Lighting Journal March 22

Page 1

Professional best practice from the Institution of Lighting Professionals

March 2022

RED SKY AT NIGHT, BATS’ DELIGHT Copenhagen’s new bat-friendly (and very red) ‘cycle superhighway’ DARE TO BE DIFFERENT How Light Collective have sustained ‘difference’ within lighting design WIDENING HORIZONS Reflections on how Moffat in Scotland became Europe’s first ‘Dark Sky Town’ss

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New bat-friendly red lighting on a ‘cycle superhighway’ outside Copenhagen will undoubtedly take some time for Danish commuters to get used to. But, as Philip Jelvard emphasises, it highlights the importance of lighting for whole ecosystems, not just humanity

For PhD students, events such as ‘LumeNet’ and the VELUX Academic Forum offer a vital opportunity to share cutting-edge research. Even though the pandemic has meant a transition to online, the most recent events have still been breaking new ground, as Martina Frattura and Dr Kynthia Chamilothori report





Copenhagen’s new BIO4 woodburning power plant boasts an illuminated public viewing gallery, staircase and ‘glowing’ animated ‘forest’ façade, making it unlike probably any industrial plant you’ve ever seen


As he looks towards retirement, renowned dark sky consultant James ‘Jim’ Paterson reflects on his career and his pivotal role in helping Moffat in scotland became Europe’s first ‘Dark Sky Town’


In an essay, ‘Lighting hospitals’, as part of Ab Rogers Design’s winning entry to the 2021 Wolfson Economics Prize, Paul Nulty recently outlined his thoughts on how we can be improving lighting and lighting design within hospitals and healthcare settings


A new lighting scheme for Waltham Forest Town Hall in east London has transformed the Grade II listed building’s façades and surrounding civic areas


Illuminating last month’s Winter Olympics meant lighting tricky surfaces – snow, ice and rock – in ways that worked for TV audiences around the world but were also functional, effective and safe for the athletes themselves



For more than a decade, Martin Lupton and Sharon Stammers, as Light Collective, have carved out a singular path within lighting. In their ‘How to brilliant’ presentation for the ILP they outlined what being ‘different’ means to them

Lighting designers may often dismiss surface-mounted emergency lighting as too obtrusive (or just too plain ugly) to be a viable choice. But, as Graham Lewis asks, with recent improvements in technology, batteries and design, could they be missing a trick?



In the first of a two-part ‘Light on the past’ series, Simon Cornwell delves into the archives to show how the disruption of the Second World War left Glasgow’s E J Stewart at the helm of the Association of Public Lighting Engineers for an unprecedented six years. Yet it took three attempts before he give a full conference address



No lighting professional providing or receiving professional services wants to end up in court when one side or other within a contract has not met their obligations. Howard Crossman and Daniella Cha explain how this highlights two of the most important obligations within contractual law: ‘reasonable skill and care’ and ‘fitness for purpose’




Thanks to the easing of Covid restrictions, the ILP will once again be able to hold a faceto-face Professional Lighting Summit in June. This year’s summit will in Bristol, and Jess Gallacher provides a sneak peak


The new bat-friendly red lighting installed by Light Bureau on a ‘cycle superhighway’ outside Copenhagen, Denmark. Turn to page six for the full story on the project. Photograph by Rune Brandt Hermannsson


Continuing our profiles of inspirational women working within lighting, this month engineer Amanda Reece tells us about her route into the profession, and what inspires her




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Editor’s letter


Volume 87 No 3 March 2022 President Fiona Horgan Chief Executive Justin Blades Editor Nic Paton BA (Hons) MA Email:

Lighting Journal’s content is chosen and evaluated by volunteers on our reader panel, peer review group and a small representative group which holds focus meetings responsible for the strategic direction of the publication. If you would like to volunteer to be involved, please contact the editor. We also welcome reader letters to the editor. Graphic & Layout Design George Eason Email: Advertising Manager Andy Etherton Email: Published by Matrix Print Consultants Ltd on behalf of Institution of Lighting Professionals Regent House, Regent Place, Rugby CV21 2PN Telephone: 01788 576492 E-mail: Website: Produced by Matrix Print Consultants Ltd Unit C,Northfield Point, Cunliffe Drive, Kettering, Northants NN16 9QJ Tel: 01536 527297 Email: Website:

t’s probably fair to say bats haven’t enjoyed the best of publicity of late, what with being blamed by many (unfairly) for spawning the Covid-19 pandemic – and this month is of course that rather grim two-year anniversary. I have to confess to not being much of a chiropterologist (bat expert apparently, thank you Google). My ‘expertise’ stretches as far as simply enjoying when on long summer nights (at least in our garden) day slips into dusk and, quite suddenly, it is no longer small birds swooping above but bats that start dipping, darting and zipping overhead. I do make a point when that happens of trying to ensure we’re not spilling light out into the garden as I have become increasingly aware, not least through ILP members, of the potentially devastating impact artificial light can have on bat populations, upsetting their foraging and navigating at night. Maybe, as Philip Jelvard of Light Bureau highlights in this edition (from page six), we should therefore be illuminating our garden in bat-friendly red light? Philip’s discussion about his practice’s low-level red LED lighting scheme on a cycle ‘superhighway’ outside Copenhagen in Denmark is, to my mind, intensely thoughtful. The way the practice approached the whole project, from going back to basics in terms of research through to putting itself out on a limb by installing what is, visually, a challenging scheme, is both fascinating and inspiring. However, just as I imagine me suddenly bathing our garden in red light would probably raise a few eyebrows with the neighbours, so the Gladsaxe Kommune scheme will, as Philip concedes, undoubtedly take some time for Danish commuters to get used to. UK communities are also having to become familiar, and comfortable, with these sorts of schemes. For example, Worcestershire County Council recently announced the switch-on of a second stretch of red, bat-friendly streetlights near Droitwich to accompany a similar scheme it installed near a nature reserve in 2019, and we will be bringing you more on both in a future edition of Lighting Journal. The ILP too, of course, has been at the forefront of developing bat-friendly lighting approaches, not least through its GN08-18 guidance Bats and artificial lighting in the UK, with the Bat Conservation Trust [1]. What this illustrates to me is the importance of community education and engagement to accompany schemes that require potentially radical behaviour change. I’d almost go so far as to suggest that the communication/education aspects of advances such as this need to be as much part of any ‘guidance’ as the technical/lighting considerations. What’s more, I suspect these are conversations we are all going to need to be having more widely in the coming years, not just around bats but within many aspects of infrastructural or public realm change as we respond to accelerating climate change. Whether this sort of public-facing education – nudging, advocacy, persuasion, bringing the public with you, whatever you want to call it – is something lighting professionals can do the heavy lifting on is of course another question completely. Personally, for me, as lighting increasingly embraces this agenda (as it surely must) and these sorts of very different projects become more commonplace within our public realm (as, again, they surely must) I can see an important role for lighting professionals. Lighting professionals can provide the expertise, authority and, frankly, reassurance to explain to the public not just the ‘what’ or ‘how’ of a lighting scheme but also the ‘why’. Why our public realm needs to be illuminated in this way and why how we use, behave and move within it needs to change as a result. And that in time could become something seriously valuable. Nic Paton Editor

© ILP 2022

The views or statements expressed in these pages do not necessarily accord with those

[1] GN08-18 ‘Bats and artificial lighting in the UK’, available from the ILP,

of The Institution of Lighting Professionals or the Lighting Journal’s editor. Photocopying


of Lighting Journal items for private use is permitted, but not for commercial purposes

ILP members receive Lighting Journal every month as part of their membership. You can join the ILP online, through Alternatively, to subscribe or order copies please email Diane Sterne at The ILP also provides a Lighting Journal subscription service to many libraries, universities, research establishments, non-governmental organisations, and local and national governments.

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New bat-friendly red lighting on a ‘cycle superhighway’ outside Copenhagen will undoubtedly take some time for Danish commuters to get used to. But, as Philip Jelvard emphasises, it highlights the importance of lighting for whole ecosystems not just humanity By Nic Paton


Lighting for bats


ladsaxe Kommune is a municipality near Copenhagen in Denmark, and one where the lighting practice Light Bureau is currently working to upgrade all the streetlights, optimising to LED a combination of both smaller local roads and bigger main roads. The practice’s already close relationship with Gladsaxe Kommune meant that, when it was discovered one 700m-stretch of cycle superhighway – including crossing points – on the approaches to Copenhagen was also home to a number of species of roosting and foraging bats, it was asked if it could help, as lighting designer Philip Jelvard tells Lighting Journal. ‘Gladsaxe had been working with a contractor to come up with solutions but Philip and his team were approached around November 2020 to provide a second opinion. ‘Little did we know where it would lead us!’ says Philip, who is based in Denmark. ‘One of the reasons Gladsaxe turned to us was because we’d been involved in a project the year before that had given us some insight into lighting for biodiversity, not necessarily bats but lighting for dark areas, habitats and things like that. So, we knew a little bit but also that we still had to do a lot of due diligence and research into figuring things out,’ he adds. The stretch of road had previously been illuminated by standard metal halide lamps on 6m- to 7m-high wooden columns. However, they were absolutely blasting light – and light pollution – across the whole area. ‘Although the area around the road is protected forestland, in a way it was a weird place for bats to have settled down in the first place, what with all the ambient noise of cars going back and forth,’ Philip continues. ‘Nevertheless, right from the beginning, it was very much about “how can we do this right?”. This was helped by the fact that the Gladsaxe team was also very committed to the project. It has been such a special project for both of us. The ambition level for the municipality, rightly, was very high. This meant we had the funds and the time to really go and do an in-depth analysis, as it was very clear from the outset it was not going to be a straightforward outdoor lighting project,’ Philip adds. Despite being a cycle superhighway, it is still a relatively busy stretch of road, with cars regularly coming through at around 60kmh on their way into or out of Copenhagen. Moreover, the fact it is a stretch where cyclists can be crossing over the road meant it did need to be illuminated. ‘When we dug into things, it became clear that the research in this area, though

The new bat-friendly red lighting scheme designed by Light Bureau. All photographs by Rune Brandt Hermannsson

still relatively new, most of it points in the same direction, especially in terms of the kinds of wavelengths that work best for bats,’ Philip says. ‘Bats are, of course, nocturnal animals and our main conclusion was that red light – the redder the better – is the least disruptive to them. They can’t really see it, although they can still sense it is there. That, we felt, gave us an opportunity to try something a little different on this small stretch of road, because, obviously, we can still see this red light when the bats can’t. ‘Our take was that, too often as lighting professionals, when we’re designing schemes, we don’t think enough about the consequences to the local biodiversity, the flora and fauna. But, really, we are just the guests passing these areas because someone has put a road down here; yet it is their home,’ he adds.


So, what was the solution? The answer was the installation of 30 bollards, 1m-high, spaced at 30m distance apart. Then, at the crossing points, there are a total of 12 columns, 3.5m-high, all projecting red light. ‘With the higher columns, we wanted to meet the existing uniformity and lux level requirements for bicycle paths, although even here it was challenging,’ Philip explains. ‘This was because the standards have been created for white light and, with this scheme we are way outside the colour

rendering or Kelvin that you would normally be working with. So, it has been a very steep learning curve,’ he adds. The installation work, naturally, also had to be carried out very carefully, with the team co-ordinating closely with the bats’ expert at Denmark’s Ministry of Environment. For example, when it was time to go on site, the team had to sure it was at least six weeks after the breeding season, which for these types of bats was in July. That meant on-site installation work could only begin from the middle of September. ‘We also had a lot of discussion with different manufacturers; we really went back and forth,’ says Philip. ‘We wanted something very specific that would fit with the quite strict criteria we had created, and ideally, we wanted a solution where we could use existing products rather than designing new bollards, columns or fixtures. We ended up going with a Danish manufacturer called Focus Lighting who really bought into what we were trying to achieve.’


Safety, and perception of safety, was of course another critical concern – and of course the role of streetlighting within this is an area of ongoing debate in the UK too, as highlighted in Lighting Journal back in the autumn (‘Safe as streets?’, September 2021, vol 86, no 8). ‘For us, there was also a conversation to




Lighting for bats

be had around who are we lighting for? Was it just us or for animals as well? The choice of red light is, a compromise too in a way but, we felt, it was a compromise worth trying because it is a spectrum that is still visible for humans yet isn’t disruptive to bats, insects, or most other animals in this area,’ Philip emphasises. ‘For this scheme, the road is illuminated fully at the crossing points but in other areas you have points where the lighting goes from just 1 lux to complete darkness to create fully dark corridors where not just bats but other nocturnal and light-shy creatures can cross in relative safety,’ he adds. So, what is it like to actually travel along and through this scheme: for motorists, cyclists and pedestrians? ‘I have now ridden this route a number of times myself,’ Philip explains, addressing the cyclist experience first. ‘At the crossing points you can see where the light is meeting in the middle of the road, so you are still visible to drivers. However, you do “disappear” as a cyclist between the bollards. But you are able to see perfectly well at all times, even if being bathed in red light does take some getting used to,’ he says. ‘Pedestrians were a factor to a lesser extent. There is a gravel track nearby

where people will often park up and take their dogs for a walk into the forest, but there is no pedestrian sidewalk along the road,’ he adds. And, critically, what about drivers? ‘We had to have a conversation around what kind of light do you need for road safety; what is the purpose of lighting when it comes to drivers and pedestrians? That really comes back to the driver being able



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Lighting for bats to perceive the contrast when something is crossing the road, not necessarily what colour the light is,’ Philip highlights. ‘Yes, this project is working at very low light levels but when you drive through it your headlights are going to be more than enough to compensate for this. Of course, you are going to be mixing it, but there is still plenty of light for a driver going through here to be able to be aware of something, or someone, at the roadside,’ he adds.


However, even if, technically, the scheme is totally safe for all parties to use, it is also clear that, for travelling Danes, getting used to it and accepting it, letting along

valuing what it is working to achieve, may take some time. As Philip explains: ‘The scheme only opened in middle of December, and so it is very early yet in terms of public feedback, and we are still working to get detailed feedback from the municipality. However, to be totally candid, we are already finding that it may be something where it will take time for people to get used to it! ‘It is so new and we do appreciate it is going to take some time for people to get used to, but we are confident people will, in time, come round to it. Therefore, together with the municipality we wanted to get ahead of public opinions and communicate in press activity about the project to hopefully create an understanding and

awareness about what we aim to do in this area. ‘We’re also hoping that the ministry and Danish researchers will monitor and evaluate the effect of the scheme on the bat population over a period. If this doesn’t work, of course, we’ll need to figure out something else. But it would be interesting to have that research,’ Philip adds.


Finally, then, what have been the takeaways or learning points from a cutting-edge scheme such as this? ‘For me, there have been multiple learning points and things to take away from this whole process and project,’ says Philip. ‘First, it has emphasised the importance – and value – of doing a proper analysis of an area, both for the people and the specific biotope. Thus, it’s always important to ask, “what is enough light, where is it needed and for whom?” ‘Second, the value of expert guidance. This project has been a challenge, but it has also been super interesting. I’ve picked up subsequently the ILP’s guidance note in this area, which is a really great source of information, especially its discussion around the impact of indoor lighting spilling outside into the night environment [1]. As already highlighted, we also had a lot of invaluable help from the municipality and the ministry ‘Finally, for me, it’s all been about having a client who is also a partner, a collaborator, who shares your vision and you share theirs. It has been so great to have had that collaboration with Gladsaxe Municipality. They have been so open to this from the beginning. We feel we are very lucky to be working with such a willing collaborator. ‘I’m hoping municipalities and manufacturers will look at this and think, “we can do something similar” for whatever area they have. It will of course need to be adjusted for the specifics of that area. Because it would be great to start getting these sorts of solutions out there. As we see more of these schemes pop up, people will get used to them and they will, I am sure, become the normal thing to do in these types of areas,’ Philip concludes.


[1] GN08-18 ‘Bats and artificial lighting in the UK’, available from the ILP,

Philip Jelvard and Rune Brandt Hermannsson of Light Bureau will be going into more depth about the complexities, challenges and opportunities of this project – and taking your questions – in an ILP webinar for the YLP on 6 April. Keep an eye out online for full details and how to register, at



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Copenhagen’s new BIO4 woodburning power plant boasts an illuminated public viewing gallery, staircase and ‘glowing’ animated ‘forest’ façade, making it unlike probably any industrial plant you’ve ever seen By Nic Paton


he BIO4 woodburning power plant in Copenhagen is a key part of an ambitious drive by the Danish city to become the world’s first carbon-neutral capital by 2025, providing sustainable and renewable biofuel for the city’s nearly 800,000 inhabitants. When it came to lighting the plant, a competition-winning proposal by Gottlieb Paludan Architects and Speirs Major has


Lighting and sustainability

Dynamic lighting activates the ‘forest’ façade of the BI04 power plant, providing an immersive experience for visitors. All photographs by Allan Toft apart from second from left below, by Keith Bradshaw

focused on creating a dynamic lighting scheme that activates a unique 6m ‘forest’ façade of tree trunks when switched on. The 46m-plant is located in Amagerværket, 2km from the downtown heart of the city. It is across from the old fortress of Kastellet, diagonally behind the Copenhagen Opera House and visible from across the harbour. The project, which was begun in 2014

and completed in October 2021, includes an immersive experience accessible to the public, with visitors able to move through the forest installation via a spectacular staircase (of which more in a moment). These stairs lead to a heavily planted viewing and information platform.


The façade of the building is clad in

gold-coloured metal sheets designed to reinforce the natural glow of the forest. The top of the boiler house is also covered in what creative director with Gottlieb Paludan, Jesper Gottlieb, has described as ‘golden-coloured cassettes which will reflect the light, creating a new distinct dome on the Copenhagen skyline’ [1]. The lighting of the 6m-deep façade ‘plays an important role in engaging the




Lighting and sustainability This image and below: two projection sketches of the project by Speirs Major

community and helping to embed the building into the psyche and identity of Copenhagen’, Speirs Major has also argued. From a platform beneath the façade, the staircase leads to a viewing platform, cutting through the façade. Ascending the stairs, ‘the experience is one of moving through a luminous forest,’ Speirs Major has said. A carefully designed handrail detail lights the steps for safety, the source obscured by bespoke micro louvres to preserve the ‘forest’ experience. By day, natural light creates shadows that play through the trunks of the trees. As darkness falls, layers of projected light are then projected, which shift in speed, focus and intensity, casting patterns of light and shadow. This projected light is also used to reveal depth and texture in the façade. Although the 6m-thick ‘forest’ appears only on the main façade, a single skin of trunks has been used to clad the east and west façades. These have also been lit, with all the façades illuminated in warm-white tones most of the time, but with the control functionality to provide a limited palette of colours for special and civic occasions


According to Speirs Major senior partner Keith Bradshaw, the experience of moving within the façade is ‘remarkable’. ‘The warm, soft, rippling light delivers an authentic experience of sunlight filtering through trees, completely contrary to one’s expectation of visiting a powerplant at night,’ he explains. ‘It’s rare these days to see an animated façade that is not created by LED pixels, but part of the success of this project lies in our decision to use a contemporary LED

source and digital control together with traditional theatrical projection techniques. We used filters, lenses and GOBOs and motorised animation disks, positioning, focusing, and controlling the speed of the light in different ways to shape an organic feel, with no sharp edges. ‘We worked through hundreds of tests and iterations to deliver this – beginning with models in the studio and progressing to full-size partial mock-ups before the final install and commissioning. We studied the effects of light on timber intensively, tuning the effect to bring out the warm tones, and taking into consideration the way the wood would silver with age,’ Keith adds.


Client: HOFOR Lighting Design: Speirs Major (Keith Bradshaw, Benz Roos, Iain Ruxton, Luciana Martinez, Satu Streatfield, Andrew Howis) Architect: Gottlieb Paludan Systems integration: Speirs Major Systems delivery partner: Stouenborg ApS Landscape: Møller & Grønborg Suppliers: Lite Nordic Equipment, Martin Architectural, Vexica

[1] ‘BIO4 Power Plant, Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark’, Architizer, https://architizer. com/projects/bio4-power-plant-copenhagen/


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As he looks towards retirement, renowned dark sky consultant James ‘Jim’ Paterson reflects on his career and his pivotal role in helping Moffat in Dumfries and Galloway became Europe’s very first ‘Dark Sky Town’ By Jim Paterson


started as a local authority lighting technician with Lanarkshire County Council in Scotland in 1958 but moved to England in 1971. After a further working life in lighting of nearly 40 years in the urban conurbation of the West Midlands I had forgotten all about stars and their visual glory. Then, in 2008, I left my lighting design partnership business partner to look after the lighting design in England while I returned to Scotland to developed lighting design work there – astronomy and stargazing were furthest from my mind. However, within weeks of moving from Coventry to Moffat, I just happened to be in the right place at the right time to take a telephone call from the Forestry Commission in Galloway. The commission needed a lighting engineer to translate the technical needs of the International Dark Sky Association (IDA) in America to get them to dark sky award status. I suddenly realised this was a refreshingly new storyline via which to promote good lighting design. To me, the previous storyline – energy conservation – was getting a bit long in the tooth, even though, of course, with climate change that, rightly, remains a key area of focus for lighting professionals.

After I had written the first draft of the Galloway masterplan I remember its manager saying I had written it with a great deal of passion. As a lighting engineer, and not an astronomer, the concept of embracing light control from not just streetlights but also commercial property lighting and residential property lighting – in essence taking a holistic/all-in-one approach on a large project – was a technically refreshing first. The success in the awarding of the Galloway Forest Dark Sky Park in 2009 has led me to many more dark sky successes. In fact, the thirteenth was announced in October when North Ronaldsay joined the small UK list of IDA dark sky communities [1]. However, I had only completed about three or four dark sky places when, in 2011, the Moffat over-60s forum invited me to talk to them all about my dark sky work.


I finished my presentation by saying I was interested in bringing my expertise to Moffat; it was, after all, ideally located in a dark rural setting. However, I also conceded such a radical move – to convert all the town’s low-pressure sodium streetlights to fully cut-off warm-white LED – might well be ‘a bridge too far’ for Dum-

fries and Galloway Council (D&G). Nevertheless, and in the same way that I was in the right place at the right time to answer the telephone call from Galloway Forest, I discovered I was saying the right things at the right time. I was able to give the D&G lighting engineer all the answers he needed to acquire a Scottish Government grant of £240,000 for an energy saving case study. We, together, then threw in dark sky stargazing as a ‘value added’ to saving energy. The result was that D&G gave Moffat, a town after all with a population of just 2,500 people, better LED streetlighting well before the rest of the region, something of a pleasant surprise to many Moffat residents. The connected load was reduced from 50Kw to 30Kw without reducing illumination levels on the streets and the sky-quality darkness measurements improved, as did the visual appearance of the streets at night. Moffat Dark Sky started as a lighting engineering challenge – there was no astronomy club – although Moffat Academy did have one many years ago. Nevertheless, there were about 20 residents who put their name to an astronomy interest list that I started when I ran a dark sky public awareness open day at Moffat


Dark skies

Town Hall. This was just before I started the work on developing a lighting masterplan for the area and carrying out a lighting audit in the town.


Although the streetlight conversion reduced upward light into the sky and we got the dark sky town award, the outreach continues to this day to get other lighting installations to point downwards and not upwards. Control of light is not just for stargazing – there are other areas of benefit such as the residential neighbourhood, flora and fauna, birds and even some insects all benefit in some way from reduced visual obtrusion. Unlike energy saving, light obtrusion is visible to everyone and its reduction can be appreciated by everyone in the town. It would also be remiss of me not to mention the thousands of visitors to the town who now return home with a mental picture of a town with something rather unique about it. I keep repeating the message that ‘winning a dark sky award has something in it for everyone’; you just have to work at it to find the benefit. In the case of Moffat, it is more like a partnership of disparate residents, professions and trades all working together in an effort to keep the sky clear at night. It also has an important educational outreach message to the school behind the observatory and beyond – something I know which is very dear to the Astronomer Royal’s heart, and perhaps she will say something about her future objectives [2].

I know we may have little control over the clouds at night. I say ‘little’ because I think the changing climate is creating greater cloud cover. However, as part of the award we are required to make an annual report to the IDA to show that we are actually working together to mitigate upward light illuminating the atmospheric mist above our heads, regardless of our ability to stargaze. In a way, Moffat’s success has been very much a process, a succession of stepchanges. From the IDA award grew the astronomy club, with its first purchase of a six-inch telescope for which to view the (now dark) night sky. From the astronomy club, under the brainstorming chairmanship of Evelyn Atkins, grew the desire to have a sheltered housing with a permanently mounted tele s c o p e w i t h A s t r o p h o t o g r a p hy

capabilities. From that desire, with a £34,000 grant from Scottish and Southern Energy, grew our community observatory. It took 150 man-hours of my time spread over five years to get the dark sky award for Moffat. It took another five years and countless hours from me and others to get, first, planning approval for the observatory granted in April 2019, then a building warrant that October, with constructing starting in the November. I am very pleased to say the grand formal opening of the community observatory finally took in October last year, which I attended along with the Astronomer Royal for Scotland, Professor Catherine Haymans, who also unveiled a brass commemorative plaque. So, from me, a big ‘thank you’ to all who helped with the construction and of course a special thanks to my wife Dorothy

The Moffat Academy and observatory. The town’s dark sky status has benefited its enthusiastic astronomers as well as its 2,500 residents and the general night-time environment. This includes flora, fauna, birds and insects




Dark skies who supported my absence from home while sorting out other people’s dark sky places. The fact that Moffat grew to be not just the very first Dark Sky Town in the UK but in the whole of Europe has been something far beyond my ‘bridge too far’ imaginings all those years ago. In my 13-year ‘dark sky journey’ I have completed 15 dark sky lighting masterplans, covering a combined area greater

than 4,000 square miles with a survey audit of more than 26,000 external lighting units. These extend from as far north as North Ronaldsay all the way down to Saint Helena in the south Atlantic and includes the recently announced International Dark Sky Reserves in the Yorkshire Dales and North York Moors National Park [3]. More importantly, however, the ensuing awards have brought the concept of

combining the reduction of light pollution and the visual betterment of the night sky to a combined potential population audience of nearly 133,000 people. I am at the end of my 63-year ‘lighting engineering journey’ (I think) and hope that others who follow will come to realise that the night-time environmental impact is more important than putting dots on a plan at the desired spacing.

James ‘Jim’ Paterson BA(Hons) CEng MCIBSE FILP MSLL is a retired dark sky lighting consultant


You can find out more about Moffat Dark Sky Town via the IDA at https:// conservation/idsp/communities/ moffat/ as well as at Left: the telescope inside the dome and, above, how visitors are welcomed to the town



ocated in Tucson, Arizona, the International Dark-Sky Association (IDA) is the world’s recognised authority on combating light pollution. It works to provide leadership, tools, and resources for individuals, policymakers, and industry to reduce light pollution and promote responsible outdoor lighting. The International Dark Sky Places (IDSP) programme was founded in 2001 and offers five different types of designation: 1.


International Dark Sky Communities. These are communities that are legally organised cities and towns that have adopted quality outdoor lighting ordinances and undertake efforts to educate residents about the importance of dark skies. International Dark Sky Parks. These are parks, in other words publicly- or privately-owned spaces




protected for natural conservation, which implement good outdoor lighting and provide dark sky programmes for visitors. International Dark Sky Reserves. Reserves consist of a dark ‘core’ zone surrounded by a populated periphery where policy controls are enacted to protect the darkness of the core. International Dark Sky Sanctuaries. Sanctuaries are the most remote (and often darkest) places in the world, whose conservation state is most fragile. Urban Night Sky Places (UNSPs). UNSPs are sites near or surrounded by large urban environs whose planning and design actively promote an authentic night-time experience in the midst of significant artificial light at night, and that otherwise do not qualify for designation within any other International Dark Sky Places category.

As of August last year, there were more than 180 certified IDSPs in the world. The IDA has an online interactive map at: To become an International Dark Sky Place, a community or location will need to undergo a rigorous application process, demonstrate robust community support for dark-sky protection and document designation-specific programme requirements. Applications are reviewed quarterly by an IDA standing committee. Upon certification, the IDA works with certified places to promote their work through media relations, member communications and social media. There is more detail about how to become an IDSA and to start the process here: become-a-dark-sky-place/

[1] ‘North Ronaldsay Dark Sky Island (Scotland)’, [2] Educational outreach, The Royal Astronomical Society, [3] Yorkshire Dales Dark Sky Reserve;; North York Moors National Park Dark Sky Reserve, uk/discover/dark-skies;

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In an essay, ‘Lighting hospitals’, as part of Ab Rogers Design’s winning entry to the 2021 Wolfson Economics Prize, Paul Nulty recently outlined his thoughts on how we can be improving lighting and lighting design within hospitals and healthcare settings By Paul Nulty


o often we see functionality at the forefront of hospital lighting design. Of course, this is important and a crucial factor in the way a hospital and its staff need to operate, but the emotion can get left behind. We have to remember why hospitals exist. We need them to make people feel better, to keep them safe and to envelop them in warmth and security whilst they go through something frightening. We all want hospitals to make people feel comfortable and sterile design and lighting does quite the opposite.

Lighting in hospitals is key and plays an important part in cultivating a safe and collaborative environment for both staff and patients. Through the use of layers of light, varying levels of illumination can provide both functional and aesthetically pleasing degrees of light.


The quality of light used in a hospital is really important. Different ages have different requirements for light and if you’re over 60, on average, you will need three times the amount of light as you do if

you’re in your twenties. It’s a big difference and one that lighting designers need to be aware of when implementing a lighting scheme in a hospital. For example, the location of a light source is important in reducing glare which many elderly patients are sensitive to. Directional light is also really important. These days we talk about something called a melanopic lux, which is basically the amount of light delivered from a certain angle. You have rods and cones in your eye, which are the two receptors: one sees in colour and is for daylight, whilst the


Healthcare lighting

other sees in black and white. Anything below 1 lux and you tend to see in grey. So this means that with different levels of light you have different abilities to see and process that light. There was research done a while ago where it was found that we have a third receptor in the eye, which relates or reacts specifically to blue light and regulates hormonal production in the body, such as melatonin, serotonin and cortisol. If you have too little or too much of this then one can experience a seasonal affective disorder and the body won’t be functioning properly. So this shows that in a space like a hospital, where doctors need to be able to operate, patients need to be able to feel rested and the whole operation of people in the space need to be taken care of, a balance of different layers of light can really support this. Although there are different ways in which we can implement light into a hospital, it’s imperative to remember the importance that daylight plays on health. This goes right back to when scientists figured out that daylight and vitamin D could benefit things like scurvy and rickets. Natural daylight is also a great way of creating a calming and comfortable atmosphere for patients and provides a welcome break from being surrounded by artificial light all day, especially for patients who are spending a long stint on a ward. This is also important for the staff who work extensive hours within the hospital – they too need a difference in the type of light they are receiving to benefit eyes and also productivity and mental health. The reason that hospitals are

illuminated the way they are is so that they are always prepared for emergencies. Whether you’re in a hospital ward, emergency room, or even the hospital corridor, the overall layer of illumination needs to be functional so that the doctors and nurses can do their jobs effectively.


With this being said, this doesn’t mean that there only has to be one layer of functional lighting within the space. There could also be more personalised or localised light that changes colour temperature throughout the day to give a sense of light passing and a shift from day to night. You could also implement small GOBO projectors within downlights to create a dappling of light on the floors of the hospital to imitate moving trees or planting, or to recreate moonlight pouring into each ward or space. If there are interesting motifs or objects in the spaces, these could be illuminated properly to allow the eye some respite to focus on other areas in the space around them. It’s great from a functionality perspective to have panels of light in the ceiling that are very uniform, but actually it’s quite dull and it means that the eye doesn’t have anything to look away from. So, bouncing light off walls or allowing it to change and be dynamic in the space, encourages different emotional responses to each area within the hospital. This in itself can push the design away from something too clinical and sterile and instead promote a warmer environment. It seems strange to think about feeling ‘at home’ within a hospital, but for staff and patients, creating an environment

that feels as close to home as possible helps morale. Lighting could again play a huge part in making this type of vision for a hospital come to life. Bedside lamps could be placed next to each hospital bed to give that sense of being in your bedroom, rather than a sterile and sometimes scary ward. Pendant lights, shades, and localised lighting solutions above beds can make a space feel more domesticated and homely. This type of light can balance the more functional overhead practical lighting but when blended together, it would hopefully make the patient feel more comfortable in the space that they’re in.

Paul Nulty is founder of lighting design practice Nulty


Paul Nulty’s essay was part of Ab Rogers Design’s winning submission for the 2021 Wolfson Economics Prize: ‘Planning & Designing the Hospital of the Future’. The 2021 entrants were asked: ‘How would you design and plan new hospitals to radically improve patient experiences, clinical outcomes, staff wellbeing, and integration with wider health and social care?’ For those interested in digging into this topic in more detail, the whole submission (which runs to 100 pages) can be viewed at: Wolfson-Economics-Prize.pdf




A new lighting scheme for Waltham Forest Town Hall in east London has transformed the Grade II listed building’s façades and surrounding civic areas By Nic Paton


altham Forest Town Hall in east London is an impressive Grade II listed building designed by architect Philip Dalton Hepworth in a stripped classical style with Portland stone façades. Construction, which began in 1938, was interrupted for a period by the outbreak of the Second World War a year later. But the building was nevertheless opened to much acclaim in 1942.

Lighting consultant Pritchard Themis was contracted to craft a new exterior lighting scheme for the front façades as part of a substantial refurbishment and upgrade project over the past two years of the whole building and its immediate environs that is being led by architects Hawkins\Brown. The intention of the refurbishment has been to transform the classical style and create an integrated modern workspace combined with a lively civic campus, one that will welcome staff, visitors and

residents to the heart of what is a thriving and diverse east London community. The renovations have involved a landscaping scheme by Churchman Thornhill Finch and the design and installation of a centrepiece water feature, designed by Ocmis, in ‘Fellowship Square’, the plaza in front of the complex. This comprises 144 individually programmable water jets that can light up and ‘dance’ to music. The council had previously held one-off events in the gardens and lighting had been successfully projected on to the


Exterior lighting

building at night, which was something the council team wanted to be able to continue to do. This meant there was a precedent of lighting spectacle that the new design had to live up to. Another challenge was the constraints that had to be addressed in the process. The Town Hall and the neighbouring Assembly Hall are both Grade II listed, so fixing anything directly to the very fine Portland Stone façades was going to be hard to pass by English Heritage and the planning officer. Peter Pritchard, co-founder of Pritchard Themis, takes up the story. ‘We knew we needed a compact yet powerful linear projector source with a good range of optics available and glare control options, yet one which did not look too “agricultural” as it was going to be on show to anyone coming into the buildings,’ he tells Lighting Journal. ‘On top of this, we needed to find a sister

version that could be installed in-ground around the porticos where new paving was going in. For us, the Anolis “Eminere” range fitted the bill perfectly. It was smart-looking, with great optics options and clean-looking baffles and glare guards,’ he adds. In all, the clock tower has four Eminere fixtures with 65-degree optics, the façades a further 50 Eminere luminaires of varying optics and located on ledges and balconies as well as ground-mounted, with four in-ground luminaires from the range located in the portico. The Assembly Hall, meanwhile, has a further 12 in-ground Eminere fixtures. Drilling down into the project, there is a classic ‘white light’ setting for standard evenings, when the building is washed in a

warm-white 3000K. This is complemented by colour-change functionality (with programming using a Pharos LPC system) for special dates – ‘flag day’ settings, for instance, when the building is presented in the colours of various national flags or static colour lighting for the Christmas period or rainbow colour effects during Pride Month. There is also the facility for other programmers to take over programming control for special events or for the fountain controls to be able to programme to synch




Exterior lighting the building lighting with music but without changing the programmed settings.


As Peter Pritchard explains, limiting light pollution and energy use has been a key priority of the project. ‘One piece of luck was when we discovered that a rough stone ledge ran around much of the perimeter of the building, meaning this could be fixed to mechanically,’ he says. ‘Conversely, it meant any lighting sources would have to be close in to the building and therefore would have to be more precise and punchy in their output because of the oblique angle. On the plus side, however, it meant there was almost no risk of glare from this location,’ he adds. The luminaires can be automatically powered on and off at correct start-up/ curfew times to help respect and preserve the environment for bats, insects and assorted other wildlife and birdlife, Peter also points out.


What, then, were the key learning points from a project of this sort of scale and complexity? ‘For me, this project reiterated the importance of using a trusted and knowledgeable supplier of DMX equipment and a good programming engineer to help get your project over the line and working smoothly,’ Peter argues. ‘If the main contractor and their electrical sub-contractor are not well-versed in DMX installations, there is the risk there can be installation issues that seem unfathomable to the untrained eye. ‘An experienced install and programming team can iron out any such issue early on. Make sure, too, you don’t scrimp on the choice of supplier and, without fail, make sure you get the experienced programmer of your choice on to the specification,’ Peter adds, in conclusion.

PPROJECT CREDITS Architect: architects Hawkins\Brown Lighting design: Pritchard Themis Consulting engineers: Ramboll Main contractors: ISG Lighting supply: Anolis (led by sales consultant Ashley Popple) Façade lighting programming: Maria Jenkins (on behalf of Lug Lighting) Landscape architects: Churchman Thornhill Finch

Various perspectives of the new town hall lighting scheme. All photographs courtesy of Pritchard Themis








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Illuminating last month’s Winter Olympics meant lighting tricky surfaces – snow, ice and rock – in ways that worked for TV audiences around the world but were also functional, effective and safe for the athletes themselves

By Nic Paton


Sports lighting


rom a lighting perspective, last month’s Winter Olympics in Beijing brought with it some very specific challenges. These included illuminating steep and rocky hills, long-distance signal transmission, and icy surfaces that reflect light. There was also the constant tension between the need for the illumination to be working for TV audiences around the world but also being functional and safe for the athletes themselves, as the ILP’s own guidance in this area has long identified [1]. While light and illumination played a big part in many different ways for the Beijing Winter Olympics, not least for the opening and closing ceremonies, the organisers turned to lighting giant Signify to illuminate a number of the key venues during the fortnight of the games, which ran from 4-20 February. A combination of LEDs from its Philips SportStar and ArenaVision series and its

Interact Sports connected lighting system, enabled Signify to put in place highspeed dynamic lighting control at the games’ Genting Snow Park, home to the freestyle skiing and snowboarding events.


At the Capital Indoor Stadium, the fixtures used had the same high-speed refresh rate as stage lighting, so making the ice look at its best while still enhancing the viewing experience. Meanwhile, at the Wukesong Sports Centre, the first arena in China to host both ice hockey and basketball events, control functionality allowed operators quickly to adapt to different lighting needs, while also providing an immersive TV viewing experience. On top of this, all the lights supplied for the games provided high-power and high-colour rendering features which, in combination with a variety of light distribution solutions, were used to achieve high levels of colour reproduction and

flicker control, something that, naturally, helped the athletes to focus on their performances. For international television broadcasters, this allowed for more effective flicker-free and super slow-motion replays, ensuring TV viewers around the globe were better able to enjoy the games from home, as an immersive viewing experience. Signify also worked to build in an Olympic ‘legacy’ by customising each venue’s lighting system to its unique requirements, so to enable the different venues easily to host future events to their own lighting requirements. John Wang, senior vice president at Signify, said he hoped being able to work with the Chinese authorities to illuminate the games in this way would allow Signify to, in time, begin to bring more environmentally friendly lighting solutions to the Chinese market. ‘Signify will leverage this opportunity to help some of the most prestigious sports venues in China to adopt sustainable lighting innovations,’ he said.

[1] GN2 Lighting of televised sporting events (2018), The ILP,




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For more than a decade, Martin Lupton and Sharon Stammers, as Light Collective, have carved out a singular path within lighting, encompassing everything from architectural lighting design through to light art installations, activism, community advocacy, and much more. In their recent ‘How to brilliant’ presentation for the ILP they outlined what being ‘different’ means to them By Nic Paton


t’s human nature to think of ourselves as a bit different, a bit special. Yet, as a lighting designer, maintaining a reputation for being ‘different’ – whether by that we mean cutting edge or innovative in our thinking, our approach to light and lighting, or the way we work (and who we work with) – while sustaining a successful, commercial business can be a challenge. One lighting design studio that has achieved this balancing act is Light Collective, which since 2009 has carved out a very singular path through light and lighting. Set up by Sharon Stammers, who came to lighting design via theatre and stage

lighting, and ex-BDP architectural lighting designer Martin Lupton, the practice has very deliberately remained just the two of them, so bringing together their complementary vision and approach. It has also straddled everything from architectural lighting design through to light art installations, curated exhibitions to lighting awards, community advocacy and education to ‘guerrilla’ lighting, pop-up events to trade shows, and more. It was only appropriate therefore that the ILP turned to Sharon and Martin over the autumn to discuss what, to them, is the secret behind ‘difference’ as part of its


The ILP’s ‘How to be brilliant’ events programme of ‘How to be brilliant’ events. How to be brilliant, for those unaware, is where the ILP brings together senior lighting designers with students, juniors and new entrants to the profession to share their time and expertise. The free, informal events, which for 2021 were sponsored by Premier member BEGA, are set to continue during 2022, and see the panel at the end of this article for more details on what to expect this year. Martin and Sharon’s talk was also notable for being the first post-pandemic ‘blended’ How to be brilliant event, in other words a combination of finally getting physically back together in front of an audience in Islington, north London, but with it also streamed to a virtual, online audience. Sharon and Martin first emphasised that, to them, it felt presumptuous to suggest they were somehow ‘brilliant’ at being different. Therefore, the title of the presentation was more simply ‘How to be different’, they suggested. Sharon explained they intended to discuss their lighting ‘journey’, how they set up a very different model (in other words not just being a consultancy or lighting design practice) and how this approach has enabled them to do all sorts of other light-based things. ‘It wasn’t really a deliberate approach. We kind of fell into it; we stumbled into it. But we found it fitted around our personal lifestyles and we both had young kids and both felt the same about things,’ Sharon said. ‘You can argue that, obviously, we are all different; that is totally true. But what we think is important is embracing and “owning” your difference. So, working out why you want to be different, how you’re different; how you bring that difference into everything you do in your working life is needed,’ added Martin. ‘Just because everyone else does x and everybody else studies y, we started realising that, actually, that doesn’t matter. We don’t have to have that sort of same ethos as everybody else,’ he said. Light Collective is ‘different’ in a number of small, relatively superficial ways, Sharon outlined initially. They have no

stock profile photographs and no set office space, for example. But being ‘different’ also comes back to a much deeper outlook, ethos and approach to work, life and lighting.


Martin and Sharon argued that, for them, they try to stick to ten broad ‘rules’, rules that govern their approach to light, lighting and lighting design and which, in turn, underpin their ‘difference’. Their presentation then looked at each of these in turn.

1. LOOK AT THE WORLD AROUND YOU ‘This, we think, is a great mantra for being a lighting designer in general. But it can also be applied to finding your own, different path,’ explained Martin. ‘If you look around you will see that lots of people are doing things differently, lots of people are doing things the same. By observing this you sort of expand your inner lighting “library” and your mental way of doing things and, from that, you can look and see what blends of those different things you can put together and create your own route,’ he added. Sharon highlighted how the pair had done this in practice right from the off, often by making and posting videos to YouTube. ‘Everywhere we went, everywhere we travelled, whatever we saw, we tried to video it and put it on a YouTube channel,’ she said. ‘People would be looking at light, experiencing light; it would be about us trying to engage people with light. Some of them are very good and very evocative, and some of them are really dreadful! Our video skills have improved over the years, but it was just about sharing our experiences,’ she added.

2. HAVE THE CONFIDENCE TO BE ON YOUR OWN ‘We also think it is really important to have the confidence to be on your own; to step away and go somewhere where you haven’t got reference or guidance. We are all safe in a crowd,’ explained Sharon. ‘It is about putting yourself to the test,’ added Martin.

3. KNOW HOW YOU WANT TO BE DIFFERENT ‘One of the things we have discovered by this process of observing people, which we find inspiring, or projects that we really like or cities that we’ve visited, is that we decided that we wanted to give back to the community,’ said Martin.




The ILP’s ‘How to be brilliant’ events ‘We are interested in how lighting can be more than just a nice functional or decorative thing, how it can have some social value and how we can help to raise up the profession, the lighting profession, and make it better. To also get all of the amazingly cool people that we know in lighting some more recognition,’ he added. It was this impetus that prompted Martin and Sharon to co-create the Social Light Movement, where they held workshops in rundown areas of cities, brought in students and taught or helped them to understand how to work within a community; how to engage people, how to design, how to take into account what people want and the way people use a space. ‘It was about explaining to the communities in what light can do,’ said Sharon. Sharon also highlighted Light Collective’s ‘guerrilla lighting’ initiatives, where they have worked with the public or students all over the world to bring lighting to the streets, often through the use of spontaneous (but still planned and co-ordinated) high-powered LED torches to light up buildings, bridges or other areas of the public realm. ‘It was a very cheap, fast, effective; very media-friendly,’ said Sharon. ‘It was a brilliant way to teach people how lighting transforms the urban environment.’

‘It was an exercise to talk about light, to get the conversation going. To show what light can do,’ added Martin.

4. TRY NEW THINGS ‘Get out of your comfort zone,’ said Martin, with Sharon agreeing on the importance of being challenged – and challenging yourself – personally and professionally. ‘A lot of the projects we have done have been things where we have never, ever done it before. They have involved things that are very much out of our comfort zone. ‘It is a bit stressful but, once you step out of your comfort zone, it is amazing what you can achieve, or work out how to do,’ Sharon said. For example, Martin highlighted how, for a project for Xicato to promote a new warm-white LED, instead of a dull PowerPoint presentation they instead created a pop-up restaurant with a seven-course meal, where every course was a different colour of the spectrum. ‘People could connect with the LED, see the food, see how good the colour was. We also did a little treasure hunt where we had 14 vases of flowers, 12 of which were lit with the Xicato LED, and two were lit with tungsten. The designers had to spot the two tungsten ones,’ he added.

One of Light Collective’s ‘guerrilla’ lighting projects. Main image on previous page: ‘Design DNA’ by Light Collective, created in conjunction with partners ArchLIGHT Summit and The Lighting Exchange



5. BE ABSURD ‘We also think, and you might be able to tell this, that it is important not to take yourself too seriously. Be a little bit absurd,’ said Martin. Again using work for Xicato as an example, Martin highlighted how they had livened up a Xicato stand at a trade fair by creating a comic. ‘We took their technical sales pitch on LEDs and we turned it into “Xicato man” within a comic. How he would battle flicker and so on. Inside the stand there was also a theatrical show,’ he explained. ‘There is the idea that, as lighting designers, we’re always trying to impress, we’re always trying to be exceptional,’ added Sharon. ‘For us, as long as we’re happy, we’re happy. We know we don’t have to be the best; we just need to be us.’

6. KNOW THAT YOU WILL BUMP HEADS ‘There is that phrase, “if you stand up above the parapet, you’ll get shot down”,’ said Sharon. ‘So know that anything you do, once you’re outspoken, you’ll be critiqued.’ However, sometimes criticism can turn into a positive, she pointed out, as it was through criticism that the Women in

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The ILP’s ‘How to be brilliant’ events Lighting movement came about. Sharon explained that they had made a 30-minute film called ‘The Perfect Light’ where they had interviewed designers from all over the world about ‘why were we using LED?’. It had already been shown – successfully – in several cities when a female designer came up and pointed out that, of the 22 lighting designers interviewed, only three had been women. ‘It was completely unconscious bias. We just thought, “oh, that was really bad”,’ Martin conceded. ‘So, we started the Women in Lighting project. It is about trying to build a platform to promote women in lighting. ‘It was a complete light-bulb moment for us. We did some research and we looked at all the people who were high profile within the lighting industry, all the people who won awards or were on judging panels, all the people who were keynote speakers, everything like that. And we found that it was completely biased towards men, which is why we created the Women in Lighting project. Basically, we wanted to try and correct that,’ he added. ‘This Women in Lighting project actually received a huge amount of criticism,’ said Sharon, again citing the ‘bump your heads mantra’. ‘It wasn’t needed, it wasn’t necessary, and so on. But we’re just going to carry on, despite the comments.’ In fact, with now 75 ambassadors in 75 countries and nearly 200 interviews on the website now, the Women in Lighting movement, she added, is now ‘growing and growing.’

7. KNOW THAT YOU ARE UNIQUE ‘What we’ve found is that there was a point in the development of Light Collective where we reached a tipping point, where people would come to us and say, “we want you to do this because we know you’ll do something different”. So, actually, being different became almost a value proposition for us,’ explained Martin, with Sharon chipping in, to laughter: ‘Also, it is very hard!’ Sharon and Martin then talked through how they had risen to the challenge of meeting a number of ‘impossible’ briefs. Martin cited an IALD annual conference in Mexico where they had been asked to provide ‘something’ creative to keep people engaged, something that people could do together and which would bring them together. ‘We thought to ourselves: lighting conferences, what happens? You go to a lighting conference, you sit in a badly lit, dark conference room in the basement of a hotel. You talk about lighting a lot but you

The Xicato seven-course, pop-up ‘LED’ meal; every course was a different colour of the spectrum. Photograph by Sanna FisherPayne. Below, a suitably ‘different’ cartoon-style headshot of Sharon and Martin

are completely unaware of the natural light conditions outside,’ Martin said. ‘So we said, “OK, we’re in Mexico, let’s get everybody to at least once in the conference to go outside and take a photograph of the Mexican sky.” We ended up with about 150-200 photographs, through loads of different times of day over three days. And so we made them into little Pan­ tone-inspired mini-postcards and put them into a film and showed it at the end. It was a fantastic location, as storms would often roll in and create amazing and varied sky conditions.’

8. DO STUFF YOU LIKE ‘This is a really obvious one, in a way,’ said Sharon. ‘There are lots of things that we dream up together, and they are probably rubbish. But then we try and go out and do them because they’re things that make us happy.’ ‘We have a project list. We pick one and we try and make it work; we try and find a home for it,’ Martin added.

10. IT’S NOT ALL ABOUT YOU ‘We’re trying to do a lot of things that weren’t just about us,’ said Sharon. ‘In the last ten years there have been a lot of projects we have done that have been about sharing work with other people, and appreciating what other people do,’ she added. ‘You’ve had a peak behind the Light Collective curtain,’ Martin concluded as the event drew to a close. ‘We are still a work in progress, and we’re really happy to help and work with people, to work with everybody. ‘If people come to us and say, “I’ve got this project, how would you make that work?”, it is really about getting involved and helping. Or just pointing people in the right direction,’ he added.

9. BE HONEST, BE YOURSELF ‘We’re happy to say where we find inspiration and whose work inspires us because we think Picasso’s phrase, “good artists copy, great artists steal”, is really good,’ said Martin. ‘We’re really happy that, ever since we’ve started Light Collective, we talk about other people’s work as much as we talk about our own. ‘Because we think it’s really important to show how inspiring light can be and there are so many amazing people working with light who deserve credit and promotion.’ Martin added.


The ILP will once again be running the How to be brilliant series throughout 2022, once again with the kind support of Premier member BEGA. Speakers for this year’s programme are still being finalised, and 2022’s events will be a blend of physical and online. Keep an eye out online for updates at how-to-be-brilliant and to be added to the invitation list please email


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Education and research within lighting For PhD students, events such as ‘LumeNet’ and the VELUX Academic Forum offer a vital opportunity to get together, network and share cuttingedge research. Even though the pandemic has meant a transition from face-to-face to online, the most recent events have still been breaking new ground when it comes to lighting research By Martina Frattura and Dr Kynthia Chamilothori


or practitioners, lighting standards and technological advances in the field of lighting are usually presented and debated during professional conferences such as Light+Building and LightFair, which act as the centre of exchange between lighting manufacturers and professionals. In parallel to professional lighting conferences, scientific conferences share the current advances in lighting research. Given the growing body of scientific knowledge on the importance of lighting on wellbeing, health, and human functioning, it is paramount that lighting practice and lighting products are based on rigorous scientific evidence and take into account the current knowledge on the complex effects of light on humans. In academia, scientific quality is ensured through peer review, such as peer-reviewed scientific publications, presentation in scientific conferences, and the evaluation of a doctoral dissertation by a committee of experts. A large part of current scientific findings is the result of work conducted by early-career researchers as part of their doctoral thesis (PhD). In addition to the

aforementioned (somewhat limited) opportunities for a PhD student to receive feedback on their work by external experts, events such as ‘LumeNet’ and the VELUX Academic Forum for PhD students in lighting offer a platform for discussion of research objectives and methods [1]. While scientific conferences usually want to hear about actual research findings, these forums focus on discussing the process towards these findings, such as the experimental procedure, how this might be improved, and which issues are worthy of further study.


Established in 2011 by Professor Steve Fotios of the University of Sheffield and Dr Jens Christoffersen from VELUX, these events take place annually, with a focus on daylight (the VELUX Academic Forum) and on general lighting (the LumeNet workshop) in alternate years. As Professor Fotios and Dr Christoffersen explain: ‘The aim is to promote discussion of research objectives and methods, with students presenting their work to senior researchers in the field for critical review.’ Other than from their supervisors, students are otherwise unlikely to get this feedback until after they have submitted a paper or a thesis, and that might be too late. The events allow for discussions in small groups, usually just two experts and a handful of students. The LumeNet and VELUX events invite PhD students to present their research for critical feedback. Contrary to conferences, where time for discussion is usually limited, the schedule of these events is such that each PhD student’s work is discussed in depth by other students and by an invited panel of mentors, senior researchers who have expertise in different domains of lighting research as well as extensive experience of experimental work. A few of the recurring members of the mentor panel are Professor Fotios and Dr Christoffersen, as well as Professor Kevin Houser of Oregon State University, Professor Werner Osterhaus of Aarhus University, Dr Martine Knoop of the Technical University of Berlin, Professor John Mardaljevic of Loughborough University and Professor Sergio Altomonte of the Université Catholique de Louvain. ‘LumeNet and the Academic Forum work because senior researchers volunteer their time to attend,’ continue Professor Fotios and Dr Christoffersen. ‘We assemble a team of researchers for each event. They are chosen to cover as

best we can the themes of the students’ projects, in part by planned attendance at the VELUX Daylight Symposium and by reaching out to interesting people. So, the team varies at each event, but we also have the pleasure of a few people regularly attending the network.’


In addition, the events create a valuable network between PhD students in lighting. ‘Connecting the students across borders and universities creates new collaborations and academic partnerships. We want all students to be able to attend but recognise that some have a limited budget. Attending this or any conference might be beyond their means. By seeking sponsors to cover costs, it is free to attend – there is no registration fee,’ say Professor Fotios and Dr Christoffersen. Because of the Covid-19 pandemic, the fifth edition of LumeNet took place virtually for the first time on 10-11 November 2020. LumeNet 2020 was organised by Dr Kynthia Chamilothori, assistant professor in the Human-Technology Interaction group of the Eindhoven University of Technology, in collaboration with Professor Fotios. For that edition of LumeNet, the event was combined with the autumn school of the ‘LIGHTCAP’ project, a European training network under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions framework [2]. This includes 15 PhD projects from seven universities across Europe, with a dedicated focus on research into the complex relationship of light, perception, attention and cognition, divided into three different research approaches (neuroscientific, laboratory-based experimental psychology, and applied field-based). To that end, the LumeNet review sessions were preceded by lectures by LIGHTCAP mentors on lighting, photometry, lighting design, as well as visual and non-visual effects of lighting on humans. A total of 28 PhD students from 15 universities presented their work in the review sessions, and another 13 attended as audience, and 17 mentors gave their time to review the students’ work [3]. In the research topics presented by the PhD students, outdoor lighting was discussed in terms of adaptive lighting, pedestrian crossings, safety and crime deterrence. Another important topic was daylight and its impact on both image forming and non-image forming responses in different contexts, such as public spaces, schools, and healthcare facilities. A further recurring topic was the use of novel technologies in lighting research,




Education and research within lighting such as the use of brain imaging to study the impact of light on humans or the use of virtual reality as an experimental tool, as well as its advantages and limitations. A selection of research topics presented by the PhD candidates in LumeNet 2020 is included in the panel below.


The lighting-related research projects currently undertaken in our academic institutions cover a wide range of different domains, such as health and wellbeing, safety, visual comfort, energy consumption, and biodiversity, showing great promise for the advancement of scientific knowledge in the field. Events such as LumeNet and the VELUX Academic Forum support the emergence of a generation of lighting researchers who appreciate both the multifaceted aspects of lighting and the importance of scientific rigour, peer feedback, and exchange between the lighting community.

A screenshot of some of November’s LumeNet virtual participants

An ongoing conversation between professionals, industries and universities is necessary for progress in the field. LumeNet and the VELUX Academic Forum are paving the way towards creating and sustaining a lighting community that is conscious of the complex effects of


T 1.

he LumeNet 2020 saw a wide range of presentations and discussions taking place. To give a flavour, here is a selection of three that were presented by the PhD candidates at the event.

Combining image-forming and non-image-forming effects in the lighting design process. This is a project being researched by PhD candidate Myrta Gkaintatzi-Masouti within the Building Lighting group of the Department of the Built Environment at the Eindhoven University of Technology, under the supervision of Dr Mariëlle Aarts and Dr Juliëtte van Duijnhoven. Myrta’s investigation, which is part of the LIGHTCAP project, is questioning why designers rarely introduce the non-visual-forming effects into their ‘big picture’, assuming it is because of a lack of a framework which she would like to create and implement. As she explains: ‘The greater picture is of course to help future designers with making better buildings, that considers the needs and wellbeing of the occupants. Currently we see that there is an increasing need to reduce energy use in buildings, but at the

light on humans, and the wider responsibility of lighting researchers and practitioners towards society. Martina Frattura is an architectural lighting designer and Dr Kynthia Chamilothori is assistant professor in the Human-Technology Interaction (HTI) group at the Eindhoven University of Technology.

same time we should keep in mind that we make buildings to shelter people and therefore their comfort should be in the centre.’ 2.

Quantification of light-dose in reallife: from dosimetry to non-visual effects. This research is being undertaken by PhD candidate Steffen Hartmeyer at the Laboratory for Integrated Performance in Design (LIPID) of the School of Architecture, Civil and Environmental Engineering at the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne. This PhD project is under the supervision of Professor Marilyne Andersen. Steffen’s work, which is part of the LIGHTCAP project, is investigating real-life light exposure patterns by linking them to physiological and behavioural responses and then examining how to optimise the daily personal light exposure. As he explains: ‘Depending on the field of application, this may take the shape of personal feedback systems, interventions to reduce circadian disruption in shift-work and trans-meridian travel, light therapy, and, of course, architectural lighting design.’ Measuring real-life light exposure patterns together with non-visual responses, Steffen’s goal is to

contribute to identifying the main features of ideal natural light exposure that can guide the design choices. ‘For such a cross-disciplinary project, LumeNet represents a way to build up my research network and to get an overview of the state of art, while renewing enthusiasm for the research lying ahead,’ Steffen adds. 3.

Designing for darkness. This research is being conducted by PhD candidate Helga Iselin Wåseth at the Faculty of Health and Social Sciences of the Department of Optometry, Radiography and Lighting Design at the University of South-Eastern Norway. It is being supervised by Professor Sylvia Pont and Dr Veronika Zaikina. With a research project focused on ‘ecological dilemmas’ related to urban lighting, Helga’s work moves between the outdoor lighting prerogatives after dark and the importance of protecting biodiversity in living species, including human beings. ‘I believe that we, through design, can achieve well-lit spaces, with less light. I also believe that this is more relevant now, as LED has become the most common light source,’ Helga says, adding that a need for competence is required, especially now, to ensure that technology effectively facilitates this balance.

[1] LumeNet can be found at:; the VELUX Daylight Academic Forum can be found at: [2] The LIGHTCAP project can be found at: [3] The 17 mentors were: Dr Jens Christoffersen (VELUX); Professor Steve Fotios (University of Sheffield); Professor Werner Osterhaus (Aarhus University); Professor Kevin Houser (Oregon State University); Professor Marilyne Andersen (École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne); Professor Robert Lucas and Dr Tom Woelders (University of Manchester); Dr Gilles Vandewalle (University of Liège); Dr Oliver Stefani (University of Basel); Professor Stephan Völker and Dr. Martine Knoop (Technical University of Berlin); and Professor Yvonne de Kort, Dr Karin Smolders, Dr Antal Haans, Dr Kynthia Chamilothori, Dr Luc Schlangen, and Dr Mariëlle Aarts (Eindhoven University of Technology).





Lighting designers may often dismiss surface-mounted as too obtrusive (or just too plain ugly) to be a viable choice in a lighting scheme. But, with recent improvements in technology, batteries and design, could they be missing a trick? By Graham Lewis


hanks to LED and compact battery technology, surface-mounted emergency lighting can now answer the need for lighting designers to have emergency light fittings that are both functional and unobtrusive. But is surface-mounted as an option being unnecessarily overlooked in favour of recessed, even in situations where surface-mounted could actually be the better option? This article intends to examine how surface-mounted emergency lighting has changed and explore the advantages the latest-generation of surface-mounted emergency lighting products bring for lighting designers.


BS EN 1838 specifies that emergency lighting is required to maintain illumination for a minimum of one to three hours in the event of a power outage so as to enable people to safely evacuate a building. The exact time needed depends on the use and risk of the premises, the immediacy of evacuation and the time needed for re-occupation. For example, buildings where people sleep, such as hotels or

high-rise apartment blocks, require battery back-up duration of a period of at least three hours. Emergency lighting can include a mix of illuminated signage, stand-alone fittings and incorporated lighting. To recap, the main emergency lighting requirements for commercial premises are as follows: • •

Escape-route lighting. This, as its name suggests, is lighting that guides occupants through exit routes. Open-area emergency lighting. Also known as ‘anti-panic’ lighting, this maintains illumination in open areas, allowing people safely to find their escape routes. Stay put/safety lighting. This allows occupants to stay in the building until there is one hour of illumination left, before being escorted to a safe place. High-risk task-area lighting. This may be required in certain industrial or mechanical environments but is covered by different requirements to those discussed in this article.

Within these options, businesses can then choose whether to opt for maintained lighting or non-maintained lighting,

self-contained or central battery sourced systems, and recessed or non-recessed models. Here, again, is a brief recap of these different categories. •

Maintained lighting. This is lighting that is constantly kept on, either as part of the ‘normal’ lighting system, in other words operating from the normal electrical supply or permanently illuminated signage (such as exit signs found in theatres and cinemas). These luminaires are mains-powered when in everyday use but powered by a back-up battery in the event of power failure. Maintained emergency lights can be differentiated from other ‘normal’ lights by a green indicator light. Switch-maintained lighting. This is used as part of the ‘normal’ lighting system but can be switched off when not in use (but will still function in an emergency). Non-maintained lighting. This only comes on when the power supply to the everyday lighting system fails. This form of lighting is powered by a battery that is charged by mains power and activates in the event of power failure to the fitting.



Emergency lighting •

Self-contained or ‘single point’ emergency lights. These each have their own battery source, while central battery systems connect several lights to a single battery. Recessed and surface-mounted emergency lights. Recessed emergency lights sit flush to ceilings and walls, with the battery hidden behind them.

Recessed and (right) surface emergency lighting, in this case from Red Arrow’s ‘Sentinel’ range


Surface-mounted emergency lights, as the name suggests, affix to the surface (batteries included) with only a small hole needed to hardwire the fixture to the mains. From a lighting designer’s perspective, there has always been a conflict between aesthetics, performance and functionality when it comes to emergency lighting. Yet, while surface-mounted fire alarms and carbon monoxide detectors are already accepted as a necessary safety product, surface-mounted emergency lighting is lagging behind, and is often still seen as obtrusive (or just plain ugly). As a result, emergency lighting installers are often tasked with the more disruptive, messy and time-consuming task of drilling large holes to house the light fitting and hide the battery. This is despite recent improvements to surface-mounted models dramatically changing their visual impact, efficacy and reliability. As an alternative, converting one of the existing luminaires into an emergency light is often seen by lighting designers as a far easier option. This maintains the nice straight lines and spacings, and the aesthetic grid patterns of the luminaires. And in some instances, of course, this is more than adequate. However, it may also be necessary to incorporate dedicated emergency luminaires in some situations, which can outperform converted luminaires – but at the expense of aesthetics. Discreet surface-mounted luminaires can be positioned away from the uniformity of the general lighting to best illuminate points of emphasis and key safety equipment. Dedicated optics for escaperoute lighting can be best positioned: something a converted luminaire cannot achieve. Then there’s the question of testing and monitoring, a critical element of any emergency lighting scheme, of course. Surface-mounted models are not only easy to test, but fast and simple to replace without disruption.


So, what technology advances make surface-mounted emergency lights a better choice for lighting designers today? To my mind, there are two. •

LED technology. Traditional emergency lighting luminaires, such as a fluorescent, suffered from battery compatibility issues that reduced their lifespans. As such, many emergency lights were only effective in an emergency for a limited number of times, before they needed to be replaced. LED eradicates these issues, requiring much less power to run, with much more compact lamps and drivers making them easier to incorporate into smaller fittings. Better batteries. In the past, emergency lighting batteries were based around SLA (sealed lead acid) technology, leading to much bulkier fittings and subsequently more requirement for the battery to be hidden away during installation. These were replaced by nickel cadmium batteries, a more compact alternative. Now, lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4) batteries are revolutionising the size and longevity of batteries. Not only are they much smaller but they are longer lasting in terms of recharge and discharge cycles. As a result, they can be incorporated into much smaller emergency lighting fittings and stand-alone products such as illuminated signage.


The technological advantages outlined above have made all types of emergency lighting more discreet, reliable and energy efficient. But it’s surface-mounted emergency lighting that, to my mind, has really been transformed. Surface-mounted models are now slimline and compact, making them less noticeable once they are installed, as well as simple to install, replace and maintain. For instance, a surface-mounted non-maintained emergency light is much quicker and easier to identify during fire safety inspections than the small green indicator light found on a maintained light. For awkward installations, such as listed buildings, architectural anomalies or jobs where time is of the essence and disruption needs to be minimal (for example care homes or schools), surface-mounted emergency lighting provides a low-impact, fast, and reliable option compared to fitting recessed models. It’s time, therefore, for installers and commercial property managers to see how much has changed since the days of unreliable fluorescents and bulky battery packs and recognise surface-mounted emergency lights can be the best option for a wide range of properties.

Graham Lewis is sales director at Red Arrow Electrical

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In the first of a two-part ‘Light on the past’ series, Simon Cornwell delves into the archives to show how the disruption of the Second World War left Glasgow’s E J Stewart at the helm of the Association of Public Lighting Engineers for an unprecedented six years. Yet it took three attempts before he could give a full conference address By Simon Cornwell


he Association of Public Lighting Engineers (APLE) went into suspended animation during the war. Many of its activities were extremely curtailed with administration kept to a minimum. So, annual general meetings, conferences and meetings were either postponed or cancelled. This led to the hiatus of the presidential role, with E J Stewart, inspector of lighting, Glasgow, remaining at the helm of the Association for an unprecedented six years.


Light on the past During his lengthy tenure he prepared three presidential addresses: one for the hurriedly cancelled Glasgow conference of 1939; one to open a small London conference in 1943; and his ‘final’ address for the post-war Glasgow Conference of 1945. Stewart ended up writing three very different narratives, which captured the prewar status quo, the rapid adaptations and changes of the war years, and the fundamentally different outlook after the war. As such, his papers represented and summarised the effects of the war on the APLE, on street lighting in general, and of the mood of the country as it endured those dark days. But let’s start back at the beginning. The lighting engineers from Glasgow enjoyed a long and fruitful association with the APLE. The first ‘full’ conference was held in the city in 1924 and its lighting inspector, S B Langlands, was the Association’s first President – a position immortalised in his post-presidential title of ‘The Grand Old Man’. His deputy, E J Stewart, gave a paper at that debut conference and, 15 years later, had himself become Glasgow’s lighting inspector. Following in the footsteps of the Grand Old Man, he was active in the Association, becoming Vice President in 1938, and so would be taking on the role of President the following year.


But his first presidential address, planned for September 1939 at the Glasgow Conference, was never given. On the eve of the conference the UK declared war on Germany and all street lighting was extinguished under Air Raid Precautions (ARP) rules. The BBC broadcast the news that the APLE’s conference was cancelled. Luckily a copy of his address survived in the archives and the full text was also published in Public Lighting #15. His theme for the conference was the users of street lighting: and so he presented the key concerns and differing expectations of the driver, pedestrian, resident (as the council supplied and maintained stair lighting in the Glasgow tenements), cyclist and the policeman in turn. Stewart’s speech also featured key footnotes that would be touched on again and again through the annals of the APLE. First, the effect of lighting on preventing accidents (still mostly

unmeasured with only singular surveys from key installations being quoted). Second, the effect on crime (with Glasgow’s dark lanes coming in for special examination). And finally, Stewart pontificating on whether it was actual crime, or fear of crime, that the lighting was addressing. There was no mention of the forthcoming war. Stewart didn’t have to be a visionary in this respect, as the APLE had been running ‘blackout’ trials and petitioning the government with ideas for consideration. His blanket refusal to acknowledge the potential conflict was telling: the conference’s purpose was to discuss the problems and potential solutions of the time, rather than deal with a potential conflict and its uncertain course. After war was declared, the APLE abandoned all conferences for the next three years, devoting the pages of a rapidly diminishing Public Lighting to the shortlived blackout, which ran until January 1940.


Other subjects covered included the specification of wartime ‘Star Lighting’ (under BS/ARP 37 and written about in Lighting Journal back in May 2019, ‘Starry Night’, vol 84, no 5). There was also the protection of installations from ‘war effort’ salvagers and providing advice to beleaguered lighting engineers on how to keep their installations in working order when faced with spiralling labour costs and loss of manpower. It was therefore a totally different environment when a short conference was finally convened in London in September

1943, and Stewart rose to the lectern to give his second presidential address. But rather than modify his original paper, he chose to give an entirely different speech. His new paper did not dwell on the practicalities of ‘Star Lighting’ as he considered the principles and specifications settled. Instead, he chose to look to the future – not the more outlandish and nebulous schemes involving suspending lamps from barrage balloons or bouncing searchlights off clouds – all swept aside by Waldram with a paper at the same conference, as Lighting Journal discussed in 2020 (‘The tide (and thinking) begins to turn’, October 2020, vol 85, no 9). But more sensible practicalities. Stewart’s paper was a long list of headings, supported by brief descriptions, of which most were open-ended questions. He first drew attention to the (now battered and neglected) street lighting installations themselves. The simple gas burners and low-wattage tungsten filament lanterns used for Star Lighting had performed well during the war years – could they be adapted for postwar use, particularly as he (correctly) could foresee material supply issues for years to come. Would the production of low-pressure sodium and medium- and high-pressure mercury lamps ramp up to meet demand? And could the newly introduced fluorescent tube be utilised for street lighting use?

Left: the title page of Stewart’s Presidential address of 1939. All the conference programmes and papers had already been printed in anticipation of the conference – and copies are still held in the ILP’s archives. Right: the programme for the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Association of Public Lighting Engineers. The conference was fully prepared when war was declared leading to its hurried and immediate cancellation




Light on the past

Left: E J Stewart MA, BSc, and then President of the APLE, as pictured in the programme. Stewart’s title suggested a presidency from 1939-1940 but in reality he would hold the position for the duration of the war. Above: delegates at the London conference held in September 1943. Stewart is seated in the centre of the front row

Stewart predicted the end of cast iron for columns and brackets and the streel restrictions that would slow post-war reconstruction. This would lead to the emergence of concrete as a dominant material – Glasgow had already started tentatively installing concrete columns a n d b r a c k et s i n n e w h o u s i n g developments. He also accurately stated that lighting fittings would be fewer in numbers, driven by manufacturers producing simpler, plainer ranges, and not subject to the decorative whims of some lighting authorities. He even mentioned that plastic could have some future use in street lighting; the war had spurred on the development of this new material, and he could see its potential. There was now an urgency for new housing stock, due to the bombing campaigns and widespread destruction of the major cities. Stewart gazed into his crystal ball and stated that the desire to restrict the extent of cities, and to minimise travel distances, coupled with ideas emerging from Europe and the USA before the war, would lead to high-rise flats being constructed instead of cottages and houses. Normally this wouldn’t have been in the lighting engineer’s remit but Stewart’s responsibilities extended to stair lighting, and so his paper was the first to mention the forthcoming tower blocks. He wasn’t entirely just reading the runes here – the town planners had been sharpening their pencils and Stewart was aware of their extremely ambitious schemes especially for cities such as Glasgow. Stewart rued the government’s decision not to support centralised control for street lighting during air raids. Glasgow had been a major pioneer of this system, with Stewart lamenting that ‘but for the war, practically all our electric street

lighting in Glasgow would’ve been on central control.’ The coming war had prompted a reverse and rethink in the city’s approach. Glasgow had been installing impulse relays, driven by separate pilot wires, to control sections of street lighting. But fearful that bomb damage to pilot wires could leave large sections of the city uncontrollably lit, it had returned to the previous, less robust (but much safer), cascade relay system. In the end, it was a worthless gesture, as the government mistrusted all central control systems and so ‘Star Lighting’ was eventually installed instead. But Stewart remained a convert, and thought further than most on central control systems, taking a technological leap by suggesting radio control and proposing a system that sounds much like a modern CMS. ‘Will the radio control which is actually in the fighting forces and the police and the fire service be available to other official services, including public lighting? It certainly could be adapted there to a direct distant control of lighting and extinguishing and also to the conveyance of instructions to workers out on the streets and of reports from distant streets to headquarters,’ he said. Another suggestion, and one which would be taken up, was concern over the ballooning number and size of lighting authorities. This had led to differences in street lighting along short stretches of road. This was perfectly demonstrated in London, where moving from borough to borough revealed a patchwork of different intensities, colours, spacing, height and all other permutations of lighting variables. It was an old, yet still valid, argument and Stewart pushed it again, hoping for a post-war solution. ‘Various schemes for combination of adjacent areas have been put forward,’ he said. ‘Some, like the

combining of numerous district lighting areas into one County Council area with one department and one engineer in charge has actually taken place in Lanarkshire. For the small areas, individually unable to support a separate lighting official or department, help may be found in the tendency to regional union, or at least co-operation.’


Whilst his 1939 Presidential introduction solidified and succinctly summarised a key concept in street lighting practice (namely the various users of street lighting), Stewart’s 1943 paper was a remarkable summarisation of several discoveries made during the war, thoughts on how these emerging technologies and materials could be used in the future, the huge new and challenging rebuilding effort, and how local government should be consolidated into big units to meet the challenges. Yet Stewart’s key observations and conclusions were still to come. The interim conference of 1943 remained a brief oasis within the war years, and some form of normality would not be restored until 1945, when victory was finally declared in Europe. That following September, a full conference was finally held in Glasgow, picked as it was so poorly snubbed at the start of war, and Stewart finally gave a full Presidential Address to a packed hall. If his 1943 paper had been prophetic then his final presentation to conference offered a definite roadmap of what was to come, as we will examine next time. Simon Cornwell BSc (Hons) is an R&D development senior manager at Dassault Systems


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No lighting professional providing or receiving professional services wants to end up in court when one side or other within a contract has not met their obligations. That makes it imperative to understand two of the most important obligations within contractual law: ‘reasonable skill and care’ and ‘fitness for purpose’ By Howard Crossman and Daniella Cha


here are two routes by which somebody providing professional services to the lighting industry owes a duty of care to make sure their client does not suffer damage or loss: via ensuring the contract is correct and watertight and via avoiding tort (or negligence). This article intends to examine these issues from a legal perspective, in particular how lighting professionals can ensure either they or those they are contracting are meeting ‘reasonable skill and care’ and ‘fitness for purpose’ obligations within any contract.


A contract will itself often set out express clauses governing standards of care. Alternatively, terms may be implied as a matter of law (in other words, legislation that applies to all contracts). The normal contractual obligation stipulates that someone providing professional services will have a duty to perform ‘with reasonable skill and care’. This is a standard comparable to a reasonably competent professional. However, if niche, highly specialised lighting services are specified, then the duty may be expressed as performance of services with the standard of care that would be expected from, for example, a reasonably competent technical lighting design engineer. This would be distinguished from the standard of a general practitioner, for example, a general engineer operating in that field.

A contract that combines design and build construction is often different, however. Whilst the terms of the contract may, again, specify ‘reasonable skill and care’, if not, there is an implied term that the building will be fit for purpose. This duty exists provided there is reliance by the client on design decisions taken by the contractor itself. There is no reliance if the client insists on a particular design and construct methodology itself overriding the contractor’s duties. A further common duty within contracts is ‘fitness for purpose’. However, this obligation within a contract is not generally placed on professional design consultants in the lighting industry, unless the contract specifically provides for this. Whilst these two phrases, ‘reasonable skill and care’ and ‘fitness for purpose’ may seem familiar, conversational terms, it is vital to understand what they mean in a legal and contractual context, especially given the competitive cut and thrust of the lighting sector. We’ll now therefore look at each term in more detail.


The law provides that, in the absence of any written terms and conditions, a professional designer will have a duty to act with reasonable skill and care. This duty comes from the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982, which requires the supplier of a service to provide the service ‘with reasonable skill and care’. However, it is important to comprehend the ‘ambit’ (or limits) of any test to decide

whether reasonable skill and care has been achieved in the circumstances of a contract. The ambit is a legal test applied to ascertain whether a standard has been met or not. This is, ultimately, the test of negligence (self-evident when you consider the consequences of a contract not being met with reasonable skill and care). The question is whether the professional person you have contracted as a lighting professional has carried out the work to the same standard as ‘another reasonably competent’ member of that profession, who would have met such a standard. Without wanting to get too legally technical, this is what is known as the ‘Bolam Standard’. It comes from a court case that addressed medical negligence (Bolam vs Friern Hospital Management Committee, 1957) where the court concluded reasonable skill and care can be deemed to be sufficient ‘if he exercises the ordinary skill of an ordinary competent man exercising that particular art.’ In other words, if a lighting consultant, engineer or architect or anyone else delivering a service can show that he/she acted in accordance with the usual practice and professional standards current at the time the work was carried out, there will be no liability in negligence. That person, in law, will be deemed to have upheld their duty to act with, again, reasonable skill and care. This duty, incidentally, is implied within all contracts for services by virtue of the Supply of Goods and Services Act 1982.



Legal issues Part of the


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Legal issues However, it may be prudent to ensure that an explicit clause is incorporated in contracts stating that the consultant or service provider is to use the level of reasonable skill and care to be expected of an experienced member of his/ her profession. It is also worth noting that ‘reasonable skill and care’ is not a standard to assess whether the provider of services has achieved a specific result for the client but, rather, to assess whether the duty to exercise reasonable skill and care has been met or not.


The ‘fitness for purpose’ obligation within contractual law imposes a higher duty than reasonable skill and care, as it is an absolute obligation to achieve a specific result. This duty comes from the Sale of Goods Act 1979, which imposes an implied term on any seller acting in the course of business that the goods supplied will be of satisfactory quality. In turn, where the purchaser makes known any particular purpose, that the goods are reasonably fit for purpose. In the context of a contractor under a design and build contract, the contractor is effectively guaranteeing that the components and finished building will be fit for the intended purpose. In another example – this time of a product manufacturer – if fitness for purpose is stipulated in the contract/specification, he/she is effectively guaranteeing that the end product (such as a lamp) will be made so it is fit for the intended purpose. Although there is no fault in clients demanding a ‘guaranteed result’ in what they are paying for (for example, a

contractor contracted to make a building that meets specified performance requirements), problems can crop up where a specified requirement is hidden within the documentation. Or, for example, if there is room for ambiguity as to what (lighting) output, or result has to be achieved. This can be the case in lighting if, say, a customer or client may not just want lighting to switch on and off but degrees of illumination, scenes or effects or control, or a particular design life. The law is riddled with such cases where a court is asked to resolve potential clashes around demands for fitness for purpose to guarantee a result, output or design life versus contradictory requests in the contractual specifications that the design should simply meet, say, current regulations and/or standards. The moral of the story here for any lighting professional who is providing (or, conversely, contracting for) goods or services is to ensure that, where a fitness for purpose obligation is imposed in a contract, both parties are crystal clear as to what they define the ‘intended purpose’ to be in terms of the contract. A lighting designer may, for example, have thought the intended purpose was to ensure that the finished lighting scheme simply switches on and illuminates. Whereas the client’s intended purpose may have been to ensure not only this basic functionality but also that the installation has specific control elements or that areas not delineated within specifications or drawings are illuminated or that the entire building is lit up.


There is an inevitable tension between which duty to apply: reasonable skill and care or fitness for purpose?

Intuitively, clients (in other words those receiving the services or goods) will want to have in place in the contract a clause that sets a higher standard (fitness for purpose), leaving less wriggle room. There is nothing stopping them from doing or seeking this. Many clients take the view that at least some obligations of their consultants, contractors or service providers should be expressed as absolutes rather than be measured against the common law position (in other words, the Bolam Standard). Even though consultants, contractors or service providers will normally have professional indemnity (PI) insurance in place, it generally only covers ‘reasonable skill and care’. As such, the frustration sometimes felt by lighting service providers where clients are pushing for absolute obligations is completely understandable. Such duties can have serious implications with regards to liability and professional indemnity insurance cover. Therefore, it is important for those working in the lighting industry to identify and understand the level of responsibility at the outset.


In conclusion, whether it is the ‘reasonable skill and care’ or ‘fitness for purpose’ test being applied, ensure that the duty is expressly incorporated within your contract, including collateral warranties or third-party rights schedules in the contract. Second, where a ‘fitness for purpose’ obligation is imposed, clarify the intended purpose so that it is mutually understood and agreed with no ambiguity. Finally, if fitness for purpose cannot be avoided, lighting professionals should consider a higher price to reflect the considerable additional duties and the serious implications of lack of any PI insurance cover available for this absolute standard. As always, if in doubt, seek professional legal advice for the best way forward


Howard Crossman (hcrossman@ is head of construction and Daniella Cha is a trainee solicitor at Greenwoods GRM. With offices in London, Cambridge and Peterborough, Greenwoods GRM is a UK commercial law firm providing legal advice and pragmatic solutions to local, national and international clients.




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The Professional Lighting Summit



s ILP members will be only too aware, because of the Covid-19 pandemic the Institution has been unable to hold its annual Professional Lighting Summit (PLS) since we all last got together in Newcastle-upon-Tyne back in June 2019. That may feel like a world ago, but the great news is that the lifting of Covid restrictions has meant the PLS is finally returning this year as an in-person event, giving members an opportunity to catch up face to face, to network, to engage with manufacturers and others, and to listen to some high-level continuing professional development (CPD). The dates therefore to keep clear in your diary are 21-22 June, and the venue for this year’s Professional Lighting Summit will be the Watershed in Bristol (above).

The two days will allow all those involved in lighting to come together to share expertise, discuss new ideas, and understand technical and legal changes facing our community. As ever, the PLS will include a programme of CPD content valuable for lighting engineers, designers, consultants, contractors and other industry professionals. To that end, a call for papers went out in February and programme is currently in the process of being finalised. So, watch this space and online for more details.


Finally, given the changes to how we work and engage that have come about over the past two years, as well as being a face-toface event the PLS will this year also be available to watch online.

Thanks to the easing of Covid restrictions, the ILP will once again be able to hold a faceto-face Professional Lighting Summit in June. So, book 21-22 June in your diary, as it’s time for ILP members to get back together face to face By Jess Gallacher This means members who are unable to get to Bristol in person, whether because of the pandemic or for any other reason, will still be able to benefit from the programme of events. But we very much hope to see as many of you as possible in Bristol after what has been, for many in the industry, a challenging time. There will be a fuller preview in Lighting Journal in the coming months of what to expect and what to look out for. Plus keep an eye out on the ILP website for updates and further details, at: professional-lighting-summit-2022/ Jess Gallacher is the ILP’s Engagement and Communications Manager









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Continuing our profiles of inspirational women working within lighting, this month engineer Amanda Reece tells us about her route into the profession, her passion for passing on knowledge to others, and the important role that the ILP – and Lighting Journal – have played in her progression By Amanda Reece


I’m an engineer for WSP based in Southampton. I came across street lighting due to a good friend encouraging me to go back to work part time helping out with data entry at the office she worked at. My youngest child had just started school and I was venturing back to the workplace after taking time out to raise my family. A good friend told me about a temporary position in the street lighting team doing data entry, I applied and took the role. The position was extended to cover her maternity leave and, once she returned, I moved onto a social welfare post. I saw an advert a couple of years later for a technician post, I applied, was successful and was promoted within three months to engineer. As my background was in administration it was clear I needed educating in the engineering realm if I were to change my career path and the responsibilities that came with that. I wanted to be competent at what I was doing and obtain a full understanding of the technical element of the role. With the backing of my employer at the time I embarked on an HNC/D in Electrical and Electronic Engineering and continued to graduate in 2021 with a BSc

(Hons) in Engineering and Management Studies. It was a long five-year study plan but it paid off in dividends, as I not only learnt much more about the field of engineering but also about myself and my capabilities. As my confidence grew, so did my passion for lighting!


I work in lighting design, helping clients develop their schemes by providing highway lighting, but I also have an interest in education and health and wellbeing. In a way, I have unwittingly bought my experience from the social care background into my lighting role because I always want to ensure access to wellbeing services and learning are accessible to all. I sit on the education committee for the ILP as well as the editorial focus group panel for Lighting Journal. I’m very much a believer in cascading knowledge down – shared learning is a great way to ensure that others can gain from your experience.


I’ve come across many people within the lighting industry who have been inspiring, but for me I would not have taken the

route of engineering if it hadn’t have been for the support of my line manager at Hampshire County Council, Julian Higgins. He was so supportive in my applications for vocational study and opened up a whole new world within the ILP by encouraging me to take part in the then We st e r n R e g i o n ‘ M i n i Pa p e r s ’ competition. From this, I went on to write my presentation – on what to do when you unearth buried human remains when excavating on site – which was published within Lighting Journal and won ‘Best Article of the Year’ (‘Buried meaning’, April 2017, vol 82 no 4). During my career, I’ve come to realise there is potential in all of us – it’s just about having faith in yourself and having the support of good peers and management to help you become successful.


Lack of opportunities for women engineers. Despite huge steps to encourage equality, there is still a barrier when it comes to women having access to promotion and engineering acknowledgement.



Women in lighting Stereotypical attitudes do remain a barrier, too. There are still many barriers when it comes to equality for women in engineering – but it is much better than it used to be.


As an artist, working with light allows me to work with my two favourite mediums. Light creates a perspective, gives meaning, tells a story and identifies with its surroundings. Its theatrical, medicinal and holds holistic properties for health. As a lighting professional, being an influencer to its output also means playing a part in the protection of the environment, an area of significant importance.



The exterior lighting diploma has to be up there on the list of achievements. I loved my week at the Draycote Hotel, not least having my meals cooked and my bed made! I also met some great people, and it gave me the foundation upon which to build the rest of my lighting career.

Contributing to Lighting Journal has given me the opportunity to write, something I had forgotten I loved to do. It has also given me many articles to ponder, ones that led to further research and ideas for projects. I am always fascinated by the architectural lighting aspect of our work and how creative the designs can be and on such a large scale. How wonderful it is to be involved in those projects that put creativity and art into the buildings around us. Lighting Journal also regularly provides some fantastic examples of projects around the world, and it is my aspiration to be part of this one day. Most importantly, for me, it is the ILP itself and people like Jess Gallacher (Engagement and Communications Manager) for her continuing faith in me and so many others within the lighting community. To be nominated as an ‘Inspirational Women in Lighting’ last year was a tremendous honour but it just proved to me that you can achieve anything with the right people around you.


Be open to trying something new. Test your own ability by not being afraid to push yourself outside your comfort zone. Most of my successes have come about from trying something different and not what I would have predicted for myself. Even more importantly, don’t be discouraged by barriers and rejections you may face; every day is a reason to achieve your own greatness. To my mind, barriers are there not to stop you but to guide you to where you need to be. Amanda Reece BSc (Hons) EngTech AMILP is an engineer with WSP

WANT TO BE INCLUDED? Don’t forget, if you are a woman working within lighting and would like to have your story told, please do get in touch, either via Jess Gallacher on or to Nic Paton on We’ll send you a Q&A form to fill in and return, with a photograph. Simple! Amanda with (right) her partner, Paul. Above: her award-winning 2017 article for Lighting Journal




This directory gives details of suitably qualified, individual members of the Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) who offer consultancy services






BEng (Hons) MIET


WWW.MARSTONHOLDINGS.CO.UK/PROJECTCENTRE Efficient, innovative, and bespoke lighting design services from an award winning consultancy. Experienced in delivering exterior lighting projects from feasibility studies to post construction. Whether it’s highway, street, or public realm lighting, let us assist you to realise your project goals.


WWW.4WAYCONSULTING.COM Providing exterior lighting and ITS consultancy and design services and specialising in the urban and inter-urban environment. Our services span the complete project life cycle for both the public and private sector.


BEng (Hons), CEng, MILP, MIET, MHEA -Managing Director


WINCHESTER SO23 7TA T: +44 (0)1962 855080 M: +44 (0)7779 327413 E: ANDREW@DFL-UK.COM


Professional lighting design consultancy offering technical advice, design and management services for exterior/interior applications for highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on lighting and energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.












Award winning lighting design specialists, delivering innovative design, installation and maintenance solutions in highways, public realm, commercial and architectural environments. Our HERS registered team provide design strategies, impact assessment, technical & certifier support.




Public and private sector professional services providing design, technical support, contract and policy development for all applications of exterior lighting and power from architectural to sports, area and highways applications. PFI technical advisor and certifier support, HERS registered personnel.



Specialist in: motorway, highway schemes, illumination of buildings, major structures, public artworks, amenity area lighting, public spaces, car parks, sports lighting, asset management, reports, plans, assistance, maintenance management, electrical design and communication network design. Registered personnel.





















Professional independent lighting design consultancy providing designs for all exterior applications, including street lighting. Specialists in assisting at the planning application stage with designs, strategies, lighting impact assessments, and expert witness, with a focus on mitigating ecological and environmental impacts.


Outdoor lighting consultancy specialising in adoptable highway and private lighting designs. Our services include Section 38, Section 278, Car Park lighting designs, Commercial floodlighting schemes and environmental impact lighting assessment reporting. Qualified design team with 24 years’ experience in exterior lighting.


PORTSMOUTH PO6 1UJ M: +44 (0)7584 313990 T: +44 (0)121 387 9892 E: SIMON.BUSHELL@ENERVEO.COM




Specialist exterior lighting consultant. Private and adopted lighting and electrical design for highways, car parks, area and sports lighting. Lighting Impact assessments, expert witness and CPD accredited Lighting design AutoCAD and Lighting Reality training courses.


WINCHESTER, SO22 4DS T: 01962 855720 M:0771 364 8786 E: ALAN@ALANTULLALIGHTING.COM

Professional artificial and daylight lighting services covering design, technical support, contract and policy development including expert advice and analysis to develop and implement energy and carbon reduction strategies. Expert witness regarding obtrusive lighting, light nuisance and environmental impact investigations. registered personnel.








Professional consultancy from the UK’s and Irelands largest external lighting contractor. From highways and tunnels, to architectural and public spaces our electrical and lighting designers also provide impact assessments, lighting and carbon reduction strategies along with whole installation packages.




NOTTINGHAM, NG9 2HF T: +44 (0)115 9574900 M: 07834 507070 E: ALAN.JAQUES@ATKINSGLOBAL.COM

Site surveys of sports pitches, road lighting and offices. Architectural lighting for both interior and exterior. Visual Impact Assessments for planning applications. Specialises in problem solving and out-of-the-ordinary projects.









Award winning lighting design practice specialising in interior, exterior, flood and architectural lighting. Emphasis on section 278/38, public realm, ecology receptor mitigation and supporting Councils with planning approvals, CDM2015 and SBD accredited. Specialists in circadian spectrally specific lighting design.


HDip Bus, EngTech AMILP, AMSLL, Tech IEI





Professional consultancy providing technical advice, design and management services for exterior and interior applications including highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.

Exterior lighting consultant’s who specialise in all aspects of street lighting design, section 38’s, section 278’s, project management and maintenance assistance. We also undertake lighting appraisals and environmental lighting studies

Design for all types of exterior lighting including street lighting, car parks, floodlighting, decorative lighting, and private lighting. Independent advice regarding light trespass, carbon reduction and invest to save strategies. Asset management, data capture, inspection and testing services available.



M: + 353 (0)86 2356356 E: PATRICK@REDMONDAMS.IE




Independent expert lighting design services for all exterior and interior lighting applications. We provide sustainable lighting solutions and associated electrical designs. Our services include PSDP for lighting projects, network contractor auditing, and GPS site surveys for existing installations.

Specialists in the preparation of quality and effective street lighting design solutions for Section 38, Section 278 and other highway projects. We also prepare lighting designs for other exterior applications. Our focus is on delivering solutions that provide best value.

Neither Lighting Journal nor the ILP is responsible for any services supplied or agreements entered into as a result of this listing






This will be a two day event, held on 21 and 22 June at Watershed in Bristol and online. The event will be a focus for all those involved in lighting to get together to share expertise, discuss new ideas, understand technical and legal changes to our community – and ultimately to provide each attendee with information on how to carry out their role more effectively. Everyone is welcome! Please add the dates to your diary and we will let you know how and when to book your place in the coming weeks. The ILP is designing a programme of CPD content valuable for lighting engineers, designers, consultants, contractors and other professionals. Alongside the Continuous Professional Development side of the event, there will also be times for networking, and an exhibition. Details on how companies can support this event by taking up exhibition and sponsorship opportunities will be released soon. If you’d like to be on the circulation list for this information, please email For more details visit


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