Lighting Journal May 2023

Page 1

The publication for all lighting professionals


Lighting’s pivotal role in restoring Battersea Power Station as an iconic London landmark


Illuminating the potential of Manchester’s Rochdale Canal Piccadilly Undercroft


The ILP and SLL speaking with one voice to the Lords Science and Technology Committee

Professional best practice from the Institution of Lighting Professionals May 2023 01709 374898 Discover More To view our range of exterior lighting, visit our website or scan the QR code & discover lighting solutions for you. Established in 1982 ASD Lighting PLC Design, Develop & Manufacture in Rotherham, South Yorkshire, UK.
Highway Electrical Association Award Winner 2022



It stands to reason that if both drivers and pedestrians are more alert that will make our roads safer. But can this be achieved through better (or just different) highway lighting? An innovative research project is looking for answers, as Aysheh Alshdaifat, Nima Hafezparast Moadab, and Professor Steve Fotios write



In a strong statement of the growing importance of the profession’s voice, the ILP and SLL came together in March to give oral evidence to the Lords Science and Technology Committee’s investigation into light and noise pollution



Despite its prime location in the heart of the city, the Piccadilly Undercroft area of Manchester’s Rochdale Canal has in recent years has become synonymous with crime and anti-social behaviour. Over three nights in March it was temporarily transformed through light, in what might be – perhaps – a sign of things to come for this neglected space



Chester’s iconic and muchloved Eastgate Clock has been transformed through a new lighting system and CMS, which also now links it with the architectural lighting for the nearby Newgate Bridge and Chester Town Hall. Clare Thomas reports



Specifying underwater lighting effectively is about much more than just understanding IP ratings, explains Benjamin Pfendt



As lighting embraces circular economy approaches, new roles and skills are emerging, including that of the ‘remanufacture engineer’. Tom Ruddell explains what it’s for and why it’s a role becoming increasingly important



The ILP’s updated GN08/23 guidance note on bats and artificial lighting puts avoidance, if appropriate, at the heart of best practice when lighting ecologically sensitive sites. But, as its launch event heard, understanding when or when not to light is not always easy



LDC Manchester will be hosting next month’s Professional Lighting Summit in the buzzing north-west city. But keeping members engaged and interested is a year-round priority, emphasises LDC chair Ian Darlington



The ILP is undertaking a review of TR12: Lighting of pedestrian crossings and is keen to get the views of members. Simon Bushell reports


For decades a derelict shell, London landmark Battersea Power Station has finally been transformed into a space worthy of its heritage and, hopefully, its future. And its new lighting scheme is completely integral to the vision


Covering both the north and south of Ireland, LDC Ireland plays a key role in keeping members in both countries informed. With popular face-to-face events now returning, including one later this month, it has a lot to offer, write Patrick Lawlor and Trevor Scott


Next month’s Professional Lighting Summit, from 14-15 June, is coming up fast. Jess Gallacher explains everything you need to know


Continuing our 2023 profiles of young or up-and-coming lighting professionals, Atkins’ Adrian Walczak explains how the complexities of using light to enhance urban safety at night is what gets him out of bed each morning


The restored (and relit) Battersea Power Station in south-west London, showing the new Speirs Major lighting scheme. Turn to page 30 to find out how the exterior and interior lighting has transformed this iconic space. Photograph by Speirs Major and Peter Landers

Contents 38
AIR31-For-1Replacements LEDReplacement AIR335klm AIR352klm TheAIR3isahighperformanceluminairespecifically designedforchallenginghighwayapplications. Boastingmarket-leadingenergyefficiency,a lightweightdesign,andprovenreliability,itisthe luminaireofchoiceforassetmanagerscarryingout maintenanceornewschemeinstallations.Featuring INDO'saward-winningDirectDrive®innovation,the AIR3deliversa25-yearlifetimewithouttheneedfor TrustedontheUK’smost challenginghighways

Volume 88 No 5

May 2023


Fiona Horgan

Chief Executive

Justin Blades


Nic Paton BA (Hons) MA


LightingJournal’scontentischosenand evaluatedbyvolunteersonourreaderpanel, peerreviewgroupandasmallrepresentative groupwhichholdsfocusmeetingsresponsible forthestrategicdirectionofthepublication. Ifyouwouldliketovolunteertobeinvolved, pleasecontacttheeditor.Wealsowelcome reader letters to the editor.

Graphic & Layout Design

George Eason


Advertising Manager

Emma Barrett


Published by Matrix Print Consultants Ltd on behalf of Institution of Lighting Professionals

Regent House, Regent Place, Rugby CV21 2PN

Telephone: 01788 576492



Produced by

Matrix Print Consultants Ltd

Unit C,Northfield Point, Cunliffe Drive, Kettering, Northants NN16 9QJ

Tel: 01536 527297



© ILP 2023

The views or statements expressed in these pages do not necessarily accord with those of The Institution of Lighting Professionals or the Lighting Journal’s editor. Photocopying of Lighting Journal items for private use is permitted, but not for commercial purposes or economic gain. Reprints of material published in these pages is available for a fee, on application to the editor.

‘We [lighting professionals] are very good at talking to ourselves. We struggle to get information out there,’ ILP Technical Manager Guy Harding admitted in March.

To an extent, Guy was doing himself and the profession a disservice. This was not least because he was at that very moment speaking to a roomful of eminent parliamentarians who make up the House of Lords Science and Technology Committee. So, arguably, he was very much getting the message about ‘right light, right place, right time’ out there.

The Lords, as we report from page 10, were grilling Guy, Allan Howard, Stuart Morton and the Society of Light and Lighting’s Andrew Bissell as part of the committee’s ongoing investigation into the impact of artificial light and noise on human health.

At time of writing, in April, it is of course too early to say whether the committee’s recommendations will be powerful enough to shift the dial on policy and regulation around light pollution. However, almost irrespective of what the committee reports – whether it makes the case for French-style regulatory crackdowns or goes for something softer – the very fact the ILP and SLL had the opportunity to make a very public case for ‘good’ lighting, and for lighting to speak with one voice, was hugely important.

Yet Guy does have a point; we all know that lighting as an industry is very good at talking to – and at – itself.

The Lords oral evidence session, for example, highlighted the array of technical guidance and documents the industry has produced on light pollution and mitigating obtrusive light. Documents that, by and large, are only ever read, noticed or acted upon by those within the profession.

It also became very clear that if as a nation we’re serious about wanting to preserve, protect or even restore our night skies, lighting professionals can only do and say so much.

There’s an important role here, yes, for national and local politicians, especially local authority decision makers. But it is also up to planners (especially urban planners), architects, retailers and, probably most especially, the general public to recognise and understand that we can’t all just continue to blast our cityscapes, public spaces, back gardens, porches, garages, or night economies with cheap, poorly controlled and specified (and often blinding or even pulsating) light.

This message is opportune as our thoughts turn to next month’s Professional Lighting Summit in Manchester (and see our preview from page 54). In many respects, the PLS is of course the moment in the year when ILP members absolutely have permission to get together to talk to and at themselves.

But it is almost a perfect moment to reflect on how the ILP is doing at widening its voice and the voice of the profession, with the Strategy 2026 a key part of this. Equally, the PLS is an opportunity for individual ILP members to, yes, take on board new thinking and CPD, network and engage, but also to think about the strength and clarity of the profession’s wider message and influence.

Finally, on a separate note (but staying in Manchester), do if you get a moment check out our article from page 16 on the ‘Transformation Through Light’ project that, as its name suggests, transformed the city’s Piccadilly Undercroft area of Rochdale Canal for three nights in March.

As BDP’s Chris Lowe explained to me, the project, with help from Studiotech, showed the power of even a temporary lighting installation to change how we perceive an otherwise grim, unloved, even threatening urban space.

In turn, it sent a powerful message to the many visitors over the three days (lighting getting its voice ‘out there’ again) of just what this central, urban space could be like with the right vision and investment – and illumination.

Nic Paton Editor


ILP members receive Lighting Journal every month as part of their membership. You can join the ILP online, through Alternatively, to subscribe or order copies please email Diane Sterne at The ILP also provides a Lighting Journal subscription service to many libraries, universities, research establishments, non-governmental organisations, and local and national governments.



It stands to reason that if both drivers and pedestrians are more alert that will make our roads safer. But can this be achieved through better (or just different) highway lighting? An innovative research project is looking for answers

This article is about the non-visual effects of road lighting on pedestrians and drivers when travelling after dark. It is based on research being conducted by two University of Sheffield PhD students, working within the LightCAP project.

The LightCAP project is a European consortium led by Eindhoven Technical University. Aysheh Alshdaifat’s work is focusing on pedestrians, while Nima Hafezparast Moadab’s research is more focused on drivers.

Non-visual effects are the biological and behavioural responses to light rather than direct visual responses, such as the ability to detect and identify an object.

Non-visual responses include the synchronisation of circadian rhythms to the 24-hour cycle of light and dark and hormone activation. In combination, these can result

in changes of mood and sleepiness. This work is concerned with alertness, in other words the state of being ready to see, understand, and act in a particular situation.

Alertness is impaired by factors including sleepiness and cognitive workload and, in this work, we are investigating the degree to which these effects can be mitigated by road lighting.


Impaired alertness may lead to a potential hazard being unseen or seen, but not so quickly and hence with less time for avoiding action. In turn, this can lead to increases in the frequency and/or severity of road-traffic collisions or to pedestrian trip and slip accidents.

Sleepiness, as most of us will be well aware, is the state of being tired and wanting to

sleep. Sleepiness can negatively affect risk-taking, impulsivity, attention, and decision-making. For drivers, sleepiness at the wheel interferes with driving skills and diminishes a driver’s ability to react.

Cognitive workload is the dynamic relationship between the resources required to carry out a task and one’s ability to supply those resources.

Cognitive workload when driving has increased in recent years with the introduction of in-vehicle information technologies and a rise in traffic intensity. Drivers with higher levels of cognitive workload are less likely to anticipate hazards; they may fail to identify objects in their line of sight and are slower to take evasive action when it is needed.

Enhancing alertness can make both pedestrians and drivers more aware of potential hazards. Our research is investigating the degree to which light is able to enhance alertness in the context of road lighting after dark in the evening, in other words when the natural circadian rhythm is for us to become more sleepy and therefore less alert.

We can expect light to affect alertness through two pathways, by suppression of melatonin release in the evening and by activating regions of the brain associated with cognitive performance and alertness.

Any alerting effect of light will vary according to factors including the duration of exposure (for road users, this is the duration of their journey), the intensity and spectral power distribution of light, and the timing of light exposure (for example, whether in the morning or the evening). From previous work we know that short wavelength (blue) light is particularly effective at inducing non-visual responses.

However, while previous studies have


demonstrated that light affects measures of alertness, those studies have not represented typical exposure to road lighting.

For example, the test participants were first adapted to dark conditions followed by exposure to bright test lighting. Our work is concerned with travel in the evenings, where the pattern of exposure is reversed. In other words, adaptation first to interior lighting (in the home or office) followed by driving or walking after dark under road lighting; from bright to dark rather than from dark to bright.


An experiment was conducted in November evenings (starting at 9pm) when the body starts to prepare for sleep.

Test participants were first exposed for two hours (the adaptation phase) of lighting typical domestic situations (2700K, 25 lux vertical illuminance at eye level) whilst seated.

For the next hour (the test phase) they were exposed to one of four lighting conditions, with half the participants remaining seated and the other half walking on a

Highway lighting

treadmill to measure the impact on alertness of physical activity.

The four lighting conditions in the test phase are shown in Table 1 (overleaf). The non-visual effect of road lighting is characterised by its ‘Melanopic Equivalent Daylight Illuminance’ (EDI), the circadian metric adopted by the CIE [1]

Four measures were recorded to establish the state of alertness, repeated at intervals of about 30 minutes throughout the experiment.

These were: melatonin levels (from saliva MAY 2023 LIGHTING JOURNAL 7

Highway lighting

samples), reaction time to an acoustic stimulus (press the button quickly when you hear the beep), self-reported sleepiness, and skin temperature.

Figure 1 (right) shows that melatonin levels increased with time during the experiment, as is expected during the evening. Figure 2 shows the melatonin levels under each lighting condition in the test phase. If the higher melanopic content of C3 (25 lux, 2700K) was sufficient to enhance alertness, this would be seen as a lower level of melatonin than for the other lighting conditions. However, it is not: the differences were not suggested to be significant. The same conclusion was drawn from analyses of the other three measures.


The aim of study at PhD level is to learn how to conduct rigorous research. In other words, to ask the question ‘Are we certain?’ when looking at the results of an experiment.

The results of this experiment did not suggest any differences in alerting effect between the four lighting conditions used in the test phase, confirming the conclusions reported in previous work [2,3]. Are we certain? Not yet. Two further experiments are currently being conducted to provide further validation.

In one experiment, representing the pedestrian context, the first experiment is being repeated but with more extreme conditions. The lighting includes one condition of much higher short wavelength content (giving a melanopic EDI of 100 lux) than used in the first experiment.

Both participants are walking on treadmills, but with their walking speed increased to a level considered to lie in the moderate exercise zone as characterised by their heart rate.

The other experiment, representing the driving context, is using a scale model of a road scene in which test participants, as drivers, are required to detect hazards which move or suddenly appear.

This is done in parallel with auditory and

visual distractions to add cognitive load. There were four lighting conditions: representing a low road surface luminance, a higher luminance, and the addition of dim or bright in-vehicle blue lighting, suggested to improve driving performance.


The findings of this work do not suggest that road lighting of illuminances and spectra typical of current practice offer any benefit in improving the alertness of road users.

We place confidence in this finding by replication and extension of our original experiment and by comparisons with the work of other researchers.

Aysheh Alshdaifat and Nima Hafezparast Moadab are PhD students in the School of Architecture at the University of Sheffield. Professor Steve Fotios PhD BEng(Hons), PGCE, FHEA, FSLL, MILP, is professor of lighting and visual perception at the University of Sheffield


The LightCap project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under the Marie Skłodowska-Curie grant agreement No. 860613.

[1] Commission Internationale de l’Éclairage. ‘CIE System for Metrology of Optical Radiation for ipRGC-Influenced Responses to Light’. CIE S 026/E:2018. Vienna: CIE, 2018. Available online at: [2] Bhagavathula R, Gibbons R, Hanifin J, Brainard G. ‘LED Roadway Lighting: Impact on Driver Sleep Health and Alertness’. NCHRP Research Report 2021. Available online at: [3] Gibbons RB, Bhagavathula R, Warfield B, Brainard GC, Hanifin JP. ‘Impact of solid state roadway lighting on melatonin in humans’. Clocks & Sleep 2022; 4(4): 633-657. Available online:

CONDITION CCT (K) VERTICAL ILLUMINANCE AT THE EYE (LX) MELANOPIC EDI (LX) REPRESENTED SITUATION C1 2700 8 3.4 Typical road lighting C2 5800 8 10.4 Same illuminance as C1 but higher CCT C3 2700 25 10.7 Same spectrum as C1 but higher illuminance, to match EDI of C2. Same lighting as the adaptation phase C4 2700 0.5 0.5 Dark environment
Table 1. Lighting conditions during the test phase of the experiment Figure 1. Melatonin levels recorded through the experiment Figure 2. Melatonin levels recorded through the test lighting phase of the experiment under each lighting condition


In a strong statement of the growing importance of the profession’s voice, the ILP and SLL came together in March to give oral evidence to the Lords Science and Technology Committee’s investigation into light and noise pollution

It has long been recognised that, if lighting professionals want to effect real ‘right light, right place, right time’ change on the ground, whether individually or collectively, they need to be talking beyond the profession.

Lighting, we all know, is very good at speaking to itself. But without much broader education and leadership – of the general public, of planners and architects, and of

policy makers and decision makers – very little, probably, will change, and certainly not at speed.

To that end, the fact the ILP and Society of Light and Lighting had the opportunity to come together in partnership in March to make the case for ‘good’ lighting as a way to mitigate, reduce and control light pollution in front of an eminent committee of Lords was, clearly, good news.

Despite representing separate organisations, the evidence session in front of members of the House of Lords Science and Technology Committee was very much about lighting presenting a single, combined voice.

From the ILP side, the panel comprised the ILP’s Technical Manager Guy Harding, past President Allan Howard, and Stuart Morton, professional head of highways and aviation electrical design at Jacobs and a member of the ILP’s Technical Committee. The SLL, meanwhile, was represented by Andrew Bissell, President of the Society of Light and Lighting (SLL). Guy and Allan are MSLL and FSLL respectively as well as ILP members and Andrew is MILP along with his role as SLL.

As ILP members are probably now well aware, the Lords committee is investigating the effects of artificial light and noise on human health, with the move being pretty much the first serious move by politicians in this area since the 2009 Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution and its report ‘Artificiallightintheenvironment’[1]


The ILP’s Technical Committee previously submitted evidence during the inquiry’s consultation phase, as reported in last month’s LightingJournal(‘Weneedtopush onchangingmindsets’, April 2023, vol 88 no 4). However, the fact the ILP was subsequently called to give oral evidence with the SLL was a step up for both organisations, and a welcome sign that the committee is serious about hearing what the profession has to say on this important issue.

Opening the session, committee chair Baroness Brown of Cambridge asked the panel to outline what factors they argued needed to be considered in setting guidelines for lighting installations to minimise effects on health.


‘We have a lot of people who are willing to look after National Parks, Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty, and rightly so, but we are perhaps a little bit lagging in what we’re doing in the cities. And, of course, there are more people in towns and cities and villages, where we do have extreme light pollution,’ said Andrew Bissell.

‘So, for myself, I would like to see us focus more on the cities; both the direct light people are receiving into their windows and to themselves. Also, the overall skyglow that you get from cities. There is just no rest from the light pollution. Wherever you go, there is light pollution, there’s an ambience. We have got to start to now just hold ourselves at a steady level, but we need to start reducing that, we need to start actually reducing that ambience within cities,’ he added.

‘I believe we need to look more at how we protect the sensitive environments that are left in the United Kingdom. Similar to what Andrew mentioned, protecting dark skies and reducing the impact they have already made,’ agreed Stuart Morton.

‘I think one of the key things we need to see going forward is that artificial light needs to be taken seriously through the planning process,’ said Allan Howard, who is also

group technical director, Lighting & Energy Solutions, at WSP.

‘It is not really at the moment. We need to see it taken up and dealt with then, as opposed to conditions being left in that will then be taken up only if a complaint is raised because the planners do not have time to make sure that the conditions have been discharged.’

Guy Harding highlighted the fact the ILP has produced a range of TRs, PLGs and GNs on mitigating light pollution and obtrusive light at night. He also indicated just how much of a ‘live’ issue light pollution can be in the community. ‘I deal with probably one or two calls a week from the general public complaining about artificial lighting, be it light in their windows, light from a tennis court or light from a roadway. So we are seeing it at the sharp end,’ he told the committee.


Lord Mitchell then asked the panel to rate, on a scale of one to 10, how well they felt the UK is doing at tackling light pollution, with 10 being ‘brilliant’ and one ‘rubbish’. ‘Is it being given appropriate priority by decision makers? Are there any common

Light pollution

misconceptions about light pollution you want to correct? Do you feel the government’s response to the 2009 Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution report on artificial light was adequate?’ he added.

Guy Harding replied that he’d give the UK a rating of just two to three. ‘It is really not being tackled properly; it is not being taken seriously. I think in the street lighting side of things we are getting our act together. There has been a lot of work to control street lighting. But, having flown into the UK at night –to Birmingham Airport – you have only got to look down to see the amount of stray light coming up. We are not controlling it properly.

‘It is so obvious the bad installations when you start looking for them and focusing yourself to see. You realise how much poor lighting there actually is,’ he said.

Allan Howard went for a slightly more generous four, ‘pushing towards five’, for his rating. ‘There is a lot of good work going on; in more recent years there has certainly been a focus through the Dark Skies Campaign. I drive up to Derbyshire quite a lot. You only have to look at the sides of the motorway, which have huge lit advertising signs. There is a lot of industry, and commercial properties where the light is going everywhere because it has not been considered or designed properly,’ he pointed out.

Stuart Morton agreed with Allan in going for a four. ‘There is some good practice in the

Brightly illuminated façades and advertising hoardings were highlighted by the ILP/SLL panel as a key source of light pollution MAY 2023 LIGHTING JOURNAL 11

Light pollution

United Kingdom. But I think we can do better. Misconception-wise, a lot of people default to light due to perception regarding crime and safety. That’s a misconception we need to look at as an industry,’ he said.

‘There are some unfortunate side-effects of lighting. We’re fully aware of the impact on protected species, such as bats, we know it impacts their food chain and their ecosystems that are going to be vital to future human health.’

Andrew Bissell, finally, went for a five, highlighting the fact there had been positive change over the past 25 years ago when he had started in the industry. At that time, very few projects, perhaps one in 25 or one in 30, would have considered light pollution or obtrusive light. ‘It was very rare that you would be asked by your local authority or a planner to do something about it. Now, I would say almost every single project you are asked to look at the obtrusive light and light pollution,’ he said.

‘So, we have clearly made huge strides, and I would say that has been the case for the last 10 years – that we have been asked to look at light pollution on every project. But the reason I’d give it a five is that the guidance hasn’t kept up with technology or our knowledge or the research that’s out there.

‘We have a scenario where, if you’re in a National Park, the criteria is quite strict about the amount of uplight you can have, the amount of spill light. But as soon as you move into a city, suddenly you could have 10 times, 15 times more light spill on to a building façade and that is considered acceptable.

‘When you talk to people about light pollution and when you talk to people about dark skies, there is an immediate connotation that you are going to create an area that is less interesting; it’s not as exciting. If you said to a developer about their public realm scheme that you want to make it a dark skyfriendly area, they will immediately think no one will come there, no one will visit.

Because it won’t look vibrant or exciting.

‘But the reality is you can do both. So there is an education piece that is needed there. You can have great lighting design, vibrancy and all of those things you want for entertainment. But you can protect the night sky as well. I would like to see us stop talking about dark skies and talk about the health and wellbeing of “pristine” skies, and I think people will then come along on the journey with us,’ Andrew added.


The Lords on the committee were then keen to investigate Stuart Morton’s assertion around misconceptions when it comes to lighting and safety at night. Stuart highlighted research by Cambridgeshire Police and West Mercia Police suggesting that switching off street lights does not affect crime rates at night [2]. ‘Within our industry, the default for safety is all about perception; to use a remote footpath or to walk along the canal in the dark, you need to light it to make people safe. But, obviously, that is a feeling of safety rather than actually being safe,’ he said.

‘Within the ILP, we’ve been going back to

first principles. We’re trying to guide principles from the beginning – to say, do you need to light something, yes or no? And avoiding street lighting, which is within our sphere of influence, is relatively easy for us. But Allan mentioned illuminated advertising boards; they are much higher up the chain.

‘From a misconception point of view, it is how do we educate people to change their perceptions. If you use a path that is lit, are you safer? The way we’re looking at is that if we can remove some of the wrong decision-making early on, we’ll reduce our impact on energy consumption and carbon emissions and then, obviously, light pollution follows,’ he added.

Lords Krebs, Borwick and Rees all probed about the size and length of the studies and how well conducted they were, with Stuart agreeing to send on the relevant research reports. Lord Rees also queried whether it was felt light pollution was high enough up the agenda. Did planning authorities have access to the relevant expertise they needed, he questioned.

‘Over the years, we have seen through the ILP and the other industry a gradual erosion of the lighting professional, the road lighting manager and anything similar in local authorities,’ replied Allan Howard.

‘When I started 39 years ago there was a big team, but now in a number of authorities there is no one who is necessarily a lighting expert. There are in some authorities, but in a lot there are not. They are not there for the planning teams and the environmental teams to call upon to get their own advice,’ he added.

Andrew Bissell then highlighted how easy it is these days for anyone to buy cheap, offthe-shelf LED lighting, and how this is contributing to light pollution. ‘If you look at people’s properties, years ago they might have had one lantern at the front door and maybe a floodlight on the back door or over the garage.

‘Nowadays they might have a string of

From left: Guy Harding, Allan Howard, Stuart Morton and Andrew Bissell giving evidence to the committee
Lord Rees (who joined the evidence session online) and committee chair Baroness Brown of Cambridge


Central Management System

Control & monitor your street lighting and connected assets, maximise energy efficiency and reduce costs.

The CELtek Central Management System allows the end user to control and monitor their street lighting and connected assets whilst providing substantial cost and energy efficiencies.

Internet of Things (IoT) capability, including multi-level platform integration to other manufacturers equipment has broadened the scope of applications. This has increased system flexibility and allowed the end customer greater control of their assets.

The system has the versatility to operate effectively even in the most challenging environments including mountainous terrain and tunnels. This versatility together with industry leading on-site support and competitive ongoing service costs means the CELtek system offers excellent capability and value.

Wessex Way, Wincanton Business Park, Wincanton, Somerset, BA9 9RR Company reg no 1855059 England
- -
828 400

Light pollution

downlights in their eaves, and two or three lights, then some uplighters on a tree. LEDs and the simplicity of them, that they are so cheap for what they are, more people are using more light and they don’t necessarily need to,’ he added.

Andrew also suggested there might be mileage in the UK introducing a similar law to France’s 2013 legislation that requires shops to turn off lights between 1am and 6am or risk a €750 fine [3].

‘Perhaps we need to start seeing that happening in the UK as well for certain types of light. Leave enough on that people can get into their front door; but then turn everything else off. The problem is how cheap it is, and that everyone wants to compete with their neighbour,’ he said.


Lord Winston then asked whether there was stronger evidence for noise pollution than light pollution in terms of impact on health. ‘Is there a sufficiently robust research evidence base to make regulations, for example, about light pollution?’ he queried.

‘It is an interesting one,’ replied Andrew Bissell. ‘In terms of actual research and evidence, it is sparse; in terms of the health effects of lighting in the external environment. But, equally, we are aware that light has an impact on ourselves and on wildlife. So it is about how we get from where we are with this understanding, this belief, that we are aware there is an impact. How do we get

to a point that that is strong enough to change policy? There is plenty of anecdotal information but that’s not good enough to change policy with.’

He pointed to journals such as Lighting ResearchandTechnology, where more and more research is being published on the links between lighting and light pollution. But this, he conceded, was probably not enough to change the regulatory environment.

Allan Howard then highlighted guidance such as the ILP’s GN01, which is essentially a distillation of research done by CIE [4]. But he agreed that actually pinning down what is and isn’t acceptable in terms of vertical light on to a window, brightness and intensity and so on, is complex and difficult.

In terms of case law, more often than not, lighting professionals have to rely on noise pollution case law and, if possible, apply that to lighting. If someone’s security light was going on and off all night, for example, noise case law could probably be brought to bear.

‘But otherwise we are really lacking in case law to follow things up,’ Allan added. ‘The other area is we will look to the lighting levels that are advised in GN01 and go out and do the assessments we are able to measure, which is the light on to a window. We can’t measure the intensity and the CIE is trying to find a different metric by which we can assess, effectively, brightness, or the light source against the background you are viewing it against,’ he said.

Lord Borwick then questioned whether preventing someone from wanting to light the front of their house to stop intruders would ever really be realistic or popular.

‘There is nothing wrong with domestic security lighting, as long as you get it pointing downwards, so that it lights the area you want, not the people opposite you,’ replied Allan Howard. ‘And you have the sensors aimed properly, so that they’re picking up people who are coming up your driveway not people walking across or a car driving down the road. Then they’re absolutely fine.

‘The problem we have is that you cannot really go to any of the major retail outfits and buy a luminaire, a security light with a sensor, that will do what we want it to do. We have had discussions with B&Q and other retailers as an industry, but they still stock a very flat little thing with an LED chip in the middle that shines light everywhere. And until we have the right products on the market, we can’t encourage people who, rightly, want to create a little bit of security for their premises to actually put up the right product; it is not available to them in the domestic market,’ he added.

Baroness Neuberger also emphasised the industry needed to be considering these questions in the context of their impact on gender, including the risk of darker urban environments simply driving women and girls off the streets at night.

‘Obviously, it’s not research, but my gut reaction is that, at night, I will be walking down the middle of the street. The fact that it’s lit means that I can be more aware of somebody coming from the vehicles or whatever. And so therefore I hope very much that you are properly researching the gender impact of the work that you are doing on street lighting,’ she said.

‘Absolutely. Diversity and inclusion is top of the agenda for us at the moment,’ agreed Stuart Morton, highlighting research from UCL suggesting that street lighting may

Lord Winston

actually enable rather than hinder crime [5] ‘We’re looking at that and we’re taking it seriously. That is something that we’re looking at as an Institution very seriously,’ he said.


As the evidence session drew to a close, the four panellists were invited to make a closing statement around what they all felt needed to be the most pressing priority for government to address on light pollution policy in UK. ‘What would your key recommendations be?’ asked Baroness Brown.

‘We’ve got to look everywhere,’ said Andrew Bissell, returning to his opening remarks. ‘National Parks, it’s absolutely right that we look there. But we have got to start looking at towns and cities.

‘And we have got to stop giving exemptions. We can’t reduce the criteria just because it is already a bright area. If anything, we should be more harsh on those areas because they are bright. The guidance, the Standards and policies really need to take a step forward, to say to the towns, cities and bigger polluters, “you’ve got more work to do and we’re going to set more onerous criteria for you”.

‘It is all achievable. This is not going to suddenly cost somebody a fortune. It is good design, good products, used in the right way. But I would focus on the bigger polluters now that we have got a really good handle on National Parks and Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty,’ he said in conclusion.

‘I’d move to protect rural areas as dark zones to limit impact now before it gets any. It is quite simple for me,’ agreed Stuart Morton.

‘I think it would be good to see artificial light being more properly integrated into planning. And that installations are required to be designed using competent lighting professionals who know what they’re doing,’ said Allan Howard.

‘What I would suggest is, as part of that –and it is picked up as part of the EU document GreenPublicProcurementforLighting – is that those designers are involved in the process all the way through to commissioning [6]

‘Because what we find is that, certainly in installations where I have been called in to investigate because they’ve been really bad, there has been contractor substitution. “I could do this a bit cheaper for you if I do this.” And then all of a sudden we have lost the light control, we have lost the energy efficiency and it has become a very poor installation.

‘We need to make sure that where conditions are put into planning that they are actually checked off. If you have the designer in that loop, that it is installed, set up, commissioned and the client knows how to use the control system, then we would solve an awful lot of problems, both interior and exterior,’ Allan added.

Guy Harding then concluded the session by returning to the issue of the ubiquity and availability of cheap LED. ‘To me, it’s the availability of cheap, unregulated products coming in through the DIY wholesalers and the internet, especially exports coming in from the Far East, completely lacking light control,’ he highlighted. ‘Even on social media, it’s popping up on my feed, really poor products. And you think, “why is this being allowed?”.’

[1] ‘Artificial light in the environment’, Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution, 2009, [2]

‘‘Evidence regarding the impact of the street lighting on crime and antisocial Behaviour’, Cambridgeshire Research Group, August 2015, uploads/2017/08/Street-Lighting-Policy-Note_Final.pdf; Thompson L et al (2022). ‘Absence of Street Lighting May Prevent Vehicle Crime, but Spatial and Temporal Displacement Remains a Concern’, Journal of Quantitative Criminology, January 2022, [3] ‘France to turn off office and shop lights at night’, Reuters, January 2013 [4] ‘Guidance Note 1 for the reduction of obtrusive light 2021’, the ILP, guidance-note-1-for-the-reduction-of-obtrusive-light-2021/ [5] ‘Street lighting may enable rather than hinder street crime’, March 2022, UCL and the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, [6] ‘Revision of the EU Green Public Procurement Criteria for Road Lighting and traffic signals’, European Commission, 2019,

Light pollution

Would you ban them from being sold, he was asked. ‘Education is part of it. But there are certain products which I think should be banned, which are not suitable for any purpose at all. Apart from just providing glare,’ Guy concluded.


The House of Lords Science and Technology Committee announced in January it intended to conduct an inquiry into the impact of artificial light and noise on human health. The committee is seeking to understand three key points:

• the evidence base surrounding the impacts of artificial light and noise on human health in the UK;

• the nature of the current regulatory landscape for light and noise pollution and how well these regulations are enforced; and

• how policy should be adjusted to minimise the impacts of artificial light and noise on human health.

Further oral evidence sessions were due to be taking place during last month (April). It is not yet clear when any final report will be produced by the committee.


The full evidence session, including the previous session on noise pollution, can be viewed online here: https://www. c518f605-9151-41a8-a8a019f87e8b5a78 MAY 2023 LIGHTING JOURNAL 15


Despite its prime location in the heart of the city, the Piccadilly Undercroft area of Manchester’s Rochdale Canal has in recent years become synonymous with crime and anti-social behaviour. Over three nights in March it was temporarily transformed through light, in what might be – perhaps – a sign of things to come for this neglected space

Rochdale Canal’s Piccadilly Undercroft in Manchester, showing how the Transformation Through Light project changed the space

One of Manchester’s nicknames is that it is the ‘Venice of the north’, thanks to the myriad Industrial Revolution-era canals that criss-cross the city.

That heritage is still very visible today, not least in Piccadilly Basin, in the Ashton and Bridgewater Canals, in the Rochdale Canal (among many others) and, indeed, in the city’s Canal Street.

But it’s also a heritage that is, in places, at risk of being lost, with one such space in the city being the Undercroft area of Rochdale Canal. This is a unique underground space just steps from Piccadilly Station, yet somewhere that most of us would probably be very wary of venturing into, especially at night. Out of sight and difficult to maintain, it has become associated with crime and anti-social behaviour in recent years.

As Chris Lowe, lighting design associate at BDP, tells Lighting Journal: ‘It’s not

currently a very pleasant area. There is a lot of anti-social behaviour, people are frightened to use the Undercroft; it is not a great place to be as a boat user or a pedestrian.’

That all changed, at least for three nights, during March thanks to a project in which the Canal & River Trust (CRT) invited BDP to design a lighting installation for three nights which temporarily transformed the space. The event was generously sponsored by Studiotech.

The project, aptly called ‘Transformation Through Light’, saw light being used to provide a much safer and more inviting environment and, while temporary on this occasion, showcasing perhaps the potential of the space should it be given the right investment and TLC.

BDP devised the lighting concept for the event and Studiotech reused surplus luminaires and equipment from previous

Public realm lighting

projects and provided the installation and programming, all free of charge.

‘It was a great event across the three nights. As always with these temporary installations, it was a bit down to the wire, with people running around on site trying to fix things. We made some final tweaks after the first night which intensified some of the colour saturation’ Chris explains.

The opportunity to transform the space arose because the Canal & River Trust was doing maintenance construction work in the space anyway, including some engineering work, replacing lock gates and repairing the towpath.

‘So CRT had the area sealed off as a secure site and isolated from the public while those works were taking place. It was a perfect opportunity for us to get in there, install some temporary lighting and do an event at the same time,’ says Chris. MAY 2023 LIGHTING JOURNAL 17

Public realm lighting

The existing lighting for the space is very basic and dated floodlighting and not in the best of shape. It was never designed with aesthetics in mind. ‘During the daytime you can get quite a lot of light flooding into certain parts, but at night it is something else; it is a very gloomy and oppressive space,’ says Chris.


The events kicked off at BDP’s nearby studio, where the Canal & River Trust gave a presentation about the background to the canal, the history of the space and its plans for it for the future. Then the team from BDP gave a short presentation on the design intent and aims of the event itself before guided tours of around 15 to 20 people were taken down to the Undercroft, led through the space and back up and out.

‘People spent about 10-15 minutes in the Undercroft site itself. Because it is still a live site, we were using very low lighting levels; there were unprotected edges and so a risk of falls into water, which required careful risk management. So smallish groups people had to be escorted through,’ Chris explains.

The 130m of the Undercroft is divided into four distinct parts, starting with the tunnel underneath the A6 and the Malmaison hotel, followed by two sets of lock gates, then the space opens out into a long columned pedestrian bridge under 111 Piccadilly, and, finally, an iron bridge with a final lock gate.

Accordingly, the installation itself had four distinct characters. In the tunnel, first, a series of linear RGB projectors pushed light on to the surface of the water, reflecting it back up on to the tunnel’s brick arch. These luminaires were programmed in sequence to create a chase effect to draw participants along the route whilst not giving too much away. ‘The concept was initially to create a dark approach, a bit of tension, suspense and intrigue before coming on to the bigger

reveals, where the space opens up,’ Chris says.

‘There was a fade effect that travelled just ahead of people as they walked along. Each one dimmed up and down in sequence so that you had a tracer effect as you moved into the tunnel to draw people through.

‘At this time of year just before sunset you get low angle sunlight bouncing off the water and almost penetrating straight down the tunnel itself. This was part of the inspiration for casting some of the amber sunlight/fiery fragmented imagery on to the columns. This effect was beautifully reflected in the water which acted as a black mirror,’ Chris adds.


At the lock gates, there was then a dynamic digital installation, which was gradually revealed as the visitors walked up the towpath, and which highlighted difference lit scenes.

‘We set up the lock gates so that there was a waterfall cascade down into the lock, we used a UV Gobo projector to pick up the frothy white, aerated water,’ Chris explains.

‘It worked really effectively because the blackness of the surrounding water wasn’t picked up on at all, and then you just had the luminous white cascade that really stood out from the background. It looked really strong and accentuated the depth of the lock. You also got the sound of the roaring water, reverberating around space.

‘As the space opens up, beyond the tunnel, we had some soft up-washing up on to the soffit, which was all white. We wanted to give it an ephemeral, ethereal effect; to show the expansiveness of the space following on from the sense of enclosure after the tunnel,’ Chris continues.

‘When you get into it, it is quite a big space open to the outside on the left, it is quite unusual, and the space goes back further than you might imagine. The opportunities for the space are endless, both for some more permanent lighting and physical intervention into the space.

‘One of the guests pointed out how Instagrammable the space is and how people could go down there and take shots of themselves.

‘In Manchester’s Northern Quarter you’ve got lots of fashion houses; you see them all doing fashion shots in the older industrial streets and so it’d be an amazing backdrop for these brands. You could start to use the space to create some really interesting visuals,’ Chris adds.

At the iron bridge exit, right under Dale Street, there was a further final installation. ‘We used three different pastel tones, some blue, some cyan and some amber, projecting across the water’s surface’ Chris outlines.

‘There was a lot of water movement here because, to the right-hand side there was another waterfall from the adjacent lock gate. So there was an intense dynamic interplay of the three tones of light on the underside of the bridge, coming from the turbulent water. It was a final brilliant effect,’ he adds.

Sourcing power for the installation was

Visitors passing (carefully) through the space and admiring the projections

Public realm lighting

something of a challenge. ‘We had to have two generators down there,’ Chris explains. ‘If it had been a permanent installation, we could have tapped into the existing supply and do it properly. But, given that this was a live site and it was a street lighting council supply it was just easier to get two generators in and power it all up for each night.’

Another major challenge was simply ensuring the safe location of equipment. As the site was live and the installation was of course adjacent to the water, the team had to be mindful of what could be safely located and temporarily fixed so as not to put the install team or visitors at risk or hinder any of the CRT’s site works.


What then, finally, has Chris taken away from this project? ‘The overall intention for the space is for permanent improvement. If they can gather funding from stakeholders and partners, the aim is to have some sort of physical intervention in that space, to open it up in some way to make it more appealing to people and to make the canal more visible to people above on the street level, in addition to new lighting,’ Chris explains.

‘Most people walking into the city centre from Piccadilly station just don’t know there is a canal underneath them. But when you’re in the Piccadilly Basin area the canal is big, quite open. But as soon as it enters the Undercroft area it disappears from public view and doesn’t really appear until the courts and Canal Street, which is a shame. It’s an invisible part of Manchester’s heritage. Yet you are in the heart of Manchester, a few hundred metres away from Piccadilly Station,’ he says.

‘It was a privilege to be able to support, and be involved in, this inspiring community scheme,’ adds Ed Vickery, director at Studiotech.

‘The temporary installations showed the potential of this under-used and currently unloved space for something more permanent and beneficial for Manchester – and, we strongly feel, illustrated the power that lighting has in this context to transform urban spaces,’ he says.

‘This shows how you can change a space, the perceptions of a space, just through lighting,’ agrees Chris in conclusion. ‘Yes, in this instance it was only a temporary installation, but increased usage, increased footfall, inherently makes a space safer and more appealing

‘At the moment almost nobody uses the Undercroft apart from people carrying out illicit types of behaviour and boaters who have to navigate through; it’s intimidating and people are put off from using the space,’ he adds.


Discover Kingfisher

For 35 years we have been delivering outstanding lighting solutions all over the UK and Ireland.

Our product range has been specifically designed to o er excellent e iciency and uniformity, and coupled with bespoke accessories and controls packages ensure each scheme exceeds expectation.

01623 415900 plc Part of the group of companies STREET | AMENITY | ARCHITECTURAL | SPORT | HIGH MAST | RAIL | CONTROLS


The ILP’s updated GN08/23 guidance note on bats and artificial lighting puts avoidance, if appropriate, at the heart of best practice when lighting ecologically sensitive sites. But, as its launch event heard, understanding when or when not to light may not always be straightforward

In his article in last month’s edition of Lighting Journal, ILP Technical Manager Guy Harding highlighted an important tension at the heart of the ILP’s updated GN08/23 guidance note on bats and artificial lighting [1].

This is that, while the GN (rightly) emphasises the value of avoidance – in other words, of avoiding or simply not using artificial light in the first place – this, equally rightly, has to be balanced against the important role of lighting in terms of safety and vulnerability at night.

As Guy put it: ‘The last thing we want is to be creating “no go” areas for vulnerable people at night. It’s all about taking a holistic approach.’

This tension was also recognised at the preview launch event for the guidance in February, a joint event run by the Bat

Conservation Trust (BCT) and the ILP, as the GN itself is a joint publication.

Held at Arup’s offices in London, the event was well-attended, with the audience split between interested lighting professionals and (the majority) interested ecologists. The ILP’s former Technical Director, Peter Harrison – who played a key role in the latest iteration of the GN before his retirement last year – was also in the audience.

Guy Harding opened the event, with Cody Levine, team leader (ecology) at Worcestershire County Council, then explaining best practice, and some of the common pitfalls, around taking a landscape-scale approach to planning light mitigation, highlighting a project along the river in the city centre.

He was followed by Innessa Lomas, senior designer for night-time and landscape at Arup, and Georgina Young, consultant

A Greater Horseshoe bat in flight, courtesy of BCT. Photograph by Hugh Clark

Artificial lighting and bats

ecologist, who outlined some of the latest thinking and practice around light pollution mitigation, including the importance of taking a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach.


Jan Collins, head of biodiversity at BCT, then addressed key principles of good ecological planning and mitigation for bats and lighting. This included the need to be embedding mitigation hierarchy principles into planning lighting and the importance of using avoidance to mitigate impact in the first place.

This, she emphasised, needed to address avoidance as the first step. ‘It is crucial that the impact of obtrusive lighting on species is mitigated or, better still, avoided altogether,’ she explained.

‘Darkness should be the first considered option, because it avoids impacts on bats and other wildlife but it also saves on materials and energy, reduces exposure to raised night-time light levels for people, and it protects the wider environment,’ she added.

Early engagement, collaboration and bringing in representatives from multiple disciplines were all essential. ‘That might involve ecologists working alongside architects, landscape architects, engineers and lighting professionals,’ Jan said, highlighting that the Chartered Institute of Ecology and Environmental Management (https:// has a directory of ecological consultants.

‘The importance of integrating avoidance measures, as the first step of the mitigation hierarchy, into developmental design can’t be over-emphasised,’ Jan concluded.

‘Lighting conflicts can be completely avoided by providing ecologically functional dark corridors and, that’s advantageous because, not only do proposals then automatically comply with relevant legislation and policy, but you can avoid costly and time-consuming additional surveys, mitigation, and post-development monitoring.

‘Local planning authorities are likely to favour applications where steps have been taken to avoid the conflict, and evidence is provided of those steps having been taken,’ she added.


Stuart Morton, professional head of highways and aviation electrical design, transportation, people and places solutions at Jacobs, then focused in on the role of avoidance in lighting mitigation, with his perhaps being the keynote presentation for lighting professionals in the audience.

Stuart emphasised, first, that understanding when and how not to light – and why – is not always straightforward. ‘It is a complex topic, and it is very challenging,’ he explained. BS 5489-1 does not have within it a statutory requirement to light [2]. ‘It is the elephant in the room, it is as simple as that.’

Even the term ‘avoidance’ can be interpreted in different ways. ‘It could mean not lighting at all. But it could also mean avoiding difficult situations or conversations. One of the most challenging things that we all face is avoidance; avoidance is a challenge for all of us,’ Stuart said.

‘It is a mindset, that’s my perspective; to avoid something is about mindset change. We light things for different reasons. We light to extend our days. We light for safety. We light to reduce crime and the fear of crime,’ he explained.

It also stands to reason, given that you’re

coming at a project as a lighting designer or engineer, the default is to end up lighting.

‘That’s the mindset that we’re in right now. But if we’re going to enable avoidance, we’re going to need to change our views,’ Stuart said. Approaching a project and concluding that, in fact, it doesn’t need to be lit or, even more so, it shouldn’t be lit can be a significant, and sometimes difficult, mindset shift.

‘My view is that, to enable avoidance, we all need to level up a bit; that is one of the biggest challenges we all face. One of the best things we can do is understand how to collaborate, how to understand multiple datasets and identify gaps in the data that we’ve got. To have confidence in our abilities and that comes with time and experience,’ Stuart said to the audience.

In an echo of Jan Collins, Stuart also emphasised the importance and value of taking a multidisciplinary, collaborative approach, especially using and maximising the expertise of ecologists. ‘The key to successfully do this is to collaborate with other disciplines,’ he said.

‘We must find out what absolutely must be lit. We talk about crime; we talk about safety. Safety is a bit more data led; there are datasets that can show there has been an accident here and therefore it needs to be lit. Crime is more subjective. The lighting Standards will always ensure that we light conflict areas such as; roundabouts, significant junctions and so on,’ Stuart advised.

Alongside this, and increasingly, is the need to light cycle and sustainable travel networks. Then there will often need to be conversations – sometimes more subjective –around how, why or even whether to be lighting areas with significant crime issues, used by vulnerable people, or otherwise predominantly rural areas that could cause an impact on protected species. MAY 2023 LIGHTING JOURNAL 23
The GN08 preview event. Photograph by Paul Carstairs/Arup

Artificial lighting and bats

Within this, Stuart highlighted the importance of masterplanning, of working with safety engineers as well as ecologists, and of maintaining design notes and risk assessments in case of future conflict or questioning. National Highways appraisal tool TA501 could also be valuable in this context, he advised [3]

‘TA501 explains what extent of lighting should be present on a major motorway, for instance. We should be encouraging people to run those, particularly as it is a good way to reduce the impact of lighting in general,’ he said.

‘Masterplanning the project is absolutely key. Overlaying the proposed lighting extent versus the ecologist’s findings is a good visual way to show people what’s going on, and it also allows the conversations with multiple stakeholders to take place,’ Stuart added.


This became a hot topic for the room as Stuart presented the latest recommendations. Many of the key areas of good practice remain; no UV, sharp cut off, 0% upward light ratio, lower intensity but now there are clear recommendations on:

• A warm white spectrum (2700K or lower) should be adopted to reduce blue light component.

• Lights should feature peak wavelengths higher than 550nm to avoid the component of light most disturbing to bats (Stone, 2012).

• Waymarking inground markers (with bat-hats to control for upward light spill or with no upward light spill) to delineate path edges, see later case study.

• Use of a central management system (CMS) with additional web-enabled devices to light on demand.

• Use of motion sensors for local authority street lighting may not be feasible unless the authority has the

potential for smart metering through a CMS.

• The use of specialist bollard or lowlevel downward directional luminaires is strongly discouraged.

Overall, the changes were well received by the audience. But the recommendation to stop using bollards was discussed at length. As Stuart explained, bollards are susceptible to a considerable range of issues. These include: vandalism, greater opportunity for electrical risk due to damage, repeat maintenance visits, and that repeat maintenance visits equals greater in-direct carbon emissions.

Aside from the maintenance issues, most bollards suffer from unacceptable glare, poor illumination efficiency, a high upward light output, increased upward light scatter from surfaces (due to pooling of light) and poor facial recognition (due to contrast), all of which makes them unsuitable for most sites, Stuart also highlighted.

What was felt to be more worrying for the authors of the guidance was that some bollards can also act as an invertebrate ‘vacuum’, in effect hoovering up or attracting all

the insects and invertebrates in a local area and moving them from where they should be living or foraging.

What happens then is that, if sensitive-to-light bat species are nearby, they won’t be able to prey on them. This, in turn, could have a negative effect on things like foraging or birth rates. If there are not-sosensitive-to-light bat species nearby, they will take full advantage, thereby possibly having a positive impact on the same things. Yet, at the same time, there is a risk of species being dropped into unnatural locations where they can then become prey themselves. Either way, the lighting is changing the natural balance of an eco-system and dynamic of biodiversity.

Therefore, Stuart highlighted, the guidance is recommending that bollards should only be considered in specialist cases, and where the lighting professional and/or project manager are able to resolve these issues.


Stuart then highlighted two contrasting case studies which are to be included in GN08/23 – one in Malvern and one in Kidderminster – where the designers had decided both to light and not light.

For the ‘not light’ project, a small residential development of approximately 100 properties near the Malvern Hills, the key had been that a) it was a semi-rural site adjacent to an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and b) that the entire site was being used for used by Lesser and Greater Horseshoe bats. These, it was discovered, were no longer confined to the extremity of the site, as had been advised during the planning process, and are also extremely light averse as a species.

Because of the ecological findings, the dark baseline, the semi-rural nature, and the provision of a standard road layout, it was therefore decided an unilluminated approach was the best option to move


Don’t Switch to Solar

It isn’t right for every project.

BUT when the calculations work…

It’s light without ongoing energy costs. Without trenching costs. A permanent or temporary lighting and energy storage solution that can also be used to power CCTV and other Smart City sensors.

Challenge us – see if a solar solution could work for you.

Artificial lighting and bats

forward, Stuart said. Not providing street lighting avoided causing a significant ecological impact, reduced the risk of contravening disruption to the roost, removed maintenance liability and energy costs, and, as an additional benefit, removed a potential additional carbon burden from the council’s netzero plan.

‘Due to its location within the AONB, we thought “do we really, really need to light this?”. The solution was that we didn’t light it; it’s as simple as that,’ Stuart explained.

‘There were challenges there when we proposed this not-lighting scenario; developers were concerned they might struggle to sell houses. But the local residents love it. They were living in a semi-urban environment anyway, adjacent to the AONB,’ he added.

For the ‘yes light’ project in Kidderminster, this was a residential estate of some 600 properties which, prior to being developed had mostly been a greenfield site with limited private lighting. It was accessed by one single road with no lighting and a further illuminated Class A road.

While there were no specific features that needed to be lit within the development, the main spine road was to be used for buses, cyclists and pedestrians (including school children) and there was a need for people to be able to access shops.

During planning, it emerged that a variety of bat species were using the site, notably again Lesser Horseshoes. They were roosting, foraging and commuting across and beyond the site boundaries to the nearby Hurcott Woods.

‘We had a clash that, from a safety perspective and under the risk assessment of the Standard, a lot of the road wanted to be lit. There were conflict areas and a cycle lane that all suggested it should be lit. But we didn’t feel we could light everything,’ Stuart explained.

The solution was arrived at, through creating a masterplan for the lighting for the entire development, was that the spine road should be lit along its entirety (but with red, reduced impact lighting) but then all side and residential roads should be left unilluminated. Lighting levels were also to be kept as low as possible during the night, with a CMS in place, with post-development monitoring of bats on the site to understand any impact from the lighting.

‘I’ve been back to site a couple of times since and so far, so good. The residents have really opened up to this view that it is a dark area. The red light has well-received, and

they’re not putting security lights on their houses (so far), which is one of the main concerns we had; that people were going to take things into their own hands,’ Stuart explained.

‘When I talk to people about the benefits of avoidance I also talk about the reduction in indirect and direct carbon emissions. When you’re not providing lighting you can remove any conversations about the circular economy too, it is gone. It’s about reduced energy bills and maintenance costs; protecting the night skies. It is also completely in tune with the ROLAN (Responsible Outdoor Lighting At Night) Manifesto.

‘We need to have open and honest conversations, and that can be quite difficult at times. Pick up the phone, ask the difficult questions, especially if you are missing data. The earlier the conversation happens, the better it is for everybody. Whatever we do next can have long-lasting impact. We don’t want to leave a negative or burdensome legacy,’ Stuart added in conclusion.


The afternoon session saw James Miles, technical manager at Kingfisher Lighting, talk through some of the intricacies of lighting contour plans, in particular what these need to include.

This was felt to be a great introduction for the many ecologists in the audience to the

[1] Guidance Note 08/23 Bats and artificial lighting at night,; ‘Night life’, Lighting Journal, April 2023, The ILP, vol 88, no 4 [2] BS 5489-1:2020 – TC ‘Design of road lighting – Lighting of roads and public amenity areas. Code of practice’, BSI, [3] TA 501 – ‘Road lighting appraisal’, Standards for Highways, DMRB, search/6dd9ef51-0898-474a-8680-364924145afd

technical language and everyday work of lighting professionals, seeking to break down any remaining communication barriers between these disciplines to maximise multidisciplinary working.

The final keynote presentation of the day then came from Bonnie Brooks, lighting consultant and director at The Lighting Bee, who addressed what needed to be considered within lighting baseline plans.

As she highlighted, ideally these need to happen at the beginning of the design process, with lighting baseline plans able to inform your use of dark areas’ maps, support habitat areas and buffer zones, inform the lighting strategy and mitigation measures, and guide your assessment of lighting impact.

Lighting baseline plans can also be invaluable in helping designers understand where it is possible to have dark corridors, in understanding and confirming where areas are currently dark.

Post-development monitoring of lighting, as seen in Stuart Morton’s Kidderminster example, was also becoming increasingly commonplace, Bonnie explained.


Guidance Note 08/23 Batsandartificial lighting at night, is available as a free download from the ILP website, at resources/#guidance-notes



The ILP is undertaking a review of TR12: Lighting of pedestrian crossings and is keen to get the views of members

This year the ILP’s Technical Committee formed a working group to update and review TR12: Lighting of pedestrian crossings[1]

The requirements for pedestrian crossing are set out in BSEN13201-2 Annex B and BS5489-1 Annex E. TR12 2007 is intended to give further guidance. BS5489 -1:2020 gives three approaches.

a) Use the normal road lighting.

b) Use separate local lighting, with the criteria of horizontal or vertical illuminance.

c) Incorporate in the lighting design of an adjacent conflict area.

The working group has now started to reappraise the guidance on design of separate local lighting.

In brief, the current TR12 guidance specifies a series of grids:

• Crossing carpet horizontal illuminance.

• Centre vertical illuminance – looking across the crossing in both directions.

• Kerb edge vertical illuminance both sides looking across the crossing.

• At rear of waiting area vertical illuminance facing the crossing.

These are shown in figure 1 on the right. The intention of the grids is to ensure adequate levels on the marked crossing carpet, and to make drivers aware of pedestrians waiting and using the crossing by using positive contrast. The levels at the crossing need to be high enough to compete with the background lighting.

To start the discussion, an actual design on

a P2 road was chosen. The luminaires are crossing-specific optics and, to note, the optic used has a rear shielding (which limits excessive lighting of rear of waiting area and spill light). The target values for these are as below:

• Crossing carpet (existing road) Eav (or average illuminance) 11.5 x 3.5 = 40.25

• Centres 20 Emin (or minimum illuminance at a point)

• Kerb edges 20 Emin

• Rear of waiting area 15 Emin

Then, the actual levels with other road lighting included are:

• Crossing carpet 62.58 Eav

• Centres 21.19-20.12 Emin

• Kerb edges 25.33-20.65 Emin

• Rear of waiting area 18.48-21.10 Emin

Then, with other lights road disregarded, so it can be clearly seen what the supplementary lighting is doing, the figures are:

• Crossing carpet 57.96 Eav (57% Uo, or the overall uniformity as a ratio of the minimum divided by the average)

• Centres 16.72-17.73 Emin

• Kerb edges 21.29-15.38 Emin

• Rear of waiting area 16.79-17.92Emin

• One of the problems with the existing grids is balancing the results, to achieve the Emin on the vertical grids, will often result in over-lighting the carpet. In this example, it is only 50% brighter.


It has been questioned as to whether the present recommended grid arrangements are in the right position and orientation to best ensure the crossing and those using the crossing are well illuminated to the approaching driver.

It seems that the current recommended grid orientation influences where the supplementary lighting units can be positioned, with the unintended consequence of inadequate positive illumination of the pedestrian to the observer (driver).

It is proposed that different grid positions might influence better illumination of pedestrians to the driver.

The proposed arrangement shows vertical illuminance grids at the front and at the rear of the crossing and extending into the rear of the waiting areas. A third grid has been added beyond the crossing just to illustrate an unexpected phenomenon. To confirm, these grids have columns in same positions of the previous TR12 example. This is shown in figure 2.

Figure 1. The different grids as currently specified in TR12

The proposed grid results in this scenario are the following:

• Front 1.97 Eav 12% Uo

• Rear 18.27 Eav 5% Uo

• Beyond crossing 25.68 Eav 7% Uo

What these alternative grid results seem to suggest is that a pedestrian using the crossing has very little positive illumination to the observing driver at the front edge of the crossing.

Acceptable, and better, illumination in this scenario would be at the rear of the crossing. Equally, and somewhat perversely, someone standing on the road behind or beyond the crossing would also be better illuminated than if they are actually on it.

It is the case that the current grids encourage supplementary lighting positions that conveniently tie-in with the position of the beacon poles. However, the position of the beacons and the desire to minimise street clutter is not an adequate reason to persist with the present arrangement if the positive illumination of pedestrians is inadequate.


The only way to increase illumination on the proposed front grid is to move the supplementary lights further away from the crossing.

Incidentally, it is worth considering here a point in the history on dedicated crossing lighting, which may have influenced the present desired piggyback arrangement of using the beacon pole.

In the past, a local light was placed on the beacon pole to illuminate the approaching pedestrian. It was very common to use the PAR38 reflector lamp to wash the waiting area with light. The evolution of TR12 lighting largely stopped this practice, but it may well have influenced the TR12 approach to crossing lighting.

For the next arrangement and practicality, the supplementary lighting units have been moved to the rear of footway and about 3.5m away from the crossing carpet.

There is a correlation between the distance from the crossing and height of columns, so the column height has been increased from

Pedestrian lighting

6m to 7m. There has been no change in luminaire specification.

It also worth taking note of BS EN 13201 Annex B that states ‘mount luminaires a short distance before the crossing’ ‘and direct the light onto the side of pedestrians’ with columns over the crossing this not possible. The result in this scenario is (and shown below in figure 3):

• Front 15.21 Eav 29% Uo

• Rear 14.11 Eav 30% Uo

• Beyond crossing 6.8 Eav 41% Uo

• The new carpet level 42.84 Eav 80% Uo

The new carpet level (42 lux) is lower than previous level (57 lux), but still within original TR12 target. It can also be considered that achieving a prescribed level of Eav and Uo on the front and rear vertical grids looking in both directions would ensure the crossing carpet levels are maintained, so there may not be a need for this separate carpet calculation.


The working group has not tested whether the levels achieved on this proposed new arrangement are adequate or higher than needed. BS5489-1 directs us to EN BS13201 Table 2 for horizontal and Table 6 for vertical illuminance. Also, what would be a desirable level uniformity has not been established –perhaps 25% be adequate.

It is now thought an opportune moment to put the proposal out to the wider membership for consideration.

There may be other ideas and aspects on crossing lighting that need considering, for instance extra enhancement for the waiting pedestrian, whether visibility is a concern with pedestrians behind the beacon pole (something that may be compounded by the veiling effect of the beacons reflective or illuminated bands).

This is your chance to contribute, so don’t miss it! Anyone wishing to contribute should simply email ILP Technical Manager Guy Harding on

Figure 3. This shows where the supplementary lighting units have been moved to the rear of footway and about 3.5m away from the crossing carpet Figure 2. This shows vertical illuminance grids at the front and at the rear of the crossing and extending into the rear of the waiting areas Simon Bushell MBA DMS IENG MILP is lighting design manager at Enerveo
[1] TR12 Lighting of pedestrian crossings, 1997 (updated 2007), publication/tr12-lighting-of-pedestrian-crossings/


For decades a derelict shell, London landmark Battersea Power Station has finally been transformed into a space worthy of its heritage and, hopefully, its future. And its new lighting scheme is completely integral to the vision

The newly lit exterior of Battersea Power Station. This photograph and all on the following pages by Speirs Major and James Newton

With its iconic four white chimneys towering over the Thames, Battersea Power Station has a long been a London landmark.

However, the fact it spent much of the past 30 years derelict, with Londoners watching ambitious redevelopment and rejuvenation projects come and go with weary regularity, meant the decommissioned coal-fired power station also became something of a symbol for the vagaries of the capital’s politics and planning, the ups and downs of its financial and property markets, and the sheer difficulty of transforming this type of structure.

That, finally, all changed last October when the massive Sir Giles Gilbert Scott-designed Grade II* listed Art Deco edifice reopened as a shopping and leisure complex after a 10-year redevelopment project led by Battersea Power Station Development Company.

The Turbine Hall and Control Rooms now include an array of retail units, restaurants and eateries over three levels, although the original control desk in Control Room A, which appeared in the film The King’s Speech, has been kept and restored. There is a viewing platform (109m) up the northwest chimney, reached via a glass lift.

The power station’s Boiler House is due to become Apple’s new London headquarters, with a

workspace for more than 1,000 staff. At the top of the building, sitting above the Boiler House, are 18 so-called ‘Sky Villas’, or luxury flats among roof terraces and gardens, with some 254 flats in total within the development.

Getting the lighting right for such a high-profile project has also been a mammoth task. The lighting masterplan for the scheme was created by Speirs Major back in 2014, so very early on in the cycle of the project. This encompassed not only the illumination of the power station itself and associated public spaces, but also the entire mixed-use scheme, which was to be delivered in multiple phases over several years.

The vision for the lighting was to support a positive experience of the development for all of the different users of the site, celebrating both the industrial heritage of the site as well as its future. Priorities included creating a sense of privacy and intimacy for residents, facilitating easy wayfinding for shoppers and diners, and creating a vibrant atmosphere for locals and tourists. There also needed to be a careful balance of light and darkness across the site.

To that end, light intensities and the scale

Architectural lighting

of the equipment are choreographed to allow the architecture and landscape to have prominence. Lighting levels tail off adjacent to the power station and the Thames to preserve views and, again, maximise the darkness.

Looking at the site’s public realm lighting, as Speirs Major explains, the initial lighting for Phase 1 of the public realm had been designed by GIA Equation. When Speirs Major won the project, this was updated to align with its wider masterplan.

Reflecting on the industrial heritage, the practice proposed early in the project to employ a consistent, warm golden tone (>3000K) across the whole site.

Soft lighting to routes, pathways, and the landscape creates a welcoming character while meeting functional safety and security requirements.

Overall light levels are kept minimal to manage energy use and help reduce environmental impact but are increased at meeting places, gateways, and corners to improve legibility and encourage easy social interaction. Throughout slim fixtures have been used, scaled to blend into the typography. MAY 2023 LIGHTING JOURNAL 31

Architectural lighting


Surprisingly, given its iconic status, the outside of the power station had never been formally lit before the current development, even if many temporary light shows had bathed its walls.

The new exterior lighting (centred of course around the four famous chimneys) is designed to highlight key architectural elements, drawing out the materiality of the building and its fine detailing to create an appealing ambience that successfully blends the old with the new.

Other priorities have included remaining mindful of environmental concerns, the need to protect the historic building fabric, and minimising light spill for residents.

The chimneys are fully lit each night, along with key heritage details that generally appear as shadows or in silhouette by day. As senior partner Mark Major explains: ‘This

approach inverts the experience of the architecture as darkness falls, giving rise to an exciting new interpretation of the form, texture, and colour of this famous listed building.’

Highlighting the chimneys provided the greatest technical challenge. They are revealed with an incredibly even wash of light, transforming them into beacons that glow against the night sky.

Each chimney measures 8.8m in base diameter, 27.57m in base circumference and reaches a height of 42m, and with severe restrictions in possible mounting positions.

The design therefore uses 50 close-offset projectors per chimney to ensure precisely controlled coverage and minimal spill light for top-floor residents.

Rings of high-output RGBW LEDs have been designed, detailed, installed, focused, and programmed to deliver on this while

also endeavouring to minimise the amount of light directed into the night sky.

Under everyday use, the chimneys are revealed in white light with the projectors operating at 50% (or lower) output, generating an electrical load in the order of 2.5kW per chimney. This, Speirs Major emphasises, is less than the power of a typical kitchen kettle.

At the base of each chimney, a carefully controlled wash of warm white light to the geometric shoulders defines the frame of the building when seen against the night sky. The classic Art Deco niches running the length of the wash towers and the slots in the high-level friezes are highlighted. This creates a strong vertical emphasis, visually connecting the composition to the ground.

On the main (south) façade and the riverside-facing (north) façade, the entrance recesses feature lighting to the upper


Architectural lighting

window reveals. The ground level is washed in warm light to create a welcoming entry sequence.

Soft floodlighting to the brick pilasters that form the east and west upper flanking walls helps to create an attractive backdrop for residents arriving and leaving, while the ever-changing light from occupied windows ‘adds richness and animation’, the practice explains.

As Mark Major says: ‘The façade lighting is fully addressable and dimmable, with dynamic colour and animated light shows on the chimneys for events and civic occasions included as a part of the design, as well as infrastructure for the addition of event lighting and special effects on the facades.’


Within the Turbine Halls and Boiler Houses, the four new retail spaces have three entirely different characters, all designed by architects WilkinsonEyre.

For these spaces, the priority was to achieve a careful balance between maintaining the raw energy of the original space while celebrating their new role within the development. In each space, the lighting therefore contributes a vibrant atmosphere that allows the retail to figure prominently while gently celebrating the distinctive heritage and architecture.

Keeping the palette of equipment relatively simple and minimal, the lighting designers have applied light in different ways to support the unique character of each space, partner Clementine Fletcher-Smith explains. ‘The functional light is predominantly kept local to the level it is illuminating, using a combination of integrated handrail lighting, and period-appropriate industrial pendants and bulkheads, with high level downlighting only added where required.

‘Over this, a layer of elegant architectural accent lighting enhances and reveals the defining details. Whilst appearing simple, the massive underlying complexities in geometry and heritage restrictions required as many as 10-15 individual lighting details for each space,’ she adds.

Turbine Hall A. This Turbine Hall of the original 1930/1931 part of the power station is a vast, magnificent industrial Art Deco space.

Given such a dramatic setting, restraint was essential to protect the prominence of the retail environment, while still creating an elegant, refined, and welcoming ambience. A very warm light source (2700K) was therefore chosen, one that recalls the original tungsten light of the period for both the MAY 2023 LIGHTING JOURNAL 33
Left: Turbine Hall B. Above: Turbine Hall A. Below: a detail of the entrance façade

Architectural lighting

functional and architectural lighting.

‘Gentle highlights to the key details include uplighting to the industrial gantries, the main soffit and friezes, and vertical accents to the Art Deco columns,’ Clementine adds.

Turbine Hall B. Turbine Hall B was added in the 1960s and is characterised by the minimal modernist aesthetic of the time.

Its smooth curved roof is penetrated by skylights – some genuine and some added using light tubes to unify the appearance of the ceiling. The lighting approach here was

softly to wash this extensive surface with colour-changing light, which adjusts during the day to align with the natural daylight cycle.

‘Cool, crisp white tones enhance the modernist aesthetic during the day, followed by a warmer “sunset” feel taking over into the evening, with the facility for bold full-colour change after dark, to support celebrations, promotions, and events,’ Clementine outlines.

‘Additional ambient colour-change floodlighting integrated within the skylights creates a feature that also pops through into the roof gardens for the residents of Switch House East.

‘Accent lighting picks up the window reveals and the linear form of the bridge structures, while the escalators are highlighted with a dynamic, integrated solution that can tie in with the colour of the curved roof whilst still providing safe access and contributing to the character of the space,’ she adds.

Boiler House North and Boiler House South. Within what was essentially a pair of raw industrial shells, WilkinsonEyre has

created a series of contemporary entrances, event, and retail spaces.

The lighting design, again, therefore works to play up the retained industrial character, revealing the texture and colour of the authentic red brick walls and timber finishes while highlighting the structural steelwork of the modern architectural interventions.

As Clementine explains: ‘With darker finishes and exposed brick providing little interreflection, the ambience is moodier and more contrasting, lending these spaces a sophisticated urban appeal.’

Situated between the two turbine halls, shoppers access Boiler House North and Boiler House South by corridors. These are lit with linear battens arranged in a graphic ladder format, so encouraging a flow of movement.

Control Room A, Directors’ Entrance and Control Room B. The goal in lighting these important heritage spaces was to reinstate the lighting in keeping with the original design intent as far as possible while adding a discreet extra layer of architectural lighting and control (where needed) to enable them to be used flexibly for events.

Directors’ Entrance. This was the original access to the Control Rooms and Boiler House for the directors of the power station, and dates from 1930-1931.

It was originally lit with several statement Art Deco fixtures, some of which had been removed from the site. For this space, Speirs Major created replicas of the missing heritage fixtures based on photographs and drawings and restored and upgraded the interior wall sconces, lanterns and pendants found on site to LED.

Control Room A. This dramatic Grade II* listed space was built between 1929 and 1931 but had been entirely artificially lit since World War Two, when the original Art Deco skylights were blacked out. MAY 2023 LIGHTING JOURNAL 34
The Control Room. Above: a detail of Turbine Hall A. Below: the residential roof terrace

Architectural lighting

Restoring and refurbishing these glass structures allowed natural light once again to flood the space with natural light, and the lighting design team added backlighting externally to maintain the illusion after dark.

The original large Art Deco lozenge-shaped fixtures have been reinstated, after being refurbished and upgraded to LED. The unique backlit switching control diagrams and buttons, and prismatic wall lanterns along the back route have also been restored and reinstated.

Control Room B. Dating from the 1960s, this is an extremely rare, and therefore historically highly sensitive, example of a modernist control room.

For this space, the original lighting was reinstated as far as possible, including a central cove that now houses full colour-change LED battens in place of the original fluorescent lamps.

These uplight the soffit and provide flexibility to adapt the space for events. The mid-century opaline light boxes have been restored and upgraded to LED and, in common with the other heritage spaces, additional concealed high-level functional light has been added.


The lobbies for the residential accommodation within Battersea Power Station have been reimagined as high-end, luxurious contemporary spaces, but again drawing on the industrial heritage of the building.

For this element of the development, the Speirs Major design focused on creating a welcoming ambience and intuitive wayfinding.

Warm light is focused on key vertical surfaces and on to the ceilings. Gentle washes of light help to reveal the textures and colours in the palette of materials, including brick, concrete, mesh and Corten steel, while Art Deco-style fixtures add decorative accent.

The four Wash Tower lobbies feature extremely deep voids. For these, the practice designed a series of bespoke chandeliers.

Suspended at a height of 22m, their stacked green glass design was inspired by the form of electricity pylon isolators, in a neat reference to the past use of the space in supplying power to large parts of London.

The upper Wash Tower lobbies on the eleventh floor feature glowing linear wall lights to fit with the dramatic lined interior, in the process creating an intimate space with views up into the internally illuminated chimneys.

The three roof terraces each feature low-accent lighting to planting and seating. These, however, provide sufficient lighting to paths for safe use in a beautiful manner

and creating scattered decorative shadows.

As Mark Major puts it in conclusion: ‘Turbine Hall A and B roof gardens are flanked by the illuminated brickwork that contributes to the overall image of the building, providing a close view of the strong contrast and texture produced by the close offset uplights.

‘Turbine Hall B roof terrace is also punctuated by an ethereal glow from the skylights that cut through to the Turbine Hall below. Even lower light levels are used on the Boiler House roof garden to ensure that the reflections of the chimneys in the central lake-like skylight are not compromised,’ he adds.


Client: Battersea Power Station Development Company

Architect: WilkinsonEyre

Lighting design: Speirs Major

Structural engineer: Buro Happold

M&E engineer: Chapman BDSP

Conservation consultant: Purcell

Construction manager: MACE

External landscape: LDA Design

Project manager: Turner & Townsend

Apartment designer: Michaelis Boyd

pendant hung in the vast north-west window above an interactive AV table.

Visitor interactions trigger surges in power that ignite the turbine-inspired pendant and AV table, through an array of light delivered by 172 individually addressed nodes and coloured rings of light.


Leading on from this, there is a 360o lighting experience in the media room, celebrating the history and culture of the building.


Alongside the overall Speirs Major lighting masterplan, Battersea Power Station’s Lift 109 is a dynamic audio-visual (AV) experience, combined with breath-taking 360-degree views of the London skyline from 109m above the ground.

The 15sq m glass elevator travels up the interior of the station’s north-west chimney, with the chimney lift experience designed by Ralph Appelbaum Associates in partnership with Sysco Productions and Squint/Opera. Michael Grubb Studio was appointed to provide the lighting design and delivery through to construction.

Upon entry to the Turbine Hall A, visitors are presented with an immense, bespoke, seven-tiered circular, lighting

The express lift then takes visitors to the bottom of the chimney, with lighting acting as a guide up the chimney steps.

Single luminaires light the entrance doorway. Oculi circular infinity mirrors, which chase light, sit at the top of the stairs and create an intense build-up of light, casting down to visitors as they wait for their journey into the chimney.

Upon stepping into the lift, the rings pulsate and multiply, and the light quickly rises up and comes crashing down in a crescendo.

As Michael Grubb Studio has put it of the project: ‘The lighting extends across the lift walls and ceiling as the elevator reaches the height of its ascent. As the lift descends, the ring lights shine outwards in a halo of white light, granting visitors an intimate illumination of the interior architecture of the chimney.’

Lift 109. Both images by Battersea Power Station/Ralph Appelbaum Associates/Andrew Lee
INTRODUCING THE ALL NEW Holophane’s most comprehensive streetlighting solution to date. Contact us: Footpaths Residential Roads Main Roads Highways Footpaths residential roads main roads highways

Architectural lighting


Chester’s iconic and muchloved Eastgate Clock has been transformed through a new lighting system and CMS, which also now links it with the architectural lighting for the nearby Newgate Bridge and Chester Town Hall

Standing above the East Gate of the ancient walls of Chester is a turret clock, known as The Eastgate Clock. The clock tower was built in 1899 to celebrate the Diamond Jubilee of Queen Victoria and is now recognised as the second most photographed clock in England, after Big Ben. The gateway was built in 1768 but its surrounding walls date back to Roman times.

As part of Cheshire West and Chester Council’s plan to create a greener, fairer, and stronger community, it decided to illuminate this historic site for a more vibrant public space.

We at Urbis were already working with Cheshire West and Chester as, during the first lockdown of March 2020, we had been asked to configure and reprogramme the illumination of Newgate Bridge in Chester.

Thanks to the success of that project, and after some internal discussion about the solutions we could offer, the council entrusted us to light up The Eastgate Clock. We were tasked as design consultants, control suppliers, and solution providers.


The design brief for the project specified a CMS that would enable the unitary local authority to manage the illumination of this iconic clock alongside other architectural lighting schemes in the city, so that, in essence, all the floodlights could be managed by one single system. It was important that the council could:

• highlight the intricate details of the clock’s façade;

• easily adapt the light for different events taking place; and

• enhance the charm of the city centre to increase footfall.

Beyond this, there was a recognition that the control system would support the city’s journey to becoming a smart city. The local authority organised a series of night trials to test different lighting solutions, suggest alternatives and consider all possible scenarios.

The solution arrived at was to use our ‘SCULP’ range of floodlights to illuminate this historic landmark. First, four ‘SCULPLINE’ floodlights were recessed in the ground to highlight the archways.

A further eight ‘SCULPFLOOD’ floodlights were then mounted on the surrounding buildings to light the main gateway. Finally, four ‘SCULPDOT’ floodlights were installed inside the clock tower to light the clock face.

Adjustable mounting systems were used to ensure the floodlights deliver uniform lighting across the structures with zero glare for people passing by.

As night falls, together, this new lighting system transforms the landmark into a scenic feature for entertainment and public engagement.

We worked closely with consultant JRP for a quick and straightforward installation and then with Ringway Jacobs for the groundwork. There was, naturally, a lot of work required on site by our team to ensure successful collaboration and commissioning of the smart architectural lighting system.

The entire installation is now controlled by a bespoke, user-friendly control system based on the DMX protocol.

Highlighted as a priority from the outset, the new scheme enables Cheshire West and Chester to easily schedule dynamic scenarios months in advance to celebrate different festivities and public events with colourrelated light shows.

The council team can open the interface at any moment with a web-connected device to consult the live status of the lighting scheme. This means each floodlight can be individually controlled to create a multitude of MAY 2023 LIGHTING JOURNAL 39

Architectural lighting

lighting effects. Having the same control system manage the architectural lighting for Newgate Bridge and Chester Town Hall also means that there is only one interface used, meaning the council can easily access and easily control each luminaire, at any time.


So, what did we learn from this high-profile project? Like every project, there were many obstacles we had to overcome to meet the client’s expectations and offer a harmonious ‘one stop’ lighting solution/system for its intended purpose.

The most obvious was the fact that The Eastgate Clock is a Grade 1-listed building, which meant that it gathers lots of interest and visitors across the year.

This meant we were all working against the pressure of time, making it difficult to access the site at times. We only had limited hours per day to work on the lights and its replacements.

This also meant any changes made to the structure, whether big or small, had to be approved by the council, immediately narrowing what we could and couldn’t do.

Furthermore, due to the structure of the clock, we were constantly working at a height; this made the whole project challenging when going for site trials and replacement fixtures.


Additionally, during the consultation process, perhaps the most challenging part was figuring out how we could successfully connect all the luminaires under one CMS.

The existing lights that were previously installed had become old and were not well maintained. They were also spread around the clock in different directions, with a few located inground. This further complicated the process of controlling the luminaires.

It also posed an obstacle when trying to

figure out how we can get all lighting to operate under one system and how to get the DMX signal from A to B, including cabling to inground luminaires.

To resolve this issue, we had to consider all solutions and different components – wired and wireless – to create a connection and work together.

We did some cabling on the inground luminaires and all the other luminaires that needed wired attachments, along with wireless ones and controlled/connected it via the DMX system.

This achieved the client’s brief of being able to control all lights, remotely, under one system.

Away from the technical challenges, one key learning I personally took away from this project was the need always to make sure you have a clear understanding of what you want to deliver and see the effects in real time/life. This needs to include a physical element of being able to see exactly what it is you’re trying to achieve and what solutions

fit best. In the case of this project, the night trials and site visits therefore helped massively in its success, as we were able to take all scenarios and activities of each luminaire (outside and inground) into consideration, when coming up with the design.

In sum, the new dynamic architectural lighting has transformed what was already a prime tourist destination and landmark, into a public work of art and a symbol for the local community.

Moreover, thanks to now having smart energy-efficient floodlighting, we can help cities achieve energy, carbon, and cost savings, supporting their journey towards decarbonisation and net zero.

Let me, however, leave the final words to some of my key colleagues on the project.

‘Collaborative working between Urbis Schréder and Cheshire West and Chester Council has delivered a connected solution where we are now able to remotely illuminate a Grade I listed building in seconds from any location with an internet connection,’ says Gerard Coleman, assistant engineer within Cheshire West and Chester Council’s Street lighting and traffic signal team.

‘Public reaction to the project has been very positive indeed. We have had many compliments, which has been really encouraging and our lighting event requests schedule is increasing each year,’ agrees Ian Jones, area street lighting and traffic signal control engineer at Cheshire West and Chester Council.

Clare Thomas is head of Logic at Urbis Schréder


Certified stainless steel spotlights for safe and attractive experience of well-being in private and hotel pools as well as spas and thermal baths. Performance and sustainability in one.

MADE IN GERMANY. SINCE 1919. WIBRE Elektrogeräte Edmund Breuninger GmbH & Co. KG 74211 Leingarten · · +49(0)7131 9053-0 Presidential Villa, Jumeirah Bali, Indonesia; Partner: PT SINAR TEKNIK, Medan, Indonesia WWW.WIBRE.DE
7231 8282
Jacob Street, London, SE1
· ·


Specifying underwater lighting effectively is about much more than just understanding IP ratings

If you ask most people what’s important when specifying underwater lighting they’ll commonly say – ‘IP68’.

Of course, we are all familiar with IP ratings, or the set of codes used to indicate the degree of protection provided by an enclosure or device against intrusion from foreign objects (such as dust and debris) and liquids (such as water and oil).

These ratings are standardised by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). But this article is going to argue there’s a lot more to specifying underwater lighting than understanding IP ratings (although that is of course hugely important).


An IP rating consists of two numbers, the first of which indicates the degree of protection against solid objects and the second the degree of protection against liquids.

The first number ranges from 0 to 6 and indicates the level of protection against solid objects. A rating of 0 means there is no protection against solid objects, while a rating of 6 means the enclosure is completely dust-tight.

The second number ranges from 0 to 9 and indicates the level of protection against liquids. A rating of 0 means there is no protection against liquids, while a rating of 9 means the enclosure can withstand high-pressure and high-temperature water jets without any water penetration.

So, yes, an IP68 rating does indicate that

the device or enclosure you’re specifying is completely dust-tight (6) and can be immersed in water up to a specified depth (8) without any water penetration. But why do so few people talk about IP69?

IP69 rating is a complement to the IP68 rating. In themselves, IP69-rated spotlights do not automatically have IP68 protection but the two ratings work in conjunction.

The IP69 rating was introduced as part of the IEC’s standard IEC 60529, published way back in 1989.

While having an IP68 rating, as we’ve seen, indicates that a device already has a very high level of protection against dust and immersion in water, even IP68-rated devices can fail in some extreme environments. This could be because of things such as high water pressure or high-temperature exposure.

More and more frequently, as lighting manufacturers continue to develop and innovate, we’re therefore seeing a raft of new products coming to market that are rated at IP69.

So, what is IP69? IP69 is a newer rating that indicates the highest level of protection from high-pressure jets at higher

temperatures. During IP69 testing, water at 80°C and at a pressure of 100 bar is projected against the enclosure of the luminaire from all directions (standard: EN 60529:201409). The water is projected from a very close distance of only 10cm and the test lasts half a minute. An example of this shown in the image below.

For manufacturers such as ourselves at Wibre, which specialise in exterior, wet area and underwater lighting, achieving an IP69 rating allows us to indicate that a product has enhanced robustness in demanding environments. Such environments could include fountains, high-water jets or pressure-cleaning in pools or urban landscapes.

For other manufacturers, IP69 fittings are coming to the market in the shape of fluorescent tubes or spotlights. Typically designed for industry, chemical plants and agriculture, they’re also often used for illuminating food preparation and processing sites, as they meet the hygiene requirements of the IFS Food Standard, HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) or the BRC Global Standard for Food Safety, where, understandably, a lot of high-pressure steam cleaning is needed.

The ‘Under’ restaurant in Lindesnes in Norway. The stunning restaurant sits 5.5m below the surface of the water, exposing diners to the wonders of the sea. The lighting design for the project was by Light Bureau and the restaurant itself was designed by Norwegian architectural practice Snøhetta. Photograph by Tomasz Majewski A luminaire enclosure undergoing rigorous IP69 pressure testing

It’s not just



Control Manage Collect data

is not a product but is our approach on how well-planned solutions work - considering all scenarios and areas, like highways and architectural buildings - and how it can be ‘connected-ready’.

‘Connected-ready’ means each luminaire is ‘ready’ to operate with control systems and sensors, like Schréder’s EXEDRA. With Schréder’s EXEDRA you are able to receive real-time data, allowing you to plan, monitor and control outdoor lighting networks; supporting your journey to decarbonisation by lowering carbon-footprint, while achieving significant energy savings - by up to 85%.

SCULPFLO OD AMPERA EVO Talk to us about making the right connections. Get in touch at


IP ratings are fine but do not include information about other types of protection, such as impact resistance, UV radiation resistance, or extreme temperature resistance.

Neither are IP ratings a measure of durability or quality. They are, rather, a measure of resistance to intrusion from foreign objects and liquids. While IP ratings are therefore useful in determining the suitability of a device or enclosure for a specific environment or application, they give no clue to the materials used in construction, their longevity or performance.

Pushing the envelope in terms of design and manufacture to produce high-quality, durable lighting fittings that are able to withstand the harshest conditions is something more and more manufacturers are embracing.

Typically, marine-grade stainless steel is a popular choice for underwater lighting. Marine-grade stainless steel is a type of stainless steel that is intended for use in marine environments, where it will be subjected to corrosive seawater, salt spray, and other harsh elements.

It is made from a higher grade of stainless steel, typically 316 or 316L. Also known as V4A stainless steel 1.4571, this is a type of austenitic stainless steel that contains more molybdenum and titanium.

Molybdenum is a corrosion-resistant metal that offers additional resistance to rust and pitting caused by saltwater and other corrosive elements. Titanium stabilises the material at high temperatures and improves resistance to intergranular corrosion.

In addition to having a high molybdenum content, marine-grade stainless steel is resistant to crevice corrosion, which can occur when two surfaces come into contact, such as between a fastener and a metal plate.

This resistance to crevice corrosion aids in the prevention of rust and other types of corrosion, both of which can weaken the metal over time.

Some manufacturers do go even further. For example, we use stainless steel 1.4539, also known as AISI 904L, for fittings to be used in saltwater environments.

This is a rustproof, super-austenitic nickel-chromium-molybdenum-copper steel resistant to numerous organic and inorganic acids. With its water resistance up to a salt concentration of approximately 3.5%, the high-alloy material guarantees the permanent use of our brine spotlights in most sea, brackish and thermal waters, as shown vividly in the project – the ‘Under’ restaurant in Norway – on the previous page.

With robust and resistant housing comes a tempered safety glass cover to protect the optics. For glass, the protection against external mechanical stress is indicated by an IK code.

The range in this case extends from IK00 (no protection) to IK11 (impact energy 50 joules), wherein the legal minimum requirement in swimming pools according to IEC 60598-2-18 is IK05 (0.7 joules).

To prevent the greenish cast inherent to other glass, a trademarked glass called Optiwhite it used. This is a type of low-iron glass designed to have very high light transmission and clarity. It is a special type of glass that is made using a process that reduces the amount of iron oxide in it, which in turn reduces its greenish tint and makes it more transparent.


The final component in the package, naturally, is the optics. Colour temperatures and beam angles are the most visual and effective part of the fitting and the part which can make or break a scheme.

For every lighting application in architecture or in swimming pools, a good manufacturer will not only provide the right spotlights but also an abundance of beam angles and colour temperatures, plus a huge variety of creative solutions, lighting concepts and scenes.

The most frequently used beam angles range from spot to medium, wide and floodlighting, and are topped by special developments to make building facades, fountains, or swimming pools particularly attractive.

In larger pools, wide- and deep-beam spotlights provide a particularly appealing illumination of the water surface. In addition, elliptical optics are also available.

Elliptical optics, for those unaware, are a type of optical system that uses curved mirrors or lenses with elliptical shapes to focus or collimate light in a specific direction with high uniformity and low divergence. There is also the opportunity for mixed optics to create different variations. Beam angles can as well be used to minimise light pollution. The different beam angles are shown in the figure below.

Cold, neutral and warm-white colour temperatures are, of course, typically available for all spotlights.

RGBW versions in different colour temperatures of white are also available nowadays. White options allow for flexible colour temperature settings from warm to cool white (3000K to 6000K) to create fascinating effects in urban spaces or parks and public as well as private pools. Each colour reflects the light spectrum differently, creating different effects, such as making colours disappear or glow like neon.

Another popular option these days for swimming areas is the use of spotlights that create a distinctive royal blue light; the ideal match between wavelength and water.

So, to conclude, underwater lighting is very much not all about IP ratings, although understanding these are of course vitally important. Rather, effective specifying of underwater lighting comes down to a combination of design, materials, beam angles and colour temperatures.

Brought together with the vision of a great lighting designer, these all go hand-in-hand to help realise fantastic and creative underwater schemes.

Benjamin Pfendt is marketing manager at Wibre
Figure 1. The different beam angles
Underwater lighting

The Aspects of highway lighting

British-made, the Aspect range is based on a common gear housing and universal post top or side entry mounting pivot. A toughened flat glass underside combined with a vast range of LED configurations and optical distributions ensure optimal highway lighting.


• Low Voltage

• LED & Xenon options

• IP68 rated

• RGBW system available

We create bespoke low energy, durable festoon lighting for architects, designers, retail chains, sign makers, ship builders and more. Contact us to discuss your lighting project.

Tel: +44 (0)1245 329999




As lighting embraces circular economy approaches, new roles and skills are emerging, including that of the ‘remanufacture engineer’. Tom Ruddell explains what it’s for and why it’s a role that will become increasingly important

It is estimated about 40,000 tonnes of lighting equipment is sold in the UK each year, meaning we can assume a similar amount is removed from the market [1]. Almost all is sent to be recycled, almost all without any consideration of reuse potential.

As remanufacture engineer at EGG Lighting for the past two-and-a-half years, it has been my job to redesign used light fittings, enabling them to be placed back in use, in direct competition with new products.

In this article, I want to share some of my experiences and the lessons I’ve learned. In doing so, I hope to inspire ILP members about the huge potential remanufacturing has to help us solve the sustainability and resources challenges facing the lighting industry.

I first became interested in the idea of designing products from waste at university – I imagined and designed a machine that could autonomously repair fabric, which could be used to make new items.

I later went to work at a start-up, where I helped develop a washing-machine filter that catches tiny microplastics before they enter our waterways. From there, I progressed to EGG Lighting.

Before starting at EGG, and probably like many, the idea of ‘remanufacturing’ conjured up visions of small repair shops where adjustable wrench-wielding technicians might crack a light open, fix that pesky loose wire and then presumably hand the fixed item back to a grateful customer.


Lighting and sustainability

How wrong I was! Bear in mind the 40,000 tons of waste per year figure I cited at the beginning and the potential and scope of remanufacture quickly becomes clear.

Today, I look at my role as a remanufacture engineer in two ways. On one hand, my job is to design a luminaire. On the other, I’m tasked to do so primarily through reusing materials and components.

It’s not quite reuse in the circular economy sense, and it’s also not quite about creating something from a blank-slate design. Remanufacture is unique – it’s an industrial process that creates a new product from used and new products or parts/ components.

It can involve returning a product to its original condition but, more often, involves significantly upgrading the product, with a technical, approval and compliance process akin to new product development. Remanufactured products generally come with a full warranty.

However, remanufacturing is still currently quite a niche area of lighting. If it is to grow to play a core role in our industry (and I believe it will), some of the challenges I’ve encountered and lessons learnt along the way will need to become increasingly recognised. The other key message I’d pass on is that nothing can be a substitute for hands-on experience that informs the successful design of products for a circular economy.


Unless products can be upgraded in situ, remanufacturing always starts with reverse logistics. This is a process where we must treat used luminaires like they have value and the potential to become new luminaires.

It can mean simply de-installing them, putting them back in a cardboard box and returning them for remanufacturing.

However, in my experience it’s often more complex than that and there isn’t a one-size-fits-all approach to reverse logistics.

To my mind, there are three main elements to consider: site downtime,

de-installation, and packing and transport; all the while ensuring damage is minimised. Let’s look at each one by one.

1) Site downtime. We’ve found that site downtime is one of the first things we need to discuss with customers. What are the client’s requirements for disruption and how can these be met while ensuring a circular project outcome?

For example, when we remanufactured lighting fixtures for Edinburgh Leisure’s busy sports centres, we conducted all the work outside of business hours to avoid downtime and minimise disruptions.

We installed new lighting at one site, then remanufactured the displaced fixtures at our facility. This allowed us to install the remanufactured fixtures at a similar sports hall. This approach illustrates the benefits of managing lighting assets across an estate and highlights the advantages of adopting circular lighting practices.

Alternatively, it’s possible to make a case for planned downtime or to work with clients to support the removal of luminaires for quick-turnaround remanufacturing. In some cases, spares or temporary luminaires can be used to replace fixtures in batches while they are being remanufactured.

It’s also worth noting that sometimes luminaires can be upgraded in situ, eliminating the need for reverse logistics altogether.

2)De-installation. What we call ‘de-installation’ is very different to simply removing luminaires for recycling. It’s important overseers and operators alike understand that damaged products impact costs and the ability to reuse products.

At my organisation we have a team of operatives who very much understand this. In the future, I hope to see some form of industry-wide training and/or certification scheme for individuals and/or organisations to show expertise MAY 2023 LIGHTING JOURNAL 47
Batches of remanufactured lights. Below: testing a remanufactured light

Lighting and sustainability

in minimising damage while de-installing and packing products. I am convinced this is going to be an area of growing interest as the prominence of reuse and remanufacture grows.

3)Packaging and transport. Packaging is crucial in preventing damage to used lighting during transport. We’ve taken two main approaches so far: reusable packaging solutions (such as stacking containers) or correctly sized cardboard boxes.

I can illustrate a great success in this area when we were remanufacturing luminaires for Aberdeenshire Council. When we delivered remanufactured luminaires in double-wall cardboard boxes the on-site team simply installed those and placed the displaced luminaires back into the same boxes for collection.

That meant we reused cardboard boxes several times over the course of the project, reducing costs and waste while ensuring no damage was made to the luminaires! But, clearly, there can be an education and communication process that needs to go on around this. On which note….


Most, if not every, customer and stakeholder that we have worked with has started with gaps in their understanding about how a circular lighting project will differ from their past experiences.

Those gaps can often be difficult to identify but can have significant consequences if not addressed. In fact, the same goes for all stakeholders – internally and externally –where a ‘business as usual’ approach can cause confusion or issues.

For example, currently I hear the word ‘remanufacture’ being used interchangeably with a long list of words. Refurb, relamp, repair, reuse, rework, rebuilt, upgrade. Yet each has different associations and implied meanings.

I’ve found it’s important to dedicate time to clearly communicate what remanufacturing is, what it will mean for the project and what the expected benefits are, as well as the challenges.

Our most successful projects have involved a stakeholder who takes a genuine interest in the circular economy and has reciprocated our efforts. In contrast, while surveying a promising remanufacturing project, our electrical manager was once refused collection of a sample product (as had been agreed), meaning we couldn’t confirm the work involved and costs.

Though it did knock that project on the head, that sort of confusion is not uncommon and is illustrative of the education

required as we come to remanufacture more complex LED products or fluorescent-to-LED where lamp replacements are no longer appropriate.

As well as educating others, we must be much more open to learning and sharing ideas, both within and outside lighting. Other sectors are far more advanced in their circularity journey and while they may not totally match our challenges, we can certainly learn a lot from their mistakes and successes.


Compliance shouldn’t be a barrier to reuse and remanufacture – but it is a core consideration that will be present throughout all work on a project.

Of course, remanufacturing brings with it some unique and potentially thorny compliance challenges. This sometimes requires different testing approaches than you might use for new products but, generally, these are challenges can be overcome.

In fact, one of the reasons I’m convinced that remanufacturing is the best technique for circular lighting is the emphasis it places on testing and approval.

The upcoming Code of Practice for the Remanufacture of Luminaires makes some very helpful comments on compliance [2]

Remanufacturers must take legal responsibility for their products – just like a new product – to ensure there are no grey areas. This means standard labelling requirements apply. However, do note that retaining integral markings, such as those cast or embossed, is generally acceptable provided it don’t result in confusion.

To include a UKCA mark on the luminaire, the remanufacturer will need to assess the product for conformity with relevant standards and legislation and produce associated documentation. The way this is done and

A design for a remanufactured light. Below: remanufacturing in the workshop and (centre) before and after remanufacture

documented will, as with new products, vary from operator to operator but will still be subject to audits by professional bodies such as the Lighting Industry Association (LIA).

Remanufactured products can and must be fully compliant, thoroughly documented and supplied with necessary documentation. More important than reducing waste and emissions is ensuring products are safe and fit for purpose.

On that note, remanufacturing can be a force for improving safety. Many products I assess before beginning the remanufacturing process do not satisfy current standards (whether because of their age or poor design). A common example is having damaged wiring or aged and brittle terminal blocks.

Clearly, these aged components are not worthwhile retaining given the challenges in determining their safety and compliance.

Lighting and sustainability

Remanufacturing is an opportunity to remedy these non-conformities and it’s satisfying to see those examples where the safety of the product is dramatically improved through remanufacturing.


As lighting manufacturers increasingly advertise their products’ environmental ‘wins’, be that relating to efficiency, longevity, material selection, upgradeability, or embodied carbon, it’s important that we normalise providing evidence that backs up these claims.

A relatively new metric that we are hearing a lot about (not least within Lighting Journal) is ‘embodied carbon’. This is the estimated emissions that result from manufacturing a product, taking into account, for example, the mining or production of materials, processing, transportation and

manufacturing operations. This is where remanufacturing can really help us tackle the climate crisis by allowing components in good condition to be reused rather than recycled and made again.

Our 2022 remanufacturing projects, for example, all achieved embodied carbon reductions of between 40%-70% compared to the same product being made new again. However, we can’t assume these benefits and for both new and remanufactured products it’s essential that we calculate these outcomes using a recognised methodology.

Providing embodied carbon metrics allows retrofit or construction stakeholders to consider lifecycle cost, quality and environmental impact together in a meaningful way and allows lighting designers to visualise the embodied and operational carbon outcomes of different lighting design options. MAY 2023 LIGHTING JOURNAL 49
Remanufacture engineers at work (photograph by ZWS)

Lighting and sustainability

Additionally, measuring embodied carbon enables product designers to identify ‘hotspot’ components or techniques and to look for better solutions.

However, in my experience patience is required, as many stakeholders (both in our supply chain and those purchasing from us) are currently uncertain about embodied carbon. Education and net-zero programmes are yet to become a core facet to purchasing.

It is also important to view carbon in tandem with reviewing product quality and design. I get a feeling of missed opportunity when I inspect a luminaire from a ‘net zero’ manufacturer yet have to advise the client that we won’t be able to remanufacture it. Again, on which note…


Most of the luminaires I’ve seen remanufactured weren’t designed for circularity. Remanufacture is a new intervention, a refusal to let products go to scrap.

This type of product makes up the majority of those currently in use and makes my job both interesting and challenging. Many simply cannot be remanufactured – they may be glued, riveted or snap-fit together, or are too susceptible to denting or mechanical damage.

Myself and the team are working on a ‘designed for remanufacture’ new product range, taking into account all our hard-won lessons.

Encouragingly, many larger manufacturers are now recognising that luminaires need to be purposefully designed for remanufacture and I’m incredibly excited to see the designs that will be produced with circularity in mind. Perhaps the next step will be when products are designed in collaboration with or endorsement of the operators who are or will be involved with remanufacturing them.

Faced with the challenges that remanufacturing poses, it would be tempting to prioritise designing new upgradeable lighting products that can be remanufactured at the end of their first lifecycle.

However, while that task is urgent, I think remanufacturing used products, regardless of their design intent, remains an imperative – for three reasons.

First, we will not start to see luminaires designed for circularity being remanufactured for five to 10 years. I am confident they will not make up a significant portion of the market for far longer.

Therefore, without intervention, luminaires not designed for remanufacture are going to be filling skips for the next decade and then some.

Second, technology, market demands and use cases continue to change and designers can only forecast these up to a point. This means that at some point or another the ‘designed for remanufacture’ luminaire will need to be altered in a way (essentially remanufactured) that it was not planned to be – or it will become obsolete.

Therefore, as an industry we need to focus on developing circular economy capabilities alongside product design, an approach which will be mutually beneficial.

The development of remanufacturing operations is a challenge and involves new thinking, job roles, training and processes. Therefore, I think we need to start in earnest today so we as an industry can tackle our waste problem as it stands, and be in a really strong position when the next generation of well-designed products need to be remanufactured. We can turn waste into an opportunity, not a problem.


As a remanufacturing engineer, I’m aware that my role is not yet commonplace in the lighting industry. However, I’m optimistic

that with the increasing need to address the climate crisis and design circular products, we will witness a surge in new skills and roles within our sector.

I’ve been fortunate to connect with so many inspiring people in lighting already, from a whole range of backgrounds and roles, and all in agreement on the urgent need to tackle waste and prioritise sustainable business models.

These people fill me with confidence that, together, with collaboration and a generous dose of determination, we can make a huge change.

Remanufacturing contains lots of challenges and variation. But I truly believe it’s the approach that can best help our industry move past the paradigm of single-use products.

Yes, there is still a huge amount of used and unwanted lighting out there that can be remanufactured to today’s specifications and shouldn’t be left to waste. A thought I keep coming back to is that a good-quality ‘designed for circularity’ product sold today will probably see the world pass 2°C warming before it’s remanufactured.

So, we need both short- and long-term solutions. My final thought is that, if we’re going to reach our net zero goals and if lighting is going to truly contribute, we will need to bring a new round of thinking into the design of lighting equipment.

To truly face up to that 40,000 tonnes of new lighting equipment being sold each year, we need to redesign (or maybe remanufacture?) not just the lighting and the luminaire but also the very way we think about and circulate lighting equipment.

[1] ‘Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in the UK’, Environment Agency, [2] ‘GreenLight Alliance: Code of Practice for luminaire remanufacture’, arc magazine, September 2022,
Tom Ruddell is lead remanufacture engineer at EGG lighting in Glasgow

Kirium Pro S


A more sustainable lighting solution designed to meet the needs of both people and the environment

With its lightweight design, increased versatility and refined performance, Kirium Pro S sets new standards in efficiency, sustainability and longevity. Follow
to learn more.
us on LinkedIn

Inside the ILP: meet your LDCs


LDC Manchester will be hosting next month’s Professional Lighting Summit in the buzzing north-west city. But keeping members engaged and interested is a year-round priority

Next month’s Professional Lighting Summit (PLS) will put Manchester – and LDC Manchester – very much in the spotlight.

LDC Manchester will of course be hosting the two-day Summit on 14-15 June, and turn overleaf to page 54 of this edition for a fuller preview of what to expect this year.

But at LDC Manchester we are working hard to support and engage with ILP members throughout the year.

One of the big things we’re looking at, coming out of Covid, is that people haven’t really been getting out much at all for the past three years. And that does grind you down if you’re not careful.

However, having said that, LDC

Manchester traditionally has had a bit of an older demographic. So, we’ve had quite a lot of members retiring during and since the pandemic. Our focus is very much now on trying to reinvigorate things and attract new members, of all ages.

Most of our focus – and membership – is exterior lighting, though we also have members who work for the meter management companies. We have a lot of manufacturers who are very involved with us, which is positive. As well as new members generally, our focus for this year is very much about trying to get local government lighting professionals more involved and engaged.

For anyone working within local government, it is getting harder and harder to get the relevant permissions or find the time to get out of the office and attend events.


To that end, we’re trying to spread events across as much of our catchment area as we can. A lot of the content is deliberately going to be focused on issues for local government. And I’d love to be able to get some sort of flyer out to chief executives!

While the PLS is of course the biggest event, we’ve run events in April and are due


To find out more about what’s going on at LDC Manchester go to uk/branch/ilp-manchester/

You can also make sure you hear all about events organised by your local branch’s volunteers by logging into your ‘MyILP’ portal and setting your communication preferences.


to be holding one later this month, both as physical face-to-face events.

It’s early days yet (so keep an eye on the website for updates), but we are also planning to hold an event at the Wetherby Whaler in Leeds in the autumn. The Wetherby Whaler is the original Harry Ramsden and so is always very popular.

Our aim is to tie it into the Leeds Christmas lights, which are always very impressive. We’re also intending to run a Blackpool Illuminations workshop and tour during the second half of the year.

I do think, increasingly, people realise how professional this game, lighting, has become. We need people to understand and celebrate the professionalism of what we do, the integrity of what we do, the health and safety implications of what we do. Another big thing for me is liability, and for lighting professionals to have the skills and knowledge – as well as just the insurance –to be able to protect themselves appropriately.

Ultimately, for me, this year is about reinstating the sociability of being an ILP member – and I think that is something of a priority for pretty much all LDCs.

A lot of people have struggled over the last few years because of the fact they have not been seeing people. We are trying to get people in, especially younger and middle-aged lighting professionals – so come along and join us!

Ian Darlington, chair Ruth Barker Penny Clark Gerard Coleman David Lewis Ian Darlington is chair of LDC Manchester and principal engineer, Street Lighting, Place Services at St Helens Borough Council



meet someone from the South or the North, or to come over from England or Scotland, is invaluable.

We’re unique for the ILP in that, as an LDC, we’re across two jurisdictions, both with quite different regulatory frameworks, quite different requirements. We’re the one region that covers both.



One of the big strengths of LDC Ireland, and the Irish region before the regions became LDCs, was our in-person events. Our face-to-face events were always very popular.

Pre-Covid, people always knew what was going on in the area because of the events we were able to hold. They still are, to an extent –we had an event in March, for example, where we had 45 people attend, despite very poor weather that day.

But it is fair to say that, like for many LDCs, face-to-face engagement and meeting has fallen off since Covid.

People don’t want to spend all day talking on Teams meetings, especially younger people. They want to get out and meet people, but often it is hard to do, especially for local authority lighting professionals. Being able to

But the relationship between north and south has always been great. We all know each other. If something is happening in the north that we think the local authorities in Ireland should be looking at, we can talk to each other about it. Or vice versa. We have a good understanding, a good relationship; we bounce off each other. The chair has also always alternated yearly between north and south.

We have a large and well-attended committee, currently with 14 members on it. But, again like pretty much all LDCs, we rely on committed volunteers and so are always on the lookout for new people to get involved.

In terms of what’s coming up, do of course keep an eye online on the website. We aim to hold three face-to-face events a year, our regional general meeting (RGM) event in May, a seminar in October and then a spring event in February or March.

To that end, we have our RGM event coming up later this month, on 25 May, which will include some technical papers and a social


To find out more about what’s going on at LDC Manchester go to uk/branch/ilp-ireland/

You can also make sure you hear all about events organised by your local branch’s volunteers by logging into your ‘MyILP’ portal and setting your communication preferences.

event during the afternoon and into the evening.

It will include papers from Clare Thomas at Urbis Schréder and Nigel Parry from OrangeTek, and then the option to take part in archery and laser clay shooting or golf during the afternoon and an evening meal and entertainment.

So, we hope it has something for everyone. It is great to be doing these events again, and we hope to see at one of them soon.

WHO Patrick Lawlor, chair Gearoid McKenna Colin Slevin, past chair Pat Redmond Trevor Scott, incoming chair (from May) James Molloy Chris Magee, secretary Michael Brennan Duncan Byrne Thomas McDonald Neville Brown Seamus MacSweeney Grainne Mowlds
Covering both the north and south of Ireland, LDC Ireland plays a key role in keeping members in both countries informed and engaged. With popular face-to-face events now returning, including one later this month, it has a lot to offer MAY 2023 LIGHTING JOURNAL 53 Inside the ILP: meet your LDCs
Patrick Lawlor is chair of LDC Ireland as well as an key account manager for ASD Lighting. Trevor Scott will be taking over as LDC Ireland chair this month (May) and also works at the Northern Ireland Department for Infrastructure



Inside the ILP: the 2023 Professional Lighting Summit

Next month’s Professional Lighting Summit, from 14-15 June, is coming up fast. Jess Gallacher explains everything you need to know

This year’s Professional Lighting Summit (PLS) in Manchester is coming up fast and, as the highlight of the ILP’s CPD calendar, now’s the time to be booking in as a delegate if you haven’t already.

After last year’s successful return to a face-to-face event in Bristol, I am pleased to say this year’s Summit will, once again, be a ‘normal’ event. But the two days of CPD, networking and showcasing are going to be a bit different this year.

The Summit is being held from 14-15 June at Manchester’s Science and Industry Museum.

At the time of writing, in early April, some details had still yet to be finalised. Bookings have opened for exhibitors and the speaker programme is currently being agreed, a process which is being led by our Technical Manger Guy Harding.

So watch out for online updates, at , plus there will be a final preview in next month’s edition of LightingJournal


One big change for this year is that, rather than our annual general meeting being held immediately before the PLS, it is instead going to be an online event held during this month (May). So again, keep an eye out for details online. This frees the Summit to focus even more on high-quality CPD and networking.

Another big change is the traditional black tie formal dinner on the first night of the PLS. This year this is being replaced by a more informal Presidential Reception at the museum, with free time afterwards for entertaining clients.

The PLS is being held on the top floor conference suite of the museum but within the building there is an interactive gaming section.

So members will be able to enjoy playing all manner of computer and racing games – including many retro games from your childhood – with friends, peers and colleagues.

The ILP team in particular is really looking forward to getting stuck in!

There will still be a formal black tie ILP Celebration Dinner, but this will now be held in the autumn. So, watch this space for details.


Following the example of our successful energy crisis event in Daventry in February, this year some exhibitor stands will be located in the main conference room,

with exhibitors also invited to attend the CPD presentations.

There will be an ‘elevator pitch’ session, where exhibitors and sponsors will get 60 seconds on stage to make their pitch to members. There will, as in previous years, be a programme of sponsor-led CPD workshops running alongside the main-stage presentations.

Local authority delegates will also be invited to attend the PLS free of charge.

So, all in all, this year’s PLS is shaping up to be an exciting, engaging, interactive and playful two days in Manchester. What’s not to like?! We look forward to you joining us there.


What: The 2023 ILP Professional Lighting Summit

Where: Manchester’s Science and Industry Museum

When: 14-15 June

How: go to event/professional-lightingsummit-2023/ MAY 2023 LIGHTING JOURNAL 55


Continuing our 2023 profiles of young or up-and-coming lighting professionals, Atkins’ Adrian Walczak explains how the complexities of using light to enhance urban safety at night is what gets him out of bed each morning


I am Adrian Walczak, originally from Poland. I came to the UK in 2010. I have been working for Atkins since November 2021 as a lighting engineer.


I got into lighting because I was able to use AutoCAD. I started in 2014 as a CAD technician with Balfour Beatty.

At the time I was happy to take any role that involved working with AutoCAD. Looking back, I am now very happy that it was an opportunity within the lighting industry. While working, I completed a degree-level course in Integrated Engineering at Anglia Ruskin University (pictured opposite).


As I mentioned, lighting was just a coincidence. However, as I got more and more involved, I really started enjoying it.

It didn’t take me long to realise that my work is actually more meaningful than it may seem at first glance. Providing safer environments for the public is definitely why I am still in the lighting industry.


The most interesting part of the job is the communication and coordination of all the disciplines involved within a project.

It is very satisfying when, after weeks of work, meetings and research, designs can be completed with all the disciplines


working together in real life. This provides a better (hopefully) infrastructure for people to use.


Back in 2018, while working at WSP, I was involved in a lighting design for New and Old Bond Street in Westminster.

It was a very challenging design but, at the same time, very satisfying. New and Old Bond Street are some of the most recognised streets in London, gathering all the big brands in one place. Being involved in such a scheme was something to be proud of.


This relates back to the question ‘why

lighting?’. Knowing that my work can improve how people feel in certain areas, improve their safety, is definitely something that inspires me.

Also, the designs I am working on today will be still in place for at least the next 25 to 30 years, which also makes it meaningful and inspiring.


The main barrier, I think, is the fact that the lighting industry isn’t that well known.

Many people take lighting for granted in their day-to-day lives. I know quite a lot of people just like me who entered the industry by accident.

As lighting professionals, we need to

Young and new lighters

try to raise awareness and encourage young people to get involved in the industry.


There is a constant push on carbon and energy reduction. Now, when LED luminaires are in place, it is becoming more and more challenging to reduce these two factors further, which should make the next few years interesting.


Attending exterior lighting diploma courses and other ILP events has definitely helped to expand my knowledge about lighting as well as build relationships with fellow lighting colleagues across the UK.


For now, I am only working on exterior lighting designs. But I also would like to develop skills and branch out to work on interior lighting and architectural lighting projects.

However, I think my core ambition will be the same, which is making places safer for all people. Technology is developing very quickly, and I hope I can keep up with it producing designs that can have a strong positive impact on environment.


My message would be, take a risk and try to work in lighting industry even if it may not seem that attractive at first!

For me, working as a lighting engineer is really meaningful and has been a satisfying and fulfilling role.


Don’t forget, if you’re under 35 or new to the industry and would like to tell your story during 2023, simple email LightingJournaleditor Nic Paton on or the ILP’s Jess Gallacher on jess@ We’ll then send you a questionnaire to fill in and return with a photograph. Simple!

Adrian Walczak is a lighting engineer with Atkins


This directory gives details of suitably qualified, individual members of the Institution of Lighting Professionals (ILP) who offer consultancy services




T: 0330 135 8950, 077954 75570



Efficient, innovative, and bespoke lighting design services from an award winning consultancy.

Experienced in delivering exterior lighting projects from feasibility studies to post construction services. Whether it’s highway, street, or public realm lighting, let us assist you to realise your project goals.





T: 07834 506705



Award winning lighting design specialists, delivering innovative design, installation and maintenance solutions in highways, public realm, commercial and architectural environments.

Our HERS registered team provide design strategies, impact assessment, technical & certifier support.


BA(Hons) BEng (Hons) MSc






Professional independent lighting design consultancy providing designs for all exterior applications, including street lighting. Specialists in assisting at the planning application stage with designs, strategies, lighting impact assessments, and expert witness, with a focus on mitigating ecological and environmental impacts.




M: +44 (0)7584 313990 T: +44 (0)121 387 9892



Professional consultancy from the UK’s and Irelands largest external lighting contractor. From highways and tunnels, to architectural and public spaces our electrical and lighting designers also provide impact assessments, lighting and carbon reduction strategies along with whole installation packages.






Award winning lighting design practice specialising in interior, exterior, flood and architectural lighting. Emphasis on section 278/38, public realm, ecology receptor mitigation and supporting Councils with planning approvals, CDM2015 and SBD accredited. Specialists in circadian spectrally specific lighting design.






T: 0118 3215636



Exterior lighting consultant’s who specialise in all aspects of street lighting design, section 38’s, section 278’s, project management and maintenance assistance. We also undertake lighting appraisals and environmental lighting studies






Lighting and electrical design consultancy providing private and public sector innovative professional services. Specialising in Section 38, Section 278, RCC, highways, architectural, public spaces, car park, lighting impact assessments, Internet of Things, interior and emergency lighting, EV design. From planning to post-construction we provide innovative and environmental balanced solutions.





T: 07385 461143



National team of specialist lighting and energy professionals offering the latest thinking and best client service across all aspects of lighting and energy, both public and private sector. Architectural, Highways, Environmental, Local Government, Electrical and Technical Expertise





M: 07834 490 192



Outdoor lighting design consultancy specialising in street lighting and private lighting design services. We provide Section 38, Section 278, Car Park lighting designs, Commercial lighting and Environmental Impact Lighting Assessments and planning application consultancy advice throughout the UK.




T: 07827 306483



Professional artificial and daylight lighting services covering design, technical support, contract and policy development including expert advice and analysis to develop and implement energy and carbon reduction strategies. Expert witness regarding obtrusive lighting, light nuisance and environmental impact investigations. registered personnel.




T: +44 (0)115 9574900 M: 07834 507070



Professional consultancy providing technical advice, design and management services for exterior and interior applications including highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting.

Advisors on energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.




M: + 353 (0)86 2356356



Expert lighting and electrical infrastructure for all interior, exterior, and emergency lighting applications. On street EV charging infrastructure design. Authorising Officer and Live Working Manager for Local Authorities.


BEng (Hons) CEng MILP MIET

MHEA -Managing Director



T: +44 (0)1962 855080 M: +44 (0)7779 327413



Professional lighting design consultancy offering technical advice, design and management services for exterior/interior applications for highway, architectural, area, tunnel and commercial lighting. Advisors on lighting and energy saving strategies, asset management, visual impact assessments and planning.







Specialist in: motorway, highway schemes, illumination of buildings, major structures, public artworks, amenity area lighting, public spaces, car parks, sports lighting, asset management, reports, plans, assistance, maintenance management, electrical design, Lighting Impact Assessments and Dark Skies Compliant Lighting.





T: 01246 229444



Specialist exterior lighting consultant.

Private and adopted lighting and electrical design for highways, car parks, area and sports lighting. Lighting Impact assessments, expert witness and CPD accredited Lighting design AutoCAD and Lighting Reality training courses.





T: 01962 855720

M:0771 364 8786



Visual Impact Assessments for planning applications. Expert in minimising environmental impact. 3D building modelling of light spill. Exterior and Interior architectural lighting design. Site surveys and lighting measurements. Specialises in problem solving and out-of-the-ordinary projects..





M: 07939 896887



Design for all types of exterior lighting including street lighting, car parks, floodlighting, decorative lighting, and private lighting. Independent advice regarding light trespass, carbon reduction and invest to save strategies. Asset management, data capture, inspection and testing services available.







Specialists in the preparation of quality and effective street lighting design solutions for Section 38, Section 278 and other highway projects. We also prepare lighting designs for other exterior applications. Our focus is on delivering solutions that provide best value. HIGHLIGHTING OUR HERITAGE LIGHTING SOLUTIONS FOR HERITAGE BUILDINGS DIVINE™
Neither Lighting Journal nor the ILP is responsible for any services supplied or agreements entered into as a result of this listing
Where industry knowledge sets us apart. Street Lighting Supplies Ltd is a dedicated specialist supplier of external, commercial, amenity and public lighting products. Street Lighting Supplies Limited 20 -22 Abbotsinch Road, Abbotsinch Industrial Estate, Grangemouth, FK3 9UX Email: • Web: Office: 01324 665602 Also: Newcastle - Tel: 0191 217 0119 • Bridgend - Tel: 01656 335835 • You need it, we have it For all your Street Lighting Requirements. We are proud to launch our new online purchasing platform. Scan the QR code for more information. Scan me

Celebrating a Century of British Manufacturing

Get the support you need

Our services include:

High mast lighting: installation and maintenance

Civils works and cable installation

Technical survey works: including electrical, pull

off and structural testing

Lifting operations: CPCS fully qualified

Public Lighting Installation

CCTV installation and maintenance

Catenary design and installation

Electric vehicle charging: installation and maintenance

Sports lighting: full turnkey services

+44 1920 860600
Issuu converts static files into: digital portfolios, online yearbooks, online catalogs, digital photo albums and more. Sign up and create your flipbook.