Research News 1/2016

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4 Drama at the retirement home 6 Strong societal impact 16 Not a place for a faint-hearted?


Editor: Riikka Kalmi, Science Editor tel. +358 29 449 8231, email Layout: Satu Aaltonen Research News in the Internet:

Contents: Researcher in the Spotlight Relevant Research Research Evaluation Research Group in Focus New Funding, Grants and Research Projects Well Done Recent Publications and Scientific Articles Dissertations Current Issues

6. Professor Adam Smale and HRM research group require research themes to have societal relevance.

4. Associate professor Catharina von Koskull uses drama to present her research results.

4 6 8 9 10 11 12 16 18

12. Assistant professor Olivier Wurtz analysed the adjustment of global professionals in his new article.



Drama at the retirement home Catharina von Koskull is clearly a groundbreaker. Not only has she collected data for her research with a demanding ethnographic method – but she has also used theatre to present the research results to the stakeholders at the elder care facility. Associate professor and Finnish Academy postdoctoral researcher Catharina von Koskull studied the emotional experiences of the seniors and the personnel at a retirement home. “We, researchers, have a tendency to focus on the extremes; on ’critical incidents’, but I wanted to learn how it feels to live in a retirement home on a daily basis and tried to capture the mundane and everyday emotions. Additionally, if you think of service research, emotions have so far mostly been studied in terms of satisfaction degrees, but I am interested in the more distinctive kind of emotions. If we understand these we are also better equipped to improve care services to support the wellbeing of seniors”, von Koskull says. She did an extended field study of eight months at the retirement home Hagaro in Helsinki. “I was there 2–3 days a week, observed, did interviews and had many informal discussions with the seniors living there as well as with personnel. To a certain extent I also took part in the daily supporting activities. I aimed at capturing emotions while they emerged in interaction”. Anxiety, security, loneliness, friendship and joy were the most prominent emotions she identified. “Despite the fact that people live at the retirement home, they still feel lonely”, says von Koskull.

Science meets the Arts

After analysing the data von Koskull worked together with the Association of Drama and Theatre (DOT r.f.) and a drama instructor to dramatize the research results. To make the performance as trustworthy as possible a drama group of senior actors worked with the manuscript. 4


The actors gave a performance at the retirement home where the elderly, personnel, care center managers and the relatives could see it. “I feel that as a researcher it is my responsibility to bring back my results to those I have researched and I looked for alternative ways of communicating the findings”, von Koskull says. The performance consisted of six different scenes. One scene was about transition – the emotional experiences during the first day when you are at the elder care home. There was one was about anxiety and one about self-esteem and friendship. “I got really good feedback from the audience. They truly enjoyed it and said that the performance reflected their feelings and thoughts very well. They also said that the findings were played back to them with respect” way or feel that I somehow wanted to make fun of them”. Von Koskull says she wants to investigate the use of theatre as a means of developing and innovating elderly care service. “Drama can be used as a way to develop empathy and influence the well-being of care takers. In service research and innovation, there is some sort of fixation with technical solutions and perhaps drama can function as a human counter pole to that”. She hopes that in the future the same performance could be shown at other care facilities. Catharina von Koskull is originally from Sweden and before her current position at the University of Vaasa, she worked 14 years at Hanken School of Economics focusing on service research.

| Researcher in the Spotlight




Relevant Research } University Researcher Liisa Mäkelä, Professor Riitta Viitala and Professor Adam Smale belong to the Human Resource Management research group, which has been praised for the quality and societal impact of its research.

Strong societal impact In addition to research and teaching, the University of Vaasa's third duty is to interact with society. Text: RIIKKA KALMi Photo: KATJA LÖSÖNEN "We require our research themes to have societal relevance. We tackle topics that represent relevant questions for companies and that are connected to problems or tensions," says Management Professor Riitta Viitala from the University of Vaasa. Professor Viitala, Professor Adam Smale and University Researcher Liisa Mäkelä belong to the University of Vaasa's Human Resource



Management research group together with two other professors and a large group of researchers and post-graduates. The group received top grade in the University of Vaasa's overall evaluation of research, which was published in December. In addition to the quality of research, the group's societal impact was considered to be very good. According to Viitala, the societal impact of

research is aided by the fact the human resources management has high societal relevance as a topic and by virtue of its very nature. "We have also improved constantly. We are able to combine the needs of companies with high-level scientific criteria. Material acquisitions and methodologies have improved enormously," says Viitala. Previously, the university world would send researchers to visit companies, collect material, say "thank you" and wave goodbye. Now companies can benefit from research results. The HERMES programme run by Viitala researches the challenges of human resource management in small and medium-sized enterprises by interviewing company personnel from managers to workers and using quantitative material. "We are able to prepare a separate report for every company that has participated in the research and use 'traffic lights' to show the status of the company's human resource management." The LÄIKE research project also had a strong interactive element with a focus on the development of supervisors. Five large organisations were involved, along with a group of SMEs. According to Liisa Mäkelä, a research report was prepared for the participants in a more publicly accessible style and the research was presented within each of the organisations that participated in the project. "Supervisors who had been evaluated by five or more subordinates received a supervisor profile of themselves twice – once at the beginning of the project and again five years later, after the supervisor had participated in development activities." The research project involved developing and implementing methodologies to support supervisory work. They were also described in the project's final report in such a way that other organisations would also be able to independently develop their supervisory activities. Viitala is well known for her inspiring teaching. She received a teaching award from the association of Finnish Business School Graduates last year. "Teaching is everyday societal interaction. Last autumn I gave lectures at training events

organised by the Management Institute of Finland (MIF). The highlight was when I heard that a participant had found the competence risk model related to our LITOSYS research and taken it into use at his employer company. It had also been considered useful." Management Professor Adam Smale is probably familiar to readers of Research News for the column he writes for the Pohjalainen newspaper and his blog on the University's website. Smale is a Brit but he has lived in Vaasa since 2004. According to Smale, there has been a desire for university research to target academic rigour and top publications. Now there is also a focus on the relevance of research. “Today’s challenge is about continuous improvements to research quality in addition to thinking of effective ways through which our research can make a difference to business and society. Financiers such as the Academy of Finland also require societal impact," says Smale, who leads the Human Resource Management research group. One example of this is that the plans of applicants for funding under the Academy of Finland's strategic research programmes are evaluated by relevance panels, which measure the societal relevance and impact of the research. Smale is still unsure about how universities should develop societal impact. Should every member of personnel strive for excellence and aim to be best in all three of the sub-areas – research, teaching and societal impact? "Is that realistic? We all have different strengths and skills. Is it enough that the research group as a whole strives for greater societal impact?" Smale ponders. Should all university professors and researchers be able to communicate their own research results to wider audiences – a further factor in societal impact and interaction? Professor Viitala has a strong opinion on this subject. "Yes, they should. Nowadays, I don't think that people can just sit in their rooms and write."



Research Evaluation }


“Significant progress” According to the Research Evaluation of the University of Vaasa, significant progress has been made in the last five years. The research evaluation was executed during 2015 and it focused on the research activities of the University of Vaasa during 2010–2014. The basic units of assessment were research groups. The previous evaluation was done in 2010. The final report consists of two different parts: the report by international evaluation panels, and the bibliometric analysis of research impacts. According to the report by the international evaluation panel, University of Vaasa is now a “business oriented university”, and it has a clearly defined strategy with four focus areas for the research and a set of measures to follow up the performance. The biggest praise relates to the interaction with society and societal impact. "The evaluation panel views that the University of Vaasa has been very strong in its interaction with the society. It is an extremely important part of the university’s profile", says professor Matti Sintonen, the chair of the University Panel. The university produces high quality graduates and experts for regional and national industrial workforce. The university is also very active in transferring knowledge to the wider society. "The panel strongly recommends that the university maintains and further improves its already significant collaboration with regional businesses at all levels. Collaboration with national and international businesses, in particular, is strongly encouraged." 8


HRM, FFA and NeVS are the best research groups

The panel identified three research groups that are not only on a high international level but are the University’s best or most promising groups. These groups are Human Resource Management (HRM), Finance and Financial Accounting (FFA) and Networked Value Systems (NeVS). According to the panel, these three groups hold particularly strong promise for future research. The university level panel opines that there are two other groups which are currently carrying out research on a high scientific level. These research groups are Deliberative Welfare Policy Management and Practices and Discourses of Management.

Performance on the level of world average

The University of Vaasa requested the Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS) of Leiden University to perform a bibliometric analysis. The goal of the project was to gain concrete and detailed insight into the bibliometric performance of the research publications of the University of Vaasa. The indicators pointed to a performance on the level of world average.

| Research Group in Focus

Language Immersion and Other Multilingual Learning Environments University of Vaasa has a new research group – Language Immersion and Other Multillingual Learning Environents (LILE). The group was established this year and it is closely connected to multilingualism. It combines studies on language acquisition, language teaching and language contacts in multilingual contexts. The new research group LILE was formerly a research team ReACT under the research group Social and Cultural Phenomena. "Researchers at our university that study language immersion education have since 2010 been working on a new internationally oriented research agenda for the research field. The agenda is now put into practice and has proved successful since several of our research projects have got external funding. We thought it was about time to stand on our own", says the head of the group, professor Siv Björklund. The recent Research Evaluation of the University of Vaasa suggested a stronger emphasis on multilingualism. According to Björklund, the external evaluators pointed out that the former research group was too broad in scope.

kindergarten age to adults – in educational settings", mentions Björklund. The other members of the group are professor Nina Pilke, research manager Karita Mård-Miettinen, project director Katri Hansell, university lecturers Daniel Relstab, Sirpa Sipola and Gun-Viol Vik, university teacher Nicole Keng, research amanuensis Mari Bergroth and four doctoral students. "We are a multilingual group with both doctoral students and post doctoral members. I am very glad to be able to have several post doc colleagues involved in the group and I look forward to their contribution in the form of new exciting projects being developed duríng next years", says Björklund.

Immersion and other innovative language processes

Aiming for innovative projects

The new group consists of several immersion projects ranging from students' writing competence in different school environments to identity construction in dual language settings. But even if research on immersion has a central position within the research group there are also projects about other new generation and innovative language learning processes such as tandem language learning in classroom settings (both face-to-face and etandem) and content and language integrated learning approaches at university level. "Researchers in our group are in particular interested in individual language acquisition processes across the whole life span – from

The projects of the research group are strongly integrated in the surrounding bi- and multilingual environment and researchers cooperate actively with local, regional and national interlocutors. Researchers are also involved in national and international scientific networks and co-operation. "I expect the group to develop innovative projects within the field of multilingual learning environments that will be of interest both nationally and internationally. We will work on expanding our international network in order to invite internationally recognised experts to Vaasa and to send our doctoral students and researchers to inspiring research communities abroad", promises Björklund.



New Funding and Research Projects }

Path to the Food Experience of Future Professor Harri Luomala and his team have started a new research project called "Path to the Food Experience of Future" together with the University of Turku and VTT. University of Vaasa received 146 000 euros for the project from Tekes Innovative Cities programme and European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and food & technology companies. According to professor Luomala, this project will be the first step in building a nationally significant research infrastructure and network (The World of Future Food) for analyzing how consumer behaviors change in real commercial surroundings as a response to various environmental stimuli. In the future, this platform will serve both scientific and commercial research as well as marketers as they trial new food products and services. During the project, new tools will be developed for understanding the role of multi-sensory experience in promoting healthy food consumption behaviors. Food consumerpackage interaction will be modeled in novel ways and consumers' food choices will be explored and influenced in a real lunch restaurant and grocery store. Also the potential of contemporary consumer monitoring technology in generating comprehensive real-time data and research & business insights will be assessed. "It will be exciting to see how consumers' food choice behaviors can be changed so that they themselves do not recognize it", says Professor Luomala. He goes on stressing that non-conscious forces put into motion by, for example, odors, packages and brands play a major role determining how consumers go about selecting food products in grocery stores.



| New Funding and Research Projects >10 000 e

}} The Finnish Cultural Foundation awarded grants to University of Vaasa’s researchers. Sami Akseli received 24 000 euros, Helmi-Nelli Körkkö 28 000 euros and Elina Salomaa 24 000 euros for doctoral research. Huu Le Nguyen received 28 000 euros for post doctoral research. }} Svensk-Österbottniska Samfundet has granted 15 000 euros funding for university lecturer Margit Breckle’s research project "Språkanvändning i svensk-österbottniska företag". }} Svensk-Österbottniska Samfundet has also granted project director Katri Hansell 10 000 euros for a new research project “Universitetstandem”. The project follows up tandem cooperation between the University of Vaasa and Åbo Akademi University in Vaasa within instruction in the second national language, focusing on the students’ language use and language learning. }} Research director Tero Vuorinen and his team has received ESF funding for the project “Vertti”. It is a project which is developing and strengthening the collaboration of the SMEs’ networks. The project is done in cooperation with SeAMK. The University of Vaasa’s part of the funding is 107 000 euros. }} Assistant professor Petri Välisuo, University of Vaasa has together with Novia, SeAMK, University Centre in Seinäjoki, Uppsala University, Umeå University and Høgskolen i Narvik received Interreg Botnia – Atlantica EU funding for the “WindCoE – Nordic Wind Energy Center” project. The aim of the project is to establish a competence center within wind power in a cold climate. Budget for the project for Finland and Sweden is 762 234 euros, of which 60 percent comes from EU. }} Tekes Innovative Cities programme has granted 243 000 euros funding to professor Kimmo Kauhaniemi for a research project “Future energy storage solutions in marine installations (FESSMI)”.

| Well Done }} The Master’s Degree Programme in International Business of the University of Vaasa is place at 39 in the Eduniversal Best Masters ranking 2016 of the Western Europe master programmes. Eduniversal ranked the top 200 best masters programmes in international management, of which 50 are located in Western Europe. }} Narashima Boopathi Sivasubramanian and professor Vesa Routamaa got a best paper award for a session in the 4th International conference on Business, Management and Governance in New York. They presented a paper called “Contemporary Approaches in Leadership – LARD model”. }} Panu Kalmi, professor of economics at the University of Vaasa, has been awarded the Warren Samuels Prize alongside with two of his co-authors at the Allied Social Sciences Association (ASSA) Conference in San Francisco. The prize is given annually for the best research paper on social economics that is presented in ASSA and it is awarded by the Association of Social Economics. }} Juha Lindgren, professor of tax law, has been appointed as an editor-in-chief of Verotus-lehti. }} Assistant Professor of International Marketing Dafnis N. Coudounaris has been appointed as a member of the Editorial Review Board of Journal of Business Research (in Innovation and Knowledge).



Recent Publications and Scientific Articles } Several high-quality articles have been published by the researchers of the university. Publications at level 2 and 3 in the Finnish Publication Forum classification (Jufo) are presented.

Level 3 journals

New diagnostic tool helps to assess the adjustment of global professionals Article: Margaret A Shaffer, B Sebastian Reiche, Mihaela Dimitrova, Mila Lazarova, Shoshi Chen, Mina Westman and Olivier Wurtz: Work- and family-role adjustment of different types of global professionals: Scale development and validation, Journal of International Business Studies (2015), 1–27.

The new article by assistant professor Olivier Wurtz and his cowriters analyses the adjustment issues of global professionals and their families and is part a large research project that includes seven researchers from five countries and twelve organizations. “In this article, we develop a diagnostic tool to assess the issues that expatriates and their families are facing abroad”, says Olivier Wurtz. One of the innovations is to take also into account the family life of global employees, and to emphasize the difficulty to adjust to the redefined family roles. Wurtz tells the article provides evidence that expatriates do have lower levels of family role adjustment than domestic employees. “We also see that different types of global professionals, like company expatriates, selfinitiated expatriates, and international business travelers, experience different challenges to some extent and therefore have different needs in terms of support”, Wurtz says. According to Wurtz, this article is the first step of a large project. “We hope that other articles will come out from this collaboration.”



Level 3 journals

Risk taking is not enough – firms need effective learning to grow Article: Patel, P. C., Kohtamäki, M., Parida, V., & Wincent, J. (2015). Entrepreneurial orientation-as-experimentation and firm performance: The enabling role of absorptive capacity. Strategic Management Journal, 36(11), 1739-1749.

According to the article by professor Marko Kohtamäki and assistant professor Vinit Parida and their cowriters in Strategic Management Journal, and in contrast to common thinking, entrepreneurial orientation is not universally beneficial for an organization. “Entrepreneurial efforts such as taking risks, proactively developing radically innovative products, or pioneering nascent markets are bound to have a higher probability of both successes and failures”, Kohtamäki says. The results of the empirical research demonstrate that the entrepreneurial orientation of an organisation can increase the variability in innovation outcomes. Although increased variability in the innovation portfolio could increase performance, it could also lead to a decline in performance. According to the study, the organisations with entrepreneurial orientation took more risks that the other organisations. Kohtamäki and his cowriters propose that organisation’s absorptive capacity plays a role in both increasing and managing variations in innovation outcomes. “Potential absorptive capacity enhances the effects of EO on variability in innovation outcomes, whereas realized absorptive capacity helps transform and exploit variability in innovation outcomes to enhance firm performance.” The research got funding from FIMECC Future Industrial Services and S4Fleet programmes.



Recent Publications and Scientific Articles }

Articles / Level 3 journals }} Jari Kuusisto with Jeroen P.J. de Jong, Eric von Hippe, Fred Gault and Christina Raasch: Market failure in the diffusion of consumer-developed innovations: Patterns in Finland in Research Policy.

Articles / Level 2 journals }} Vitaly Orlov: Currency momentum, carry trade, and market illiquidity in Journal of Banking and Finance. }} Esa Lehtinen: Negotiation of expertise and multifunctionality: PowerPoint presentations as interactional activity types in workplace meetings in Language and communication. }} Erkki Hiltunen, Birgitta Martinkauppi, Liandong Zhu, Anne Mäkiranta, Jukka Rinta-Luoma and Mauri Lieskoski: Renewable, carbon-free heat production from urban and rural water areas in Journal of Cleaner Production. }} Sami Vähämaa, Ajay Palvia and Emilia Vähämaa: Are Female CEOs and Chairwomen More Conservative and Risk Averse? Evidence from the Banking Industry During the Financial Crisis in Journal of Business Ethics. }} Laura Perttola: Tiedonsaanti vanhuspalvelujen myöntämisperusteista in Oikeus. }} Petri Helo, Dong Yang, Jianxin Jiao, Yangjian Ji, Gang Du and Anna Valente: Joint optimization for coordinated configuration of product families and supply chains by a leader-follower Stackelberg game in European Journal of Operational Research. }} Jenniina Sihvonen: Media Consumption and the Identity Projects of the Young in Young. }} Merja Koskela: Kielitietoisuus ja kielikäsitys tilanteisen kääntämisen käytänteitä ohjaavina tekijöinä in Virittäjä. }} Liisa Kääntä: "Kannattaa x" - rakenne ja toiminto direktiivisyyden ja kannanottamisen jatkumolla opiskeluverkkokeskustelussa in Sananjalka. }} Huu Le Nguyen, Jorma Larimo with Tahir Ali: How do ownership control position and national culture influence conflict resolution strategies in international joint ventures in Journal of International Business. }} Yuqiuge Hao and Petri Helo: The role of wearable devices in meeting the needs of cloud manufacturing: A case study in Robotics and Computer Integrated Manufacturing. }} Sanna Heittola and Jari-Pekka Välimaa: Havaintoja tulkkauskäytänteistä: kaksikieliset paikallispoliisiorganisaatiot ja kaksikielinen terveydenhuollon palveluorganisaatio in Virittäjä. }} Iivari Bäck and Marko Kohtamäki: Boundaries of R&D Collaboration in Technovation.



Book chapters / Level 3 publishers }} Yi Wang, Jorma Larimo, Huu le Nguyen: Multilevel analysis of ownership mode strategy in China in Impact of international Business in Challenges and Solutions for Policy and Practise by Palgrave MacMillan.

Book chapters / Level 2 publishers }} Peter Gabrielsson, Salman Kimiagari, Mika Gabrielsson and Benoit Montreuil: Market strategy of international new ventures originating from a small and open economy in Handbook of Research on International Entrepreneurship Strategy by Edward Elgar Publishing }} Seppo Hassi and Yury Arlinskii: Q-functions and boundary triplets of nonnegative operators in Recent Advances in Inverse Scattering, Schur Analysis and Stochastic Prosesses. A Collection of Papers Dedicated to Lev Skhnovich by Springer. }} Dafnis Coudounaris: Antecedents and Outcomes of Country-of-origin Effect: The Extended Self-Congruity Context (ESCT) in Celebrating America’s Pastimes: Baseball, Hot Dogs, Apple Pie and Marketing? by Springer.

Published by the University of Vaasa }} Piekkola, Hannu (2016). Transport investment in railways to generate knowledge transfer from interfirm worker mobility. Department of Economics, Working Papers 24. }} Baidiuk, D. (2016). Completion and extension of operators in Krein spaces. Working Papers 10, Mathematics 6. }} Arras, Benjamin, Azmoodeh, Ehsan, Poly, Guillaume & Swan, Yvik (2016). Stein's method on the second Wiener chaos : 2-Wasserstein distance. Working Papers 9, Mathematics 5.

PDF versions:



Dissertations }

Not a place for a faint-hearted? - Project marketing in Nigeria made easy Isau Ganiyu’s dissertation focuses on the turbulence going on in Nigeria and the project marketers’ perception of the uncertainty and its management. It is a general understanding that firms now begin to focus their attention on the African markets because of the tales of rich rewards it offers. But to make it big in Africa, a business must first

succeed in Nigeria, the continent’s largest market. It has been said that “If it works in Nigeria, you can do it anywhere”. “Even though Nigeria is not a place for the faint-hearted, still it is better to be there than not be there”, says Ganiyu. Nigeria is a country characterized by uncertainty and risks and firms must know how to manage and avoid the risks.

How Nordic firms cope in Nigeria? Isau Ganiyu studied managers of Nordic firms who market projects in the turbulent Nigerian environment. The subject of the research was the perception of the uncertainty by the marketers, and the sensemaking of how to manage the risks thereof. The research provided interesting findings that are important to would-be Finnish or Nordic project marketing companies to Nigeria. “The project marketers need the knowledge of the geography to be able to differentiate where to go and where not to go”, says Ganiyu. He reminds that the threats of Boko Haram terror attacks and kidnappings have become prominent in the turbulent Nigerian environment but are only restricted to certain parts of Nigeria.


Ganiyu, Isau Adeyeri

“The companies adapt to the turbulence by subscribing to security information from security agencies to assist them in their movements, and actually procuring security protections for safe movements, avoiding the turbulent areas and restricted their project marketing to the safe regions”, explains Ganiyu. The Nordic companies were able to cope with the turbulence because they have localized operations as a way of blending to the environment, gaining and utilizing local knowledge called local capability. “Companies can acquire this local capability by employing a local with depth knowledge of the environment or an expatriate that has lived in the environment long enough to acquire this local knowledge”, says Ganiyu. Another finding from his research is the focus of the firms on private project buyers as a way of avoiding corruption, and to pay less attention to government projects because of the corruption perception that normally goes with such projects in Nigeria. To be safer, the firms use international project consultants to handle project marketing when it comes to government projects. According to the research, the nature of the projects to go for is also important. It was found that projects not awarded on turnkey don’t normally get completed and so any would-be firm should always try to avoid partial projects and go all the time for either turnkey or turnkey-plus projects. “Bearing these in mind, marketing projects to Nigeria becomes less risky”, says Ganiyu.


Host-society uncertainty and risk management in Nigeria : Nordic project marketers' sensemaking under examination Acta Wasaensia 344, Liiketaloustiede 140



| Dissertations

18.2.2015 Elsner, Sylvi (German language and literature) Zur aktuellen Bedeutung des Lexems Zuwanderer im Spiegel der Frankfurter Allgemeinen Zeitung und der Süddeutschen Zeitung 2000–2010. Eine lexikalischsemantische Untersuchung

Acta Wasaensia 340, Kielitiede 48

27.2.2016 Lahtinen, Jari M. (Energy technology)

Closed-loop Exhaust Gas Scrubber Onboard a Merchant Ship - Technical, Economical, Environmental and Operational Viewpoints

Acta Wasaensia 342, Energiatekniikka 1

4.3.2016 Mäntysalo, Venla (Public management)

Ethical minimum or ethical maximum? Study on public service ethics from the perspectives of justice, ethos and transparency in Finnish public administration

Acta Wasaensia 341, Julkisjohtaminen 18

16.3.2016 Kazmi, Syeda Asiya Zenab (Industrial management) Fusing Strategic Thinking and Transformational Leadership to Harness New Product Development (NPD) Team Dynamics for Innovation

Acta Wasaensia 345, Tuotantotalous 39

18.3.2016 Thil-Jääskeläinen, Anne (Business law)

Arvojen integratiivinen funktio. Tiedonsosiologinen analyysi arvoperusteisten ja oikeudellisten normien funktioista yhteiskunnallisten vuorovaikutussuhteiden jäsentäjänä, erityisesti taloudellisen toimintafunktion näkökulmasta tarkasteltuna

Acta Wasaensia 343, Oikeustiede 15



Current Issues }

Online services for finding and using research materials Text: KATRI RINTAMĂ„KI

Open science and open research refer to open publishing of research results, open access to research data, and use of open research methods, such as open source programming languages. Open science is an important means of increasing the societal impact of research. The Ministry of Education and Culture of Finland promotes research information availability and open science through the Open Science and Research Initiative (ATT). The ATT Initiative offers various national online services for finding and using open research data and results.

Finnish services for finding open data

The Aila service portal provides access to data archived in the Finnish Social Science Data Archive. The portal includes qualitative and quantitative digital research data for use in research, studies and teaching. The archived data is described in Finnish and English. The quantitative data in the archive has usually been collected through mail or internet surveys or through phone or personal interviews. The qualitative data is usually in the form of speech, images or text. Examples are diary notes, group interviews or video files transcribed into text files. Aila includes Finnish, European, American and international social science research data. Etsin is a research data finder that contains descriptive information, metadata, on research datasets from various disciplines. Researchers



can publish data on their own publications and thus offer them for wider use. AVAA is an open research data publishing portal. The service offers data owners the possibility to publish their data and related applications, and the user gets access to data and applications to search, download, use and combine data. IDA is a storage service for research data and metadata. The service is intended for stable research data, both raw data and processed datasets. Data stored into IDA may be evaluated for long term preservation in the PAS system. The aim of PAS is to preserve digital research data and metadata so that future users can access materials, interpret the contents and use them with the applications available at that time. Research materials are also being stored in archives. The VAKKA archival database includes collection descriptions of archival resources located in the National and Provincial Archives. All data in VAKKA can also be found through Finna. Finna is a search service within the National Digital Library project, which brings together the collections of Finnish archives, libraries and museums. Finna includes data on available resources and digitised resources for direct use. Users can easily access images of museum objects and works of art, digital documents, books, maps and reference data. Over one hundred archives, libraries and museums participate in Finna, and new organizations are joining continuously.

Further information and sources

}} The National Archives Service: Finnish Archival Database VAKKA }} AVAA }} Open science and research }} Etsin }} Finna }} The National Digital Library: The public interface Finna

}} The PAS system (in Finnish) }} The Finnish Social Science Data Archive: Aila Tritonia library’s research services:

Be Inspired. Science Belongs To Everyone.

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