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Since 1954, the nation’s only poultry industry newspaper

June 9 2014

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Poultry Times Hillshire responses to: Pilgrim’s Pride “We continue to strongly believe in the strategic merits and value creation potential provided by the proposed transaction with Pinnacle Foods. Consistent with its independent financial and legal advisors, Hillshire Brands’ board will thoroughly review the Pilgrim’s Pride proposal.” Update: On June 1, Pilgrim’s Pride revised its proposal representing an increase of $1.3 billion from its initial proposal of $6.4 billion ($45 per share), and a 49 percent premium over Hillshire’s share price one day prior to the announcement of its transaction with Pinnacle Foods. Pilgrim’s revised proposal is not subject to any financing conditions or contingencies.

Tyson Foods “Consistent with its fiduciary duties, and in consultation with its independent financial and legal advisors, Hillshire Brands’ board will thoroughly review the Tyson Foods proposal.”

Centerview Partners and Goldman, Sachs & Co. are acting as financial advisors to Hillshire Brands and Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP is acting as its legal advisor.


June 9, 2014 Volume 61, Number 12

Pilgrim’s proposes to acquire Hillshire Brands GREELEY, Colo. — Pilgrim’s Pride Corp. has announced that it has made a proposal to acquire The Hillshire Brands Co. for $55 per share in cash, in a transaction valued at $7.7 billion. Pilgrim’s said its all-cash proposal provides Hillshire shareholders with a substantially superior alternative to Hillshire’s pending acquisition of Pinnacle Foods Inc., representing a 25 percent premium to the volume weighted average price of Hillshire shares over the 10 trading days following the announcement of the Pinnacle transaction. Further, the transaction represents a compelling value to Hillshire shareholders at 12.5x Hillshire’s trailing adjusted EBITDA, including the $163 million termination fee payable to Pinnacle. Hillshire announced earlier in the month that it had issued an offer to acquire Pinnacle Foods for $4.3 billion. A statement by Hillshire following the Pilgrim’s announcement said, “We continue to strongly believe in the strategic merits and

value creation potential provided by the proposed transaction with Pinnacle Foods. Consistent with it fiduciary duties, and in consultation with its independent financial and legal advisors, Hillshire Brands’ board will thoroughly review the Pilgrim’s Pride proposal.” The Pilgrim’s proposal has the unanimous support of the board of directors of Pilgrim’s, as well as the support of JBS S.A., the majority

owner of Pilgrim’s. It is anticipated that the proposed transaction would close in the third quarter of 2014 and would be subject to customary closing conditions and the termination of Hillshire’s merger agreement with Pinnacle. Pilgrim’s expects to finance the acquisition with a combination of existing cash balances and new debt financing. The transaction would create a leading branded, protein-focused

company with strong, consistent earnings and complementary competencies, Pilgrim’s said. “Our proposal creates considerable value for the shareholders of both Pilgrim’s and Hillshire,” said Bill Lovette, Pilgrim’s chief executive officer. “For Hillshire shareholders, our proposal provides a substantial premium, greater certainty and immediate cash value for their shares. We have long respected the Hillshire business and we are confident that Hillshire’s board and shareholders will find our all-cash premium proposal to be superior to the pending acquisition of Pinnacle. For Pilgrim’s, the addition of Hillshire’s portfolio of iconic brands and broad based marketing, innovation and distribution expertise will enhance our position as a market leader. With our complementary products, we believe that together Pilgrim’s and Hillshire will better serve our combined customer bases for the benefit of all our stakeholders. We look forward to working constructively with Hillshire to sign a definitive merger agreement and quickly realize the benefits of this combination.”

Tyson makes rival $6.8B bid for Hillshire Brands The Associated Press

NEW YORK — Hillshire Brands has another suitor. Two days after poultry producer Pilgrim’s Pride made a $5.58 billion bid for the maker of Ball Park hot dogs and Jimmy Dean sausages, Tyson Foods Co. barged in with a $6.2 billion offer. The latest offer sent Hillshire shares up 14 percent in premarket trading. The offer by Tyson, one of the world’s largest meat producers, is for $50 per share. That’s $5 per share higher than Pilgrim’s Pride

offer. Hillshire has about 124 million shares outstanding, according to Securities & Exchange Commission filings. Tyson values the deal at $6.8 billion including debt. In the meantime, Hillshire Brands has been trying to buy Birds Eye frozen vegetables maker Pinnacle Foods for $4.23 billion. But Tyson said its offer would make a more profitable company and a “clear leader” in the retail sale of prepared foods. “We believe that there is a strong strategic, financial and operational rationale for the combination of

Tyson and Hillshire,” said Donnie Smith, Tyson Foods president and chief executive officer. “Our proposal provides Hillshire shareholders with an immediate cash premium for their shares that we believe is both greater and more certain than what can be attained in the near term by the company either on a standalone basis or in combination with any other food processing company.” Smith continued, “Tyson’s shareholders will benefit from the considerable new opportunities that come with this extraordinary stra-

tegic fit. We stand ready to work together with Hillshire’s leadership to quickly reach an acceptable definitive merger agreement, and look forward to being able to welcome Hillshire’s communities, employees and business partners to the Tyson family.” The offer is a 35 percent premium to Hillshire’s closing price May 9, the day before Hillshire announced its bid for Pinnacle. Hillshire said earlier it strongly believes in its deal with Pinnacle Foods but was reviewing Pilgrim Pride’s $5.58 billion offer.


POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

Poultry groups oppose transportation rule WASHINGTON — A group of poultry organizations has submitted comments arguing against the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration’s (FMCSA) proposed rule mandating the use of Electronic Logging Devices (ELDs). The proposed rule was published in the Federal Register on March 28, 2014.

The group noted that many of their member companies have already installed ELDs in their fleets and enjoy the benefits of the technology including enhanced recordkeeping and other fleet management tools. However, they said,, even though Congress required that FMCSA mandate the use of ELDs in the July

2012 highway reauthorization law, the industry’s opposition to the proposed rule centers on the fact that the existing paper log system allows motor carriers to comply with current hours of service regulations, and there is no reason to believe that electronic systems will substantially improve highway safety. In addition, the mandatory use of electronic

systems adds an unnecessary expense to the costs of fleet operations. “Now is not the time to impose new regulations that would increase the cost of conducting business for many firms across the country while not generating significant improvements to motor carrier safety.” The comments were prepared by the Joint Poultry Industry Human

Resources Council, which is made up of members from the U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, National Chicken Council and National Turkey Federation. Collectively, the three organizations represent 95 percent of the nation’s poultry products, and their members generate more than 1.3 million total U.S. jobs.

Tyson Foods selling ownership of renewable fuels company AMES, Iowa — Renewable Energy Group Inc. has reached an agreement with Tyson Foods Inc. to acquire Tyson’s 50 percent

ownership position in Dynamic Fuels LLC, the companies have announced. Completion of the transaction

with Tyson Foods, which is contingent upon the closing of REG’s December 2013 announced agreement to acquire substantially all of the assets of Syntroleum Corp., would give REG full ownership of Dynamic Fuels and its 75-million gallon per year nameplate capacity renewable diesel biorefinery in Geismar, La. Tyson and Syntroleum formed Dynamic Fuels in 2007 as a 50/50 joint venture. The Geismar facility, completed in 2010, was the first large scale renewable diesel biorefinery built in the U.S. “Upon closing, this is another milestone for REG in growing our core advanced biofuels business,” said Daniel J. Oh, REG president & CEO. “It gives us the opportunity to further expand our production capacity into new product lines, while growing our overall advanced biofuel manufacturing capability, and bringing on other renewable chemical applications.” “Selling our interest in Dynamic Fuels to REG provides capital for Tyson to redeploy into other opportunities,” said Andrew Rojeski, vice president-renewable energy for Tyson Foods. “REG is a long-term customer of ours, buying fats, oils and greases to make renewable fuel, and we hope to continue that relationship.” Under the terms of the agreement,

an REG subsidiary would acquire Tyson Foods’ 50 percent membership interest in Dynamic Fuels by paying Tyson approximately $18 million in cash at closing and up to $35 million in future payments tied to production volume at the Geismar biorefinery over a period of up to 11 1/2 years. REG will also fund repayment of approximately $12 million of Dynamic Fuels’ indebtedness to Tyson at closing. A portion of the development and construction of the Geismar biorefinery was funded by $100 million in Gulf Opportunity Zone Bonds, issued through the Louisiana Public Facilities Authority. Closing of the acquisition from Tyson Foods is conditioned on REG’s replacement of the letter of credit Tyson Foods obtained to support issuance of the bonds or completion of a financing sufficient to refinance the bonds prior to Dec. 31, 2014, on terms acceptable to REG. REG may seek to use existing cash on hand and/or one or more financing vehicles, including public or private debt or equity, to satisfy this condition. Closing is also subject to satisfaction of other customary closing conditions. REG currently owns eight operating biodiesel refineries in Iowa, Illinois, Minnesota and Texas that have a combined annual nameplate production capacity of 257 million gallons. With the addition of the

Geismar facility, the company’s total advanced biofuel annual nameplate production capacity would increase to 332 million gallons. Renewable Energy Group is a North American biodiesel producer with a nationwide distribution and logistics system. Utilizing an integrated value chain model, the company focuses on converting natural fats, oils and greases into advanced biofuels and on converting diverse feedstocks into renewable chemicals.

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POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

DeCosters & company plead guilty in food safety case The Associated Press

SIOUX CITY, Iowa — A selfmade titan in the egg industry, his son and the Iowa company they ran pleaded guilty on June 3 to federal food safety violations stemming from a nationwide salmonella outbreak that sickened thousands in 2010. Austin (Jack) DeCoster and his son, Peter DeCoster, pleaded guilty to misdemeanor charges of introducing adulterated food into interstate commerce. U.S. District Judge Mark Bennett will later decide their sentences, which could be up to one year in jail, fines of $100,000 apiece and additional restitution for victims. Their company, Quality Egg LLC, pleaded guilty to charges of bribing a USDA inspector, selling misbranded food and introducing adulterated food into interstate commerce. The company has agreed to pay a $6.8 million fine — one of the largest ever related to food safety — under a plea deal that Bennett could accept or reject.

The guilty pleas were entered during hearings at the federal courthouse in Sioux City. Jack DeCoster, 79, lives in Turner, Maine. Peter DeCoster, 51, lives in Clarion in northern Iowa, near the rural area where Quality Egg and its affiliates once produced millions of eggs. The salmonella outbreak prompted a recall of 550 million eggs by Quality Egg and another Iowa company that used its feed and chickens, and led to the collapse of the vast egg production empire that DeCoster built from modest beginnings in Maine. Federal investigators spent years scrutinizing its business practices in the aftermath, as the DeCosters gave up control of their egg production facilities in Iowa, Maine and Ohio and settled dozens of legal claims from those who were sickened. Plea agreements filed on June 2 say the company sold eggs that were tainted with salmonella from January 2010 until August, when the recalls were issued. Federal prosecutors said they found no evidence that the DeCosters were aware they were

selling tainted products, but that as corporate officers, they can be held legally responsible. The company admitted that former Quality Egg manager Tony Wasmund and another employee bribed a now-deceased USDA inspector on at least two occasions. Those bribes, including a $300 cash payment, were meant to influence the inspector to release pallets of eggs that had been retained for failing to meet federal standards because too many were cracked, dirty or leaking. The company also admitted that, with Wasmund’s approval, it had a longstanding practice of putting false processing and expiration dates on labels to make eggs appear fresher than they were. That practice helped the company circumvent laws in California, Arizona and elsewhere that require eggs to be sold within 30 days of their processing dates. Wasmund cooperated with prosecutors under a deal in which he pleaded guilty to a bribery conspiracy. He could get a reduced sentence

AP Photo/Manuel Balce Ceneta/File

DeCosters: This Sept. 22, 2010, combination of file photos shows Quality Egg LLC owner Austin (Jack) DeCoster, left, and its chief operating officer Peter DeCoster on Capitol Hill in Washington. According to a plea agreement on June 3, 2014, the DeDosters plead guilty to introducing adulterated food into interstate commerce. The deal calls for the company to pay $6.8 million and each of the DeCosters to pay $100,000 in fines for selling old eggs with false labels and the tainted products that caused a nationwide salmonella outbreak in 2010.

in September for his cooperation. DeCoster’s egg empire expanded even as he racked up labor, food safety and immigration violations.

Bennett, the judge, sentenced DeCoster to five years of probation in 2003 for knowingly hiring people who were in the U.S. illegally.

Poultry lighting program importance -- ‘a bird’s eye view’ By Bob Alphin

Special to Poultry Times

NEWARK, Del. — Lighting is an essential part of raising poultry and plays a very important role in regulating the physiology of the chicken including behavior, growth and reproduction. We can use this information to help decide how to manage light in a broiler house from Bob Alphin is an instructor/Allen Lab manager with the Department of Animal and Food Sciences at the University of Delaware. This article is drawn from one in Timely Topics, the newsletter of the Delmarva Poultry Industry Inc.

what type of light bulb to purchase to what lighting program to use that can help to maximize bird performance. Light is just one portion of the various electromagnetic waves (radiation) found in space and reaching the surface of our planet. Visible light lies between radio waves and x-rays and is made up of the wavelengths in the range of ~380-780 nanometers, which is what humans see as white light. There are two main ways that light signals the brain of the chicken to impact behavior, growth and reproduction. The most obvious is through the eye and allows the bird to see. Birds have comparatively

large, flattened shaped eyes that give the chicken better vision than humans. Besides having highly sensitive and complex eyes, chickens also have extra-retinal light receptors (outside the eye) located in the brain that react to light and are part of the endocrine system which consists of glands that release hormones into the blood that help control the chickens physiology. Light penetrates the top of skull and stimulates the pineal gland and hypothalamus which are the most significant of xtra-retinal photoreceptors. The pineal is important because it functions as the pacemaker for the 24 hour (circadian) rhythm and controls night time body

temperature, and can impact the stress level and health of birds. The hypothalamus is critical because it regulates the pituitary gland that regulates growth, metabolism and the reproductive systems of birds. The chicken’s response to light will depend on important characteristics of light — color, brightness and duration. The color of light refers to the wavelength of light. Poultry sense certain colors differently than humans. humans, chickens can see ultra violet light and are more sensitive to blue and yellow-orange-red light. In other words, because chickens see color differently, they probably perceive the light from some bulbs as brighter

than humans, but the degree of extra brightness will depend upon the type of bulb and the wavelengths or color of light it produces. Light brightness or the intensity of light can be measured by a light meter which is expressed in foot candles. Another lighting term is lumens, which is the measurement of light power and is used to measure the light power emitted by light bulbs. On average, chickens have higher lumen sensitivity than humans. Light intensity also must be strong enough to penetrate the skull and cranial tissues to stimulate the pineal gland and hypothalamus.

See Lighting, Page 19


POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

Viewpoint Compiled by Barbara Olejnik, Associate Editor 770-718-3440

Field work needed on ag priorities

By Bob Stallman

Special to Poultry Times

WASHINGTON — Farmers have thrown open the doors of the machine shed, greased up the gears and cranked up their diesels. It’s farming season! With Congress in session only a few days between now and August, this also is a good time to gear down and throttle up on agriculture’s policy priorities.

Immigration reform In February, thousands participated in the #IFarmImmigration campaign to bring attention to farmers’ and ranchers’ labor challenges. That same month, more than 600 business organizations, including Farm Bureau, signed a letter urging House leaders to move forward with immigration reform.

Since then, the engine has idled a bit, and we can’t let that happen. It’s time to tell Congress to refuel immigration reform. Without a legal, stable Stallman supply of labor, farmers will continue to face labor shortages and lost crops, and the public will face the loss of economic activity from agriculture and the risk that more of their food will come from other countries.

Expired tax provisions Some in Congress are working to renew tax policies that expired last year. Congress has allowed the work of addressing these tax provisions to

pile up like a stack of off-season invoices. One of the most important tax provisions for farmers and ranchers is enhanced small business expensing, which helps them upgrade to more efficient and environmentally friendly equipment, purchase livestock and build certain farm structures. Because farmers operate on tight margins, the ability to deduct these expenses immediately can give a farmer a way to smooth out volatile fluctuations in farm income. Congress also needs to extend tax credits for renewable energy production, donations of conservation easements, food donations to charitable groups and other tax provisions that help farmers and ranchers be productive and profitable while helping to achieve societal goals.

Scout regulatory threats To keep a crop healthy, the farmer must keep an eye out for pests and anything in the field that doesn’t appear to be thriving. The Environmental Protection Agency’s “Waters of the U.S.” rule threatens to drain the vigor from routine conservation and farming activities. Landowners would have to secure federal permits to make ordinary changes to their cropland, build fences or other structures, or apply fertilizer or pesticides even in parts

Special to Poultry Times

WASHINGTON — My husband, Kevin, and I farm in Northern Missouri with his parents and brother. Chris Chinn formerly served as chairwoman of the American Farm Bureau Federation’s national Young Farmers & Ranchers Committee. She is currently a “Faces of Farming and Ranching” spokesperson for the U.S. Farmers and Ranchers Alliance.

We are the fifth generation of farmers in our family and we raise hogs, cattle, corn, soybeans and rye. We are also raising our children on our farm and clean water is important to us. Regardless of whether Environmental Protection Agency requires it, protecting our water is one of our priorities. We want to pass our farm onto the next generation so it only makes sense that we care for our natural resources in a responsible manner. EPA’s proposed Clean Water

Bob Stallman AFBF president

of fields that are wet only during rainstorms. EPA wants to classify these areas that shed rainfall, and features such as otherwise dry ditches, as “waters of the U.S.” subject to federal regulation. Farm Bureau is asking Congress to weed out that proposal, and we commend the 231 representatives and 46 senators who have signed letters urging EPA

Bob Stallman is president of the American Farm Bureau with offices in Washington, D.C.

Act rule will significantly affect our family farm. The proposed rule will expand the scope of “navigable waters” subject to Clean Water Act jurisdiction by regulating ditches, small and remote “waters” and ephemeral drains where water moves only when it rains. Most of these areas look more like land than like “waters” and they are dry most of the year. This proposed rule means any ditch on your land

See Water, Page 5

to “Ditch the Rule.” Congress has a lot of fallow ground left to plant. “Growing conditions” in Congress have been less than optimal. Germination might seem slow, but we must plow ahead with our legislators and get our farm work done in anticipation of the harvest season ahead.

Poultry Times

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Time to ditch the water rule By Chris Chinn

‘It’s time to tell Congress to refuel immigration reform. Without a legal, stable supply of labor, farmers will continue to face labor shortages and lost crops.’

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POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

Congressional leaders brief UEP legislative meeting WASHINGTON — U.S. Senators Sherrod Brown (D-Ohio), Joe Donnelly (D-Ind.) and Jerry Moran (R-Kan.) joined nearly 100 egg producers from around the country April 13 to talk about the key role America’s egg farmers play in the U.S. economy. The senators, representing states accounting for nearly 52 million layers, recognized efforts by the United Egg Producers to ensure Congress and federal regulators help producers to continue delivering a vital, affordable food supply to consumers.

“It is something that is critical to our economy, critical to our state and critical to our country, “said Donnelly. “To be able to have such a huge protein source for such a reasonable price is a testament to your hard work and quality of your products.” Brown and Donnelly, both members of the Senate Agricultural Committee, offered their appreciation and support for the egg industry’s efforts surrounding food safety. “The work you have done to upgrade and ensure that your product is nutritious and safe is to be ap-

plauded,” said Brown. Appropriations subcommittee on Agriculture and Rural Development member Moran offered his perspective on the challenging regulatory environment that faces the U.S. egg industry, including the newly proposed Environmental Protection Agency “Waters of the United States” standard, part of the Clean Water Act. “I am from rural America and care about issues facing rural Americans,” said Moran. He encouraged UEP to spend time with all members of Congress, not just rural elected

officials, to ensure opportunities exist for future generations of farmers. United Egg Producers members were in Washington to talk about the future of the industry and critical issues that will ensure Americans continue to have access to a highprotein, affordable food supply. Creating a national standard for egg production that ensures a levelplaying field for all producers across the country is something that continues to be a discussion point with elected leaders and regulators. “We’ve spent significant time tackling a number of complicated

issues, ranging from food safety to a national production standard, which Congress couldn’t solve,” said UEP President Chad Gregory. “The attendance of these leading U.S. senators demonstrates our success in articulating the vital role egg producers play in the national economy, and we appreciate their partnership in working to find a solution to interstate commerce challenges in the months ahead.” More information can be obtained from the United Egg Producers at

across it. EPA should respect the limits set by Congress. Some people are saying farmers and ranchers should have no concerns because we are “exempted” from the rule but this is not the case. The “normal farming and ranching” exemption only applies to a specific type of Clean Water Act permit for “dredge and fill” materials. There is also no farm or ranch exemption from Clean Water Act permit requirements for what the EPA would call “pollutants,” but I would call plant nutrients and protection products. This means under the proposed rule, many common and important practices like weed control and fer-

tilizer spreading will be prohibited in or near so-called “waters” unless you have a Clean Water Act permit. This further complicates my situation due to the fact we frequently use recycled fertilizer from our hog barns. Another startling fact is the EPA and the Corps have interpreted the word “normal” to mean only longstanding operations in place since the 1970s — not newer or expanded farming and ranching. Does this mean when we pass our farm onto the next generation’s hands that they will no longer be able to farm that land? This rule would appear to me to be detrimental to new and begin-

ning farmers — exactly the type of farmer that many of us in agriculture have been working hard to support. That just makes no sense. The proposed Waters of the U.S. ruling is a bad idea and it will cripple the ability of farmers and ranchers to continue to produce food. If the proposed rule prevails, it will be illegal for farmers to spray for weeds or apply fertilizer to their ground unless they have a permit. Routine tasks like building fences will even require permits if they will be built in or near a ditch. Many farming practices are time-sensitive and farmers cannot afford to wait on a govern-

ment agency to process a permit. Common sense goes a long way and it is desperately needed when looking at this proposed ruling. If dry farm fields and ordinary farm ditches and ponds are allowed to be regulated as “waters of the U.S.,” farming and ranching will suffer and so will those who depend on agriculture for food. We need to make our voices heard. It is time to ditch the water rule. You can share your comments and make your voice count by visiting the FBAct Insider page: alert/?alertid=63192396.

•Water (Continued from page 4)

will be regulated by the EPA, even if it only holds water one day a year. This will prohibit farmers from using land that is in or near a ditch unless they have a Clean Water Act permit. Congress writes the laws of the land, not federal agencies. When Congress created the Clean Water Act, it clearly limited federal regulatory power to “navigable” waters. Congress did not intend to allow EPA and the Army Corps of Engineers to regulate farmland just because water occasionally flows


POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

Business Compiled by David B. Strickland, Editor 770-718-3442

Mississippi poultry growers still reeling from tornadoes The Associated Press

JACKSON, Miss. — Poultry growers are looking for some help after the April 28 tornadoes that caused tremendous damage on farms and the loss of more than a million birds in four Mississippi counties. The Mississippi Board of Animal Health reports more than 1 million birds were lost to the tornadoes or subsequent power outages. Winston, Wayne, Newton and Scott counties reported 58 houses with major damage and 17 houses with minor damage. Tom Tabler with the Mississippi State University Extension Service said many poultry growers have significant recovery expenses but no options for income except disaster money. He said some of them may have lost their homes in addition to their poultry houses. “There will not be any quick fixes for these farm families,” he said. The Extension Service hosted a meeting with poultry growers on May 8. Winston County grower Tim Hobby said he lost 10 broiler houses and 234,000 birds. About half of the birds arrived four days before the storm, and he said the others were placed in the houses about two hours before the tornado barreled through. Hobby said his immediate need is debris removal. “I would need 2 miles of roadside to pile all this within 10 feet of the right of way for the county to pick up. There is just too much for that to work,” he said. Mike Sullivan of the USDA’s Farm Service Agency told growers the agency hopes the livestock indemnity portion of the new farm bill will move along faster than it did in the old farm bill. “These recent tornadoes are the first time we are implementing the new legislation. Unfortunately for Mississippi, but fortunately for those impacted, we have a lot of experience handling disasters,” Sullivan said.

Other Business News Raeford expands cooking operations ROSE HILL, N.C. — House of Raeford Farms, based in Rose Hill, N.C., has announced the opening of a 64,000-square-foot further processing cook plant in Mocksville, N.C. The facility will produce fullycooked chicken products including grill-marked fajita strips and filets; whole muscle and formed chicken tenders, filets, wings, nuggets and patties; and, fully-cooked chicken sausage and burgers. In a related move, the company also acquired the Speedy Bird trademark with the intention of launching many of these items under this brand. In announcing the acquisition, Bob Johnson, House of Raeford president and CEO, indicated that this action supports the company’s strategy announced last year to expand its cooked chicken product lines in conjunction with an increase in chicken production volumes. “Combined with production capabilities at our cook plants in Raeford, N.C., and Hemingway, S.C., we are now in a position to offer our retail, foodservice and co-pack customers an even wider variety of further processed chicken and turkey products at competitive prices and increased supply,” Johnson said. The Mocksville plant began operations in April and plans to grow to more than 200 associates during the next several years. The facility, which has been idle for the past two years, has undergone refurbishing of the building, equipment and grounds. According to Chris Murray, the company’s environmental manager, this includes a revamping of the wastewater and refrigeration systems to provide an environmentally sound and safe operation. “Just as our company does in all of our locations, we look forward to becoming an integral part of the Mocksville and Davie County com-

munity, both as an employer as well as a good corporate citizen,” Johnson added. More information about the company’s new line of cooked chicken can be obtained from Michael Teachey, vice president, cooked product sales, at 910-289-6919 and the Mocksville plant can be reached at 336-751-4752. House of Raeford can also be contacted at www.

Tyson donates $100K to YMCA SPRINGDALE, Ark. — The Wilkes Family YMCA, in Wilkesboro, N.C., recently hosted an event to announce a $100,000 donation from Tyson Foods Inc. The donation will be used to expand and renovate the existing facility. The facility offers a wide range of programs for families in the area, including 7,000 members and 3,000 program participants. “The YMCA is truly a cornerstone of this community,” said Brent West, complex human resource manager for Tyson Foods’ Wilkesboro plant. “We’re proud to be here to present this donation that will benefit our team members and the surrounding community.” Tyson Foods has four facilities in North Carolina and employs more than 5,000 in the state. “For 70 years, the Wilkes Family YMCA has evolved and expanded to meet community needs. We are so grateful that Tyson Foods is supporting the facility improvements that will help the Y serve our community for the next 70 years and beyond,” said Sam Franklin, vice president of operations for the Wilkes Family and Express YMCAs. “The Y is so much more than a place. We are a nonprofit organization that strengthens our community through youth development, healthy living and social responsibility.” The Y brings neighbors together over shared interests in developing

the potential of children, improving individual health and well-being, and giving back and supporting the community, the organization noted. Activities at the Y range from swim lessons to group exercise classes and youth sports to programs for active older adults. The YMCA of Northwest North Carolina and its branches, including the Wilkes Family and Express YMCAs, offer financial assistance thanks to generous donations from the community, so no one is ever turned anyone away due to the inability to pay. In recognition of the Tyson Foods gift, the YMCA’s Wellness Center will be named in honor of the company.

Carriers of the year For the third year, Tyson Foods Inc. has named a select group of its third-party contract carriers as “Premier Carriers of the Year.” Several of the 19 honored carriers are repeat recipients. Carriers of the Year are recognized for their commitment to customer service, communication, safety, innovation and for being environmental stewards, the company noted. In addition to its own fleet of more than 2,600 tractors, Tyson Foods has relationships with more than l00 third-party carriers to move products and raw materials to its locations and customers. “These carriers have demonstrated a commitment to excellence in every discipline of their business,” said Bryan McDuffie, director of Tyson Foods’ contract carrier division. “They are the very best of the best and we’re pleased to work with all of them.” The following carriers were recognized: Anderson Transportation of Forreston, Ill. Barlow Truck Line of Faucett, Mo. (2 year recipient) Comstar Enterprise Inc. of Springdale, Ark. (3 year recipient) (Continued on next page)


POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014 (Continued from previous page)

Davis Express Inc. of Starke, Fla. (3 year recipient) Dee King Trucking LP. of Amarillo, Texas Distribution Solutions Inc. of Harrison, Ark. (2 year recipient) Heyl Truck Line Inc. of Akron, Iowa (3 year recipient) J.S. Helwig and Son Inc. of Terrell, Texas (2 year recipient) John Christner Trucking Inc. of Sapulpa, Okla. (2 year recipient) Johnson Feed Inc. of Canton, S.D. (3 year recipient) K&B Transportation Inc. of South Sioux City, Neb. K and J Trucking Inc. of Sioux Falls, S.D. (3 year recipient) Maverick Transportation LLC of North Little Rock, Ark. Schuster Co. of Le Mars, Iowa Sub Zero Transportation of Omaha, Neb. (3 year recipient) T.W. Transport Refrigerated Service of Cheney, Wash. (3 year recipient) Van Wyk Inc. of Sheldon, Iowa (3 year recipient) Wild West Express of Las Cruces, N.M. Zeitner & Sons Inc. of Omaha, Neb. (2 year recipient) More information can be obtained at

Sanderson reports quarterly results LAUREL, Miss. — Sanderson Farms Inc. has reported results for its second fiscal quarter and six months ended April 30, 2014. Net sales for the second quarter of fiscal 2014

were $660.7 million compared with $621.2 million for the same period a year ago. For the quarter, net income was $51 million, or $2.21 per share, compared with net income of $24.4 million, or $1.06 per share, for the second quarter of fiscal 2013. Net sales for the first six months of fiscal 2014 were $1.25 billion compared with $1.22 billion for the same period of fiscal 2013. Net income for the first half of the year totaled $79.9 million, or $3.46 per share, compared with net income of $17.4 million, or $0.76 per share, for the first six months of last year. “The results for our second quarter of fiscal 2014 reflect lower grain costs and continued favorable demand for poultry products,” said Joe F. Sanderson Jr., chairman and CEO of Sanderson Farms Inc. “Our net sales were 6.4 percent higher compared with the second quarter of fiscal 2013, reflecting increased volume offset by slightly lower market prices. Demand for chicken remains strong from our retail grocery store customers, and it appears the relatively high prices of competing protein have shifted some consumer demand to chicken. “In addition, while customer traffic through foodservice establishments remains challenged by macroeconomic factors, relatively high priced beef contributed to improving demand and market prices during the quarter for products produced at our foodservice plants.” “Our profitability for the second quarter continued to benefit from lower feed costs,” Sanderson added. “Feed costs in flocks processed decreased 19.1 percent compared with

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last year’s second fiscal quarter. Because of the tight supply of soybeans and the USDA’s lower ending stock estimates for corn, market prices for grain have moved higher since our first quarter.” “We expect grain prices to remain volatile at least until markets get some visibility on the quantity and quality of this year’s corn and soybean crops, as tight soy supplies and the lowered corn estimates place a premium on favorable growing conditions this summer.” According to Sanderson, market prices for poultry products were mixed during the second quarter of fiscal 2014 compared with the same quarter a year ago. The simple average of the Georgia dock price for whole chickens increased approximately 4.3 percent in the company’s second fiscal quarter compared with the same period in 2013, and moved to record high levels in April. Bulk leg quarter market prices were lower than during last year’s second quarter, and reflect lower export demand. Average boneless breast meat prices during the second quarter were flat with the prior year period, but moved significantly higher in April. Jumbo wing prices were down 27.9 percent for the second quarter of 2014 compared with the same period last year. Prices paid for corn decreased 34 percent compared with the second quarter of fiscal 2013, while prices paid for soybean meal, the company’s second primary feed ingredient, increased 8.8 percent. “We continue to make progress on our new facilities in Palestine, Texas,” Sanderson said. “Construction is well under way at the feedmill, hatchery and processing plant sites, and we have sufficient interest from independent contract producers to provide housing for our flocks. Indeed, we will place our first pullet flock associated with the Palestine, Texas, facility next month.” “Looking ahead, we are reason-

Business ably optimistic as we head into the summer months and what is typically the peak demand period for chicken,” he added. “Total grain costs have moved higher but remain below last year’s prices, and demand for chicken products is expected to remain strong. Weekly broiler egg sets continue to run slightly above last year’s numbers, but breeder placements remain constrained. It appears the reduced size of the breeder flock will constrain production over the short term despite higher industry returns. “While macroeconomic conditions continue to affect consumer behavior, market prices for boneless breast meat sold to our foodservice customers improved through April and May, and market prices for retail grocery store products have also moved higher. Regardless of market conditions, however, we will maintain our focus on maximizing our operating performance and sales execution.¨ More information can be obtained at

Diamond V names Smith safety dir. CEDAR RAPIDS, Iowa — Diamond V® has announced a new member of the company’s North America “Poultry Team” to support its poultry nutrition and health, customer service and further business growth. Mike Mitchell, North American poultry director, announces that Dr. Douglas Smith has joined Diamond V as food safety director, enhancing the company’s research and technical service programs in North America. “We’re looking forward to Dr. Smith’s role in refining and advanc-

ing Diamond V’s food safety initiative,” Mitchell said. Smith comes to Diamond V with more than 20 years of experience in food safety research, shown in more than 90 refereed journal articles, along with a long list of book chapters, conference proceedings and trade journal articles. Most recently Smith was an associate professor in the Prestage Department of Poultry Science at North Carolina State University and an adjunct Smith professor at Clemson University’s Department of Food, Nutrition and Packaging Science. He has also been a research food technologist with the USDA’s Agricultural Research Service, an assistant professor in poultry science at the University of Georgia and a director of quality assurance with OK Foods in Fort Smith, Ark. Smith has long-standing memberships in the Poultry Science Association, World’s Poultry Science Association and International Association for Food Protection. In addition, he is a Servsafe Certified instructor and proctor. Smith received his doctorate and masters in science in poultry science from the University of Georgia and was awarded both the Sigma Xi Outstanding Ph.D. Dissertation Award and the Poultry Science Association’s Graduate Student Research Paper Certificate of Excellence. More information about Diamond V can be obtained at www.


POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

Nuggets Compiled by Barbara Olejnik, Associate Editor 770-718-3440

GEORGIA Seminar to examine information systems TUCKER — The 2014 USPOULTRY Information Systems Seminar will take an in-depth look at emerging technology and project management solutions. Sponsored by U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, the Seminar will be held July 15-16, at the DoubleTree Hotel in Nashville, Tenn. “Computers are found throughout every poultry operation. The programs used to run these operations must be continuously enhanced and updated to maintain productivity and efficiency. This year’s agenda will provide valuable tools that information technology managers can apply immediately to their day-to-day work environment,” said program committee chairman, Kendall Layman, CobbVantress Inc. The agenda will include: Agri Stats . . . Industry IT Overview; Video System Management and Maintenance; IT Staffing: Training and Retention Trends; Product Recall/Traceability; How Does IT Get A Seat At the Table To Get Management on Board?; Office 365 . . . A Year Late; Software Licensing; Electronic Truck Log System Management; OS Update . . . Migrating from Windows XP; Data Management/Reporting; Business Continuity/Disaster Recovery Options; and Emerging Technology. The program planning committee of information technology managers included Jason Rivera, USPOULTRY, Tucker, Ga.; Sim Harbert, Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, Ga.; Mike Burruss,

Tip Top Poultry, Marietta, Ga.; Alan Brownell, Case Farms LLC, Troutman, N.C.; and Greg Whisenant, Case Farms, Troutman, N.C. Registration for the 2014 Information System Seminar is available at

ILLINOIS HACCP validation workshop planned CHAMPAIGN — the Validation and Verification Procedures and Guidelines workshop, co-hosted by the American Meat Science Association (AMSA) and the Consortium of Food Process Validation Experts (CFPVE), will be held prior to the AMSA 67th Reciprocal Meat Conference in Madison, Wis. on Saturday, June 14. Validation is a fundamental component of the Hanard Analysis & Critical Control Point system. Processors are currently required to have HACCP plans in place and are also required to validate their HACCP plans. This workshop will provide attendees with a practical discussion on validation, covering experimental design, implementation and application, including appropriate microbiological testing, analysis and reporting. This workshop will be tailored to small-to medium-sized meat and poultry processors to provide viable food safety options. The CFPVE is group of experienced scientists who support stakeholders in the promotion and application of scientifically sound approaches and protocols for food process validation. They provide a

practical and unbiased interpretation of the existing science, guidelines and policies regarding validation as well as developments in science and policies, relative recovery, characterization and control of pathogens directly from foods. More information can be obtained at page.aspx?id=9223 or by contacting Deidrea Mabry at dmabry@ or Dr. Manpreet Singh, Purdue University, at

MICHIGAN Michigan State Univ. hosts 2014 Ag Expo EAST LANSING, Mich. — The 2014 Michigan Ag Expo, the state’s largest outdoor farm show, returns to Michigan State University July 22-24, sponsored by the College of Agriculture and Natural Resources (CANR). The 35th annual Ag Expo will showcase a wide variety of educational and commercial activities, including nearly 200 exhibits featuring products and services. The show will also offer research findings from CANR faculty members, and a full schedule of educational demonstrations dedicated to providing Michigan farmers with the knowledge and skills necessary to manage successful farms. “We really try to make this event something special, and I think the agricultural community really embraces that,” said CANR Dean Fred Poston. “People come to Ag Expo from all over the state. It’s an exciting opportunity for our college, MSU Extension and AgBioResearch to join together to benefit the public and learn from one another as well.” The event runs from 7:30 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. July 22 and 23, and 7:30 a.m. to 3 p.m. July 24. Admission to the grounds and parking at Farm Lane and Mt. Hope Road are free. More information is available by

calling 800-366-7055 or visiting

THAILAND WVPA Asia conf. set for Bangkok BANGKOK — The second World Veterinary Poultry Association Asia Conference will be held in Bangkok, Thailand, on the Sept. 1112, 2014, with the theme of “Testing & Monitoring.” The conference will also host the Asian Avian Pathology Lecture, which will be presented by Dr. Md. Rafiqui Islam from Bangladesh on the subject of infectious bursal disease. The conference has a day of invited papers followed by a day of presentations from regional scientists and researchers. Subjects covered by the invited speakers include monitoring flocks for protection against Newcastle disease, chicken infectious anaemia and Gumboro diseases, molecular detection of mycoplasmas, coccidiosis monitoring and management, the use of PCR, serology, mycotoxin testing breakthroughs and diagnosis of duck diseases. Research papers offered include ones on environmental screening for viruses, IBD cytokines, Newcastle disease vaccination, detection of avian influenza, IBD shedding profiles, colibacillosis survey, H7N9 avian influenza in China, MRSAs, autophagy, detection of campylobacter, salmonella antibiograms, ILT shedding, variant IB in Malaysia and ELISA for IBH. “This conference has a comprehensive program,” says Dr Sumeth Sapchukun, president of the Thai Branch of WVPA. “It really is a must attend event for Asian poultry veterinarians and poultry health scientists and we look forward to welcoming them all to Bangkok in September.” “In addition, it is a wonderful networking opportunity for every-

one associated with avian health in the region,” added Nigel Horrox, WVPA global vice president, “and this meeting is rapidly becoming established as a premier gathering of poultry health expertise.” More information can be obtained by contacting palmpositive@

VIRGINIA Registration open for feed course ARLINGTON — Registration is now open for AFIA-500: Fundamentals of Feed Manufacturing. The distance education program is sponsored by the American Feed Industry Association and Kansas State University, and is ideal for individuals at all levels interested in gaining a better understanding of the feed manufacturing process. The e-learning program is 100 percent online and will run from June 30 to Aug 1, allowing participants the freedom to work at their own pace while engaging in online discussions about the course material. AFIA-500 was developed by the feed technology group in KSU’s department of grain science and industry. Topics include the process flow from particle size reduction to batching and mixing, conditioning and pelleting, boilers, post-pellet systems, packaging and loadout and maintenance. The course will be taught by Dr. Charles Stark of KSU’s Department of Grain Science & Industry. Stark will be assisted by Brandi Miller, KSU, and Dr. Adam Fahrenholz of North Carolina State University’s Prestage Department of Poultry Science. Fifty participants will be accepted into the program. “The program will outline the basics of feed manufacturing, which is great for those new to the industry or for those who have been involved in feed for years and want a refresher,” said Keith Epperson, AFIA vice president of manufacturing and training.” For assistance with registration, contact AFIA at 703-558-3573 or by email at


POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

Calendar Compiled by Barbara Olejnik, Associate Editor 770-718-3440

JUN 9-10 — CPF SUMMER BOARD MTNG., The Cliffs Resort, Shell Beach, Calif. Contact: California Poultry Federation, 4640 Spyres Way, Suite 4, Modesto, Calif. 95356. Ph: 209576-6355;; JUN 9-12 — USAPEEC ANNUAL MTNG., Big Sky Resort, Montana. Contact: Christine Fee, USA Poultry & Egg Export Council, 2300 W. Park Place Blvd., Suite 100, Stone Mountain, Ga. 30087. Ph: 770-413-0006; JUN 10-11 — AFIA AWARENESS IN FEED SAFETY COURSE, Des Moines, Iowa. Contact: Miranda McDanield, American Feed Industry Association, 703-558-3579, JUN 10-12 — ITF SUMMER MTNG., Adventureland Inn, Altoona, Iowa. Contact: Iowa Turkey Federation, 535 Lincoln Way, P.O. Box 825, Ames, Iowa 50010. Ph: 515-232-7492;; JUN 10-13 — FMI CONNECT, McCormick Place, Chicago, Ill. Contact: Food Marketing Institute, 2345 Crystal Drive, Suite 800, Arlington, Va. 22202. Ph: 202-452-8444; JUN 15-16 — AMSA RECIPROCAL MEAT CONF., Madison, Wis. Contact: American Meat Science Assocition, P.O. Box 2187, Champaign, Ill. 61825; 800-517-AMSA. JUN 16-19 — FEED INDUSTRY INSTITUTE, The Depot Renaissance Hotel, Minneapolis, Minn. Contact: American Feed Industry Association, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 916, Arlington, Va. 22201, 703-524-01101921; www.afia@afia.or

tance Education Programs, Online. Contact: American Feed Industry Association, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 916, Arlington, Va. 22201. Ph: 703-524-0810;; JUL 8-9 — HATCHERY BREEDER CLINIC, Doubletree Hotel, Nashville, Tenn. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga . 30084-7303, Ph: 770-4939401;; JUL 8-11 — ASA BOARD MTNG., Hyatt Regency, Washington, D.C. Contact: American Soybean Association 12125 Woodcrest Executive Drive, Suite 100, St. Louis, Mo. 63141. Ph: 800-688-7692;; JUL 9-10 — AEB MTNG., Hilton Hotel, Rosemont, Ill. Contact: American Egg Board, 1460 Renaissance Drive, Park Ridge, Ill. 60068. Ph: 847-296-7043;; JUL 14-17 — PSA ANNUAL MTNG., Omni Corpus Christi Hotel, Bayfront Tower, Corpus Christi, Texas. Contact: Poultry Science Association, 1800 S. Oak St., Suite 100,, Champaign, Ill. 61820. Ph: 217-3565285;; JUL 15-16 — INFORMATION SYSTEMS SMNR., Doubletree Hotel, Nashville, Tenn. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga . 30084-7303, Ph: 770-4939401;;

JUN 17-19 — EGG INDUSTRY S.E. REGIONAL CONF., N.C., S.C., Ga., Ala., Fla., Ky., Tenn. & Va., Hilton Hotel, Kingston Plantation Resort, Myrtle Beach, S.C. Contact: Jan Kelly, 919-319-1195,

JUL 20-22 — NCC / NPFDA CHICKEN MARKETING SMNR., Ritz Carlton Lodge, Reynolds Plantation, Greensboro, Ga. Contact: National Chicken Council, 1152 15th St., N.S., Suite 430, Washington, D.C. 20005, Ph: 202-2962622,;,; or National Poultry & Food Distributors Association, 2014 Osborne Road, Saint Marys, Ga. 31558, Ph: 770-535-9901,,

JUN 18 — DPI COLLEGE SCHOLARSHIP GOLF TOURNEY. Contact: Delmarva Poultry Industry Inc., 16686 County Seat Hwy., Georgetown, Del. 199474881;;

JUL 22-24 — AG EXPO, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Mich. Contact: MSU College of Agriculture & Natural Resources, 800-366-7055;

JUN 20-21 — DELMARVA CHICKEN FESTIVAL, Queen Anne’s County 4-H Park, Centreville, Md. Contact: Delmarva Poultry Industry Inc., 16686 County Seat Hwy., Georgetown, Del. 19947-4881;;

JUL 24-26 — CFIA SUMMER CONV., Embassy Suites-Kingston Plantation, Myrtle Beach, S.C. Contact: Carolina Feed Industry Association, P.O. Box 58220, Raleigh, N.C. 27658. Ph: 919-782-3058;

JUN 21-21 — ITF ANNUAL MTNG. & FOOD EXPO, New Orleans Morial Convention Center, New Orleans, La. Contact: Institute of Food Technologistts, 525 W. Van Buren, Suite 1000, Chicago, Ill. 60607. Ph: 312-782-8424;;

AUG 7-8 — NCPF ANNUAL MTNG., Grandover Resort, Greensboro, N.C. Contact: North Carolina Poultry Federation, 4020 Barrett Drive, Suite 102, Raleigh. N.C. 27609. Ph: 9199-7838218;;

JUN 23-25 — FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SMNR., Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort, Destin, Fla. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga . 30084-7303, Ph: 770-4939401;;

AUG 16-17 — TPA ANNUAL MTNG. & SUMMER GET-AWAY, Nashville, Tenn. Contact: Tennessee Poultry Association, P.O. Box 1525, Shelbyville, Tenn. 37162. Ph: 931-2251123;;

JUN 30-Aug. 1 OF FEED

AUG 16 - GPF NIGHT OF KNIGHTS, Cobb Galleria Centre, Atlanta, Ga. Contact: Georgia Poultry


Federation, P.O. Box 763, Gainesville, Ga. 30503. Ph: 770-532-0473; AUG 18-20 — POULTRY INDUSTRY NATIONAL SAFETY CONF., Hilton Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort, Destin, Fla. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga. 30084-7303; 770-635-9050; seminar@uspoultry. org; AUG 18-21 — AFIA/KSU ADVANCED FEED MANUFACURING, Manhattan, Kan. Contact: American Feed Industry Association, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 916, Arlington, Va. 22201. Ph: 703-524-0810;; AUG 18-28 — UEP AREA MTNGS., TBA. Contact: United Egg Producers, 1720 Windward Concourse, Suite 230, Alpharetta, Ga. 30005. Ph: 770-3609220; AUG 21-22 — WOMEN’S LEADERSHIP CONF., Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort, Destin, Fla. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga . 30084-7303, Ph: 770-4939401;; SEP 8-Oct. 3 — AFIA/KSU FUNDAMENTAL OF NUTRITION, Joint Distance Education Programs, Online. Contact: American Feed Industry Association, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 916, Arlington, Va. 22201. Ph: 703-524-0810;; SEP 9-11 — AFIA LIQUID FEED SYMPM., New Orleans Marriott, New Orleans, La. Contact: American Feed Industry Association, 2101 Wilson Blvd., Suite 916, Arlington, Va. 22201. Ph: 703-524-0810;; SEP 11-14





Sandestin, Destin, Fla. Contact: Mississippi Poultry Association, 110 Airport Road S., Suite C, Pearl, Miss. 39208. Ph: 601-932-7560;;; SEP 16-17 — POULTRY PRODUCTION & HEALTH SMNR., Doubletree Hotel, Nashville, Tenn. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga . 30084-7303, Ph: 770-524-08109401;; SEP 18-19 — CPF ANNUAL MTNG. & CONF., Monterey Plaza Hotel, Monterey,Calif. Contact: California Poultry Federation, 4640 Spyres Way, Suite 4, Modesto, Calif. 95356. Ph: 209576-6355;; SEP 23-24 — GEORGIA POULTRY CONF., Classic Center, Athens, Ga. Contact: Extension Poultry Science, University of Georgia, Athens, Ga. 30602, 70-6542-1325; or Georgia Poultry Federation, P.O. Box 763, Gainesville, Ga. 30503. Ph: 770-532-0473. SEP 24-25 — PA. POULTRY SALES & SERVICE CONF. & N.E. CONF. ON AVIAN DISEASES, Penn Stater Conference Center Hotel, State College, Pa. Contact: Pennsylvania State University, Department of Animal Science, 324 Henning Building, University Park, Pa. 16802. Ph: 814-865-1362. SEP 25-26 — ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SMNR., Sandestin Golf & Beach Resort, Destin, Fla. Contact: U.S. Poultry & Egg Association, 1530 Cooledge Road, Tucker, Ga . 30084-7303, Ph: 770-493-9401;;


POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

Importance of flushing evaporative cooling systems By Michael Czarick, Dr. Susan Watkins & Dr. Brian Fairchild Special to Poultry Times

ATHENS, Ga. — One of the best ways of insuring maximum pad life as well as bird cooling is to simply flush your evaporative cooling system on a regular basis. Tens of thousands of gallons of water can evaporate from a poultry house’s evaporative cooling system each week during hot weather. A potential problem lies in the fact that only pure water evaporates from the evaporative cooling pads. Any minerals and/or contaminates in the water do not. Over time as these contaminates concentrate in the water, they can become corrosive and turn the pads to mush, or settle out on the pads and turn them into rock. The typical 6-inch evaporative cooling pad system (50-feet to 70feet long) holds between 100 and 150 gallons of water. During the course of the day between 500 and 1,500 gallons of water can evaporate from each of a house’s two pad systems. This means that each day the concentration of any minerals or contaminates in the water can increase five to 10 fold. During the course of a month the concentration of minerals or contaminates can increase well over 100 fold. So, a producer can have good water with a relatively low mineral content but by the end of a flock be circulating a highly concentrated mineral solution over their pads. If the evaporative cooling system’s make-up water is of poor quality, minerals can build up to harmful levels in relatively short order. The higher the concentration of minerals that are in the water circulating over the pads the more likely they will precipitate on the surface of the pad restricting the flow of air into a house resulting in hotter birds and higher electricity bills.

In some poultry growing areas water with a high pH is a problem not only for the birds but the pads as well. The pH of the water should be between 6 (slightly acidic) and 8 (slightly caustic). High pH (alkalinity) is associated with bicarbonates, carbonates, sulfates or hydroxides that are found at various levels in many sources of well water. When water evaporates from the cool cells, these components can become concentrated in the recirculation system resulting in a pH increase. Without flushing the tank, the pH of the water will become caustic enough to destroy the cellulose in the pads or the resins which provide rigidity to the evaporative cooling pads. The paper may start to look fluffy like cotton or there may be no firmness to the pads causing them to slump out of the frames. It will be worse in areas of the pads that dry out first. Other contaminates which are often linked to alkalinity is calcium and magnesium. These minerals tend to settle out onto evaporative cooling pads, basically turning them into rock and clogging the airways. One option for reducing hardness is a water softener which removes these minerals and replaces them with sodium in the water. Another option would be to add an acid to the water to lower the pH. By lowering the pH to 7 or slightly lower, this increases the solubility of calcium and neutralizes bicarbonates, resulting in less “scale” deposits on the pads. You will need to make sure that the pH does not go much below 7 or you can harm the pad. Keep in mind that adding acid also adds nutrients to the water which can promote algae growth. Therefore it is important to have a good water sanitation program that provides a chlorine residual of 3 to 5 ppm in the fresh water supply. This does not mean that you

should pour bleach (chlorine) directly into a recirculation tank. The resulting momentary high concentration of chlorine will dramatically reduce pad life. The correct water treatment option can vary significantly from farm to farm and as a result it is very important to consult a independent water quality specialist before purchasing/installing any water treatment system. Once you have a recommendation, you should check with your evaporative cooling pad manufacturer to make sure that the prescribed treatment will not adversely affect pad life. For water that has been softened or had chemicals added to it, there is still the same amount of dissolved solids in the water. This water cannot be evaporated indefinitely. You will still need to dump the recirculation tank from time to time. Remember each time the pump shuts off, everything in the water will tend to be deposited on the pads. The cleaner the water, the cleaner the pads. Other naturally occurring components in water that can concentrate over time in recirculation systems are sodium, chloride and iron. Salt is naturally corrosive and when levels increase drastically, damage can occur. Iron becomes a problem when it creates a food supply for iron loving bacteria and the resulting thick biofilm (slime) can literally clog cool cells. A good water sanitation program can help prevent this which is not only beneficial to the pads but to the birds as well. Of course the best solution to the above problems would be to properly treat the water coming from the well. This would not only benefit the birds but would significantly increase pad life as well. But, often water treatment can be a very expensive option. Simply flushing the recirculation

system from time to time can help to minimize the problem until a proper water treatment option can be employed. In some cases a water treatment system may only partially treat the water thus increasing the need for flushing an evaporative cooling system from time to time. Even if you have good water quality flushing your system from time to time is still important. Over the course of a month millions of cubic feet of air will move through a house’s pad systems. The wetted pads can act like air filters cleaning the air as it enters the house. The problem is that anything that is cleaned from the air (dust, biological material) ends up in the evaporative cooling system water. As these materials build up over time we can end up essentially circulating “pond water” over the pads resulting in a build up of algae on the pads. Though there are chemicals that can be added to a pad system to help control algae, the fact of the matter is that if a system is flushed on a regular basis there would be no “food” for the algae to feed on. How often an evaporative system should be emptied depends on the quality of the water on a farm. If you have average water quality a pad system should ideally be dumped a couple of times a week when the weather is hot and the pads are running long hours. During milder times of the year or if you have very good water quality once every other week will typically prove sufficient. On the surface this may seem like you would be wasting a lot of water. But on a broiler farm you may only end up flushing a system a half a dozen times a flock or less. Considering the fact that the typical pad system may use between 10,000 to 40,000 gallons a flock, the 300 gallons lost when flushing a system will be barely noticeable. Even on a breeder farm where a producer may need to dump the systems a few times a month for the

entire summer it is still not a lot of water when you consider the birds alone are typically drinking over 30,000 gallons a month. If you have poor water quality (high mineral content, high pH) it may be necessary to empty the distribution systems on a much more frequent basis (possibly daily). In these cases you may want to consider automating the flushing process. There are commercially available low pressure, high volume, electrically operated valves that can empty the typical evaporative cooling system in 15 minutes or less. The valves are relatively inexpensive (approximately $100) and can be wired into a simple seven-day time clock (less than $50) or a house’s environmental controller. The time clock or controller can be programmed to activate the dump valves to flush the pad systems in the middle of the night when they are not operating. Though ideally, a solenoid would be installed on the water line feeding the pad systems to shut off the water while valves are dumping the system, typically the valves dump the water quickly enough that it is not problematic. As is the case with evaporative cooling system pumps, the valves should be removed during the winter to prevent damage due to freezing. Michael Czarick is an Extension engineer and Dr. Brian Fairchild is an Extension poultry scientist, both with the University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences Cooperative Extension. Dr. Susan Watkins is an Extension poultry specialist with the University of Arkansas Department of Poultry Science. More information can be obtained at


POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

Statistics on family farming in the United States By James MacDonald Special to Poultry Times

WASHINGTON — The United Nations has designated 2014 as the “International Year of Family Farming” to highlight the potential family farmers have to help eradicate hunger and preserve natural resources. According to the UN’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the lead UN agency on the topic, “the International Year aims to raise the profile of family and smallholder farming by focusing world attention on its significant role in alleviating hunger and poverty, providing food security and nutrition, improving livelihoods, managing natural resources, protecting the environment and achieving sustainable development, in particular in rural areas.” The FAO’s primary focus is on smallholder farms — usually of 5 acres or less — in rural areas of Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Near East, but the International Year emphasizes all family farms. The UN defines family farms as those managed and operated by a family, with the family providing most of the farm’s labor. The UN estimates that there are 500 million family farms around the world, representing up to 80 percent of all farms in many countries. Farms in the United States tend to be much larger and are operated differently than smallholder family James MacDonald is chief of the Agricultural Structure and Productivity branch of USDA’s Economic Research Service. This article is drawn from “Exploring Alternative Farm Definitions: Implications for Agricultural Statistics and Program Eligibility,” by Erik O’Donoghue, Robert Hoppe, David Banker and Penni Korb, USDA, Economic Research Service, March 2009; and “Million-Dollar Farms in the New Century,” by Robert Hoppe, Penni Korb and David Banker, USDA, Economic Research Service, December 2008.

farms in developing countries. Large U.S. farms are frequently run by extended families, with multiple owner-managers specializing in different parts of the farm business. Many large farms produce only a few commodities and often specialize in particular stages of commodity production. They often purchase the services of outside companies to handle some farm tasks (such as field preparation, chemical application, or harvest), relying on those providers for expertise, labor and equipment. They may also rely on hired and contract labor in addition to the labor provided by the operators and their families. Nevertheless, most U.S. farms still rely primarily on labor provided by the farm family, and most large farms, which rely heavily on non-family labor, are still organized as family businesses. Family organization remains an essential feature of agriculture in the United States, just as it does throughout much of the rest of the world.

Family farms in the U.S. Family-run businesses dominate U.S. agricultural production. USDA’s Economic Research Service (ERS) defines family farms as those whose principal operator and people related to the principal operator by blood or marriage own most of the farm business. The principal operator is the person who is responsible for the onsite, day-to-day decisions of the farm or ranch business. The ERS definition focuses on ownership and control of the farm business by the family operating the farm and not on farm size or the labor provided by the farm family. Under the ERS definition, family farms represent 97.6 percent of all U.S. farms and are responsible for 85 percent of U.S. farm production. Most, but not all, of these farms also rely primarily on family labor. To more closely approximate the

FAO’s concept of a family farm, researchers used two approaches to measure the share of labor provided by U.S. farm families. The first measures the share of the farm’s employed labor provided by the principal operator and his or her spouse. Using this approach, 87.1 percent of U.S. farms (accounting for 57.6 percent of U.S. farm production) are family farms which rely primarily on the principal operator and spouse. Other farm labor is provided by hired labor and by other farm operators and their families; many large farms have multiple operators, some of whom may not be related

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•Farms (Continued from page 11)

to the principal operator. The second approach to measuring the share of labor provided by U.S. farm families requires the principal operator and his or her spouse to provide most of the labor used on the farm, including that provided by contract labor firms. Farms can contract with other businesses that provide workers to perform specific tasks — often harvesting — over a specified time period. These service firms hire workers themselves and provide contract labor services to the farm sector with workers who are not employees of the farm. The USDA farm survey that underlies this analysis does not collect contract labor hours; instead, researchers estimated hours by dividing the reported contract labor expenses by the average wage rate for hired farm labor in the farm’s locality. Using this approach, which most closely matches the FAO definition, 86.1 percent of U.S. farms (accounting for 47.4 percent of U.S. farm production) are family farms. Some family-owned and -operated farms are quite large: 42,400 had sales of at least $1 million in 2011, and more than 3,800 had sales of at least $5 million. Businesses of this size are not unusual in the U.S. economy, where 1.37 million U.S. businesses, or one for every 225 people, had sales of at least $1 million in 2010, according to the Internal Revenue Service. Large U.S. family farms are, not surprisingly, more likely to rely on partners and on hired and contract labor than smaller farms, so that the share of labor provided by the principal operator and spouse falls as farms get larger. Nevertheless, the share of hours contributed by the principal operator and spouse remains above 50 percent, on average, until farm sales reach $1 million or more. That share remains at an average of 42 percent for farms with $1-$5 mil-

lion in sales, but falls to 21 percent among farms with at least $5 million in sales. Even in the United States, farms with most labor provided by the farm family account for the majority of farms and nearly half of farm production.

Field crops Farms that are owned and operated by families account for most production in all major commodity groups, however, their relative production within those groups varies. Family farms accounted for 96 percent of production in major field crops (corn, cotton, soybeans and wheat) and in hogs, poultry and eggs; however, they contributed a lower share in high-value crops (fruits, vegetables and nurseries) where they accounted for 62 percent of production, and in dairy, with 75 percent of production. Production in each of those categories is concentrated in very large farms, where nonfamily partnerships and corporations are more common. Not surprisingly, family farm production shares fall in every major commodity category when focusing on the share of farms where the principal operator and spouse provide most of the labor used on the farm (the FAO standard). The share of family farms using the FAO concept falls the most in commodity categories in which production is dominated by very large farms that rely heavily on hired and contract labor — again, high-value crops and dairy. For example, 48 percent of dairy production occurs on family-owned and -operated farms that rely primarily on labor contributed by people other than the principal operator and spouse. Nonfamily farms Most U.S. farms are family farms under the FAO definition — 86.1 percent of farms, accounting for 47.4 percent of U.S. farm produc-

tion, are owned and operated by a family, with the principal operator and spouse providing most of the labor. Another 11.5 percent of U.S. farms, with 38.4 percent of production, are owned and operated by a family, but rely extensively on labor provided by hired workers, contract workers and other operators and their families — meaning they are family farms under the ERS but not the FAO definition. The remaining U.S. farms — those that are not family owned and operated — number about 53,000, or 2.4 percent of all U.S. farms, and account for 15 percent of U.S. farm production. These are nonfamily farms under the ERS definition. There are many kinds of nonfamily farms. Few are large corporations with dispersed ownership and multiple levels of management — that organizational form, so common in the broader U.S. economy, is rare in agriculture. Like family farms, most nonfamily farms are small — half have less than $35,000 in sales — but most nonfamily farm production comes from the 10 percent that have annual sales of at least $1 million. Those farms collectively accounted for $42 billion in agricultural production in 2011, or 93 percent of all U.S. nonfamily farm production. These large nonfamily farms are also a diverse group. Partnerships, with small numbers of unrelated partners, account for 28 percent of large nonfamily farm production, while another 10 percent is from farms organized as sole proprietorships (one owner, who did not operate the farm). Just under half of large nonfamily farm production — $20 billion — came from nonfamily farms organized as corporations. However, most of these corporate farms have no more than 10 shareholders, and are thus likely to be tightly held partnerships that have incorporated for tax and management purposes. Some large corporations with dispersed stockholdings are active in

farming, but not many. Most large diversified corporations that exercise influence in agriculture do so through their role as input suppliers, commodity purchasers and coordinators of production. Not only is U.S. agriculture dominated by family farms, but production by nonfamily farms is dominated by organizations with a small and tightly knit group of owners.

Dominate agriculture Family farms account for most production in most agricultural commodities in developing countries. In the United States and in other industrialized countries, where farms are much larger than the smallholder farms so common in developing countries, family farms still dominate agriculture, even as large and diversified corporations dominate many other industries. Most nonfamily farms in the United States, even the very large ones, look like family businesses in the sense that decision-making is áconcentrated in a small group of people with long ties to one another. What is it about agriculture that lends itself to family businesses? Technology provides one part of the answer. Most agricultural production is not subject to extensive economies of scale. For many crop and livestock commodities, costs of production decline as herd size or acreage increases, but the potential cost reductions are fully realized at still-modest sizes. Even in the United States, where farms can be capital-intensive businesses with significant investments in equipment and structures, farms can realize available scale economies with several million dollars in assets and not with the hundreds of millions that might be required in other industries. The lack of extensive scale economies favors family organization. Agricultural production also usually requires localized knowledge, flexibility and the ability to quickly adapt to changes in the production envi-

ronment, and those are all strengths of family businesses. Agricultural production also is highly seasonal work, and families have been able to adjust their labor to the seasonality of farm production and to reallocate their labor to other tasks on and off the farm to accommodate unexpected variability in agricultural production needs. Finally, most agricultural production still requires an intimate knowledge of local soil and nutrient, pest and weather conditions to effectively manage cropping operations. Similarly, effective animal husbandry decisions still depend on close observation of animals and knowledge of animal behavior in the specific environment of the farm. Farmers have to be able to adapt quickly as sudden changes in weather, pest populations and commodity markets demand quick and informed decisions. Farm families have localized onfarm expertise, often passed down through generations, and they have the incentives, as business owners, to make those decisions more effectively than can generally be done by salaried managers. Such factors have undermined previous attempts to introduce large complex organizations to U.S. agriculture, and in the United States and elsewhere, favor the localized knowledge, quick responsiveness and incentives for effort and responsibility built into family farms. The International Year of Family Farming highlights the role that family farmers can play in helping to eradicate hunger and preserve natural resources. Family farming is not, however, unique to small farms in less-developed countries, nor is it a technologically backward sector. Most large commercial farms — in the United States and in many other countries — are organized as family farms because the flexibility and ability to adapt to changed circumstances that is characteristic of family organizations make them into low-cost and efficient producers and innovators.


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POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

Field testing results of new smart phone wind meter By Michael Czarick

Special to Poultry Times

ATHENS, Ga. — Accurately measuring wind speed in a tunnelventilated poultry house is of the utmost importance when assessing its house’s ability to keep birds cool during hot weather. Though there are a dozens of wind meters available on the market today, there is a new one that has many unique features that poultry producers might find particularly beneficial. The inexpensive Weatherflow Wind Meter ($35, trade and brand name used only for informational purposes) is designed to work with either IOS or Android devices. The small Czarick vane anemometer simply plugs into the headphone jack of a smart phone, and once you download the free app you are ready to measure wind speed. You can set up the app to display wind speed in mph, knots, km/hr, Beaufort, or m/sec. Though there is no ft/min option, you can set your smart phone to measure wind speed in “m/sec” and simply multiply the measurement by 200 (i.e., 2.3 m/sec = 460 ft/min). To measure wind speed you simply hold your smart phone where you want to determine the wind speed then touch the “start” and your smart phone starts recording the wind speed for a programmable

period of 3 seconds to 60 seconds. At the end of the recording period your smart phone displays the average wind speed, maximum wind speed, along with the direction in which the measurement was taken. You are then provided the option of adding notes to wind speed measurements (i.e., farm name, location), which is saved on your smart phone, as well as the option of emailing, messaging, etc., the measurement to anyone. The vane anemometer is encased in a sturdy rubberized coating which should protect it from damage if dropped. The anemometer has a reported range of 2 mph to 150 mph with accuracy of +/- 0.05 percent at the top end of its range and within 20 ft/min if held 15 degrees off-axis. Our field measurements found the Weatherflow Wind Meter to produce average wind speed readings very comparable to other commonly used wind meters. To produce the most accurate, repeatable and representative wind speed measurements with the Weatherflow Wind Meter or any other anemometer, these rules should be followed: yy Wind speed measurements generally should be taken between four and five feet above the floor. Measurements taken at floor level tend to be very turbulent when birds are present, making the accuracy of such measurements highly suspect. yy Anemometers should be held at arm’s length when taking measurements. yy Make sure the face of the anemometer is held perpendicular to the direction of air movement. yy When taking measurements

in empty houses make sure that all equipment (i.e. feeders and drinkers) are lowered to the level they will be when birds are present. yy Wind speed measurements should generally be taken 40 feet to 100 feet from the tunnel fans. Make sure that there are no sidewall furnaces or partial house curtains in the vicinity of the measurement location. yy In houses with deflector curtains measurements should be made half way between the deflector curtains. yy Measurements should not be taken on windy days. Exterior winds can lead to highly variable air velocity measurements within a house. yy The best location to measure an overall representative wind speed is roughly 10 feet from the sidewall near the outside feed line. yy Wind speed measurements should not be taken in the center of a house. This typically represents the highest velocity in a house and from a heat-stress-management standpoint is not as representative as an average or a feed line measurement. yy Wind speeds in a house can vary significantly over the course of a minute. To produce the most accurate readings, average air velocity measurement should be taken over at least a 30-second period, then repeated a minute later. Michael Czarick is an Extension engineer with the University of Georgia College of Agricultural & Environmental Sciences Cooperative Extension. More information can be obtained at


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POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

No end yet to salmonella outbreak tied to chicken The Associated Press

WASHINGTON — An outbreak of antibiotic-resistant salmonella linked to a California chicken company hasn’t run its course after more than a year, with 50 new illnesses in the past two months and 574 people sickened since March 2013. The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says there are about eight new salmonella illnesses linked to the outbreak a week, most of them in California. So far, there has been no recall of Foster Farms chicken. The USDA says it is monitoring Foster Farms facilities and that measured rates of salmonella in the

company’s products have been going down since the outbreak began. The department threatened to shut down Foster Farms’ facilities last year but let them stay open after it said the company had made immediate changes to reduce salmonella rates. The CDC said 37 percent of victims were hospitalized, and that the outbreak is resistant to many antibiotics. In addition, the CDC said that 13 percent of the victims had developed blood infections, almost three times the normal rate. Victims came from 27 states and Puerto Rico. Three-fourths of victims who were able to provide the CDC with brand information said they had

consumed chicken produced by Foster Farms before they became ill. In a statement, Foster Farms said it has put many new measures in place, including tighter screening of birds before they buy them, improved safety on the farms where the birds are raised and better sanitation in its plants. The company suggested that the recent cases may be because salmonella incidence increases in the warmer months. In January, USDA inspectors briefly closed the a Foster Farms plant in Livingston, Calif., after finding cockroaches on five separate occasions over four months.

AP Photo/Rich Pedroncelli/File

Foster: This Oct. 10, 2013, file photo shows a truck entering the Foster Farms processing plant in Livingston, Calif. An outbreak of antibioticresistant salmonella is ongoing after more than a year, with 50 new illnesses in the last two months and 574 sickened since March 2013. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says there are about eight new salmonella illnesses linked to the outbreak a week, most of them in California. So far, there has been no recall of Foster Farms chicken.

Five important aspects regarding salmonella outbreak The Associated Press

WASHINGTON — Hundreds — maybe thousands — of antibioticresistant salmonella illnesses are linked to a California chicken producer. The outbreak has been going on for more than a year, and none of the company’s products have been recalled. The federal Centers for Disease Control and Prevention says there were 50 new reported illnesses linked to Foster Farms of Livingston, Calif., in the past two months, bringing the total number of cases to 574. Most of the illnesses were in California. Five things you should know about this outbreak:

West Coast Seventy-seven percent of those sickened were in California, but illnesses were reported in 27 states and Puerto Rico, including a handful on the East Coast, Alaska and Hawaii. Neither USDA nor Foster Farms has released a comprehensive list of where the chicken was sold. Last

year, Costco and Kroger-owned stores took Foster Farms products off their shelves. Neither company responded to a request for comment on whether they were selling it again. Foster Farms also did not respond to a request for comment on retail outlets.

Outbreaks Dealing with outbreaks is nothing new for Foster Farms. The company was linked to salmonella illnesses in 2004 and then again in 2012, before the current outbreak, which started in 2013. In a letter from the USDA to Foster Farms last October, the department said inspectors had documented “fecal material on carcasses” along with “poor sanitary dressing practices, insanitary food contact surfaces, insanitary nonfood contact surfaces and direct product contamination.” In January, USDA inspectors briefly closed a Foster Farms plant after finding cockroaches. The USDA said it is closely mon-

itoring Foster Farms facilities and said measured rates of salmonella in the company’s products have been going down. The department threatened to shut down Foster Farms’ facilities last year but let them stay open after the company said it had made immediate changes to reduce salmonella rates. Foster Farms said it has put new measures in place, including tighter screening of birds, improved safety on the farms where the birds are raised and better sanitation in its plants. The company suggested the recent cases may have happened because salmonella incidence increases in the warmer months.

Gov’t. hands tied Recalls of poultry contaminated with salmonella are tricky because the law allows raw chicken to have a certain amount of salmonella — a rule that consumer advocates have long lobbied to change. Because salmonella is so prevalent in poultry and is killed if consumers handle it and cook it properly, the government has not declared it to be an “adulterant,” or

illegal, in meat, as is E. coli. Outbreaks of salmonella in poultry can take longer to discover, and recalls don’t happen as quickly. Because of those rules, the USDA likely would have to go through the courts if it decided to force a recall. In a statement, USDA spokeswoman Catherine Cochran said the outbreak “has persisted for far too long without a solution.” She said the agency was continuing to investigate the illnesses, “including the possibility that they may be caused by other sources.” The CDC, however, said threefourths of victims who were able to provide the agency with brand information said they had consumed chicken produced by Foster Farms before becoming ill. The CDC’s Ian Williams says there is a bit of good news: Officials are seeing a slow decline in the number of illnesses. “It suggests to us that they are starting to address the problem,” Williams said.

Know your symptoms Salmonella causes diarrhea, abdominal cramps and fever within a

few days of eating a contaminated product. It can be life-threatening to those with weakened immune systems, though no one has died in this particular outbreak. Cases are reported when those who are ill visit their doctors and the doctors send stool samples to labs that culture them and identify a particular strain. Since that doesn’t always happen, and because some cases may be mild, the CDC estimates there are probably 20 to 30 times more salmonella cases than are reported. That means this outbreak alone could have resulted in about 17,000 illnesses.

Cook your chicken Safe handling and cooking can eliminate the chance of salmonella poisoning. The CDC advises that you wash your hands, utensils, counters and cutting boards before and after they come in contact with poultry. Separate raw poultry from other foods, cook it to 165 degrees Fahrenheit as measured with a food thermometer and chill it promptly.


POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

LEDs for broiler house lighting By Gene Simpson, Dennis Brothers, Jess Campbell & Jim Donald

Special to Poultry Times

AUBURN, Ala. — We at the National Poultry Technology Center (NPTC) have been closely monitoring broiler house lighting developments over the past several years. The broiler industry relied almost totally on incandescent lights for both growout and brooding until around 2006-2007, when considerably more energy efficient cold cathode (CCFL) and compact fluorescent (CFL) lights began appearing. Many growers began replacing brood lights with non-dimmable spiral CFLs and growout lights with either CCFL or dimmable CFL. The typical end result was an annual power bill reduction of $1,000 or more for a typical 40 x 500 foot broiler house with 50-54 feed line growout lights and 12-14 center line brood lights. However, both the CCFL and dimmable CFL growout lights began showing a number of problems, such as light level reductions, and in some cases caused slight performance reductions over time. In 2008-2011, several new light emitting diode (LED) lights became available. Unfortunately most of these LEDs were very expensive, and in some cases did not hold up or perform well in the harsh environment of a poultry house. As a result, and in the absence of rebate or cost-share programs, most growers made a business decision Gene Simpson is an Extension economist, Dennis Brothers and Jess Campbell are poultry housing specialists and Jim Donald is an Extension engineer, all with the National Poultry Technology Center at Auburn University, Auburn Ala. More information can be obtained at

not to install LEDs until their quality, longevity, cost and warranty improved. Those improvements, for the most part, began occurring in 20102011 and have continued at a rapid rate. We now have very reliable, fairly inexpensive LEDs available with longer warranties. More than two years ago, the NPTC began installing and closely monitoring several brands and models of LEDs in multiple houses on a large number of farms across the Broiler Belt. Based on the data we have collected, we are able to report that most of the LEDs currently available do a great job of helping to raise the best broiler possible, and do that at the lowest possible cost. We must offer a caution, however: commercial grade LEDs, available from most poultry supply firms, should be used rather than residential-grade LEDs from building and home supply outlets.

House lighting upgrade Be realistic in calculating costs/ savings — A watt is a watt is a watt. Significant power bill savings occur when incandescent bulbs are replaced with LEDs, not in replacing one low wattage bulb with a different bulb of close to the same wattage. For example, replacing 52 10watt bulbs with 52 9-watt bulbs will reduce a grower’s annual power bill by only about $20. However, replacing 52 75-watt incandescent bulbs with 52 10-watt LEDs will yield a saving of about $1,200 to $1,400. The LED purchase cost could range from less than $800 to more than $2,000, with basically the same lighting level and performance results. In comparing costs of usage for different models or brands, advertised “power factor,” a measure of electrical efficiency, can usually be disregarded. All LEDs have similarly high power factor ratings, and Alabama Power Co. engineers have

estimated that the annual value of even a 10 percent LED power factor improvement for a poultry house with 52 LED bulbs is no more than about $20-$25. Remember, a smart business decision will also include comparing warranties (which range from three to five years) and possible rebate and incentive program savings (which might save as much as 70 percent). Get the light intensity you need — All light intensity (brightness) is measured in lumens of output. In measuring light intensity, we are interested in lumen levels achieved at bird level. In the U.S., this is measured in footcandles (fc) which is lumens per square foot, and in metric countries it is measured in lux (lumens per square meter). 1 fc = 10.76 lux (approximately 10 lux per fc). With the directional output of LEDs, a bulb producing 500 lumens will typically provide comparable fc/lux readings to a non-directional bulb with 1,500 or more lumens. Footcandles and lux are standard units of measurements, and the fc/ lux measurement at bird level is the appropriate comparison to make when evaluating different LED brands and styles. Overall lamp efficiency is measured in lumens per watt (lm/w). Most LEDs are in the range of 55-65 lm/w; however several recently introduced models are 80-85 or more lm/w. Most of these new higher output, higher efficiency LEDs have been designed to better dissipate the added heat they generate. Note that all lights lose light intensity over time. However, lumen depreciation for LEDs is typically less than 10 percent per year, but typically 1525 percent per year for CCFLs and CFLs. Look for certification — All LEDs purchased should be UL certified, at a minimum. Other impor-

See LED, Page 21


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POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

Boneless chicken ranks most popular in markets WASHINGTON — Bonelessskinless breast meat in regular packs continued in 2013 to be the top chicken product featured in advertised sales by supermarkets, according to a report from USDA’s Agricultural Marketing Service, Agricultural Analytics Division. This product accounted for 7.32

percent of total features advertised weekly by the 23,200 supermarkets covered by the survey in the 50 states. The average national featured price was $2.96 per pound with a regional low of $2.58 per pound in the western mountain states and a high of $3.38 per pound in the southwest-

ern states. Drumsticks in value packs ranked the second most featured product, accounting for 5.71 percent of total advertised features and had an average price of $1.18 per pound. Moving up from fourth place in 2012 to third place last year were bonelessskinless breasts in value packs. This product represented 5.49 percent of

total features and had an average price of $2.45 per pound. Trading places with value pack bonelessskinless breasts were thighs in value packs, ranking fourth most popular feature in 2013 compared with third in 2012. Thighs in value packs accounted for 5.14 percent of total features with a price of $1.20 per pound.

Not all supermarket features were discounted price advertisements. That is, during an average week 12.9 percent of the supermarkets were running features that were “no price” promotions, such as buy one, get one, 40 percent off all chicken products, loyalty card discounts or bonus gas rewards and similar deals.

NCC: Book misses mark on modern poultry production WASHINGTON — A new book released recently discussing the U.S. poultry industry does little to help consumers understand how food is made and ignores entire facts regarding the tremendous progress America’s family farmers and chicken companies have made by working together to produce safe and affordable food, according to a statement from the National Chicken Council. Christopher Leonard’s “The Meat

Racket,” presents a completely onesided view of U.S. poultry production, NCC states. Contrary to the picture he tries to paint with a few anecdotes in an effort to sell books, the facts tell a different story: American poultry production is a global model of progress and efficiency. “We understand that many people have questions about the modernization of agriculture and food production,” said NCC President Mike Brown. “And we welcome

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those questions, as well as thoughts on how best to feed the world while ensuring our food is safe, accessible and affordable. “But that’s not what this book is,” said Brown. “It offers no solutions, no constructive criticism. It is just another hit piece. “If Mr. Leonard took the time to speak with any significant number of the 25,000 family farmers who are supported in this system — many of whom have had successful and mutually beneficial partnerships with chicken companies for decades — what they thought, he would have gotten a very different story,” Brown said. “In fact, there is a rather lengthy waiting list for those who have heard good things about the chicken business and would like to enter in a similar fashion. I guess happy and satisfied stories don’t sell books.” According to Brown, the contract-grower model has remained strong for more than half a century because it is mutually beneficial to both farmers and chicken companies. “Contract chicken farmers, for instance, are insulated from the volatile swings of the commodity markets,” he said. “Two years ago, when grain prices more than doubled — driving up feed costs — contract farmers still received the same pay rate, with chicken companies absorbing billions of dollars in losses. During that same period, many independent cattle and hog

producers were forced to sell off animals early or drastically reduce production.” NCC’s statement added that Leonard, a well-known critic of modern agriculture, does hundreds of thousands of men and women a serious disservice by detracting from the important work they do in feeding American families. At no point in the 351 pages of his book does he take time to shed light on the benefits that farm communities see every day as a direct result of the modernization of the U.S. chicken industry. These include: yy Farmers no longer bear the financial risks of fluctuating feed, medication, baby chick and live broiler prices. yy Between 1990 and 2010, incentives in grower contracts resulted in a 16 percent increase in pounds produced per square foot of barn — a key factor in grower income. yy Between 1990 and 2010, improved production per square foot and higher payment rates per pound produced resulted in a 65 percent increase in grower income per square foot of the farmer’s house. yy Between 1990 and 2010, incentives built into farmers’ contracts and research by chicken companies has greatly improved the welfare of chickens, significantly reducing bird death loss. yy Loan default rates of chicken farmers are among the lowest of any segment of agriculture.

Still, as beneficial as it is for the farmers and partner companies, the real winners of this system are consumers, NCC noted. The integration of the chicken industry has saved consumers well over $1 trillion since 1980 and has resulted in product innovation that has broadened consumer choice. After adjusting for inflation, chicken today costs less than it did a decade ago. This system provides a level of traceability and accountability unparalleled by the majority of food production. No matter where they buy their chicken, consumers can rest assured that the eggs came from healthy breeder stock, the feed came from FDA-licensed feed mills, and each product was made under careful inspection by USDA officials. “From hatchery to farm to processing plant, there is an unbroken chain of quality and food safety, as a result of vertical integration, that has led to the most technologically advanced, safest poultry production system in the world.” Brown added. “All while improving the welfare of our birds and reducing our environmental footprint threefold over the past several decades.” More about the myths in “The Meat Racket,” is available at www. More information about what it means to have a vertically integrated system is available at


POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

Poultry practical guide to on-farm fan testing By Dennis Brothers, Jess Campbell, Jim Donald & Gene Simpson Special to Poultry Times

AUBURN, Ala. — The modern poultry house is indeed a technological marvel on many levels. The ability to raise 300,000 pounds of poultry in a single house in as little as 5 1/2 weeks is quite a feat. One of the most important aspects of the technology that allows growers to maximize the bird’s genetic potential is the tunnel fans. Whether a grower maintains or loses the ability to remove the bird heat (up to 12 British thermal units per pound of live weight) in a house is often the difference between good and poor flock performance. Poultry house fans, like any other piece of equipment, need good routine maintenance to consistently perform up to the level expected. Over time belts wear, pulleys wear, belt tensioners start to fail, fans and louvers become dirty and some types of fan blades can become metal fatigued, losing their ability to efficiently push air. There are newsletters at that address many of these issues, such as how to inspect fan components and how to know when to take action. The problem with casual visual inspection is that you may not be able to spot a less obvious problem Dennis Brothers and Jess Campbell are poultry housing specialists, Jim Donald is an Extension engineer and Gene Simpson is an Extension economist, all with the National Poultry Technology Center at Auburn University in Auburn, Ala. More information can be obtained at

that is costing a 5-10 percent loss in fan power. Yet if multiple fans in a house are losing just 5-10 percent of their power, it’s not long before an overall reduction of 25-30 pecent in tunnel wind speed is incurred. What does that mean? It means a house expected to pull 600 feet per minute wind speed now becomes a 420 FPM house. That decrease can easily lead to dead birds in hot weather. It is understood that grower’s time is limited and valuable, so this article will propose two options to quickly and easily evaluate a poultry house’s tunnel fans and recognize incremental decreases in power on individual fans. Once this is known, growers can then spend their time effectively working on the fans that are most in need of attention.

Method 1:

Using a laser RPM meter Laser RPM meters have been on the market for some time now. They are small and very easy to use. You simply point the meter at a running fan (being sure your hand is outside the safety guard), press a button and see the readout. These meters use a laser to count the number of times a fan blade passes in front of it. The meters are not usually calibrated to display revolutions per minute (RPM) — that has to be calculated by dividing the meter result by the number of blades a fan has. Example: A meter reading of 1500 for a fan with three blades equals 500 RPM for that fan. With a simple walk around the poultry house and a quick metering of each fan from the outside, a grower can know each fan’s current RPM. This can be done at any time with

any number of fans running; however, it is most informative when all fans are running and the house is in full tunnel with cool cells running. We want to know what the fans are doing when conditions are the harshest for them. That is, running at maximum static pressure. Assume we have metered a poultry house’s fans and have recorded the following results: Fan 1, 472 RPM; Fan 2, 460 RPM; Fan 3, 510 RPM; Fan 4, 504 RPM; Fan 5, 500 RPM; Fan 6, 505 RPM; Fan 7, 495 RPM: and Fan 8, 512 RPM. We now have some information to work with. But in order to know if we have fans that need attention, we need to do a little more homework. We first need to know what static pressure our fans were working against when we did the test. It is best to do this with a Magnehelic pressure gauge close to the fan end of the house. However, it is acceptable to use the static pressure reading on the controller so long as the sensor it is taking a measurement from is somewhere past half house. If the controller static pressure tubes are in the front of the house, do not use that reading as it will not be representative of the actual pressure the fans are working against. In that case, a hand-held Magnehelic is the only way to get a true static pressure reading. For our test farm at full tunnel, the fans were working against a 0.15 inches static pressure in the back of the house. 0.15 inches or higher is common for high wind speed houses (600+ FPM). Once we get an acceptable static pressure number, we need to find out what the expected RPM’s of our model of fan should be at that static pressure.

See Fans, Page 18


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POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

•Fans (Continued from page 17)

The best way to do this is to contact either the fan manufacturer or dealer and obtain a fan specification sheet. For many fans these specifications can be found at the manufacturer’s website. Or a grower can go to the University of Illinois Bioenvironmental and Structural Systems Laboratory – Agricultural Ventilation Fans Performance and Efficiencies website ( The “BESS Lab” at the university conducts fan performance testing on most all agricultural ventilation fans available on the market. Their program is regarded as the industry standard for fan performance testing. To find your fan on the BESS website, you click on Agricultural Ventilation Fans, then Performance Tests, then Current (or Archive) Tests, then Fan Frequency (60 hz in the U.S.), then (on one screen) Power Supply (most often 1 phase, 230 volts), your Manufacturer name, and Fan Diameter. At this point, you can select and choose two more fan specs (Air

Flow and VER), or leave those items on this screen unchosen and just click Submit. In that case, you will then see a list of all tests of that manufacturer’s fans of that size and can scroll down to find your model fan. Click on the Test # to see your fan’s test results, including RPMs for a range of static pressures. With a printout of test results, you can now compare yiour fans’ current RPMs with the as-new BESS lab RPM at a similar static pressure. One thing to note, the exact static pressure may not be represented in the BESS result sheet, as they are normally only reported in 0.05 increments. For example, if my houses were tested at 0.12 static pressure, I’m always going to round up to the next static pressure on the BESS sheet – 0.15 in this case. For our example test fan, RPM’s at 0.15 inches static pressure should be 525 RPM. Any fan that tests slower than 5 percent of that number should be closely inspected for repair or maintenance. In our example house, any fan showing less than 500 RPM is suspect. That means fan #1 (472 RPM), fan #2 (460 RPM) and fan #7 (495

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RPM) are going to receive special attention immediately, looking for all those things mentioned above as possible causes of slower RPM and the resulting lower performance. Once the homework is done, this method becomes very quick and easy. Growers should create a log sheet for each fan in each house and refer back to it every time this test is repeated

Method 2:

Static pressure fan testing Another even simpler test that can be performed is a static pressure test. There are two ways to do this: A. Individual fan test, and B. Full tunnel fan test. Typically, no additional equipment is needed for most growers to perform one of these tests — just the house’s environmental controller and its internal static pressure sensor reading (as long as the controller sensor is located at least beyond half house toward the fan end).

A. Individual fan testing The individual fan test should be performed between flocks. Most growers are familiar with performing a static pressure test to determine air leakage or tightness of their houses. The same general method of testing is used to evaluate fan performance over time. Growers should close all sources of incoming air: curtains up, vents closed, inlets and doors shut and tight, being sure all fan louvers are functioning properly and in good repair. Then individually turn on one tunnel fan at a time and record the resulting static pressure that one fan creates. Once recorded, turn that fan off and go to the next in line — one at a

time until all the fans are tested and recorded individually. Doing this test after every flock can allow you to see when any one fan has lost some of its power. If any fan loses more than 0.02 points of pressure compared to its last test or compared to the average of the other fans, it is time for that fan to receive special attention before things get worse. It is recommended that a grower building a new house do this test on day one to establish a baseline to work from. Then over time he can evaluate how well his fans are holding their day-one power. It is also a good way to remind him once again how tight his houses are remaining. If a day-one as-new test has not been done, a grower should run the full-house test after all the fans, shutters and cooling pads have received yearly maintenance and are performing properly, so as to establish a new baseline starting point of static pressure for each fan. It should be noted that when doing individual fan tests, whether with RPM meter or by static pressure, that the “workhorse fans” or fans most used for minimum ventilation and early stage ventilation will likely be the first to show small signs of lost power. It is recommended that these fans always receive special attention for maintenance issues — belts, pulleys, etc. In fact, it is recommended that these early stage fans get new belts annually.

B. Full tunnel fan testing To do a full tunnel static pressure test means simply to put the house into full tunnel mode with all the fans running and record the static pressure. Using the controller static pres-

sure readout (if the sensor is somewhere past half house) is a convenient way to do this test. If the pressure goes down the next time you test, then you know something is causing your fans to lose power. This could be those maintenance issues, electrical issues or both. An individual test could then be done to help isolate the problem. If the static pressure has gone up since the last test, it tells you that there can possibly be a restriction of air flow coming into the house. This is often a restricted tunnel inlet, clogged cool cell pads or both. Once again, by recording this test every time it is performed, you can develop a feel for how your houses are performing over time. The baseline for this number can also be established on day one for a new house or after thorough cleaning and maintenance of the fans and louvers and cool pads in an older house.

Bottom line A modern poultry house’s tunnel fans are responsible for cooling birds and this fact makes maintaining their performance over time an utmost priority for a grower. It has been well documented what an additional 100 FPM of wind speed can mean to a broiler chicken in hot weather. In a house moving air at 600 FPM, it only takes about a 15 percent loss of fan power to lose 100 FPM in wind speed. This small margin for error makes it imperative that a grower know what his fans are doing and take action quickly against any decrease in fan performance. Good testing over time can help a grower identify and fix fan problems before much wind speed is lost and bird performance is negatively impacted.


POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

•Lighting (Continued from page 3)

This is how light intensity impacts the rhythms of feeding behavior. Higher levels are used to stimulate chicks to be more active, eat, and drink more after placement, but are often kept lower (generally =0.1 foot candles) later on in commercial chicken houses to reduce bird activ-

ity and increase feed efficiency, as well as to save energy. Research has shown that there are minimum thresholds for light intensity. Many management/performance guides recommend 2-5 foot candles for starting chicks and then gradually reducing down to 0.1 foot candles for older birds. These low light levels will also

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have an impact on the growers too, because it can take a while for growers’ eyes to adjust to these low light levels upon entering a chicken house. Photoperiod or duration of light, is the other important characteristic of light and it influences the pineal and hypothalamus. In nature, this is the daily cycle of the light of day and darkness of night. This cycle is the strongest environmental stimulus for daily behavior. This photoperiod can be used in the form of a lighting program to impact feeding, drinking, sleeping, etc. and therefore broiler performance. The most common lighting program used to raise broilers commercially is continuous light for 48-72 hours, followed by 23 hours light: 1 hour dark (23L:1D).

Many other lighting programs have been studied including nonintermittent restricted light and intermittent lighting. Changes in the photoperiod can impact broiler performance, mortality, and other biological responses including immune response and stress. In studies when broilers were given continuous light (23L:1D), non-intermittent restricted light (12L:12D) or intermittent light (2L:2D); the intermittent light regimen reduced mortality 3 times and improved body weight by 10 percent. Non-intermittent restricted light did not impact mortality, but reduced body weight 10 percent. Lighting programs can be customized to resolve certain problems. For example, lighting programs that used reduced light periods (6L:18D)

during early grow out stages (3-21 days) followed by 23L:D) (22 daysmarket) have been used to reduce leg problems in broilers by slowing growth at the beginning of growout and still having good performance at market age. However, the perfect lighting program has yet to be found. Commercial lighting programs combine photoperiod and dimming (intensity) to have a larger impact on broiler behavior, performance and welfare. The influence of color is still being debated by scientists and therefore what is the best color bulb to use is still unresolved with more research needed to answer this question. However, the new light emitting diode (LED) bulbs will allow this research to proceed more quickly in the future because of the ability to obtain bulbs that produce different wavelengths.

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POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

House of Raeford Farms to acquire Filet of Chicken ROSE HILL, N.C. — House of Raeford Farms of Rose Hill, NC, has reached an agreement to purchase the business, operating assets, and trademark of Filet of Chicken Acquisition LLC of Forest Park, Ga., from Flagship Food Group LLC . Additionally, the companies have entered into a long-term supply and joint marketing agreement. It is contemplated that the closing will take place no later than June 27, joining one of the nation’s top 10 chicken producers with a leading supplier of par-fried frozen poultry products. In announcing the acquisition, Bob Johnson, president and CEO of House of Raeford, indicated that this action supports the company’s strategy announced last year to expand its cooked chicken

product lines in conjunction with an increase in chicken production volumes. “This will add a complete line of par-fried products to House of Raeford’s existing fully-cooked breaded, formed, whole muscle, roasted and deli chicken and turkey products produced in our three other cook plants”, said Johnson. Under the terms of the agreement, the company will continue to operate as Filet of Chicken (FOC), and House of Raeford will honor all existing FOC supplier and customer agreements and contracts. As an independent operating unit, the current FOC management group will administer all purchasing and sales agreements. “We feel very comfortable that the FOC team will blend very well into House of Raeford’s Cooked

Products Group,” Johnson continued. In commenting on the transaction, Rob Holland, CEO of the Flagship Food Group said, “We sincerely believe that this transaction is a win for all parties, from House of Raeford which will acquire one of the leading facilities and teams in the further processing space, to the customers and suppliers of FOC who will now be partnered with a leading poultry company that we highly respect. The transaction also is the beginning of a long term relationship between Flagship and House of Raeford, which allows us as partners to develop innovative new products for our customers.” Filet of Chicken employs approximately 500 associates at their metro-Atlanta plant and currently

produces among other items battered and breaded chicken nuggets and tenders; marinated and roasted wings; and IQF filets and tenders. The company serves many of North America’s most popular chain restaurants, grocery stores and other foodservice distribution channels. Operating an SQF Level III plant, FOC is also one of only a few further processors in the continental U.S. certified to further process individually frozen organic poultry. FOC also processes antibiotic free poultry products. House of Raeford Farms Inc. is one of the nation’s top 10 largest chicken processors, providing ready-to-cook chicken and further processed chicken and turkey products to the foodservice, retail and export markets. The company

is family-owned and operated and based out of Rose Hill, N.C., with additional facilities in Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina and South Carolina. More information can be obtained at Flagship Food Group is a diversified, global food company which serves the retail and foodservice channels in the U.S. and internationally. The company sells products under the TJ Farms®, 505 Southwestern®, Oh Boy® and Lilly B’s retail brands, as well as through the TJ Farm®, Oasis Foods and House of Lords foodservice brands. The company operates manufacturing, warehouse and office facilities in eight locations in the U.S. and in the U.K. More information can be obtained at


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POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

•LED (Continued from page 15)

tant certifications which are typically seen are Energy Star and Lighting Design Labs-LM79. Energy Star is unable to certify any LED with a color over 4000 degrees K. Lighting Design Labs will certify LEDs over 4000 degrees K. Depending on LED color, either certification is acceptable, and ensures that the LED has been independently tested and has passed all certification requirements. Avoid any LEDs not having either of these two certifications. Consider dimmability — Most LEDs dim very smoothly to extremely low light output levels with the most common commercial poultry house dimmers. However, some LED brands exhibit dimming problems at very low dimmer settings, and may actually require the use of one or more incandescent bulbs to achieve acceptable, consistent and smooth low-end dimming. Several new LED-specific dimmers are now available which can be optimized for most any LED brand. Get uniform light spread — Some brands and shapes of LEDs produce very uniform side-to-side, end-to-end lighting and some simply do not. Some LED models concentrate their light output in a small area while others spread the light more evenly over a larger area. In general, we have observed most brands of A19 shaped LEDs to have better uniformity than PAR and hybrid shaped LEDs in dropped ceiling houses where mounting heights are relatively low (9-10 feet), while PAR and hybrid shaped LEDs tend to provide better uniformity in open truss houses where mounting height is higher (>10 feet). Open truss houses also need higher lumen output LEDs to allow for the higher mounting height, and may benefit from the use of reflectors. A19 LEDs are tear-drop shaped like incandescents. They are dimmable and have controlled directional light output. A19s work well

as grow lights in dropped-ceiling broiler houses. PAR XX LEDs are floodlight shaped with a curved lens for better light spread. The XX is the number of eighths of an inch the lens is wide. PAR bulbs are most useful in higher wattages as grow lights in open truss ceiling broiler houses. Bulbs pictured above are PAR 30; bulbs at left are PAR 38. Hybrid LEDs are not in a designated lighting industry category, but are engineered for light spread and heat-shedding capability. Like PAR bulbs, they are often used in open truss ceiling houses. Beat the heat — Excessive heat will shorten bulb life and reduce its light output over time. Some LED models have external metal or plastic heat sinks to promote cooling, and some of these fins are quite large. Unfortunately, in poultry houses, these fins can quickly become clogged with dirt and debris leading to increased heat buildup, decreased light output over time, and shorter bulb life. Some LED manufacturers have succeeded in developing bulbs with no external fins, yet do not overheat. It is a good idea to clean all lights, LED or CFL, between every flock. You can use a hand-held pressure sprayer with the nozzle turned to jet stream and spray off each bulb for a few seconds. We have found that a 10 percent solution of household ammonia or window cleaner works well. Simply power off the lights, spray them, and allow them to drip dry. Match brood light and grow light colors (at least approximately) — Light color is the visible spectrum wavelength expressed in degrees Kelvin (°K). Most LEDs range from 3000 to 5000 degrees K. 3000 degrees K lights (warm white) have a yellow-white appearance; 5000 degrees K lights (cool white or daylight) have a blue-white appearance. For comparison, most incandescent lights are 280 degrees K and most non-dim CFLs and CCFLs are 2700-2850 degrees K, although cooler white incandescent bulbs,

CFLs and CCFLs are readily available. Light color selection should be based on the integrator’s preference. In choosing LEDS, be wary of claims of better bird performance strictly due to light color. Within the 3000 to 5000 degree K range, such claims have been shown to be highly questionable. Protect your investment: use nickel-plated, not aluminum lighting sockets — Aluminum screw-sockets are cheaper but subject to rapid corrosion, early failure and possible dimmer interference. Don’t count on performance gains — Improvements in mortality, feed conversion, weight, ADG, etc. with LEDs have not been consistently demonstrated or replicated in unbiased comparison tests, as long as the lighting levels being compared were the same.

The bottom line We at the NPTC suggest you shop for LEDs wisely. Before you commit to one brand of LED, think about what you are trying to accomplish, namely raising the best broiler possible while at the same time minimizing your ownership cost and utility bills. Don’t be swayed by various marketing and sales claims. Consider what you are trying to accomplish, what you need and then spend time looking. Ask questions and compare as much as possible. Talk to other growers and live production people who have experience with multiple LED brands. Require honesty, and if you don’t sense that you get it, walk away and keep looking. Carefully consider the purchase or ownership cost, operational cost and warranty, and explore rebate and incentive programs that might be available in your area. Look for cost savings, but don’t expect performance improvements — they are, of course, tied to many more factors than just lighting. Explore and weigh all your options and then make a smart business decision

Broiler house lighting layouts In general, we have found that using LED dimmable grow lights (~500 lumens) with spiral CFL brood lights of sufficient lumen output needed to achieve the company’s specific minimum footcandle (fc) requirement, typically as measured along feeder lines, is the most cost-effective approach for broiler lighting in dropped ceiling houses Most companies recommend or require a minimum average of 3-5 fc along the feeders during brood, with progressive dimming to 0.25 fc or lower at the end of flock, depending on the flock’s target weight (bigger birds typically finish at very dim levels (< 0.05 fc). Here are a few example lighting layouts that have been successful for growers: yy ~40-foot wide, dropped ceiling, two grow lines 20-foot OC over feeders with center brood line in brood chamber. These houses typically will use 6-8 watt dimmable A19 shaped LED grow lights and 55 watt spiral CFL brood lights. This layout will provide 3+ fc along feeders; however, much higher fc readings will be found in the middle of the house. yy ~40-foot wide, dropped ceiling, two grow lines 20-foot OC with alternating brood lines over feeders in brood chamber, also 20-foot OC. These houses typically will use 6-8 watt dimmable A19 shaped LED grow lights and 23-26 watt or 40-42 watt spiral CFL brood lights. This layout concentrates lighting over the feeders in brood better than B. above.

yy ~40-foot wide, dropped ceiling, two grow lines 20-foot OC over feeders with socket splitter and no center brood line in brood chamber. These houses typically will use 6-8 watt dimmable A19 shaped LED grow lights and 23-26 watt or 40-42 watt spiral CFL brood lights per splitter in the brood area, and 6-8 watt LED only in the off-brood area. This layout concentrates lighting over the feeders in brood nearly as well as B. above. yy 50-54-foot wide, dropped ceiling, three-four grow lines 16-20-foot OC with alternating brood lines over feeders in brood chamber. These houses typically will use 6-8 watt A19 shaped dimmable LED grow lights and 23-26 watt or 40-42 watt spiral CFL brood lights. yy 60-66-foot wide, dropped ceiling, three-four grow lines 16-foot OC with alternating brood lines over feeders in brood chamber. These houses typically will use 6-8 watt A19 shaped dimmable LED grow lights and 23-26 watt or 40-42 watt spiral CFL brood lights. Open Truss Houses – Similar to dropped ceiling houses, but with higher output LED grow lights (700-900 lumen, either A19, PAR, or hybrid shape) and spiral CFL brood bulbs to account for decreased floor fc levels due to increased mounting heights of several feet. A reflector device on spiral CFL brood bulbs helps direct all brood light toward the floor.


POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014


ate. In the parts structure, movement was mostly moderate following the weekend as dealers assessed market conditions. Prices were steady to firm for most parts. Offerings of breast cuts and dark meat items were sufficient. Wings were light to moderate and clearing well. Market activity for parts was mostly moderate. In production areas, live supplies were moderate at mixed but mostly desirable weights.

Compiled by David B. Strickland, Editor 770-718-3442

Nat’l. Broiler Market: (Jun. 2): Whole broiler/fryer prices were trending steady to weak in the East, steady in the West and Midwest. Offerings of all sizes

were light to available for current trade needs. Retail and foodservice demand was light to moderate for first of the month business. Floor stocks were generally in balance to sometimes heavier than desired. Market activity was slow to moder-

P arts: Georgia:

The f.o.b. dock quoted prices on ice-pack parts based on truckload and pool truckload lots for the week of Jun. 2: line run tenders $2.41; skinless/boneless breasts $2.18½; whole breasts $1.30; boneless/skinless thigh meat

$1.44½; thighs 77¢; drumsticks 70¢; leg quarters 55½¢; wings $1.33.

F owl: May 30 Live spent heavy fowl

Final prices at Farm Buyer Loading (per pound): range 11-22½¢

N ational Slaughter: Broiler: Estimated slaughter

for week ending May 31 is 143,704,000. Actual slaughter for the week ending May 24 was 160,421,000. Heavy-type hen: Estimated slaughter for the week ending May 31 is 1,470,000. Actual slaughter for the week ending May 24 was 1,644,000. Light-type hen: Estimated slaughter for the week ending May 31 is

The following chart provides an annual high and a comparison of recent activity of major poultry company stocks.

USDA Shell Eggs AMS weekly combined region shell egg prices Average prices on sales to volume buyers, Grade A or better, White eggs in cartons, delivered warehouse, cents per dozen.

May 30

Company Annual High May 20 Jun. 3 Cal-Maine 70.30 68.34 69.58 Campbell Soup 48.08 44.04 45.40 ConAgra 37.28 31.26 32.19 Hormel 49.56 48.53 49.49 Pilgrim’s Pride 26.87 24.57 25.34 95.88 84.85 93.63 Sanderson Farms Seaboard 2948.24 2615.00 2890.01 Tyson 44.24 40.64 42.08

Extra Large Regions: Northeast 130.00 Southeast 129.50 Midwest 126.50 South Central 138.50 Combined 131.50



127.00 114.00 127.50 121.00 124.50 113.50 135.50 124.50 128.99 118.54

Computed from simple weekly averages weighted by regional area populations

Grain Prices OHIO  COUNTRY  ELEV. May 13 May 20 Jun. 3 No. 2 Yellow Corn/bu. $4.73 $4.51 $4.41 Soybeans/bu. $14.85 $15.10 $15.25 (Courtesy: Prospect Farmers Exchange, Prospect, Ohio)

(Courtesy: A.G. Edwards & Sons Inc.)

Broiler Eggs Set/Chicks Placed in 19 States EGGS SET (Thousands)


May 3

May 10

May 17

May 24

May 3

May 10

May 17

May 24

Del Fla Ga Ky La Md Miss Mo. N.C. Okla Pa S.C. Tex Va Other states

28,896 21,070 10,699 4,714 1,223 34,048 7,985 3,727 7,886 17,122 8,300 20,873 6,584 4,202 4,995 14,562 6,897 8,170

28,638 21,281 11,155 4,728 1,223 34,337 7,966 3,802 7,549 16,395 8,040 20,402 6,720 4,558 5,269 14,326 6,582 7,850

28,521 21,415 11,264 4,687 1,207 34,434 7,745 3,802 7,837 16,925 8,406 21,134 6,659 4,277 5,155 14,740 6,547 8,205

28,484 21,358 11,432 4,693 1,225 34,569 7,876 3,772 7,479 17,640 8,152 21,202 6,804 4,307 5,275 14,792 6,619 8,364

21,190 18,205 11,602 4,307 1,271 26,843 5,892 3,389 6,798 14,874 5,799 16,373 4,683 3,639 4,840 12,159 5,249 5,959

21,553 19,945 10,063 5,326 1,574 26,855 7,227 3,386 5,287 14,941 6,098 16,444 3,306 3,689 4,731 11,988 5,503 5,905

21,949 19,833 10,584 4,779 1,152 26,625 5,572 3,041 6,748 14,802 5,161 16,018 4,186 3,581 5,068 11,941 4,957 6,143

22,065 19,122 10,228 4,813 1,251 26,354 6,810 3,333 6,365 14,535 6,234 16,008 4,085 3,516 5,406 11,544 5,511 5,733

19 States Total









% Prev. yr.









Ala Ark


1/Current week as percent of same week last year.

Estimates: The estimated number of broilerfryers available for slaughter the week ending May 31 was 157.3 million compared to 160.7 million head slaughtered the same week last year. The estimated U.S. slaughter for the week of May 31 was 144 million head or 13.3 million less than estimated available. For the week of Jun. 7, the estimated available is 155.1 million head, notes the USDA Agricultural Marketing Service, Poultry Programs.

Broiler/Fryer Report

Industry Stock Report

1,499,000. Actual slaughter for the week ending May 24 was 1,860,000. Total: Week of May 31: 146,673,000. Week of May 24: 163,925,000.

USDA National Composite Weighted Average For week of: May 30 For week of: May 23 Majority (whole body) Eastern Region: New York: Central Region: Chicago: Western Region: Los Angeles:

$121.09 $120.62

May 30 $1.20--$1.26 $1.19--$1.25 $1.13--$1.20 $1.13--$1.19 $1.21--$1.26 $1.21--$1.26

Negotiated prices in trucklot and less-than-trucklot quantities of ready-to-cook whole body broiler/fryers delivered to first receivers; prices in cents per pound.

Turkey Markets Weighted avg. prices for frozen whole young turkeys Weighted average (cents/lb.) F.O.B. shipper dock National Week ending May 30  Last year Hens (8-16 lbs.) 105.30 97.76 Toms (16-24 lbs.) 105.50 96.59 Week ending May 23 Hens (8-16 lbs.) Toms (16-24 lbs.)

107.04 107.10

May avg. 106.15 106.13

Egg Markets USDA quotations New York cartoned del. store-door: May 20 Jun. 3 Extra large, up 6¢ $1.32--$1.36 $1.38--$1.42 Large, up 6¢ $1.30--$1.34 $1.36--$1.40 Medium, up 5¢ $1.18--$1.22 $1.23--$1.27 Southeast Regional del. warehouse: May 20 Jun. 3 Extra large, up 9¢ $1.21½--$1.42 $1.30½--$1.49 Large, up 11¢ $1.18--$1.36 $1.29--$1.43 Medium, up 9½¢ $1.12--$1.30 $1.21½--$1.39


POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014 Index of Advertisers


Acme, 12K......................................................................................................................................................... 918-682-7791; Adams Fertilizer Equipment, 12L......................................................................................................................................................870-946-2494 Agrifan, 2........................................................................................................................................................ 800-236-7080; AgSeal, 12H.......................................................................................................................................................................................870-741-9269 Alasco, 12G..........................................................................................................................................................863-606-0033; All Star, 16G....................................................................................................................................................954-781-9066;

AEB Hotline appears regularly in Poultry Times and provides an update on programs and services provided for egg producers by the American Egg Board. Details on any item mentioned may be obtained by contacting AEB at 1460 Renaissance Dr., Park Ridge, Ill. 60068. Phone: 847-296-7043. yy At the recent International Egg Commission (IEC) meeting in Vienna, Austria, the International Egg Foundation (IEF) was launched as an independent charitable foundation. Its mission is to provide people living in developing countries the means and methods to access high-quality egg protein and boost their natural immunity levels. The vision of the IEF is to create an independent and sustainable food supply for all, ensuring self-sufficiency for everyone, now and in the future. As Immediate Past Chairman of IEC, AEB’s Joanne Ivy was instrumental in the creation of the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Working Group that created the IEF. “I’m beyond proud of IEC’s work leading up to this point to have successfully launched IEF,” says Joanne. “Now the real work of moving this effort starts. Under the leadership of Chairman Bart Jan Krouwel, I look forward to seeing IEF move closer to fulfilling both its mission and vision.” The IEF works from the ground up with leading charitable organizations, universities and leading egg businesses around the world to provide fi-

nancial support and technical advice to increase egg production in developing countries. Efforts will bring value to existing projects and establish new programs where necessary. yy The 2013 Annual Report features a horizontal layout and used one of Consumer Marketing’s awesome recipe photos on the front along with the actual recipe on the back. This photo was taken as part of 2013’s backto-school outreach and appeared in the Union-Tribune (UT) San Diego both online and in print reaching more than 600,000 readers. AEB promoted survey results showing parents agree that eggs are better than cereal for back-to-school breakfasts. The inside pages of the report allow for more images as well as captions for each image. Every egg farmer who invests into AEB should have received a copy in the mail. Need additional copies? Please contact Ashley Richardson, or 224-563-3715. yy For the third year in partnership with NBC Universal, two 30-second spots showcasing sustainability and Good Egg Project (GEP) messages will air in New York, Los Angeles, Chicago, Philadelphia and Dallas. In addition, spots will air as videos on top sites and on the news sites of eight top-tier cities, including: Boston, Atlanta, Houston, Detroit, Seattle, Phoenix, Tampa and Minneapolis-St. Paul. The spots will air this summer.

American Aldes Ventilation, 19.........................................................................................................................................................941-351-3441 American Proteins, Alabama, Cover A..............................................................................................................................................800-903-2955 American Proteins, Georgia, 12B............................................................................................................................. A-V International, 12K.......................................................................................................................................................................800-328-6378 Bayer, 13, 15, 17............................................................................................................................................................................ 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Diversified Imports, 12E..................................................................................................................800-348-6663; Eagan, Cover B...............................................................................................................................................870-878-6805; EnSave, 12K........................................................................................................................................................800-732-1300; Farm Alarm, 12F...........................................................................................................................................800-407-5455; Flame, 12B......................................................................................................................................... 800-255-2469; Gainco, 9................................................................................................................................................ 410-778-2184; J&D Mfg., 12D..................................................................................................................................................... 800-998-2398; Jones-Hamilton-PLT, 12G..................................................................................................................800-379-2243; Kreider Farms, 16...............................................................................................................................................................................717-665-4415 Lubing, 12A........................................................................................................................................................................................423-709-1000 National Incinerator of Boaz, Cover C............................................................................................ 205-589-6720; Once Innovations, 12D........................................................................................................................ 763-381-5621; Peripheral Mowers, 12K......................................................................................................................229-546-4113; Port-A- Kuul, 12L............................................................................................................................................ 800-231-9940; Preserve, Cover II & IV......................................................................................................................................................................800-995-1607 Priefert, Cover D.................................................................................................................................................800-527-8616; Reeves, Cover III.......................................................................................................................................888-854-5221; Silver Bullet, 18.....................................................................................................................................303-552-2404; Smithway, 12F....................................................................................................................................................................................828-628-1756 Southwest Agriplastics, 12C.............................................................................................................................800-288-9748; 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POULTRY TIMES, June 9, 2014

Food Trends Gold’n Plump Gold’n Plump has launched its Boneless Skinless Chicken Breast Portions, highly trimmed portions of 100 percent breast meat. Great for pastas, stir-fries, casseroles and wraps, the portions carry the company’s all natural label and contain no artificial ingredients, preservatives or added hormones. The company noted that approximately 40 percent of the chicken recipes on popular websites require chopping, dicing or some other form of further cutting. The portions will “reduce a consumer’s preparation time and provide retailers with a value-driving option.” yy More information:

Cargill Cargill’s Honeysuckle White and Shady Brook Farms brands are introducing six varieties of premium frozen turkey burgers.

The new line of turkey burgers includes familiar flavor favorites including Seasoned, Ready-to-Season and Seasoned White Meat in addition to unique flavors such as Swiss/ Bacon/Onion, Cheddar/Jalapeno and Swiss/ Mushroom. They are sold in 2-pound boxes containing eight quarter-pound individually quick frozen patties. Created for retail with additional opportunities in foodservice, restaurant and K-12 school sales and distribution channels, the turkey burgers are a nutritious and convenient source of protein and are 87 percent to 93 percent lean. yy More information:

Oscar Mayer Kraft’s Oscar Mayer brand is introducing the P3 Portable Protein Pack, which combines meat, cheese and nuts to compete in the market for healthy protein snacks. The product contains no artificial preservatives,

at least 13 grams of protein and little to no sugar. P3 packs include Applewood smoked turkey breast with reduced fat marbled Colby and Monterey Jack cheeses and dry roasted almonds; Rotisserie seasoned chicken breast with reduced fat Cheddar cheese and dry roasted peanuts; and Slow roasted turkey breast with reduced fat Cheddar cheese and dry roasted peanuts. yy More information:

Ball Park brand Hillshire Brand’s Ball Park brand has introduced new Flame Grilled Turkey Patties, available in two flavorful varieties: Flame Grill Turkey and Flame Grilled Turkey with Cheddar & Jalapeno. The patties are fully cooked and ready straight from the microwave in just minutes, providing the juicy, flame-grilled taste with

no grill required. Containing fewer calories, no preservatives or artificial flavors and 17 grams of protein, the patties are a convenient way to enjoy the taste of a grilled burger any time of the year. yy More information:

Olive Garden The Olive Garden chain of fast casual restaurants has added more than 20 new items to its menu. Among the new items are Chicken Abruzzi with a chicken breast in broth with cannellini beans, kale and garden vegetables; Crab-topped chicken in a lemon cream sauce, served with spinach and mashed potatoes; and a Smashed chicken meatball sandwich with roasted bell peppers and mozzarella on a focaccia bun. yy More information: www.olivegarden. com

Administration drives ahead with new cleaner gas rule The Associated Press

WASHINGTON — The Obama administration is driving ahead with a dramatic reduction in sulfur in gasoline and tailpipe emissions, declaring that cleaner air will save thousands of lives per year at little cost to consumers. Public health groups and automakers cheered the new rules, finalized in March, by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, with some insisting they could prove to be President Barack Obama’s signature environmental accomplishment in his second term. The oil and gas industry, meanwhile, panned the move, calling it gratuitous and accusing the government of grossly underestimating the increased cost at the pump. “The benefits far outweigh the costs,” said EPA Administrator Gina McCarthy, calling it a win for both consumers and automakers. “These standards will reduce pollution, they’ll clean the air we breathe and protect the health of American

families.” In the works for years, the rules require refineries to cut sulfur levels in the gasoline by about two-thirds by 2017. Less sulfur in gasoline makes it easier for a car’s pollution controls to effectively filter out emissions, resulting in cleaner air, the EPA says. For car manufacturers, stricter limits on tailpipe emissions will require engineering changes so that cars weed out more pollution. More than 2,000 premature deaths and about 50,000 cases of kids with respiratory problems will be avoided by 2030 if the rules go into effect, the EPA said. The cost to consumers: Less than a penny per gallon of gas, McCarthy said. The EPA also projects the rules will raise the average cost of buying a vehicle by $72 in 2025. But not everyone agrees. The American Petroleum Institute, which represents the oil and gas industry, pointed to studies it has commissioned estimating that the limits would add 6 cents to 9 cents a gallon to refiners’ manufac-

turing costs while requiring $10 billion in capital costs. American Fuel and Petrochemical Manufacturers, a trade group, called it “the most recent example of the agency’s propensity for illogical and counterproductive rulemaking.” “This rule is all pain and no gain,” said House Energy and Commerce Committee Chairman Fred Upton (R-Mich.). “This winter’s cold snap underscores just how vulnerable American families and businesses are to any increases in energy costs, and yet the administration is moving forward to raise prices at the pump.” Pushing back on those charges, McCarthy said that API’s study constituted an “outdated estimate” that didn’t account for changes the EPA made to the rules after receiving public comment — such as a phasing-in that gives some refineries more flexibility to come into compliance. “We stand behind our estimate,” said Bob Greco, API’s downstream group director. The political wrangling over the

latest round of regulations to hit the energy industry offered a familiar reprise of a long-running debate over Obama’s attempts to use his regulatory power to clean up the nation’s sources of fuel. With just a few years left in his term and no appetite in Congress for major environmental legislation, Obama has vowed to take action unilaterally to tackle climate change and other pollution. Energy advocates have staunchly opposed Obama’s proposed emissions limits on new and existing power plants, and accuse him of dallying on approval for the Keystone XL pipeline. The issue promises to play a prominent role in the 2014 midterm elections, as Democrats from energy-dependent states find themselves squeezed between economic and environmental concerns. Tellingly, there was little pushback from the auto industry, with major automakers like Ford, Toyota and Honda praising the EPA for setting one standard for emissions that will apply nationwide. California al-

ready uses the new sulfur standard, and while the U.S. has tightened sulfur limits twice before, it still lags behind many other countries. “The EPA has effectively harmonized the federal and state emissions requirements, and that’s a big deal for us,” said Mike Robinson, a vice president at General Motors Co. “It allows us to engineer, build and calibrate vehicles on a national basis.” Breathing the pollutants that come out of a car’s tailpipe leads to coughing and shortness of breath for healthy adults, but for those with underlying conditions like asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, the implications can be grave: asthma attacks, heart attacks, strokes and ultimately death, said Paul Billings, the American Lung Association’s vice president. The Obama administration already has moved to clean up motor vehicles by adopting rules that will increase fuel efficiency and putting in place standards to reduce the pollution from cars and trucks blamed for global warming.


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✹ Proven effective against Avian a Influenz


or years, the medical industry has used the powerful combination of Glutaraldehyde and Quaternary Ammonium together as a medical instrument sterilant. Internationally, the Poultry Industry has recognized the combination of Glutaraldehyde and Quaternary Ammonium as the most effective antimicrobial combination available. PRESERVE INTERNATIONAL now offers these active ingredients in SYNERGIZE as a CLEANER-DISINFECTANT for use in all areas of live production in the poultry industry at a use rate of 1/2 ounce per gallon of water. Using the powerful antimicrobial action of Glutaraldehyde (7%), combined with high levels of the cationic surfactant activity of Quaternary Ammonium (26%), SYNERGIZE allows the quaternary ammonium to permeate the cell membrane which “drives” the glutaraldehyde “inside” the cell to destroy the microorganisms.

This “synergistic” effect is ONLY provided by SYNERGIZE. Field results indicate that SYNERGIZE is the most effective cleaner-disinfectant available today and contains NO carcinogens. SYNERGIZE has a patented formulation and is EPA Registered. Synergize has become the cleaner-disinfectant of choice for Hatcheries, Breeder houses and Growout houses, as well as Live hauling equipment and Shoe baths. Synergize’s unique formulation makes it extremely user-friendly with no offensive odors, leaving a light pine smell. Synergize also has a neutral pH so there is no concern about corrosion to equipment. ®

Seeing is believing and once you have tried SYNERGIZE you will be convinced.


Zephyr Cove, Nevada, USA


Telephone: (209) 664-1607 • FAX: (209) 664-1728

Poultry Times June 9, 2014 Edition  

Poultry Times June 9, 2014 Edition

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