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The American Black Hereford

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ABHA PO Box 2607 Bowling Green, KY 42101 RETURN SERVICE REQUESTED

FALL 2019


SPRING-CALVING HERD DISPERSAL SELLING OVER 120 HEAD

Sat., October 19, 2019 • Noon (CST) At the Farm • Lawrenceburg, TN

JM Miss Outcross Lady 420 8088

Hereford & Black Herefords Spring Pair Splits Spring Bred Heifers Elite Donor & Show Prospects

SALE MANAGER:

DUSTIN N. LAYTON (405) 464-2455 laytond@yahoo.com ANDY MARSTON (785) 250-4449 andeemarston@gmail.com TFL# 5818 • TAL# 6690 www.laytonauction.com

11/8/18 • Polled • 44050669 S: MM Outcross 1312 ET MGS: KCF Bennett Revolution Y445 BW: 3.6 WW: 62 YW: 105 Milk: 26 REA: .52 Marb: .07 CHB: 107 • Donor Prospect • Performance with Style

JM Cattle Revolution X337 413 3/25/14 • Polled • 43505834 S: KCF Bennett Harland X337 MGS: RR Revolution 4159 BW: 5.2 WW: 61 YW: 101 Milk: 28 REA: .33 Marb: .23 CHB: 114 • Performance with vallue-added carcass

JMCC Ms Rib Z133 6106ET 12/5/16 • Polled • HB008794 S: 3C’s 114 By Ribeye ET MGS: JN Balder 5129 BW: 3.9 WW: 45 YW: 83 Milk: 25 • Two-time National Champion • Proven Producer

BID ONLINE:

GSF B411 Betty F181 JEREMIAH MALONE (931) 309-6805 118 Powdermill Hill Lane Lawrenceburg, TN 38464-8282 jrmalone20@gmail.com

2 www.jm-cattlecompany.com The American Black Hereford

4/1/18 • Polled • HB013164 S: FF 74-51 Hometown B411 MGS: Connealy Final Product BW: 4.5 WW: 44 YW: 75 Milk: 21 • Elite Donor Prospect

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Flying Diamond K Ranch “Gems of the Rockies”

REGISTERED BLACK HEREFORDS

FDK BLACK DIAMOND SELB HOMOZYGOUS BLACK & HOMOZYGOUS POLLED

BW

1.94

WW 41.49 YW MM MG

87.01 24.52 45

REG# HB009240

93% PB Super Calving Ease 72 lbs. Act BW PROPEL FEMALES 82% OR GREATER TO PUREBRED. * F1’s TO 71.5% (All Without a Red Bull)

Semen Available - Certified for International Use - Ready for Shipping Conventional: $35/straw - $50/certificate Sexed - Male & Female: call for pricing 96.5% Purebred Embryos Available - BLACK DIAMOND X MGS CMR GVP MR MATERNAL

Semen now ready & available in Canada. Conventional & Sexed.

88% Purebred Embryos Available - Sexed Female Semen Used to Produce these Embryos TH 122 711 VICTOR 719T X MGS JN BALDER 349 (HB000075)

FLYING DIAMOND K RANCH

Ft. Collins, CO Fall The American Black Hereford KEN PADILLA · 970-204-1000 | ken-padilla@comcast.net

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Features

FALL 2019 Volume 4, Issue 4

ABHA National Show & Sale Set for November 7-9th More info on page 13

Also in this Issue: EPA, U.S. Army Repeal 2015 Rule Defining “Waters of the United States” Ending Regulatory Pathwork...14 Artificial Insemination Technique...20 Trouble Shooting Reproductive Failure...26

In Every Issue 6 8 10 16

President’s Thoughts Board Briefs Association Update

18 28 29

Juniors Corner

On the Cover Photo taken submitted by Don Hardin, Longview Farms. Have a cover photo? Send to cbrownabha@gmail.com The American Black Hereford is published quarterly by the American Black Hereford Assoc. PO Box 2607 Bowling Green, KY 42101-2607 Service Dept. - 833-501-4750 service@blackhereford.org www.blackhereford.org Graphic Design & Advertising: Leanna McGuire & Carey Brown

New Members Upcoming Events

Breeder Spotlight Members of the Livestock Publications Council

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Scan the QR code above to visit the ABHA website


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Presidents Thoughts

I Tim Tarter ABHA President

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The American Black Hereford

f you go back 25 years ago the words Black Hereford would have never been spoken. The reason being is that then there was no such animal. 2019 is our 25th year anniversary. The idea that John Gage had of turning the Hereford black has become a reality. Creating a new breed of cattle is no easy task. When Joe Hoagland of J/N Ranch purchased a few head of cattle that was the basis of our breed. His vision was to follow thru on John Gage’s idea and dream. The cattle background and knowledge that Joe and the Hoagland’s processed along with their understanding of cattle genetics gave them the ability and tools needed to make the Black Hereford Breed come into existence. They struggled with data, EPDs, breeding selection and most of all the acceptance of a breed that turned Herefords black. While some laughed and referred to the breed as just a glorified Black Baldy others took notice and began to ask questions and take interest in our breed. With the advancement of DNA testing and education in breeding, cattlemen everywhere are realizing that a composite or hybrid breed like ours has an important place in our industry. Many commercial cattlemen have switched from producing purebred cattle to a crossbred animal for the market. Why, you may ask? The hybrid vigor that you receive from cross breeding works and puts more lbs. on the ground and more money in your pocket. This makes the Black Hereford a perfect fit for commercial breeders. Not only can we provide you with the genetic qualities and hybrid vigor that cattlemen are looking for but we have that unique ability to produce those desired black hided calves. Black hided cattle are an important selling feature in today’s market but we need to remember that we have much more to offer than just a black hide. The past 5 years our genetics and the influence of quality genetics that many of our breeders have implemented into their breeding program has rocketed forward the performance values of Black Hereford cattle. As most of you know, after the first initial cross of the Angus and Hereford which produced our F1 are our base cattle. These are not registered Black Hereford. They are only used as a breed up animal. We track them and certify them for pedigree purposes. I have breeders that get frustrated with me when I tell them that. If you read our bylaws it plainly explains that. Our breeding rules only allow us to use Hereford or Black Hereford ge-

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netics. What has been such an exciting discovery is the fact that all the way to purebred status we are retaining the great grading characteristics of the Angus while still incorporating the desired traits of Hereford. In regards to a hybrid or composite breed our breeding rules are relatively strict. I get questioned all the time about them. My answer is usually pretty simple. We are strict and don’t make changes because our protocol works and is successful in producing the type of cattle that breeders want. Black Hereford cattle become more popular and accepted every day. We now have a high enough population of animals in commercial herds that breeders are starting to take notice of the value that our cattle can add. Twenty-five years is a very short time to go from an idea to a rapidly growing breed of cattle. This fall at the national meeting I hope that you will be able to join us for our annual event that will be held in November at the University of Missouri and help us reflect and celebrate this milestone. We should enjoy this moment but we can’t slowdown our efforts for continued growth, awareness and improvement of our breed. My role as president over the last four and half years has changed. In the beginning it was to get us stabilized and back on our feet as well as to promote and help us gain recognition of the breed. Today we still must work to expand and promote while we continue to make available tools that will help and assist our members. The added challenge is keeping our association moving forward as we adjust for growth. I may not be around for our 50 year anniversary but unless God has other plans, I plan to be here for this one. Let’s all enjoy this celebration and relish just for a short while in what we have accomplished. The work and continuous effort that makes this association run smoothly, the always present challenges, and yes even the politics of the breed will be here going forward but our 25th anniversary will only come once. It’s not I that has made this breed so successful, it’s not the board of directors and it’s not the members, but it is all of us doing our small part and making contributions where we can. We built this together by believing and trusting in each other. If we want to continue the success we have had, this must be the only path forward. ABHA


AMERICAN BLACK HEREFORD

Southern Classic Sale - SAVE THE DATE -

April 18 , 2020 TH

RUSK COUNTY EXPO CENTER Henderson, Texas Get your consignments ready. Sale registration forms will be on the ABHA website soon.

BLACKHEREFORD.ORG

FOR MORE INFORMATION CONTACT: Tim Tarter • 606-305-3389 • tim@blackhereford.org Jason Schroeder • 573-680-1439 • sbh8627@gmail.com Fall

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Board Briefs

I Logan Hill ABHA Secretary

am hoping everyone has had a great summer and is looking forward to a productive fall. There have been several changes in our office staffing and procedures. As of the writing of this article, President Tarter and his wife Teresa have been fulfilling all the duties of the office. We are working hard to hire an employee to take over the bulk of this workload and work with the membership. We will have an interesting and important business meeting in November as there will be an election for two Board seats and thirteen bylaw amendment proposals for consideration by the membership. I urge as many members as possible to attend. The Board has interpreted the bylaw barring proxy voting at the annual

meeting to include employees and agents of a membership ranch, meaning that only recognized owners of a membership may vote. Along the same lines, no member may vote for more than one membership. In other news, we are happy to say that money has been budgeted for a full website modernization and redesign. This will provide a fresh face for our main public portal. The ABHA’s main show season is about to get kicked off with the Nationals in November and the NAILE in Louisville, Kentucky following shortly. Please be sure to mark these events on your calendar, bring your cattle, and represent the ABHA! I’m hopeful for everyone to have a profitable and productive fall season! ABHA

ABHA Officers & Staff President: Tim Tarter 606.305.2289 Vice President: Robert Walters 270.832.1180 Treasurer: Charles Crow 256.710.3594 Secretary: Logan Hill 970.629.8807 Board Members: Chad Jones 913-731-3428 Tammy Bargen 402-209-0958 Jason Schroeder 573.229.8997 Darrell Selby 270.566.2624 Brock Johansen 435.381.5785

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Selling: 80 BULLS

40 HOMOZYGOUS BLACK

35 FEMALES

WWW.JOBULLS.COM Contact Brock: (435) 749-1543

Jo Bulls Genetics The ABHA’s first online semen and embryo source. Brock Johansen • (435) 749-1543 www.jobullsgenetics.com bjohansen@emerytelcom.com

BUY SEMEN ONLINE AT

JOBULLSGENETICS.COM

American Black Hereford 9 PAY ONLINE ◆ SELECT MULTIPLE SIRES PER ORDERFall ◆ ONLYThe PAY SHIPPING ONCE


Association Update By Tim Tarter

O

ur 25th fiscal year as an association ended on the 30th of September 2019. Many things have changed since our humble beginning on the J/N Ranch in Leavenworth, Kansas. Our success as an association tends to over shadow those people that were the pioneers and dedicated so much in the beginning to get the ball rolling. I want to personally thank the Hoagland’s for their vision, knowledge, passion, and most of all their endless work toward the development of our breed. 2019 has been an eventful year in the industry and for our association. Cattlemen across the country came out of the 2018 winter with a less than enthusiastic outlook for 2019. Flooding and record rainfall across the country in many areas made this winter one of the worst ever to deal with. All of this with an unstable and unpredictable cattle market left many of us wondering what the year would be like. These and many other challenges has made the year difficult to predict and manage. As an association, 2019 started as a normal year and appeared to be on track for another record year in regards to registration growth. The past 3 years we had seen an almost 30% increase in registrations each year. As we moved into winter we saw those growth numbers decline as the market and industry struggled. Other associations saw the same decline, so it wasn’t just us. Cattlemen simply were being cautious and keeping a close watch on their checkbooks. This trend continued into the spring. As the year continued we saw registration numbers increase again. The final numbers are not in yet, but registrations appear to be about the same as last year. Based on my conversation with other associations and considering the year as well as the enormous growth that we had enjoyed the last 3 years, I will take this as a win for 2019. As far as our membership growth is concerned, those numbers continue to go through the roof. We are very close to breaking the 500 mark in membership and that number is growing daily. The association is financially strong as we have more cash on hand than ever before and our liabilities are less than they have ever been. The promotion committee is working on a new website and we are hopeful that it will be available before the first of the year. The new website should provide many tools and information for the members as well as be more modern and user friendly. The board has also authorized the promotion committee to move forward with a new brochure. They are doing some work on that at this time and they are in the final stages of review before going to print. Last spring we entered into new contract negotiations with our customer service provider for our registrations and the handling of our DNA. This was a challenging few months. While the Chianina Association had provided excellent service through the employees of Jennifer and Cheryl, the price increase that they requested was just more than the board felt was fair. The decision to bring the service in-house was made by the board of directors. The board felt that as we grow it would be much better to train

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our own employees and to manage our DNA along with our registrations ourselves. My wife, Teresa is currently managing our DNA and registrations for the association. Many of you have been working with her and she has been devoting an enormous amount of time to this in an effort to provide our members with the same great service that they have been accustomed to. Her work for the association is saving us about $30,000 per year. Over the past 4 years Teresa has devoted many hours of her service to the association. She has planned and organized 3 junior National events, 3 National show and sales events, the North American event, helped organize and clerked the Southwest sale last spring for the association and she has attended and worked every ABHA represented event for the association. These and many other tasks that she performs help support me in my work and other areas of the association. The Digital Beef service that she supports is temporary, as it is our hope that by the time you are reading this is that we have a new employee in place that will be training to take over her role and relieve her of this full-time duty. Having multiple people trained to handle customer service needs will benefit the association going forward and hopefully we won’t have to negotiate a service contract again. This should provide a much better long-term solution for our customer service needs. The board feels that we need to handle as much of our work as possible within our own staff. Teresa plans to train the staff and then only serve as a backup and as support for future staff. As we grow our customer service needs will increase, and it will be necessary to increase our staff. The board is interviewing accounting firms to handle our finances. The board hired an office manager last January that we had hoped to handle this in-house. The employee unfortunately did not work out. The board has decided that at least for now, to turn our finances over to a professional firm. We have had a lot of growth and changes in our association over the last few years. Our association is doing great. We have many goals that we hope to achieve in the coming years. In order to accomplish those goals it takes people that are willing to do the work that will move us forward. We must stay united. I, along with other directors and members, have worked endlessly over the years to grow our association and to represent all breeders both small and large, equally and fairly. I have served this membership to the best of my ability and I am proud of what we have accomplished. I have been asked by some why we give so much and why I would even want to continue to dedicate the time and effort that we have over the years. The answer is simple. I believe in this association. I believe in the breed. Most of all I believe in the hundreds of good breeders and members that we have. I know we are headed for greatness and I am deeply passionate about doing what I can to help us achieve that goal. I encourage all of you to attend the National Meeting Show and Sale in November and help us celebrate our 25th anniversary. We have a great event planned and we have a great year planned for 2020. ABHA


BRINGING NEW GENETICS TO THE

BLACK HEREFORD BREED

PEDIGREE

DCD CERTIFIED TRUMP 2016 HERD SIRE M IKE & CA RL A BA CI CA 903-520-0390 | 903-530-8551

BACICAFARMS.COM

TRIPLE C HERD REDUCTION ANNOUNCING THE

Charles Crow, owner 1268 County Road 168 Killen, Alabama 35645 In an effort to decrease our cattle numbers to a more manageable level, Triple C Black Herefords is offering the opportunity to take your pick of the entire herd. Everything has a price with nothing held back. Visitors are welcome. Call Charles Crow at 256-710-3594 for details.

This is your chance to take home your picks of the cowherd that produced these champions and pasture performers.

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Annual Black Hereford Photo Contest

IN CONJUNCTION WITH THE 2019 NATIONAL SHOW AND SALE, COLUMBIA, MO.

Contest Rules

w Age Groups: Junior- 8-21; Adults- 21 and up w Entries should be a picture representing Black Hereford Cattle taken by an ABHA member w Photos should be 5x7 mounted on a lightweight stock Please include name and age on back w Photos will be used by the Association w A mounted hardcopy and digital file should be submitted prior to 12 PM on Nov. 7 w Send digital files to tim@blackhereford.org For more information contact Tim Tarter at tim@blackhereford.org or call 913-677-1111. 12 The American Black Hereford Fall


Save the Date

2019 NATIONAL SHOW & SALE NOVEMBER 7TH - 9TH, 2019 Columbia • Missouri Cattle will be accepted on Wednesday from 3PM - 9PM and Thursday until 12PM.

THURSDAY, NOV. 7TH Workshops and Seminar Presentations 5:30PM Business Meeting - Trowbridge Center Auditorium FRIDAY, NOV. 8TH Show Held at Trowbridge Center 9AM Pen Show 10AM Regular Show {Breaks between divisions}

6PM Silent Auction/Bar - Held at Hotel 7:30PM Dinner Guest Speaker: Jared Decker, Associate Professor

University of Missouri Division of Animal Science and Beef Genetics Extension Specialist

Pre-registration required. Beer/ Wine Cash Bar Available Junior National Class sponsorship auction

SATURDAY, NOV. 9TH

12:00PM Live Auction in Columbia - Trowbridge Center Online Bidding through DVAuction

Visit blackhereford.org for banquet registration and more information. SHOW AND SALE LOCATION:

Trowbridge Center University of Missouri Campus Columbia, MO

HOTEL RESERVATIONS: Hampton

1225 Fellows Place - Columbia, MO 65201

Phone: 573-214-2222 Show and Sale to receive group rate. 13 Fall Mention ABHA The American Black Hereford


EPA, U.S. Army Repeal 2015 Rule Defining “Waters of the United States” Ending Regulatory Patchwork

A

t an event in Washington, D.C., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator Andrew Wheeler and Department of the Army Assistant Secretary of the Army for Civil Works R.D. James announced that the agencies are repealing a 2015 rule that impermissibly expanded the definition of “waters of the United States” (WOTUS) under the Clean Water Act. The agencies are also recodifying the longstanding and familiar regulatory text that existed prior to the 2015 Rule—ending a regulatory patchwork that required implementing two competing Clean Water Act regulations, which has created regulatory uncertainty across the United States. “Today, EPA and the Department of the Army finalized a rule to repeal the previous administration’s overreach in the federal regulation of U.S. waters and recodify the longstanding and familiar regulatory text that previously existed,” said EPA Administrator Andrew Wheeler. “Today’s Step 1 action fulfills a key promise of President Trump and sets the stage for Step 2 – a new WOTUS definition that will provide greater regulatory certainty for farmers, landowners, home builders, and developers nationwide.” Today’s rule is the first step—Step 1—in a two-step rulemaking process to define the scope of “waters of the United States” that are regulated under the Clean Water Act. Step 1 provides regulatory certainty as to the definition of “waters of the United States” following years of litigation surrounding the 2015 Rule. The two federal district courts that have reviewed the merits of the 2015 Rule found that the rule suffered from certain errors and issued orders remanding the 2015 Rule back to the agencies. Multiple other federal district courts have preliminarily enjoined the 2015 Rule pending a

decision on the merits of the rule. In this action, EPA and the Army jointly conclude that multiple substantive and procedural errors warrant a repeal of the 2015 Rule. For example, the 2015 Rule: •Did not implement the legal limits on the scope of the agencies’ authority under the Clean Water Act as intended by Congress and reflected in Supreme Court cases. •Failed to adequately recognize, preserve, and protect the primary responsibilities and rights of states to manage their own land and water resources. •Approached the limits of the agencies’ constitutional and statutory authority absent a clear statement from Congress. •Suffered from certain procedural errors and a lack of adequate record support as it relates to the 2015 Rule’s distance-based limitations. With this final repeal, the agencies will implement the pre-2015 regulations, which are currently in place in more than half of the states, informed by applicable agency guidance documents and consistent with Supreme Court decisions and longstanding agency practice. The final rule takes effect 60 days after publication in the Federal Register. In December 2018, EPA and the Army proposed a new definition—Step 2—that would clearly define where federal jurisdiction begins and ends in accordance with the Clean Water Act and Supreme Court precedent. In the proposal, the agencies provide a clear definition of the difference between federally regulated waterways and those waters that rightfully remain solely under state authority. Additional information is available at: http://www.epa.gov/wotus-rule. ABHA

YEARLING BULLS & TWO-YEAR-OLD BULLS FOR SALE PRIVATE TREATY

Mountain Fork

HEREFORD FARM 479-650-8906 Ÿ 479-414-7718

earleneboone@aol.com Ÿ rboone8900@aol.com

www.mountainforkherefordfarm.com

RICHARD & EARLENE BOONE

3341 West Rodeo Crossing | Natural Dam, AR 72948

One of our leading herd sires: JN Balder A426 ET

BW ff.91 14

WW 47.36

YW 81.04

The American Black Hereford

Reg #HB004416

MILK 23.43 Fall

M&G 47

FIND US ON FACEBOOK


Sav

3-21-20 e t a D e the

Black

1 2 P M C e n t r a l Ti m e

L . D. B r o w n A g r i c u l t u r a l E x p o s i t i o n C e n t e r We s t e r n K Y Un i v e r s i t y 혺 B o w l i n g G r e e n , K Y

IS THE Color

P ro d u c t i o n S a l e

one of the most complete and premier sales in the black hereford breed.

Bulls and females for sale by private treaty. Visitors are always welcome at the farm.

TRIPLE T FARMS

Tim & Teresa Tarter 혺 606-305-2289 2616 Hwy 1664 혺 Nancy, KY 42544 ngsstriper@hotmail.com 혺 www.tripletblackcattle.com

Black Herefords at the North American International Livestock Expo November 5 - 21, 2019 ABHA Show Dates Check-In - Tuesday, November 19 Show - Wednesday, November 20 at 8 AM To register and view dates and rules visit www.BlackHereford.org Fall

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Barrett’s Black Herefords By Tim Tarter

S

tarting back in 2001 Scotty Barrett became involved in the cattle industry by giving a hand to a family neighbor who had fallen ill. This began his love affair with farming. He took care of the cattle for 5 years until it became apparent the owner would never be able to fully recover to run his farm again. Scotty took a break from farming until 2011 when an opportunity presented itself to him and once again become ingrained in the cattle community. With the help of family, he was able to buy cattle, lease land, buy a tractor and start his own farm with his wife Denise. Scotty first had commercial cattle. They heard and read about the American Black Hereford Association and made the decision to sell all of their commercial cattle and buy registered Black Herefords. In 2015 they started their own farm, Barrett’s Black Herefords. In March 2016 they bought their first Black Hereford bull from Knight N Gail Farm. They were able to purchase 5 Red Hereford registered cows, 14 registered Angus heifers, and a registered Red Hereford bull to continue to build the new herd. They went into partnership in September 2016 by buying a foundation female that had been researched to build the herd. The purchase had been made to improve the herd, as we all should be doing to improve the Black Hereford breed. Scotty took Artificial Insemination classes to continue the betterment of their herd. Today in 2019, the Barrett’s now have 65 head of cattle which includes 3 Hereford bulls and 2 Black Hereford bulls. They have a partnership with Deb and Phil McCoy, the owners of McCoy’s farm, with a contract in place concerning their herd of 50 Angus which is serviced by two Red Hereford bulls that produces F1’s for a good genetic base. They have chosen to participate in showcasing cattle to instill work ethic, social skills and confidence in their nieces, Kacie and Abby, and young

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granddaughters, Mary and Emma. Scotty says showing cattle is also a benefit to their nieces that are in 4-H for their beef cattle program. Their hope is to one day run the farm full-time, but for now both work full time jobs. Scotty has been in the commercial blasting explosives industry for 25 years, and Denise has been in the banking business for 14 years. This is a first generational legacy with the hope that their son, Chris and his wife Angel along with their daughters Mary and Emma, can carry on for years to come and for future generations. Chris has worked in the home improvement industry for 12 years and Angel has been employed with the Tennessee National Guard for the last 7 years. The farm consists of wooded terrain, open pastures, and hay ground. Located 45 minutes from the heart of Tennessee in a small community called Brush Creek. They help the McCoy’s by sharecropping hay with local farmers, which consists of roughly 1200 to 1600 rolls a year. They are deeply embedded in their church community where Scotty is a song leader at Malone’s Chapel Missionary Baptist Church. A special thanks to God, family, friends, and co-workers who have helped to make Barrett’s Black Hereford Farm become the farm it is today. Scotty currently serves on the ABHA Rules and Ethics committee. Scotty and his family are strong supporters of the ABHA. They participate and attend many events each year that help support our membership and growth. It is one thing to raise the breed and belong to an association, it is quite another to be active and have a belief in what our association is trying to accomplish. Scotty and his family exemplifies what a member of an organization should aspire to be. He and his family along with their commitment to the breed and the association are the kind of members and breeders that will help us achieve greatness in our industry. The ABHA appreciates their support and efforts. We congratulate them in being selected for our breeder spotlight. ABHA


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Juniors Corner By Jeffrey Calvert, Junior President

H

ey everyone, I hope you had a great summer and are having a great school year. We are excited to see you all at the national heifer sale and the NAILE. We have something new at the national heifer sale this year. The Junior board has come up with a new event to get the adult board in on the fun. This year we have come up with a fundraiser that our adult board members will dress up in a costume and show a calf in the ring. This event will be something everyone can get in on because we will have jugs set up at the meeting Thursday night and all-day Friday during the show that anyone can place bets on who will win our adult showmanship. We hope that everyone will have a good time with this new fundraiser. All the proceeds will go to the junior association for Junior Nationals. We hope this new contest with the board will bring some entertainment to the show day. I am also excited that the junior association will be selling t-shirts at the National Show and Sale, which will display all the sponsors on the back. This is another fundraiser for the juniors. The sponsorships are $100 apiece. If you are interested in sponsoring, please reach out to me (Jeffrey Calvert) at (256)278-0036. There will be a pre-order on short sleeve t-shirts and sweatshirts. Kristin Schroeder will be sending out invoices to who has committed to sponsorship. At the National Sale, the junior association has changed how the luncheon on sale day will go. The meal will be donations so there will be

no set price this year. It will be hot dogs and hamburgers again this year. We need some junior members and parents to help with preparation of food as well as the serving line. If anyone has any questions or is interested in helping shoot me an email at jeffreycalvert88@gmail.com or give me a call at (256)278-0036. While at banquets or shows, if you need any help or have any questions the Junior Board will be dressed in a royal blue blazer and would be happy to help you. We decided to dress in uniform to make ourselves more available to the junior members and their parents. Please don’t hesitate to come up and ask questions you may have. We would be happy to answer them. Good luck to all our juniors that will be showing and competing this November. All your hard work and effort will be visible and admired. Keep up the hard work.

Rules for Adult Showmanship

1. Do not dress as anything inappropriate. 2. No flashing lights on the costume . 3. The judge will pick the winner and they will be announced at the banquet. 4. There will be other awards for this contest that the Junior Board has picked and will also be announced at the banquet. 5. Have fun. ABHA

MARK NUELLE HUSCHER FARMS DOO6

Purebred - Homo Black - Homo Polled

BW 2.34

WW 37.39

YW 60.60

M&G 41.95

Bulls for Sale by Private Treaty

MILK 23.25

MARK NUELLE• Higginsville, MO 64037 Cell: 660-238-3207 • nuelle@ctcis.net

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Artificial Insemination Technique

Photos and article prepared by Mike O’Connor, professor of diary science, and Jana Peters, research technician, Department of Dairy and Animal Science, Penn State University

T

his article provides a review for those already familiar with AI technique, emphasizing reproductive anatomy, sanitation, and accuracy of semen deposition. Within the cattle industry there has been a shift away from hiring professional technicians to artificially breed cattle and toward artificial insemination by owner-inseminators. Such a trend should not suggest that artificial insemination (AI) is an easy technique or that all ownerinseminators are proficient in AI. The pregnancy rates achieved by owner-inseminators differ by as much as 23 percent. Obviously, not all inseminators have acquired the skill to obtain consistently high conception rates in their cattle. Most breeding organizations offer instruction in AI technique, but the overall quality, intensity of training, and specific recommendations may vary considerably among instructional programs. Most agricultural colleges devote a whole course or part of a course to the technique of artificial insemination. In developing the manual skills needed for insemination, trainees should work with numerous reproductive tracts and receive considerable practice inseminating a variety of live cows. Developing the skill to thread the insemination rod through the cervix should not be the only objective. AI training programs should also emphasize the importance of sanitation and the perfection of skills to consistently identify the proper site of semen deposition and to accurately deposit the semen. In addition, trainees should obtain a good understanding of reproductive anatomy and appreciate the essentials of a sound reproductive management program. While artificial insemination proficiency of professional technicians is 20

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monitored by nonreturn rates (calculated by the breeding organizations), the conception rate obtained by owner-inseminators is not monitored and routine retraining generally is not provided. The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide a review for those individuals already familiar with the AI technique, with special emphasis on reproductive anatomy, sanitation, and accuracy of semen deposition.

Reproductive anatomy

In the early days of AI there was controversy among researchers about the optimum site for semen deposition. A study conducted in Canada provided evidence that fertility was highest when semen was deposited in the uterine body. Researchers currently are reexamining insemination technique to determine the proper site of semen deposition. Failure to understand the anatomical and functional relationships among the various tissues and organs of the reproductive system may lead to consistent insemination errors. Most AI training schools use excised tracts to illustrate reproductive anatomy. Often the tracts are dissected to allow students to view the interior of the uterus. This is a useful exercise; however, dissection can distort the relationship between various regions. Figure 1 is an illustration of the reproductive anatomy of the cow and a radiograph (photograph of an X-ray) of the cervical region and uterus. Radiography allows students to view the intact tract and simultaneously observe the interior of the uterine body and horns and, in many cases, the cervical canal. The uterine body is the area between the internal cervical os and the internal uterine bifurcation, where the uterine horns begin to separate inside the reproductive tract. In measurements taken from radiographs of 580 reproductive tracts, this distance averaged 5/8 of an inch. Twothirds of the tracts had a uterine body length between 3/8 and 7/8 of an inch. Obviously, there is not much room for error in placement of the


insemination rod tip. While palpating the reproductive tract to find the landmarks for insemination, the inseminator usually obtains an idea of the overall size of the reproductive tract. Some inseminators may have the impression that the larger the cervix or the longer the reproductive tract, the larger the uterine body. This assumption is incorrect. Insemination errors can result from such misconceptions about size of the uterine body in relation to the overall size of the reproductive tract.

Preparations for insemination and sanitation

Here are some important steps to follow and points to remember: • Ensure that the cow to be bred is truly in heat. Research studies indicate between 7 and 20 percent of the cattle inseminated are not in heat. • Restrain the cow first and then thaw the semen. The restraint area should be familiar to the cow and free of stressful conditions. Unnecessary excitement may interfere with physiological mechanisms important to achieving a good conception rate. • Develop good sanitary procedures and insemination practices. It is easier to learn good habits than to break bad habits. 1. Insemination supplies should be kept dry and clean at all times. Breeding sheaths should be stored in the original package until used. 2. Once the insemination device is assembled it must be protected from contamination and cold shock temperatures. 3. Materials used to lubricate the rectum should not come in contact with the vulva region. Lubricants are generally spermicidal. Avoid using products that are irritating. 4. The vulva region must be thoroughly wiped clean with a paper towel. This is important in helping prevent the interior of the reproductive tract from becoming contaminated and possibly infected. A folded paper towel

can be inserted into the lower portion of the vulva. The insemination rod can then be placed between the folds of the towel and inserted into the vagina without contacting the lips of the vulva. 5. Protective rods or sheaths are used in herds or for specific cows where vulvovaginal infection is a problem. When this system is used, the standard insemination rod and plastic sheath are inserted into the larger protective rod or sheath. This double rod combination is passed through the vagina to the external cervical opening. At the cervix, the tip of the protective device is punctured by the insemination rod, which is then threaded through the cervix. This technique should only be used following the recommendations of a veterinarian, extension specialist, or AI representative -- and only when specific diseases have been diagnosed or suspected.

General tips for insemination technique

• To avoid the possibility of entering the urethral opening on the floor of the vagina, the insemination rod should be inserted into the vulva upward at a 30 to 40 degree angle. • The anterior portion of the vagina, termed the fornix vagina, tends to stretch rather easily when the insemination rod is pushed forward and beyond the cervix. This may give the false impression that the rod is advancing through the cervix, when indeed it is above, below, or to either side of the cervix. The inseminator should be able to feel the rod within the vaginal fold, but unable to feel the rod tip within the cervix. •Remember to place the cervix onto the insemination rod. Maintain slight forward pressure on the rod while manipulating the cervix slightly ahead of the rod. • The target for semen deposition, the uterine body, is quite small (Figure 1). Accurate rod tip placement is probably the most important skill involved in the whole AI technique. Inseminators generally identify this target area by feeling for the end of the cervix and the tip of the rod as the rod emerges through the internal os or opening. Depositing the semen in the cervix or randomly in the uterine horns may result in lower conception rates. • Once the rod tip is aligned with the internal cervical os, deposit the semen. Semen deposition should take about five seconds. Slow delivery maximizes the amount of semen delivered from the straw and minimizes the unequal flow of semen into one uterine horn. • During the process of semen deposition, take care that the fingers of the palpating hand are not inadvertently blocking a uterine horn or misdirecting the flow of semen in some manner. • Be careful not to pull the insemination rod back through the cervix while the semen is being expelled. • If the cow has moved during semen deposition or you think the rod has moved, stop the semen deposition and correctly reposition the rod tip before continuing semen deposition.

Accuracy of insemination

Figure 1. Diagram (side, or lateral, view) of the reproductive anatomy of the cow and radiograph (top, or dorsal, view) of the cervix, uterine body, and uterine horns.

Critically evaluating the accuracy of insemination has been difficult. For many years, the dye method was used to evaluate the proficiency of professional technicians. Excised reproductive tracts were inseminated with a biological dye in place of semen. In some cases, live cows were inseminated with dye and the tracts were examined immediately after slaughter. The location of the dye within the tract indicated the site of semen deposition. Table 1 (on next page)summarizes the results of dye inseminations in live cows and relates the results to the field performance of technicians (60- to 90-day nonreturn ratings). Nonreturn rate is an indirect measure of fertility. Technicians with a nonreturn rate greater than 78 percent achieved 86 percent of their dye depositions in the uterine body and they had no extrauterine inseminations. Inseminations by technicians with Cont’d on pg. 22 Fall

The American Black Hereford 21


Figure 2. Radiographs of excised cow reproductive tracts illustrating insemination rod tip placement (left) and distribution of radiopaque semen (right) following correct AI technique (a, b) and incorrect techniques (c, d, e, and f).

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Cont’d from pg. 21 nonreturn rates below 70 percent resulted in only 34 percent of the dye depositions in the uterine body and 31 percent extrauterine inseminations. It appears that accurate semen deposition is correlated with successful conception rates. The dye method has some limitations. The location of the insemination rod tip cannot be determined, and manipulation of the reproductive tract during slaughter or dissection can distort the distribution of the dye. Researchers at The Pennsylvania State University have used radiography to evaluate insemination technique accuracy. This method allows the interior of the tract to be viewed without dissection and the location of the insemination rod to be easily seen. Twenty professional technicians and twenty ownerinseminators were evaluated by this technique. Each participant inseminated twenty reproductive tracts. Two radiographs were evaluated for each insemination. The first was taken after insemination rod placement and the second after semen deposition. Placement of the rod tip was assessed from the first radiograph and distribution of semen from the second. Analysis of radiographs of all inseminations indicated that only 39 percent of the rod tip placements were within the uterine body. Placements in the cervix, right uterine horn, and left uterine horn were 25, 23, and 13 percent, respectively. Semen distribution, determined from the second radiograph, showed that 40 percent of the semen was located in the uterine body or equally distributed in both uterine horns. The remaining 60 percent was located in the cervix or disproportionately in one uterine horn. Accurate distribution of semen was significantly related to proper placement of the insemination rod. Figures 2a and 2b illustrate correct rod tip placement and semen distribution. Figures 2c, 2d, 2e, and 2f illustrate examples of incorrect AI technique. No differences were found between professional technicians and owner-inseminators in their abilities to place the rod tip accurately or to distribute the semen properly. However, considerable variation was found among all inseminators in their ability to position the insemination rod correctly. Among all the participants in this study, the percentage of correct placements within the uterine body ranged from 0 to 85 percent of the insemination attempts. These individuals are probably a representative sample of professional technicians and owner-inseminators breeding cows throughout the country. The results clearly indicate that consistent placement of the rod tip within the uterine body is a difficult task. Accurate insemination technique requires mental concentration, attention to detail, and a clear understanding of reproductive anatomy, as well as the ability to identify the target area and properly position the insemination rod. The variation seen in this study and in other studies suggests that certain individuals have acquired or perfected these skills to a much greater degree than others. It further demonstrates the need for routine retraining and updating of both professionals and owner-inseminators. Subsequent to the Penn State study, research from Washington State University showed that retrograde movement of sperm into the vagina was 2-fold greater following cervical semen deposition compared to uterine deposition. Cervical semen deposition results in significant loss of sperm.


Evaluating success and need for retraining

Owner-inseminators should calculate the first-service conception rate for their herds during a 6-month interval. They should review breeding charts and consider only those cows that have been bred long enough to have been pregnancy checked. Strive for a goal of 45 percent first-service conception rate. In smaller herds there may not be enough first service during a 6-month period to determine the conception rate accurately. In that case, inseminators should summarize first services over 12 months or calculate the percentage of cows pregnant after three breedings. In very large herds, calculate conception rate more often than every 6 months. In any size herd, services per conception is another index of breeding performance related to the effectiveness of insemination technique. A reasonable goal is to maintain a rate of fewer than 1.8 services for pregnant cows. Livestock producers must realize that other factors in addition to AI

technique can affect conception rate and services per conception. If an evaluation of your records indicates that your insemination technique may be a problem area, then you should consider attending an AI retraining session. The effectiveness of retraining can be seen in Table 2. If the magnitude of improvement is 8 percent for professional technicians, it may be even greater for ownerinseminators. All inseminators should periodically attend a retraining course to review their technique, learn new developments, and obtain recommendations regarding AI technique.

References

Peters, J. L., P. L. Senger, J. L. Rosenberger, and M. L. O’Connor, (1984) “Radiographic evaluation of bovine artificial insemination technique among professional and herdsmen-inseminators.” Journal of Animal Science 59, 1671. Gallagher, G. R., and P. L. Senger, (1989). “Concentrations of spermatozoa in the vagina of heifers after deposition of semen in the uterine horns, uterine body, or cervix.” Journal of Reproduction Fertilization 86,1 ABHA

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Trouble-Shooting Reproductive Failure W. Mark Hilton, DVM, Purdue University

W

ith fall preg-checking season soon to begin, some herd owners will surely be pleased with their results. Meanwhile, others may look for bred females to purchase. The goal shouldn’t be to have 100% of your cows bred each year. Herds at or near 100% pregnant year after year generally represent one of two situations -- a very extended calving season or overfeeding. Neither option is cost-effective for overall herd profitability. Financial analysis indicates a pregnancy percentage of 90-95% in 65 days is both achievable and likely most profitable. If your herd is below this level, some investigation by you and your herd-health veterinarian is needed. When I investigate a reproductive problem, I break it into the following categories: For bull problems, it’s Breeding Soundness Exam (BSE), overuse, or lack of libido. For cow problems, I look at nutrition, environment, disease and genetics. Bull problems. When a large percentage of cows are open, my first thought is generally a bull problem. With a national annual

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average of about 10% of bulls failing their BSE, an annual BSE on every bull before turnout is a must. Nearly every year I’ve been in practice, I’ve seen a group of cows all open due to a sterile bull. It’s an easy situation to figure out. Another bull problem is simply overuse. My rule of thumb for Midwest herds is you need a month of bull age for every cow in a 65-day breeding season. If you have 100 cows in a group, you need “100 months of bull” to breed them. This means three bulls at three years of age, or two bulls at four years of age, would be adequate bull power. We know some bulls can service more than 50 cows in a breeding season, but 50 cows to a bull is our upper limit. We also know using bulls of greatly differing ages doesn’t work well. Having a yearling bull in the pasture with a three- and fouryear-old adds up to 100 months, but the yearling will likely get no cows bred due to dominance issues by the older bulls. The final bull problem is lack of libido. These bulls generally get some cows bred but not enough. To diagnose this problem, place a group of open cows with the bull(s) in question. If the bull lies down in the shade when a cow is in heat, he’s asking to leave the herd. Cow problems. Nutrition tends to be the most common reason for a less-than-desirable pregnancy percentage; the most common nutritional problem is lack of Body Condition Score (BCS) before calving. This is primarily an energy deficiency. The period between weaning and the third trimester of pregnancy is the most cost-effective time to improve BCS. A good BCS prior to calving is key to breeding back in a timely fashion. If thin cows are over-represented in the open pen, you may already hve the answer. If your younger cows are over-represented, it can be the same problem. Mature cows that calve too thin (below BCS 5) are at higher risk of being open, compared to cows in good BCS. Young cows are also at increased risk of being open as they need additional energy for skeletal growth. If you have a cow both young and thin, she’s at a severe disadvantage. Post-calving cows need 45% more energy and 40% more protein than a pre-partum cow. Be sure not to shortchange cows at this critical time. Mineral and vitamin deficiencies also can reduce pregnancy percentage. While phosphorus deficiency historically was listed as a cause of reproductive failure, it’s now very rare as most all cows are adequately supplemented with phosphorus. Other elements that can cause reproductive failure include deficiencies of selenium, vitamin E, cobalt, copper, iodine and manganese. Check with your nutritionist, Extension beef specialist or herd-health veterinarian for requirements in your area. Environment. A cow herd out of synch with what’s going on in the environment can pose problems. The biggest concern is an overly productive cow in an average or poorer environment. We


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don’t want high-maintenance cows weighing 1,700 lbs. trying to get rebred while grazing infected fescue. Heat stress can also affect reproduction. It can cause reduced embryo viability early in pregnancy, as well as reduced sperm quality and breeding activity by the bull. Disease. When disease causes reproductive failure, other manifestations of the same disease are generally seen. Abortions, early embryonic death, calves born weak or dead, and calves that die soon after birth are common manifestations. Most disease factors don’t simply cause an increase in the percentage of open cows. This is another area where you need to get your herd-health veterinarian involved early in the course of the problem. Genetics. There are differences in the inherent fertility of different beef breeds. Research also indicates an increase in pregnancy rate in crossbred vs. purebred cows. If you can’t attain the pregnancy rate you desire, there may be an underlying genetic component. If your herd’s fall pregnancy results look good, then congratulations. If it’s less than desirable, work with your beef team to get to the bottom of the problem. This time next year, you can be reflecting on a job well done. ABHA

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Upcoming Events October 2019

February 2020

October 7-8 Triple T Farm Black is the Color Online Sale

February 2 JM Cattle Company Spring Production Sale, Lawrenceburg, TN February 5-7 NCBA Convention, San Antonio, TX

October 12 J&N Ranch Fall Production Sale, Leavenworth, KS October 19 JM Cattle Company Spring Calving Herd Dispersal, Lawrenceburg, TN, See ad on pg. 2

February 8 J&N Ranch Production Sale, Leavenworth, KS, See ad on pg. 5

November 2019

March 2020

November 7-9 ABHA National Show and Sale, Columbia, MO, page 13

March 21 Triple T Farms Black is the Color Sale, Nancy, KY, See ad on pg. 15

November 20 Black Hereford Show at the North American International Livestock Expo, Louisville, KY, See ad on page 15

April 2020

November 5-21 North American International Livestock Expo, Louisville, KY, See ad on page 15

March 16 Baxter Angus and Black Hereford Sale, Rockham, SD

April 18 Southwest Breeder Sale, Henderson, TX, See ad on pg. 7

Join the American Black Hereford Association

Membership Fees: Life Membership fee is $1,000 Annual Membership Fee $100 per year (Jan. 1 - Dec. 31) New annual memberships are prorated based on quarter joined

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Junior memberships are available to persons under 21 years of age and junior membership privileges expire at age 21.

Upon becoming a member and, in consideration of acceptance, I/we agree to conform to and abide by the By-Laws, Rules and Regulations of the Association as Amended or Modified from time to time. Application is hereby made for membership (Life, Annual or Junior) in the American Black Hereford Association.

__________________________________________________________ (Individual, Farm, Ranch, Partnership, etc.) __________________________________________________________ When you have completed the application, send it with the proper fee to Owner’s Name the Association at: PO Box 857, Platte City, MO 64079 __________________________________________________________ Mailing Address Membership Privileges: __________________________ ________ ________ - ________ 1. Only Life and Annual Members of the Association are eligible to City State Zip register cattle in the American Black Hereford Registry. __________________________ _____________________________ 2. Each Life and Annual Member shall have one (1) vote per animal Home Phone # Cell Phone # registered with the Association. Life and Annual Members may __________________________ _____________________________ not vote by absentee ballot. Business Phone # Fax # 3. Each Life, Annual and Junior Member will be informed by Association __________________________ _____________________________ mailings on a routine basis of important matters for both the Email Website (if you want it linked to ABHA) members and the ABHA. ________________________________________________ Birth Date - For Junior Members Only Upon becoming a member and, in consideration of acceptance, I/we ___________________________________ ___________________ agree to conform to and abide by the By-Laws, Rules and Regulations Signature Date Fall

The American Black Hereford 29


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Jo Bulls 9 Knight N Gail Farms 26 Kreifels Black Herefords 18 Kroening Black Herefords 25, 31 LC Ranch 27 Longview Farms 25 Mark Nuelle Farms 18, 25 Midcontinental Livestock Supplements 19 Mountain Fork Hereford Farm 14, 24 National Show & Sale 13 No Bull 19 Peaceful Valley Ranch 24 Selby Farms 23 South Ark Cattle Co. 24 Southern Classic Sale 7 Triple C 11 Triple J Ranch 27 Triple T Farms 15


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