Michigan High School State Gymnastic Championship Team. Front row, left to right: Dave Arnold, Jim Hurt, John Rinn, Ron Aurs, Tom Hurt. Back row, left to right: Jim Arnold, Dennis Smith, Gary Wanamaker and Pete Jones.

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Profile for USA Gymnastics

Modern Gymnast - January 1962  

Modern Gymnast - January 1962