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CML: Institute of Environmental Sciences The Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML) was founded at Leiden University in 1978. Its main tasks are research and teaching in the multidisciplinary fields of environmental sciences. The focus is on environmental sustainability and CML is one of the leading institutes in this area worldwide. Sustainable development issues require long-term scientific efforts and the integration of knowledge from various disciplines. The mission of the institute concerns strategic, multidisciplinary research and teaching in relation to the sustainable management of natural resources, environmental quality and biodiversity.

A major part of the research is initiated and financed by gov-

one hand and social values like health and social well being on

ernments and businesses from all over the world. The institute

the other. The two research programmes jointly contribute to

cooperates with several other institutes and research schools

sustainable governance of natural resources and biodiversity, and

including the Institute of Biology Leiden (IBL), the Netherlands

are closely interlinked in terms of methods and content.

Research School for the Socio-Economic and Natural Sciences of

They have both local and global implications.

the Environment (SENSE) and NCB Naturalis. Also international partnerships with research stations in the Philippines and Cam-

Conservation Biology

eroon are of importance.

This programme deals with issues of biodiversity and natural resources in rural areas of Western and non-Western countries.

CML has two distinct research programmes: Conservation

It focuses on the direct impact of human activities on these issues

Biology and Industrial Ecology. Both programmes address the

and develops strategies for recovery. Two specific topics have been

relations between human activities and the environment on the

defined in the Conservation Biology programme.

Graduate School of Science

Graduate School of Science P.O. Box 9502 2300 RA Leiden Institute of Environmental Sciences van Steenisgebouw Einsteinweg 2 2333 CC Leiden

Chemical and biotic impacts on biodiversity

Industrial Ecology

This topic concentrates on the impact of human-introduced

The focus of this programme is on the techno-sphere, which

chemicals or chemical stress and biotic stress on environmental

forms the link between economy and society on the one hand

quality, biodiversity and ecosystems. The research into chemical

and resources on the other.

stress mainly focuses on substances like pesticides, metals and

Model integration is a central feature of the research, combining

modified organisms and invasive species. The objectives are to

models from various research fields, such as economic input-out-

assess impacts on the structure and functioning of ecosystems,

put analysis, climate change models, chemical fate and exposure

and to develop realistic predictive ecological risk assessment

models and toxicological dose-response models.

Ester van der Voet´s research is in the area of Industrial Ecology, studying the metabolism of society and

models. The four main topics are life cycle assessment, material flow

technical systems in search of sustainable solutions

Land use and biodiversity

accounting, environmental input-output analysis and eco-effi-

for the global use of resources.

The focus of this topic is on the impact and causes of land use

ciency analysis. These four instruments are applied to a variety

Her research focuses on methodology development of

change in human-dominated landscapes. The research pro-

of research fields. Examples from the past few years include the

Life Cycle Assessment and Material Flow Analysis, and

gramme includes studies into the different types of land use,

development of a greenhouse gas calculator for bioelectricity and

on applications of those methods to renewable energy

such as organic, traditional, industrial and genetically modified

heat, and the impact of the use of natural resources and products.

systems and to metals. She is a member of the UNEP

farming systems. Also specific measures for soil, water and bio­

International Resource Panel, where she conducts

diversity conservation and restoration are of interest.

studies on environmental impacts of resource use,

At landscape level, the programme studies the effects of the

specifically in relation to metals.

spatial distribution of semi-natural fragments and small nature reserves on dispersal and population survival. Aims are the design of evaluation schemes for management and spatial planning, and the development of restoration strategies.

Graduate School of Science

Institute of environmental sciences