Product Picks: Budtenders’ Fave Stuff #InDaCouch: The Ideal Night In Hemp Farm Explosion What’s CBG Anyway?
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Highlighting an emerging and ever-changing industry
In an industry like this one, it’s perhaps more apt to ask not, “what’s changed?” but instead, “what hasn’t changed?” From rules around CBD testing to an explosion of farms growing hemp, keeping up can be a full-time job. Inside this issue, we give you a bird’s eye view of some of that hemp farm explosion in the local area. We also outline some of the recent ups and downs for CBD regulation, and offer a primer on the next big thing: CBG. Whether you’re a consumer, a producer or just someone interested in the industry, we hope the Leaflet, Central Oregon’s only cannabis magazine, gives you some local info on this dynamic and ever-changing industry!
What’s inside: − A Hemp Farm Explosion – A pictorial look at Central Oregon’s hemp farm boom (p 6) − #InDaCouch – A stoner’s ideal night in, complete with snacks and shows (p 10) − Where Does Weed Money Go? – The tax benefits of legal cannabis (p 15) − Highly Englightened Discussions – How the Cascade Cannabis Association aims to entertain and educate consumers (p 16) − Budtenders Weigh In – What products local purveyors are loving right now (p 19) − Plants Over Pills – What the research says about CBD for mental health & more (p 20) − What is CBG Anyway? – Look out CBD: Another cannabinoid is rising (p 22) Editor – Nicole Vulcan Contributors – Isaac Biehl, Laurel Brauns, Cayla Clark, Greg Moring Copy Editor – Richard Sitts Production Manager – Darris Hurst Ad Designer – Shannon Corey Advertising Team – Timm Collins, Ashley Sarvis, Ban Tat Advertising Sales Director – Amanda Klingman
On the Cover: A special thanks to the crew at Oregrown for loaning the use of shop and products for our cover shoot. Cover photo and design by Darris Hurst. Leaflet & Source Contact Editorial email@example.com Sales firstname.lastname@example.org
fotobias, Pixabay LEAFLET by Source Weekly 5
HEMP’S CENTRAL OREGON
EXPLOSION A bird’s eye view of the proliferation of hemp farms in Central Oregon by Greg Moring and Nicole Vulcan
If you’ve driven around rural Central Oregon lately and have taken note of a rise in farms growing stuff that looks like marijuana, you’re not imagining things. Those outdoor fields aren’t marijuana, however (plants containing THC have to be grown in greenhouses around these parts), but hemp—the stuff that goes into all those CBD products out there. In 2018, Oregon farmers had around 7,000 acres of hemp in cultivation. In 2019—following the passage of the 2018 U.S. Farm Bill, which removed hemp from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration’s list of Schedule 1 drugs— the number of acres spiked to 50,000. To get a sense of what that looks like in Central Oregon, we asked Sisters resident Greg Moring, currently producing the hemp documentary, “Hemp is Back,” to share some of the images he’s compiled for his film. This is just a small sampling of what’s out there. See a preview of the film at vimeo.com/38424066 KLL Farms, 14 acres, Redmond 6 ISSUE 7
F E AT U R E
KLL Farms, 14 acres, Redmond
O’Neil Farms, 7 acres, Terrebonne
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Silver Creek Farms, 11 Acres, Redmond
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F E AT U R E
Pivotal CBD, 100 acres, Culver
Pivotal CBD, 100 acres, Culver
Triple C Farms, 100 acres, Sisters
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#INDAC Courtesy GKids
When doing nothing feels so right: A case for staying in while living in a town that never seems to stop being out
Choose your own adventure “Everything” – PS4, Nintendo Switch, PC The title of this game is exactly what the game encompasses. From a molecule, to a tree, to an animal—you transform and connect yourself through various ways of growth, ecosystems, layers of the Earth and more. Your jaw will drop, you might cry, but most of all you’ll be blown away as you realize how all life is connected.
By Isaac Biehl It’s Friday night. You get home from work, kick off your shoes and begin to carve the perfect spot out in your couch—then the notifications start coming in. “Hey, dude, let’s grab a beer!” “*Insert band here* is playing at Volcanic! Let’s go!” You read these texts and consider the fun it might be, but instantly feel guilty. Because, honestly? You don’t want to go anywhere. You want to pop some edibles (an indica, in-da-couch strain, of course) and have the time of your life right in the living room. SO DO IT! Text those go-getters right back and let them know you don’t plan on going anywhere tonight. You have your movies and video games. You’re good to go. As a self-diagnosed expert at staying in, I think it’s important to have these nights to yourself—and you really don’t need to look further than your home for fun. Here are a few tips to help your stoned self enjoy every minute. 10 ISSUE 7
It’s time to binge “MFKZ” – Netflix A wild, adult, animated sci-fi movie starring rappers RZA and Vince Staples. “MFKZ” follows Angelino and his friend Vinz as they begin to navigate through all of the weird things (agents with tentacles trying to kill them, superpowers, lucha wrestlers) happening to them. “Snowpiercer” – Netflix Directed by Bong Joon Ho (“Parasite”), “Snowpiercer” follows the last people in humanity—all of whom live on a train. The train cars divide you up by status, but how long can that really last for the people in the back? This is an intense and great watch to let take you over. “Pen15” – Hulu “Big Mouth” – Netflix “Sorry To Bother You” - Hulu
Spyro The Dragon: Reignited Trilogy – PS4, Xbox, Nintendo Switch, PC With the newly remastered editions of the first three Spyro games, you can relive
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your childhood all over again—and if you’ve never played it, the new editions make it look like a brand-new game. The Spyro trilogy is colorful, has a great soundtrack and is the perfect difficulty level to help keep your wits about you if the effects from the night are strong, but not so hard that you won’t have fun on this adventure.
Stardew Valley – PS4, Xbox, Nintendo Switch, PC Courtesy Toys For Bob
When Door Dash is your best friend MOD Pizza Baskin-Robbins China Doll Planker Sandwiches Los Jalapenos Unsplash
The Legend of Zelda: Breath of the Wild – Nintendo Switch Red Dead Redemption 2 – PS4, Xbox, PC
C U LT U R E
Listen To It
Background tunes for reading, making art or just zoning out “Superorganism” by Superorganism Superorganism is a super group made of eight artists from all over the world. The way they mesh sounds together is incredible as the group creates its own unique blend of alternative pop-rock. The album will definitely be a little trippy but in the best way possible. “DSVII” – M83 The latest album from M83 doesn’t have any words in it. It’s an ambient collection of pop music that sounds like the score to an adventure game or movie. “DSVII” will submerge you into a new world as you kick back and let the synths surround you. “Honey Bones” – DOPE LEMON “Birthplace” – Novo Amor “Whack World” – Tierra Whack LEAFLET by Source Weekly 11
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WHERE DO MARIJUANA
TAXES GO? The State has pumped millions into extra funding for schools, mental health and cops By Laurel Brauns
regon state cannabis tax revenue continues to grow, with no ceiling in sight: the State brought in $102 million during the 2019 fiscal year (July 1, 2018 – June 30, 2019), according to the Oregon Department of Revenue. This is a 24.2% increase over the $82.2 million collected in 2018. The state taxes retail sales of cannabis products at 17% which is lower than most other states, including Washington state, where the state cannabis sales tax is 37%. Ten percent of the money collected by the State comes back to cities. Bend received $296,173.84 in revenues for its general fund for the 2019 fiscal year, according to Melissa Bradley, the budget and financial planning manager for the City of Bend. In November 2016, Bend voters passed a 3% additional sales tax for recreational marijuana sold within the City of Bend. The City collected $703,843.20 from this tax in 2019. Deschutes County does not collect an additional tax on top of the State’s 17%, but they do receive money back from the State for law enforcement and prevention work. During the 2019 fiscal year, the State allocated $399,519.77 to Deschutes County, according to Rich Hoover, public information officer for the Oregon Department of Revenue. To date, the County received $1,116,948 from the State, according to Whitney Hale, public information officer for Deschutes County.
State School Fund (40%)
Mental Health, Alcoholism & Drug Services (20%)
State Police (15%)
30.3M Alcohol & Drug Abuse Prevention, Intervention & Treatment (5%)
Cities (10%) Counties (10%)
24M This chart depicts how state marijuana tax revenues are allocated to cities, counties, state police and different departments at the state level. The dollar amounts are in millions and are the total funds allocated between July 1, 2017, and June 30, 2019.
OREGON CANNABIS TAX REVENUE $110M $100M $90M $80M $70M $60M $50M $40M $30M $20M $10M 0 FY 2016
State tax revenue for the sale of marijuana continues to grow and has become an important source of funding for schools, mental health services and addiction treatment. LEAFLET by Source Weekly 15
MAKE CANNABIS L FUN AGAIN Local nonprofit works toward the local development of “weed culture” and education By Cayla Clark
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indsey Pate, the current president of the Cascades Cannabis Association, realized years ago that major changes had to be made within the local cannabis industry. The co-owner of a cannabis farm right outside of Terrebonne, Pate was extremely active in political advocacy for cannabis growers and distributors before joining the association. “It was and is very important to me that there are fair and workable regulations in place,” she said during an interview with the Source. “I definitely started out as an advocate. One thing led to another, and although I wasn’t a founding member of the association, I became the first nonfounding board member to join.” Pate explained the role of the association, and the board members’ dedication to bolstering the community’s love of cannabis while facilitating education and discussion. “We try to balance educational events with events that are simply just for fun. Fun is really what the industry lacks right now. Locally, there’s a lack of camaraderie.
We noticed that there was a severe deficit of cannabis-related events in Bend. A lot of our community events revolve around beer culture… and rightfully so, Bend loves beer. But to not have this same culture and enthusiasm for cannabis, it’s really a shame for the community. We’re focused on collaboration, celebration and education.” By our count, Bend has at least 24 dispensaries in Bend, meaning we have roughly the same number of breweries and dispensaries (22 breweries in Bend, by our last count). The Cascade Cannabis Association was founded two years ago, intending to “unify and give voice to the legal cannabis community and shine a light on the positive impact this industry is having on Central Oregon,” as its mission statement reads. “While education is important, so is celebrating those in the industry and their hard work. This is why we developed the Croptober Celebration. It’s an awesome event with free beer, raffles, giveaways… we wanted to make the industry accessible
C U LT U R E to everyone; do what we could to enhance the social aspects of the industry while eliminating some of the competitiveness,” Pate said. With so many local dispensaries in operation and more waiting for approval to open, the competition makes sense. Since recreational sales became legal in 2015, Oregon’s marijuana surplus has been widely reported. But rather than fight for the best flower in town, Pate hopes to see cannabis growers and dispensary owners working together in celebrating the multi-functional crop.
Highly Enlightened Discussions Starting a discussion can be an effective way to circulate information and promote cohesion. For CCA, fostering conversation comes in the form of its Highly Enlightened Discussions. “Highly Enlightened Discussions offer professionals or people interested in the industry the opportunity to learn from other professionals and industry leaders,” Pate said, referencing the bi-annual community conversations held at McMenamins Old St. Francis School. “Our first discussion took place in 2018, and it focused more on the medical components of the industry. In 2019 we focused on the bioengineering of cannabis. We had geneticists and other super smart people on the panel. Our goal is to make
the discussion accessible and open, with a more informational panel towards the end. We incorporate about an hour to an hour and a half of networking.” Pate explained that bringing in a host of professionals, such as lawyers, physicians and public relations specialists, and breaking into small groups allows for participants to ask questions in person—which are met by genuine, tangible answers. Cayla Clark
“We had our third discussion in July, and again, we focused more on the medical side of things. We talked about how CBD and THC are really being used.” The Highly Enlightened Discussion slated for November will focus on women in the cannabis industry. All discussions are sponsored by Juniper Analytics, a local cannabis testing lab, focused on testing flower, pre-harvest hemp, and other cannabinoid products for potency, pesticides and water content. Because the Cascade Cannabis Association is a 501(c)(6) mutual benefit corporation, the group of enthusiasts is always looking for additional members and volunteers. “When people get involved, it helps us out quite a bit,” Pate explained. “We’re all volunteers, you know. We’re all working together. People are welcome to become a member or just reach out and let us know they’d like to be involved. We want to change the way the local cannabis community interacts. We want to focus on educating as many people as we can in a fun and interactive way.” Highly Enlightened Discussions: SEO & Branding workshop Thu., Mar. 19 Location TBD cascade-cannabis.org/ LEAFLET by Source Weekly 17
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C U LT U R E
STREET BEAT YOUR BUDTENDERS’ FAVORITE PRODUCTS
THC comes in many shapes and sizes—here’s an inside look at what bud lovers enjoy the most By Isaac Biehl
Weed has evolved quite a bit since its earliest usage, and you can find THC in a multitude of products. You can drink it, bathe in it and basically find it in about any product of your preference. They aren’t just used for fun, either. Many people are finding products to fit their specific needs—whether that be for trouble sleeping, pain management, etc. We reached out to some local budtenders (and bud lovers) to see what products they’re most excited about to have in their lives. Th
om m on
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Budtender: Sierra Perri, The Herb Center Favorite Product: Soaking Salts from Oshihana They give my body relief after a long day of being on my feet. Also, these products are amazing for women and people who are curious about cannabis topicals and soaks! It introduces a new side to cannabis, helping externally and making you feel good!
Bud lover: Josh Jardine, Source cannabis contributor Recommended product: Volcano Hybrid vaporizer I own both analog and digital versions of the Volcano. The new Volcano Hybrid model has been my daily go-to. The “Hybrid” addition provides a swiveling silicone tube, aka whip, which allows you to sip your vapor— silently. It sits atop a newly modified chamber, which you still fill with ground flower or concentrates. The digital keypad allows a changing of temperature in 1-degree increments. di
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Favorite Product: Clinical Strength, Full Spectrum Cannabis Lotion from High Desert Pure
Budtender: Adeline Gage, Dr. Jolly’s Favorite Product: Oregon Diesel Live Resin Not to be biased, but my favorite products right now are all the Dr. Jolly’s extracts, more specifically the Oregon Diesel Live Resin. It is an Indica dominant strain that offers a great punch of THC. Its white sugary consistency mixes the delicious terpenes of limonene and pinene, and makes for a great-tasting, heavy hitting, relaxing end of the night dab!
Budtender: Mylea Parker, Top Shelf Medicine
LEAFLET by Source Weekly 19
PLANTS OVER PILLS A growing body of scientific research demonstrates the antidepressant qualities of CBD By Laurel Brauns Pixabay
new study of British Millennials found that 50% of them would rather use CBD to manage their mental health over prescription drugs, according to Eos Scientific. But are the headlines about CBD’s uplifting effects just a bunch of hype? We dove into the scientific literature to find out. Cannabidiol, also known as CBD, is a natural compound in the cannabis plant. CBD is usually derived from the hemp plant, which is in the same family as marijuana, but doesn’t get you high. Researchers around the world demonstrate that it does have antidepressant effects and can ease anxiety. Most CBD researchers over the last two decades have used animals to test its effects, so the jury is still out as to whether CBD could eventually act as a replacement for pharmaceutical antidepressants. But cannabinoid experts have found that CBD’s potential benefits for depression are connected to the way it interacts with serotonin receptors in the brain. Serotonin was identified in the 1930s as one neurochemical responsible for feelings of wellbeing, but 20 ISSUE 7
it wasn’t until 1987 that prescription drugs regulating serotonin were introduced. Most mainstream pharmaceutical antidepressants are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs, which create blockages on receptor sites. This helps
post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia. Most of this research concluded that CBD ameliorated some of the debilitating symptoms of these disorders. One of the most promising findings from CBD research is that the compound’s
Cannabinoid experts have found that CBD’s potential benefits for depression are connected to the way it interacts with serotonin receptors in the brain serotonin stay circulating throughout the body for longer periods. While CBD is not yet proven to boost serotonin levels, it may affect how the body’s receptors respond to the serotonin already in the system.
Science Behind CBD A 2018 study in Frontiers in Immunology found that CBD has antipsychotic, neuroprotective and anti-anxiety properties. The researchers conducted a literature review of more than a dozen crippling psychological conditions such as bipolar disorder,
effects kick in almost immediately, unlike pharmaceutical antidepressants which may take weeks to start working, according to a 2019 study in Mol Neurobiol. CBD may also have fewer side effects than mainstream antidepressant medications. Common side effects from SSRIs include sexual dysfunction, mood swings, insomnia and agitation. CBD generally does not cause similar issues. But, scientists have found that some people may experience some negative side effects from CBD, including fatigue, changes in appetite and
RESEARCH diarrhea. High doses caused liver toxicity in mice, according to a 2019 study in Molecules. Right now, scientists have not thoroughly researched the long-term effects of CBD on humans, so it’s unclear if prolonged use might produce negative outcomes. Another promising finding in CBD research is that it reduces anxiety. Depression and anxiety are often co-occurring: some people yo-yo between the extremes of worrying about the future to lamenting the past. These thought patterns manifest in physical “fight or flight” symptoms like a racing heartbeat, tunnel vision and insomnia. Conversely, physical symptoms of depression could involve lethargy, oversleeping and an inability to concentrate. A 2011 study from Neuropsychopharmacology found that CBD reduces the experience of anxiety for people who participated in a simulated public speaking experiment.
Rules, Regulations & Warnings The World Health Organization concluded that CBD is generally safe: The WHO’s published literature review in 2017 documented a few instances where adverse effects were connected with interactions between CBD and other medications. But establishing standards and protocols at the federal level has been a much greater challenge for those entering the hemp and CBD industry. The Federal Farm Bill, passed in 2018, took hemp (from which CBD is derived) off the list of Schedule 1 drugs. But as is the case with marijuana products, the rules and regulations for hemp and CBD vary from state to state. In an effort to create both security in future hemp crops and uniformity in production across the U.S., politicians on both sides of the aisle in Washington, D.C., have pressured the Food and Drug Administration to adopt rules regulating CBD. Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) urged the FDA and the Department of Health and Human Services to bring clarity to the CBD issue last year, and asked these departments to issue interim rules in the meantime. Even conservative Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnel (R-Kentucky) has been advocating for enforcement guidelines from the FDA. Kentucky has become a huge produc-
er of industrial hemp, adding $100 million to that state’s economy in 2019, according to the website, Marijuana Moment. While the FDA continues to drag its feet, it does have time to issue warnings to companies that have made health claims about CBD, as well as forbidding companies from selling or marketing CBD as a dietary supplement. In a statement published last November, the FDA wrote that it cannot conclude that CBD is safe, because there is not enough scientific evidence to support this. Meanwhile, in an ironic twist that is fit for a parody on crony capitalism, the FDA states that as of now, it has “approved only one CBD product. A prescription drug product to treat two rare, severe forms of epilepsy.” H a r r is
At the time of print, those in the hemp and CBD industry must operate in a market where the rules could change at any moment. The U.S. Department of Agriculture became responsible for some aspects of hemp production after the Farm Bill passed, and issued some of its own proposed regulations in October. And there is also hope that congressional action may override the FDA’s inaction. (Scott Gottlieb, former commissioner of the FDA, said this is the only way to get CBD rules through in a timely manner, according to Marijuana Moment.) A bipartisan coalition of lawmakers introduced H.R. 5587 on Jan. 13, which would allow CBD to be
marketed as a dietary supplement. It is now in the Agriculture and Energy and Commerce Committees.
Local CBD Scene Most cannabis stores in Bend sell some form of pure CBD, though it is also commonly marketed as a product in combination with THC. Peter Winsor, owner of Jenny’s Dispensary on NE Third Street, sometimes suggests that new marijuana users try a product with more CBD than THC because then they can experience some gentle euphoria, but without the psychological intensity that sometimes comes with straight THC. Jenny’s also sells pure CBD oil and “crystalline” CBD powder which are both consumed orally. CBD is sold for oral consumption as tinctures, capsules and sprays, and can be added to coffee and smoothies. Due to the growing popularity of CBD, hemp production has grown exponentially, even in the last two years. According to the Oregon Department of Agriculture, Oregon farmers grew around 7,000 acres of hemp in 2018 and 50,000 acres in 2019. As a result, a proliferation of Oregon companies now sell a variety of CBD products. You could also request a shot of CBD at Strictly Organic and Mother’s Juice Café to top off that morning coffee. If you’re not up for the dispensary experience, Oregrown on NW Wall Street near downtown Bend will deliver any number of CBD products right to your door every day of the week from 11am – 6:30pm. Dutchie also offers delivery of various products. CBD is federally legal, and both small farmers and corporate agribusiness are hopping on the hemp-production train. As more people experience CBD’s uplifting properties, scientists from around the globe are producing a growing body of research that provides hard data to back up the claims that CBD offers a promising alternative to antidepressant pharmaceuticals. CBD is not just a trend among the generation that brought us avocado toast: Baby Boomers are the fast-growing segment of consumers of CBD products, according to the 2018 State of Cannabis Report. LEAFLET by Source Weekly 21
WHAT IS CBG? As the regulations around CBD remain in flux, another cannabinoid is getting more attention By Nicole Vulcan
Courtesy Hemptown USA Hemptown USA operates a farm in Eagle Point, Oregon, where it grew 500 acres of CBG plants last year.
egal cannabis has been heralded as the “next big thing” over the past decade or so—but inside this changing industry, the “next big thing” among “next big things” is CBG. It’s just one of over 100 molecules found in cannabis, but found in very small amounts in most cannabis strains. Like CBD, CBG is showing promise among researchers for its potential medical benefits. Researchers say CBG shows promise as an anti-bacterial agent, in treating glaucoma and inflammatory bowel disease, in fighting cancer and in battling Huntington’s disease, as a 2017 article in Leafly reports. “Because it is non-psychotropic, CBG has a promising wide range of potential applications not only for the problems mentioned above, but also as an analgesic, therapy for psoriasis, and as an antidepressant,” the cannabis-focused website states. And perhaps the most promising part for some producers: CBG isn’t hemmed in by the federal regulations and restrictions currently present for CBD. As Vince Sliwoski, a professor of Cannabis Law and Policy at Portland’s Lewis & Clark Law School explained in a January article on the Canna Law Blog, “It is 22 ISSUE 7
illegal to add CBD to many products, in FDA’s [Food and Drug Administration] view, due to the ‘drug exclusion rule.’ According to FDA, products containing CBD cannot be sold as dietary supplements because CBD was investigated and approved by FDA as a new drug (Epidiolex). If something is a non-exempt ‘drug’ it cannot be placed in the food stream under the Food Drug & Cosmetic Act.” Since CBG hasn’t yet been made into a drug, it doesn’t fall under the same rule, Sliwoski explained—hence one of the reasons some producers are looking at it as an alternative to CBD. That cannabinoid shows medical promise too, but is plagued by regulatory issues. While Central Oregon’s producers are largely focused on CBD, some Oregon producers have jumped on the CBG train in a big way. As reported in the Portland Business Journal in December, Hemptown USA, based in Jackson County, Oregon, produced 500 acres of CBG-dominant plants last year—accounting for about 40% of all the CBG crops grown in the U.S., according to the company. Growing a plant to extract its CBG isn’t easy. While the science gets a bit complicated, think of CBG as a “pre-
cursor”’ to other cannabinoids, such as THC and CBD. Basically, CBGA, or cannabigerolic acid, gets broken down and becomes cannabinoids such as THC and CBD. That’s why it’s commonly known as the “mother of cannabinoids.” However, getting the CBG out can require either breeding a CBG-dominant strain, and/or harvesting mass amounts of any strain of cannabis just to extract the CBG. “It takes thousands of pounds of biomass to create small amounts of CBG isolate,” James Rowland, CEO of Coloradobased CBG-goods producer Steve’s Goods told Forbes in September. For that, and other reasons, some believe isolating one portion of the cannabis plant to achieve health effects isn’t always the ideal. When I asked Stacie Johnson, co-owner of Blazin’ Trails tours in Bend, for her take, she said, “Full spectrum cannabis products are still what health professionals agree is the most effective for whole body health and homeostasis.” While it’s still relatively new on the scene and comes with a host of opinions, it’s more than fair to say CBG is the “next big topic of discussion” in cannabis.
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