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CATHOLIC RECORD SOCIETY PUBLICATIONS (RECORDS SERIES) VOLUME 65

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POST-REFORMATION CATHOLICISM IN BATH VOLUME I

Edited by

J. ANTHONY WILLIAMS

CATHOLIC RECORD SOCIETY 1975


Š The Catholic Record Society

Printed in Great Britain by Lowe & Brydone (Printers) Ltd., London and Thetford


CONTENTS PAGE

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

vi

ABBREVIATIONS USED

vii

HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION MISCELLANEOUS DOCUMENTS, 1717-99

98

BATH DOCUMENTS IN THE FRENCH NATIONAL ARCHIVES

110

GORDON RIOTS DOCUMENTS IN THE PUBLIC RECORD OFFICE

184

JOURNAL OF PETER AUGUSTINE BAINES

200

INDEX

240


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I am most grateful to Canon 1.1. Kelly of Bath for permission to reproduce one of the major items in this volume (the journal of Peter Augustine Baines, later bishop and Vicar-Apostolic of the Western District) and also for access to other archives of the Bath mission, preserved at St 10hn's presbytery, South Parade. For the remaining material here printed, and for access to much else, lowe thanks to His Lordship Bishop Rudderham of Clifton, the Abbot of Downside and Dr David Lunn and to the directors and staffs of the Public Record Office, London; Archives Nationales, Paris; House of Lords Record Office; Bath Corporation Archives Office and Somerset County Record Office, Taunton. I am indebted to Mr V.l. Kite, F.L.A. and the staff of Bath Reference Library for longstanding and unstinted co-operation and to those persons and institutions mentioned in the footnotes who have so generously given assistance on specific points, as well as to the staffs of the British Museum Reading Room and Manuscript Department, Lambeth Palace Library, London University Institute of Historical Research, East Riding Record Office, Wiltshire County Record Office (and Salisbury Diocesan Record Office) and to Father Francis Edwards, S.l. (Jesuit Archives, Farm Street, London), Miss Rosemary Rendel and Mr R.K. Browne (Catholic Record Society's Library, Farm Street), Miss Elisabeth Poyser (Archives of the Archbishop. of Westminster). I also record my gratitude to the Committee of the Twenty-seven Foundation Awards, University of London, for a grant towards the cost of producing this volume. 1. Anthony Williams, October 1973

vi


ABBREVIATIONS

A.A.W. Archives of the Archbishop of Westminster. Allanson, "Biography", "Collection" and "History": " Biography of the English Benedictines"; "Collection of Letters etc. referred to in the 'Biography' and 'History'''; "History of the English Benedictine Congregation", all by Dom P.A. Allanson O.S.B. in MS. at Downside . Abbey ( and at Ampleforth). Anstru ther : G. Anstruther, The Seminary Priests, 1558-1603 (Ushaw and Ware , 1968). A .P'C: Acts of the Privy Council. Birt: H.N. Birt, Obit Book of the English Benedictines, 1600-1912 (Edinburgh, 1913; London reprint, 1970). B.M. : British Museum (Department of Manuscripts). Cal.: Calendar( s ) of . . . CR.S.: Catholic Record Society volumes (note: references to CR.S., 63 cite only the useful biographical outlines in Appendix B; further entries pertaining to priests there named will be found in the index to that volume). CS.P.D.: Calendars of State Papers (Domestic series). Davey: E.C. Davey, Notable Catholics who lived and died at Bath between 1678 and 1823 (no date; ?1912). Dictionary of National Biography. D.N.B.: Downside: Archives of Downside Abbey. D.R .: The Downside Review. E.E. Estcourt and J.O . Payne, English Catholic NonE.&P.: jurors of 1715 (1886). The English Historical Review. E.H.R. : Foley: H. Foley, Records of the English Province of the Society of Jesus (7 vols. in 8, 1877-83). J. Gillow, A Literary and Biographical History, or Gillow: Bibliographical Dictionary of the English Catholics (5 vols., 1885-1902). Historical Manuscripts Commission Reports. H.M.C. : J. Kirk, Biographies of English Catholics, 1700-1800 Kirk: (ed. J .H. Pollen and E. Burton , 1909). Oxford English Dictionary. OE.D.: vii


Oliver:

P.R.O.: R.B.A: Reg.l; Reg. 2:

R.H.: S.D.N. Q.: S.R.O.: S.R.S.: Tierney-Dodd: Trans.: V. C.H: 1819 Directory:

G. Oliver, Collections Illustrating the History of the Catholic Religion in Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Somerset, Wiltshire and Gloucestershire (1857). Public Record Office, London. The Registers of Bath Abbey, 1569-1800 (ed. A.l. lewers, 2 vols., Harleian Society, 1900 and 1901, paginated consecutively). First and second Bath Catholic Registers (to be printed in the next C.R.S. volume). Recusant History. Somerset and Dorset Notes and Queries Somerset County Record Office, Taunton. Somerset Record Society volumes. M.A. Tierney (ed.) Dodd's Church History of England (with notes and additions, 5 vols., 1839-43). Transactions of the . ... Victoria History of the Counties of England. Gye's Bath Directory, corrected to January 1819 (Bath, 1819).

viii


HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION Post-Reformation Catholicism in Bath, 1559-1850 In 1559 the last Bishop of Bath and Wells in communion with Rome was deprived; nearly three hundred years later the first Bishop of Clifton, of the Roman Catholic hierarchy restored in 1850, was appointed to a diocese which included the same area. During the long interval the Catholics of Bath, as of England generally, laboured under difficulties which had much diminished by the later date and which had ebbed and flowed under Elizabeth I, the Stuarts and the Hanoverians. This Introduction outlines the fortunes of Catholics in Bath during the period 1559 to 1850 and seeks to provide a background for the documents printed in this and the succeeding volume. l When Elizabeth I came to the throne in November 1558 the Bishop of Bath and Wells was Gilbert Bourne who had earlier conformed but who had attached himself firmly to Catholicism in Mary's reign - so firmly, indeed, that al dagger had been thrown at him when preaching at Paul's Cross while chaplain to Bishop Bonner of London. Mary made him a bishop in 1554 and in the last weeks of the reign he became President of the Council in Wales and the Marches, an appointment soon terminated by Elizabeth. Less rapid was the loss of his See, Bourne being one of the last Marian bishops to be deprived for rejecting the royal supremacy, and he did not go without leaving his successor something by which to remember him. Like the monks of Bath Abbey who, twenty years earlier, had alienated a great deal of the Abbey property before Henry VIII's agents could get their hands on it, and like some of his deprived episcopal colleagues and pre-Civil War successors, Bourne had "granted and given away from the See of Bath and Wells various manors, lands, tenements, annuities and advowsons" to the acute concern of his Anglican supplanter, Gilbert Berkeley, formerly a Franciscan of York? 1 For local background, useful introductory surveys are R.A.L. Smith, Bath (revised edition, lY48), B. Little, Bath Portrait (Bristol, 1961) and two more-orless complementary volumes: P.R. James, The Baths of Bath in the Sixteenth and early Seventeenth Centuries (1938) and D. Gadd, Georgian Summer (Bath, 1971). All contain references to further works, as do the notes to this Introduction. See also note 467. 2 On these two bishops, see D.N.B.; T.E. Bridgett & T.F. Knox , Queen Elizabeth and the Catholic Hierarchy (1889); G.E. Phillips, The Extinction of the Ancient Hierarchy (1905); S.H. Cassan, Lives of Bishops of Bath and Wells (1829) ; F.O. White, Lives of Elizabethan Bishops of the Anglican Church (1898); W. Hunt, The Somerset Diocese: Bath and Wells (1885) and, especially, P.M. Hembry, Bishops of Bath and Wells: Social and Economic Problems (1967). F or Bourne's sermon, see also J. Gairdner, Lollardy and the Reformation in England, IV (1913) passim. ; M. Maclure, The Paul's Cross Sermons (Toronto, 1958) pp. 8, 49-50, 196, 198. For the Council in Wales, see CA.J. Skeel, The Council in the Marches of Wales. (1904) p. 84; P. Williams, The Council in the Marches of Wales under Elizabeth I


2

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

Bourne had himself come to a diocese into which heavy inroads had been made in Edward VI's reign and it was thus into a See disastrously depleted that Berkeley entered in March 1560 - only to have Elizabeth despoil it still further, though less, perforce, than some other dioceses. Within a year, indeed, he was trying to resign, so weakened was his position both in its finances and in its prestige - embarrassments epitomised by Dr Christopher Hill: "Only one of the episcopal residences remained and the land all round that was let, so that he could not drive up to his front door without his tenant's leave". Nor did Berkeley's troubles stem solely from his economic plight, allegedly aggravated by the importunities of an extravagant wife; like others of his generation of Anglican bishops he encountered little enthusiasm for the Elizabethan religious settlement among the leading personnel of the diocese. He found, and was constrained to keep for many years as Registrar a man he himself characterised as "a manyfeste enymy to god and the Queene's matye hir p'cedings" (William Lancaster, who in his will described himself as "A member of Our Saviour Jesus X's Catholicke Church") while others "in the hope of a newe daye ... are fled the realme,,3 - one of them, perhaps, with the departing Spanish Ambassador, the Count de Feria. 4 Among those who left for the Continent early in the reign were the Chancellor of the dioceseS and three Prebendaries including William Good, Master of the newly (Cardiff, 1958) pp. 38, 249-50, and, for the precautionary alienation of churchestates in the 1640s, C. Hill, Economic Problems of the Church (1963 edition) p. 315 . In 1559 there died the long-serving suffragan Bishop of Taunton, William Finch, appointed in Henry VIII's reign and still deemed eligible for preferment (to the prebend of Whitelackington, 1557) in Mary's; cf. Sir H. Maxwell-Lyte, Bishops'Registers, 1518-59 (S.R.S., 55) p. 150; Gillow, II, pp. 259-60. 3 P.R.O., S.P. 12/16, no. 27 (i) for Berkeley's complaints - also cited, not quite accurately, in H.N. Birt, The Elizabethan Religious Settlement (1907) pp. 373, 375. For more detail on points touched-on in this paragraph, see Hembry, op. cit., pp. 100-4, 132-48; also F. Brown, Abstracts of Somersetshire Wills, 3rd series (1889) p. 49 (will of William Lancaster, 1596). Further material on Berkeley's financial difficulties appears in Birt, "Some Troubles of the Elizabethan Episcopate" in The Dublin Review, Oct. 1897, pp. 134-45. Dr Hill's remarks occur in Economic Problems of the Church, p. 19. See also Professor W.P. Haugaard's discussion of "The Crown and Church Finances" in his Elizabeth and the English Reformation (1968) pp. 151-6l. 4 J. Strype, The Life and Acts of Matthew Parker (1821 edition) 1, pp. 154-5. S i.e. Gilbert Burnford; cf. A.O. Meyer, England and the Catholic Church under Queen Elizabeth (1916) p. 354; J.H. Pollen, English Catholics in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth (1920) pp. 247-9 & note 4. He also occurs - as Barford, Burford, Bournford, Borneforde etc. - in the following: Cal. State Papers: Rome, 1558-71, p. 69; 1572-8, pp. 32, 34, 95; Strype, Annals of the Reformation (1824 edn.) III, pt. 1, p. 39; Tierney-Dodd, II, Appendix, p. cccxvi; Maxwell-Lyte, op. cit., p. 144; H. Gee, The Elizabethan Clergy and the Settlement of Religion, 1558-64 (1898) pp. 227,232,254,271; J. Le Neve, Fasti Ecclesiae Anglicanae (1854 edn.) 1. p. 187; C.R.S., 1, pp. 19,23,42,46; C.R.S., 60, p. 2; also Phillips op. cit., p. 230. The unreliability of diocesan chancellors was remarked upon in 1593, they being "so much affected to the Canon Law that some are infected with Popish religion"; cf. Sir J.E. Neale, Elizabeth land her Parliaments, 1584-1601 (1957) p. 283.


INTRODUCTION

3

founded Cathedral-school at Wells who as a boy had perhaps been an altar-server at Glast onbury Abbey in its final days and who later became a Jesuit missionary in Scandinavia. 6 In 1574 another Wells Prebendary, the celebrated and richly beneficed Dr John Bridgewater , Rector of Lincoln College, Oxford, threw up his career and departed for Douae and from Wells itself came further recruits to Rome: another Registrar , a Canon's nephew who became a Jesuit 8 and the martyrs William Hart and John Body, son of a mayor of Wells. 9 In a poignant letter to his mother from York Castle shortly before his execution, the former wrote that he had hoped to visit her that Spring and asked her to remember him to "Andrew Gibbons' mother, Mrs Body and all the -rest" 10 - words indicative perhaps of a circle of Catholic acquaintances in the vicinity. Andrew Gibbons was one of three brothers who became priests, himself a secular and Richard and John Jesuits; the latter, with the assistance of a fellow Somerset exile, Father John Fenn, compiled the invaluable Concertatio Ecclesiae Catholicae in Anglia,l 1 a rich quarry for material on English The two other Prebendaries were Giles Capel (Bishop Finch's successor as Prebendary of Whitelackington; see note 2) and Edward Cratford, or Stratford. Sources as cited in previous note, passim., though Capel appears as "Copsell' in CR .S., 1, pp. 19, 42, and Cratford as "Crockford" in CR .S., 60 , p. 2. F or Good, see also D.N.B. ; Gillow, II, pp. 522-3; Foley , IV , pp. 477 -80; VII , p. 307 (also I, pp. 285-91); A.C.F. Beales, Education Under Penalty (1963) p. 35 and Professor Beales' "Catalogue of Catholic Schoolmasters, 1558-1603", in R.H. , 7, p. 276 ; O. Garstein, Rome and the Counter-Reformation in Scandinavia (Bergen, 1963) passim.; B. Basset, The English Jesuits (1967) passim. 7 See D.N.B., old and New Catholic Encyclopaedia etc., corrected, as regards Bridgewater's connection with the Concertatio Ecclesiae Catholicae in A nglia (1588) by Dr David Rogers' important Introduction to the 1970 reprint of that work. See also CR.S., 5, p. 140; Sir C.E.H. Chadwyck Healey, History of Part of West Somerset (1901) pp. 165-7 , 353-6. 8 John Bishop (see infra. , note 97) and Edward Cottington , for whom see CR.S., 54, pp. 63-6; Foley, VII , p. 175 & other pages there cited; also, for the Cottington family, my Catholic Recusancy in Wiltshire, 1660-1791 (C.R.S. Monograph series, no. 1, 1968) pp. 175 , 189; M.J. Havran, Caroline Courtier: The Life of Lord Cottington (1973) passim. The uncle was doubtless James Cottington (Le Neve, op. cit., I, pp. 171,198). 9 For Hart, a godson of William Good S.J. and a student at Lincoln College in Bridgewater's time, see J.H. Pollen, Acts of English Martyrs (1891) p. 252 ; R. Challoner, Memoirs of Missionary Priests (ed. Pollen , 1924) pp. 72-9 ; Anstruther, p. 155; J.C.H. Aveling, Catholic Recusancy in the City of York , 1558-1791 (C.R.S. Monograph series, no. 2, 1970) passim., and for Body, a layman and schoolmaster, Challoner,op. cit., pp. 83-4; Beales, op. cit., pp. 72-3 . In "Somerset and the Benedictines" (D.R., July 1903) p. 192, Dom Gilber t Dolan claims Dom John Placid Muttlebury as a native of Wells but other authorities merely give Somerset as the county of his birth ; cf. Anstruther , p. 242; Birt, p. 13. Possibly, as Dr Rogers suggests in another connection (Concertatio , Introduction, penUltimate page) , PI. Dolan may have taken a Latin reference to the diocese of Bath and Wells, Wellen sis, to mean the city of Wells. 10 Printed in Challoner, op. cit., pp. 77-9 . 11 See Dr Rogers ' Introduction to 1970 reprint. F or Frs. John Fen(n) and John, Richard and Andrew Gibbon(s), see Anstruther, pp. 114 , 131 and works there 6


4

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

Catholicism in the years before the Armada. Another exile - the only scholar of the new Wells school to finish up as a popish priest - was George Godsalf, or Godsole, who had received the diaconate before Anglicanism was imposed and who was later ordained on the Continent. 12 Meanwhile, referring to those clerics still in Somerset who refused to conform, Archbishop Parker instructed Berkeley to "proceed roundly with them" and altogether some two dozen, including the Dean of Wells, the Archdeacon of Taunton, several more Prebendaries and a dozen incumbents were removed within five years of the new religious settlement, some after acquiescing briefly in it. 13 These removals of Marian incumbents, sometimes involving the reinstatement of their predecessors, affected several parishes in the Bath area (Weston, Bathford, Priston, Marksbury, Keynsham and Saltford) but not all those ejected could be replaced promptly and vacancies existed, including some in the city itself,14 which, while breaking the institutional grip of the old religion, delayed the consolidation of the new. Some persisted for years, due less to the dismissal or withdrawal of popishly-inclined clerics than to non-residence and pluralism within the "reformed" framework - a state of affairs not remedied until the 1590s. 1S But among the non-ejected varying shades of attachment to Catholicism might be found, resulting in protracted compromise and in the continuation of practices originating in the early years of the reign when little guidance was forthcoming from Rome. Such men, reacting very humanly to a bewildering situation, were a prey to the invective of the more clear-sighted on both sides. As late as the 1580s there were still to be found priests - denounced by Allen as "partakers often on the same day (0 horrible impiety!) of the chalice of the Lord and the chalice of devils" - who might celebrate the Common Prayer service fust and follow it with the Mass, or vice versa, 16 and some, in discourse cited; Foley, VII, pp. 299-300 (erroneous entry for Andrew Gibbons, corrected by Fr. Anstruther); J. Morris, Troubles of Our Catholic Forefathers, 2nd series (1875) pp. 20-21. 12 Anstruther, p. 133, plus information kindly provided by Mr M.J. Krier from his researches on the "Marian reaction" in the dioceses of Bath and Wells and of Salisbury. 13 Strype, Parker, loco cit.; Annals, loco cit.; Tierney-Dodd, II, Appendix, pp. cccxvi-cccxviii; Gee, op. cit., pp. 226-34, 253-65, 271-2. John Fitzjames, deprived Archdeacon of Taunton, is described by Dodd as Archdeacon of Bath and in CR.S., 60, p. 2 and CR.S. 1, pp. 18,41, respectively, his Christian name is given as James, and his surname as Foljambe. See also Maxwell-Lyte, op. cit., p. 122. Some of the changes preceded the creation of the Anglican episcopate and dated from the "Royal Visitation" of 1559, for which see e.G. Bayne, "The Visitation of the Province of Canterbury, 1559" in E.H.R., 28, pp. 641-2. 14 This sentence incorporates data furnished by Mr Krier, whose forthcoming Ph.D. thesis (University of Bristol) will correct and amplify Gee, op. cit. 15 Hunt,op. cit. , pp. 180-6. 16 T.F. Knox, The First and Second Diaries of the English College, Douay (1878), p. xxiii, echoed in N. Sander (and E. Rishton), The Rise and Growth of


INTRODUCTION

5

with their parishioners, might pour scorn on the Established Church and uphold pre-Refomation beliefs and practices. Twelve years after the Anglican Settlement they attracted violent denunciation from the nearby self-styled "minister" of St Mary Redcliffe, Bristol, in an "Epistle Dedicatory" addressed to Bishop Berkeley, one of whose first ordinands he had been :- 17 "They drawe nye with tongue and penne unto us, but their heartes are to Rome: a number of them have go spell talke, but yet a Romishe faith, an Englishe face, but Spanishe heartes .... For they thinke nowe, that if they subscribe, observe the order of service: and weare a side gowne, a square Cap, a Cope, and a Surples, none can saie blacke is their eies, but that they are good protestantes: yet all this while they run into hugger mugger a whispering in corners, saiyng to the simple people: beleve not this newe doctrine, it is naught, it will not long endure, although I use order among them outwardly, my hearte and profession is from them, agreeyng with the mother Church of Rome. No, no (saie they) we do not preache nor yet teache openly, we reade their newe devised homilies for a colour, to satisfie the tyme for a season. By reason whereof, the poore seelie people are kept back from commyng forwardes to Christe .... " In the lonely and uncertain years before the advent of the seminary priests such "ravening woolves in sheepes c1oathing", "dissemblers and double faced neuters" (to quote the same writer) may , not without danger to themselves, have done a little to sustain some attachment to the old religion - to a ' "survivalism" which might mature into the the Anglican Schism (1877 edition) p. 267. See also P. Hughes, The Reformation in England, III (1954) p. 259, note 3; E.C. Messenger, The Reformation, the Mass and the Priesthood, II (1937) p. 247; M. Haile, An Elizabethan Cardinal (1914) pp. 43-4; B. Camm, Cardinal William Allen (1908) p. 29; Phillips, op. cit., pp. 272-3. One such "conservative conformist" incumbent, in the East Riding of Yorkshire, is mentioned in CR.S. Monograph 2, p. 34. 17 J. Northbrook(e), Spiritus est Vicarius Christi in Terra: A Breefe and Pithie Summe of the Christian Faith (1571; revised edition, 1582, in which, however, the dedicatory onslaught is unchanged); R. Lloyd, Dorset Elizabethans (1967) pp. 68-9 for a clear account of the vicissitudes of the Bristol diocese which Bishop Berkeley was commissioned to visit on behalf of Archbishop Parker of Canterbury in November 1571 and in February 1572. See also the D.N.B. on Northbrook and on Bishop Richard Cheyney (or Cheney) of Gloucester, and A. Hamilton Thompson, "Notes on the Ecclesiastical History of Henbury" in Trans. Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, 38, p. 165. Northbrook, "strongly Puritan in sentiment - a writer against plays, dicing, dancing etc.", held a lectureship at St Mary Redcliffe before becoming vicar of Henbury on the outskirts of Bristol. Part of the passage here quoted is printed in P. Caraman, The Other Face (1960) p. 34, with a footnote calling the dedicatee "Bishop Gilbert of Bath and Wells". A distant example of the kind of cleric denounced by Northbrook was Ambrose Eddrin?ton, Vicar of Kendal, ordered by the York Ecclesiastical Commision in 1571 'to preach sound doctrine and conformably behave himself in doctrine and behaviour. ... and not hypocritically to show himself of one opinion here and the contrary in his parish, and that he do sometimes execute and minister the communion in his own person"; cf. P. Tyler, The Ecclesiastical Commission and Catholicism in the North, 1562-77 (Leeds, 1960) pp. 72-3.


6

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

Roman Catholicism of the Counter-Reformation - even if their own example fell short of full commitment. 1 8 In the 1560s, as far as the people of Bath were concerned, the replacement of Bishop Bourne by Berkeley probably meant little more that the substitution of one fairly remote figure for another (the Bishops' residence in Bath had been lost in Edward VI's reign and, as Sir John Harington put it, "Bath .. . is but a title in this Bishoprick, so as for many years Bath had the name, but Wells had the game" 19) and a greater impact may have been made at the parochial level by changes in the churches, even if these were not always carried out very promptly. Bath Abbey itself was in no condition for public worship, being but the "carcass" of a church, roofless, windowless and weedinfested,20 but elsewhere the changed form of service, the far-reaching code of religious practice laid down in the Royal Injunctions of 1559 and visible alterations to the churches such as the prominent installation of the Ten Commandments for which the churchwardens of St Michael's, Bath, record an outlay of two shillings ,2 1 all served as 18 A weightier factor in such continuity was, however, the refusal of Catholic gentry to conform merely because most of the parish clergy had done so - an attitude reflected in Lady Cecily Stonor's apologia and in the inssription beneath the Towneley family portrait (for the former , see the works by Clifford and Stonor cited in note 44, below; for the latter, e. Cross, The Puritan Earl, 1966 , p. 238). Other influences are adduced by Mr Aveling in his searching study of York recusancy (eR.S. Monograph 2, p. 45) substantiating Archbishop David Mathew's allusion to "those whose attachment to Catholicism had been real and not merely formal" (Catholicism in England, 1955 edn., pp. 45-6) while a further one was St Pius V's Bull Regnans in Excelsis of 1570 which did in some instances stiffen Catholi c resistance (cf. J.B. Black, The Reign of Elizabeth , 1959 edn. , pp. 170-1 ; CR.S., 22, p. 116; J.T. Cliffe, The Yorkshire Gentry, 1969, p. 171) and in which it may not be entirely fanciful to see the pontiff as bridge-builder, helping to span the gap between what Professor A.G. Dickens has termed " survivalism and seminarism" ("First Stages of Romanist Recusancy in Yorkshire" in Yorks. Archaeological Journal, 35, p. 181). On the two latter phenomena see also J. Bossy, "The Character of Elizabethan Catholicism" in Past and Present, no. 21, reprinted in Crisis in Europe, 1540-1640 (ed. T. Aston, 1965) and, for an illuminating discussion of links between reformist Romanism under Henry VIII and popish recusancy under Elizabeth, see P.J. Doyle, "The Origins of Recusancy: the Throckmortons of Coughton" in Worcestershire Recusant, no. 13, pp. 2-9. 19 A Briefe View of the Church of England (1653) p. 106; Hembry, op. cit. , p. 92 (loss of episcopal "palace"). 20 " . .. totam illam ecclesiam ruinosam sive templum ruinosum" (letters-patent, 1572, cited in A.H. King & B.H. Watts,Municipal Records of Bath [1885?] p. 52). See also J. Leland, Itinerary in England and Wales (ed. 1. Toulmin Smith, 1964 edn.) I, pp. 143-4; J. Britton & R.E.M. Peach, History and Antiquities of Bath Abbey Church (1887) pp. xiv-xvi, 31-6 . 21 C.B. Pearson (ed.) Churchwardens' Accounts of St Michael's, Bath , 1349-1575 (Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, 22, Taunton, 1878) p. 126. For the paucity of Bath churchwardens' accounts for this period see J.E. King (ed.) Inventory of Parochial Documents in the Diocese of Bath and Wells (Taunton, 1938) and, for a classic reflection of Reformation-changes in such accounts, J.e. Cox, Churchwardens' Accounts (1913) p. 185. The 1559 Injunctions are conveniently printed in H. Gee & W.J. Hardy, Documents Illustrative of English Church History (1896) pp. 417-42 .


INTRODUCTION

7

inescapable reminders of the alteration of religion. At King Edward VI's Grammar School an Establishment-orientated change of headmasters was, however, followed by the alignment with Rome of the last two Elizabethan Masters, Adam Arnoll, or Arnold (1591-5) and Henry Slyman (1595 -1603), the former entering the Society of Jesus and the latter the service of the Duchess of Feria. 22 Whether they were motivated by the clandestine literature of the Counter-Reformation or by personal contact with evangelistic papists (possibly including priests) or both, their conversion would seem to imply some local contact with Romanist influences. Meanwhile the practice of Catholicism had been subjected to a developing penal¡ code, an early victim being Sir Edward Waldegrave , absentee lord of the manor of Chewton, Somerset , who died in the Tower in September 1561 after being sent there earlier in the same year following his arrest for Mass-going in Essex - one of a group of prominent papists rounded up in the Spring when Cecil' s timely uncovering of Catholic activities helped to sabotage a threatened rapprochement between Elizabeth and the papacy? 3 The fifteen years before the arrival of the first seminary priests in 1574 were marked by occasional action against persons assisting at Mass 24 and by spasmodic efforts to detect and penalise absentees from their parish churches. Attendance every Sunday and holy day was enjoined by the Uniformity Act of 1559, reinforced by later statutes imposing heavier sanctions, and the new hierarchy began without delay to look into the question of recusancy, churchwardens being instructed to report those "who will not readily pay their penalities for not coming to God' s divine service according to the statutes".2 S The twelvepenny fine for each absence 22 See K.E. Symons, The Grammar School of King Edward VI, Bath (Bath l

1934) pp. 107, 153, 159-60, 163, 170, 201 wher~ however, the two Masters subsequent careers are not mentioned, and C.R.:'. , 54, PI'. 189-95. For the English Duchess of Feria, see H. Clifford, The Life of Jane Dormer, Duchess of Feria (ed. J. Stevenson, 1887); A.J. Loomie, The Spanish Elizabethans (New York, 1~63) chap. 4; C.A. Dowling, The Lady Jane Dormer (pamphlet, Bridlington, 1970); also D.N.B. 23 See C.G. Bayne, Anglo-Roman Relations, 1558-65 (1913) pp. 99-102; Conyers Read, Mr Secretary Cecil and Queen Elizabeth (1962 edn.) pp. 208-9; W.P. Haugaard, Elizabeth and the English Reformation, pp. 296-302. For Waldegrave see D.N.B.; T.E. Gibson, Lydiate Hall and Its Associations (1876) pp. 317-21 ; Foley, V, p. 382, note 77; Oliver, p. 69, etc. In P. Caraman, The Other Face, p. 27, his arrest is misdated 1562. 24 Some evidence of official action against celebrants and attenders at Mass in the period before the arrival of the seminary priests (1559-74) is brought together by J.B. Wainewright, "Queen Elizabeth and the Mass" in The Month , Sept. 1909 , pp. 307-11. The background to the arrests of 1561 (see above) is not mentioned. See also Birt, Elizabethan Religious Settlement, pp. 456-8, 462-3 , 528-32. 2S W.P.M. Kennedy, The "Interpretations " of the Bishops and their Influence on Elizabethan Episcopal Policy (Alcuin Club Tracts, VIII, 1908) pp. 31,41; see also W.H. Frere, Visitation Articles and Injunctions, III (1910) pp. 5, 61, 83 & passim. and Kennedy, Elizabethan Episcopal Administration (1924) chap. 7. For the 34 holy days which could fall on weekdays see C.S. Meyer, Elizabeth I and the Religious Settlement of 1559 (Saint Louis, 1960) pp. 71-2 and, for the penal laws


8

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

was a local matter and seems to have been very erratic in its incidence/ 6 whereas the much larger sums which might be levied from 1581 onwards for continuous absences of four weeks or more were not to be retained locally, save in odd cases where one-third was allotted to the poor of the parish, but were to go to the Exchequer whence process issued against convicted recusants named first in the Pipe Rolls and then for a century (1592 -1691) in a separate series of Recusant Rolls? 7 Listed only in the Pipe Rolls is James Fenn of Montacute, convicted originally of recusancy, subsequently found to be a priest and executed in 1584. 28 Two persistent absentees, first convicted in the 1580s and carried forward to the Recusant Rolls of the following decade, were John Walker of Nether Stowey and William Gerrard of Trent , who also occur in a list of fifteen leading Somerset recusants drawn up in 1592. 29 But by no means all known recusants were convicted (the Catholic "Doctor Leese, physician, of Bath" is a case in point, one of thirteen in the 1592 list who occur neither in the Pipe Rolls nor in the Recusant Rolls 3 0) while, of those who were convicted, only an unfortunate but very small minority - none of them in the diocese of Bath and Wells - were mulcted to the full; others were penalised to a lesser extent and some not at all. 3 1 against Catholicism, eR.s., ¡53. pp. 291-307 and eR .S. Monograph 1, chap. 1; also chap. 24, "The Administration of the Anti-Catholic Laws", in R.C. Jarvis; Collected Papers on the Jacobite Risings, II (Manchester, 1972). 26 See eR.S. Monograph 1, p. 72, note 21 and, for further references to this penalty, Tierney-Dodd, I, p. 165; Caraman, The Other Face, p. 85, and The Years of Siege (1966) p. 35; P. McGrath, Papists and Puritans Under Elizabeth 1(1967) p. 116; H. Aveling, Northern Catholics (1966) pp. 232, 237, and eR.S. Monograph 2, pp. 44, 46 , 53-4, 56-9, 83, 90 and Appendix I (especially pp. 181-9); C. Cross, The Puritan Earl, pp. 232, 237; K.R. Wark, Elizabethan Recusancy in Cheshire (Chetham Society, Third Series, 19) pp. 16, 56, 98, 129; R.C. Richardson, Puritanism in North- West England (Manchester, 1972) p. 164. Dr Richardson's study contains an illuminating chapter on "Catholic and puritan" in Lancashire and Cheshire under Elizabeth and the early Stuarts. 27 See Father Hugh Bowler's important Introduction to eR.S. 57' also eR .S., 61, pp. vii-x; Guiae to the Contents of the Public Record Of/ice (1963) I, pp. 78-9. 28 P.R.O., E.372/428 (Pipe Roll, 24 Eliz., Surrey/Sussex); Anstruther, pp. 113-4. See also infra., note 71. I am much indebted to Father Bowler for the Pipe Roll data cited in this Introduction. 29 H.M.C., Cal. Salisbury MSS., IV, pp. 274-5 (1592 list). For Recusant Roll entries, see sources cited in note 32. 30 Unless he is the Dorset surgeon Roger Loope, a convicted recusant in Pipe Roll, 1585-6 (P.R.O. , E.372/431) and mentioned in the Recusant Rolls (eR.S., 18, p. 38: Anne, wife of Roger Loope; eR .S., 61, p. 145: Joan, wife of Roger Loupe). Although twelve other men in the 1592 list are not in the Recusant Rolls, the wives of two or three are. For the Loope (or Loape) family see also v.eH., Dorset, II, p. 31. A "Robeart Leese, phisition", died at Bath in May 1583 (R.B.A., p. 331). 31 See eR.S., 57, pp. xxx, xlii-xliv, lix-lxi, lxxxiv-lxxxv; B.M., Harleian 7042, ff. 211, 211 verso. An abstract of this document appears as Appendix 4 in B. Magee, The English Recusants (1938) giving names and sums of money, but not counties. Four Somerset recusants are involved, none to the tune of ten pounds : William


INTRODUCTION

9

The Elizabethan and early Jacobean Recusant Rolls contain ten Bath names and two for the parish of Englishcombe while, a little farther afield, convicted recusants occur at Priston , Norton St Philip , Keynsham and Hinton Charterhouse. 32 Among the Bath entries is Thomas Clement, yeoman, bearer of the same surname as one of the former monks of Bath Abbey, himself a longstanding conformist who held local benefices and died in 1590 as incumbent of Englishcombe. 3 3 Two other Bath recusants had part of their possessions confiscated in October 1595: John Lewicke, two-thirds of whose property at Wells was seized, and George Champneys, a shoemaker, who was deprived of ÂŁ4-worth of his goods and two-thirds of his real property (a partinterest in a hCi)Use and a shop in Bath).34 This case, however, constitutes a caution against regarding all names even in the Elizabethan Recusant Rolls (let alone later) as those of popish recusan ts ; Champneys was in fact no Catholic but a Brownist , according to the churchwardens of St Michael's parish who presented him in 1593 ,35 and may perhaps be the formidable "Recusant Puritan" shoemaker of Bath who withstood the arguments of Bishop Still , was condemned to death by the ferocious Sir Edmund Anderson - presumably as a "seditious sectary" under the 1593 Act - but was reprieved, so Harington claimed, through his intercession and eventually conformed. 36 Gerrard (Dorset/Somerset), John Dawes (Somerset), Edward Marvin (Somer set/ Devon) and "Silvester H - ", i.e. Sylvester Huishe, or Huysshe, gentleman , of St Decuman's, an obstinate Somerset recusant; see sources cited in nex t note, passim, and E. Green, Somerset and the Armada (1888) p. 38: "Silvester Hewghes being a vagrant person and outlawed for recusancy ... " In the follo wing reign (1624) a "Thomas Hewse" of Wells was an excommunicated recusant (S.R.O. , D/D/Ca 244, ff. 26-7). 32 For names, see CR.S. , 18, pp. 291-5; CR.S., 57 , pp. 138-43 ; CR.S., 61 , pp. 82-5 , 210-5; also S.D.N.Q., 5, p. 112. 33 The married William Clement, ejected in Mary's reign. See F.W. Weaver , Somerset Incumbents (Bristol, 1889) pp. 234 , 236, 271 ; Sir W. Maxwell-Lyte, Bishops'Registers, 1518-59 (S.R.S., 59) p. 169; H.M.C. , Tenth Report, A ppendix III, p. 268; Weaver, "The F ate of the Bath Monks" in D.R. , Dec. 1895 , pp. 267-8; Somerset Medieval Wills, 1535-58 (ed. Weaver, S.R.S. , 21) pp. 145-6 ; also "The Marian Reaction in Somerset", a paper read to the Canterbury and York Society in November 1970 by Dr R.W. Dunning, editor of the Somerset V. CH. , to whom I am much indebted for the loan of his typescript. 34 P.R.O. , E.377 /5 (Recusant Roll, Somerset portion). I am grateful to Dom Hugh Bowler for information about these confiscations. George Champneys.is still in the Recusant Rolls in James I's reign (S.D.N.Q. , loco cit. , P.R.O., E.377 /1 5 & 16) but may have conformed at last (see above; also note 36). 35 S.R.O: Series A no. 98. On the inclusion of non-popish recusants in the Recusant Rolls1 see C.R.S., 57 p'p. xxxvi-xxxvii; CR.S. Monograph 1, Appendix F; Guide to tne Contents 0 1 tFze Public Record Office, I, p. 79. For puritan recusants in Elizabeth's reign", see also A. Peel (ed.) The Seconde Parte of a Register (1915) I, pp. 210, 2'4,+. 36 Sir J. Harington, A Briefe View of the State of the Church of England (1653) pp. 122-3. Sir Edmund Anderson, called "Judge Adderton" by Harington , took part in Campion's trial in 1581 and also in those of such leading puritans as Browne and Udall. See D.N.B.; E. Foss, The Judges of England (1880 edition) pp.


10

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

The churchwardens of St Michael's also presented a persistent recusant, John Tucker, described as "negligent in coming to his parish churche and hath not receaved the Communion these XII monthes past" and four others, all accused of failing to receive communion for twelve months. In another parish, St Mary de Stalles, one person was charged with a year's absence from church and seventeen others were alleged not to have received communion for the same period. The nearby parish of Bathford contained another such offender and in the city parish of St James there were stated to be four non-communicants for periods between one and three years.3 7 The religious affIliations of these people are not specified by the churchwardens, but it may be that some of them were "church-papists" or "half recusants" - Catholics at heart who attended their parish churches to avoid the penalties of recusancy, whose "main policy is to shift off the communion.,,38 To the few Catholics of Bath the hope that their cause was not utterly lost may have been nourished by the visits of prominent and resolute popish recusants from other parts of the kingdom, though some of these may have been so broken in health by prolonged imprisonment that their appearance could have been as much a warning as an inspiration. One such intransigent papist who had spent twelve years or so in prison and, as a result, was "in per ill of his life", was John Whitmore of Thurstaston, Cheshire, who was licensed by the Privy Council to visit Bath on health-grounds despite his unworthiness of such a concession - but the Council was sensitive about is own image and reluctant to ~rovide grounds for allegations of excessive severity towards papists - 9 and many prominent Catholic surnames occur in a 13-4; P. Collinson, The Elizabethan Puritan Movement (1967) passim. Harington does not name the Bath shoemaker and Western Circuit Assize records for this period have not survived (S.R.S., 65, p. ix). The Act of 1593 against Seditious Sectaries is 35 Eliz. I, cap 1. The word "comfortable", used by Harington, appears from the context to be a misprint for "conformable". 37 S.R.S. , Series A, no. 98: churchwardens' presentments, 1593, parishes of St Michael, St Mary de Stalles, St James (all in Bath) and Bathford. 38 From the unkind cameo of a "church-papist" in the Microcosmographie (1628, unpaginated) no. 10. For authorship - possibly C. Herle, not John Earle see CR.S. Monograph 1, p. 2, note 8; Corrections and Additions to the Dictionary of National Biography (Boston, Mass. , 1966) p. 65. The terms "half recusant" and "absolute recusant" occur in an order of 1604 for annual reports of such persons in the Canterbury Province. Few such reports appear to have been made; there seem to be none for the diocese of Bath and Wells but one for the Archdeaconry of Stafford (1607) has been printed in Staffordshire Catholic History, no. 4, by Mr. M.W. Greenslade and shows "absolute recusants" far outnumbering "half recusants", as does the Yorkshire survey of 1604; see E. Peacock (ed.) A List of the Roman Catholics in the County of York in 1604 (1872) and analysis in A.G. Dickens, "The Extent and Character of Recusancy in Yorkshire, 1604" in Yorks. Archaeological Journal, 37 , pp. 24-48, supplemented by Dickens & Newton, "Further Light on the Scope of Yorkshire Recusancy in 1604" in Yorks. Arch. Journal, 38, pp. 524-8. For the higher proportion of non-communicants (outnumbering recusants) in the last year of Elizabeth's reign, see Magee, op. cit., pp. 83, 113-4. 39 A.P.C , 1595-6, pp. 435-6 (6 June 1596); Wark, op. cit., pp. 121 , 169-70.


INTRODUCTION

11

similar context: those, among others, of Bedingfield, Stonor, Hussey, Southworth, Talbot, Giffard and Stradling. In 1569 William Hussey of North Duffield in the East Riding of Yorkshire, a determined and "irreconcilable" papist who had been imprisoned in York Castle for possessing recent Catholic books, was allowed to go to Bath to take the waters under bond for good behaviour;40 ten years later the Privy Council ordered that Edmund Bedingfield, a prisoner for religion, be permitted to do likewise "for the recovery of his helthe" and similar orders were issued in 1593 in respect of two of the most heavily fined Elizabethan recusants, George Cotton and John Talbot.4 1 Meanwhile an intransigent Cambridgeshire recusant, Evan Fludd, who had conformed for a time but h({d reverted to Catholicism and had been imprisoned for "obstinacie in Poperye", was licensed to visit Bath for his health,4 2 as was Richard Cliborne (or Cleyburne) who had earlier petitioned Walsingham from prison for such a licence. 4 3 In 1582 Lady Cecily Stonor of the ancient Oxfordshire recusant family was granted permission to visit Bath for two months. A committed and articulate papist, her capacity for spiritual subversion worried the authorities whose estimate of her potential influence is reflected in the terms of her licence; this stipulates that "no person known to be evil affected in religion shall ... have access unto her to confer with her" and that a physician be selected to accompany her who was "of good religion and not apt to confirm her in her obstinacy by conference", the implication being that zealous Romanists, doctors among them, might be active in Bath at that time.44 Comparable to the 40 P. Tyler, The Ecclesiastical Commission and Catholicism in the North, 1562·77 (Leeds, 1960) pp. 32·8; CR.S. Monograph 2, p. 32. For Elizabethan recusants named in this and subsequent paragraphs, see W.R. Trimble, The Catholic Laity in Elizabethan England (Cambridge, Mass. , 1964) - pp. 434 for Hussey, described in 1565 as "very irreconcilable". 41 A.p.e, 1578·80, pp. 116-7 (Bedingfield);A.P.C, 1592·3, pp. 475 (Cotton), 476 (Talbot). George Cotton of Warblington, Hants. and John Talbot of Grafton, Worcs. were two of the eighteen recusants who regularly paid the statutory fme of £260 p.a. (CR.S., 57, passim.). For the former, see J.E. Paul, "Hampshire Recusants in the Time of Elizabeth I with Special Reference to Winchester" in Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, 21 , p. 73 & note 106, and Dr Paul's thesis, "The Hampshire Recusants in the Reign of Elizabeth I" (Ph.D., University of Southampton, 1958); also F.A. Gasquet, Hampshire Recusants (1895), reprinted in The Old English Bible and Other Essays (1897). On Talbot and Grafton there are articles by Sister Callista and Mrs A.M. Hodgson in the Worcestershire Recusant journal, no. 8, pp. 15-23 and 24-32 respectively. Trimble,op. cit., p. 154, note 166, misprints as "1503" the year of the Privy Council's permission for Talbot to visit Bath (19 Aug. 1593). 42 A.P.C, 1580·81, pp. 51-2 (10 June 1580); CR.S. , 18, p. 233; eR.S., 53 ,·p. 110; CR.S., 57, p. 9; CR.S., 61, pp. 8, 134. See also H.N. Birt "Recusancy and Catholicity in East Anglia" (paper read at the National Catholic Congress, Noryvich,5 Aug. 1912; printed in C T.S. Publjc.ations, 93, 191 ? ) pp. 8,11. 43 CS.P.D., 1547·80, p. 578;A.P.C, 1586·7, pp. 75, 194; also (possibly) CR.S. , 22, p. 117. A.P.C, 1571·5, pp. 294-5, 344 relate to an affray invo.1ving him. 44 A.p.e, 1581-2, pp. 396-8 (April 1582). See also H. Clifford, The Life of Jane


12

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

Stonors in Oxfordshire were the Giffards in Staffordshire and in March 1586 the elderly head of that family received a licence to go to Bath for his health' s sake ; this was John Giffard of Chillington who , like others of his perplexed and harassed co-reliยงionists, lapsed for a time into an uneasy and impermanent conformity. 5 The visitors so far noted are persons granted licences which specifically permit them to travel to Bath; other licences were more general and in some cases the application for a licence can be traced but not its granting (or refusal). In 1599 a Catholic prisoner in York Castle was promised by the second Lord Burghley, the new President of the Council in the North, that he could go to Bath, only to find that he was nevertheless "now like againe to be hindered ... and I am staid by the Council from my journey.,,4 6 Of the family -names mentioned earlier, those of Southworth and Stradling were brought to Cecil's attention in an information from Thomas Churchyard - a prolific but inelegant minor Elizabethan writer and adventurer - suggesting that Bath's character as a watering-place attracted Catholics to it as a suitable centre for plotting (see next paragraph). Certainly Catholics were not discouraged from staying in the city , whose prosperity was coming increasingly to depend on the flow of visitors, Catholic no less than protestant - a prosperity in which local officials shared as private citizens and which they showed little inclination to jeopardise by discriminating against Catholics. It may not be without significance that Bath seems to have been considered a likely haven for a fleeing Lancashire recusant , Thomas Hoghton, who was making for the Continent, leaving behind the newly embellished Tower which was his pride (no small sacrifice in an age when pride in property and in conspicuous construction loomed so large): "At Hoghton High which is a bower Of sports and lordly pleasure, I wept and left that loftie tower Which was my chiefest treasure. Dormer, Duchess of Feria (ed. J. Stevenson, 1887) pp. 38-9; J. Stonor, Stonor, A Catholic Sanctuary in the Chi/terns (Newport, Mon., 1951) p. 260 & passim. Further light is shed on Oxfordshire recusancy by Mrs B. Stapleton's HistOlY of Post-Reformation Catholic Missions in Oxfordshire (1906) and by Dr A. Davidson's much more professional "Roman Catholicism in Oxfordshire from the late Elizabethan period to the Civil War" (ph.D. thesis, Bristol University, 1970). 45 A .P.C. , 1586-7, pp. 19-20 (3 March 1586). Further information on John Giffard is given by Mr P.J. Doyle in "The Giffards of Chillington: A Catholic Landed Family, 1642-1861" (M.A. thesis, Durham, 1969) pp. 17-32. See also V.c.H., Staffordshire, III, pp. 99-115. For a penetrating study of a worried, conscientious Catholic with friends in both camps, see P. McGrath & J. Rowe, " The Recusancy of Sir Thomas Cornwallis" in Proceedings of the Suffolk Institute of Archaeology, 28, pp. 226-7l. 46 Narrative of William Stillington (for whom see CR .S. Monograph 2) in East Riding Record Office, Beverley: DDEV/67/1, vol. 1, pp. 210-11. See also H. Aveling, "Catholic Recusants of the West Riding of Yorkshire, 1558-1790", in Proceedings of Leeds Philosphical and Literary Society, Literary and Historical Section , 10, pt. 6 (Leeds, 1963) pp. 228-9.


INTRODUCTION

13

To save my soule and lose the reste It was my trew pretence; Lyke frighted bird I left my neste To keep my conscience.,,4 7 Churchyard's report in May 1569 - a time of crisis with Mary Queen of Scots newly arrived in England and rebellion brewing in the north suggests (perhaps exaggeratedly) disaffection and conspiracy in Bath also: 48 "Duetty don moest honorable, I am bold because I toek nott my leave (whear I fownd sutch favor and forwardnes towards my suett) to wrytt thys letter, wheorby I hoep my eskues is nott only maed butt also I contynue in the good opynyon off your honor and, to encreace the saem, I do advertyes your honor off sutch thyngs as I have seen suspycyosly handled among the papysts, whoes practyses dryvs me to presuem thatt they have, or may pas thear compas wyth, som prowd attemptt or folly; and suerly the unbrydled brayeng and talk off Bonnar's dyssypulls doth argue som cuerles corrsy is c1os1y creppt in thear cankred mynds. The troeth is, moest honorable, havyng occasyon to lye in Baeth 20 dayes, I sawe sutch assemblee and company off gentyllmen as maed me to muesse off so greatt a repayr and, wayeng thear callyngs and Crystyan relygyon, From "The Blessed Conscience", printed by G.C. Miller, Hoghton Tower (Preston, 1948) pp. 74-7, by J. Harland & T.T. Wilkinson, Ballads and Songs of Lancashire (3rd edition, revised, 1882) pp. 32-43 and by J. Gillow, The Haydock Papers (1888) pp. 10-15, and cited by A.O. Meyer, England and the Catholic Church under Queen Elizabeth p. 216, by F.O. Blundell, Old Catholic Lancashire, I (1925) p. 131, by A.C. Southern, Elizabethan Recusant Prose, 1559-82 (1950) p. 17, etc. See also Gillow, Bibliographical Dictionary, III, pp. 325-8 and his note in CR.S., 3, pp. 1-3; also CR.S., 4, passim; J.S. Leatherbarrow, Lancashire Elizabethan Recusants (Chetham Society, New Series, 110) pp. 21, 44, 74; J. Lumby, Calendar of Hoghton Deeds and Papers (Lancashire & Cheshire Record Society, 88). The suggestion that Hoghton may have been heading for Bath occurs in A.P.C, 1571-5, p. 46. For this family, see also J. Lofthouse, Lancashires's Old Families (1972) passim. 48 B.M. Lansdowne XI, f.126, endorsed "Touching certein notorious papists that resort to Bath & the danger thereof... . " On f.127 are the following additions: (a) "I have byn soer syk off an ague sens I maed ihys letter, whych haeth byn a lett for the delyvery thear off, butt I heop as god gyves me health to repayre to the cowrtt & so to requyre a tt your honor's hands the packett off letters to my lord embassador, for my mynd gyvs me thatt I shall never dy till I heer & se the go spell advanced to the utter most"; (b) "To the ryghtt honorable sr William Cycyll, Knight, cheef Secretary to the queen's majeste & oen off her highness pryvey councell, delyver theas wyth all possyble dyllygence." This document has previously been printed in the first two of the following works, and is quoted in the third: .(i) G. Chalmers (ed.) Churchyard's Chips Concerning Scotland (1817) pp. 66-9; (ii) H.W. Adnitt, Thomas Churchyard, 1520-1604 (reprinted from Trans. Shropshire Archaeological and Natural History Society, Oswestry, 1884) pp. 26-7; (iii) H.N. Birt, The Elizabethan Religious Settlement, pp. 376-7. It is also mentioned, but no source given, in J. Strype, The Life and Acts of Edmund Grindal (1821) p. 204. See also D.N.B., sub Churchyard. The Bishop of Exeter was William Alley (1560-70). The word "corrsy" (line 10) is probably "corrosy", meaning grudge or ill-will (J.O. Halliwell, Dictionary of Archaic and Provincial Words.) 47


14

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

fownd by good proeff and try all thatt all the hoell trowpp in a manner wear hyndrars off God's word and Hys gospell. Sir Thon Sowthworth off Lankesheer, a leadar off thatt ryng, I fownd in a corner butt nott wyth Stradlyng, who in theas part yes is no littel doar and remayns in greatt admyracyon among thys affynte. Other gentyUmen off divers naems wear heer in lyke sortt and Syr nlOn Sowthworth dyd att som oen season seeke confference wyth them. Butt in verey deed heer is an Italyan called Iacobyen, a laem man whoes abydyng is moest in Sowthampton, and thys is the man thatt may do mutch hortt for assuredly hys relygyon and lyeff is amys and dayly he haeth som intellygence boeth from Flawnders and Spayn. He wants no wealth nor spaers for no chargys to gayn aquayntance for hys porpos. The moest off all Bonnar's bloed and kynsfolk aer dwellyng in thys town and undowttedly, under the collor off comying to the baeth, many madd meetyngs thear aer. I dyschargyng my consyence and duetty to the advancementt off God and Hys glory, thoghtt hytt good to talk wyth my Lord Byshopp off Excetor whoes hand in thys behalff I have procured to my letter, dowtting nott butt my honest hartt and meanying heer in shalbe so well acceptted that heer after I shall have thanks for my labor, and hoepying wythall thatt the neast off wasps, whear so ever they may be fownd, shall have thear styngs taken from them and be lernd a nue lesson; and God doth knoe and His church doth wyttnes, moest honorable, thatt in all theas contreys is sutch lyberte off speetch as may be lamented, yff dutyffull earrs durst rebuek thatt they heer. Thus beyng over bold in jueggyng moer than becoms me, I troble your honor no further. Wyshyng youe long lyeff, encreace off grace and a blessed end, from Baeth the 24th off May, your honor's durying lyeff att comandmentt, "Youres honor's most humbli to commaunde "W. Exon. Thomas Churchyard." The "Stradlyng" mentioned in this intriguing effusion was doubtless Sir Thomas Stradling of St Donat's in Glamorgan who may well have been held in high esteem both because his religion had cost him two and a half years in prison as one of the prominent papists arrested in the Spring of 1561 and, more especially, because of his association with one of those odd happenings (Wells also claimed its share in the form of miraculous stars and crosses) into which Elizabethan Catholics read divine approbation of their position. This was the dramatic appearance of a cross, over a foot long, imprinted in the heart of a tree on Sir Thomas's estate, split by lightning during a thunderstorm in the Holy Week of 1559. Within two years a number of drawings had been made and news of the "miracle of St Donat's" had reached London and the home counties. One copy came into the hands of the imprisoned Marian Archdeacon of Canterbury, Nicholas Harpsfield, who reproduced it in 1566 in his pseudonymous Dialogi sex contra summi Ponti/icatus ... oppugnatores (reprinted in 1573) and the occurrence seems, in view of Churchyard's Bath report of 1569, to have been a


INTRODUCTION

15

nine years' rather than a nine days' wonder.49 Before the year was out Sir Thomas had left Bath and was back in his native county where he was in trouble with the local Justices of the Peace for refusing to undertake to obey the Act of Uniformity. 5 0 He was a cousin of Mary I's ambassador to Rome, Sir Edward Carne, bearer of a surname later to be very prominent in the context of Bath Catholicism. 5 1 Churchyard's other popish knight, Sir John Southworth, was the head of the Lancashire family which produced St John Southworth, one of the Forty Martyrs canonised in 1970; he was for many years a leader of Catholic resistance in the north and did much to stiffen support for the old faith wherever he went. His sojourn in 1569 was not his only visit to Bath; seventeen years later, having been imprisoned in Chester Castle, he was released and licensed "to repaire to the Bathes for the recoverie of his healthe"; he used his period of liberty to go from place to place attending meetings of papists with the result that "through his disorders divers are perverted and have fallen awaie" , and in Mar 1586 he was again ordered to be committed to Chester Castle. 2 Between his two visits to Bath Sir John was repeatedly in trouble with the authorities: in 1581 he was among the northern Catholics associated with the recently-captured Edmund Campion whose houses were ordered to be searched and themselves interrogated; in the following year, at the instance of an informer, he was convicted 49 Bayne,op. cit., pp. 103-6; T.G. Law, "The Miraculous Cross of St Donat's" in E.H.R., I, pp. 513-7; D. Williams, "The Miracle at St Donat's" in The Welsh Review, 6 (Cardiff, 1947) pp. 33-8. For the Wells reports, see A. Hamilton (ed.) Chronicle of the English Canonesses Regular of the Lateran, at St Monica's in Louvain. 1625-44 (Le. vol. 2, 1906) pp. 48-9,60. Illustrating Catholic attribution of less unusual phenomena to miracu10us intervention (an outlook not, of course, peculiar to Catholics) is Bishop Jewel's remark, in a letter to Peter Martyr, the spire of Salisbury Cathedral having been struck by lightning shortly before his arrival to take charge of the diocese: "It so happened that I had not yet arrived there: had I done so, so foolish and superstitious are men's minds, that all this mischief would have been ascribed to my coming." (Jewel to Martyr, 22 May 1560, cited by Birt, op. cit., p. 408). 50 P.R.O., S.P.12/66, no. 19 (xii & xiii). 51 . D. Mathew, The Celtic Peoples and Renaissance Europe (1933) p. 233; D. Williams, art. cit., p. 35. A link between Sir Edward Came and Bath is implied by T. Guidott, A Letter Concerning Some Observations Lately Made at Bath (1674) in Harleian Miscellany, II (1744) p. 306. See also J. Wood, A Description of Bath (1765 edition) p. 200; R.E. Peach, Historic Houses in Bath and their Associations, second series (1884) p. 111, note 1. For the Carnes of Bath see infra., pp. 39-48and, for Sir Edward, Dictionary of Welsh Biography and G. Williams, Welsh Reformation Essays (Cardiff, 1967) passim.; also D.N.B. and Corrections and Additions thereto. 52 A.P.C, 1586.7, pp. 125-6, Gibson, op. cit., passim.; Lofthouse, op. cit., passim.; Blundell, op. cit., III, chap. 3; Leatherbarrow, op. cit., pp. 80-3; A.L. Rowse, The England of Elizabeth (1950) pp. 447¡8 where, however, Sir John is wrongly referred-to as the father of the martyr. For the latter see A.B. Purdie, The Life of Blessed John Southworth (1930); E.E. Reynolds,John Southworth, Priest and Martyr (1962); C. Tigar, Forty Martyrs of England and Wales (revised edition, 1970) pp. 72-4. See also CR.S., 4, pp. 180-1; CR.S. , 13, p. 397; CR.S. 23, pp. 308-9; F. Peck, Desiderata Curiosa (1779 edition) I, passim.


16

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

of recusancy under the new Act (23 Eliz. I, cap 1) imposing the lunar monthly fine of twenty pounds and by 1587 he owed massive arrears of over a thousand pounds and was threatened with the additional confiscation of nearly four hundred pounds' worth of goods and chattels. Under such pressure he at last conformed and was let off two-thirds of his debt , but the other third was held over his head for several years until, "by reason of his continued conformity", it too was cancelled. 5 3 Another example, on a smaller scale, of the efficacy of official pressure in inducing conformity comes from Bath; on 17 October 1581 the Privy Council notified John Sherstone, formerly mayor, "that whereas Henry Clerke was apprehended at Bathe, being detected of Poperie and Massing, from whom was taken at his apprehension the some of ÂŁ5 in money and a gelding woth ÂŁ5 more", Clerke had subsequently recanted (publicly in Salisbury Cathedral) and Sherstone was instructed to make restitution of the money and the horse, or the value thereof. 5 4 This allusion to "Poperie and Massing", and possibly Churchyard's earlier reference to Catholic gatherings, may mean that Mass was occasionally celebrated in the Bath area; certainly the city was not without visits from Catholic clergy, some of whom perhaps stayed at the house of Dr John Sherwood who was alleged in the 1580s to harbour priests (including one named Eaton) and recusants "under culler of Phisike" 5 5 but whose own Catholicism was inconstant. 56 Further names, those of Marian priests, occur in the Privy Council registers as visitors to Bath under licence, usually on grounds of illhealth, so that any impact they may have made, as far as the stimulation of Catholicism was concerned, was probably in most cases slight. One such visitor was Dr John Young, formerly Master of Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, who, after his stay in Bath, was committed first to the custody of the Dean of Canterbury and then despatched to Wisbech Castle where he died in 1580. 57 Two other leading ecclesiastics of the previous reign who applied to come to Bath, possibly unsuccessfully, 53 Cross, The Puritan Earl, p. 240 ; C.R .S., 57, pp. xvi-xx, xxxi. Sir John's enforced conformity is not mentioned in the works cited in the previous note (Rowse , op. cit., p. 471, note 3, says "Everybody was considerate to Sir John Southworth. It did no good"); for this see Dom Hugh Bowler's Introduction to C.R .S. , 57 (loc. cit.) and, for a subsequent search of Sir John's house at Samlesbury, revealing " superstitious thinges" including Catholic books, C.R.S., 60, pp. 37-41. In the early seventeenth century conformist descendants, one of them Recorder of Wells, were established in Somerset; see F.T. Colby, The Visitation of Somerset, 1623 (Harleian Society, 11) p. 102; T.G. Barnes, Somerset 1625-40: A County 's Government under the 'Personal Rule' (1961) pp. 46, note ; 316 ; J.H. Gleason, Justices of the Peace in England, 1558-1640 (1969) pp. 106-7. 54 A.P.C. , 1581-2, p. 236 (17 Oct. 1581), also pp. 223-4. 55 P.R.O., S.P.12/229, no. 78. I am grateful to Mr Michael Hodgetts for this reference. The document is undated but is assigned to "? 1589" in C.S.P.D., 1581-9 0, p. 638. The priest may have been Reginald Eaton, for whom see Anstru ther, pp. 107-8; Foley, VII, p. 218. 56 See infra., pp. 23-8. 57 A .P.C., 1571-5, p. 367 (also p. 253);D.N.B.


INTRODUCTION

17

were Nicholas Harpsfield and his brother John (formerly Archdeacon of London) who, while in the Fleet prison, petitioned in 1574 "that in respect of their infirmities and diseases they might be licensed for the recoverie of their helthes, to go and remaine at the Bathes in Somerset shiere till the end of October next." 5 8 An eminent and active visitor whose philanthropic spirit left a tangible imprint upon the city was the former Abbot of Westminster , Dr John Feckenham, who deserves more than a passing mention. In 1559 he had ably seconded Bisho~ Scot of Chester in defending the old religion in the House of Lords 9 and after his deprivation he had devoted himself to good works, so that it was said of him, "flies flock not thicker about spilt honey than beggars constantly crowded about him.,,60 From the interest-free loan-fund which he inaugurated for his former parishioners (and of which he was himself the largest benefactor) to his provision of a causeway and a cross at Wisbech many years later, his life was one of practical good-naturedness. The unfortunate Lady Jane Grey and Queen Elizabeth herself, when a prisoner during Mary's reign, were recipients of his kindness and his activities in Bath were thoroughly in keeping with his reputation for charity and compassion.61 At a Privy Council meeting at Kenilworth on 18 July 1575 the ex-Abbot was licensed to travel to Bath and he was granted a similar licence in June 1576. 62 He was the compiler of a "Booke of sovrigne medicines... chi eflie for the poore ..." containing "Prescriptions and rules to be observed at the Bathe,,63 and while in 58 A.P.C., 1571-5, p. 284; see also D.NB. and Introduction to C.R.S. , 45. Nicholas Harpsfield died in 1575 and in June 1578 John again applied for permission to visit Bath on health-grounds (B.M., Lansdowne 27 , f.64;D.NB.). 59 J. Strype, Annals of the Reformation (1824 edition) I, pt. 2, pp. 431-8 ; Tierney-Dodd, II, pp. 132-3 & Appendix cclvi. Feckenham ' s speech was printed in 1928 in a Catholic Truth Society pamphlet, The New Religion, compiled and prefaced by Lord Seaton. See also D.NB. ; E.C. Messenger, The Reformation, the Mass and the Priesthood, II (1937) pp. 213-5 . 60 T. Fuller, Church History of Britain (ed. J.S. Brewer, 1845) V, p. 97. 61 For more on Feckenham, see D.NB., corrected by H. Aveling and W.A. Pantin (ed.) The Letter Book of Robert Joseph (Oxford Historical Society, New Series, 19) pp. 274-5; M.D. Knowles, The Religious Orders in England, III (1959) pp. 428-39 and Knowles, Saints and Scholars (1962) chap . 23; also J. McCann & c. Cary-Elwes, Ampleforth and Its Origins (1952) chap. 4 and Appendix A, sections 2 & 3; E. Carpenter (ed.) A House of Kings (1967) pp . 120-30, 447-8; M.R. O'Connell, Thomas Stapleton and the Counter-Reformation (New Haven, Conn. , 1964) passim., especially chaps. 9 & 10; F.A. Gasquet, Abbot Feckenham and Bath (D.R., Dec. 1906, reprinted in The Last Abbot of Glastonbury and Other Essays, 1908). In Elizabeth and the English Reformation, pp. 33-5, Professor Haugaard demolishes the tradition that, had Feckenham been prepared to conform, the Queen might have made him Archbishop of Canterbury. On the Feckenham loan-fund, see the articles by Dame Bede Foord O.S.B . in the Worcestershire Recusant journal, nos. 9-13 (1967-9). 62 A.P.C., 1575-7, pp. 8, 47. 63 B.M., Sloane (167 or) 3919; see also G. Dolan "Somerset and the Benedictines" in D.R. , July 1903, pp. 191, 200-1; Gasquet, Last Abbot of Glastonbury and Other Essays, pp. 218-21.


18

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

the city he provided a lepers' hospice with seven beds for these "most miserable of Objects, who fly to Bath for Relief from the hot Waters,,;64 an item in the City Chamberlain's accounts shows this work going forward during his visit in 1576: "delyvred to Mr. Feckenham, late Abbot of Westminster, three tonnes of tymber and ten foot to builde the howse for the poor by the whote bathe, 33s. 2d. To him more, 400 lathes at 10d. the hundred."6 5 Such co-operation between the civic authorities and the deprived Abbot seems to argue on the part of the former (who may have been won over by Feckenham's engaging personality and practical Christianity) an easy-going attitude much at variance with the concern about his recalcitrance and possible subversive influence which agitated bodies both more august and more obsessed with religious uniformity - the Privy Council and the Northern High Commission - and which led in 1577 to his arrest for stiffening Catholic resistance during his period of liberty.66 Local leniency may also account for the dearth of Bath names in official reports on Somerset recusancy throughout Elizabeth's reign, though for the county as a whole such reports are thinnner than for many other areas, partly, no doubt, because there were relatively few recusants; partly because of lack of drive by local officials, both ecclesiastical and lay. Such inertia was by no means peculiar to Somerset; it was a matter of general concern and in 1564 there was a nationwide enquiry as to the reliability of the Justices of the Peace. Bishop Berkeley sent in a somewhat complacent report 67 but nationally the magistracy included many who were hostile, or at least lukewarm, towards the new religious settlement - almost a half in 1564 and an appreciable number fourteen years later. 6 8 In 1584 half a dozen Somerset Justices were either papists or had strong papist connections - members of the Brett, Fitzjames, Keynes, Lancaster and Sydenham families 69 - and in 1587 Bishop Godwin of Bath and Wells was urging the removal from the Commission of the Peace of two of them, Sir John Sydenham and John Lancaster, for slackness in dealing with papists; the former had a recusant wife and a daughter-in-law "suspected to be married at a Mass" while the latter is "of all honest men taken to be an enemy to the truth and has one of his beloved 64 J. Wood, A Description of Bath (1765 edition) p. 306; also pp. 257-8,265; Gasquet,op. cit., p. 217; W.K. Jordan, The Forming of the Charitable Institutions of the West of England (American Philosophical Society, 50, pt. 8, Philadelphia, 1960) p. 60. 65 F.D. Wardle (ed.) Bath City Chamberlains' Accounts, 1568-1602 (S.R.S., 38) p. 32, also cited by Gasquet, loco cit. See comments in The Journal of the British Archaeological Association, 28, pp. 399-400. 66 Hughes, Reformation in England, III, pp. 414-6; Cross, Puritan Earl, p. 230. 67 M. Bateson (ed.) Letters from the Bishops to the Privy Council, 1564. (Camden Society, New Series, 53) pp. 63-4. 68 Bateson, passim.; J.B. Black, The Reign of Elizabeth (1959 edition) pp. 24-5 ; Birt, Elizabethan Religious Settlement, p. 522. 69 J.H. Gleason, Justices of the Peace in England, p. 191.


INTRODUCTION

19

brothers a seminary at Rhemes.,,70 It was men such as these, as well as others of varying shades of sympathy or hostility, who were supposed to enforce anti-Catholic legislation; small wonder that for twenty years the conviction of recusants was taken out of their hands; i.e. from 1587 to 1606, by which time the Catholic element had been largely, though not completely, eliminated. 71 In Somerset remoteness from the organs of the central government, and in Bath the added self-interest of local officials, may have diluted persecution, nor are the three Elizabethan Bishops of Bath and Wells 72 among those especially noted for hounding papists, so that if hard-core Romanists were relatively few this may have been due not so much to unremitting persecution as to a lack of strong noble and seigneurial backing. It is true that Strype writes of "many a stiff papist" in the diocese at the beginning of Elizabeth's reign and that he describes it twenty-odd years later as "inclined to Superstition and the Papal religion" 73 - whereas Mendoza, the Spanish ambassador in Paris, calculating the strength of a Catholic "fifth column" in 1586, declared Somerset to be "heretical,,74 - but Strype's remarks appear to have been based, 70 J. Strype, Annals of the Reformation, III, pt. 2 (1824) p. 462. For the marriage see also Foley, III, p. 279 and, for the Sydenhams, G.F. Sydenham, History of the Sydenham Family (privately printed, East Molesey, Surrey, 1928); also, for Sir John Sydenham, CR.S., 13, p. 98, note 104; p. 133, note 542. The priest-brother of John Lancaster was Roger Lancaster, for whom see Anstruther, p. 205 . The families were related by marriage (Sydenham, op. cit., pp. 176-7; F . Brown, Abstracts of Somersetshire Wills, 3rd. series, p. 48). See also CR.S., 7, pp. 22-34. 71 28 & 29 Eliz. I, cap. 6; 3 Jac. I, cap. 4. For Catholics as J.P.s in the early 17th century, see Magee, English Recusants, chap. 4, and for Somerset, Gleason, op. cit., pp. 193-9; Barnes, Somerset, 1625-40, chap. 3 & pp. 313-6. On the 1587 Act see CR.S., 57, pp. xxiii, 227; S.A.H. Burne (ed.) Staffordshire Quarter Sessions Rolls, 1594-7 (i.e. vol. 3; Kendal, 1933) p. xiv. The immediate effect of restricting recusancy-conviction to the judges of assize, gaol-delivery etc. was unspectacular as far as Somerset was concerned. To the single recusancy case already recorded in the Somerset portions of the Pipe Rolls (P.R.O., E.372/426: Katherine, wife of Edward Keynes, convicted at the Old Bailey) three more were added in 1587-8 and a further two in 1590-1 (P.R.O., E.372/433, 436). None of these were from Bath. In addition, however, James Fenn, mentioned supra. p. 8, was convicted of recusancy while in the Marshalsea prison, Southwark, and therefore occurs in the Pipe Roll under Surrey (P.R.O., E.372/428: Surrey/Sussex, 1582-3) while Edward Keynes (of Hampstead Norris, Berks. and Compton Pauncefoot, Somerset) occurs under Berkshire in the preceding roll (E.372/427). For the larger number of Somerset convictions in the 1590s, see sources cited in note 32. For judicial shielding of Catholic recusants in the early 17th century see G.C.F. Forster, East Riding Justices of the Peace in the 17th century (E. Yorks. Local History Society, York, 1973) pp. 21-2, 36-8. 72 Gilbert Berkeley (d. 1581), Thomas Godwin (1584-90) and John Still (1593-1608). See D.N.B. and the works by Cassan, White and Hembry mentioned supra. , note 2. 73 Life and Acts of Matthew Parker, I, pp. 154-5 and Life and Acts of John Aylmer (1821 edition) p. 58, respectively. 74 Cal. S.P., Spanish , 1580-6, p. 610: a grossly over-optimistic report accompanying Mendoza's letter to Philip II, 13 Aug. 1586, and adding, re


20

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

respectively, on nothing more substantial than the rejection of the Elizabethan Settlement by a small number of clergy and on Bishop Aylmer's comment that there "reigneth great ignorance" in the diocese at the end of the long episcopate of the now-octogenarian and inactive Bishop Berkeley. 7 5 It would, however, be a mistake to suppose that Somerset Catholics were under no pressure: some were driven into exile, some are known to have been fined; official positions and professional advancement were largely blocked; prison - and perhaps death therein - might await them, as it did a nameless recusant prisoner in Ilchester gaol, 76 and execution was not out of the question. In 1577, towards the end of his episcopate, Berkeley sent to the Privy Council two lists of papists in his diocese; 7 7 the first has vanished and there appears to be no record even of the number reported but the second (eight names only, none of them in Bath) is of persons "lately declined and growen to be recusantes". All over England similar developments were taking place following the arrival from 1574 onwards of priests trained overseas - younger, more vigorous and more apostolically-minded than most of the surviving Marian clergy dedicated to frustrating the government's policy of "spiritual starvation" and arousing a chagrin to which a Lancashire J.P. gave bitter expression: "We hoped that these papistical priests dying, all papistry should have died and ended with them, but this breed will never be rooted out: it is impossible ... to extirpate the papistical faith out of the land.,,78 One such priest, Somerset-born and instrumental in reconciling some of the eight recusants named by Bishop Berkeley, was John Colleton of Milverton, one of the most prominent of the secular clergy, 79 who returned to England in 1576 and made for his native county where he won over his father and other relatives. The former (later to die, a prisoner for religion, in Gloucester gaol) and Colleton's sister Alice occur in the 1577 list. 80 In the course of Elizabeth's reign thirty or so Somerset men became Somerset, "notwithstanding this, there are five Catholics who can raise 1,000 men". 7S Strype, Aylmer, p. 59, refers to "his great age and affliction of a lethargy". 76 H.M.C. , Cal. Salisbury MSS. , IV, p. 598; also p. 477 and Anstruther, pp. 370-1 for the statement that the prisoner was the father of a secular priest, William Warmington, for whom see also R. Lloyd, Dorset Elizabethans (1967) pp. 123-5. Other penalties mentioned in this sentence are noted in the preceding pages and in the next two paragraphs. 77 P.R.O., S.P.12/118, no. 16; Birt, Elizabethan Religious Settlement, pp. 377-8, 522; CR.S. , 22, p. 7 of which shows nine Somerset recusants, seemingly in error, unless one of the four in the diocese of Bristol (p. 68), apparently duplicated by Bath and Wells (pp. 66-7), is in fact a different person. 78 Black, Reign of Elizabeth , p. 182. 79 See Anstruther, pp. 82-5 and, for the founding of the Chapter (of which Colleton became Dean), A.F. Allison, "Richard Smith, Richelieu and the French Marriage" inR.H., 7, pp. 150-5; also CR.S. Monograph 1, chap. 3. 80 Anstruther, p. 83; CR.S., 22, p. 67.


INTRODUCTION

21

priests and others besides John Colleton reappear in the county.8 1 James Fenn, one of three priest-brothers from Montacute , has already been mentioned; he was captured near Brympton, close to his birthplace, imprisoned at Ilchester, then taken to London where, after two and a half years in the Marshalsea, he was executed in 1584. 82 Another Somerset priest, ordained at Tournai in Elizabeth's reign and back in England before its close, was Nicholas Fitzjames who subsequently became a Benedictine and died at a great age after many years at Stourton, close to the borders of Somerset, Wiltshire and Dorset. 83 Like other committed Elizabethan papists, he came from a family prominent in the dissolution of the monasteries under Henry VIII .84 Among the priests not of Somerset origin who can be traced in the county in Elizabeth's reign were Reginald(?) Eaton;85 the notable Jesuit, William Weston, whose autobiographl describes a visit to an aged ex-employee of Glastonbury Abbey;8 the martyr Alexander Briant whose achievements included the reconcilation of the father of Robert Parsons S.J. (perhaps the most famous Somerset exile);8 7 John Hambley, another martyr, active in the south of the county,88 and John Chapman - formerly an Anglican clergyman in Dorset - who admitted to being at Taunton "where he laye at one Widdowe Hodson's 3 or 4 Dayes" and "from thence he wente to one Macham's in Somersetshire distant from Tawnton abowt 6 or 7 myles where he stayed 5 or 6 dayes". 8 9 Opposition to the religious regime also took Somerset laymen overseas (for example, the James Bosgrave and William Phelps reported in 1577)90 or to prison. Among the latter were members of the Keynes 81

See Anstruther, Birt, Foley and Oliver.

82 See supra., p. 8; Anstruther, pp. 113-4 and works there cited. 83 ibid., pp. 117-8; Birt, p. 33; Oliver, p. 303; C.R.S., 33, p. 191 , note. 84 For the Fitzjames family, "diligent to serve the King in the Suppression of the Monasteries" , as were the Sydenhams, another Somerset family with papist connections, see F. Brown, "The Family of Fitzjames" in Proceedings of the Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society, 24, pt. 2, pp. 32-42; also Hembry, Bishops of Bath and Wells, p. 62. On recusant beneficiaries of the Dissolution see Mr P.J. Doyle's forthcoming London Recusant article. 85 See supra., p. 16 & note 55; also p. 26 for Fr. Robert Tempest (possibly in the Bath area). 86 P. Caraman, William Weston, the Autobiography of an Elizabethan (1955) pp. 110-2, 114-5 (notes). 87 Anstruther, pp. 50-1 and works there cited. In the Vice-Postulation Office series on the Forty Martyrs there is a pamphlet on Briant by Peter de Rosa (London, no date). 88 R. Simpson, "John Hambley, alias Tregwethan, Martyr", in The Rambler, 10 (1858) pp. 325-35, reprinted in Simpson's Under the Penat Laws (ed. Gasquet, 1930); eR.S., 9, pp. 167-73 (Hambley's confession etc.); A.L. Rowse, Tudor Cornwall (1941) pp. 358-60; Anstruther, p. 144. 89 eR.S., 5, p. 34. 90 eR.s., 60, p. 2;S.D.N.Q., 5, pp. 113 & 116 (?)


22

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

and Isham families 91 as well as John Jacob of Avill, near Dunster, an associate of Campion and Gerard, who had not attended church for almost a quarter of a century and who still in 1593, after many years in and out of prison, refused to do SO.9 2 The arrival of Campion and his companions, against a background of papally-sponsored Irish revolt, led to an intensification of anti-Catholic pressure in 1580 and 1581 - the very end of Berkeley's long episcopate and the beginning of a vacancy lasting nearly three years - and the activities of both sides are reflected in Bath where a distributor of one of the numerous contemporary copies of Campion's "Letter to the Lords of the Council" (Campion's Brag) was arrested in 1581 and where, in the same year, the City Chamberlain's accounts record the reading of a "proclamation touching Jesuytes.,,9 3 Berkeley died in 1581 and during the interval before the appointment of his successor the new and vigorous Archbishop of Canterbury, John Whitgift, in the course of his metropolitical visitation of 1583, enquired searchingly into Catholicism in the diocese of Bath and Wells - with what results, it is not known 94 - but from 1584 to 1590, when anti-Catholic feeling (fanned by the missionary challenge, the disturbing presence of Mary Queen of Scots and worsening relations with Spain, moving towards the Armada-crisis of 1588) was growing apace, the diocese was ruled by the elderly and ailing Thomas Godwin whose episcopate has been characterised as "mild and not violent,,9 5 and who is described by Harington as "unable to travel, broken with age" and dependent on unreliable deputies. 96 Bishop Godwin died in 1590 and another vacancy ensued, during which lists of prominent papists in most counties and/or dioceses were compiled. The Bath and Wells list reveals, as at the beginning of Elizabeth's reign, a recusant Registrar at eR.S., 2, p. 260. See also eR.S., 22, p. 67; Foley, VII, pp. 415-8 and note" 141 below (Keynes family) and Anstruther, p. 184 (Isham). 92 eR.S., 2, passim.; CR.S., 60, pp. 60-1; P. Caraman, John Gerard, the Autobiography of an Elizabethan (1951) pp. 5, 216 & 233 (notes). 93 See, respectively, Foley, III, p. 647 and S.R.S., 38, p. 52. For the proclamation see P.L. Hughes & J.F. Larkin, Tudor Royal Proclamations, II (1969) no. 655. Campion's Brag or Challenge is conveniently printed in A.C. Southern, Elizabethan Recusant Prose, 1559-82 (1950) pp. 153-5 and as an appendix to E. Waugh, Edmund Campion (1935) and to B. Basset, The English Jesuits (1967) as well as in earlier works such as R. Simpson, Edmund Campion, A Biography (1867) pp. 159-63, 347; J.H. Pollen, English Catholics in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth (1920) pp. 348-55, Fr. Pollen's illuminating Introduction (signed "J.H.P.") to the "Catholic Library" edition of Campion's Ten Reasons (1914) pp. 7-11 and his article in The Month, Jan. 1910, pp. 1-16. 94 For Whitgift's Visitation Articles, see W.P.M. Kennedy, Elizabethan Episcopal Administration , III (1924) pp. 153-8, but his Register (Lambeth Palace Library: Whitgift I, ff. 335-6 verso) does not indicate what response they evoked. 95 F.O. White, Lives of Elizabethan Bishops of the Anglican Church (1898) p. 284. 96 A Briefe View of the Church of England (1653) p. 114. The D.N.B. calls him " aged, diseased and lame of the gout". 91


INTRODUCTION

23

Wells, a Bath physician (the only Bath entry), one recusant in prison, one on bail and eleven others at large - the tip of an iceberg. 9 7 At the turn of the century, during the episcopate of John Still (1593 to 1608), Catholics in Somerset may have been jolted by the impact of Whitgift's continuing concern at "excessive" numbers of papists98 though by this time English Catholicism was suffering a loss of momentum, partly self-inflicted, partly caused not only by the fear of fmes, imprisonment and death but also by a deeply-felt aversion to inviting an "opprobrium which will remain as a stigma upon their descendants as traitors to the Queen". 9 9 The widespread drift away from Catholicism is exemplified in the life of Dr John Sherwood of Bath, almost sparining the reigns of Elizabeth and James I. There were two roughly contemporary physicians named Sherwood practising in the city, one of them to some extent - if decreasinglr - identified with Catholicism, the other (pace Gasquet) decidedly not. 00 97 Not a very massive one; for what it is worth, a 1603 return gives 102 papists in the diocese (B.M. Harleian 280, f.167 verso, printed in Magee, English Recusants, p. 83; P. McGrath, Papists and Puritans under Elizabeth I, p. 399 , etc.), and other statistics collected by Mr Magee, op. cit. , passim. , show Somerset as one of the least Catholic of counties. The 1592 lists are in H.M.C. , Salisbury MSS., IV, pp. 263-75 (pp. 274-5 for Bath and Wells, including "Doctor Leese, physician, of Bath", also mentioned supra., p. 8 and "John Bishoppe, registrar to the bishopric of the same") .. See also supra., p. 2 (William Lancaster) ; Hembry, Bishops of Bath and Wells, p. 137. There are more detailed returns for 1603 (lists of recusants, non-communicants and communicants) in B.M. , Harleian 595 , but these do not cover the diocese of Bath and Wells. 98 However, Bath and Wells is one of the half-dozen dioceses from which no significations of excommunication (1601) are included in CR.S., 60 , pp. 102-44. 99 Cal. S.P. Spanish, 1580-6, p. 97 . See also J.T. Cliffe, The Yorkshire Gentry , p. 170, and for English Catholicism in the period 1590-1603, McGrath, op. cit., chap. 10. 100 The latter, stated by Gasquet, The Last Abbot of Glastonbury and Other Essays (1908) p. 216 , and D.R., Dec. 1906 , p. 254 (partly misinterpreting Dom H.N. Birt in the July 1901 issue, pp. 153-4) to have been a Catholic, father of Dr John Sherwood and host to Abbot Feckenham, was Dr Reuben Sherwood who came to practise medicine in Bath after being Head Master of Eton and who had earlier eulogised the posthumous rehabilitation of the protestant reformers Bucer and Fagius and had been a petitioner, while a proctor at Cambridge in 1570, on behalf of Thomas Cartwright. See C.H. & T. Cooper, Athenae Cantabrigienses, II (1861) pp. 269-70; J. & J.A. Venn, Alumni Cantabrigienses, IV (1927) p. 65; A. Wood, Fasti Oxonienses, I (ed. P. Bliss, 1815) columns 173 & 174 ; J. Foster. Alumni Oxonienses, 1500-1714 (1888) p. 1350; Sir G.N. Clark, The Royal College of Physicians of London, I (1964) p. 127; Sir H. Maxwell-Lyte, History of Eton College (1899) pp. 185, 612; K.E. Symons, The Grammar School of King Edward VI, Bath (Bath, 1934) p. 182; W. Munk, Roll of the Royal College of Physicians, 1(1878) p. 98; T.G(uidott), Lives and Characters of the Physicians of Bath, 1598-1676 (1677) no. 1. Sherwood's Latin verses occur in C. Hubertus, Historia Vera: qe Vita, Obitu ... beatorum . .. Theologorum D. Martini Buceri & Pauli Fagii, etc. (1562) p. 184 and are reprinted in Bucer's Scripta Anglicana (Basle, 1577) p. 953. On his support for Cartwright, see Strype, Annals of the Reformation, I, pt. 2, p. 376; A.F. Scott Pearson , Thomas Cartwright and Elizabethan Puritanism (1925) pp. 36 , 427. See also H.C. Porter, Reformation and Reaction in Tudor Cambridge (1958) pp. 57 , 213; P.R. James. The Baths of


24

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

According to Antony Wood 'an eminent practitioner ... in the city of Bath ... much resorted to by those of the Rom. Cath. religion, he himself being of that profession", was Dr John Sherwood, educated at Oxford and Rheims, where the award of his doctorate in 1580 was recorded in the English College diary. 1 0 1 On returning to England Dr Sherwood settled for a time in Bristol where his father joined him 1 02 but after the latter's death he moved to Bath; his daughter Mary was christened there in November 1586 and in 1593 he acquired the lease of the Abbey House, once the Priors' residence, where he dwelt until his death in 1621 1 03 - a prominent citizen. In 1604 he had helped to make arrangements for the visit to Bath of the ailing Robert Cecil, incurring local odium ("all for love of themselves, without regard of the Bath, pp. 66-7, 117 (which, however, repeats that Reuben was the father of Dr John Sherwood, whereas the MS . pedigree cited in note 112, below, and other sources - cited in note 108 - show the latter's father to have been Henry Sherwood). 101 A. Wood, op. cit., col. 274; Foster, op. cit., p. 1349; T.F. Knox, First and Second Diaries of the English College, Douay, p. 172; Guidott, op. cit., no . 3; J.R. Raach, Directory of English Country Physicians, 1603-43 (1962) p. 81 - wrongly reprinted ibid., p. 113 as "Samuel Sherwode" and reproduced thus in S.D.N.Q., 18, p. 199. In his will, proved at Norwich in 1610, the young Henry Morse, later a Jesuit and martyr, refers to his brother-in-law Dr John Sherwood (married to his sister Anne), probably not of the Bath farr.ily but of the East Anglian one mentioned in R.W.I. Smith, English-Speaking Students of Medicine at the University of Leyden (Edinburgh, 1932) pp. 210-1, and in Raach, op. cit., p. 82. For the will, see P. Caraman, Henry Morse, Priest of the Plague (1957) pp. 4, 189. 102 P.R.O., S.P. 12/168, no. 25 (ii): 1584 report - apparently erroneous in stating that Dr Sherwood had lived at Bristol for "about six yeares paste". See also P. McGrath, "Gloucestershire and the Counter-Reformation in the Reign of Elizabeth I" in Trans. Bristol & Gloucestershire Archaeological Society, 88, p. 27; 1.H. Pollen, Acts of English Martyrs (1891) pp. 3-4: death at Dr John Sherwood's house in Bristol of his father, Henry Sherwood, evidently before July 1582 when the latter's wife, Elizabeth, occurs as a widow in a London prison-list, printed in St G.K. Hyland, A Century of Persecution (1920) p. 390. Another prison-list of similar date, drawn up in March 1583 but relating to prisoners committed to the Marshalsea in the previous June, also shows her as a widow (eR.S., 2, p. 231). See also note 108. 103 B.M. Harleian 1445, no. 10, f.246 verso: rough copy of memorial brass in Bath Abbey. See also D.R., July 1901, pp. 154-5; Guidott, lococit.; R. Rawlinson, History and Antiquities of the Cathedral-Church of Salisbury and of the AbbeyChurch of Bath (1719) p. 192; 1. Collinson, History and Antiquities of the County of Somerset, I (Bath, 1791) p. 70 in Bath section. Mary Sherwood's christening, 21 Nov. 1586, and her father's burial, 16 Feb. 1620-1, are recorded in R.B.A., pp. 7 & 348 respectively. A number of Catholic memorial inscriptions, mainly from Rawlinson, are printed, wholly or in part, in Davey. See also Symons, op. cit., pp. 163, 182; J .F. Meehan, "The Abbey House and Its Associations" in More Famous Houses of Bath and District (Bath, 1906) pp. 225-9, where, however, Dr Sherwood is not mentioned. The house is shown on various maps and plans of Bath (e.g. Joseph Gilmore's survey, 1692-4, in Bath Reference Library) and came to be known as the Royal Lodgings because successive royal visitors stayed there. It was demolished to make way for the Duke of Kingston's baths whose construction (1755-63) briefly opened-up the Roman baths; cf. B. Cunliffe, Roman Bath (Report no. 24 of the Research Committee of the Society of Antiquaries of London, 1969) p. 91; Cunliffe, Roman Bath Discovered (1971) pp. 36-7.


INTRODUCTION

25

health and safety of those by whom the burden of our estate is supported") when the visit was cut short because of plague, apparently on his recommendation ("They rail and revel at their pleasure but I esteem it less than nothing, as long as my conscience witnesses I have dealt honestly")104 and to his house came patients-cum-Iodgers of some notability/os though John Wood's statement that the queen, Anne of pen mark, stayed there in 1615 appears to be unfounded. 106 Equally groundless are the often-repeated assertions of Dr Sherwood's consistent Catholicism;lO 7 in fact he fell short of the standards of his parents and his brothers. His father and mother (a sister of the much-persecuted Francis Tregian) were devout papists who suffered for their religion; his brother Thomas was one of the first Elizabethan martyrs, another brother entered the Society of Jesus and two more became secular priests: Richard and Henry - the latter formerly a London woollen-draper whose health was wrecked by prolonged imprisonment on religious grounds; the former once the Catholics' agent "in matters of great importance" in whose household the future martyr and saint, Edmund Gennings , was converted.} 0 8 But Dr John Sherwood's incorporation at Oxford University in 1596 104 H.M.C. , Cal. Salisbury MSS., XVI, pp. 179,313 (Sherwood's letters to Cecil, 21 July & 22 Sept. 1604). See also A. Cecil, Life of Robert Cecil, First Earl of Salisbury (1915) p. 227; J.F.H. Shrewsbury, History of Bubonic Plague in the British Isles (1970) p. 278. 105 e.g. Lady Rutland in 1605 (H.M.C., Rutland MSS., IV, p. 457 , cited by P.R. James, The Baths of Bath, p. 117). 106 J. Wood. A Description of Bath (1765 edition) p. 207 , refuted by James, loco cit. For an epigram addressed to Dr Sherwood by Sir John Harington, see his Letters and Epigrams (ed. N.E. McClure, Philadelphia, 1930) pp. 217-8. 107 e.g. Antony Wood, as cited at the beginning of the previous paragraph; Symons, op. cit., p. 163 and D.R. , Dec. 1895 , p. 322 ("a Catholic physician"); D.R. , july 1901, p. 153 ("one ... of those who would on no consideration bow the knee to Baal"); July 1903, p. 190 ("devout Catholic physician") ; Dec. 1906 , p. 255 and Davey, p. 12 ("recusant"). If at any time a recusant, Dr Sherwood was never convicted of recusancy; he occurs neither in the Pipe Rolls under Gloucestershire or Somerset (to 1591) nor in the Somerset portions of the Recusant Rolls thereafter (P.R.O. , E.372/426-36; CR.S. , 18 , 57 , 61 ; P.R.O .. E.377 /5-29). 108 The main sources for this sentence and for the genealogy at the end of this note are two near-contemporary narratives: "De Thoma Sherwood Martyre. coppyed out of a relation written by his brother" (transcript in Stonyhurst MSS., Collectanea M, ff.157-9, printed in Pollen, op. cit. , pp. 2-8) and J. Geninges, Th e Life and Death of Mr Edmund Geninges, Priest . .. (early version, 1603. in CR.S.. 5, pp. 205-7; fuller edition, St Orner's, 1614; reprinted, variously edited and abridged, in 1680 as Strange and Miraculous News from Sf Omer 's - a hostile. "Popish Plot" leaflet - in 1887 and in 1961 as a pamphlet in the Vice-Postulation Office series on the Forty Martyrs); see also A.F. Allison. "Franciscan Books in English, 1559-1640", in Biographical Studies (now R.H.) 3. pp. 9, 17,27.41 and Allison & Rogers, A Catalogue of Catholic Books in EI/glish printed abroad or secretly in England, 1558-1640, pt. 1 (in Biographical Studies, 3) p. 66. The above narratives are supplemented, as regards the persons mentioned below in brackets. by the following: B. Camm, Lives of English Martyrs, II (1905) p. 235 and L.l. Guiney, Recusant Poets (1938) p. 194 (Tregian connection; for Francis see the


26

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

suggests something less than full Catholic commitment 1 09 and by the beginning of the seventeenth century, as the next paragraph shows, he was not only hostile to his son's becoming a priest but had advised him to conform outwardly to the Established Church - as he himself did, according to another son, Robert, who recalls being "reconciled" to the Catholic faith (in his case by a Father Robert Tempest) as, at different times, were some of his brothers. 1 lOIn the circumstances the later discovery of Mass-vestments in the house once occupied by Dr Sherwood probably has no relevance; the building had, after all, been part of the Abbey precincts and as the apartment where the garments were found was walled-up it seems likely that they dated from the dissolution - especially as the account of the discovery suggests a far larger collection than a priest-harbourer would be likely to have: "Round the walls, upon pegs, were hung as in a vestry-room ... the copes, albs, and chesiples" (i.e. chasubles) "and other garments of the religious" .11 1 biography by P.A. Boyan & G.R. Lamb, 1955); by Knox, Douay Diaries, p. 181; Foley, IV, p. 183; VI, p. 150; VII, p. 709 and P. Caraman, Henry Garnet and the Gunpowder Plot (1964) p. 410 & note 1 (John Sherwood S.J. , who died before ordination, said by Foley to be the martyr's nephew but probably the "Sherwoode frater Sherwoddi martyris" mentioned in the second Douay Diary, loco cit. , who left Rheims for Rome in August 1581); Anstruther, pp. 313-4; also p. 128 sub Edmund Gennings (Henry and Richard Sherwood, with regard to whom a document in the P.R.O., S.P.15/30, no . 120, is erroneously rendered in eS.p.D. , Addenda, 1580-1625, p. 259, giving the impression that a priest named Sherwood had two priest-brothers, whereas the original reads, "there are two brethren of them here; priests both" - referring to other persons mentioned in the MS., and not simply, or perhaps at all, to Sherwood). With Mrs Elizabeth Sherwood and her son Henry in London prison-lists of the early 1580s is an Elizabeth Sherwood, spinster, possibly the latter's sister (Hyland, op. cit. , pp. 383 , 385-6, 390). See also Lady G. Fullerton's story Constance Sherwood (1865). Sherwood genealogy (supplementing that cited in note 112, below):Henry Sherwood m.Elizabeth Tregian (widow by July 1582; see note 102) I I I I I I I 8 other John, the Dr John Thomas Richard Henry Unnamed (eldest younger? (secular priests) children son in layman son) (martyred (Jesuit Dorset scholastic) 1578)

,

109 A. Wood, loco cit. Wood's remarks, cited at the beginning of the previous paragraph, show that, writing a century later, he regarded Dr Sherwood as a Catholic, but "being of that profession" and being a professing papist were by no means necessarily the same thing. 110 See next paragraph. The conversions of Thomas and John are mentioned in CR.S. 54, p. 194, and that of Robert in eR.S. , 30, p. 103; eR.S., 33, pp. 225-6 and Birt, p. 43. Two roughly contemporary priests named Robert Tempest occur in Anstruther, pp. 249-50, who amplifies the entry for one of them in Foley, VII , pp. 766-7. F or Robert Sherwood, see also Stapleton, Oxfordshire Missions, pp. 128, 331. 111 Collinson, op. cit., I, p. 58, not II, p. 85 as cited in J.C. Fowler, The Benedictines in Bath during a Thousand Years (Yeovil, 1895) p. 71 (also D.R. , Dec. 1895, p. 322). Gasquet declares, "It strikes me, however, as more than


INTRODUCTION

27

Dr Sherwood's wife Mary, daughter of Edward Knowell, had close ties with Somerset recusancy through her own family and through her sisters' marriages 11 2 and although she herself wavered for a time she eventually returned to the Catholic faith, as did four sons - three of them becoming priests - while a daughter, Mary, appears to have been a persistent absentee from Anglican services, earning the designation of popish recusant. Two sons (William and Robert, mentioned above) entered the Benedictine order, the former commemorating his native city by taking, in religion, the name of a local saint, Elphege, while Robert, fittingly for one brought up in the former priors' house, became the rust Cathedral-Prior of Bath - a nominal dignity, retaining in the restored English Benedictine congregation a title abolished under Henry VIII. 11 3 A third son, Thomas, joined 'the Society of Jesus and on entering the English College in Rome in 1607 he made a long and illuminating autobiographical statement from which it appears that he was the second of Dr Sherwood's seven sons and that his elder brother John, who was married and lived mainly in Ireland, was a practising Catholic, while two of his paternal uncles were secular priests. 114 His father, however, while counselling him not to forget his religion when in protestant company, nevertheless advised him "to attend heretical churches for the sake of his career" (he had gone to London to study law). He adds that he had been educated in Bath, evidently at King possible that they were vestments for the use of priests, who were compelled to hide away during penal times" (Last Abbot of Glastonbury and Other Essays, p. 216; D.R., Dec, 1906, p. 255). See also Britton & Peach, Bath Abbey Church , p. 39, note 5, for a similar view. ,1l2 A MS. Sherwood pedigree (undated) in B.M. Harleian 110, 122, shows Dr John Sherwood's wife as Mary, daughter of "Edward KnoBe (?) of Samford, Som." In eR,s., 54, pp. 193-4, her maiden name is spelt Knowell, one of her sisters is described as "the Catholic wife of Ed. Keynes, a Catholic" and two others are stated to be the wives of John Bishop and John Parham, both listed as recusants in 1592 (H.M.C. , Cal. Salisbury MSS., IV, p. 274). The former , Registrar of Bath and Wells diocese, is also mentioned in note 97 above and supra. , p. 3. Parham is described fifteen years later as having undergone much suffering. includin~ imprisonment, and to be outwardly conforming but still "internally Catholic' (eR.s., 54, p. 193). For the recusant KnoweBs of Sandford Orcas, now in Dorset, see Cal. Salisbury MSS., lac. cit.; eR.S., 57, p. 143; S.D.N.Q., 5, p. 115; F.e. Colby (ed.) Visitation of Somerset, 1623 (Harleian Society. 11) p. 123. The MS. pedigree does not include Dr Sherwood's mother or brothers, for whom see note 108, above. 113 Downside: Allanson, "Biography", I, pp. 167,175; Symons. op. cit., pp. 163-4. 114 eR.S., 54, pp. 189-95 (superseding the version in Foley, IV, pp. 412-6). The pedigree mentioned in note 112, above, shows SLX sons, omitting William (Elphege) born in 1595 and two daughters, one of whom died in infancy, baptised in October 1590 and January 1594 (R.B.A., pp. 11, 9, 10, 335). Henry, the youngest appearing in the pedigree, was christened in July 1589 (ibid., p. 8), so the pedigree would seem to have been drawn up between that date and October of the following year. The uncles were Henry and Richard Sherwood (see note 108), one of them perhaps the author of the Stonyhurst MS. there cited, printed by Pollen, lac. cit., with the heading "Thomas Sherwood the Martyr. A Relation written by his Brother for his Nephews".


28

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

Edward's school, by the two masters, already mentioned, who became Catholics. 11 5 Thomas at first offended one of his uncles and his elder brother by rejecting the former's advice to cross the Channel and study for the priesthood as "he did not wish to grieve his mother and disobey his father", but he was later reconciled, together with his mother, after which he became conscious of a vocation to the priesthood. Mrs Sherwood died in 1612 and it was probably her daughter who was the "Maria Sherwood" presented for recusancy in the 1620s by the churchwardens of St Mary de Stalles. 1 1 6 By this time the Bishop of Bath and Wells was Arthur Lake (1616-1626) whose predecessor Bishop Montague, the restorer of Bath Abbey, had reported unconcernedly - though perhaps a trifle overoptimistically - in 1608 that recusants in his diocese were outnumbered by good preachers and that continued efforts to increase the latter portended a further diminution in the former .11 7 In this process, fmancial exactions also played their part, one victim in James I's reign being "The Lady Booth of Bath", I lS a loyal and philanthropic lady who contributed, with many Catholics, to the Armada-subsidy of 1588 and who, years later, was the one substantial sojourner in Bath (described in extenuation as "a very little poore Cittie and Clothmen much decayed") who paid willingly towards the benevolence for the Palatinate in 1622. 119 She was a benefactress to the poor in Cheshire, her native county, and in her will she left money to Bath Abbey and to the poor of Bath - the Booth Bequest. 1 20 Through her the Booths of 115 Adam Arnoll (or Arnold) and Henry Slyman, for whom see supra., p. 7); Another of their pupils was the celebrated John Hales, for whom see D.N.B. , Symons, op. cit., pp. 159, 192 and J.H. Elson, John Hales of Eton (New York, 1948). 116 S.R.O., D/D/Ca.244 (Act Book of the Consistory Court of the Bishop of Bath and Wells, 1624-6) ff.17, 26, 68. For Mrs Sherwood's memorial and burial-entry, see sources cited in note 103; also Davey, p. 12. 117 P.R.O., S.P.14/35, no. 58: Montague to Salisbury, 25 Aug. 1608. 118 B.M. Add. MS. 34765, f.30: grant of Lady Booth's recusancy to Henry Martin and Augustine Griggs, 28 Feb. 1609. 119 See, respectively, Trans. Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society, 6, p. 206 and P.R.O., S.P.14/130, no. 61 (12 May 1622). 120 P.R.O., Prob. 11/155/30. Sources for the Booth Bequest are Bath City Archives: Council Book no. 1, entry for 21 Jan. 1633 (also 2 Aug. & 2 Nov. 1635) and Further Report of Commissioners for Inquiring concerning Charities (i.e. 4th Report, 1820) pp. 298-9. Collinson, History and Antiquities of Somerset, I, pp. 70-1 in Bath section, and R. Warner, History of Bath (1801) pp. 263-4 & note, both mention but misdate this bequest. It is not among the Bath benefactions discussed by Professor W.K. Jordan, The Forming of the Charitable Institutions of the West of England (American Philosophical Society, 50, pt. 8, Philadelphia, 1960). F0r Lady Booth's contribution towards paving the Abbey see R. Rawlinson, History and Antiquities of the Cathedral-Church of Salisbury and of the Abbey-Church of Bath (1719) pp. 172-3; J. Wood, Description of Bath, pp. 210-1; Britton & Peach, Bath Abbey Church, p. 99 (also ÂŁ1 bequeathed for the same purpose by "Mrs Margaret Mannering dwelling in this citie with the Lady Booth").


INTRODUCTION

29

Dunham Massey were connected with the Warburtons, and another marriage linked them with the Masseys - two Cheshire families with Catholic leanings - but her descendants developed in a strongly protestant direction, producing in Henry Booth, Lord Delamere, a scourge of papists at the time of the "Glorious Revolution", 121 and she herself appears eventually to have conformed. Later in the seventeenth century she was remembered locally as the foremost among the "Protestant Benefactors" to Bath Abbey and her support for the Elector Palatine against the Catholic Emperor would seem to place her in the protestant camp,1 22 nor has her will any Catholic overtones; it refers to the late Bishop Lake of Bath and Wells as "so pious and worthie a friend' and asks that a sermon be preached in the Abbey following her interment there by night. 123 The reigns of James I and Charles I are marked by official enquiries about the strength of Catholicism, backed up by occasional demands (usually bowing to parliamentary pressure) for enforcement of the laws against it, as when in December 1625 the Attorney-General wrote to the Clerk of the Peace for Somerset demanding more vigorous action against popish recusants who, in that county, as elsewhere, had lately been reported on the brink of revolt and who had just been raided and deprived of a motley and innocuous collection of arms and armour; his letter, however, "was carefully entered on the sessions rolls and then apparently forgotten". 124 At about this time, though, the cases of a large number of recusants, only a few of them in Bath, came before the 121 Lady (Elizabeth) Booth was the daughter of Sir John Warburton of Arley and George Massey's mother was Anne, daughter of George Booth of Dunham. For the Warburtons and Masseys, see K.R. Wark, Elizabethan Recusancy in Cheshire (Chetham Society, Third Series, 19) passim.; and, for Lady Booth, Sir G.J. Armytage & J.P. Rylands, Pedigrees at the Visitation of Cheshire, 1613 (Lancashire and Cheshire Record Society, 58) p. 28. She was the widow of Sir William Booth who died during the minority of his heir, later Sir George Booth, one of James I's first baronets, from whom were descended the Delamere and Warrington peers. See "G.E.C.", Complete Peerage; J. & J.B. Burke, The Extinct and Dormant Baronetage of England 1888) p. 73; J.P. Rylands, The Visitation of Cheshire, 1580 (Harleian Society, 18) pp. 37, 240; R. Stewart-Brown , Cheshire Inquisitions Post-Mortem (Lancs. & Cheshire Record Soc., 84) p. 44; J.R. Hurstfield, The Queen's Wards (1958) p. 122. For Delamere's depredations in 1688, see CR.S. Monograph 1, p. xvii, note 35 and works there cited. 122 H. Chapman, Thermae Redivivae: The City of Bath Described (1673) pp. 8-9; B. Magee, The English Recusants (1938) pp. 114-5 (Catholic attitudes towards Elector and Emperor). 123 Will as cited supra., note 120; R.B.A., p. 353 (Lady Booth's burial, 27 Dec. 1628). Nocturnal burial was by no means a specifically Catholic practice; it was common in the 17th and 18th centuries and was only ended by the Burial Laws Amendment Act of 1880 (43 & 44 Vic. , cap. 41, section 3). On this, see W.S. Lilly and J.E.P. Wallis, A Manual of the Law specially affecting Catholics (1893) pp. 57-64, 198-203. 124 E.H. Bates-Harbin (ed.) Quarter Sessions Records for the County of Somerset: Charles I (S.R.S., 24) p. xxiv; M.J. Havran, Catholics in Caroline England (1962) p. 29; T.G. Barnes, Somerset, 162540: A County's Government under the "Personal Rule" (1961) pp. 14,106,114.


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Consistory Court of Bishop Lake 125 - shortly to be succeeded by Laud, ascending the jacob's ladder of preferment towards Canterbury, the block and eternity. Laud's influence as a diocesan was as nothing compared to his later impact in wider roles; he was Bishop of Bath and Wells for only two years (1626-1628) and never visited the See. 126 It may, however, have been traversed by the Catholic Bishop of Chalcedon, DrRichardSrnith (second Vicar-Apostolic of England, Wales and Scotland), who took in the western counties during an extensive visitation lasting from July 1625 to February 1627 which is known to have included the neighbouring county of Wiltshire and which did not overlook even "the most remote provinces".1 2 7 Laud was translated to London in 1628, on the eve of Charles I's period of personal rule, and the tightening-up of the fiscal sanctions against recusancy during these eleven years (1629-1640) when the king was seeking to maximise his non-parliamentary income, is reflected in orders to the judges to be especially vigilant in religious matters and to further "the advancement of true religion and suppression of the contrarie ... that those that will not bee fed in the Church may bee fined by the Exchequer." 1 28 The northern counties bore the brunt of the drive for increased recusancy-revenue 129 and while the historian of Somerset under Charles's personal rule considers it likely that in this county "the recusants were rarely molested", 13 0 they did not get off scot-free; their increasing payments to the southern commissioners averaged some ÂŁ84 per annum. 13 1 Real risk of molestation might be countered by frequent changes of abode; one elusive Somerset lady, "retorned for recusancie", was "some tymes in Dorset, some tymes in Somersett and some tymes by stealth in Devon to papist howses and she is nowe at Chideocke in Dorsett", 13 2 but government policy 125 S.R.O., D/D/Ca 244, ff.17, 26, 68, 87, 108, 110: the Abbey and St Mary de Stalles parishes; also Bathwick (Henry NeveU, non-communicant but subsequently received the sacrament). For Mrs Frances Nevill, presented as a papist after the Restoration, see infra., note 162. See also V.eH., Somerset, II, p. 41. 126 H.R. Trevor-Roper, Archbishop Laud (2nd edition, 1962) p. 92. 127 P. Hughes, Rome and the Counter-Reformation in England (1942) pp. 333, 351; Foley, I, p. 138. 128 T.G. Barnes (ed.), Somerset Assize Orders, 162940 (S.R.S., 65) pp. 56-7. 129 eR.S. , 53, pp. 297-307 ; Havran, op. cit., pp. 95-7; B. Magee, The English Recusants, pp. 73-6; G.E. Aylmer, The King's Servants (1961) pp. 166-7; also J.T. Cliffe, The Yorkshire Gentry (1969) chap. 10 and Havran, Caroline Courtier: The Life of Lord Cottington (1973) pp. 120-1. 130 Barnes, Somerset, 162540, p. 15. 131 K.J. Lindley, "The Lay Catholics of England in the Reign of Charles I" in The Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 22, p. 213. No Bath recusants appear to have been involved (P.R.O., E.351/315-325: Accounts ofG. Feilding, Receiver of Recusancy Revenues, 1627-39) but the Somerset families of Brett and Keynes were; see also note 141 and eR.S., 22, p. 67, note 2. 132 P.R.O., S.P.16/390, no. 129 (21 May 1638) re Mrs (?) Rowe, also mentioned by Lindley, art, cit., p. 208. The Rowes, connected with the family ofPoyntz,


INTRODUCTION

31

might also be hampered by unco-operative local officials and the impressive series of glowing but secondhand accounts of the diocese of Bath and Wells submitted by Laud (now Archbishop of Canterbury) to the king every year from 1633 to 1639 133 is split down the middle by a 1636 report that "there are manie Popishe Recusants residinge in the Countie of Somerset who, by the wilful neglect and connivance of ministers, churchwardens and constables in diverse parishes, are not duly presented to the Assizes and Sessions where they ought to be indicted and convicted accordinge to the Lawes and Statutes in that case provided,,134 nor was Laud himself satisfied that the information given by Bishop Piers was entirely trustworthy; the latter might insist that Catholicism was ¡"much decreased, neither are any newly presented for Recusancye" but Laud wondered "if there be not fewer presented, eyther by the overaweinge of them which whould ~resent, or some cunninge in those which would not be presented". 3 5 In 1634 his metropolitical visitation had shed practically no light on Catholicism in the diocese of Bath and Wells 136 but the 1636 report and Laud's own suspicions, the surviving (and incomplete) records of some two hundred Quarter Sessions presentments for recusancy, the three hundred and thirty convictions - not, however, resulting in very heavy fining - and a contemporary list of priests in the county (ten, but including Nicholas Fitzjames O.S .B., just over the Wiltshire border) all point at least to survival, if not revival, though Somerset remained overwhelmingly protestant. 13 7 As in Elizabeth's reign, priests and religious can be discovered both serving the few early seventeenth-century Mass-centres and coming from Somerset families - the former including the Benedictine martyr succeeded them as patrons of the Leighland mission; see G. Dolan, "An Old Somerset Mission: Leighland" in D.R., Dec. 1893, p. 244; Oliver, p. 62, also T.B. Trappes-Lomax, "The Family of Poyntz and its Catholic Associations" in R.H., 6, pp.68-79. 133 The History of the Troubles and Tryal of . .. . William Laud (ed. H. Wharton, 1695) pp. 526, 530, 536, 540, 548, 557, 564; also "Documents of the Laudian Period" in Collectanea II (ed. T.F. Palmer, S.R.S., 43) pp. 208-11. Havran, Catholics in Caroline England, p. 105, errs in attributing to Laud (History of the Troubles . . . ) a report of the spread of popery in the diocese of Bath and Wells in 1637; possibly the reference should be to Winchester diocese. 134 Bates-Harbin,op. cit., pp. 262-3. 135 Lindley, art. cit., p. 204. 136 H.M.C., 4th Report, Appendix, p. 140: four suspected popish recusants at Wells. 137 Barnes, op. cit., p. 14 & note 35 (presentments); P.R.O., S.P.16/478, no. 69 (25 March, 1641: 330 Somerset recusancy-convictions, 1-14 Car. I); Magee, op. cit., pp. 96-7; Lindley, art. cit., 203, 213 (convictions and fines); A.A.W., Series A, 26, pp. 495-8 (1632 list of priests, also mentioned by Foley, VII, p. 376, sub Howes, and by Havran, op. cit., p. 82). For Fitzjames see supra. , p. 21. On the predominantly protestant - even "puritan" - character of the county, see the remarks of Professor D. Underdown, Somerset in the Civil War and Interregnum (Newton Abbot, 1973) pp. 21-2.


32

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

Philip Powel, 138 the latter the three Sherwood brothers from Bath (and John Sherwood, a Benedictine lay-brother);1 39 a Jesuit, Ignatius Godwin, born at Wells, and Dom John Martin O.S.B. who died there of smallpox on the way to visit his sick father;14 0 members of the related Keynes, Ewens and Brett families, all of which had been penalised for their religion, 141 and a nephew and namesake of Father Robert Parsons S.J. 142 The localities of most of these, and other sources already cited, make it clear that late Elizabethan and early Stuart Catholicism in Somerset was mainly to be found well to the south of Bath, westwards towards Devon and eastwards towards Wiltshire and Dorset - the pattern noted by Dr Lindley as applying in Charles 1's reign, by which time very few of the citizens of Bath appear to have been Catholics. 14 3 The surrounding nobility and gentry in adjacent parts of Somerset, Gloucestershire and Wiltshire had long ago gone over almost en masse to the Establishment and there is a marked contrast with, say, York where increasing gentry-commitment helped to sustain recusancy, or Winchester where many citizens and a number of nearby landowners remained resolutely Catholic. 144 But if evidence as to 138 Challoner, Memoirs of Missionary Priests (ed. Pollen, 1924) pp. 475-81; B. Camm, Nine Martyr Monks (1931) pp. 318-43; Dictionary of Welsh Biography, p. 1146; Dolan, art cit. (in D.R., Dec. 1893) and "Somerset and the Benedictines" (D.R., July 1903) pp. 195-7; Trappes-Lomax, art. cit., pp. 74-8. 139 See supra., pp. 26-8 and Birt, p. 48 (Brother John Sherwood, "born in Somerset"). 140 Foley, VII, p. 306 and Birt, p. 49, respectively. 141 Foley, VII, p. 82 (Robert Brett S.J.), 236-7 (Maurice Ewens S.J.), 415-8 (Edward, George, jun., John and Maurice Keynes). For grants of the recusancy of these families, see B.M., Add. MS., 34765, ff. 33 verso (Brett, for whom see also note 131), 37 (Keynes, misspelt Reines; see also notes 71 and 131),46 (Ewens). Other Somerset families in this document, apart from Lady Booth of Bath (see note 118) are Walton, Maunsell and Byfleet (all in f.16 verso), Knolle (Mrs Sherwood's family, see note 112, misspelt Knotte, f.23 verso), Wadham (f.26), Sydenham (f.34 verso; see also supra., p. 18). For the Byfleets, and their connections with the Brett, Keynes and other Catholic families, see l.M. Whitfield, "A Somerset Recusant Family" in S.D.N.Q., 29, pp. 215-20. 142 alias Briant or Richardson (Foley, VII, pp. 574-5). 143 Catholic recusancy in the Bath area is not reflected in the accounts of the Receiver of Recusants' Forfeitures, 1627-39 (P.R.O., E.351/315-325: Somerset sections) nor in the Subsidy Rolls of Charles I's reign. Under I Car. I, cap. 6, recusants were liable to double subsidies and some Rolls (P.R.O. series E.179) specifically indicate them, e.g. a Wiltshire Roll, for which see Wilts. Notes & Queries, VIII (Devizes, 1917) pp. 342-4. See also C.R.S., 53, pp. 295, 305, note 36; Lindley, art. cit., pp. 200, 202, 210. However, the Somerset Subsidy Rolls relating to Bath and to Bathforum Hundred (P.R.O., E.179/172, 375, 379, 388, 392, 398, 402, 404) do not mention recusants and the Somerset Rolls in the British Museum (Add. Charters & Rolls, 28, 275-8) do not cover the Bath area. 144 See Oliver; V.C.H., Somerset, II; Wilts., III; Gloues., II; P. McGrath, "Gloucestershire and the Counter-Reformation in the Reign of Elizabeth I" in Trans. Bristol & Gloues. Archaeological Society, 88, pp. 5-28. The most up-todate studies of Catholic survival in the York and Winchester areas are, respectively, C.R.S. Monograph 2 (City of York) and J.E. Paul, "Hampshire


INTRODUCTION

33

native Bath Catholics is exiguous, Catholicism was far from unknown in the city during the reigns of James I and Charles I, thanks to numerous Catholic visitors. Often, like their Elizabethan predecessors, they came under licence to take the waters, though 1605 brought more sinister callers with Bath a rendezvous for conspirators in the Gunpowder Plot. 1 4 5 These apart, the Catholics who sought to come to Bath seem harmless enough, but not all who so desired were given permission; an elderly and prominent secular priest (once a novice in the brieflyrestored Abbey of Westminster) petitioned Sir Robert Cecil from Newgate in the plague-summer of 1603 for permission to visit Bath, apparently unsuccessfully, 1 46 and later in James I's reign an invalid widow, returning from abroad and found to be in possession of a crucifix and devotional books, refused to attend an Anglican service or to take the oath of allegiance and,instead of journeying to Bath, found herself on her way to London and the Gatehouse where she was imprisoned with three other intransigent ladies. 14 7 An intending visitor who received more sympathetic treatment was the Jesuit priest John Clare, alias Dominic, who was licensed to go to Bath after being "taken in a dead palsy", 1 4 8 and notable laypeople came from all parts of the kingdom; the Privy Council Registers disclose the visits of Catholics from as far afield as Yorkshire (members of the Middleton, Anne and Cholmley families), Durham, Suffolk and many other counties, as well as from London and Westminster, 149 and in 1624 Sir Francis Stonor of Recusants in the Time of Elizabeth I, with Special Reference to Winchester" in Proceedings of the Hampshire Field Club and Archaeological Society, 21, pp. 61-81 ; also Dr Paul's thesis "The Hampshire Recusants in the Reign of Elizabeth I" (Ph.D., University of Southampton, 1958). 145 Sir J. Harington, Nugae Antiquae, 1(1769) p. 78 (letter from Lord Harington of Exton to Sir John Harington, 6 Jan . 1606); e.S.P.D., 1603-10, p. 199; S.R. Gardiner, History of England, 1603-42, I (1883) p. 244 and What Gunpowder Plot Was (1897) p. 66; P. Sidney, A History of the Gunpowder Plot (1904) pp. 69, note, 211; H. Ross Williamson, The Gunpowder Plot (1951) p. 142; P.R. James, The Baths of Bath, pp. 100-1; etc. For Popish defiance at Wells in 1605, see H.M.C., Cal. Salisbury MSS., XVII, pp. 396-7. 146 Thomas Bramston, a leading anti-Appellant; cf. Anstruther, pp. 47-9; J. McCann & C. Cary-Elwes, Ampleforth and its Origins (1952) pp. 77, 279; P. Caraman, William Weston (1955) p. 187, note 1, and indexes to various works on the feuds among the Catholic clergy in Elizabeth's and James I's reigns, e.g. P. Renold (ed.) The Wisbech Stirs (e.R.S., 51); T.G. Law, The Archpriest Controversy (Camden Society, New Series, 56 & 58); Law, A Historical Sketch of the Conflicts between Jesuits and Seculars in the Reign of Queen Elizabeth (1889). 147 e.S.P.D., 1611-8, pp. 479, 495, 499; also p. 61 (case of MabeUa, or Mabel, widow of Dr John Griffith, or Griffiths, 1617). 148 es.p.D., 1623-5, p. 328 (16 Aug. 1624). For this priest see e.R.S. Monograph 1, p. 206 and works there cited; also Blundell, Old Catholic Lancashire, I, p. 3; Gillow, sub Clare and Roger Anderton; Allison & Rogers, A Catalogue of Catholic Books in English printed abroad or secretly in England, 1558-1640, pt. 1 (in Biographical Studies, 3), pp. 173-4; Foley, IV, pp. 131-2; Anstruther, p. 75. 149 A.P.e., Aug. 1616 - Dec. 1617, p. 169; June 1618 - June 1619, p. 473;


34

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

Oxfordshire donated a sum of money for embellishing the King's Bath in gratitude for benefits received from its waters many years earlier.1 50 The Catholics whose visits are discoverable through the Privy Council Registers are, of course, those who applied for permission to travel to Bath; other, more comprehensive licences might or might not include it (e.g. that issued to Giles Risdon of Parkham, Devon, to visit any places in Somerset, Devon or Cornwall for six months) and there were doubtless some who came without any official permit. 1 51 The visitors whose names are known include committed recusants whose absence from church in Bath can hardly have escaped notice and who it is difficult to imagine going without Mass, but if Mass was celebrated its whereabouts was a well-kept secret. The Civil War and Interregnum thrust no Bath Catholics to the fore; the only Catholic property seized in the city was that of a Berkshire cavailier 1 52 and although one of Dr John Sherwood's sons, Philip, was a royalist officer there seems to be no evidence that he shared the Catholicism of some of his brothers and his sister. 1 53 Nor is Catholicism to be looked-for among participants in the mainly presbyterian royalist rising projected for August 1659 (Sir George Booth's rising, he being the grandson of the Lady Booth mentioned on pages 28-9) when the rebels who assembled at Lansdown were soon dispersed and a few stragglers captured. 1 54 If there was any Catholic July 1619 - June 1621 , pp. 93, 219-20, 300. For these families see Aveling, Northern Catholics, "Catholic Recusants of the West Riding" in Proceedings of Leeds Philosophical and Literary Society: Literary and Historical Section, 10, pt. 6 (Leeds, 1963) and eR.S. Monograph 2, passim. 150 He had accompanied his mother, Lady Cecily Stonor, to Bath in 1582 (see supra. , p. 11). It is questionable whether he should be accounted a Catholic, but he does seem to have veered back towards Catholicism in the last years of a long and temporising life during which he held local office, served as a Member of Parliament and was knighted by Elizabeth. In 1612, however, he was indicted as a non-communicant and ten years later his parsimony earned him the "smear" of "recusant" (not, perhaps, to be taken literally). Valuable light is shed upon him in two Essex Recusant articles by Dr Alan Davidson (in vol. 12, p. 94, and vol. 14, p. 90). See also J. Stonor, Stonor, p. 270; eR.S. 60, p. 36, note 1 & passim.; J. Wood, Description of Bath (1765 edition) p. 214; James, The Baths of Bath , p. 44. 151 The early Stuart Privy Council Registers at the P.R.O., printed as Acts of the Privy Council to 1631 and reproduced in facsimile for later dates, contain numerous references to passes authorising recusants to travel. Risdon's occurs in A .p.e, Jan. 1618 - July 1619, p. 491. On Catholics' freedom to travel, see also J. Parkes, Travel in England in the Seventeenth Century (1925) p. 38. 152 Cal. Committee for Compounding, p. 3302 (John Winch combe of Henwick, Berks.). See also eS.p.D., 1656-7, p. 36 and, in general, D. Underdown, Somerset in the Civil War and Interregnum, passim. 153 A.H. King & B.H. Watts, Cavaliers and Roundheads: a Chapter in the History of Bath (1887) p. 15; also A .p.e, July 1621 - May 1623, pp. 123, 195. A Philip Sherwood acted as a witness to the induction of a Bath rector in 1634 (R.B.A., p. 483) and Philip is given as the Christian name of one of Dr John Sherwood's sons in B.M. , Harleian 110, 122 (MS. pedigree). 154 eS.p.D. , 1659-60, pp. 50, 68, 87; eS.p.D., Addenda, 1660-85, p. 180; Cal.


INTRODUCTION

35

life in Bath during the Interregnum (1649-1660) its farticipants would seem to have covered their tracks very effectively. 1 5 First the turmoil of war and then the sober rule of the puritans struck at Bath as a tourist centre, besides which propertied Catholics, being mostly Royalists of varying shades - by no means all of them wholeheartedly militant were limited in their movements and hit in their pockets. 1 56 In such circumstances the frequent resort of leading Catholics to Bath is hardly to be expected. However Cromwell died in 1658 and in 1660 the Restoration of Charles II ushered in a period of twelve years during which Catholics were little molested - almost no recusancy fines, for example, appear to have been exacted during this time 1 57 - and their freedom to travel without licences means that for much of the reign the names of Catholic visitors to Bath are not to be found in the Privy Council Registers. 1 58 Under Charles II the city received a new lease of life as a fashionable health-resort (though in 1663 when the King and the Court were there the accommodation still left much to be desired 1 59) and the easy-going atmosphere of the 1660s is reflected in the reminiscences of Committee for Compounding, p. 1406; v.c.R. Somerset, II, p. 218; F.J. Routledge (ed.) Cal. Clarendon State Papers, IV, pp. 310, 323. For the rising see G. Davies, The Restoration of Charles II (1955) chap. 8; D. Underdown, Royalist Conspiracy in England, 1649-60 (New Haven, Conn., 1960) chap. 12. Catholics were not welcome in this enterprise (ibid., p. 275). 155 The Recusant Rolls for this period (P.R.O., E.377 /58-64) appear to be incomplete and include only one Somerset rotulet (1657) which contains no Bath names. In that year nationwide enquiries following an Act "for convicting, discovering and repressing of popish recusants" gave rise to many local lists of papists including some for Somerset (S.R.O., Q/SI 97/3, 6, 8, 14) but again nothing relating to the Bath area appears to survive. On the Act and the ensuing returns see Historical Collections for Staffordshire, 4th series, II, pp. 71-99; eR.s., 34, pp. xlvi, 115-51 (London); eR.S. Monograph 1, chap. 6 (Wilts.). 6 15 See P.H. Hardacre, The Royalists During the Puritan Revolution (The Hague, 1956) passim. For Catholic loyalties, by no means monolithically royalist, see also D.H. Pennington and I. Roots, The Committee at Stafford, 1643-5 (Manchester, 1957) p. xvii; A.M. Everitt, The Community of Kent and the Great Rebellion, 1640-60 (Leicester, 1966) p. 118; Roots, The Great Rebellion (1966) pp. 63, 66; J.T. Cliffe, The Yorkshire Gentry (1969) pp. 344-5, and K.J. Lindley, "The Part played by the Catholics": chap. 4 in Politics, Religion and the English Civil War (ed. B. Manning, 1973). In Somerset one actively royalist member of a leading recusant family was Alexander Keynes (Underdown, Somerset in the Civil War and Interregnum, p. 161). 157 See eR.S. Monograph 1, pp. 16-7 (total of only ÂŁ147. 15s. 7d.). There are very few Somerset Recusant Roll entries for this period: P.R.O., E.377 /65-7; eR.S., 6, p. 298 (29 altogether - none in Bath - possibly including some "fanaticks", i.e. protestant dissenters; cf. ibid. , p.7). 158 Only during the Popish Plot period do licences seem to have been revived: P.R.O., Privy Council Registers, P.C.2/67-9; eS.p.D. , 1678; 1679-80 - mainly passes to travel overseas. 159 F.J. Routledge (ed.) Cal. Clarendon State Papers, V, p. 331: reference by Sir Henry Bennet (later Earl of Arlington) to the "ill accommodation at Bath", Sept. 1663. See also the opinions of John Evelyn (27 June 1654) and Samuel Pepys (12-15 June 1668) in their respective diaries (various editions, under those dates)


36

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

a member of the Catholic Southcote family, Sir Edward, who recalls how, when visiting Bath shortly after the Restoration, he was greeted in the most friendly fashion by Sir James Long, with whom he bathed in the Cross Bath and who recalled the experiences which he and Sir Edward's father had shared as cavaliers in the Civil War, 1 60 while a contemporary member of a family close to the heart of civic affairs in Bath was prepared to argue that Catholics "although they may be no Friends to the Church, yet they may be to the State" .l 6 1 Nevertheless those who absented themselves from Anglican services might still be in trouble with local officials and early in Charles II's reign groups of such absentees were reported by the churchwardens of Bath Abbey and of St James's parish at a visitation by the Archdeacon of Bath, including a dozen papists or reputed papists, one of them the wife of Mr Simon Sloper who ran an imposing lodging-house overlooking the King's Bath. 1 62 Another local Catholic was Mrs Mary Past on who died in 1679 163 while in the following year, and also in 1683, further Catholic residents were reported, though not in any great number (see page 39). But Catholicism was evidently a live issue to protestant dissenters in the Bath area, according to a report dated 31 August 1667 of "crowds of fanatics about Bath, Frome etc. inspired by jealousy of popery" ,164 and although it may have been governmental leniency rather than any local resurgence which chiefly agitated them, the latter was alleged by the busy pamphleteer William Prynne (now Recorder of Bath and its Member in the Cavalier Parliament) who had long been haunted by the spectre of Catholic conspiracy and who called attention to a "great and scandalous meeting" of Papists in Bath. 1 65 A and the Somerset J.P.s.' comment in 1683 , cited by B. Little, Bath Portrait (Bristol, 1961) p. 31. For the even less salubrious conditions in the 1640s, see Wood, Description of Bath, pp. 216-7. 160 J. Morris, Troubles of Our Catholic Forefathers, 1st series (1872) p. 398. For the Southcote family, see Essex Recusant, 3 (Brentwood, 1961) pp. 105-15; 14 (1972) pp. 1-38. 161 Thermae Redivivae (1673) p. 9. The author, Captain Henry Chapman, was twice mayor of Bath. For this family see Wood, passim. (index in 1969 facsimilereprint); R. Young, Mrs Chapman's Portrait (Bath, 1926); R.E. Peach, Brief History of the Hospital of St John Baptist, Bath (Bath, 1886) p. 35 ; also R.B.A., passim. A list of mayors, 1412-1892, is printed in J. Murch, Bath Celebrities and Fragments of Local History (1893) pp. 41-3 . See also infra. , pp. 185, 186, 190-1. 162 S.R.O. , Series A, no. 335a (c. 1662). Those presented were Berkely Carne; Elizabeth, his wife; Ann Long (Bath Abbey) and, in St James's parish , John Hockley and his wife; Ann and Elizabeth Rawlee; Margaret, wife of Henry Combes; Mrs Frances Nevill and Philippa Dolton, her servant; Mrs Winifred Sloper and Mrs Katherine Kemish, who may have been related; Mrs Sloper's maiden name was Kemish (R.B.A., p. 224). For her husband's lodging-house, see James, The Baths of Bath, pp. 58-9. 163 at Horton, Glos., described as "late of Bath" (Davey, p. 47). 164 eS.p.D., 1667, p. 428; also pp. 454-5 for dissent in the Bath area. 165 P.R.O., S.P.29/221, no. 57; King & Watts, op. cit., pp. 51 -2. For Prynne's "popish conspiracy" obsession see W.M . Lamont, Marginal Prynne (1963) and, for more general apprehension about Catholicism in the late 16th and early 17th


INTRODUCTION

37

local correspondent, however, made light of this gathering and declared that it amounted to "not above a dozen simple women and three or four inconsiderable men, who were at their beads". There is no indication as to where this recitation of the rosary occurred, though it implies a meeting-place, if not a chapel, some years before a Catholic place of worship has been traced in Bath. The correspondent adds that Prynne's indignation is too selective and that while he whips up feeling against a few harmless papists, he pays no heed to "the most dangerous fanatics" who "meet by the thousands in a most dangerous manner .. . but Mr. P. cannot hear on that ear" - a reference to his cropped ears, forfeited in 1637 for libelling Laud - "and has such accurate skill in the law that he can find high treason in a bulrush and innocence in a scorpion." 1 6 6 As under Elizabeth and the first two Stuarts, Bath continued to attract Catholic visitors, among them Lord Clifford who was reported in August 1672 to have "had very good effects by bathing and drinking the waters", 1 6 7 and an elderly Jesuit, Father Richard Thimelby (or Ashby), who came for his health's sake in the summer of 1678,just as the "Popish Plot" was gathering momentum, and who lodged with a former mayor of Bath, Robert Chapman - an apothecary who had a number of patients sent to him by Sir George Wakeman, the Queen's physician, and who was later to attend James II's Queen, Mary Beatrice of Modena. 1 6 8 The supposed plot against the life of Charles II brought to a climax the more actively anti-Catholic trend which had been developing since 1673, when the King had had to turn his back on toleration and assent to the oppressive Test Act, bannin all but Anglican communicants from occupying official positions. 1 6 f Some of the passions aroused in Bath by the Popish Plot and the associated Exclusion crisis are reflected in a number of documents in the Public Record Office. From these it appears that one of the aldermen of the city, Walter Hickes, was supposed - apparently when the worse for drink - to have uttered "dangerous words concerning the Duke of York" in a coffee-house in centuries, two very interesting articles: C.Z. Wiener, "The Beleaguered Isle: a Study of Elizabethan and Early Jacobean Anti-Catholicism", and R. Clifton, "The Popular Fear of Catholics During the English Revolution" in Past and Present, nos. 51 & 52 respectively; also C. Hill, Antichrist in Seventeenth-Century England (1971) passim.; J. Kenyon, The Popish Plot (1972) chap. 1; C. Russell (ed.) Origins of the English Civil War (1973) chap. 5. 166 P.R.O., lac. cit.; King & Watts, lac. cit. 167 C.S.P.D., 1672, pp. 347,457,469,479,684. 168 H.M.C., 11th Report, Appendix, Part 2, p. 66; Foley, VII, pp. 768-9; J. Lane, Titus Oates (1949) pp. 203, 206-7; M. Hopkirk, The Queen Over the Water (1953) pp. 113-4; M. Haile, Queen Mary of Modena (1905) pp. 166-8; Kenyon, op. cit., pp. 169, 171-2; C. Oman, Mary of Modena (1962), p. 103;C.R.S., 47, p. 305 (mistakenly indexed in vol. 48 as "Ashby, Mayor of Bath"). 169 25 Car. II, cap. 2; see also Kenyon, The Stuart Constitution (1966) pp. 461-2, also p. 450.


38

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

the summer of 1678. These remarks were reported, on the advice of the Bishop of Bath and Wells (the militantly loyal Peter Mews), by cne John Allambridge but Hickes had evidently gone into hiding, for the bishop - branded a "Yorkist" for his part in the affair - wrote on 3 April 1680, "The bill against Hickes of Bath is likewise found, but he is not.,,170 In February 1679 the City Council deprived Hickes of his Aldermanship but he did not remain long in disgrace and is soon to found holding various local offices, including that of mayor - surprisingly, in 1683 when the royalist reaction was at its height. 171 Meanwhile in 1680 the divisions among the citizens of Bath were exemplified in, on the one hand, a loyal address to the King (in itself enough, judging by accusations against the aldermen of London, to earn the label of "papist,,)1 72 and, on the other, an enthusiastic welcome, "with 200 citizens on horseback, the bells ringing etc." for the Duke of Monmouth when he came to Bath in August at the outset of his western progress. 173 Earlier that year the Corporation had been criticised for "permittin} a suspected Popish Priste here without tendering the oathes,,17 and in 1681 it was alleged at Bath Assizes "that the Conventicles and Separate meetings of the severall sorts of Dissenters from the Church of England are places where Popish Preists and Jesuits doe shelter themselves; and that is is impossible to extirpate Popery or to free the Kingdom from Popish Preists and Jesuits so long as the Conventicles are countenanced and the laws against Popery not vigorously putt in execution; for there is scarce a Conventicle but there will be a Jesuit." 175 While this seems to imply a distinct Catholic influence at work in the area, with priests perhaps masquerading as dissenting ministers in the hope of obtaining more tolerant treatment, the suggestion may itself have been made with a view to ensuring that pressure on Catholics should not mean ease for dissenters. The increasingly anti-Catholic spirit which marked the second half of Charles II's reign found vent in greater efforts, partially successful, to ensure that popish recusants were convicted and fined 1 76 and the seizure was ordered of two-thirds of the real estates of thirty-seven 170 For this episode see eS.p.D., 1679-80, pp. 394,402-3,408,416-7,429. Bath City Archives: Council Book no. 2 (entries for 25 Feb. 1679 et seq.); R. Warner, History of Bath (1801) pp. 212-3. 172 eS.p.D., 1679-80, p. 475 (14 May 1680). 173 ibid., p. 597 (10 Aug. 1680); see also B. Little, The Monmouth Episode (1958) pp. 47-8. 174 P.R.O., S.P.29/413, no. 57 (5 April 1680). 175 P.R.O., S.P.29/416, no. 90: presentment by Grand Jury of Somerset, Bath Assizes, 9 Aug. 1681. See CR.S. Monograph 1, p. 26, note 179, for references to similar allegations; also Clifton, art. cit., p. 33; W. Ward, The Life and Times of Cardinal Wiseman (1897) I, p. 182; Russell (ed.) op. cit., p. 161. 176 See eR.S. Monograph 1, pp. 22-37. For the three years ending at Michaelrnas 1683 the Somerset sheriffs owed the Exchequer a total ofÂŁ47. 4s. in respect of recusancy penalties collected by them (p.R.O., E.351/452). 171


INTRODUCTION

39

recusants convicted at Ilchester and Wells Sessions 1 77 but there are no Bath names among those to be thus penalised, though eight Bath papists were sufficiently prominent for inclusion in the nationwide collection of reports associated with the abortive Papists (Removal and Disarming) Bill of 1680 178 and nine were presented three years later by the Grand Jury in Bath. 1 79 Both lists begin with the name of Berkeley Carne (as does the earlier churchwardens' presentment mentioned on page 36), from which it may perhaps be inferred that he was the leading Catholic layman in the Bath of Charles II. His is the only name common to the 1680 and 1683 lists, which between them yield sixteen different names. Clearly Bath's Catholic population remained smail, though it might be reinforced by influential visitors ; indeed it appears that under the later Stuarts Catholics continued to be few in the diocese of Bath and Wells as a whole, if reports of 176 adult papists in 1676 180 and of 215 (possibly including children) thirty-odd years later l 8 1 can be trusted. 177 M.C.B. Dawes (ed.), Quarter Sessions Records for the County of Somerset, 1666-76 (S.R .S., 34) pp. 181-2. 178 House of Lords Record Office: MS . 321 , c. 29 (Somerset list) p. 2, "Bath Citty". Those listed are Berkeley Kerne, Thomas Gibbs, Thomas Griffin (see also next footnote), Mrs Cottington, Theodore Sadler, John Shepherd of Lansdon (i.e. Lansdown, Bath), Thomas Wickham, Anthoney Carew (spellings as in original MS.). For these lists and for the Bill, see H.M.C. , 11th Report, Appendix, Part 2, pp. 222-37. 179 P.R.O., S.P.29j434, no. 48: Bath Grand Jury presentment, 7 Nov. 1683 : "Imp'is - Wee present Barkley Carne of this City, gent. and Elizabeth his wife; Francis Carne of the same, gent.; Mary the wife of Richard Guest of the same, cook; John Kircombe of the same, taylor; Hester, the wife of Henry Cook of the same, joyner; Lucina Griffith of the same, widow; the wife of Thomas Griffith of the same, musician; Elizabeth the wife of Thomas Waters of the same, clothworker, for being or reputed to be Popish Recusants .... " See previous note for Thomas Griffith (? Griffin) and note 190 re Mary Guest (nee Carne). 180 A. Browning (ed.), English Historical Documents, 1660-1714 (1953) p. 413 (and distribution-map, p. 415). Only the diocesan total appears to have survived, not individual parochial figures as in some other dioceses. A detailed study of this "Compton Census" is being prepared by Dr Anne Whiteman; meanwhile, see her illuminating essay, "The Census that Never Was", in Statesman , Scholars and Merchants (ed. Whiteman, Bromley & Dickson, 1973) pp. 1-16. 181 B.M. Egerton 921, no. 88: "Returns made by the Clergy of the Number of Roman Catholicks in England, Anno 1708". Again, no parochial totals have been found. Other early eighteenth-century returns of papists (by Deputy-Lieutenants, 1704-5, and by the Bishops, 1706) in the Record Office of the House of Lords omit, respectively, the county of Somerset and the diocese of Bath and Wells. See also H.M.C., Report on MSS. of the House of Lords, VI, pp. 417-23. If J.P. s also made returns in 1705-6, as suggested in the Journal of the House of Lords, 18 , p. 138, these seem not to have survived and a further set of reports (the Notitia Parochialis, 1705: Lambeth Palace MSS. 960-4), although yielding information about various Somerset parishes, is not concerned with papists; see R.W. Dunning, "Some Somerset Parishes in 1705" in Somerset Archaeological and Natural History Society Proceedings, 112, pp. 71-92. A document which does shed additional light on Catholicism at this time is the long "Persons of Quality" list cited in note 183 below.


40

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

To return to the 1680 list, two noteworthy names are those of a "Mrs Cottington", of the Fonthill Gifford (Wilts.) recusant family, and a gentleman named Anthony Carew who owned property at Shockerwick on the outskirts of Bath. The former was probably Dorothy Cottington, niece of Lord Cottington and aunt of Charles Cottington of Fonthill, who died in 1690 and was buried in Bath Abbey; eight years later funeral expenses were still owng and her nephew's will made provision for these and for the setting-up of a tombstone. 182 Anthony Carew is in all probability the "Mr Caru" of Somerset who occurs among a group of Catholic gentry worth from ÂŁ400 to ÂŁ1,000 a year in a list of "Persons of Quality" and their chaplains drawn up between September 1704 and May 1706;183 he was a scion of a resolutely recusant family in Essex, to which county his widow retired, his son and namesake inheriting the Shockerwick property. 184 A daughter, like an earlier relative, became a nun in an English convent on the continent.1 85 The recurrent name of Berkeley Carne is probably that of a convert, born in Bath in 1629 and educated at Merchant Taylors School,t 86 who married Elizabeth, daughter of George and Margaret Speke of Hazelbury Manor and Cheney Court, near Box (Wilts.) a few miles from Bath - a family approaching the end of its Catholic days. 187 The records of Bath Abbey contain many references to the Carnes; Berkeley Carne occurs among the donors of books to the Abbey library18 8 and the baptismal and burial registers reflect the births of their children , 182 R. Rawlinson, The History and A ntiquities of the Cathedral-Church of Salisbury and of the Abbey-Church of Bath (1719) p. 251 (memorial inscription); R.B.A. , p. 390 (burial-entry, printed as "Carrington"); F. Brown, Abstracts of Somersetshire Wills, 4th series (1889) p. 126; M.J. Havran, Caroline Courtier: The Life of Lord Cottington (1973) pp. 176-7; 213, note 3; 217 (genealogical table). See also the genealogical table in Sir R.C. Hoare, History of Modern Wilts. , Hundred of Dunworth (1829) p. 21; CR.S. Monograph 1, pp. 175-6; Davey, p. 15. 183 A.A.W., Series A, 38, no. 2 (printed in R.H., 12, pp. 42-8). 184 S.R.O., Enrolments of Papists' Estates, 1717-88 (estate of Anthony Carew, 15 July 1719) and Essex Record Office, Chelmsford: Q/RRd. , Papist Estates, Roll 2; also E. & P., p. 58. I am grateful to Monsignor D. Shanahan and Mr E.S. Worrall for Essex information. The marriage of the elder Anthony Carew to "Miss Mary Mayne of Linton in Kent" in December 1655 is recorded in R.B.A. , p. 218. 185 Foley, III, pp. 410-11 ; V, pp. 789, note 12, 797, note 28. 186 C.J. Robinson (ed.) Register of Merchant Taylors School, I (1882) p. 171: admission of Berkeley Carne, born at Bath in July 1629, son of Francis Carne, gent. Similar information is given in E.P. Hart (ed.) Merchant Taylors School Register, 1561-1934 (1936) I (not paginated but arranged more or less alphabetically) and there is a baptismal entry in R.B.A., p. 28. He died in April 1695 (ibid., p. 393; Rawlinson, op. cit., p. 235; Davey, p. 13). 187 G.J. Kidston, History of the Manor of Hazelbury (1936) p. 19lff. There is a section on Mrs Elizabeth Carne in R. Pierce (or Peirce), History and Memoirs of the Bath (1713 edition) pp. 370-1. 188 R.E. Peach, The Bath Abbey Library (reprinted from The Bath Chronicle, 1879) p. 14. I am grateful to Mr R. Bryant for this reference.


INTRODUCTION

41

family deaths and the deaths of sojourners at their lodging-house. 189 A son, Francis, and daughter, Mary, were born in 1655 and 1658 respectively and from the former's will we know that his sister was the Mary Guest presented as a popish recusant in 1683. 190 The will is of some interest in that it establishes Francis Carne as the proprietor of the Bath theatre: " . . . my garden, playhouse and other buildings ... (now let by me by several leases made by me to John Power .. .)." The latter was the actor who, with his company of players, also performed in and near Bristol, arousing nonconformist fury and being presented by the Grand Jury in 1706 "for acting of Plays within the Libreties of this City, without your Worships' Leave and Coment"; he was doubtless the husband of the "Widow Poore" who later entrusted the Bath playhouse (a small, cramped building opened in 1705 and decorated with the coats-of-arms of some of those who had contributed to it) to the management of a comedian named Hornby.191 The Carnes, like many other citizens of Bath, were lodging-house keepers; the enrolment of their property in 1717 refers to part of it as having been kept by Francis and "br my ancestors time out of mined under the name of a lodging-house" 92 and this is also reflected in a number of entries in the Abbey burial register relating to persons "from Mr Carne' s" or "from Mrs Carne's" between 1686 and 1741. 193 Francis was evidently a man of parts: lodging-house keeper, playhouse-owner and also for a short time Master of King Edward's Grammar School - an office 189 R.B.A. , passim. A Dame Joseph Carne (apparently early 18th century) is mentioned in A History of the Benedictine Nuns of Dunkirk edited by the Community of St Scholastica's Abbey, Teignmouth, Devon, (1958) p. 98. 190 See supra., note 179. The will is in the P.R.O. (Prob. 11/581/177) and is printed infra. , pp. 100-101. For the Carne-Guest marriage see A.J. Jewers (ed.) Marriage Allegation Bonds of the Bishops of Bath and Wells (Exeter, 1909) p. 174. Francis Carne died iQ. 1721 (R.B.A., p. 413). 191 Bath Reference Library: Maps and Plans of the City of Bath (e.g. Stukeley's map, 1723, showing the theatre at the N.E. corner of Vicarage Lane - called Parsonage Lane in the will cited in the preceding note); J. Wood, Description of Bath (1765 edition) pp. 444-5; B.S. Penley, The Bath Stage (1892) p. 18; A. Barbeau, Life and Letters at Bath in the 18th Century (1904) pp. 63-4; G.T. Watts, Theatrical Bristol (Bristol, 1915) chap. 2. In 1737 , following the Act for the Suppression of Playhouses, the theatre and adjoining buildings were purchased from Mrs Carne by the trustees of the projected Bath General Hospital (Wood, op. cit., p. 288). 192 S.R.O. , Enrolments of Papists' Estates, 1717-88 (estate of Francis Carne, printed infra., pp. 99-100), also E. & P., pp. 227 , 285 (Wilts. estate at Stratton St Margaret, subsequently left to "my unfortunate son Edward Carne" in Francis's will, printed infra., pp. 100-101). 193 R.B.A., pp. 388-430, passim.; also The Genealogist, New Series, 9, p. 37 & Index sub "Cam". Mrs Anne Carne, Francis's widow, died in 1750 (R.B.A. , p. 438 and will printedinfra.,pp.100-101: note added, granting further admon. to her sister Elizabeth Kibbell). She was evidently Francis Carne's second or third wife; an inscription in Bath Abbey to Mary, wife of Francis Carne, who died on 24 May 1696, is printed in Rawlinson, lac. cit. and Davey, lac. cit. See also R.B.A. , p. 394 for her burial and p. 401 for that of another "Mary, wife of Mr. Francis Cam" (2 Jan. 1706-7).


42

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

conferred upon him by James II when the latter visited the city with Queen Mary Beatrice in 1687, and taken away eighteen months or so later when William Baker, whom he had displaced, was restored after the Revolution. 1 94 In James's reign Catholicism not only came out into the open but in Bath, as elsewhere, the King flouted protestant opinion by employing Anglican premises for Catholic purposes; the Abbey was used for the ceremony of touching for the King's Evil and Father John Huddleston, O.S.B. (who had earlier received Charles II into the Catholic Church on his deathbed after that monarch had refused the ministrations of Bishop Ken of Bath and Wells) took the occasion to deliver a proselytising address to those present. Bishop Ken had not been notified of these proceedings; when he did learn of them he remained aloof and there seems to be no basis for the tradition, given currency in Warner's History of Bath, that, having heard Huddleston speak in the Abbey , Ken at once replied to him extempore. 195 Another incident, in which the Bish0p.'s Ascension Day sermon of 1687 was "attacked by an Irish Jesuit" 96 - one has almost the impression of a series of two-pulpit dialogues - reduces in cold reality to the fact that an Irish Jesuit , who was among Ken's congregation both on Ascension Day and on the following Friday, later published a tract, dedicated to the King, dealing with various points in the two sermons. 1 9 7 Another priest in Bath at this time was the eminent Franciscan Father Nicholas Cross 194 Bath City Archives: Council Book no. 3 (entry for 23 August 1687); K.E. Symons, The Grammar School of King Edward VI, Bath (Bath , 1934) p. 208. For Mary of Modena's visit see M. Hopkirk, The Queen Over the Water (1953) pp. 112-4; C. Oman, Mary of Modena (1962), pp. 101-5. 195 R. Warner, History of Bath (1801) p. 257 ; H.A.L Rice, Thomas Ken , Bishop and Nonjuror (1958) p. 110; F.A. Clarke, Thomas Ken (1896) p. 87. Allanson, " Biography" (at Downside) I, p. 261 is a little misleading in stating that under James II Fr. Huddleston "conducted himself with his usual prudence, without taking any part in Catholic affairs". See also D.N.B. and "John Huddleston O.S.B." by A. Kenny in Biographical Studies (now R.H.) 1, pp. 168-88. 196 Thus v. c.H. Somerset, II , p. 57. 197 "F.J.R., C.J.," Animadversions by way of an Answer to a Sermon preached by Dr. Thomas Kenne (1687), attributed by Wing to Father John Reed (ShortTitle Catalogue, I, p. 59; III, p. 122), probably following E. Green, Bibliotheca Somersetensis (Taunton, 1902) I, p. 294 , and similarly attributed by L Rostenberg, Literary, Political, Scientific, Religious and Legal Publishing, Printing and BookseUing in England, 1551-1700 (New York, 1965) II , pp. 320-1, citing no authority, though she mentions (p. 321 , note 8) the catalogue of books published¡ by Nathaniel Thompson in his 1687 edition of Henry VIII's Assertio Septem Sacramentorum; this lists Animadversions . .. but does not name the author. The latter ends his dedication (to James II) by describing himself as a "Loyal Irish Subject" and, if "c.J." stands for Company of Jesus, may be the prominent Irish Jesuit James ReIly, for whom see Foley, VII, p. 55 in Irish "Catalogue". There seems to have been no Jesuit named John Reed at that time, though a Franciscan (?) John Read occurs in W.P. Burke, Irish Priests in the Penal Times, 1660-1760 (Waterford, 1914) p. 35, and a "Benedictine" of the same name in J.L Anderdon, Life of Thomas Ken (1854 edn.) I, pp. 367-70, citing Antony Wood, but there is no such Benedictine in Birt. See also other lives of Ken, e.g. by E.H.


INTRODUCTION

43

(formerly chaplain to James II's first wife, Anne Hyde, Duchess of York) who was taken ill at Bath in September 1687 and who excused his absence from the Intermediate Chapter in London with a medical certificate from the Queen's physician Dr William Waldegrave - a papist and a connection of the Waldegraves of Borley, Essex, and Chewton, Somerset. 198 The royal visit, followed as it was nine months later by the birth of Prince James Edward, enhanced the reputation of the Bath waters and drew from the ambitious and ingratiating Earl of Melfort (an extremist convert, seeking to eclipse the Earl of Sunderland in royal favour) a number of popish embellishments to the Cross Bath. 199 James II's reign brought relief to dissenters as well as to Catholics and among the fulsome addresses of gratitude received by the King in 1687 were two from Bath and one from the Presbyterian congregations of east Somerset, including Bath. The Corporation undertook to see that their Members of Parliament were co-operative (however, no further Parliament met in James II's reign) and the Presbyterians acknowledged the resultant benefit to trade and industry.200 Further addresses from Bath rejoiced at the birth of the Prince in June 1688, 2 01 but all these expressions of devotion to James were followed soon after his fall by a reaction with (not surprisingly) anti-Catholic overtones. Bath appears to have been spared the "no-popery" violence which gave rise elsewhere to considerable destruction of property, but before the year was out the Corporation resolved that "the Crowne of Thomes on the cross in the Cross Bath and the Cross thereon and all the superstitious things belonging thereunto shall be taken down and the Letters thereon inscribed shall be obliterated" (though this was not fully carried-out)2 0 2 and the celebrations in Bath on the Coronation Plumptre, W.L. Bowles, F.A. Clarke and H.A.L. Rice, and Cassan, Bishops of Bath and Wells, none of which, however, sheds further light on this problem. For several of the above references I am most grateful to Professor T.A. Birrell. 198 Franciscan Archives, Forest Gate Friary, London, E.7: Register I, A-B, p. 139 (Intermediate Chapter, London, 14 Sept. 1687): "Lecta et acceptata est excusatio absentiae ... attestata a Clar'mo D. Gulielmo Waldgrave, Medico Regio, data ex aquis Bathniensibus d. 9 Sept. 1687" (kindly communicated by Father Justin McLoughlin, O.F.M.). See also Oliver, p. 549; Thaddeus, The Franciscans in England (1898) passim.; C.R.S., 24, pp. 281-2. 199 J. Wood, Description of Bath (1765 edition) pp. 259-62; Duke of Manchester, Court of Society from Elizabeth to Anne (1864) II, p. 132; W. Ison, The Georgian Buildings of Bath (1948) p. 57; E. Green, The March of William of Orange through Somerset (1892) p. 74, etc. For Me!fort see also D.N.B. , "G.E.C.", Complete Peerage, VIII, pp. 642-3; J.P. Kenyon, Robert Spencer, Earl of Sunderland (1958) passim.; Hopkirk, op. cit., passim; Oman, op. cit., passim. 200 Green, op. cit., pp. 9-21, 22-3, 31,47. See also Sir G. Duckett, Penal Laws and Test Act, II (1883) pp. 16, 229, 243 for reports on the reliability of Bath in the event of an election. 201 Green, op. cit., pp. 70-2. 202 Bath City Archives: Council Book no. 3 (13 Dec. 1688);Ison, lac. cit.; R.E.M. Peach, Bath Old and New (1887) pp. 50-1 (cross finally removed in 1783). See also W. Addison, English Spas (1951) p. 61; Hopkirk, op. cit., p. 118. For "no-popery" disturbances at the end of 1688, see B. Magee, "The Protestant


44

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

Day of William and Mary in 1689 included a song incorporating the ingenious rhyme: "In praise of him who came with Heaven's high hand To drive Rome's priests (those vipers) from our land, Those locusts who to Lucifer bespoke uSb Whose mock religion is a hocus pOCUS".2 3 The Revolution of 1688-9 produced some hardships for Catholics, the most far-reaching of which, as far as the western counties were concerned, was perhaps the interval of a quarter of a century during which the area, unlike other parts of England, had no resident Catholic bishop. Four bishops (Vicars-Apostolic in charge of extensive Districts) had been appointed under James II and the Vicar-Apostolic of the Western District, Bishop Ellis, had been imprisoned, like his three colleagues, at the end of 1688 but, unlike them, had subsequently fled the country, leaving Bishop Bonaventure Giffard of the Midland District to care for his vacant Vicariate. 204 Of more immediate impact were the limitations placed on the movements of recusants; they could be deprived of their best horses and had again to apply for licences to travel - which mi~t be refused, as was an application by Bishop Giffard in 1690? 0 Nine years later, however, and again in 1711, the bishop visited the Western District - as Bishop Ellis may have done in 1688 - and from 1715 the District had a Vicar-Apostolic of its own whose coadjutor and successors made Bath their headquarters. 206 The "Glorious Revolution" was not universally welcomed in Bath, which was notorious for Jacobitism for many years, evoking in 1692 the disgusted comment, "As to Bath, no better could be expected from that rendezvous of sharpers and prodigals" ,207 and during that decade some of its citizens were reported for drinking James II's health and a military reverse suffered by his successor was hailed with jubilation? 0 8 Wind" in The Month , July-Aug. 1941 , pp. 334-43; W.L. Sachse, "The Mob and the Revolution of 1688" in The Journal of British Studies, 4 (Hartford, Conn., 1964) pp. 23-40*; M. Beloff, Public Order and Popular Disturbances, 1660-1714 (1938) pp. 40-4; R.A. Beddard, "The Catholic Fear" in the expanded version of Sir Winston Churchill's History of the English-Speaking Peoples (ed. Sir M. Wheeler, H. Trevor-Roper & A.J.P. Taylor, 1969-71) pp. 1866-70, and Dr J. Miller's forthcoming article on the militia under James II in The Historical Journal. *See also G.M. Straka (ed.) The Revolution of 1688 (2nd edition, 1973) pp. 26-41. 203 Green,op. cit. p. 74. 204 eR.S. Monograph 1, pp. 123-9; also pp. 43-56 for Catholics' disabilities. 205 F .J. Routledge (ed.) Cal. Clarendon State Papers, V, p. 690. Licences to travel or to keep horses worth more than five pounds are recorded in the Privy Council Registers of William and Mary and of Anne (P.R.O., P.C.2/73-84). Similar restrictions applied during the Jacobite emergencies of 1715 , 1722 and 1744-5 (see eR.S. Monograph I , pp. 58-64). 206 eR.S. Monograph 1, pp. 122, 128-31 and infra., pp. 55,59 , 69-71 , 75, 78, 84,90. 207 Hopkirk, op. cit. , p. 213. 208 B.H. Cunnington, Records of the County of Wilts. being Extracts from the


INTRODUCTION

45

The involvement of the city fathers in the lodging-house business at this time in graphically illustrated in Gilmore's plan of Bath in the 1690s, where many of the "Lodgings" are shown to belong to members of the corporation,2 0 9 some of whom doubtless failed to regard the money of Catholics and Stuart sympathisers as tainted, and in 1715 the "mixed company" in Bath was a reason for muting expressions of devotion to the House of Hanover. 2 1 0 The Abbey bellringers were more disposed to welcome the leading western Jacobite, Sir William Wyndham, than to celebrate the anniversary of George I's accession and at the time of the 'Fifteen the nearby villages of Norton St Philip and Woolverton acknowedged the Pretender's birthday with the ringing of church-bells and the public drinking of toasts. In Bath itself the magistrates were sharply admonished by Stanhope for their lack of vigilance; a "concourse of Papists, Nonjurors and other Disaffected Persons" had gathered in the city, nonconformist chapels had been attacked and General Wade found that a rebel arsenal and two hundred horses were in readiness. The arms and horses were seized and arrests were made, but members of the city council were reported to have pleaded for mercy for three papist "Rogues" who had been apprehended. As a consequence of the 1715 Rising Catholics were obliged to register particulars of their estates at Quarter Sessions so that their wealth could be more accurately assessed for fining and forfeiture. 2 11 Two Bath papists, Francis Carne and Susanna Kennion, occur in the 1717 registration as owning property in Wiltshire: Carne at Stratton St Margaret and Mrs Kennion at Preshute 21 2 - the latter a widow whose husband may perhaps have been the "Thomas Kennion from Mr. Hussey's" who died at Bath in 1702.2 1 3 Francis Carne's Bath premises were quite extensive: a large dwelling-house (formerly three tenements) Quarter Sessions Great Rolls of the Seventeenth Century (Devizes, 1932 ) p. 276 ; eS.p.D., 1693, pp. 251, 272; Hopkirk, loco cit. 209 Bath Reference Library: Maps and Plans of the City of Bath: Gilmore's survey, 1692-4. 210 For the events of 1715 mentioned in this paragraph, see B. Boyce, The Benevolent Man: A Life of Ralph Allen of Bath (Cambridge, Mass., 1967) pp. 18-19& note 18; B. Little, Bath Portrait (Bristol, 1961) pp. 39-41; Sir C. Petrie, The Jacobite Movement (3rd edition, 1959) pp. 224-6; Hopkirk, op. cit. , pp. 271 , 273-4. 211 e.g. pp. 98-100. These enrolments were ordered in 1715 by 1 Geo. I, st. 2, cap. 25 (mistakenly printed "Geo. II" and dated "1714" in CR.S. Monograph 1, p. 57 & note 411). The Act and abstracts of the initial enrolments are printed in E.&P. and many northern enrolments are given in extenso in North Riding Record Society, 7 & 8, in Surtees Society , 175 & 178 and in Lancs. & Cheshire Record Society, 98 & 108. See also P.R.O. Handbook no. 12, The Records of the Forfeited Estates Commission (H.M.S.O. , 1968); R.C. Jarvis, Collected Papers on the Jacobite Risings, II (Manchester, 1972) pp. 304-5. 212 Wilts. County Record Office, Trowbridge: Enrolments of Papists' Estates, 1717-88; E. & P. , p. 285. 213 R .B.A. , p. 398 ; R. Rawlinson, History and Antiquities of the CathedralChurch of Salisbury and of the Abbey-Church of Bath (1719) p. 235 . "Mr


46

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

incorporating a shop, another shop let to Edward Newman, other tenements and gardens, as well as the most substantial property, valued at £56 out of the total of £102. Is 6d., occupied by John Power and doubtless including the theatre. 214 For half a century the Carnes had been developing their properties in Stall Street, strategically situated close to the principal bath (their lodging-house is referred-to as "Mr. Carne's by the King's Bath") and successive leases mention extensions "over the bath cabin" and "two little rooms with a balcony" as well as reflecting the family's increasing holdings in that part of the city. 215 The 1717 registrations of papists' estates also included those of Joyce Sheppard of Weston, Bath, and John Stibbs of Twerton. The rural character of these two places is reflected in the descriptions of the properties: orchards, gardens , stables and arable land, some of it in Twerton common field .21 6 John Stibbs , a friend and trustee of Francis Carne, appears to have been the convert son and namesake of a former mayor of Bath? 1 7 Another papist registering an estate in 1717 was Mary Evans of Wells whose mother's memorial inscription ~n Bath Abbey is one of the earliest to incorporate the letters "R.I.P.", indicating that she was a Catholic. 2 1 8 She (Mrs Anne Evans) had died in 1706 and her daughter , a lifelong Catholic, died unmarried some forty years later, whereupon her property was claimed by a protestant relative on the ground that her heir-at-law was disqualified by his religion from inheriting. 2 1 9 Hussey's" was the Be.nedictines' house (the Bell-tree House), for which see infra., pp. 47-63, 66-7 , 70. 214 P.R.O., F.E.C. 1, P.98/1, ff.7 & 8; S.R.O., Enrolments of Papists' Estates, 1717-88 (printed infra., pp. 99-100); Bath City Archives : Council Book no. 3 (entries dated 26 March 1716 re three Carne properties); also R.E. Peach , A Brief History of the Hospital of St John Baptist, Bath (Bath, 1886): schedule of rentals, 1711 (unpaginated). Edward Newman was one of the witnesses to Francis Carne' s will in January 1720 (P.R.O., Prob. 11/581/177; infra., pp. 100-101). 215 Bath City Archives: MS. "Repertory of Deeds etc. , 1581-1776", nos. 258, 316 , 318,380, 983 , 1275 - 8;R.B.A ., p. 408. For properties adjoining the King's Bath see also Wood, op. cit., p. 214 and the frequently reproduced drawing by T. Johnson dated 1672 (in the works by Smith, James and Gadd mentioned in note 1 to this Introduction) . 216 P.R.O. , F.E.C. 1, P.98/1, ff.7 & 8; S.R.O. , Enrolments of Papists' E'5tates, 1717-88; also E. & P., p. 227. 217 See infra., p. 00 (Francis Carne's will); Warner, History of Bath, p. 213; R.B.A., pp. 57, 402, 404 (birth of John Stibbs, 1677; deaths of his father and himself, 1709, 1732). 218 P.R.O., F.E.C. 1, P.98/1, ff.224; S.R.O., Enrolments of Papists' Estates; E. & P. , p. 229; Davey, pp. 9, 16. For earlier Wells recusants named Evans, see V.CH., Somerset, II, p. 41. 219 P.R.O. , E.182/841 (assessment of Mary Evans at £34. 3s. 9Y4d. towards the £100,000 levy imposed on Catholics in 1722-3; see above, p. 47); S.R.O. , Tythingmen's Presentments of Papists, 1743 (Mary Evans reported as a reputed popish recusant by tythingmen of Dulcot in the Hundred of Wells Forum); S.R.O. , Quarter Sessions Minute Book, 1740-47/8: entry headed "Protestant's Claim", Bridgwater Sessions, 14 July 1747; see also M.D.R. Leys, Catholics in


INTRODUCTION

47

From the small number of estate-enrolments in 1717 and from the papist-return of 1767, disclosing only three Bath-born adults ,2 2 0 it would appear that in the first half of th~ eighteenth century Catholic residents were very few, but there are more plentiful records of Catholic visitors and further evidence of Jacobite activity in which some Catholics were implicated. In 1718 nine suspected persons were arrested in Bath and sent under armed guard to London22 1 and the events of 1722 and 1745 also had local repercussions. The LayerAtterbury flot of 1722 led to the arrest in Bath of the eighth Duke of Norfolk 22 and to the imposition upon Catholics of a special levy of £100,000, Somerset's quota being £916. 8S. 223 In Bath £24. 2s. 2~d. was raised from Catholic property (no doubt the Carnes') in the Abbey parish and £13. Os. 2~d. from St James's parish where stood the Belltree House - a lodging-house, containing a Catholic chapel, administered by the Benedictines - while the Catholics on the rural outskirts of the city, at Weston and Twerton, were assessed at 14s. 2d. and £11. 2s. 3d. respectively? 24 At the time of the 'Forty-five Bath again attracted the attention of the government when informations were lodged against two suspected Jacobites 22 5 and Bishop York, coadjutor to the Vicar-Apostolic of the Western District, had to flee from the city and go into hiding aft er a bogus letter had been delivered to the mayor, purporting to be an expression of gratitude for assistance which Dr York was supposed to have given to the Jacobite cause.2 26 During the eighteenth century increasing numbers of Catholics visited Bath, some of them with a more than sentimental attachment to Jacobitism - for example, the Towneleys, longstanding and longsuffering recusants whose chaplain frequently offered Mass for the Old Pretender and one of whom, Francis Towneley, was executed fo r supporting the 1745 rebellion. 22 7 Another visitor with Jacobite England, 1559-1829 (1961) p. 198, note 3. The Act entitling protestant relatives to claim Catholic estates was 11 and 12 Gul. III, cap. 4, reinforced by 12 Anne, st. 2, cap. 14. 220 See infra., pp. 102, 104. 221 H.M.C., 4th Report, Appendix, p. 366. 222 F. Skeet, Maria Windfreda Francesca Shireburn. eighth Duchess of Norfolk (reprinted from The Stonyhurst Magazine, 1925) p. 8. 223 Journals of the House of Commons, 20, p. 431. See also W.R. Ward, The English Land-Tax in the Eighteenth Century (1953) pp. 69-70; CR.S. Monograph 1, pp. 60-2, and the comments in J.H. Plumb, Sir Robert Walpole, 11(1960) pp. 46,98. 224 P.R.O., E.182/821. 225 P.R.O., S.P.36/73, no. 54; S.P.36/76, no. 128, both printed in S.D.N.Q., 28, pp. 55-8. 226 Downside: Allanson, "Biography", I, pp. 447-50; Oliver, pp. 55-6. The topic of Jacobitism in Bath can be followed-up in the Subject Catalogue relating to Bath and district in the Reference Library, Queen Square, Bath. 227 J. Lofthouse, Lancashire's Old Families (1972) p. 216 & passim.; Mary Elizabeth Towneley: A Memoir (Preface by Archbishop Amigo, 1924) pp. 14-7; J.


48

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

connections was the dowager Lady Seaforth, described by Alexander Pope as "the best neighbour" of his mother at Twickenham,22 8 who stayed at the Bell-tree House for six months in the 1720s; many years later the Benedictine incumbent-cum-Iandlord recorded ruefully that a large part of her bill of over a hundred pounds was still "not yet paid and I am afraid never will be.,,22 9 In Lady Seaforth, as in a number of her contemporaries, attachment to the Stuarts and Catholicism were combined; her parents, the Marquess of Marchioness of Powys, had been devoted adherents of James II, her husband was for a time active in the Jacobite movement and her daughter married into the Carylls, another recusant family strongly committed to the exiled dynasty. 230 The settlement of part of her Bell-tree debt through a "Kennet Mackenzy," who was also a friend and trustee of Francis Carne ,2 3 1 suggests the presence in Bath of a member of her husband's family: his namesake Kenneth Mackenzie who had chambers in Gray's Inn and who married Lady Seaforth's sister, the widowed Lady Carrington. 2 3 2 The growing popularity of Bath in the early eighteenth century is reflected in a letter written in 1706 which mentions the Catholic eighth Duke of Norfolk and the ancient recusant family of Shireburn of Stonyhurst: "The Bath has not been known at any time to be fuller than now it is, the Duke of Norfolk, the Duke of Beaufort, the Duchess of Shrewsbury (the Duke being gone hence ' and left her behind), the Lord Hyde, who is just gone, Lord Grantham, Lord Gore, Lord Granville are the principal quality, with abundance of Ladies. The Duke of Norfolk is said to have a design upon Sir Nich. Sherborne's, of the North, daughter and heir, who is here also, who has upwards of 3,000 1 per annum and red lettered. The Duke lives great both in table and equipage.,,233 As a postscript to this gossip, it should be added that Mary Shireburn married the eighth Duke of Norfolk in 1709. 234 Another notable visitor to Bath in Beau Nash's time was Alexander Doran, London in Jacobite Times (1877) I, p. 222; CR.S., 2, p. 306. The family's earlier history is touched-on in many other works, e.g. F.O. Blundell, Old Catholic Lancashire (3 vols. , 1925-41); J.S. Leatherbarrow, Lancashire Elizabethan Recusants (Chetham Society, New Series, 110); W.R. Trimble, The Catholic Laity in Elizabethan England (Cambridge, Mass. , 1964). 228 The Correspondence of Alexander Pope (ed. G. Sherburn, 1956) II, p. 117. 229 Downside MS. 70 (South Province Book of Contracts) p. 56. Lady Seaforth originally owed ÂŁ108. 13s. 3d. for her stay from October 1724 to April 1725 , of which ÂŁ42. 12s. had been paid. 230 "G.E.C.", Complete Peerage, X, pp. 646-8; XI, p. 584; D.N.B. sub Mackenzie (Seaforth); Marquis of Ruvigny and Raineval, The Jacobite Peerage (1904) p. 162; Sir J.B. Paul, The Scots Peerage (Edinburgh, 1910) VII, p. 511. 231 Downside MS. 70, p. 57; infra., pp. 100-101 (Francis Carne's will). 232 Correspondence of Alexander Pope, III, pp. 30, 39; "G.E.C.", Complete Peerage, III, p. 67. 233 H.M.C., 15th Report, Appendix, Part IV, p. 329.

234 "G.E.C.", Complete Peerage, IX, p. 631. See also CR.S., 4, pp. 258-9; Blundell, Old Catholic Lancashire, II, pp. 117,121; Skeet, op. cit.


INTRODUCTION

49

Pope whose religion did not prevent the Abbey bells from welcoming him and his friends nor disqualify him from being invited to contribute an inscription (markedly unenthusiastic) for an obelisk erected by Nash to commemorate the visit of Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1738.2 35 Two years later the' Duchess of Norfolk revisited the city23 6 and among the many other prominent Catholic families represented in Bath in the first half of the eighteenth century are the Arundells, the Englefields and the Fitzherberts, the Jerninghams, Tichbornes, Lan~ dales and Fairfaxes, the Stapletons, Belsons, Vavasours and Pastons/ 3 some of them revealed through their wills. In 1734 Mary Stapleton, late of York, made her will in Bath,2 38 instructing her son and executor: "I am sure, my dear Jacky, you'll never forget to pray for my poor soul ... Give ÂŁ10 to the Benedictines at Brussels, and what you think proper to the good nuns at Antwerp, Louvain, Cambray and Gravelines." It is unusual to fmd such clear evidence of bequests for "superstitious uses", at that time illegal; normally such instructions were contained in a secret codicil, not admitted to probate, or were worded more guardedly, like the earlier bequest by. a Wiltshire recusant of one hundred pounds "to my friend, Mr. Dowaie", the latter being, no doubt, Douai College where his son had been educated. 2 39 In 1736 John Paston , late of Horton, Gloucestershire, made his will at Bath240 and couched it in terms which leave no doubt as to his religion: "hoping, by the merits and passion of my dear Saviour Jesus Christ, and the intercession of His blessed Mother the Virgin Mary, to be made partaker of His heavenly Kingdom", while ten years later his brother-in-law, Dr Richard Bostock, in his will, expressed his desire to be buried "between eleven and twelve at night" in the Abbey; his 235 R. Carruthers, Life of Alexander Pope (2nd edition, 1857 ) pp. 137-8 ; O. Goldsmith, Life of Richard Nash Esq. (reprinted in Goldsmith's Miscellaneous Works, 1895 edn.) pp. 542-3. 236 E.J. Climenson, Elizabeth Montague . .. Her Correspondence from 1720 to 1761 (1906) I, p. 42; Skeet, op. cit. , p. 10. 237 Gentleman 's Magazine, passim: e.g. 1736 (Langdale, p. 423) , 1737 (Jerningham, p. 371); Davey, passim. For an early eighteenth-century list of Catholic "Persons of Quality", see R.H. 12, pp. 42-8. See also B. Little, Th e Building of Bath (1947) pp. 113-4 for Catholic memorials in Bath Abbey. Catholics often occur among notable visitors whose arrival was announced in the loca.! press, e.g. The Bath Journal, 18 April 1748 ("Arriv'd here : Mr Arundell" ), 21 Nov. 1748 ("Lord Arundel & Lady") , 7 Jan. 1749 ("Lord Clifford & Lady, Sir Harry Inglefield, Mr Fitzherbert"). 238 J.O. Payne, Records of English Catholics of 1715 (1889) p. 80. This was the second wife of Nicholas Stapleton (formerly Errington). She died on 26 April 1735; J. Foster, Pedigrees of County Families of Yorkshire, II (1874 - not paginated, but arranged alphabetically). 239 P.R.O. , Prob. 11/339/77 (will of William Knipe of Semley, Wilts. , 1672). For this family see my article "The Decline of a Recusant Family" in Wilts. Archaeological . .. Magazine, 59, pp. 170-80 ; also CR.S. Monograph 1, passim. 240 F. Brown, Abstracts of Somersetshire Wills, 4th series (1889) pp. 134-5 ; Payne,op. cit., p. 19.


50

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

memorial is noted in the Abbey burial-register. 241 The year of this last will (1746) is that in which the Bell-tree House account book, printed in this volume, begins, though from more fragmentary earlier accounts and from the Abbey registers, cited at the end of this paragraph, it is clear that its character as a lodging-house dated back more than half a century before that, to a period earlier than the Benedictine historian of the Bath mission, Dom l.A . Birdsall, suspected. 242 The Bell-tree House, once St lames's rectory, stood at the corner of Binbury or Bilbury Lane and Beau Street (formerly Cross Bath Street or Bell-tree Lane) opposite the end of Bellot's Hospital, an Elizabethan almshouse founded by Burghley's steward, Thomas Bellot. 243 It was therefore but a few minutes' walk from the Cross Bath, the King's Bath and the Pump Room and Father Birdsall's MS . recalls how "the Bell-tree House was in its day and while it belonged to us much sought after by Visitors for lodgings and these sometimes of the first distinction, as the Duke of Norfolk and others" and how Bath was long "considered the principal Benedictine mission of the South Province,,244 - so much so that by the end of the seventeenth century the Benedictines' association with Bath was sufficiently strong and well-known to rule it out, in the fantasies of a contemporary pamphleteer, as a See for the secular Bishop Giffard in the dreaded event of a Catholic takeover of Anglican dioceses? 4 5 The Benedictines had a house at Bath in Charles II's rei~, during Dom Gregory Mallett's term of office as Provincial (1666-81), 46 and in the 1690s they were paying 241 Brown,op. cit., p. 135; Payne, op. cit., p. 47; Davey, pp. 62-3;R.B.A., pp. 436,474. 242 See supra., p. 48 (Lady Seaforth's account) and note 244 below (Birdsall MS.). 243 R.E. Peach, Historic Houses in Bath, first series (1883) pp. 25-7; Bath Reference Library: Maps and Plans of Bath, 1572-1846. The site is now occupied by the old Technical College building, formerly the Royal United Hospital. See also A.E. Bush & J. Hatton, Thomas Bel/ott (Bath, 1966). 244 Downside MS 252: "History of Acton Burnell and Bath Missions" - actually the history only of the latter, preceded by copies of a few documents relating to Acton BurnelL The Bath section begins on p. 13 and ends on p. 97 (unnumbered) and is based partly on personal recollections and traditions but quite substantially on correspondence and other Benedictine records, notably Downside MSS. 70 and 51 (respectively the South Province Book ofContrar.ts etc., 1717-1826, and S. Province Chapter Book, 1681-1781). Fr. Birdsall's authorship is not stated but internal evidence and handwriting reflect it. These two quotations are from pp. 17 & 14 respectively. 245 Harvard University, Houghton Library (to whom I am grateful for a photocopy) : A Letter to an Honourable Member of Parliament concerning the Great Growth of Popery. . . (Jan. 1700) for which see D. Wing, Short Title Catalogue of English Books, 1641-1700 (New York, 1945-51) III, p. 436. On p. 4 of this broadsheet the writer, "R.W.", avers that "Bp. Gifford is ready to plant at Litchfield or Worcester; for he will not go nearer Bath for old Luellin's sake, who is there already" - a reference to the Benedictine incumbent, Dom Austin Llewellyn, for whom see infra., p . 54. 246 Downside: Allanson, "History", I, p. 528 (list of Benedictine addresses at


INTRODUCTION

51

double land-tax, possibly on this, as Catholics were obliged to do under the Land-Tax Act of 1692.247 Religious orders could not, of course, hold property openly but relied upon lay trustees and for many years the recusant Hussey family of Marnhull, Dorset, acted in this capacity - George Hussey in the 1680s and successive members of the family for a century thereafter. 24 8 The combination of chapel and lodging-house is reflected respectively in John Wood's reference to "a Room in the Parsonage House of Saint James's Church, appropriated for Ages past for Religious Purposes,,24 9 and in burial-entries in the Abbey registers: "Elinor Moore that died at Mr. Hussie's at the Bell-Tree"; "Mrs. Martha Grove, als. Winscomb, from Mr. Hussie's House"; "Mrs. Mary Framton, a stranger, from 'Mr. Hussie's house" ,250 i.e . the unmarried Mary Frampton who died in 1698 and to whose monument in the Abbey a long and laudatory epitaph was contributed by Dryden.2 51 The eighteenth-century enrolments of papists' estates show the Belltree House as being nominally the premises of John Hussey in 1717;2 52 he renewed the lease two years later and again in 1736 253 - the year of his death when, in his will, he left to his son Giles Hussey, the artist, "all the right title interest term and terms of years and benefit and advantage of renewall I now have or am intitled to or shall or may at the time of my decease be inti tIed to in a certain Messuage or Tenement

the time of the Chapter meeting of July-August 1685) and MS. 51 (South Province Chapter Book, 1681-1781) p. 11, starting from back of book, upside down. Bath is not, however, given as the address of a Benedictine missioner at the Chapter meetings of 1666, 1669, 1673, 1677 and 1681 (Allanson,op. cit., I, pp. 403, 449, 458, 476, 493, 511) but by no means every priest's location is recorded. 247 Downside MS. 51 , p. 28. The Act was 3 Gul. & M., cap. 1, section 34. For some evidence of the operation of this tax see eR.S. Monograph 1, pp. 53-5. 248 Bath City Archives: MS. "Repertory of Deeds etc., 1581-1776", no. 662 (21-years lease, 1683); Council Books, e.g. no. 3 (29 June 1702), no. 4 (29 June 1719) and sources cited in notes 250, 252-5. For the Hussey family and the Marnhull mission, see eR.S., 56 , pp. 165-75 and works there cited. Before George Hussey the lessee of the Bell-tree House was John Tucker ("Repertory": lease dated 8 Oct. 1666). 249 Description of Bath (1765 edition) p. 314. 250 R.B.A., pp. 396 (13 March 1700), 392 (9 Oct. 1693), 395 (8 Sept. 1698); also p. 398: "Thomas Kennion from Mr Hussey's" (20 April 1702) already cited supra., p. 45. 251 Davey, p. 15; Britton & Peach, Bath Abbey, pp. 81-2; Dryden, Poetical Works (Globe edition, 1874) p. 359; Poems and Fables of John Dryden (Oxford Standard Authors, 1958) pp. 814-5, etc. For the Framptons, see J. Hutchins, History of Dorset (3rd edn., 1861-3) I, pp. 391-405. They also had property at Biddestone, Wilts., a short distance from Bath (House of Lords MS. 321, c. 66; eR.S. Monograph 1, p. 235). 252 S.R.O., Enrolments of Papists' Estates, 1717-88, printed infra., pp.98-9; P.R.O., F.E.C. 1, P.98/1, f.1; E. & P., p. 227. 253 Bath City Archives: "Repertory", nos. 1327,1692.


52

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

in the City of Bath called the Belltree House. . . ."254 Giles renewed the lease for twenty-one years in 1753 and likewise in 1774.255 However, the Benedictines were the effective occupants of the property; it was they who arranged a mortgage with William Stourton of the Wiltshire recusant family2 56 (another member of which, Botolph Stourton, was staying at the Bell-tree in 1715 257 ) while the 1717 registration, although it naturally makes no mention of Benedictine occupancy, declares the house to be "nowe in the possession of Mrs. Anne Quineo,,2 5 8 - possibly the housekeeper and a relative of Dom Bernard Quyneo O.S.B. who was attached to the Bath mission at about that time and who set about raising subscriptions for the renovation of the Bell-tree House. 2 59 In centring a Catholic mission upon a lodging-house containing a chapel and priests' quarters, the Bath Benedictines resembled the secular clergy and the Jesuits with their two inns at Holywell, another resort much frequented by Catholics. 2 6 0 On the second floor of the Bell-tree House were "a long room set aside for divine worship", with free access for the congregation, and accommodation for the incumbent;261 the chapel was enriched by a bequest from Lady Banks of Murhill, near Winsley, Wilts., a short distance from Bath, who for a time 254 P.R.O. , Prob. 11/679/201; see also Payne, Records of English Catholics, pp. 11-12.

255 Bath City Archives: "Repertory", nos. 2034, 2544. 256 Downside MS. 51, p. 75 and MS. 70 (South Province Book of Contracts etc., 1717-1826) pp.1 0-12: loan of ÂŁ400, paid off by 1729 in four instalments of ÂŁ 100. See also Downside MS. 252, p. 18. The Stourtons had close connections with the Benedictines; Thomas, son of the 11th Lord Stourton, and John, son of the 12th, joined the order and family chaplains were drawn from it (eR.s. Monograph 1, pp. 170-4, 262). 257 C.B.J. , Lord Mowbray, Segrave and Stourton, History of the Noble House of Stourton (2 vols., 1899) p. 1088. The Stourton and Frampton families (see previous paragraph) were linked through the marriage of the Hon. Charles Stourton, son of the 12 th baron, to Catherine Frampton (Noble House of Stourton, pp. 507, 1151). A list of papists in Salisbury diocese in 1706 shows "Bodwell" (Botolph) and William Stourton at Biddestone (Diocesan Record Office, Salisbury: Returns of Papists, Box I). 258 Or perhaps Quindo; see infra. , p. 98. 259 Downside: Allanson, "Biography", I, pp. 358-9 and Birt, p. 87 say that Fr. Quyneo was at Bath in 1711 and became confessor to the Bridgettine nuns at Lisbon in 1714; however J.R. Fletcher, The Story of the English Bridgettines of Syon Abbey (Bristol, 1933) p. 132, gives the latter date as 1717. In Downside MS. 252, pp. 17-18 it is not realised that Fr. Quyneo was a priest. See also eR.s. , 17, p. 458 and CR.S., 9, p. 368 (for a Benedictine nun named Quyno, or Coesneau, related through her mother to the Shireburns). An earlier Bell-tree housekeeper, c. 1707, may have been a Mrs Wheeler (R.BA ., p. 402: reference to "the Bell tree house, Mrs. Wheeler's"). 260 The inns were, respectively, the Cross Keys and Old Star. See D. Attwater, The Catholic Church in Modern Wales (1935) p. 47; also eR.S. , 3, pp. 105-34 and Foley, IV & V, passim. 261 Downside MS. 70, p. 7; MS. 252, p. 21;P.R.O. , S.P.37/20, no. 362 (printed infra., p. 199).


INTRODUCTION

53

had a Benedictine chaplain and whose "Church stuff is now" (1725) "at the Bell-tree house for the use of the Prov'ce, consisting of 3 vestments and antependiums, viz : one of Moehair crimson with silver lace; an other of Purple adorned with open silver lace, the 3rd. of black; a good Albe, Altar-Stone, 2 large Reliquaries of Silver, a Crucifix, two Silver bread boxes, Cartes, tynn Thurible, etc."26 2 That the Mass and other services were conducted with a good deal of ceremony is recalled by one of the congregation who later apostatised but who had earlier been attracted to the Catholic Church "by the pageantry and pomp of her worship, which were constantly exhibited, as much as they could be, in that small chapel." 26 3 The earliest Benedictine missioner so far traced at Bath is Dom Anselm Williams who was there by the summer of 1685 and whose chapel James II may have attended when in the city two years later. 2 64 Dom Anselm received an annual allowance of "about ÂŁ24" for "Dyett and Cloathes", plus a half-yearly payment of thirty shillings, the interest derived from a sum of fifty pounds "put into his hands by several Benefactours to be employed in charitable uses" and bestowed by him upon the Benedictine house in Bath. 26 5 He died in 1693 and henceforth a succession of Benedictines can be traced at the Bell-tree House, while an occasional Jesuit or secular priest is also discoverable in the city. 2 66 Their Bath mission occurs in the deliberations of the Benedictine Provincial Chapter; in 1719 the conditions for letting rooms were revised and in July 1741 the future of the Bell-tree House was the first item on the agenda following the elevation to the episcopate of the 262 Downside MS. 51 , p. 14 (from back of book, upside down). See also V. CH. , Wilts., III, p. 90; CR.S. Monograph 1, pp. 174-5 , 231,245 (correcting Birt, pp. 80, 360). 263 James Smith, The Errors of the Church of Rome Detected (Canterbury, 1777) p. 7. I am very grateful to Dr E. Duffy for this reference. The author had been educated at Lisbon and was chaplain at Cowdray, Sussex, when he apostatised in 1754 (ibid., notes to pp. 1 & 14). For Smith, see also Kirk, p. 212 and W. Croft & J. Gillow, Historical Account of Lisbon College (1902) pp. 253-4. 264 Downside: Allanson, "History", I, p. 528. See also note 246 . A confirmatory entry in Downside MS. 51 , p. 2 (from back) suggests Fr. Williams' presence in Bath in 1686. For the tradition that James II worshipped at the Bell-tree chapel in 1687 see B.W. Kelly, Historical Notes on English Catholic Missions (1907) p. 67 (undocum~nted - probably based on Oliver, pp. 55, 438); J.C. Fowler, The Benedictines in Bath during a Thousand Years (Yeovil, 1895) p. 74. Acknowledgement is here made to this useful sketch, the relevant section of which was also printed inD.R ., Dec. 1895, for various points incorporated into this Introduction, to which specific references are not necessa"rily given. I have failed to find any hard evidence to connect James II with the Bell-tree chapel, e.g. in J.Y. Akerman, Moneys Received and Paid for Secret Services of Charles II and James II (Camden Society, 52); Cal. Treasury Books, 1685-9; CS.P.D. , June 1687 Feb. 1689, but the Bell-tree was a Benedictine house and he did bring with him a Benedictine chaplain (Fr. John Huddleston; see supra. , p. 42). 265 Downside MS. 51, p. 11 (from back). 266 See infra., pp. 72-4, 77-8, for various non-Benedictines in Bath, including French emigre clergy.


54

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

incumbent, Dom Laurence York, who had just been made coa$utor to Bishop Prichard, the Vicar-Apostolic of the Western District. 26 Meanwhile, in the succession of Bell-tree priests beginning with Dom Anselm Williams, the second had been Dom Austin Llewellyn, formerly an Anglican and master of a free school, who had embraced the Catholic faith, entered the Benedictine order and risen to become Provincial of Canterbury (i.e. the Benedictines' southern province) and titular Cathedral Prior of Bath. He had come to Bath in 1693, shortly after the completion of twelve years as Provincial, and remained until his death in 1711. 268 For a time he appears to have had the assistance of a young monk~ Dom John Dakins, who had been ordained at St Gregory's, Douai, in 1695 and who returned to the Continent as an invalid five years later, his health impaired through an infection contracted while visiting the sick in Bath. 2 6 9 In 1711 an entry in the account book of the South Province reads, "Paid to Mr Quyneo for Mr Llewellyn's funeral, ÂŁ8" ,270 which suggests that Dom Bernard Quyneo was in Bath towards the end of Father Austin Llewellyn's life or that he arrived immediately after his death. Three years later Dom William Banester, a relative by marriage of Francis Carne and a beneficiary under his will,271 was stationed at Bath; he remained until his death in 1726 during his fifth year as Provincial of Canterbury, a huge territory comprising the midland and southern counties and the whole of Wales. 2 72 This office no doubt involved him in frequent absences from Bath - he was at Fonthill, Wilts, (then in the hands of the Catholic and Jacobite Cottington family) in 1721 273 - and the Bell-tree chapel was probably served by other Benedictines in the early 1720s; for example Dom John Benedict Cumberlege who mustered four more priests for

267 Downside MS. 70, p. 7; MS. 51, pp. 106, 109; also MS. 252, p. 21. For Bishops Prichard and York, see W. Maziere Brady, Annals of the Catholic Hierarchy (Rome, 1877) and B. Hemphill, The Early Vicars-Apostolic of England (1954). 268 Downside: Allanson, "Biography", I, pp. 289-90; Birt, p. 72. 269 Allanson,op. cit., p. 284; Birt, p. 71. 270 Cited by Allanson, p. 358, note 5. 271 P.R.O., Prob.ll/581/l77: "Item I give to Mr. William Banister, cousingerman to my said dear wife, eight pounds"; also "I give to the poor five pounds to be distributed at the discretion of my said wife and her cousin Banister" (see also infra., pp.lOO-l0l). Dom H. N. Birt, History of Downside School (1902) p.316, following Allanson, "Biography", I, pp. 340-1, note 4, confuses Fr. Banester with the secular priest Edward Taverner, alias John Davis, or Banister, who taught the young Alexander Pope; see CR.S., 30, p. 176, note; Kirk, p. 230; Gillow, I, pp. 122-3; A.C.F. Beales, Education under Penalty (1963) pp. 218-9. 272 Allanson, op. cit., pp. 340; R.B.A., p. 418; Birt, Obit Book, pp. xxix (Canterbury Province), 83 (Banester). 273 Allanson, op. cit., 363, note, reproduces an extract from the South Province Account Book: "Expenses of the new Provincial in going to Fonthill" (1721). See also CR.S. Monograph 1, pp. 175-6, 189.


INTRODUCTION

55

the recital of the office of the dead on Elizabeth Fairfax's anniversary.274 The year of Father Banester's death finds' another Benedictine servinยง the Bath mission: Dom Francis Bruning who remained until 1730. 75 His successor was Dom Laurence York whose subsequent appointment as coadjutor-bishop of the Western Vicariate gave rise to the deliberations of the Provincial Chapter in 1741 when it was resolved to set up "a fund to maintain one of ours who might be an assistant to the incumbent at the Belltree", that an annual statement should be submitted to the Provincial showing receipts and expenditure and that any surplus should be devoted to the Province. 276 A second missioner was sent to Bath, Dom William Ambrose Brown, who was still there at the time of the Chapter Meeting of 1745, though he departed later that year, but the financial affairs of the Bell-tree House continued to be administered by Bishop York who submitted to the Chapter an account of his stewardship during the period 1741-45? 7 7 In the latter year the Bishop, unjustly suspected of Jacobite activities, went into hiding 2 78 and there occurs an obscure interlude when the local Catholics may perhaps have been without a pastor. A supposed Franciscan "William Chapman", believed by Gillow and others to have been in charge of the Bath mission by 1747, is non-existent 279 and the Bell-tree House continued under Benedictine control. It is in October 1746, six months 274 H. Aveling, "The Catholic Recusancy of the Yorkshire Fairfaxes", pt. 3, in R.H., 6, p. 18. Elizabeth, formerly Viscountess Dunbar, wife of the Hon. Charles Gregory Fairfax, died at Bath in April 1721 and was buried in the Abbey (ibid. and Davey, pp. 77-8). Fr. Cumberlege also had some connection with Fonthill (Birt, p. 86). 275 It was he who paid off, in 1729, the final instalment of the mortgage mentioned in note 256, the interest henceforth being payable to him instead of the Stourtons (Downside MS. 70, pp. 10-12; MS. 252, p. 18; Allanson, "Biography", I, p. 411). According to Birt, p. 79, Dom Richard Placid Bruning had died in Bath in 1720 but there seems to be no evidence that he was attached to the Bell-tree mission. 276 Downside MS. 51, pp. 106,109. 277 Downside: Allanson, "History", II, p. 169; "Biography", I, pp. 448-9; Birt. p.100. 278 See supra., p. 47. 279 Gillow, I, p. 237, sub Martha Blount, alludes to a letter to her "dated Bath, June 13,1747, subscribed by William Chapman, apparently the Franciscan Father in charge of the chapel there". B. Boyce, The Benevolent Mall: A Life of Ralph Allen of Bath (Cambridge, Mass., 1967) p. 149 , note 24, also refers to this letter as being "addressed to her by the priest of the Catholic chapel in Bath in 1747". Both may be following R. Carruthers, Life of Alexander Pope (1857) p. 378, note 3, in attributing the letter to "the priest of the Catholic Chapel there" (i.e. Bath) - an attribution for which there are no grounds. The letter, actually dated 13 Jan. 1747-8, is not signed by William but by "W. Chapman" and comparison of the handwriting and signature with those of various members of the prominent Bath family of that name shows it to have been written by Prebendary (of Bristol) Walter Chapman D.D., who became Vicar of Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts. and Master of St John's Hospital, Bath. The original letter is in the Bodleian Library, Oxford (MS. D.D. Blount, as yet unnumbered) and I am grateful to Mrs A. Foster for


56

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

after the final shattering of Stuart hopes at Culloden and after government-pressure on Catholics had been relaxed, that the darkness lifts to reveal Dom Bernard Bradshaw travelling from Lancashire to take charge of the house and mission in Bath. 2 8 0 As soon as he arrived Father Bradshaw commenced a detailed account-book (here printed, pp 00) setting out on alternate pages the names of the lodgers, the lengths of their visits and the amounts of their bills, neatly balanced by opposite pages recording their payments. Following these pairs of pages of "Lodgers' Accounts" come the "House Accdunts", going into considerable detail as to everyday expenditure on the running of the Bell-tree House. In the account-book there appear the names of many leading Catholic families as well as those of a number of priests who stayed at the house. An early entry, "Mr Price's lodgings given gratis", suggests the presence of Dom James Bernard Price O.S.B. , then attached to a Lancashire mission,281 and other Benedictines, likewise not charged for their lodgings, were Fathers Robert Benedict Steare and Roger Joseph Whittel. Fathers Price and Steare laboured mainly in the north,28 2 but Father Whittel spent some years in the south-west as chaplain to a Mr Widdrington "near Bath" perha~s the Hon. William Tempest Widdrington of Easton Grey, Wilts. 83 Father Whittel's predecessor as chaplain, Dom John Anselm locating it and to its owner, J.J. Eyston Es~. for permission to have it photocopied. Signatures on various "W. Chapman' leases, 1732-72, among the Bath city archives are not in the same hand as this letter, but a receipt dated 31 January 1751-2 is; this is among the Bristol Cathedral muniments (Receipt!; for Stipends etc., signed by the Dean and Prebendaries, 1747-51). For facilitating the process of elimination and identification, I am indebted to Mr R. Bryant of Bath City Archives Dept., to Miss M.E. Williams (Bristol City Archivist) and to Mr A. Sabin (Honorary Archivist, Bristol Cathedral). For Prebendary Walter Chapman, see R. Young, Mrs Chap11U1n's Portrait (Bath, 1926) pp. 37-53 , and Felix Farley 's Bristol Journal (obituary in issue of 30 April 1791) in Bristol Reference Library. See also Peach, Brief History of the Hospital of St John Baptist, Bath, p. 35 for a critical view of the Chapmans' Mastership. 280 Downside: Alianson, "Biography", I, p. 459, note 1 (Fr. Bradshaw's travelling-expenses from Lancashire to Bath); eR.S. Monograph 1, pp. 64-5 (Attorney-General's ruling on the treatment of priests, June 1746). 281 The mission was that of Standish, Lancs. (AUanson,"Biography", I, p. 444; Birt, p. 105). See also F.O. Blundell, Old Catholic Lancashire, III (1941) p. 162. The entries relating to Fr. Price are on pp. 108 & 109 of the Account Book (here printed infra., pp. 113-4). 282 For Fr. Price, see previous note; for Fr. Steare, Allanson, "Biography", I, pp. 468-9; Birt, p. 111, both dating his death January 1780 and Allanson adding that l!e was allowed to live out his days at Partington, Yorks., after the apostasy of his young patron, Sir Thomas Gascoigne. This, however, occurred in June 1780 (York Courant, 13 June 1780; Extracts from the "Leeds Mercury" and "Intelligencer" in Thoresby Society, 40, passim.) and the true date of Steare's death appears to have been 18 Jan. 1781, as recorded in The Laity's Directory for 1782 (eR.S., 12, p. 20). For Whittel's and Steare's Bath visits, see Account Book, pp. 114-9 (infra., pp. 118-22). 283 Downside: Allanson, "Biography", I, p. 479. See also eR.S. Monograph 1, pp. 178, 239. Fr. Whittel's visit to Bath, for which the Douay accounts record his


INTRODUCTION

57

Geary, retired many years later to Bath where he scandalised some of his brethren by living comfortably on a handsome annuity of obscure origin until his death in 1795 at the age of eighty-one; to others, however, he was "our Worthy Brother" who, at the request of the South Province in 1778, had advanced five hundred pounds towards the cost of providing a new chapel in Bath. 2 84 The Bell-tree House appears to have been a sizeable building, containing a chapel and schoolroom as well as numerous different rooms; thus when "Mr John Chichester came to the Bell-tree the 26 of October; he had at first two bed-chambers and a dining room at 10 shillings per week each with the room on the back stairs at 7 shillings per week and a garret at 5 shillings per week. Then the second week of his coming had a servants' hall at 5 shillings p. week ...". This was in 1757; in the following January Mrs Chichester had "a room and parlor at 7 shillings per week each, the paper room at 6 shillings and a garret at 5 shillings per week" while a further entry, relating to Mr and Mrs Chichester, refers to "two seven shilling rooms and the paper room ... each with a garret" and to "a servants' hall". There are also references to another (?) dining room, to a "side room" and a "white room", while a maidservant might be accommodated with "the turn-up bed in the parlour". The Hon. Mrs Webb, a longstanding resident, had a room of her own, noted in another document 2 8 5 which also mentions a "great staircase" in addition to the "back stairs" referred-to above , the kitchen, housekeeper's room, red room, study and book room. The last may perhaps have housed a Catholic library for the residents and / or congregation; among receipts recorded on the final page of the accountbook is the sum of ÂŁ4. 3s. 6d. "in book room box". That there was a school on the premises is indicated in a note made by Father Bra~shaw when, as Provincial, he revisited Bath in 1773 , during the incumbency of his successor, Dom John Placid Naylor. Having examined the accounts (which Father Naylor kept less meticulously than he himself had done? 86 and recommended the purchase of "some certain furniture of a more genteel nature", Father Bradshaw advised his confrere "to get rid of the noise and inconveniencies caused by the School, which very unwillingly Mr Naylor had hitherto suffered". Not all charges are as clearly set out as those just quoted ; relatively travelling expenses (Allanson, lac. cit., note 5) may have been an interlude en route to this chaplaincy. 284 Allanson, "Biography", I, p. 503 & note (caustic comment on an annuity left to him in 1784); MS. 70, p. 111; MS. 252, p. 25. Part of Fr. Geary's income comprised ÂŁ40 p.a. from the Benedictine South Province in return for the ÂŁ500 loan. He lived for seventeen years after making the latter ; his death in March 1795 is recorded in R.B.A., p. 477. 285 Archives Nationales, Paris: S.4619, liasse 3 (printed infra. , p. 177). 286 Archives Nationales, Paris, LL 1420 (infra., pp. 137-8). Compare Fr. Naylor's accounts (also in Arch. Nat. , S.4619 , liasse 3;illfra., pp. 172-6) with Fr. Bradshaw's. But the Provincial Chapter had not been happy about the state of affairs when he left (Downside MS. 252, p. 23).


58

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

few entries indicate how many rooms were involved but for hers Mrs Webb paid £1. lOs. a quarter. Another entry (on page 136 of the account-book) reads, "Mrs Martin pleading sickness and distress ... It was agreed that she should only pay five shillings a week and this much out of humanity for her sufferings." Charges might be for lodging or for lodging and "dressing", i.e. preparation of food; a much earlier account, in the 1720s, refers to a charge for "dressing meat" in addition to lodging287 and an entry for 1760 relating to Philip Langdale states "he always eat abroad, so there was no dressing" while on page 135 of the account-book the term "dressing victuals" is used. While the receipts from lodgers show that it was possible for several visitors, in some instances with servants, to be accommodated simultaneously, they also show that weeks could go by with no visitors at all and that in the course of a year only a dozen or so might stay at the Bell-tree House. Some did, however, remain for long periods; for example, Sir Carnaby Haggerston's party who were charged over ninety pounds for twenty-eight weeks in 1748-9,288 plus £15. Os. 9d. "for dressing during the time of their stay". Usually there was modest annual profit, though the last page of the account-book shows that at the time of Father Naylor's departure in 1776 the house was in debt; it was also alleged - though there were conflicting views on this, of which Father Naylor kept a record - that over sixty pounds' worth of repairs and renovations were necessary? 8 9 There appear to have been a number of servants at the Bell-tree House; a Mrs Leech seems to have been housekeeper about the year 1730 290 and some sixteen years later this post was occupied by a Mrs Hothersall who was paid her expenses for travelling from Lancashire and with whom Father Bradshaw left a balance of £30. 18s. 4d. "for my successor Mr Naylor". However, Mrs Hothersall appears to have departed a year or so after Naylor's arrival and to have been replaced by a Mrs Boardman, since there are among the disbursements for 1758 a payment of nine months' wages plus "a gratification" to Mrs Hothersall and, "to Mrs Boardman for her expenses in travelling hither", the sum of five guineas. The House Accounts also include payments to a cook and a chambermaid; an entry "Payd Molly wages, 9s.9d." in the financial year 1747-8 may perhaps refer to the latter. There are, in addition, payments to "a gardiner" and a nurse while an entry, "To Mr Stapleton's man upon the House account," suggests that the servant of 287 Downside MS. 70, p. 57. 288 Four bills totalling £92. 14s. Kirk, p. 109, records (but misdates) the death of a member of this family after leaving Bath for London. 289 Archives Nationales, Paris: S.4619., liasse 3 (builder's estimate printed infra., p.l77);liasse 5, no. 137 (Anthony McHugo's statement, printed infra., pp. 178-80). 290 Downside MS. 51, p. 89 (July 1729 - July 1733): "paid to Mrs. Jane Leech in part of arrears due to her from Mr. Bannister for her service at the Bell Tree House at Bath: £25. 17s. Od." For Fr. Bannister see supra., p. 54 and, for suggestions as to earlier housekeepers, p. 52 & note 259.


INTRODUCTION

59

one of the visitors may have been helping in the house. Many years later Father Naylor refers to "servants" in the plural when he notes, of a departing lodger, Mrs Bearcroft, "no damages paid, which were many, in breaking glasses, plates etc. and nothing alIso given my servants". There are many entries in the House-accounts relating to the maintenance, repair and improvement of the building (payments for 'Joyner's work, sweeping chimneys and whitewashing', for 'setting a boyler, flagging in the kitchen', for 'mending the water pipes' and for an upholsterer's bill) while other disbursements cover food and drink (e.g. 'rice, sugar and raysons', tea, cheese, 100 herrings, 33 lbs of salt fish, two quarter-barrels of beer and two and a half gallons of wine) and the purchase of household articles (mops and brushes , a tablecloth, a double dozen of knives and forks, brass sconces and candlesticks for the parlour, a Turkey carpet, blankets and 42 yards of linen for sheets). The amounts of food and drink and the quantities of cutlery and linen reinforce the view that the house could, when called upon , cater for quite large parties. For forty-five years (1741 -86) the Bell-tree House was the residence of a Catholic bishop with special rooms reserved for him and both Bishop York and Bishop Walmesley appear in the pages of the accountbook, the latter as lodging at the Bell-tree for long periods and as paying an additional ÂŁ1. 7s. Od. "for bringing in strangers" while an entry of four shillings bears the note, "from Mr York, who would absolutely pay for his dinner." Other receipts , over and above those for board and lodging, include various sums "found in church box", Massofferings and a guinea "from Mrs Collings at churching", while outgoings include a donation "to the nuns of Syon House" (not Sion House, Bath, but the Bridgettine convent in Portugal whence an appeal for assistance had come after the Lisbon earthquake of 1755? 9 and personal expenditure such as the purchase of a dictionary, the cost of altering a coat and breeches and of buying a hat, shoes and other articles of clothing, while items connected with the chapel also occur: altar breads, a cassock, an extinguisher for the paschal candle and flowers for the altar. Various payments are mentioned for the hire and keeping of horses and for journeys to places served from Bath: East Harptree, Somerset, and Horton, Glos. Before the establislunent of their own chapel in 1765 a zealous convert family at Shepton Mallet walked the twenty-odd miles to Bristol or to the Bell-tree chapel in Bath to hear Mass - though they, and the Catholics in and around Wells and Glastonbury, may B.M., Add MS. 5821 , p. 90: transcript of appeal, formerly in the hands of Dom John Simpson O.S.B., for whom see infra., p. 70. The appeal is reproduced in T.F. Teversham, History of Sawston, part II (Saws ton, Cambs. , 1947) p. 226 and is interesting in that it is addressed to "the nobility, ladies and gentlemen of our dear country", irrespective of religious belief, and because it studiou sly avoids any mention of nuns, convent etc. See also J.R. Fletcher, The StOIY of the English Bridgettines, p. 137; P. Guilday, English Catholic Refugees all the Continent (1914) p. 61. 291


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CATHOLICISM IN BATH

from time to time have received visits from Jesuit "riding-missioners" under the terms of an ancient endowment. 292 The Pastons' Mass-centre at Horton, linked with Chipping Sodbury, had a congregation of fifty or so in 1767 293 and for some years in the 'seventies there was a resident Benedictine there, but the collapse of the family fortunes and the sale of the estate in 1777 meant the loss of the chapel in the Manor House; the chaplain departed and the congregation diminished, becoming dependent once more on visiting priests - mainly from Bath but for a time from Cheltenham - who said Mass elsewhere in the village. 2 94 Other places served from Bath and mentioned in the mission-register (to be printed in the next volume) are Camerton, Dunkerton, Norton St Philip and Wellow, all in Somerset, and Box and Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts., whence the vicar wrote to the Bishop of Salisbury in 1780 about "the frequent resort of a Romish Priest hither, joined with his zealous efforts to gain proselytes". The vicar was writing shortly after the Gordon Riots - a fearsome experience for the priest and Catholics of Bath 2 95 - and it is not surrrising that he adds, "for the present those efforts have subsided".2 9 These conversions may have been listed in the Bath register destrored, together with most of the Western District archives, in the Riots; 97 however, writing later, Bishop Walmesley refers to pre-1780 visitations in various parts of the 292 Foley, IV, p. 476; D.R., July 1893, pp. 158-9; House of Lords Record Office: Return of Papists, 1767 (Bath & Wells) listing three men, the wives of two of them, five children, a 45 year-old spinster and an unnamed priest, stated erroneously, if he was John Brewer S.J. who founded the Shepton Mallet mission in 1765 - to have been there for five years. Fr. Brewer belonged to the same Lancashire family as Dom John Brewer O.S.B. who was at Bath from 1776 to 1781; see Foley, V. p. 909; VII, p. 87; Birt, p. 133; Oliver, pp. 60, 246-7; infra. , p. 107, note 7. 293 House of Lords Record Office: Return of Papists, 1767 (Diocese of Gloucester) showing 40 at Horton and 4 at Chipping Sodbury. 294 Downside MS. 252, pp. 61-4 (account of Horton mission); also Birt, pp. 127 (Dom James Placid Duviviers, or Waters, at Horton, 1772-7) & 359; Oliver, p. 116; T. Hearne, Reliquae Hearnianae (ed. P. Bliss, 1869) I, p. 275, note ; House of Lords Record Office; Return of Papists, 1780-1 (Gloucester diocese) showing 21 at Horton and 11 at Chipping Sodbury. Horton was eventually absorbed into the mission of Chipping Sodbury, established in 1838; cf. Oliver, pp. 116, 120; B.W. Kelly, Historical Notes on English Catholic Missions (1907) p. 130. For Horton register-entries, see Reg. 1. 295 See infra., pp. 67-9. 296 Salisbury Diocesan Record Office: Returns of Papists, Box 2 : letter dated 27 Sept. 1780 and endorsed "Papists, 27 Septr. 1780, Bradford abt. 20, Winkfield none". The vicar was Prebendary Walter Chapman, mentioned in note 279; see also W.H. Jones & J.E. Jackson, Bradford-on-Avon (1907 edition, Bradford-onAvon) p. 121. 297 Archives Nationales, Paris : S.4619, liasse 5 , no. 126 (printed infra. , p. 178); Clifton Diocesan Archives: Vol. I, no. 27 (Bishop Walmesley's note that "my papers giving an account of these and other things were burnt by the Rioters in Bath, June 9th, 1780"). An unsigned contribution - apparently by Dr George Oliver of Exeter - in The Rambler, 7, p. 516 states that a register destroyed in the riots dated from the reign of James II; see Oliver, Collections, pp. 55,53-8.


INTRODUCTION

61

vicariate 2 9 8 and other Bath events which might have been entered in the missing register may be discoverable from different sources: the marriage of Appollonia Langdale to the Hon. Hugh Clifford,29 9 the baptisms of Anthony Bedingfield and of two future Benedictines (one of them Prior Peter Kendal, the purchaser of the Downside property? 0 0 the Catholic deaths recorded in other documents and inscriptions,3 0 1 the conversions noted in Father Birdsall's MS. account of the Bath mission.3 02 It was during Father Bradshaw's pastorate that there was a spate of conversions in the Bath area (continued, apparently, under his successors)3 0 3 and it was also in his time that the Bell-tree chapel began to be mentioned op,enly in printed Guide for visitors to Bath; this was as early as 1753, nearly forty years before the second Catholic Relief Act officially permitted Catholic worship, and similar announcements continued to be made year by year thereafter.3 04 Throughout the eighteenth century the Bath mission had attracted gifts and bequests from the faithful,3 0 5 illegal though such generosity was, and in 1773 the Benedictine Provincial Chapter ordered that a list of benefactors be displayed in the Bell-tree chapel "that prayers mar be offered for them and Remembrance of them made at the Altar". 0 6 Remembrance by the authorities appears to have occasioned no concern. 298 Clifton Diocesan Archives: 1,27; II (bound in vol. 1),40. CR.S., 4, p. 316 (2 May 1780; entry in Holme-on-Spalding-Moor register). CR.S., 7, p. 209 (Bedingfield baptism, 8 Feb. 1764); Birt, pp. 123 (Dom Thomas Bede Bennet, born at Bath 1723), 130 (Dom Richard Peter Kendal , born at Bath 1758). For Prior Kendal see also Gillow, IV, pp. 11-13; Birt, History of Downside School, p. 151. For baptisms in the 1770s see infra., p. 178. 301 cf. CR.S., 12, passim; Davey; Gentleman 's Magazine; R.B.A., E. & P. p. 192 (death at Bath, 1729, of Sir Francis Fortescue, Bart., of Sawston, not mentioned by Davey); E. Castle (ed.) The Jerningham Letters, 1780-1843 (1896) II , p. 401 (Bath death of Miss Frances Nevill, 1772); CR.S., 7, pp. 201,208,209.229-30. 236 (Bedingfield and Jerningham deaths and burials); Foley, VII, p. 303 (death at Bath of Richard Gillibrand, ex-S.J., 23 March 1774; burial-entry, 26 March , in R.B.A., p. 459); CR.S. , 2, p. 309, note (death at Bath of William Towneley, 2 Feb. 1741). See also J.N. Langston, "The Jerninghams of Painswick" in Trans. Bristol & Gloucs. Archaeological Society, 83, p. 112; R.B.A., pp. 427,445. 302 Downside MS. 252, pp. 64-81. 303 ibid. 304 Bath and Bristol Guide (Bath, 1753) p. 6; also later issues of this Guide, The New Bath Guide (1761 onwards) and The Stranger's Assistant and Guide to Bath (Bath, 1773) p. 47, all in the magnificent collection in Bath Reference Library. The second Catholic Relief Act was 31 Geo. Ill, cap. 32 (1791). In a modern facsimile of the Bath and Bristol Guide, 1755 (Bath. 1969) the Bell-tree announcement is on p. 16. 305 Downside MSS. 70 & 252, passim. (Mrs Frances Grey's bequest, 1718; Lady Webb, 1739; Mrs Segar; Mr Holman; "Mr Bennet", probably Dom Thomas Bede Bennet O.S.B., for whom see Birt, p. 123). See also Fr. Naylor's records of "Pious donations" etc. (infra., pp. 171, 173-6) and note 365. 306 Downside MS. 252, p. 21. 299

300


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CATHOLICISM IN BATH

The incumbent at this time was Dom John Placid Naylor O.S.B., whose temperament appears to have belied his name-in-religion. He spent twenty years in Bath, 3 0 7 making a number of local converts (and, for his pains, and perhaps his personality, being hanged in effigy and pelted in the street at Englishcombe). Father Naylor seems to have been of a somewhat parsimonious and litigious disposition; he was admonished by the Provincial for having "left the furniture at Bath in a sad state of decay", he subsequently tried to evade fulfilling an undertaking to contribute to the establishment of a new chapel and he was for some years at loggerheads with his superiors. 3 0 8 In 1776 he left Bath for Cheam, Surrey, 3 09 and nine years later, following a series of disputes with the Provincial, Dom Bernard Warmoll, the latter insisted on his being removed from the Province. He was thereupon sent to Paris where he acted as chaplain to the English Benedictine nuns, taking with him the Bell-tree account-book which he had retained on leaving Bath and which consequently escaped the destruction which befell the bulk of the Bell-tree archives at the time of the Gordon Riots in 1780. During the French Revolution he was hauled off, sick and limping, to prison and the account book was confiscated by the authorities; hence its presence today among the French national archives: the one substantial pre-1780 source for Bath Catholic history. Father Naylor did not long survive his imprisonment; he was released in December 1794 and died in Paris on 16 January 1795. 3 1 0 Apart from the Bell-tree account-book, the papers of Catholic families record visits to Bath in the second half of the eighteenth century, as well as later, and show that such visitors came both for 307 i.e. from June 1757 to July 1776 (see entries in Bell-tree account-book printed printed in this volume). 308 Downside MS. 252, pp. 79-80 (conversions and repercussions at Englishcombe); Downside: Allanson, "Biography", I, pp. 499-501 (account of Fr. Naylor); Archives Nationales, Paris: S.4619, Ziasse 5, nos. 201 & 91: strongly admonitory letters, reflecting prolonged dissatisfaction, from Dom George Augustine Walker (President-General of the English Benedictine Congregation) to Naylor, 17 & 30 Jan. 1792 respectively, the former referring to "the endless disputes which your attachment to pelf has raised between you and your brethren". His undertaking to contribute to the Bath chapel is printed infra., p. 176. Apparently he made some payment; an undated memorandum in his hand relating to personal possessions, investments etc. during his time in Paris states, "From the above have received sixty pounds and paid the like Sum to Catholic Buildings in Bath" (Arch. Nat., S.4619, liasse 5, no. 29). That Naylor had by no means wholly neglected the furniture and fabric of the Bell-tree House during his long stay in Bath is attested by a local builder, Anthony McHugo, in a statement found among Naylor's papers in Paris and printed infra., pp. 178-80. 309 His impending move to Cheam is mentioned in Arch. Nat., S.4619, liasse 5, no. 158, printed infra., pp. 181-2. For the Cheam registers, containing many entries by Fr. Naylor, see CR.S., 2, pp. 314-37; J.O. Payne, Old English Catholic Missions (1889) pp. xx-xxi, 88-97. 310 CR.S., 9, p. 402: "The worthy Confessor of the Community, Revd. Mr Nayler, forced away even before he was recovered from a fit of sickness, (with Blisters on his legs)"; Downside: Allanson, lac. cit.; Birt, p. 119.


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medical reasons and to enjoy the social life; these two facets are reflected in a letter written in 1759 by Sir Henry Bedingfield - "my state of health being verry bad, I am advised to go to Bath, for which place I sett out tomorrow" - and in a note made half a century later by the wife of Sir Richard, the sixth baronet, alluding to "the nonsense and frivolity of Bath" ,31 1 while between these dates occur the well documented visits of Mrs Anne Fenwick, Mrs Jane Huddleston, Mr and Mrs Windsor Heneage and William Mawhood . Mr Heneage (and his brother John) lodged at the Bell-tree House in the 1750s; he returned to Bath many years later, hoping in vain to benefit from the waters, and after his death his widow more than once visited Bath for her health. 312 Mrs Renwick came at least twice, staying at the Bell-tree House in 1765 and in Milsom Street in 1768 313 and though neither Mrs Huddleston nor Mr Mawhood appears in the pages of the Bell-tree account-book the records of their visits show them participating to the full in activities characteristic of Bath in the 1770s; attending the fashionable outdoor breakfasts, playing cards, sampling Bath buns, being carried in sedan chairs to visit friends or to the theatre , the baths or the Pump Room. Jane Huddleston, of the Cambridgeshire recusant family, spent six weeks in the city in the spring of 1770 and her visit and the expense it involved are faithfully recorded in her journa1. 3 14 Payments included 10s.6d. for the Pumper - the official who leased the Pump Room from the Corporation - and another Is. 6d. "to the woman and Pumper at Cross Bath"; fifteen shillings a week went on lodgings, plus a guinea a week "Board for self and maid", with additional entries of expenditure on tea, sugar, candles and firing, as well as on washing and on apples, cakes and wine, while at the end of her stay Mrs Huddleston paid 1s.6d. for six weeks' hire of a tea-kettle, provided wine for the servants and left sums of money for the cook undermaid and housemaid. There were also donations of a quarter of a guinea "att chapel"; one such was for a collection made at the Bell-tree chapel on behalf of the local hospital. On another occasion she gave 5s. 6d. "to the poor at chapel" and she also records an offering of half a guinea to "to Mr Nailer", the incumbent. Two years later occurred the visit of William Mawhood, the London woollen-draper, a staunch Catholic and friend of Bishop Challoner. His excursion in the Spring of 1772 combined medicine, pleasure and

CR.S., 7, p. 194; E. Castle (ed.) The Jerningham Letters, I, p. 328. Bell-tree account-book, pp.129-31 (infra., pp. 130-3); CR.S., 59 pp. 67, 105. 313 Bell-tree account-book, pp. 134, 135 (infra., pp. 135, 137) and Mrs Fenwick's letters from Bath, 1765-6 and 1768, in the Lancashire County Record Office, Preston (R.C. Hy/B/4). I am most grateful to His Lordship Bishop B.C. Foley of Lancaster for bringing to my notice this material and that cited in the next footnote. See also CR.S. Monograph 1, p. 51 & note 372. 314 Cambridgeshire County Record - Office, Shire Hall, Cambridge : Jane Huddleston's journal for 1770 (entries from 6 April to 22 May). 311

312


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business. 3 15 It was undertaken chiefly because of the poor health of his daughter Dorothy, who took the waters throughout her stay (her father drank them for four days, was "taken very ill" at the theatre and then changed over to castor oil). Like Mrs Huddleston's, his diary reflects something of the atmosphere of Bath in the 1770s. Mr Mawhood, with his wife, daughter and servant, spent their first night at the White Hart, and took lodgings "at Mrs Bird's in the Grove", whence they set out to view the architecture - the newly-completed Circus and Crescent are mentioned - to visit the Abbey, where Mr Mawhood, an enthusiastic musician, 3 1 6 played the organ, and the Pump Room, the old and new Assembly Rooms, the theatre and the Duke of Kingston's Baths, or simply "walked on the Parade". It is clear that there was no lack of entertainment; there were frequent changes of play at the theatre (he saw six different plays in a week), musical performances (including a concert, Handel's oratorio Judas Maccabeus and a rehearsal of the Messiah), balls, a lottery and "a Publick Breakfast at the Lower Rooms". Lady Huntingdon's chapel and the new Octagon chapel3 1 7 were visited and Mass and tenebrae were attended at the Bell-tree chapel. On Easter Sunday the Mawhoods were in the congregation to hear Bishop Walmesley preach at the eight o'clock Mass and after this they went to the Abbey to observe the mayor. A business trip to Frome was also fitted in, as well as a journey to Bristol, where the dockyard and cathedral were much admired and the fashionable Hotwells 3 1 8 visited. The Mawhoods' sojourn in Bath lasted four crowded weeks too crowded, perhaps, for Mr Mawhood himself who, a week before his return to London, wrote feelingly to his daughter Maria that he "would very Gladly Exchange London for this place, neither should I have stayed so long here but for your Sister and the rather ocward affair of travelling back so many Miles by my Self in the precarious situation of my health .... Mr Beaty may well be surprised at my stay in Bath, but my Compliments to him, and let him know it will I believe be sometime before he sees me make another such Excursion".319 He did, however, visit Bath again, fleetingly, in 1787 and appears as a godparent at a baptism in the Catholic chapel? 2 0 315

The Mawhood Diary, ed. E.E. Reynolds (CR.S., 50) pp. 50-4.

316 cf. E.E. Reynolds, "Some Catholic Musicians of the 18th Century" in Biographical Studies (now R.B.) 1, pp. 149-56. 317 Opened 1767, closed 1895 - one of several proprietory chapels in Bath, for which see W.J. Jenkins, "History of the Proprietory Chapels of Bath" (M.A. thesis, Bristol, 1948) chap. 2 & passim; also W. Ison, Georgian Buildings of Bath (1948) pp. 72-3 & plate 23. 318 cf. V. Waite, The Bristol Hotwell (Historical Association, Bristol branch, 1960). 319 CR.S., 50, p. 54. 320 ibid., p. 253 and Reg. 1 (baptismal entry, 22 Dec. 1787). Many of the persons mentioned in this volume occur also in the mission-registers (see next volume and index thereto).


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One sidelights on Catholic life in Bath occur in the family papers of the Arundells and Stonors. From the former comes the echo of an eighteenth-century romance, in the reminiscences of an old secular priest, the Rev. John Smith (or Smyth), as he describes the meeting between Thomas Arundell (second son of the sixth Lord Arundell of Wardour) and the lady he subsequently married:"He thinks he heard Mrs. Arundell declare it was believed that she was the Daughter of a Dr. Beaufort, an eminent Physician in those Days; Dr. Beaufort by his will bequeathed her ÂŁ2,000. Mr. Arundell became acquainted with her at Bath. She was very young and very pretty. Mr. Arundell fell in love with her and, though much older, married her privately - the marriage was kept secret for a long time, and was publicly divulged in consequence of a severe illness with which Mr. Arundell was attacked. Mrs. Arundell was originally a Protestant, but afterwards became a convert to the Catholic faith. With the sum of ÂŁ2,000 bequeathed to her by Dr. Beaufort, she purchased a house, no. 18 Paragon Buildings, Bath, which she devised to Mr. Thomas Arundell, a natural son of her husband's."3 2 1 The younger Thomas Arundell was described as "of Paragon Buildings" when he took, in Bath, the oath laid down in the fIrst Catholic Relief Act (1778);322 he subsequently settled at Bowden Hill, near Chippenham, Wilts., with Mr Smith as his chaplain and was there in 1783 when, reported the Anglican incumbent, "a Priest resides with him, name of Smith", while a report from Wootton Bassett added that Mr Arundell's chaplain paid occasional visits to a Catholic family in that town. 3 23 Thomas Arundell died unmarried in the following year and

321 "Particulars . . . relating to the Honble. Thomas Arundel & Mary Mitchel his wife ... communicated by the Revd. Smith" (MS., Aug. 1814, among the Arundell of Ward our muniments. I am grateful to John Arundell Esq. for permission to see these before they were removed from the muniment room at Wardour Castle). Although this document and various genealogies suggest that Mrs Arundell's maiden name was Mitchell, she appears to have believed herself to be Dr Beaufort's daughter; Arundell muniments: MS. pedigree dated 23 Sept. 1826; J.J. Howard & H.S. Hughes, Genealogical Collections Illustrating the History of the Roman Catholic Families of England, part III, pp. 152, 205; E. Doran Webb (ed.) Notes by the 12th Lord Arundel! of Wardour on the Family History (privately printed, 1916) p. 74. These give Mrs Arundell's Christian name as Ann, as did her epitaph at St Pancras in 1778 (one of many commemorating Catholics, including a eulogistic one of her husband who had died in 1752). See F .T. Cansick, A Collection of Curious and Interesting Epitaphs . . . in the A ncient Church and Burial Grounds of St Pancras (1869) p. 43 (both Arundell inscriptions), also W.E. Brown, St Pancras Open Spaces and Disused Burial Grounds, including a List of Interments of Eminent Persons (2nd edition, revised, 1911); Howard & Hughes, op. cit., p. 178. ~ ~~ Original certificate among Arundell muniments (Box "Recusancy II"). M. Ransome (ed.), Wiltshire Returns to the Bishop's Visitation Queries, 1783 (Wilts. Record Society, 27) pp. 62, 244 . See also V.CH. , Wilts. , III, p. 93 and CR.S. Monograph 1, pp. 117,236 & index (Cruse family).


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was buried in Bath Abbey324 and it was thirty years later that his former chaplain, now seventy-five years of age, recounted the story quoted above. 3 2 5 The Bell-tree accounts record three visits betwen 1759 and 1768 by John Stonor, who subsequently settled in Queen Square, whence he corresponded with his nephew Charles at Stonor, Oxfordshire. 326 His letters contain such typically eighteenth-century passages as "When I was in town I did myself the pleasure of drinking a Dish of Coffee with Mrs Giffard; she had that day been bled for a very bad cold that had teased her much.3 2 7 Other letters, adds the late Dom Julian Stonor in his history of the family, "refer, rather disparagingly to fair ladies on horseback and romantic elopements, one from under his own roof'.3 28 Charles Stonor also spent much time in Bath; he and his family were in the city at the time of the Gordon Riots which made a deep and frightening impression upon the mind of the youngest son, Henry, then aged six, who wrote many years later, "In the dead of night I was obliged to get up hastily and was led by my father to York House, where we all passed the remainder of the night, and early next morning we set off for Stonor, leaving the Catholic Chapel in flames. 3 29 These reminiscences suggest that the Stonors may have been staying at one of the "tenements adjoinin~' which the rioters set on fue after having first attacked the new chapel. 30 This group of buildings reflected the enterprise of Dom Bede Brewer, who had come to Bath in place of Father Naylor and who at once made plans for expansion. In March 1777, fourteen years before the second Catholic Relief Act permitted the existence of Catholic chapels, he was able to publish a long list of subscribers, accompanied by an appeal for further donations which is guardedly worded to avoid any direct mention either of Catholicism or of a new place of worship: "As it is very well known that many inconveniences attend the Belltree House, and that it is found much too small for its usual purposes, it is hoped that the proposal of a subscription for raising a more spacious and convenient building for the same end, will meet with the approbation of the gentlemen, Ladies and others, residing in Bath, as well as of the nobility and gentry in other parts of the Kingdom, most of Doran Webb, lac. cit.; Reg. 1 (entry dated 31 March 1784). i.e. the Rev. John Smith who died in 1817, aged 78, while attached to the Portuguese Embassy in London (Oliver, p. 413; C.R .S., 56, p. 172, note 4). 326 J. Stonor, Stonor, pp. 289,293. 327 ibid., p. 293. 328 ibid. 329 ibid., p. 295. Charles Stonor died in the following year (1781) and his widow married the Catholic lawyer, Thomas Canning of Bath (Stonor, op. cit., p. 296) who was one of the signatories of a protest to Bishop Walmesley against the disciplining of Dom Joseph Wilks in 1791; see Reg. 1, ~ote 1, also B. Ward, The Dawn of the Catholic Revival in England (1909) I, pp. 330-1. 330 Bath Chronicle, 15 June 1780. See also infra., pp. 69,70. 324 325


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whom have, at one time or another, occasion to visit this place.,,3 31 Among those who had already contributed were the Duke of Norfolk and Lords Arundell and Stourton, together with members of many leading Catholic families: Stonor, Vaughan, Dicconson, Hornyold, Meynell, Mannock, Bedingfield and others. These offerings exceeded a thousand pounds; the Benedictine Order gave ÂŁ200 and advanced another ÂŁ758 and a further loan came from Dom John Anselm Geary in return for an annuity from the South Province. 3 32 Thus underwritten, Father Brewer went ahead with his plans, purchasing and renovating three houses in St James's Parade and adding a new building on the adjoining corner, extending down the passage on the west side of St James's burial ground. 33 3 These premises contained a chapel which communicated with Father Brewer's apartments in the neighbouring house. The properties were expected to yield an income in place of the Bell-tree House - partly, at least, from Catholic tenants, one suite being "very elegantly furnished for the occasional residence of Lord Arundell" ! 34 But Provincial Warmoll was no more enthusiastic about this undertaking than his predecessor had been about Father Naylor's alleged economies; the heavy involvement of the Province in such "wild schemes and follies" prompted him to arrange for Father Brewer's removal to a northern mission and for Dom Michael Pembridge to succeed him in Bath. 33 5 However, the changes were completed before Father Brewer's departure and on page 36 of The New Bath Guide for 1780 there is mentioned "an elegant Roman Catholic chapel, lately built, near St James's Parade". This is the only issue of the Guide to refer to it for in the same year, two days before it was to be opened for public worship, the new chapel was so severely damaged in the Gordon Riots that it had to be abandoned and the Bell-tree chapel used again. The grounds for providing more spacious premises - the rapidly rising Catholic population of Bath, with its substantial Irish element 3 36 were doubtless among the reasons for the "no-popery" agitation which wrecked them (another factor may have been the more public nature of the chapel) and, although the local newspapers sought to protect the city's good name by implying that the disturbance was the work of emissaries of the London rioters, this is not borne out by the evidence; 331 Downside MSS., Box 8, document AAI5 , printed infra. , pp. 105-6. 332

ibid., & Downside MS. 252, pp. 25-6. See also note 284.

333 Bath Reference Library: Hunt Collection, vol. 3, p. 8. See frontispiece. 334

Bath Chronicle, 15 June 1780.

335 Downside: Allanson, "Biography", II, p. 134

& note 2. Fr. Brewer subsequently had a distinguished career, becoming President-General of the English Benedictines in 1799; cf. Allans on , II, pp. 133-50; Birt, p. 133; J.e. Almond, History of Ampleforth Abbey (1903) chaps. 26-9; J. McCann & C. Cary-Elwes, Ampleforth and Its Origins (1952) pp. 209-14 , 218-9. 336 See infra., p. 76. Other sources for this paragraph are those listed in note 338.


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the Mayor discounted the suggestion 3 3 7 and the same issues of both papers contain an official appeal (also distributed as a handbill) for information about a man with a patch over one eye who was formerly employed as a milk-carrier in Bath and who was prominent in the disorder. The only incitement from London appears to have been in the scrawls of "No Popery" all over coaches arriving from the capital. Similar slogans were chalked on doors and elsewhere in Bath and bets were laid that the Catholic chapel would be attacked. More conspicuous then the one-eyed milkman - and later hanged as the ringleader (the only local rioter executed, and believed by some to be but a scapegoat) - was a Bath footman, John Butler, employed by Mr Winthrop Baldwin of the Royal Crescent, who, while waiting at table , had heard "some of the Company express himself (sic.) in a Manner which reflected upon the inhabitants of Bath as not having the spirit to imitate those in London" and who, naively distinctive in his blue livery, had ยงathered "a heap of boys" and set out to emulate the London rioters. 3 8 It was in the late afternoon of Friday, 9 June 1780, that Butler had led the way, to the music of a fife and accompanied by a growing and increasingly noisy mob, towards the new chapel. Just before reaching it they encountered Father Brewer who they insulted and followed, using aggressive language. Before they could turn from threats to assault, he broke away and ran for shelter to a shoemaker's in Stall Street but realising that he was exposing the friendly shoemaker (Mr Cottell, a non-Catholic) to the fury of the mob , he ran up Stall Street and through the Abbey Churchyard to the Guildhall, only to be refused admission. Rather than stand on the steps arguing, an easy prey for his pursuers, he dashed into a nearby inn and thence was enabled to escape through a back door and across the river - which assistance was repaid by Catholic patronage of the inn (the White Lion) for many years afterwards. 3 3~ Cheated of their quarry, the mob returned to St James's G. Rude, "The Gordon Riots: A Study of the Rioters and their Victims" (reprinted from Trans. Royal Historical Society, 5th series, VI , 1956) in Paris and London in the 18th Century (1970) p. 291, note 95, citing P.R.O. , S.P.37/21 , ff. "155-6" (actually 125-6, printed infra. , pp. 188-90). 338 Apart from the newspaper account cited in note 340, sources for this and the nex t paragraph are: P.R.O., S.P.37/20 & 21, passim. (printed infra., pp. 184-99); Bath City Archives: Council Book no. 9 (27 June 1780); Downside MS. 252 , pp. 27-31 (accounts by Frs. Brewer, Pembridge and Birdsall); Bath Reference Library: cuttings in volume of miscellanea, "Bath Events etc." , I, pp. 1-7; Bath Journal and Bath Chronicle, 12 & 15 June 1780 respectively; C. Barrett (ed.) Diary and Letters of Madame D'Arblay (Fanny Burney) I (1904) pp. 421-7; H.L. Piozzi (Mrs Thrale), Letters to and from Samuel Johnson (2 vols. , 1788) pp. 146-52. On the reliability of Mrs Thrale's letters, see R.W. Chapman (ed.) The Letters of Samuel Johnson (1952) II, p. 371 , note 5; III , Appendix C. See also R.E. Peach , Historic Houses in Bath and their Associations, first series (1883) p. 26 & note 1 and supra. , note 297 (Bishop Walmesley's memorandum). 339 The inn stood close to the Guildhall, on the spot now occupied by the City Education and Finance Depts. (Bath Reference Library: Photographic Collection, 337


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Parade where a boy broke one of the windows and was reproved by the occupant - perhaps a Catholic - of an adjoining house. A contemporary report, "syndicated" to newspapers outside London ,3 40 traces the escalation of the affair: "a number of People gathered together, took the Boy's Part, and threw the man over a Wall into St James's Church-Yard." Whether he was the gentleman mentioned by Mrs Thrale, of whom the mob declared, "he must be the Pope, because he lodged on St James's Parade, and had a nightgown with gold flowers in it" is not apparent. The newspapers continue, "They then proceeded to demolishing the Windows and Doors, and entering the Chapel, threw everything that was moveable into the Street, and burnt them. While this was transacting a Party of the Bath Volunteers came armed, and endeavoured to disperse the Mob; one of them fired and killed an Ostler. This, instead of having the desired Effect, served only to enrage them still more. They immediately set Fire to the Chapel, which in a short Time was burnt down, together with six or seven newbuilt houses adjoining, the Property of Roman Catholics." Mr Thrale, falsely reputed to be a papist, was thought to be in danger and a number of Catholics, carrying their possessions with them, fled from the city during the night. After removing all that they could lay their hands on (including the clothes, books and papers of Bishop Walmesley) the rioters, like their London counterparts turned to the cellars and emptied the barrels and bottles they found there. The civic authorities, a little bolder than those of the capital, had at least read the Riot Act and sent in the Volunteers but the size and temper of the mob, working, as Fanny Burney put it, "with great composure" and keeping the fires blazing during the night (they had begun about 9 p.m.), decided the Mayor and Corporation to summon reinforcements and when the Queen's Dragoons and the Herefordshire Militia (from Wells and Devizes respectively) converged on Bath early the following morning they were able to see the flames from the high ground surrounding the city. If the majority of the rioters had not already dispersed, the arrival of the troops probably thinned them out and by the Monday (12 June) the Bath Journal was able to report, "By the disposition of the troops and peace officers, everything here is perfectly quiet". It was not only in Bath itself that "no-popery" agitation made itself felt; it also affected the nearby village of Camerton where the convert Coombs family had a chapel in their Meadgate house; however, the mob were dispersed before they . could attack it. 34 1 H.3). There seem to be no grounds for Oliver's mention of the Greyhound Inn in this connection (Collections, p. 57). 340 e.g. General Advertiser and Morning In telligencer, 13 June 1780; York Courant, 20 June 1780. 341 Oliver, pp. 271-2; D .R.; March 1913, pp. 13-14. On the Coombs (or Coombes) family see also J. Skinner, Journal of a Somerset Rector, 1803¡34 (ed. H. _& P. Coombs, Bath, 1971) passim. and Downside MS. 252, pp. 64-76. This


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After the rioting Father Brewer returned to Bath; he was back before the end of June (he performed a baptism on the 27th) and was living at the Bell-tree House in November when further violence was threatened,342 but early in the following year his successor, Father Pembridge, arrived, to be joined in 1784 by John Cuthbert Simpson. 343 Meanwhile the Benedictines (through Thomas Throckmorton, the technical owner of the property) had brought an action against the Hundred of Bath and at Taunton Assizes in March 1781 Judge Perryn awarded them the sum of £3,089. 17s.10~d. in respect of the chapel "and buildings adjoining" with an additional £650 for loss of goods, furnishings etc., plus costs of £941. 3s. 2d. That some of the adjoining accommodation had been let is clear from the fact that part of the compensation (£244) was for loss of rent. 344 The gutted buildings were subsequently sold and another house was acquired on the opposite side of St James's Parade, with a long garden communicating with the rear of a new chapel which the Benedictines later opened in Corn Street. This was in 1786; in the meantime the Bell-tree House continued to be used and it was from here that Father Pembridge's successor, Dom William Jerome Digby, wrote a singular letter to Bishop Walmesley, desiring him to move out: "Mr Digby's respects to Mr Walmesley and begs leave to acquaint his Lordship, that as he is determined upon having no Lodgers in his house at Bath, his Lordship would be pleased to seek out a convenient lodging elsewhere for the month of instant of thereabouts, in case Mr Digby is obliged to remain in the Bell Tree House. But should he happen to remove to St James's Parade his Lordship may be welcome of the Bell-tree upon articles to be settled. It's begged, moreover, that this disclosure of Mr Digby's settled resolution be accepted with the same candour as he presents it.,,34 5 edition of the Rev. John Skinner's journal supersedes the one published in 1930 (ed. H. Coombs & A.N. Bax) covering the period 1822 to 1832 only. Two eminent members of the Coombs family were William, the elder , Grand Vicar of the Western District, and his nephew, William Henry, D.D., who wrote an account of his escape after the closure of Douai College during the French Revolution and who served for many years at Shepton Mallet, Somerset. For both, see C.R.S., 63 , pp. 394-5 and works there cited; also Oliver, pp. 271-4; E. Castle (ed.) The Jerningham Letters, 1780-1843 (1896) I, p. 326, and, for Dr W.H. Coombs, the D.N.B. 342 P.R.O., S.P.37/20, 362 (printed infra. , pp. 198-9); Reg. 1 (baptismal entry). The Bell-tree House was threatened, and evacuated, in the June rioting (P.R.O., S.P.37/21, 68-71, printed infra., pp. 185-8). Fr. Brewer's last register-entry was dated 6 Jan. 1781 (Reg. 1). 343 "Mr Pembridge came to settle at the Bell Tree House, Bath Jany 8. 1781 ... " (Reg. 1); Birt, p. 114; Downside: Allanson, "Biography", I, p. 477. Fr. Simpson was sent to Bath on health-grounds in 1784 and died there in 1785 (Reg. 1: entry for 1 Nov.). 344 Particulars of action from Bath Reference Library: Hunt Collection, III, p. 8, and from Downside MS. 252, pp. 27-31, which shows one of the lodgers to have been a Mrs Porter. 345 Clifton Diocesan Archives: II, no. 24 (copy of Digby's letter, dated 3 Feb.


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Clearly, such a communication must have made for strained relations, if it did not reflect them - which it probably did 34 6 - and the two men did not remain much longer under the same roof, for a month later Bishop Walmesley was writing to his coadjutor, Bishop Sharrock, from his new house in Chapel Row "where I hope to find more happiness". He adds that he had sent a copy of Father Digby's note to the Provincial, "who came directly to Bath, highlr exasperated against Mr Digby; they had a warm debate upon it." 47 The upshot was the removal of the candid Father Digby and his replacement by Dom Joseph Cuthbert Wilks 34 8 - scarcely a lucky exchange in view of the subsequent dispute between Wilks and Walmesley, leading to the former's expulsion from Bath for putting his name to the Catholic Committee's manifesto of 17 February 1791.349 By the time of Wilks's arrival on 3 October 1786 the house in St James's Parade (no . 13, now no. 12) was in use and the change of houses was accompanied by the opening of the new Corn Street chapel, described some years later in a local Guide as follows: "The Roman Catholic Chapel, in Corn Street, is well furnished with seats, has a gallery with commodious pews; a fine altar, with an elegant painting of our Saviour dying on the Cross, over it. Here is Divine Service every Sunday at seven, nine and eleven.,,3 50 For five years Wilks officiated at the Corn Street chapel and for most of this time he had the company of Dom Hugh Jerome Heatley who arrived in 1787 but whose principal duties may have related to the Catholics of the surrounding area, since he was later described as "Resident for the Out-Mission".3 5 1 Upon Wilks's departure Father Pembridge returned to Bath btlt in the Spring 1786, incorporated in a letter from Walmesley to Bishop Gregory Sharrock, 6 March 1786). 346 Downside: Allanson, "Biography", II, p. 162: description of Digby as "superciliously scrupulous and censorious ... long a cause of great concern to his Superiors and of annoyance to those who came in contact with him." 347 Clifton Archives, loco cit. The Provincial was still Dom John Bernard Warmol1 (in office, 1777-1805; Birt, pp. 127,343). 348 Clifton Archives: II, no. 32 (Walmesley to Sharrock, 2 Oct. 1786: "Mr Warmoll has just been here to settle Mr Wilks and soon Mr Digby is to be removed"). For Digby's subsequent movements see Al1anson, loco cit.; Birt, p. 135 and Fr. W. Vincent Smith's Catholic Tyneside (n.d.? pub. Newcastle, 1930) p. 71. See also Reg. 1 (entry for 30 Oct. 1786). 349 Ward, Dawn of the Catholic Revival, passim. 350 Historic and Local New Bath Guide (1802). The building later housed the Bath and Bathforum Free School (Original Bath Guide, 1836, pp. 111-2) and subsequently the People's Mission. The St James's Parade house retained for many years a pane of stained glass above the inner door, depicting St John holding a chalice (Archives at St John's Presbytery, South Parade, Bath: MS. "Chronicle of Catholic History in Bath" by the late Miss C.D. Murray, p. 41 & photograph facing p. 42). 351 Downside: Al1anson, "Biography", I, p. 490; Archives Nationales, Paris: S.4619, liasse 5, no. 26: list of Benedictine addresses, 1789 (penultimate figure of date damaged, but confirmed from other sources; e.g. Al1anson and Birt).


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of 1792 he lost Father Heatley, who died of typhus fever. 3 52 Father Pembridge left later in the same year - though he reappeared, in retirement, towards the turn of the century and died at Bath, aged 82, in 1806 - and Dom Ralph Ainsworth arrived; he remained over twenty years, during which the chapel was transferred from Corn Street to (old) Orchard Street. While the Corn Street chapel was in use the house in St James's Parade continued as the presbytery and here Father Ainsworth was joined by a succession of fellow-Benedictines: Henry Lawson (1793-1800), James Calderbank (1800-1805), John Bede Rigby (1805-6) and John Augustine Birdsall who came in 1806 and departed three years later to foupd the Cheltenham mission. It was in the latter year (1809) that the Bath chapel was transferred to Orchard Street, where Father Ainsworth was rejoined by Father Calderbank, back from Liverpool for a second period in Bath. Apart from the Benedictines attached to the Bath mission, other priests were in the city in the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries as chaplains to Catholic residents or as visitors. The former included the Throckmortons (who employed the Bath architect, John Wood the younger, to build their new house at Buckland in 1757), the Berkeleys of Spetchley at no. 3 Pulteney Street, the Plowdens with a house in Gay Street and the Sheldons and Smythes in Queen Square and the Queen's Parade respectively3 53 - all of them prominent Catholic families among whom private chaplains may have been found. A Jesuit, Father John Musson, was staying at the Bell-tree House (or using it as an acconunodation address) between 1727 and 1734354 and in 1735 a secular priest Robert Bowes, or Lane, died at Bath,3 5 5 while other priest-visitors included the chaplains accompanying Catholic families,3 56 a Franciscan3 57 a Cistercian,3 S 8 various Benedictine 352 Allanson, lac. cit.; Reg. 1 (1792 mortuary list); Clifton Archives, IV, no. 99 (Pemhridge to Bishop Sharrock, 23 June 1791, informing him of his arrival in Bath on 5 May " to supply Mr Cowley's place"). Perhaps Dom William Gregory Cowley of Marlborough had been supplying in Bath for a short time. For him and for the priests mentioned in this paragraph, see Birt and Oliver, passim.; also Reg. 1 & Reg. 2. 3 S3 Davey, p. 94. See also Status Animarum and Easter Duties lists for 1792 (both in Reg. 1) for many more addresses. For Buckland, Berks., see two articles by L. Weaver in Country Life, 15 & 22 May 1915. 354 C.R.S., 13, p. 185; Foley, VII, p. 535; C.R.S., 62, passim. 3S5 C.R.S. , 12, p. 4 ; Oliver, p. 24~; F.J.A. Skeet, The Life of James, 3rd Earl, and of Charles, 5th Earl of Derwentwater (1929) pp. 139-40. 356 C.R.S. Monograph 2, p. 158; infra., p. 137 & note 35 (Fairfaxes of Gilling, Yorks. and their chaplain, Dom Anselm Bolton O.S.B.). 357 Thomas Eccles O.F.M. , staying at the Bell-tree House in 1764; see infra., pp. 135-6; Thaddeus, The Franciscans in England (1898) p. 176. 358 S.R.O. , Q/R. Register of Jesuits and other Religious pursuant to 10 Geo. IV, cap. VII: Fr. J.V. Barber, Cistercian, in Bath (his "usual-residence") in June 1832. This register (1829-32) contains 20 names: Fr. Barber and Dom Ralph Cooper O.S.B. (Bath), 15 for Downside and 3 for Taunton.


INTRODUCTION

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dignitaries and successive Jesuit Provincials, perhaps seeing their confreres who were stationed in the south-west. 3 ~9 Father John Scudamore S.J. was granted twenty pounds from Jesuit funds in December 1774 "for the Distresse -at Bath, etc."3 6 0 and two other Jesuits, Fathers James Jenison and Christopher More were listed as being at "Mr. Porter's" and at "Mr Dalton's" respectively.36 1 The Daltons had moved to Bath, probably with their chaplain (Mrs Dalton's brother} and the Porters had recently returned from the Continent with theirs. 3 1) 2 Fathers Jenison and More were in Bath by 1769 and both died there,3 6 3 as did the latter's elder brother Thomas - last Provincial of the English Jesuits before the supp.-ession of the Society in 1773 who spent the final two years of his life at Bath, where he made his will in 1795. He left the bulk of his estate of over ÂŁ2,000 to his widowed sister, Mrs Bridget Dalton, but legacies also went to another sister, Mary (prioress of the English Augustinian nuns of Bruges, then temporarily exiled in their native land), to his nephew William Dalton and to his nieces Lady Fitzgerald and Teresa Metcalf, widow, both of Bath. 3 64 A The Provincials were Frs. Philip Carteret and Nathaniel Elliott. To the former, Bishop York wrote from Bath in December 1753: "It was a sensible mortification to me that I had not the pleasure of an hour's conversation with you before you left these parts" (Foley, V, p. 165) while the latter's presence in Bath in 1767 (when Ralph Hoskins became a professed Father of the Society of Jesus and Fr. John Scudamore S.J. was paid his expenses for the journey from Bristol to Bath) is reflected in a document in the Jesuit Archives , Farm St., "Old College of St Francis Xavier" (the Jesuit district which included Somerset) pt. III, f.49. For visiting Benedictines, see the Bell-tree account-book, here printed, and notes thereto. 360 Jesuit Archives, loco cit. For Fr. Scudamore, see Oliver, p. 408 ; eR.S. , 3, p. 181; Foley, VII, p. 694. A cryptic entry in the Jesuit accounts for the mid-1770s reads "For treating five Brothers from Bath - ÂŁ1. Is. Od." (Jesuit Archives, loco cit.). 361 Jesuit Archives, Farm St., "Catalogi Varli Provinciae Angliae" (transcripts): lists for the College of St Francis Xavier, 1772, 1773; see also Reg. 1 for Status Anil1U1rum list (1782) showing Fr. Jenison with Mr and Mrs Porter. For this priest see Foley, VII, p. 399; H. Chadwick, St Orner's to Stonyhurst (1962) passim., J. Berkeley, Lulworth and the Welds (Gillingham, Dorset, 1971) passim. , eR .S. Monograph 1, pp. 158-9. For the Daltons, originally of York, see eR.S. Monograph 2, pp. 277-8,283 ("Mr M., reputed priest" , aged 40, at York in 1767),389, where their York chaplain is said to have been Thomas, not Christopher More. The former was born in 1722; the latter in 1729, which comes rather closer to the 1767 report of a priest then aged forty - and Christopher was the D~ltons' chaplain in Bath. For both see Foley, VII, pp. 517 , 520-1 and , for Mrs Dalton, eR.S., 12, p. 62; eR.S., 35 , p. 3; Davey, p. 71. 362 ie. Fr. Jenison (Berkeley, op. cit., p. 190). 363 Jesuit Archives, Farm St., "Catalogue" (St Francis Xavier) 1769, showing both in Bath but not giving actual addresses as the later lists, cited in note 361 , do. Fr. More died in 1781 and Fr. Jenison in 1797 (Foley, VII, pp. 399,517; R.B.A., p. 468; Reg. 1). 364 Jesuit Archives, Farm St., "Old College of St Francis Xavier" , pt. 1, no. 13 (attested copy of will); Foley, VII, p. 521. For Mother Mary Augustina More see C.S. Durrant, A Link Between Flemish Mystics and English Martyrs (1925) pp. 357-411. Lady Fitzgerald and Mrs Teresa Metcalf are among the Catholics taking 359


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later house-chaplaincy, held by an eminent secular priest, William Coombs the elder (Grand Vicar of the Western District), was with the widowed Mrs Sarah Chetwynd who died in 1811 36 and another, perhaps, with a Mrs Hartzinck,366 while Mass was also said at no. 13, Pulteney Street, whence Lady Jerningham wrote on Christmas Day 1808, "We have had Prayers at home, for it is impossible to I,et into the Chapel. I was left last Sunday the whole time on the stairs." 67 Bath Catholicism at this time possessed a vivid eye-witness in the recipient of the letter just quoted, Lady Bedingfield, whose lively comments recall the world of Jane Austen's novels: the marriageable daughters, young officers on leave, imperious elderly ladies, "persons of family, but poor", though some of Lady Bedingfield's comments are more caustic than those Miss Austen would have allowed herself. 3 68 Two of the Misses Ferrars , for example, are described as follows: "the Eldest not Young, very sensible and pleasing; another cracked", while a Miss Wrought on is set down as "the famous Evergreen of Bath; not at all pleasing, but certainly wonderfully well looking for her age". On the whole, though, the remarks are shrewd and quite kindly, as in the case of Mr O'Brien, "an old officer of the Irish Brigade in France, retired at the beginning of the Revolution and married Mrs Weld of Lulworth's sister. He is the most pleasing Elegant old man I ever met with; people find him too slow and formal; I think him quite fascinating", or Mrs Blount, "a little fair crooked lively creature, Sister to Mrs Clifford, much beloved by her family; of course amiable". The comments "sings delightfully" or "a good musician", together with mention of a drawing-master, recall that singing and drawing were accomplishments expected of young ladies in this leisured and genteel world - but others inhabited darker worlds, more shadowy, or even shady, like the ubiquitous and fraudulent Frenchman who posed as, among other thingsj a Franciscan friar and who turns up in Bath early in George Ill's reign, 69 while the note, "attended two sick men in Walcot workhouse" or the death of an aged convert, Thomas Clark, "in his miserthe oath at Bath in 1791. following the second Catholic Relief Act, as is Mrs Bridget Dalton (Bath City Archives, no. 272, printed infra. , pp. 107-9). Fr. Thomas More was at Bath in September 1787 for the christening of Lady Fitzgerald's son (Reg. 1). 365 Mrs Chetwynd left over £300-worth of investments to the Bath Mission, "the Interest ... to be paid to her chaplain Mr Coombes until his death, which happened in 1822" (Downside MS. 252, p. 44). See also Reg. 1 (death-entry) and infra., pp. 205,206 , 223 (Coombs at Mrs Butler's in 1817); also p. 226. 366 See infra. , p. 206 (Baines's Journal, 7 Oct. 1817). 367 E. Castle (ed.) The Jerningham Letters, 1780·1843 (1896) I, p. 331; also p.324. 368 ibid., pp. 325-31: Lady Bedingfield's list of "Acquaintances made at Bath 1808 (when on a visit to my dear father)". Her father was Sir William Jerningham and her mother the Lady Jerningham mentioned in the previous paragraph (ibid., pp. xlv-li, followed by genealogical table). For Miss Wroughton, see Reg. 2, note 1I. 369 Cal. Home Office Papers, 1770·2, pp. 77-8 (he left Bath in March 1767).


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able hut opposite the Red Lion Inn on Odd Down, near Bath" /70 serve as reminders of the darkness outside the social spotlight. The Anglican return for 1767 affords further glimpses of humble papists, as well as of others more prosperous: 3 71 a labourer whose wife is described as a beggar, a "Servant out of place", a pedlar-woman, several laundresses, a nailer and his wife, a barber's apprentice and a spinster who "works at her Needle", while other employments reflect the world whose needs they served: a lodging-house keeper, several tailors and shoemakers, a linen-draper, a musician , a "Perfumer", a "Statuary" and numerous servants. No names are given and no priests are mentioned ,3 72 unless the "Mathematician" in St James's parish (where the Bell-tree House stood) aged forty-eight and resident ten years in Bath is Bishop Walmesley who had attained great eminence in the fields of astronomy and mathematics, belonged to the Royal Society and had been consulted by the government over the reform of the calendar in 1751. By 1767 he was in his forty-sixth year and had in fact arrived in Bath ten years earlier, following his consecration in Rome in December 1756. 373 The late Father Julian Stonor described eighteenth-century Bath as "a veritable Mecca for Catholics"374 and, to the numerous Catholic visitors who had long frequented the expanding city, there was added in the second half of the century a rapidly growing resident element. A striking feature of the 1767 return is that only three adults are shown as Bath-born; of the 165 reported in Bath (with Lyncombe & 370 Baines's Journal, 11 Sept. 1817, printed in this volume, and Nottingham Journal, 5 Nov. 1803. I am grateful to Mr K.M. MacGrath for the latter item. 371 House of Lords Record Office: Bath & Wells return, 1767 (Deanery of Bath, printed infra. , pp.101-5) . The four Bath parishes of Ss. Peter & Paul (the Abbey), St James, Lyncombe & Widcombe and Walcot contained 165 papists out of 383 reported in the whole diocese (House of Lords return; also Lambeth Palace Library, BZ IB/l/l: diocesan total). A fifth Bath parish, St Michael's, omitted from the 1767 return, is stated in another document to have had 25 papists in 1767 and "not so many 1776" (S.R.O., DD/Visitation Records: "Diocese Book", undated, p. 11). In this document and in the 1767 returns small numbers of papists are to be found in rural parishes a short distance from Bath (e.g. Camerton, Freshford, Kelston, Newton St Loe, Norton St Philip) while East and West Harptree, rather farther afield, were debited with nine, all recent arrivals. In Gloucestershire and Wiltshire, places dependent on the Bath mission such as Fairford, Bitton, Horton and Chipping Sodbury (for which see supra., p. 60), Box, Holt and Bradford-on-Avon occur in the House of Lords' returns for the dioceses of Gloucester and Salisbury (also draft of the latter in Salisbury Dio~san Record Office: Returns of Papists, Box 1, tabulated in CR.S. Monograph 1, Appendix m. Altogether the places named above add rather more than a hundred papists to the Bath total of 190, making the Bell-tree clergy responsible for some 300 souls in 1767. 372 No entry appears to represent Father Naylor, then aged 43 and resident ten years (Birt., p. 119). 373 Oliver, p. 429; D.N.B. ; W. Maziere Brady, Annals of the Catholic Hierarchy (Rome, 1877) pp. 298-9, etc. 374 Stonor, A Catholic Sanctuary in the Chi/terns (Newport, Mon, 1951) p. 289.


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Widcombe and Walcot) more than a hundred had come into the city since the start of the decade and almost all the others had arrived at different times in the preceding thirty-odd years. There was a neardoubling of the Catholic population between 1767 and 1781 which again must have owed much to immigration, some of it from Ireland via Cardiff and Bristol; in the early 1780s many Irish surnames occur in the Bell-tree register and by 1785 well over a hundred (more than a quarter of those in the Easter Status Animarum list) were Irish. 3 75 But if increased Catholic settlement was accompanied by a rise in the number of Catholic visitors, this is not reflected in the account-book of the Bell-tree House; possibly Father Naylor's personality and shortcomings in the quality of the accommodation during his stewardship (I757-76) may have had something to do with this. 3 76 The Anglican return of papists for 1780-81, which gives 373 for Bath and Walcot and only another 175 in the rest of the diocese, provides no particulars of individuals though it mentions a Catholic school, no longer in the Bell-tree House but at Walcot "where, besides the Children of Popish Parents, there are several Protestant Children, and in particular one Family of Anabaptists and one of Quakers" ,377 but from that point onwards ample information is to be found in the mission-registers though a further cross-section is provided by the records of those who took the oath required by the second Catholic Relief Act in 1791. 378 It is noteworthy, however, that less than fifty persons took the oath - a very small proportion of those eligible, i.e. Catholic adults. 3 79 Those who did take it included Bishop Walmesley and Father Heatley, several esquires and gentlemen with their wives, a surgeon (William Day of Westgate Buildings), three tailors, a languagemaster, a lodging-house keeper, a "victualler" (James Murphy of "The Prince of Wales") ,3 8 0 the wife of a chairman (an occupation popular among Irishmen) and two builders, Giles Hall and William Robinson 3 81 For 1767 & 1781 figures, see notes 371 & 402; for register data, Reg. l. See supra., p. 62 (Fr. Naylor) and infra., pp. 113-72 (account-book). 377 House of Lords Record Office: Bath & Wells return, 1780-81. An Irish Catholic schoolmaster named Allen occurs in the 1792 Easter duties list (Reg. 1). 378 Bath City Archives, no. 272; S.R.O., Papists' Oaths, 1791-1809. See also infra., pp. 107-9. An earlier oath-roll, following the Catholic Relief Act of 1778, contains no Bath names (S.R.O., Papists' Oaths of Allegiance etc., 1778-85). Three Somerset names (Ann and William Hippisly of Shepton Mallet and John Beaumont of Ston Easton) occur among those taking the 1778 oath at Warminster, Wilts. (Original in Wilts. County Record Office, Trowbridge; printed in CR.S. Monograph 1, p. 248). For a claim that Bath Catholics did take the 1778 oath, see infra., p. 199, and, for one who certainly did (Thomas Arundell of the Paragon), supra. , p. 65. 379 Compare list of oath-takers (printed infra., pp. 107-9) with 1785 Status Animarum list in Reg. 1. 380 Messrs. Day's and Murphy's addresses are given in the Bath section of The Universal British Directory for 1791, pp. 96, 105. 381 The latter of Westgate Buildings (ibid., p. 107), the former shown in the 375 376


INTRODUCTION

77

as well as the Rev. William Coombs of Meadgate in the outlying parish of Camerton and two gentleman named Thomas Day 3 also from outside the city, one of Englishcombe, the other of Forscote. 82 In the mission-registers many prominent recusant families are represented: Fitzherbert, Throckmorton, Langdale, Plowden Smythe, Mannock, Saltmarsh, Stonor and Vaughan, most of them resident members of the Bath congregation as reflected in the Status Animarum lists. 3 83 The latter also record the presence of a number of Italians, of "ledoull French Man",384 a German clockmaker, "Black Hopperkin" (perhaps an African servant, possibly acquired in Bristol) and an unnamed muffin-man - one of the hundred-and-more Irish already mentioned whose' settlement in Bath implies a substantial influx long before the mass-immigration which followed the potato-famines of the 1840s. The Irish element was reinforced temporarily by a French as, towards the turn of the century, emigres from the Revolution arrived in the city. In October and November 1792 the Bath Chronicle printed appeals for aid for the refugee clergy, to his house in Bath the Catholic Thomas Hugh Clifford, later awarded a baronetcy at the request of Louis XVIII, welcomed many of the emigres;3 85 the ladies of Bath responded generously to an appeal on behalf of French ladies in London 3 86 and Bath became the home of a number of their compatriots who seem not to have lacked pastors of their own nationality. There are entries by various French clerics in the first register; several aยงed emigre priests died in the city in the 1820s and 'thirties;3 7 nearby, at Downside, there was a former Maurist monk oaths' list (infra., p. 109) as of Walcot. Builders named Robinson and Hall were earlier employed on repairs etc. at the Bell-tree House; see statement by Anthony McHugo, printed infra., pp. 178-80. 382 S.R.O., Papists' Oaths, 1791-1809 (both Thomas Days) printed infra., pp. 108-9. The Days of Englishcombe are mentioned in J . Skinner, Journal of a Somerset Rector, 1803-34 (ed. H. & P. Coombs, Bath, 1971) passim., where (p. 282) the chapel in the Coombses' house was said to be attended by Hannah Heal and by the family of Mr Day of "Anglesbatch", father of Samuel Day who rented Carner ton Home Farm, "Samuel officiating as a kind of clerk ... making all the responses for the Priest, in Latin". Forscote (or Foxcote), the home of the other Thomas Day, is midway between Bath and Frome; cf. J.S. Hill, Place Names of Somerset (Bristol, 1914) p. 184. 383 See next volume. 384 In the baptismal register of Bath Abbey (R.B.A., p. 178) with no counterpart in the Catholic register is the following entry (2 March' 1785): "James, son of James & Ann Jadoul". 385 Country Life, 26 Jan. 1907, pp. 130-2. In 1821 he inherited Burton Constable, Yorks. (East Riding). 386 M. Weiner, The French Exiles, 1789-1815 (1960) p. 104. 387 See CR.S., 12 (obituaries) pp. 170, 197,201,227. In Reg. 1 is recorded the death of Antony Chemite, a French priest (17 Oct. 1806) and in 1793 another priest, Jean Marie Mancel, had died at Bath (not in register but cf. The Genealogist, New Series, 9, p. 111) as had Maurice de Kermel in 1803 according to F.X. Plasse, Le Clerge Francais Refugie en Angleterre (Paris, 1886) p. 418, but not Romain Dessaux (Plasse, p. 412, corrected by CR.S., 56, p. 173, note 7).


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who joined the English Benedictines 3 8 8 and other local emigres included the Abbe Beylot who projected a boarding school for deaf and dumb children on the lines of "the celebrated establishment for the instruction of the deaf and dumb at Paris,,3 89 and the schismatic Abbe Blanchard who was living at Bath in 1823. 390 In 1803 Bishop Sharrock, who had succeeded Walmesley six years earlier and who occurs somewhat forbiddingly in a local Guide as "the Revd . Dr. Shark" ,391 submitted to Rome a report which showed that there were then sixteen French priests in the Western Vicariate and in 1808 Lady Bedingfield, in her list of "Acquaintances made at Bath", mentioned several emigres, including the Abbe Dourlians, "a Clever and Pious Priest with the Gout", who said Mass and preached in French at her father's house where his compatriots were welcome among the congregation.3 9 3 Lady Bedingfield also noted that Bishop Sharrock, by then sixtyseven years of age, was "in a very declinpng State, with a Paralytic affection of his tongue and a sore leg".3 9 By June 1808 the bishop could no longer say Mass and could scarcely write and in October of the following year he died at Bath. 3 9 5 His health had been poor for some years before his death and in 1807 he had secured the assistance as coadjutor of a Franciscan, Peter Bernardine Collingridge, who succeeded him as Vicar-Apostolic. 3 96 He too suffered from indifferent health; as early as 1812 he had sought ot have a coadjutor appointed to help him and a fellow-Franciscan, Francis McDonnell, was chosen by Rome but could not be prevailed upon to accept 39 7 and Bishop Collingridge had to call upon his friend Bishop Poynter of the London District to perform ordinations for him; however in 1823 Peter Augustine Baines of Bath was consecrated as his coadjutor and, on Collingrid~e's death in March 1829, Baines succeeded him as VicarApostolic. 98 Bishop Collingridge had not lived at Bath but his 388 Joseph Martin Leveaux; cf. Birt, p. 316. 389 A.A.W., vol. 46 (Bishop Douglass's papers, 1795-6) no. 81 : Beylot's letter, 25 Aug. 1795, kindly communicated by Mr E.S. Worrall; also Laity's Directory for 1796 (only) pp. 42-3. 390 with Abbe Ie Cordiere; B. Ward, The Eve of Catholic Emancipation (1911) II, p. 229. 391 Historic and Local New Bath Guide, 1802, p. 52. 392 Brady, op. cit., p. 304. Ten years later 14 were reported (ibid., p. 310). 393 Jemingham Letters, p. 326; also p. 324. The house was no. 13 Pulteney Street, mentioned supra., p. 00. For the Abbe Dourlians, see also Oliver, p. 287 and index. 394 Jemingham Letters, p. 326, wrongly giving Sharrock's age as 70. 395 Brady,op. cit., p. 305; Reg. 1 (mortuary entry). 396 Brady, loco cit.; J.B. Dockery, Co[[ingridge (Newport, Mon., 1954) passim. 397 See Dockery, op. cit. , chap. 4, Brady, op. cit., pp. 306-7; also J. McLoughlin, "Charles Francis McDonnell O.F .M." in Essex Recusant, 14, no. 1. 398 Brady, op. cit. , pp. 311-2.


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successor, after some time at Bathampton, spent all but the first eight montJIs of his tempestuous episcopate at Prior Park,3 99 whence he made his presence felt in the city as well as enlivening the wider Catholic world. 400 Under Bishops Walmesley, Sharrock, Collingridge and Baines the Catholic population of the Western District appears to have risen considerably - from just under 4,000 in 1773 to over 24,000 in 1839-40401 - but appearances may be deceptive and whereas, the earlier figure, five years before the first Relief Act, probably connotes mainly committed Catholics, practising their religion as far as they were able, the later estimate may include more non-practising than practising Catholics (in the total of 24,580 there were but 7,976 Easter communicants). During roughly the same period the Bath Catholic body expanded from about 200 in 1767 to 400 or so in the 1780s and to 500-odd in 1813,402 followed (on paper) by a leap to 1,348 (including 220 converts) in 1830 and to 1,800 in 183940, of whom 570 were Easter communicants (i.e. aged 13 or over) though its social composition altered somewhat with the fall in the number of visitors following the Peace in 1815 and with the de~arture of some of the leading resident families in the ensuing decade. 4 3 Increasing Catholic population - not, however, keeping pace with the rise in Bath's population as a whole404 - is reflected in the 399 For Collingridge's residences (Cannington, Chepstow, Taunton, Bristol and Clifton) see Thaddeus, The Franciscans in England (1898) pp. 215-6; Dockery, op. cit., passim. Baines lived at Bathampton before and after his visit to Rome from 1826 to 1829; cf. Bath Directory, 1826, p. 67; J.S. Roche, History of Prior Park (1931) pp. 62, 76; H.N. Birt, Downside (1902) p. 200. 400 See "Postscript" to this Introduction (i~fra., pp. 00-00). 401 Brady,op. cit., pp. 301, 318; also 311 & 312 for intermediate estimates (c. 5,500 in 1815, c. 12,000 in 1826). For a critical examination and amplification of the 1773 returns as printed by Brady - not, however, impugning the accuracy of the Western Vicariate figures - see J.H. Whyte, "The Vicars Apostolics' Returns of 1773" in R.H., 9, pp. 204-5. 402 165 in the four parishes in the 1767 return (printed infra., pp. 00) plus 25 in St Michael's parish (see note 371); 373 in 1781 (House of Lords Record Office: Return of Papists, Diocese of Bath & Wells); over 400 in 1785 (Status Animarum list in Reg. 1). The figure for 1813 is from Brady, op. cit., p. 308. 403 Downside MS. 59: "Bath, 1831-43" (unpaginated); St John's Presbytery, Bath: Archives, I, no. 7 (summary of 1830 "census", showing 353 under 14 years of age, 465 between 14 & 30 years and 530 aged over thirty in "the City and its environs"); Brady, op. cit., p. 315 (1839-40 estimates); J. Hickey, Urban Catholics (1967) pp. 91-2 (Cardiff Easter-duties figures and comments thereon). The falling-off of visitors and the removal of "many good families" are mentioned in Downside MS. 252, pp. 14,52,54. 404 Peach, Historic Houses in Bath, 1st series, p. xiv, estimates the population of Bath at nine thousand in the mid-18th century. The census figures for the fust half of the 19th century (Bath Reference Library card-index) are: 1801 : 33,196 1831 : 50,800 1811 : 38,408 1841 : 53,206 1821 : 46,700 1851 : 54,254 (Peach,op. cit., p. 158 gives some slightly different figures).


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numbers of baptisms recorded in the first two registers, averaging approximately sixteen per annum in the 1780s, twenty-four in the 'nineties, 32 in the first decade of the 19th century, nearly 40 in the second and over 60 in the half-decade with which the second register ends (1820-24 inclusive). The very few illegitimate births and the short interval between birth and baptism seem to indicate a fair level of Catholic practice, but the two high totals for the 1830s were probably calculated on a different basis from the earlier onces (which correspond roughly with the Status Animarum lists in the first register) and doubtless include many lukewarm or merely nominal Catholics. The Easter communicants figure for 183940 indicates this, as, characteristically, does the 1851 religious census (after the Irish Famine-exodus, with well over 600 Bath inhabitants of Irish birth) reporting only some 520 as the combined congregations of the two chapels.4o 5 Meanwhile the expansion of Bath - to some extent due to the difficulties of continental travel during the French Wars - had prompted a Catholic visitor to comment in 1809, "Bath is so encreased in size that most People have Coaches who formerly went in Chairs,,4 0 6 and in that year Father Ainsworth secured more convenient and impressive premises for the mission, providing a chapel, schools and apartments for letting (Baines added a presbytery later) on a single site. As in the days of the Bell-tree House and its short-lived successor, rents from tenants (both here and in the St James's Parade house) formed a staple element in the mission-income. The new premises, in Orchard Street (pierrepont Place), formerly occupied by the theatre ,4 07 stood initially in the names of lay trustees, including Sir Thomas Throckmorton, Francis Constable and Thomas, later Cardinal Weld, but subsequently (from shortly before the Emancipation year of 1829) in the names of the Benedictines themselves.4 0 8 While a place of enterP.R.O., H.O.129/326/3, no. 6 (congregation of c. 400 at the "Principal Catholic Chapel", i.e. Orchard Street); H.O.129/326/6, no. 9 (Brunswick Place chapel: congregation 120). The former chapel was the predecessor of St John's, South Parade; the latter of St Mary's, Julian Road. The total of 645 for Bath, printed by P. Hughes, "The English Catholics in 1850" in The English Catholics, 1850-1950 (ed. A. Beck, 1950) p. 80, is misleading as it relates not to the two city chapels but to the three in the Bath registration-district which included Prior Park with a congregation of c. 120 (p.R.O., H.O.129/326/4, no. 10). In the 1839-40 return Prior Park is not counted in the Bath total of 1,800 but is enumerated separately with 210 Catholics (Brady, loco cit.). There were 678 persons of Irish birth in the Bath registration-district in 1851 (Hughes,loc. cit.). A very handy guide to this census has been provided by Mr P.F. Coverdale, Some Notes on the 1851 Religious Census With a Summary of the Roman Catholic Returns (privately circulated, 1966). 406 Jerningham Letters, I, p. 332. 407 For the theatre, see Penley, The Bath Stage, chaps. 5-15. 408 Downside MS. 252, pp. 36-7, supplemented by an undated MS. (after 1830 and not later than 1837, the year of Birdsall's death), partly in the hand of Dom J.A. Birdsall O.S.B., now in Birmingham Archdiocesan Archives, kindly made available by the Archivist, Father J.D. McEvilly. A recent study containing much 405


INTRODUCTION

81

tainment now became a Catholic chapel, the former chapel became for a time a place of entertainment, a circus being held "at the commodious building in Corn Street, late the Roman Catholic Chapel", soon after Father Ainsworth had given it Up.4 0 9 The new chapel, dedicated to St John the Evangelist and shortly to echo to the strains of an Agnus Dei sung by the celebrated Madame Catalini,4 10 was soon accompanied by rust a girls' school and then another for boys.4 11 Among the teachers in these early days of Catholic education in Bath were the Misses Dixon and Deverall and Messrs. Langley (a convert), Jenkins and Spencer.412 The schools were administered by two committees which rented from the mission the schoolrooms and the rooms tenanted by the master and mistress, the fortner receiving the use of another room rent-free in return for "writing accounts, giving instruction, looking after the poor etc."4 13 In 1814 Father Ainsworth died and was buried in the vaults below the chapel4 14 and Father Calderbank succeeded him as principal missioner until 1817. As assistants he had Dom Clement Rishton, followed by Dom Thomas Augustine Rolling (the former having become Prior of Ampleforth, whence he corresponded with a Bath governess he had converted and whom he sllbsequently married)4 15 then in the late summer of 1817 a double change took place with the arrival from Ampleforth of Peter Augt!stine Baines, followed some six weeks later by Dom Thomas Brindle.4 16 Baines soon showed that dissatisfaction with the existing state of things and that desire to introduce on Cardinal Weld is J. Berkeley, Lulworth and the Welds (Gillingham, Dorset, 1971). 409 Bath Chronicle, 3 Dec. 1809, cited by Miss C.D. Murray, "A Chronicle of Catholic History in Bath" (typescript at St Jo1m's Presbytery) p. 44, note 2. 410 Bath Chronicle, 3 Dec. 1809. Madame Catalini was among the Bath acquaintances of Lady Bedingfield who found her " a most interesting Woman, pensive and naive. Her husband an ugly Frenchman, vulgar." (Jerningham Letters, I, p. 329). See also Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians (5th edition, ed. E. Blom, 1954) II, pp. 119-20. 411 St Jo1m's Presbytery, Bath: Dom A.F. Fleming's MS. collections, "The Benedictine Mission of Bath", p. 243 (girls' school opened 1812; boys' 1815). In the opening years of the nineteenth century there appears to have been no Catholic school in Bath (D.R., July 1880, pA). 412 Fleming, loco cit.; CR.S., 12, p. 147: death on 6 March 1820 of "Mr. Benjamin Lan~ey, for 5 years the respected Master of the Catholic poor Boys School in Bath '. See also Reg. 2 (list of converts). 413 Downside MS. 252, p. 51. 414 Oliver, p. 228 (memorial inscription). 415 Birt, pp. 140, 155. Birt does not mention Rishton's marriage; Allanson does (Downside : "Biography", II, pp. 244-5). Rishton left his wife and resumed missionary duty, rejoined her and ran a school in London, left her again and eventually went on the South African mission. He died at Ampleforth in 1836. 416 Baines's fust entry is dated 6 August 1817 and Rolling's last, 10 August. Brindle arrived in Bath on 18 Sept. 1817 (entry of that date in Baines' s Journal, here printed).


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changes which characterised his later career as bishop; he was very much a 'new broom' and in a letter to the Provincial he described the situation as he found it: "When I came to Bath in 1817 I found it necessary to incur great expences not only in the Chapel but in all the houses and tenements belonging to it, which had been much neglected and some of which were in a state of complete dilapidation. The house now occupied by Mrs Hippisley was let to the School Committee and underlet by the tenant to a number of beggars etc. in separate apartments for 2s. and half a crown a week. The rooms adjoining and over the chapel were tenanted in the same manner and also by the Society for the Relief of Mendicants. The house in St James's Parade had been neglected for years and repairs were demanded and justly by the tenant. All these premises have been put into good repair inside and out, and a more respectable kind of tenant introduced".4 7 Baines purchased "a great number of articles in the way of chapel furniture and accommodation",4 1 8 with the result that a local Guide was able to proclaim, "of late years, considerable additions and ornamental improvements have taken place in this chapel.,,4 1 9 There were already "an excellent organ and a brilliant choir,,4 20 while Baines's sermons, the preparation and delivery of which are reflected in his journal, must have been an added attraction. Cardinal Wiseman, who thought that Baines "was happiest in his unwritten discourses", adds that "he was considered by all that heard him one of the most eloquent and earnest preachers they had ever attended,,42 1 and a less friendly witness, the Anglican rector of Camerton, also testifies to Baines's prowess in this direction,42 2 though another listener suggests that the effect of his sermons was somewhat impaired "by the preacher being moved to tears before his auditors were affected".4 23 Baines was in demand as a visiting preacher and among his journeys in that capacity during his first year in Bath was one to Liverpool for the opening of the extended Seel Street chapel, the incumbent of which, Dom Gregory Robinson, formerly a naval surgeon, was a native of Bath and was later to align himself with Baines in the latter's dispute with his brethren. 4 24 Downside MS. 252, pp. 49-52: Baines to Birdsall, 9 April 1823 (transcript). See also notes 429 & 430. 418 Downside MS. 252, p. 49. 419 Original Bath Guide, 1825, pp. 70-71. 420 Original Bath Guide, 1811 , p. 55. Similar remarks occur in other issues for over twen ty years. 421 Recollections of Rome (1936 edition) p. 113. 422 J. Skinner, Journal of a Somerset Rector, 1803¡34 (ed. H. & P. Coombs, Bath, 1971) p. 237. 423 T.L. Almond, " Prior Park" in D.R., Dec. 1898, p. 257. 424 Baines's Journal, 13-23 Oct. & 24 Nov. - 6 Dec. 1817 (here printed). See also T. Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool (Liverpool, 1910) p. 35; B.W. Kelly, Historical Notes on English Catholic Missions (1907) p. 256; Birt, p. 141; Downside: Allanson, "Biography", II, pp. 241-7; T.E. Gibson, Lydiate Hall and Its Associations (1876) pp. 140-2. 417


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Although his journal has nothing to say of Baines's thoughts or of his devotional life, it does reflect quite vividly the very busy existence of a conscientious, enterprising and gregarious mission-priest, so fully occupied with his new responsibilities (which included an extraordinary amount of time in the confessional) that he is driven ruefully and repeatedly to admit "read nothing". Shortly after his arrival he examined the vaults beneath the chapel, which contain memorials to Catholics who died in Bath, and an early entry in his journal reads, "Buried an infant of Mrs Strutter of the North Parade in the vaults ... "425 Baines's plans for improving the chapel-premises were set out in a printed address in which he appealed for donations. The Bath chapel, like others 'at that time, was administered by lay-trustees elected by the congregation, who managed the financial affairs of the mission and one of them at least was moved to protest; however, the opposition was overborne and by July 1818 Baines had contracted with a builder to carry out extensive alterations costing over eight hundred pounds, and the final item in his journal is: "The canvas began to be fastened up on which the painting behind the altar is to be made by O'Neil".4 26 It is perhaps noteworthy that, as in the old days of the Bell-tree chapel, a collection continued to be made for the local hospital; Baines records "A collection in the chapel for the general hospital: ÂŁ19. 2s. 6d" in 1818 and his colleague, Dr Brindle, in a letter to the Benedictine President-General eight years later, mentions collections during the year "for the Bath hospital" and "for the Bath dispensary" .427 Among the alterations carried out during Baines's term as principal missioner were the installation of the school in two rooms above the chapel and, as has been mentioned, a change in the tenancy of other mission-property.428 For the schoolrooms and the living accommodation of the master and mistress the School Commitee paid ÂŁ55 per annum, the old Corn Street chapel was let on a fifty years' lease at 50 guineas per annum and another 40 guineas came from the letting of the 425 The late Miss C.D. Murray's "Chronicle of Catholic History in Bath" (St John's Presbytery, typescript) includes a not-quite-complete list of memorial tablets (1811-50) in the vaults beneath what is now a masonic hall. Catholic chapels were also taken over as masonic halls in York and Newcastle (CR.S. Monograph 2, p. 387). For burials under the old Bath chapel see also Davey, p. 99, CR.S. , 12, p. 243; Gillow, IV, p. 407, and Reg. 2, note 48. Not all such interments were marked by tablets, nor does the presence of a tablet necessarily mean that the person so commemorated died in Bath; a case in point is Fr. Calderbank, long a missioner in Bath, who died in Lancashire (Birt, p. 132). For assistance in examining these tablets, I am grateful to the custodian, Mr Nesbitt. 426 A list of fees for burials, erection of monuments etc., drawn up in 1824 , is preserved at St John's Presbytery (Archives I, no. 8). For the trustee-system , see 1. Stonor, Liverpool's Hidden Story (Wigan, 1957) p. 35. For the local artist O'Neil see infra., p. 239, note 217 thereto. 427 Baines's Journal, 19 April 1818 (here printed); Downside MS. 252, p. 59: Brindle to Birdsall, 1826 (transcript). 428 Unless otherwise stated, this paragraph is based on Downside MS. 252, pp. 15, 49, 51. This MS. contains much further financial information.


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former presbytery in St James's Parade. 4 2 9 Rooms adjoining the chapel were occupied by the organist and the caretaker as part of their remuneration and a nearby house was let off in lodgings under the supervision of a Mrs Hippisley (the "Mrs" being perhaps a courtesy title). This lady seems also to have run a repository for the sale of devotional articles, books etc. and disposed of a pile of copies of a MS. life of St Mary Magdalen de'Pazzi compiled long before by a local missioner. 43o Baines visited "Mrs Hippisley's shop and ordered a set of prints of saints" and a local directory announced that "a general assortment of Catholic books etc. may be had at no. 5 Pierrepont Place, adjoining the Catholic Chapel", the address occupied by Mrs Hippisley.431 In addition, Catholic books were available, as in the days of the Bell-tree House, through the mission-library.43 2 Also in Pierrepont Place (no. 2) was the presbytery, rented by Baines shortly after his arrival in Bath in place of the smaller and more distant house in Philip Street (no. 6).433 This move occupied much of his attention during his first weeks in Bath and there are repeated entries in his journal recording visits to buy furniture for the new house, e.g. the first entry of all: "went to a sale at Lincomb House, bought two bronze candlesticks and a shade lamp, ÂŁ 1. 1s., also a reading screen, 12s.,,4 34 Six years later, in 1823, with Baines's appointment as coadjutor to Bishop Collingridge, Dom Ralph Maurus Cooper arrived in Bath to aid Dr Brindle and the duties of the new assistant missioner were set out in some detail. He was expected to visit "the little congregation at Horton and Sodbury not less than four times in the year and shall say Mass for For a time this housed a private school run by a Mrs Bretton (Baines's Journal, 11 Oct. 1817; 1819 Directory, p. 47). The Corn Street chapel was sold in 1842 for ÂŁ 700 (St John's Presbytery: Archives I, no. 5: copy of deed, 6 Oct. 1842). 430 D.R., July 1893, pp. 158-9: letter to the editor from Dom H.N. Birt, citing MS. notes (1835) by Ann Hippisly, formerly of Shepton Mallet but "since the year 1816 of Bath", whose father was William Hippisly, a convert, founder of the Shepton Mallet mission. The notes were written in her fourteenth copy of the biography by John Panting, ex-S.J., of Bonham, near Stourton, Wilts., which she gave to the then missioner at Bath, Dom John Jerome Jenkins, O.S.B. For Fr. Jenkins, see Birt, pp. 171-2 and for Fr. Panting, Gillow, V, p. 243; CR.S. Monograph 1, pp. 173-4 (also p. 248 - Hippisly). Three members of the Hippisly family were educated at the Bar Convent, York, in the 1770s and '80s, including Ann who entered the school in 1770; cf. H.J. Coleridge, St Mary 's Convent, Micklegate Bar, York, 1686-1887 (1887) p. 401. See also A.E. Hippisley & I. Fitzroy Jones, Some Notes on the Hippisley Family (Taunton, 1952) pp. 140-5. 431 Baines's Journal, 27 Sept. 1817; Bath Directory, 1826, p. 36; Jesuit Archives, Farm St., London : "Old College of St Francis Xavier", pt. III, f. 165 (undated letter from "Ann Hippisly" of 5 Pierrepont Place, Bath, to Fr. R. Plowden at Swynnerton). Fr. Plowden was at Swynnerton from 1815 to 1820 (Oliver, pp. 11CH, Foley, VII, p. 605). 432 Baines's Journal, 8 & 9 Dec. 1817. See also supra. , p. 57. 433 See infra., pp. 200-1, 204-6. 434 Lyncombe House is now the Convent Preparatory School. 429


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them not less than thrice in the year;" also "to him shall belong the office of catechising the children .... ; besides the usual catechism in the chapel on Sundays he shall hold catechism with the children of the two Charity Schools once during the week".4 3 5 It was during the incumbency of Fathers Brindle and Cooper that the "Catholic Question" came to head, culminating in the Emancipation Act of 1829 which removed most of the remaming disabilities and enabled Catholics to take their full place in society. The bogey of popery was by no means forgotten and in some quarters there was fierce opposition to any further concessions, an opposition fanned by clergy of the Established Church with Bishop Law of Bath and Wells in the forefront. 4 36 Not far from Bath, in the Radstock area, a petition against Catholic relief had attracted some signatures two years earlier; another - "a bond of union against the machinations of the Papists" was circulating in the Summer of 1828 43 7 and in the city itself, towards the end of that year, petitions were placed for signature in the vestries of the Abbey, St Michae1's, St James's and Walcot parishes. These, however, gained comparatively little support; by the first week of January 1829 they bore .less than two thousand signatures out of a population of some fifty thousand 43 8 and even when , early in March, in a last-ditch attempt to rally public opinion against Emancipation, a petition was placed in the Guildhall, the total number of signatures, including those to earlier petitions, fell below six thousand. 43 9 As elsewhere, verses attacking Emancipation circulated in Bath,44 0 but in no great profusion, and, turning over the pages of the Bath Chronicle of this period, one gains the impression that local opinion was on the whole sympathetic - a situation in keeping with the city's record of tolerance towards Catholics. Nevertheless it was not without injections of protestant zea~ as when, in the 1830s, the Reformation Society was active in the area 41 or when, in the Spring of 1852 , a year and a half after the restoration of the Catholic hierarchy and with "papal aggression" still a live issue, scurrilous allegations about convents , voiced in Bath by the Rev. Hobart Seymour, brought Wiseman to the 435 436

Downside MS. 252, pp. 56 , 59-64; Oliver, p. 116. G.I.T. Machin, The Catholic Question in English Politics, 1820-30 (1 964) p.

148.

437 Skinner,op. cit., pp. 300, 354. Bath Chronicle, 8 Jan. 1829. See also population-figures in note 404. ibid., 5 & 12 March 1829. The total number of signatures was 5,806. 440 e.g. Catholic Emancipation , A Fable (printed by A.E. Binns, Cheap Street, Bath; copy in Bristol Reference Library). 441 S. Gilley, "Protestant London, No-Popery and the Irish Poor" (pt. 1) in R.H., 10, p. 218 (13 of the Society's scripture-readers in Bath in 1831); D.R. , July 1880, pp. 10-11 (anti-Purgatory meeting at the Old Down Inn, Jan. 1834, leading to the series of "Downside Discussions" between members of the Reformation Society and Catholic speakers headed by Dom Thomas Joseph Brown, shortly to become Prior and later Bishop). 438 439


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city to preach in refutation. 442 Meanwhile, in March 1839 a Bath branch of the Catholic Institute of Great Britain - at that time primarily a tract-disseminating body - had been founded with Bishop Baines as its president, Edward King as secretarl-treasurer and Joseph Spencer responsible for literature-distribution,4 3 Baines being one of its authors. 4 4 4 During the branch's first year there were over thirty converts in Bath - more than in any other mission in the Western District.~ 45 From 1823 to 1846 Father Cooper remained in Bath, becoming principal missioner when Dr Brindle, having become secularised, joined his friend Baines at Prior Park. Brindle's departure marks the bishop's defeat in an undedifying squabble as to who should receive the seatrents paid by the congregation of the Bath chape1.44 6 Baines claimed that, as bishop, the disposal of the Bath mission lay with him (he was, moreover, anxious for the financial support which it would afford for his plans at Prior Park) whereas the Benedictines contended that the mission was and always had been theirs and pointed out that when Baines himself had become its incumbent it was by the Order and not by the Vicar-Apostolic that he had been appointed; moreover it -was to the Order that he had surrendered the Bath mission following his appointment as coadjutor in 1823 447 and two years later he had 442 W. Ward, The Life and Times of Cardinal Wiseman (1898) II, pp. 48-50; B. Fothergill, Nicholas Wiseman (1963) pp. 197-9 - both citing an unfriendly Bath Chronicle report. The substance of Wiseman's address was printed in The Dublin Review, December 1852 (pp. 467-526). 443 East Riding Record Office, Beverley : DDLA.38/61, 68. In its fIrst year the Bath branch had 143 subscribers and a large stock of tracts (1,742) but by 1846, when the Institute in its new form was moving into the educational fIeld and supporting Catholic charity-schools as far apart as Bridgwater and Houghton-leSpring, Bath's interest appears to have flagged, with only £3. 12s. contributed to the general fund and nothing to the educational fund. In the following year, however, the Catholic Poor Schools Committee was established and its Sixth Report (1853) records collections in Bath (St John's £11. 2s. 6d.; St Mary's £3. 5s. Od.), local subscribers (Major Bird of 15 Daniel Street; Canon ParfItt of Midford Castle), payments in augmentation of teachers' salaries and in respect of pupil-teachers; help with the cost of books and maps, and Building-grants (1848-53 : £100 to Bath for 1851, paid in 1852). Later Reports of the Catholic Poor Schools Committee (outside the period of this Introduction) are one source of further data on the history of Catholic education in Bath. lowe the above information to the kindness of Mr. P.J. Doyle. For Edward King, solicitor, see J.S. Roche, A History of Prior Park College and of its Founder Bishop Baines (1931) passim. 444 Faith, Hope and Charity (1840 reprint of Baines's controversial Bradford sermon, originally published in 1825; which provoked several rejoinders and which had already been reprinted half a dozen times; see British Museum Catalogue of Printed Books). 445 Brady, Annals of the Catholic Hierarchy, pp. 314-6 (31 converts between January 1839 & Jan. 1840). 446 See Roche, History of Prior Park, pp. 91-5; B. Ward, The Sequel to Catholic Emancipation (1915) chaps. 3 & 4. 447 Downside: Allanson, "Collection", III, 36 (transcript of agreement between Baines and Birdsall, 18 April 1823; also in Downside MS. 252, p. 84).


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written to the Provincial, Father Birdsall, "I hope you will not consider me as interfering unreasonably in an affair, the decision of which rests with you. Though I claim no right of interference , I trust you will see that, situated as I am, I may reasonably feel a great interest in the way the Bath Mission is supplied".4 4 8 In Fathers Cooper and Brindle each faction had a representative at the chapel. The Benedictines asserted that, with his secularisation, Brindle had automatically forfeited his right to serve one of their missions, whereas Baines insisted that, the mission being-in his vicariate, Father Cooper must obey him and he ordered him, under pain of suspension, not to withold the seat-rents. At this, Father Birdsall, now President-General of the English Benedictine Congregation and perhaps the bishop's most formidable opponent,449 entered the fray and issued the following leaflet: 4 50 "To the Congregation of the Catholic Chapel in Orchard Street, Bath. "As the season is now at hand when Subscribers to this Chapel usually renew their subscriptions for their sittings, the said Subscribers are hereby requested by the Owners of the Chapel, that on account of certain hindrances now put in the way of those subscriptions being received by the rightful Incumbents , they will withold their subscriptions for a time, until the question arising out of the new order of things attempted to be introduced be decided. In the meantime Subscribers will continue to be admitted on producing their present tickets till further notice be given. "Bath. Novr. 20, 1830. J. Birdsall J. Deday." This handbill, as Father Birdsall records with somewhat unseemly satisfaction, was "distributed to all who entered the Chapel, at High Mass, without it being known to the Bishop till after he had come into the Sanctuary for Divine Service - He and Mr Brindle were thrown into the greatest perplexity".4 5 1 The upshot was the withdrawal of Baines and the faithful Dr Brindle from the Orchard Street chapel and their setting up of a separate establishment in the north of the city, at no. 3 448 Allanson, "Collection", III, 93-4: Baines to Birdsall, 26 May 1825 (transcript); also mentioned in MS. 252, p. 87.

449 Downside: Allanson, "Biography". II, pp. 247-91 (lengthy account of Birdsall's career). MS. 252, pp. 82-97, contains Birdsall's own documentation of the dispute between himself and Baines. A short but vivid description of Birdsall is given in Archbishop Ullathorne's autobiography (Sir Shane Leslie's edition, 1941, entitled From Cabin-Boy to Archbishop) p. 43. 450 St John's Presbytery, Bath: Archives, I, no. 10. This handbill is also copied by Birdsall in Downside MS. 252, p. 95, and in the MS. in Birmingham Archdiocesan Archives mentioned in note 408, and by Fr. Cooper in his "Memorandums of the Bath Mission and various other things relating to it" (Downside MS. 59, labelled "Bath 1831-43") which is informative on Bath Catholicism during that period. 451 Downside MS. 252, pp. 95-6.


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Brunswick Place - a proceeding which drew down upon His Lordship of an indignant Pope, for setting up "altar against the censures altar". 4 52 However, a nussion on the increasingly populous northern slopes of Bath was probably desirable in itself, though the motives which prompted its foundation were questionable, and from that time onwards, culminating in the opening of St Mary's, Julian Road, in 1881, there has always - save, perhaps, for a few years in the 1840s been a Mass-centre for the Catholics of that area. Subsequently, with characteristic optimism, which events failed to justify, the bishop took over a larger building known as the Portland Chapel, dedicated to St Augustine, and placed it under the charge of another of the secularised ex-Benedictines who had left Ampleforth to assist him at Prior Park: Dr Thomas Burgess, later to become the second Bishop of CHfton. 45 3 The new chapel was opened in May 1832 and from various local directories it is possible to gain an impression of it: "A handsome gallery surrounds it and there is a fine-toned organ"; there was also "a fme altar-piece, The Descent from the Cross, painted by Gainsford, highly creditable to the talents of the master. Divine Service is performed here at eight, eleven and three o'clock, and occasionally at seven in the evening, and a sermon preached every other Sunday by the Right Rev. Dr Baines".4 5 4 The compilers of The Original Bath Guide for 1836 were evidently struck by the devotional habits of the city's Catholics for they comment, on page 94, upon the necessity for this additional chapel "for the use of a Christian denomination, many of which make it a point of duty to attend divine service daily and occasionally to repair to chapel at other hours for the purpose of prayer". Accompanying the new chapel was a girls' school, described in the 1833 Directory (p. 165) and in Robson's Directory for Somerset (1839 edition, p. 54) as the "Catholic Female Orphan School, St Augustine's Chapel, Portland Place". Both chapel and school continue to be mentioned annually in the local directories until 1841 , when the premises, having failed to attract the support for which Baines had hoped, were sold to the Rector of Walcot. 4 5 5 For some years there appears to have been no mission in the upper part of the city, but by 452 Roche,op. cit., p. 94; Ward, op. cit., I, p. 37. Fr. Cooper's notes on this are in Downside MS. 59, "Bath, 1831-43" (unpaginated). 453 Oliver, p. 256. The chapel is shown on maps of Bath between 1835 and 1845 (Bath Reference Library: Russell Collection, vol. I). B.W. Kelly, Historical Notes on English Catholic Missions (1907) p. 68, wrongly states that this chapel was in Pierrepont Street. 454 Gibbs's Bath Visitant, 1837, p. 48; Original Bath Guide (undated, but between 1833 and 1835) p. 64; St John's Presbytery: Archives, I, no. 12 (printed notice of dedication, 26 May 1832). The registers of the Portland Chapel are preserved at St Mary's Rectory, Harley Street, Bath, and an account of it is given in Mr. W.J. Jenkins' thesis on the Proprietory chapels of Bath (M.A., Bristol, 1948) pp. 56-7, 81, 85-7. Gainsford was the name of the Ampleforth art master: J.e. Almond, A History of Ample!orth Abbey (1903) p. 356. 455 Gibbs's Bath Visitant, 1842, p. 50.


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1848 Mass was once again bein~ celebrated at no. 3 Brunswick Place by a Father Thomas Cummin45 and in the following year the Bath Annual Directory and Almanac (p. 110) showed the Rev. Dr. J . F. Crowe to be there, with services at 8 and 11 a.m. and 3 p.m. on Sundays and at 9 a.m. on weekdays. The chapel was on the groundfloor of the house, with Dr Crowe's rooms above, and the congregation numbered about a hundred-and-twenty.4 5 7 In 1850, the year of the restoration of the Catholic hierarchy, Dom John Clement Worsley assumed charge of the original mission after eight years in Bath as assistant first to Father Cooper and then to his successor, Dom Jerome Jenkins. 4 5 8 The year of Father Worsley's promotion was a fitting one in which to contemplate future expansion; as one of his successors put it, "the hierarchy had been established and the Catholic church was beginning to put on its former beauty in this land: in Bath it would not be content with being pushed into a side street" .459 In this year Catholic work among the poor was given firmer direction through the establishment of a local Conference of the Society of St Vincent de Paul4 6 0 and action to improve educational facilities, involving building costing some ÂŁ1,200, is reflected in the reports of the Schools Committee for 1851 and 1852; the latter shows that the newly-opened boys' school had already been subjected to government inspection, that two of the scholars had been selected as pupil-teachers and that the schoolmaster, Mr Murphy, had "passed a successful examination and obtained a certificate of merit, with a consequent increase of salary, from the Government grant." 461 The girls' school, with about forty-five pupils under the charge of a Miss Horrigan (or Horagan), passed in 1852 into the care of the Rosminian Sisters of Providence who established a convent adjoining the schools and who were also responsible both for an infants' school and for conducting evening classes "for the beneift of young persons whose age or occupations prevent their attendance during the day". The infant school admitted "children from the age of two years .... with the most interesting and happy results" and by February 1853 it contained Directory and Court Guide for the Cities of Bath , Bristol and Wells (M ay 1848) p. 127. Local directories mention no Catholic chapel in the north of the city between 1842 and 1847 and, with the exception of a single baptism by Dr Brindle in 1846, no record of these years survives among the early registers of S t Mary's (see note 454 above). 457 P.R.O., H.O.129/326/6, no. 9 (1851 Religious Census, where it is stated that the Brunswick Place chapel had been a place of worship since 1837 or 8 perhaps a slip; see previous note). 458 J.e. Fowler, The Benedictines in Bath during a Thousand Years (Yeovil, 1895) p. 82. Fr. Jenkins had earlier been Fr. Cooper's assistant; he was followed by Dom Peter Wilson and Dom Austin Shann (ibid. , also Birt, passim.; CR.S., 22 , p. 242 & note). 459 Fowler, loc. cit. 460 Centenary leaflet at St John's Presbytery: Archives, III, no. 9. 461 St John's Presbytery: Fleming MSS. , pp. 245-6 (185 1 & 1852 reports). 456


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upwards of fifty small children - the only infant school, apparently, in the city at that time. 4 6 2 At this period another Catholic free school in the neighbourhood was to be found at Midford where the squire, Mr Connolly, had established an ornate chapel in Midford Castle and where, by 1855, there was a congregation of sixty-two. 4 63 From 1820 unti11846 they were served by Benedictines from Downside or Bath, but thereafter there was usually a resident secular priest. 4 64 In 1840 the large and unwieldy Western District was divided into two vicariates, in preparation for the restoration of a diocesan hierarchy ten years later, Wales (with Hereford and Monmouth) becoming the Welsh District under a former Prior of Downside, Dom Thomas Joseph Brown, part of whose boyhood had been spent in Bath and whose consecration took place in the Old Orchard Street chape1. 46 5 Two years after the division of his vicariate (which had left him responsible for Cornwall, Devon, Dorset, Somerset, Gloucestershire and Wiltshire) Baines suffered a stroke and sixteen months later, having just returned to Prior Park from the newly-opened Bristol church of St Mary-on-theQuay, he died. 46 6 He was succeeded by the only secular bishop to govern the Western District, Dr Charles Michael Baggs, formerly Rector of the English College in Rome, but his episcopate, like those of his two immediate successors, was short-lived and eighteen months after arriving at Prior Park to take possession of the vicariate he was dead. He was the last Catholic prelate to make Bath his headquarters; his successor Bishop Ullathorne (1846-8), soon moved from Prior Park to Bristol46 7 and that city was also the residence of Bishop Hendren O.F.M. (1848-51) who in 1850 became the first bishop of the new diocese of Clifton, covering the counties of Gloucestershire, Somerset and Wiltshire, with Bath as one of its deaneries. ibid,. p. 248; no other infant school is mentioned in the various guides and directories for the next ten years. For the Rosminian sisters in Bath, see the Life of Mother Mary Agnes Amherst by a member of that community (Foreword by Cardinal Bourne, Exeter, 1927) pp. 116-31. 463 G. Dolan "Chapters in the History of the English Benedictine Missions" in D.R., Dec. 1903, pp. 303-4; Oliver, pp. 65, 373. Archbishop Errington, Administrator of the then vacant See of Clifton, confIrmed 23 persons at Midford in 1856. The old Midford registers, dating back to 1832, are now at Ss. Peter and Paul, Coombe Down, Bath. For Midford Castle see the article by C. Hussey in Country Life, 3 & 10 March 1944, pp. 376-9 & 420-3, respectively. 464 Dolan and Oliver as cited in previous note (but the former misprints 1846 as 1864). 465 He later became Bishop of Newport and Menevia; see his obituary and portrait in the first issue of The Downside Review (July 1880). For the remainder of this paragraph see also Brady, op. cit., passim. 466 Roche op. cit., pp. 173-4. 467 ibid., chap. XIX; c. Butler, The Life and Times of Bishop Ullathorne (1926) I, p. 141; Autobiography of Archbishop Ullathorne (1891) p. 240. N.B. A much better text of Ullathorne's autobiography is that entitled From Cabin-Boy to Archbishop (ed. Sir Shane Leslie, 1941). It should be noted that in 1972, with the 462


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Postscript: Prior Park and Bishop Baines At this point, with a diocesan bishop responsible for the Catholics of Bath for the first time since 1559, this outline of the intervening three centuries comes to a close, but it is desirable, by way of a postscript, to glance briefly at Prior Park, acquired by Baines in 1829 and abandoned (temporarily) twenty-seven years later, both because his activities there, as well as his vigorous incumbency of the Bath mission, shed light on the writer of the journal printed in this volume and because his acquisition of Prior Park inaugurated a lasting, though not uninterrupted, Catholic presence on the citg's outskirts centred on a place already rich in his'toric associations. 46 The Prior Park estate derives its Catholic-sounding name from the fact that it comprised part of the land of the pre-Reformation priory of Bath - the prior's park - but it had long shed any connection with Catholicism by the time that it passed into the hands of Ralph Allen, the highminded, self-made reformer of the postal system who owned several of the local quarries from which came the stone for the new buildings of Bath and whose own great appointment of Bishop Alexander as Auxiliary to BIshop Rudderham of Clifton, Bath once again became the residence of a Catholic bishop. For information on Bath Catholicism after 1850 see my Bath and Rome: the Living Link (Bath, 1963) - otherwise superseded by this Introduction - pp.' 82-92 and B.G. Stone, Bath Millennium (Bath, 1973) chap. 24. Other relevant works published in 1973, too late for specific footnote-references, are: J. Haddon, Bath; J. Miller, Popery and Politics in England; J. Wroughton, The Civil War in Bath and North Somerset (Bath); C.W. Field, The Province of Canterbury and the Elizabethan Settlement of Religion (privately printed, Robertsbridge, Sussex); A.G.R. Smith (ed.) The Reign of James VI & I, (chap. 5: "The English Catholic Community" by John Bossy). 468 This section owes little to original research and much to Brother J.S. Roche's amply documented History of Prior Park College and of its Founder Bishop Baines (1931), supplemented by other works, notably B. Ward, The Eve of Catholic Emancipation, III (1912) and The Sequel to Catholic Emancipation, I (1915); D. Gwynn, Luigi Gentili and the Second Spring (Dublin, 1951); C. Leetham, Rosmini (1957) and Luigi Gentili (1965); Sir Shane Leslie's edition of Ullathorne's autobiography (see previous note); H.N.Birt,Downside (1902);J.C. Almond, History of Ampleforth Abbey (1903); J. McCann & C. Cary-Elwes, Ampleforth and its Origins (1952). There are useful articles on Prior Park by Dom Leo Almond in D.R., Dec. 1898, and by Mr Stephen Weetman in Clifton Diocesan Year Book, 1960, while on Baines those which have been consulted include one by Professor Denis Gwynn in The Clergy Review, Feb. 1948, Abbot Cuthbert Butler's "The Controversy with Bishop Baines" in D.R. centenary issue (1914) and the perceptive notes on Baines's journal, "A Priest's Diary, 1817-8" in the issue of July 1900, as well as the accounts of him in the D.N.B. and the old Catholic Encyclopaedia. On Baines's various disputes, there is unpublished material in Allanson's MS. "Collection of Records, etc~' (at Downside and Ampleforth), in Downside MS. 252 (Fr. Birdsall's account) and in the Jesuit archives at Farm Street: "Bristol, 18th & 19th centuries", between ff. 175 & 240; "Old College of St Francis Xavier", packet UF/l, and the MS. verSion of Foley's Records, vol. 5, as well as in papers cited in works listed in this note. See also note 478. A new work (1973) containing some discussion of Baines's activities is Professor V.A. McClelland's, English Roman Catholics and Higher Education, 1830-1903. A scholarly biography of Baines has long been desirable and is now being undertaken by Dr Sheridan Gilley.


92

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

mansion was envisaged as, among other things, a living example of the virtues of Bath stone as a building material. Allen took up residence in 1741 and for twenty years Prior Park occupied a position whose elevation was more than merely geographical; the house was a centre of serious-mindedness and sobriety, "tranquility" and "friendly warmth" ,469 in marked contrast to the more hectic life of frivolity and extravagance in the city below. At Prior Park were entertained Allen's wide circle of friends, intellectuals for the most part, whose gatherings constituted a more fruitful facet of eighteenth-century life than did the affluent society over which Beau Nash presided. Among Allen's guests were poets and divines, actors and novelists, artists and statesman. The elder Pitt, Bishop Warburton of Gloucester and Alexander Pope were among the most notable visitors, though the association with Pope, cut short by a quarrel in 1743, ended with the poet's death in the following year. Allen was no hater of Catholics; his guests included, in addition to Pope, the somewhat difficult and uncompromisingly Catholic Martha Blount and if there is any truth in the story that, as a magistrate and mayor of Bath, Allen considered it impolitic for his coach to stand outside the Bell-tree House while she attended Mass there, the story does credit him with offering to place the coach at her disposal provided it remained a short distance away.4 70 After Allen's death in 1764 the property fell into decay; it passed out of the hands of his family and when, in 1829, the year of Catholic Emancipation, it was put on the market, Bishop Baines purchased it with the idea of converting it into a seminary for the Western District, the only vicariate without one. Long before he became a bishop, Baines had noted in his journal two visits to Prior Park4 7 1 and these may perhaps have sown the seeds of his later project, though he finally settled on Prior Park only after proposals for establishing a seminary in other premises had fallen through. In what must have been one of his first letters after learning that he had been appointed coadjutor to Bishop Collingridge, Baines had written of the desirability of "procuring a College for the District. . .. with the means for the education of priests" and he followed this letter with others broaching the possibility of using Downside for this purpose, i.e. a combination of seminary and lay college. He envisaged such an establishment as being under the control of the bishop with Benedictines as its teaching staff, but his proposals were rejected, as was his plan for an exchange of properties between Ampleforth - of which he had himself been an ornament - and Downside. For three years the new bishop was out of England, staying in Rome for his health; here he continued his 469 B. Boyce, The Benevolent Man: A Life of Ralph Allen of Bath (Cambridge, Mass., 1967) pp. 266, 284, citing Charles Yorke, 5 Dec. 176l. B.M. Add. MS. 35396, ff.275-6: Rev. T. Birch to the second Lord Hardwicke, 27 Oct. 1744 (also cited by Boyce, op. cit., p. 149). 471 infra., pp. 204, 230.

470


INTRODUCTION

93

anti-Downside manoeuvres and when in September 1829 he returned to England as Vicar-Apostolic of the Western District, following the death of Bishop Collingridge, he came armed with a statement to the effect that "all the vows made by the Benedictines in England are null and void". This opinion was in fact erroneous, for the monks of Downside , on moving there from Acton Burnell in 1814, had taken care to obtain from the Holy See a document declaring their monastery exempt and their vows valid. Baines however, never slow to uphold the indefensible, ordered the Downside community to submit to his control or quit the Western District and, upon their refusing to do either, he withdrew all missionary faculties from the monastery, prohibiting the monks from serving the surrounding districts and even from administering the sacraments within the monastery itself. The monks , however, completely ignored the latter prohibition and Baines was driven ruefully to confess, "I was mistaken in my calculations; the monks quietly continued to administer the sacraments within their own walls ... and they represented my withdrawing the faculties as an act of tyranny towards them and of cruelty to the congregation, particularly their neophytes and converts". Although the monastery and the school were not affected, the servants and the people of the congregation were , and for their spiritual needs a priest came over from Bath who " heard their Confessions in the brewery, seated on a tub , as being outside the precincts of the monastery.,,4 72 Meanwhile, in view of Downside's resistance, the bishop looked for other premises. His original project of acquiring and staffing a seminary had not been abandoned; in December 1829 Prior Park was purchased and in the following Spring Baines took possession of the property and installed himself and Dr Brindle and three Ampleforth monks in residence, almost wrecking Ampleforth in the process. The three who joined Baines and Brindle were the Prior, Sub-Prior and Procurator4 73 and with them went the novices, some three dozen boys from the school, the housekeeper and a herd of cattle, while from Downside were diverted a number of boys, especially some from Ireland , who would otherwise have gone to that school. According to Baines, the Archdeacon of Bath, Dr Moysey , "expressed his terror at the 'immense establishment' " which was being set up at Prior Park and in October 1830 the Bath Chronicle considered it likely to become a formidable rival to the existing protestant colleges. At this time alterations were still proceeding, necessitating the employment of a hundred men; the chapel had already been converted into a place of Catholic worship, with a richly canopied throne for Bishop Baines, for Prior Park was, of course, the bishop's residence and its chapel his episcopal church. Ullathorne, From Cabin-Boy to Archbishop, p. 44. Thomas (later Bishop) Burgess, Thomas Rooker and Edward Metcalfe. Brindle had left Ampleforth much earlier (1817) to assist Baines in the Bath mission; see supra., p. 81.

472

473


94

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

Baines had given thought to educational questions - at Ampleforth, before coming to Bath, he had contributed to the development of the school which he was subsequently to undermine and later, on a visit to Downside, he "taught some of the boys some Geography on my own plan,,474 - and he was well aware of the challenge and the opportunity afforded by the granting of Catholic Emancipation in 1829. There was now a more pressing need than ever for a well-educated Catholic laity and Baines saw beyond the foundation of a seminary and school at Prior Park to the establishment of a Catholic university to compensate for the exclusion of Catholics from Oxford and Cambridge but "unfortunately", as has been well said, "to Baines the idea of a university was inseparable from that of architectural magnificence,,4 75 and instead of allowing time for the original institution to become an economic proposition, he embarked on further building, some of it unnecessarily ornate, and also turned his restless and expansive mind to more ambitious projects - not only the university plan but a proposal for a college, associated with Prior Park, in Rome itself. The seminary and the school, meanwhile, progressed encouragingly; within two years of opening the number of students had doubled to eighty and during the twelve years before Baines's death there was an average of twenty-five seminarists, forty-five of whom entered the priesthood during that period. Yet even in the earliest days there was an element of disenchantment for the three ex-monks from Ampleforth (who had been secularised not at their own request but on Rome's initiative) who soon found that Baines was leaving them to their own devices; they had no clear ideas of what their duties were, they urged "the necessity of rules being immediately formed to guide our future proceedings", they complained of "verbal regulations coming not thro' the regular channels" and within four months they were offering to resign en bloc. Baines did in fact dispense with the services of two of them (Burgess and Metcalfe) as falling short of the requirements of a university, but Rooker remained, embellished with a papal doctorate in Divinity, as did Dr Brindle, who became Baines's deputy or "Regent" of the College, and they had the assistance of a talented Cambridge convert, Thomas Logan, who had studied at the English College in Rome under Wiseman, gaining golden opinions for his learning: "he is equal to the chair of any University", wrote Wiseman enthusiastically. For several years harmony seems to have prevailed at Prior Park - an unusual state of affairs for any venture in which Baines was concerned - but in 1835 he introduced, from the best motives, a further source of dissension, bringing into the college as "Professors of French, German, Philosophy etc." three Rosminian Fathers of Charity from Italy, headed by the celebrated Father Luigi Gentili. 476 This had many advantages, particularly in the deepening of the spiritual life and in the 474 Journal, 8 Apri11818 (here printed). 475 Weetman, art. cit., p. 118; see also Roche, op. cit., p. vii. 476 The other two were French priests, Frs. Belisy and Rey.


INTRODUCTION

95

winning of converts, but the addition to the college staff of foreign professors (later increased to nine by the arrival of three more priests and three lay brothers) owing obedience primarily to the superior of their own Institute, was clearly to introduce a discordant element and this was heightened by Baines's appointment of Gentili, against his own inclinations, as vice-regent and effective superior of the whole college. To make matters worse, having elevated Gentili to this position, Baines shortly afterwards - alarmed at the falling-off of students as a result of Gentili's disciplinary and administrative changes - proceeded to undermine his authority by countermanding his instructions. Gentili subsequently resigned, with a somewhat spectacular demonstration of contrition for the faults he had committed as vice-regent, and was succeeded by one of his brethren, Father Pagani. The introduction of the Fathers of Charity had other repercussions for which the Bishop had not bargained; two of the most valued members of his staff, Fathers Furlong and Hutton, inspired by the example of the Fathers, joined their Institute and left the college. Blessing though they may have been, the Rosminians were proving a mixed blessing; Baines had visions of his teaching staff melting away and he realised by now the necessity of having a staff fully under his own authority and not subject to any external jurisdiction. This he proceeded to make clear and the Fathers of Charity were removed from Prior Park although, fully conscious of their value, the Bishop endeavoured, unsuccessfully, to retain some of them for mission-work within his own vicariate. While these troubles were developing the Bishop also suffered other misfortunes, notably a disastrous fire in May 1836 which did some fifteen thousand pounds' worth of damage, of which little more than one-third was covered by insurance; nevertheless Baines at once set about the work of renovation, regardless of cost. "He trusts to Providence", wrote Dr Burgess some years earlier, "without being sensible, I fear, of the awful risks he is running" - a sentiment not perhaps very happily worded but expressive of the combination of awe, affection and anxiety with which the Bishop was regarded by others whom he had involved in his enterprises. At the beginning of the 1840s the friction with the Rosminians was coming to a head, fmancial troubles were becoming more acute - with embarrassin.p questions being asked about monies intended for other purposes47 - and Baines's Lenten Pastoral of 1840, opposing the other bishops' campaign of prayer for the conversion of England, had led to a summons to Rome. 78 On his return to Prior Park in 1841 he received a welcome both enthusiastic and touching but the abounding optimism which had hitherto nourished him was beginning to evaporate and with a decline in health came a sense of failure. He suffered a i.e. the Tiverton foundation, on which see Oliver, pp. 359-61. See also ibid., pp. 381-2 & note, re the Falmouth mission. 478 The Constable of Everingham papers in the East Riding Record Office, Beverley, contain letters etc. on this controversy (DDEV/60/31, xvi).

477


96

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

stroke in March 1842 and in July of the following year he died. The evening before, he had had a cordial meeting with a number of Downside monks and had expressed his friendship; now, in Downside Abbey, he lies again among his brethren.4 79 Following Baines's death the devoted Dr Brindle, who was also Vicar-General of the Western District, plunged the College still further into debt by embarking on the erection of a new church at Prior Park; the building, however, came to an abrupt halt through lack of funds after the walls and columns had been erected and it remained in this condition, reminiscent of Bath Abbey after the dissolution, for twentyfive years. The new bishop, Dr Baggs, set about a vigorous reorganisation of the vicariate and might, had he been spared, have saved Prior Park; instead, anxiety about it shortened his life, his episcopate lasted less than two years and at his death the College was deeper in debt than ever. His successor, Bishop Ullathorne, saw another way of solving the problem - or, at least, of bringing it to a head - and he presented Brindle and his fellow trustees with the alternative of either managing the College themselves as a self-supporting establishment or of receiving support from the diocesan revenues on condition that sole direction of its affairs should rest with the bishop. This was at least a realistic attitude and had the administration of Prior Park been in more capable and enterprising hands than those of Brindle it might possibly have survived, though this is doubtful for it was heavily and widely in debt, with investors receiving little or no interest and even the servants' wages for several years sunk in it, as were the common funds of the clergy of the Western District. Ullathorne referred the matter to Rome, a commission of enquiry was set up and some two thousand pounds' worth of pictures were sold but, as he himself records, "Prior Park went struggling on its way much as before.,,4 8 0 Then in 1848, before anything was settled, Ullathorne was transferred to the Central District and for the third time in five years it fell to a new bishop to disentangle the Prior Park problem. This was Bishop Hendren, formerly Ullathorne's Vicar-General (in place of Brindle, with whom Ullathorne had been increasingly at lo}~erheads and who had been relieved of that office in September 1846) 1 and at last a solution seemed in sight for in April 1850 the property was sold for ÂŁ29,000 to Mr Alexander Raphael, M.P. for St Alban's, who leased it to the trustees at a modest rent and undertook to restore it to them at his death. However, he died in November of the same year, leaving no will, and Bishop Hendren, who had been delighted at the arrangement with Mr Raphael, now felt under no obligation to preserve the College. In the following year, in a desperate effort to stave off the inevitable, the President of Prior Park, Baines's remains were transferred to Downside after the sale of Prior Park in 1856 and were interred first in the cemetery and subsequently in the Abbeychurch. 480 Cabin-Boy to Archbishop, p. 239. 481 C. Butler, The Life and Times of Bishop Ullathome (1926) I, p. 142. 479


INTRODUCTION

97

Dr Rooker, set off for Rome to intercede with Propaganda, which duly submitted a report to Pius IX. Rooker was received in audience shortly before leaving Rome and found the Pope's attitude encouraging. His desire that Bishop Hendren should be transferred to another diocese was met by his translation to the new See of Nottingham and Baines's old colleague, Dr Burgess, became the second Bishop of Clifton while Prior Park was made a seminary for the four western dioceses of Plymouth, Clifton, Shrewsbury and Newport, under the joint direction of their bishops, together with Wiseman, newly created a cardinal, as Apostolic Visitor ~ Earlier Burgess's appointment would have been welcomed and might have saved the College but now he was an old man and the involvement of Wiseman and Errington (the Bishop of Plymouth), both vigorous and both unsympathetic, was taken as heralding its doom. In fact, the end came early in 1856, little more than a year after Burgess's death and during an interval when the bishopric of Clifton was vacant, with Errington, now titular Archbishop of Trebizond and coadjutor to Wiseman, as its administrator. In February and March 1856 the College effects were sold by auction, realising ÂŁ6,382; the estate passed into the hands of the Raphael family and its second Catholic phase came to an end. 4 82 i.e. if one counts its pre-Reformation connection. In 1867 Bishop Clifford of Clifton re-purchased the property, which remained in Catholic hands until 1904; then, after various vicissitudes (including a three years' lease to the Holy Ghost Fathers), it came to house the Cannington Industrial School which in 1919 was placed under the Irish Christian Brothers. Two years later the latter purchased the property; in 1924 the Industrial School was closed and in September of that year, with the transfer of some seventy boarders from St Brendan's College, Bristol, Prior Park became once more a Catholic boarding school, and as such has flourished for half a century.

482


MISCELLANEOUS DOCUMENTS, 1717-99 This section contains a number of short documents of relevance to eighteenth-century Catholicism in Bath, most of which have counterparts in other areas: two estate-enrolments of 1717, a will, the House of Lords Return of Papists (I767) which, irritatingly - but like similar returns for some other areas - gives no names but is valuable for occupations and periods of residence; the appeal for subscriptions, ten years later, towards a new Bath chapel, which has more than local interest in that prominent Catholic families from allover the country are represented in it; two inventories of Bishop Walmesley's possessions (one shortly after the Gordon Rioters had destroyed many of his belongings) and, finally, the list of oaths taken by Catholics in and around Bath in pursuance of the second Catholic Relief Act (1791). No local oath-lists relating to the first Relief Act (I778) appear to have survived, though Father Brewer claimed that Bath Catholics duly took this oath and a certificate substantiating this in the case of Thomas Arundell of the Paragon exists among the papers of that family (see respectively pp. 65, 199). In these documents punctuation and capitalisation have been modernised and the few abbreviations expanded.

I. ENROLMENTS OF ESTATES OF JOHN HUSSEY AND FRANCIS CARNE, 17171

A Registry or particular of the reall estate of me John Hussey of Marnhull in the County of Dorsett, Esqr., scituat and being in the county of Somersett, delivered to Philip Bennet Esqr., Clerke of the Peace in and for the said county of Somersett, this third day of April in the yeare of our Lord one thousand, seven hundred and seventeene, in pursuance of and in obedience to an Act of Parliament made in the first yeare of the reigne of his present Majesty intituled an Act to oblige papists to register their names and reall estates Imprimis, one tenement and garden with the appurtenances commonly called or knowne by the name of the parsonage howse of St. James, scituate and being in the parish of St. James within the city of Bathe, nowe in the possession of Mrs Anne Quineo,2 which she holds of me by parol agreement for the terme of six yeares, to be computed from the twenty-fourth day of June next ensuing, at and under the yearly rent of thirty pounds cleere of all deduccions save one quit-rent 1 Both in S.R.O., Enrolments of Papists' Estates, 1717-88. John Hussey also registered properties in Cornwall, Dorset and Wiltshire (E. & P., pp. 24,40, 283); Francis Carne in Wiltshire also (ibid., p. 285 : the estate at Stratton St Margaret mentioned in his will - the next document here printed). 2 Penultimate letter of surname unclear; possibly a "d".

98


MISCELLANEOUS DOCUMENTS

99

of five pounds and six shillings per annum reserved and made payeable to the Maior, Aldermen and citizens of the said citie of Bathe, their successors and assignes. I hold the said tenement, garden and premisses by virtue of a lease bearing date on or about the twenty-nynth day of June in the yeare of our Lord one thousand, seven hundred and two and granted to me by the said Maior, Aldermen and citizens to hold to me, my executors, administrators and assignes from the four and twentieth day of June then last past unto the full end and terme of twenty-one yeares from thence next ensueing and fully to be compleat and ended. No fine paid.

I, Francis Came of the city of Bath in the county of Somersett, Gent., in pursuance of and obedience to the late Act of Parliament entituled an Act to oblige papists to register their names and reall estates, doe by this writeing under my hand desire the Clerke of the Peace of the said county of Somersett or his deputy to register my name and all my lands, tenements and hereditaments scituate and lying in the said county of Somersett, viz: The house I nowe dwell in, heretofore three tenements, lying in Stalls Street within the said city and nowe held by three severall leases of the Maior, Aldermen and citizens of the said city of Bath, two whereof are granted for fowerscore and nineteene yeares determinable on the lives of me the said Francis Came, Anne my now wife and Edward my sonne and the longest liver of us, and the other for the same three lives absolute, which said three leases all beare date March the 30th 1716. The said dwelling-house or three tenements is kept by me in hand and have been so by my ancestors time out of mined under the name of a lodging-house except one roome and passage turned into a shopp and nowe lett to Sarah Mooreton and partner for one yeare from our Lady Day last at sixteene pounds rent. One tenement contiguous to the above-named dwelling-house and allso in my owne possession (except one roome or shopp nowe lett to Edward Newman for one yeare at ten pounds rent) with a garden thereunto belonging, now allmost all built and part thereof now in the possession of William Boyce by virtue of a lease granted by me to Elizabeth Boyce his mother deceased, dated August the 20th 1703 for 21 yeares from thence next ensueing for twenty pounds fine and six pence yearely rent; another part of the said garden nowe built is in the possession of William Webb his assignee or assignes by virtue of a lease granted by me to the said William Webb for 99 yeares determinable on the lives of him the said William Webb and Dorothy his wife and the longer liver of them and dated June 20th 1704 for twenty pounds fine and one shilling yearely rent The remainder of the said garden is in the possession of John Power by virtue of a lease granted to him by me and dated October 10th 1704 for 20 yeares from thence next ensueing at the yearly rent of fifty-six pounds. Another tenement in the possession of Doctor [blank] Lutterell


100

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

which I have lett to him for one yeare from our Lady Day last for twenty pounds rent, which two last-mencioned tenements are part of the lands of St John's Hospitall within the said city of Bath, heretofore held by me by two severalileases nowe expired, whereupon I am now only tennant by sufferance In wittnesse whereof I Francis Carne have hereunto sett my hand this fifeteenth day of April 1717.

II. WILL OF FRANCIS CARNE, 1719/20 3 'IN THE NAME OF GOD AMEN. The eleventh day of January in the year of our Lord God one thousand seven hundred and nineteen, I Francis Carne of the city of Bathe in the county of Somerset, Gentl: being in good health and of perfect memory and understanding, praised be Almighty God for the same, doe make this my last will and testament in manner following, viz. first I bequeath my soul to God my creator and my body to the grave to be decently interred at the discretion of my executrix hereinafter named in hopes of a joyfull resurrection through the merits and passion of Jesus Christ my only Saviour and Redeemer. Item I will that all my debts be well and truly contented and paid with all convenient speed after my death. Item I give and devise to my beloved wife Anne Carne, John Hussey of Marnhull in the county of Dorset, Esqr., Kennet Mackensie Esqr., John Stibbs of the said city of Bathe, Gentl. and George Stibbs of the same city, Doctor of Physick, all that my leasehold or lodging-house wherein William Freeman now dwelleth, and all that my garden, playhouse and other buildings situate and lying between the Bear Inne and the Parsonage Lane, being the land of St John's Hospital in the said city (now let by several leases made by me to John Power, William Boyce and William Webb) to hold to them and their heirs, to the intent and in trust that the said houses, edifices, buildings and garden be sold with all convenient speed by my above named dear wife and trustees to the best bidder, for the payment of my said debts, and the overplus of the said money arising from the said sale, with the interest thereof, I give to my said dear wife Anne Carne to be used and employed at her discretion. Item I give to my unfortunate son Edward Carne my two closes of free land called Green Close and Long-gore situate and lying in the parish of Stratton Saint Margaret's in the county of Wilts. to hold to him and his heirs for ever. I tern I give to my said son ten pounds in money to be paid him within three months after my decease. Item I give to my four trustees above-named eight pounds apiece to buy them mourning. Item I give to Mr William Bannister, cousin-german to my said dear wife eight pounds. Item I give to Mary, now the wife of 3

P.R.O., Prob. 11/581/177.


MISCELLANEOUS DOCUMENTS

101

Robert Lane, and Sarah, now the wife of Thomas Davy, my quondam servants, three pounds apiece to buy them mourning. Item I give to Mary Smith, als Singers, twenty shillings. Item I give to the poor five pounds to be distributed at the discretion of my said wife and her cousin Banister. Item after my debts paid, funeral expenses and the probate of this my last will and testament and above-mentioned legacies paid and discharged, I give devise and bequeath to my said beloved wife Anne Carne all other my houses, tenements and hereditaments, goods, chattels, plate, jewells, debts owing and ready money and all my estate both real and personal whatsoever and wheresoever to hold to her and her heirs for ever. Item my will is that my said wife shall pay unto my above-named son out of the above-devised estate the summe of twenty pounds per year quarterly by equ~ll portions during the term of his natural life and also shall maintain my sister Mary Guest, widow, in meat, drink, clothes, lodging, washing and other necessaries during her life. Item my my further will is that within one year after the decease of my said sister the summe of fifty pounds be paid to each of her two daughters if living. Item I do hereby make constitute and appoint my above-named dearly beloved wife Anne Came, sole executrix of this my last will and testament, and withall do appoint my four good friends John Hussey, Kennet Mackensie, John Stibbs and George Stibbs abovementioned, my trustees and overseers of this my will, hereby desiring them to assist and advise my said wife, upon all occasions. Item I do hereby adjure my above-named unfortunate son to behave himself respectfully to my said wife and lead a better life (than hitherto) in every respect, both to God and man. And upon that condition and no otherwise, I desire my said wife to give him by her last will and testament an additional legacy of ten pounds per year out of my above-bequeathed estate, for his natural life. Lastly I do hereby revoke, annul and make void all other and former wills and do declare and publish this to be my last will and testament in the presence of Edward Newman, Elizabeth Allen and Nathanael Kew the day and year first above-mentioned (Fra: Carne). Sealed, published and declared t y the said Francis Came to be his last will and testament in the presence of us - Edward Newman, Eliz: Allen, Nath: Kew.

III. RETURN OF PAPISTS, 1767 (BATH DEANERy)4 Parish Bath. St. Peter & Paul

Sex Female Female Female

Age 27 50 78

Occupation Servant Servant Widow

Residence 3 years 9 years 8 years

House of Lords Record Office: Return of Papists, 1767: Diocese of Bath and Wells, Archdeaconry of Bath. Kelston and Newton St Loe are outside Bath.

4


CATHOLICISM IN BATH

102 Bath. St. Peter & Paul

Bath. St. James

Female Male Female Female Male Male Female Male Female Female Male Male Female Female Female Female

67 60 29 18 28

Female

35

Female Female Female Male Female Male Male Male Female Male Female Male Female Female Male Female Female

24 30 40 54 45 35 30 30 30 26 40 43 45 17 15 14 27

Female Female Female Male

49 16 17 18

Female Female Female Female

48 13 10 4

Ribbon Weaver } Wife of Do. Daughter of Do. Niece of Do. Spinster, works at her Needle Spinster, keeps a lodging House Servant Servant Servant Barber } Wife of Do. Statuary Linnen Draper Perfumer Wife of Do. Servant Servant Barber Wife of Do. Daughter of Do. Son of Do. Barber Daughter of Do. Servant out of place Wife of carpenter Daughter of Do. Do. a Servant Apprentice to a Barber Wife of a Poulterer Daughter of Do. Do. Do.

Male

31 30 30 33 29

Carpenter } no Business no BuSineSS} Carpenter Taylor

Male Male

38 49 48 14 12 29 25

Wife of a Taylor Publican Wife of Do.

}

10 years 25 years

Children of Do. Shoemaker Wife of Do.

8 years

U

Children of Do.

15 years 5 years 28 years 2 years 4 months 2 months 1 year 35 years 8 16 7 7 10 2 33 22 17 15 14

years years years years months years years years years years years

3 10 10 10

years years years years

5 30 13 10 4

years years years years years

3 months 2 months 3 years


MISCELLANEOUS DOCUMENTS Bath. St. James

Male Female

32 28

~V2 } Male Male Male

Male

Male Female

Male

Male Female Female Female Male Male Male Male Female Female Male Male Male Male

60 } 50 14 50 } 38 50 } 33

Gentleman }

103 4 years

Children of Do. Grocer

20 years

Barber

1 year

Surgeon

3 years

In

no Business

1 week

26 35 25 23 } 65 19 19 50 80 67 66 41 36 33 13 7 3 50 50 40 32 34 25 34 28 34 25 40 45 54 32 60 50 30 48 36 } 35 33 42

Shoemaker Servant Servant no Business

1 month 10 years 5 years 22 years

Hair Weaver Clear Starcher no Business no Business

11 10 11 22

no Business Servant Shoemaker }

4 years 10 years

months years months years

3V2 years

Grocer no Business } Clear Starcher Servant

}

2 years 3V2 years 2 years

Seamstress Washer Taylor

7 months 11 months

Taylor Taylor Tool Maker no Business Seamstress Washer Mason Barber Mathematician

1 year 12 years 8 year.s 2 months 2 months 2 months 5 years 7 years 10 years

no Business

1 year

5 years

3 years Barber Servant [bracketted with next entry 1


104 Ba tho S t. James

CATHOLICISM IN BATH Female

39

Washer

6 years

13}

Male Female

11 6 2 30 70 50 34

Male

39

Female Female Female Male Female Male Male

32 9 7 5 2 40 2

Male Female Male Female

50 47 35 40

Male Male Female

46 54 44

Female Female Female Male

1~ }

Daughters of Do.

50 45

Widow, a Pedlar Mason

Newton St. Loe

Male Male

27 24

Servant Servant

Walcott

Male Female Male Male Female Female Female Male Female Male Female Female Female Male Male

45 33 50 52 20 42 } 47 39 36 41 38 28 46 32 23

Gentleman } Sister of Do. Physician Musician Daughter of Do.

Male

Kelston

Lyncombe & Widcombe

Shoemaker} no Business Barber Washer

Works at the} Brass Mills Wife of Do. Daughter of Do. Do. Son of Do. Daughter of Do. Gardener Son of Do. Nailer Wife of Do. Labourer Wife of Do. a Beggar Mason Labourer Wife of Do. a Spinner

2 years 30 years 11 years

4 years

13 years

12 years 5 weeks all his life 6 months

7 years all his life 3 months

9 years 1 year 20 years

Gentlewomen

7 years

Gentleman } Wife of Do. Gentleman } Wife of Do . Wife of a Labourer } Gentlewoman Son in Law of Do. Carpenter

3 years 4 years 25 years 6 years 3 years


MISCELLANEOUS DOCUMENTS Walcott

15

{MaleS from 55 } to 22

12

{Females from 57} Servants to 19

Servants

105 4 years 3 years 6 years 2 years & 1 year

IV. PRINTED LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS TO THE NEW BATH CHAPEL s Bath, March 14, 1777 As it is very well known that many inconveniences attend the Bell-tree House, and that it is found much too small for its usual purposes, it is hoped that the proposal of a subscription for raising a more spacious and convenient building for the same end will meet with the approbation of the gentlemen, ladies and others residing in Bath, as well as of the nobility and gentry in other parts of the kingdom, most of whom have, at one time or another, occasion to visit this place. The following gentleman, resident in Bath, viz. Messrs. Walmesley, Porter, Nagle, Standish, Lawson, Brewer, have agreed to be the trustees for this undertaking and to see that the money shall be properly managed. Whoever is disposed to contribute towards so laudable a purpose is desired to pay in the money to any of the trustees or to Messrs. Anthony Wright and Son, Bankers, Henrietta Street, Covent Garden, London. List of Subscribers ÂŁ. s. d. His Grace the late Duke of Norfolk 100 0 0 John Porter Esq. 25 0 0 David Nagle Esq. 25 0 0 Edward Standish Esq. 25 0 0 John Lawson Esq. 10 0 0 John Stonor Esq. 10 0 0 Hon. Mrs Arundell of Bath 10 10 0 Robert Madan Esq. 20 0 0 Joseph Nagle Esq. 10 0 0 Mrs Malpass 5 5 0 Mr Walmesley 5 5 0 William Dicconson Esq. 5 5 0 - Aylmer Esq. 1010 0 Sir Richard Acton, Bart. 21 0 0 Hon. Everard Arundel 20 0 0 William Maxwell Constable Esq. 21 0 0 5

Downside Archives: Box 8, item A.415.

Mrs Handford Sir Edward Smythe, Bart. - O'Flaherty, Esq. Thomas Fitzherbert Esq. Clement Paston Esq. An unknown hand, by Edw. Standish Esq. John Vaughan Esq. Mrs Martin Charles Stonor Esq. John Kierwan Esq. Mrs Stonor of Winchester Anthony Wright Esq. Lord Langdale - Cary Esq. Mr Dowling Sir Henry Hunlock, Bart. Mr Thomas Lloyd

ÂŁ. s. 5 5 21 0 1010 21 0 1010

d. 0 0 0 0 0

5 5 1010 20 0 1010 10 D 5 5 5 5 21 0 1010 5 5 1010 21 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0


106 Mrs Porter of Belmont Mrs Catherine Porter Mrs Frances Porter Hon. Mrs Arundell of Salisbury Sir Walter Vavasour Mr Horneyold - Weldon Esq. John Chichester Esq. Lady Mostyn Lord Stourton Mr Day Mr Robinson Lady Stourton - French Lynch Esq. Mrs Southcott Mrs Maire - Meynel Esq. Sir Richard Bedingfield, Bart.

CATHOLICISM IN BATH 5 5 0 5 5 0 5 5 0 5 5 5 5 5 0 1010 50 0 5 5 21 0 1010 1010 50 0 25 0 25 0 1010 10 10 21

0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0 0

Sir Francis Mannock, Bart. 1010 0 Mr John Robinson 5 5 0 An unknown hand by Mr Brewer 5 5 0 Mrs Throckmorton 10 0 0 Messrs. Moore of Moor-hall 4 14 6 Miss Williams 10 10 0 Thomas Clifford Esq. 5 5 0 Lord Arundell 5210 0 Lady Arundell 10 10 0 Miss Monnington 10 0 0 English Benedictin Monks 200 0 0 Mr John Kendal 1 1 0 Messrs. Weeble 3 3 0 Joseph Brockholes Esq. 21 0 0 - Eyre Esq. 10 0 0 Walter Smythe Esq. 20 0 0 Earl of Surry 20 0 0 Her Grace the Du tchess of Chandos 40 0 0

V. TWO INVENTORIES OF BISHOP WALMESLEY'S POSSESSIONS, 1781 and 1786 6 Effects belonging to me Charles Walmesley at the Bell-tree House, Jan. 10,1781. Many books, papers, a clock in the parlour, a carpet there, also six mahogany chairs with a mahogany armchair and a mahogany dining table with two laps. Also in the parlour a mahogany bookcase. A pair of plated candlesticks, steel snuffers, six silver tea-spoons, eleven china tea-cups and saucers, three china chocolate cups, a china sugar basin, silver tongues for sugar. Cloathes and linnen, a cape, a pectoral gilt cross, two mitres, a hammer, a pair of pincers, tweezers, a purple cushion, a woolen cap, two chalices, box for the holy oils, a pyx, a seal, two knives, a pincase, white and purple tunicks and dalmaticks. White and purple shoes and stockins, white and purple gloves, a purple girdle and mantle, a rochet, three pewter vessels for the holy oils, silk veils for them, some old gold lace, a vial of balsam with a china cup and little silver spoon, a gilt crozier, a large box containing a tabernacle, vestments and linen etc. for the altar. A box of pictures and prints in the hands of Mr Albyn, cabinet-maker in Queen Street, Bath. A silver pax. These effects were all carried to the house no. 8 Chapel Row, Feb 24, 1786. N.B. Two volumes only remain of the Sainte Bible in 4to. It 6

Clifton Diocesan Archives, vol. 1, no. 20.


MISCELLANEOUS DOCUMENTS

107

consisted, I believe, of 13 volumes, of which one, two or three volumes were originally missing; the rest were burnt at the riot, June 9th 1780. It belonged to the Library of the South Province. Item, Mr Richer's Dictionnaire Ecclesiastique in folio perished also in the same fire. It likewise belonged to the Library of the South Province. It consisted originally, I believe, of six volumes but two volumes were missing when lent to me.

Other effects belonging to me, Charles Walmesley, April 5th 1786, when living at no. 8 Chapel Row, Bath. Kitchen furnished with kettles, saucepans and all other furniture, Two pairs of sheets for self, also two pillow cases, four table cloths, six napkins, six towels, a bed with four blankets and a coverlet. Likewise for the two servants, two beds with three blankets each and a coverlet , four pairs of sheets, four pillow-cases, four table-cloths , four round towels, 20 cloths for servants' use. Other furniture for the house, as tables, chairs, a bureau, bookcase etc. A 2d mahogany armchair, a 2d nigh t -stool. N.B. The crucifix upon my altar was given me by Mr Dowling, living No. 10 Belvidere (1786) upon this condition, that, in case I survived him, I should keep it; but if he survived me, it should be returned to him.

VI. PAPISTS' OATHS AT QUARTER SESSIONS, 1791-9 7 Date 18 July 1791

Name David Nagle Pierce Walsh John Tobin Philip Howard William Robinson Garrett Farrell Eleanora Walsh

Place of Abode, Profession etc. of Bath, Esq. of Bath, Esq. of Bath, Esq. of Bath, Esq. of Bath, builder of Bath, brandy merchant Wife of Pierce Walsh, Bath

7 Bath City Archives, no. 272, and S.R.O., Papists' Oaths, 1791-1809. The first document, here printed in full, contains all but the last four names; these are from the second document, which contains further Somerset names from places beyond the orbit of the Bath mission, including "John Brewer, Rom. Cath. Clergyman", - not the Benedictine who was in Bath during the Gordon Riots (see supra., pp. 67-9) but an ex-Jesuit who founded the mission at Shepton Mall~t, Somerset, and was also responsible for the few Catholics in Glamorgan (7 or 8 ill 1784; only 3 in 1793: Clifton Archives, 2, no. 4); see also Foley, VII, p. 82 and CR.S. Monograph 1, passim. There are some notes on the early years of the Shepton Mallet mission in D.R., July 1893, pp. 158-9. See also supra., note 292 to Introduction.


108

25 July 1791

22 Aug. 1791

17 Oct. 1791 7 Nov. 1791 28 Nov. 1791 26 Jan. 1795 12 Sept. 1796 25 Sept. 1799 [undated] Bridgwater, July 1791 [do.]

8

9

CATHOLICISM IN BATH Catherine Gartside Mary Tobin Constantia Walsh Bridget Dalton Amelia Maria Peel [?] Elizabeth Stanley Amelia Hellier Ann Smith Elizabeth Davis William Day Susanna Day [?] Elizabeth Robinson Martha Robinson Hugh Heatley

of Bath, wife of John Gartside of Bath, wife of John Tobin Esq. of Bath, spinster of Bath, widow of Bath, spinster of Bath, spinster of Bath, spinster of Bath, spinster of Bath, spinster of Bath, surgeon of Bath, spinster wife of Wm. Robinson of Bath, builder of Bath, spinster Officiating priest or minister at the Roman Catholic chapel in the city of Bath Ann Church wife of James Church of Bath, chairman Charles Walmesley of Bath, Bishop of Rama and Vicar-A postolic Bridget Ann Fitzgerald wife of Sir James Fitzgerald, Bart. of Bath Elizabeth Bishop of Bath, widow of Bath, Esq. Charles Bishop of Bath, language master Peter Smith Mary Arbuthnot of Bath, spinster Edmund English of Bath, householder Nicholas Dowling of Bath, gentilrnan Anthony Smith lodging-house keeper, Bath of Bath, yeoman John Phillips Daniel Ryan of Bath, taylor of Bath, taylor Michael McCann James Murphy of Bath, victualler of Bath, gentleman James Butler John Baptist Denie of Bath, talorr Sarah Chetwynd of Bath, widow of Bath, Esquire George Throckmorton wife of Thomas Metcalf Esq. of Bath Teresa Metcalf of the City of Bath, Esq. Henry Dillon Margaret Mary Trant [?] of the City of Bath, widow of the City of Bath, Esq. Thomas Canning Ralph Ainsworth Roman Catholic priest of Bath Henry Lawson Roman Catholic priest of Bath 8 Roman Catholic priest, Bath Francis Bishop Margt. Plunkett Circus, Bath, spinster Michael Tho [?] Langton 14 South Parade William Coombs Thos. Day

clerk or priest, Meadgate in the parish of Camerton Inglesbatch in the parish of Inglescombe 9

Secular priest (CR.S., 63, p. 389 & passim.) Englishcombe, on the outskirts of Bath.


MISCELLANEOUS DOCUMENTS Taunton, Oct. 1791

Giles Hall

January 1792

Thos. Day

10 11

Carpenter and bilder in the parish of Walket, Bath 10 Forscot 11

Walcot. Foxcote, Somerset; see note 382 to Introduction.

109


BA TH DOCUMENTS IN THE FRENCH NATIONAL ARCHIVES, PARIS The three groups of material printed in this section are taken from Archives Nationales, LL.1420 (Bell-tree House Accounts, 1746-76) and S.4619, liasses 3 and 5 (English Benedictine Correspondence etc.) The fIrst is a large account-book of over two hundred pages, measuring 12~" X 8", pages 23 to 107 of which are blank while on the earlier pages are mounted miscellaneous documents unrelated both to the original purpose of the book and to Bath - mainly copy-certifIcates of baptism and profession of eighteen English Benedictines,l plus notes of foundation-masses etc. and jottings on various matters (fmancial aspects of the constitution of the English Benedictine Congregation, AnglicanCatholic differences and the views on Church-reform of Bishop John Carroll of Baltimore). Pages 108 to 175 contain the Bell-tree accounts and the fmal pages are blank. Pasted on the second page is a piece of paper in the handwriting of Dom Bernard Bradshaw, who started the account-book, bearing the following explanatory notes: "A shows the Contract, B the Debt, C the money received, D the House expences. I keep in another Book the Poors account." "A" and "B", followed by serial-numbers, occur in the left-hand margins of the debit-pages; "c" in the margin of the facing pages of receipts (there is also a capital "c" at the top of the fIrst page of the Lodgers' Accounts) and the fIrst page of the House Accounts has the letter "D" in the top left-hand corner, but the book containing "the Poors account" does not appear to be in the Archives Nationales, nor among the Benedictine South Province documents at Downside, and may have been one of the records burnt in the Gordon Riots at Bath. The Bell-tree accounts and the other documents in this section have never been printed though there are a number of extracts from them in the late Miss C.D. Murray's "Chronicle of Catholic History in Bath"2 1 Numbered 1, 2, 3, 5-19, half of them ending with the words, "les Catholiques en Angleterre in n'ayant pas pu tenir des registres reguliers des baptemes de ceux de leur communion it cause des loix penales". The Benedictines were Brothers Joseph Valentine, James Minns (baptised 1746) and John Crombleholme (1766) and Fathers John Joseph Placid Naylor, Richard Benedict Simpson, Raoul (or Ralph) Maurus Shaw, Alexander Benedict Catterall, Peter Marsh, Daniel Spencer, John Turner, Francis Edward Beswick, John Atkinson, Benedict Causer or Cawser (1747), Richard Harris, Robert Augustine Kellet, William Bernard Nechills, Henry Parker and George Augustine Walker. All except Crombleholme are in Birt, but in two other instances he gives no birth-date - an omission made good by the dates of baptism given (in brackets) above. Brother John Cromblehoime, like others for whom Birt gives no biographical outline (e.g. Bernard Hawarden, mentioned infra, p. 206), occurs in "A list of those who have Apostatized from their Religious Vows" in P.A. Allanson's MS. "History of the English Benedictine Congregation" (Downside copy) III, pt. 2, Appendix, pp. 49-50. 2 Typescript at St John's Presbytery, South Parade, Bath. Other items in liasse 5. relating to Samuel Wesley, the musician (1766-1837), are referred-to in the D.N.B. article on him and elsewhere; e.g. in J.T. Lightwood, Samuel Wesley, Musician (1937).

110


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES

III

and an earlier reference to them occurs in the following letter to the Bath antiquary, R.E.M. Peach 3 : "London: 28, Holland Park, W. ; March 23rd, 1882. My Dear Sir, In the spring of 1878 (or autumn of 1877), I was searching at the Paris Archives for any records of our English Benedictine Community of Nuns. The authorities were most kind, and advised me to look over a confused mass of letters and papers, which were contained in a ' carton' , or box, such as our milliners use for their goods. It contained several 'liasses', or separate bundles. One was docketted 'The papers of M. Naylor'. Father Placid Naylor, of the Order of St. Benedict, had served the Bath mission nearly twenty years - from 1757 to 1776. He was a man of some private means, and, I suspect, spent far more of his own money for the benefit of the Order than ever was repaid to him. He went from Bath to the English Benedictine Monastery of St. Edmund's , in the Rue du Faubourg-St.-Jacques at Paris, and was there residing at the outbreak of the French Revolution. Being Confessor to the English Benedictine Ladies of the adjoining Rue de l' Alouette, he seems to have retired to his apartments there, for greater seclusion, as it was imagined that women of a foreign nation would be respected. But, one night, he was seized, and all his papers carried off. He died a natural death in January, 1794, at Paris. The bundle of papers are just as they were seized, or confused, by the ruffianly Republicans. Among them I found the account-book of Bell-tree House. There is much more of it - all the tradesmen's bills, masons' accounts, etc., which anyone can see who ever goes to the 'Archives' at Paris. Ever yours sincerely, Martha Jervis." In the Introduction to the present volume , some use is made both of the account-book (which, however, has a great deal more to reveal) and of other papers mentioned in the above letter, i.e. Archives Nationales , S.4619, liasses 3 and 5. The former contains 51 pieces, not separately numbered, relating to the English Benedictine nuns of Paris and to Father Naylor , who became their chaplain in 17874 ; those relating to his Bath incumbency are printed in this volume with my numbering. Father Naylor discontinued the practice of keeping the "House Accounts" (of everyday expenditure) in the original Account Book and entered them either on paper (a few pieces of which have survived and 3 Printed by Peach in Historic Houses in Bath, First Series (1883 ) p.iii; see also p. 26. 4 Dom John Joseph Placid Naylor O.S.B. , for whom see supra. , pp. 57-8, 62. Birt, p.119, omits his second Christian name, but see note 1 above and his own signature (e.g. to document no. 6, infra., p. 176) ; also CR.S. , 12, p. 49 and CR.S. , 2, pp.317-27 .


112

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

are here printed) or in "the Book of Weekly Expences" (and/or "Book of Separate Articles" or "of Different Heads") mentioned infra., pp. 173,175 no longer, apparently, in existence . The other bundle (liasse 5) contains 219 pieces, separately numbered but not arranged chronologically - mainly letters to Naylor in Paris between 1788 and 1793, but a few antedating this period, including two copies of his will (4 April 1787) and codicil of the following day, and some undated, including cures for various ailments. One item (no. 26) is a list of Benedictine addresses in 1789 5 , showing Bishop Walmesley and Fathers Wilks and Heatley at Bath and two others are admonitory letters from Dom George Augustine Walker, PresidentGeneral of the English Benedictines 6 which suggest that Mrs Jervis's tribute to Naylor's generosity is somewhat wide of the mark, as is her surmise that on leaving Bath he went straight to Paris; in fact he was at Cheam, Surrey, from 1776 to 1785 and then in London 7 â&#x20AC;˘ Six of the papers in liasse 5 are letters or notes received by Naylor while in Bath, another is from one of his successors on the Bath mission, Father Pembridge, and another relates to the maintenance and repair of the Bell-tree House during and just after Naylor's incumbency.8 All are printed here, with modernised capitalisation and punctuation and with obvious abbreviations expanded (save in the case of proper names and titles). There are many variations in the ways money-entries are written, e.g. 6s. 8d., 6s. 8p., 6/8 , 6-8 or 68. Pound-signs are sometimes included and sometimes omitted; occasionally a letter "I" follows the pounds' figure, while in some entries the symbols ÂŁ. s. d. are written above the figures to which they relate. In this printed version all such entries are standardised, with ÂŁ. s. d. in the conventional positions. Similarly a figure two above a four (two farthings) in some of Naylor's entries is here represented as ~d. Vertical columns are omitted and marginal notes incorporated in the text or mentioned in footnotes. In general the notes in this section aim rather at elucidation than at identification. Although deriving from Bath, these documents, like the registers to be printed in the next volume, are much more than merely "local history sources"; they relate to leading Catholic families from allover England (and from Wales and Ireland) and not only would any attempt to annotate every name be Herculean but it would inevitably fall short of what scholars with specialised local knowledge can be expected to provide for themselves.

Penultimate figure of date damaged; confirmed from other sources. See supra. , p. 62 & note 308; however, a less critical view is reflected in Anthony McHugo's statement here printed (infra., pp. 178-80). 7 Birt, lac. cit., also CR .S. , 2 (Cheam registers) . 8 There is also a fleeting reference to Bath in liasse 5, no. 29, cited in note 308 to the Introduction. 5

6


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES

113

ARCHIVES NATIONALES, LL1420: ACCOUNT BOOK OF THE BELL-TREE HOUSE, BATH, 1746-76 9 [p.108 ] October 7th 1746

Lodgers' Accounts

C A. 1. B. 1. The Countess of Leicester l 0 Debtor to the Bell-tree for dressing A. 2. B. 2. Mr Pendrill Dr. for 3 weeks and half and dressing A. 3. B. 3. Mrs Cavern Dr. for a week's lodging and dressing A. 4. B. 4. Mrs Dillon Dr. for a week's lodging and dressing A. 5. B. 5. Mrs Lloyd Dr. to the Bell-tree for lodgings A. 6. B. 6. Lady Leicester Dr. for 25 weeks' lodging and dressing A. 7. B. 7. Lady Leicester's servant-man, George, Dr. for 4 weeks' lodging A. 8. B. 8. Mr Lewis Dr. for 2 weeks' lodging A. 9. B. 9. Mr Price Dr. to the Bell-tree for 2 nights' lodging A.lO. B.lO. Mr Henkin Dr. to the Bell-tree for one week's lodging A.11 . B.l1. William Paston Esqr. gave for 2 or 3 nights' lodging A.12. B.12. Mr Lynch and Mr Brown Drs. to the Bell-tree for lodging A.13. B.13 . Mr Bartlett Dr. to the Bell-tree for 7 weeks' lodging and dressing A.14. B.14. Mrs Suffield Dr. to the Bell-tree [deleted; see below]

ÂŁ s d C. 1. C. 2. C. 3. C.4. C. 5.

0 9 9 I 18 9 1 210 11110 7 16 0

C. 6.26 6 5 C.7. C. 8.

0 0 0 0

C. 9. 0 2 6 C. l O. 010 0 C.l 1. 0 7 6 C.12. 3 0 0 C.13. 5 17 6 51 3 1

2d year beginning October the 7th 1747 A.14. B.14. Mrs Suffield Dr. to the Bell-tree for 8 weeks' C. 13. lodging and dressing Mrs Suffield Dr. for 2 weeks more and dressing A.15. B.15. My Lady Mostyn and her company, Mrs Bartlet included, Drs. to the Bell-tree for 4 weeks' lodging. A.16. B.16 Mr Tempest and Company Dr. for 4 weeks' lodging Lady Mostyn and Company Dr. for 2 weeks' lodging N.B. for one; and 4 for others etc. , Mrs Bartlett included Mr Tempest Dr. for 3 weeks more lodgings N.B. The whole company for dressing

[sic. ]

4 12 0 1 2 0

C.15 . 1112 0 C.16. 7 0 0 C.16. 913 0 C.16. 5 5 0 C.16. 3 3 2

9 Initially in the handwriting of Dom Bernard Bradshaw O.S.B. (other hands indicated as they occur). lO Margaret, Baroness Clifford, wife of Thomas Coke. Earl of Leicester ("G.E.C.", Complete Peerage, III, p. 300; VII, pp. 559-61). F or definition of "dressing" see supra, p. 58.


114

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

A.17 . B.17. Mrs Suffield Dr. to the Bell-tree for 8 weeks' lodging etc. A.17.B.17. Mrs Suffield Dr. to the Bell-tree for 12 weeks' lodging and dressing A.18. B.18. Mrs Sheldon Dr. to the Bell-tree for 6 weeks' lodging and dressing A.19. B.19. Mr William Sheldon Dr. to the Bell-tree for 3 weeks' lodging

ÂŁ. s. d. C.17. 6 12 0 C.17. 8 2 0 C.18. 13 5 6 C.19.

1

0

71 7 8

[p.109] 1746 Lodger's Accounts of money received C. 1 C. 2 C. 3 C. 4 C. 5 C. 6 C. 7 C. 8 C. 9 C.10

C.ll C.12 C.13

Received of the Countess of Leicester for dressing Received of Mrs Pendril October 26th Received of Mrs Cavern October 22nd Received of Mrs Dillon October 23rd Received of Mrs Loyd March 11 th Received of Lady Leicester Received for my Lady Leicester's man, George Received of my Lady Leicester for Mr Lewis's lodgings Mr Price's lodgings given gratis II Received of Mr Henkin March [blank] Received of Will Paston Esqr. March 20th Received of Mr Lynch and Mr Brown I2 August 16th for lodgings etc. Received of Mr Bartlett October 6th 1747 weeks' lodging and dressing Received for lodgings from October 7th 1746 to October 7th 1747; Mr Price's lodgings given gratis:

ÂŁ s d 099 1 18 9 1 2 10 1 11 10 7 16 0 26 6 5 100 100 000 010 0 076 300 5 17 6

51 0 7

2d year beginning October 7th 1747, received C.14 C.15 C.16 C.16 C.16 C.16 C.17 C.17

November 18th. Received of Mrs Suffield for 8 weeks 4 12 lodging and dressing Received of Mrs Suffield December 2d more for lodgings 1 2 November 7th. Received of Lady Mostyn and company for 11 12 4 weeks' lodging November 7th. Received of Mr Tempest for 4 weeks' lodging 7 0 Received November 30th, of my Lady Mostyn for lodgings 913 Received of Mr Tempest November 30th for 3 weeks' more 5 5 lodging 3 3 Received of the whole company for dressing 6 12 Received February 3d of Mrs Suffield 8 2 Received April 19th 1747 for dressing and lodgings

0 0 0 0 0 0 2

0 0

11 Doubtless because he was a Benedictine: Dom James Bernard Price (Birt, p. 105). 12 Benedictines: Dom Francis Anselm Lynch (Birt, p. 110) and William Ambrose Brown, formerly attached to the Bath mission (ibid., p. 100 & supra., p. 55).


C.18 C.19

DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES

115

Received May 2d of Mrs Sheldon for lodging and dressing Received May 2d of Mr William Sheldon for lodgings

13 5 6 110

71 7 8

[p. llO] Debts Carryed over, debts A.20. B.20 Mr Dormer debt. to the Bell-tree for 6 weeks' lodging etc. A.21. B.21 Mr Wolloscott Dr. to the Bell-tree for eleven weeks'

71 7 8 C. 20 2 5 0

~dgiqg

21 12 2 95 4 10

Due this year ending October 7th: N.B.There is something due from the lodgers in the House which shall be added to the following year beginning October 7th.

Debt, the 3d year beginning October 7th. A.22. B.22 Mr Bartlett Dr. to the Bell-tree for 8 weeks' lodgings and dressing A.23. B.22 Mr Cotton Dr. to the Bell-tree for 5 weeks' lodgings and dressing A.24. B.24 Mr Stapleton and Mr Claveson Dr. to the Bell-tree for lodging, ÂŁ20-15s-0d and dressing ÂŁ3-5s-4d A.2S . B.25 Sir Carnaby Haggerston Dr. to the Bell-tree for 5 weeks' lodging A.26.B.26 Sir Carnaby Haggerston Dr. to the Bell-tree for 12 weeks A.27 . B.27 Sir Carnaby Haggerston Dr. to the Bell-tree for 2 weeks' lodging A.28. B.28 Sir Carnaby Haggerston Dr. to the Bell-tree for 9 weeks Due for dressing during the time of their stay A.29. B.29 Mr Bartlet Dr. to the Bell-tree for 9 weeks' lodging and dressing A.30. B.30 Mr Williams Dr. to the Bell-tree for 5 weeks' lodging and dressing

C.22 10 18 4 C.23 4 3 9 [sic. 1.25

0 4

C.25 12 10 0

Due this year:

38 8 0 712 0 34 4 0 15 0 9 5 5 0 2 16 5 155 18 7

[p.lll] Receipts C.20 C.21

Carryed over, Receipts June 12th. Received of Mr Dormer for 6 weeks' lodging etc. August 1748. Received of Mr Wolloscott for lodging and dressing

71 7 8

Received this year ending October 7th 1748:

95 4 10

2 5

0

21 12 2


116

CATHOLICISM IN BATH The 3d year beginning October 7th. Receipts

C.22 C.23 C.24 C.25 C.26 C.27 C.28

C.29 C.30

October 19th. Received of Mr Bartlett for 8 weeks' lodging and dressing October 13th. Received of Mr Cotton for 5 weeks' lodging and dressing December 15th. Received of Mr Stapleton for 13 weeks' lodgings and dressing December 15th. Received of my Lady Haggerston for lodgings March 10th. Received of my Lady Haggerston for 12 weeks'lodging March 24th 1748. Received of my Lady Haggerston for lodging May 26th. Received of my Lady Haggerston for 9 weeks' lodging Received from Lady Haggerston during the time of her stay for dressing June 5th. Received of Mr Bartlett for 9 weeks' lodging and dressing September 19th. Received of Mr Williams for 5 weeks' lodging and dressing Received this 3d year ending October 6th 1749: Spent this year as placed to account : Ballance due to the House as appears from the accounts of this year:

ÂŁ. s. d. 10 18 4 4 3 9 25 0 4 12 10 0 38 8 0 7 12 0 34 4 0 5 0 9 5 5 0 2 16 5 155 18 7 82 1 5% 73 17 114

N.B. I have not received Mr Howard's accounts for things bought for me, which will diminish this Balance, nor has ÂŁ10 oweing to me been payd.

[p.112] The 4th year beginning October 7th 1749, Debts. A.31. B.31 Mr Lynch Debtor the Bell-tree for 12 weeks and dressing A.32. B.32 Mr Langdale Dr. to the Bell-tree for 2 weeks' lodging and dressing A.33. B.33 Mr John Staplyton Dr. to the Bell-tree for 12 weeks' lodging and dressing A.34. B.34 Mr Thomas Staplyton Dr. to the Bell-tree for 10 weeks' lodging A.35. B.35 Mr Bracy Dr. to the Bell-tree for 4 weeks' lodging and dressing A.36. B.36 Mr Pierce Mostyn Dr. to the Bell-tree for 10 weeks' lodging etc. and boarding his man A.37. B.37 Mr Bodenham Dr. to the Bell-tree for 4 weeks' lodging etc. A.38. B.38 Mrs Ecleston Dr. to the Bell-tree for 2 weeks' loding and dressing

13 811 4 12 5

15 14 3 790 539 10 6 7 3 3 10 216 2


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES

117

A.39. B.39 Mr Parker Dr. to the Bell-tree for 5 weeks' lodging etc. A.40. BAO Mr Tempest Dr. to the Bell-tree for 2 weeks' lodging and boarding Dr. - Mr Stapleton for rooms his sister should have had

ÂŁ. s. d. 111 0

Due this year:

68 6 11

300

o

[p.1l3] The 4th year beginning October 7th 1749, Receipts C.31 C.32 C.33 C.34 C.35 C.36 C.37 C.38 C.39 C.40

December 16th. Received of Mr Lynch for 12 weeks' lodging and dressing November 25th. Received of Mr Langdale for 2 weeks' lodging and dressing February 27th. Received for 12 weeks lodging etc. for Mr John Stapylton Received of Mr Thomas Stapylton for 10 weeks' lodging etc. January 28th 1749/50. Received of Mr Bracy's son for 4 weeks' lodging and dressing May 22nd. Received of Mr Mostyn for 10 weeks' lodging and boarding his man May 20th. Received of Mr Bodenham for 4 weeks' lodging etc. May 13th. Received of Mrs Eccleston for 2 weeks' lodging and dressing June 27th. Received of Mr Parker for 5 weeks' lodging etc. August 6th. Received of Mr Tempest for 2 weeks' lodging and boarding Received of Mr Stapleton for rooms his sister should have had Received this 4th year: Spent this 4th year: Balance due to the House from this year : The Balance from other years: Due to the House 13 :

13 811 4 12 5 15 14 3 7 9 0 5 3 9 10 6 7 3 310 2 16 2 111 0 3 0 0 0 68 6 11 64 11 10 3 15 *80 19 7% *84 14 8%

N.B. Payd myself for the discharging a weekly obligation for three years by Mr Howard's appointment, the contribution to be given out of the income of the House: 15-0-0 13 Each of the four figures asterisked was originally ten pounds less and was altered to that here printed; see Fr. Bradshaw's note on p. 118 of the Account Book. The "obligation" referred to on the next line was doubtless that of saying Mass. For "Mr Howard" see note 17.


CATHOLICISM IN BATH

118

Payd Mr Howard towards the discharging } three more obligations from the same income Layd out upon the House's account from the ~ 7th October 1748 to the day of the commencement of my 5th year to the 5th of November the day Mr Howard and I settled accounts

20-0-0

16-9-3 51-9-3

Balance as above: To be deducted: The 5th of November 1750 in my hands due to the House:

*84 14 8% 51 9 3 *33 5 5%

[p.114] The 5th year beginning October 7th 1750. Debts. A.41. B.41 Mrs Pippard Dr. to the Bell-tree for 20 weeks' lodging and dressing A.42. B.42 Mr Steare 14 Dr. to the Bell-tree for lodging and dressing 14 weeks A.43. B.43 Mr Hodchin Dr. to the Bell-tree for 7 weeks' lodging and dressing A.44. B.44 Mrs Tuit Debtor to the Bell-tree and Mr Nugent for 12 weeks' lodging and dressing A.45. B.45 Lady Clifford Dr. to the Bell-tree for one week's lodging A.46. B.46 Coronel Nugent Dr. to the Bell-tree (payd with Mrs Tuit) A.47. B.47 Mr Guttery Dr. to the Bell-tree for 14 weeks' lodging and dressing A.48. B.48 Lady Tychburne Dr. to the Bell-tree for 11 weeks' lodging and dressing A.49. B.49 My Lord Langdale Dr. to the Bell-tree for 4 weeks' lodging A.50. B.50 Mr Hodchin Dr. to the Bell-tree for 4 weeks' lodging A.51. B.51 Mr Creech Dr. to the Bell-tree for 2 weeks' lodging and dressing A.52. B.52 Lady Smith and Mrs Barkly Drs. to the Bell-tree for 2 weeks' lodging and dressing A.53. B.53 Mr Bartlett Dr. to the Bell-tree A.54. B.54 Mr Dormer Dr. to the Bell-tree Total: N.B . Mr Stear's lodgings were given him gratis: Total received this year:

14

Dom Robert Benedict Steare O.S.B. (see supra., p. 56 & note 282).

ÂŁ. s. d. 17 12 0 9 4 0 2 5 8 27 11 10 1 10 0 0 0 0 5 3 4 16 13 4 3 0 0 1 4 0 3 2 3 5 16 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 93 3 3 9 4 0 83 19 3


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHNES NATIONALES

119

[p.1l5] The 5th year beginning October 7th 1750. Receipts. C.41 C.42 C.43 C.44 C.45 C.46 C.47 C.48 C.49 C.50 C.51

t.52

£. s. d. 17 12 0 0 o 0

February 18th 1750/1. Received of Mrs Pippard for 20 weeks' lodging and dressing December 13th. Received of Mr Hotchin for 7 weeks' lodging and dressing January 27th. Received of Mrs Tuit etc. for 12 weeks' lodging and dressing November 9th. Received of the Right Honble Lady Clifford for [smudged] we: lodging

2 5 8 27 11 10 110 0 0 0

o

March 17th. Received of Mr Guthery for 14 weeks and dressing May 9th 1751. Received of Sir Harry Tychburne for 11 weeks lodging May 20th. Received of my Lord Langdale for 4 weeks' lodging May 25th. Received of Mr Hotchin for 4 weeks' lodging May 15th. Received of Mr Crick for 2 weeks' lodging and dressing September 13th. Received of Lady Smith for lodging and dressing

5 3 4 16 13 4 3 0 0 1 4 0

3 2 3 5 16 10

Received this 5th year from October 1750 to October 7th 1751:

83 19 3

Expended this year from November 5th 1750 (the time Mr Howard past the accounts) to October 7th 1751:

72 19 10Yl

More received than spent: Remained in my hands at the general stateing the accounts anno 1751: 15

10 19 4Y2 *33 5 5%

*44 4 101;4 Balance due to the House: N.B. £16-9s.-3d. of this year's expenses was accounted for November 5th, otherwise the expences of this year had been 72-19-10Y2 and 16- 9- 3 Total expences of this year: Received: Spent more than received: N.B. ifMr Stear's lodging had been payd (£9-4s.-0d.) my receipts had been R. Ex. Balance had then been to the House:

89- 9- 1Yz 83-19- 3

5- 9-10Yz 93- 3- 3 89- 9- 1 3-14- 2

15 The two figures asterisked were originally 23 and 24 respectively and were altered as above (see Fr. Bradshaw's note on p. 118 of the Account Book).


CATHOLICISM IN BATH

120

[p.116] Due to the Bell-tree the 6th year of my comeing from lodgers from the 7th October 1751 to the 7th October 1752. A.53. B.53 Mr Bartlett Dr. to the Bell-tree for 6 weeks' lodging A.54. B.54 Mr Dormer Dr. to the Bell-tree for 6 weeks' lodging A.55. B.55 Sir Edward Smith Dr. to the Bell-tree for 19 weeks' lodging and dressing A.56. B.56 Mr Stapylton Dr. to the Bell-tree for 2 weeks' lodging and dressing A.57. B.57 Mr Widderington Dr. to the Bell-tree for 5 weeks' lodging A.58. B.58 Mrs Guillmi Dr. to the Bell-tree for one room one week A.59. B.59 Mrs Symmons Dr. to the Bell-tree for 2 weeks' lodging A.60. B.60 Mr Baker Dr. to the Bell-tree for 2 weeks' lodging A.61. B.61 Mr Brookes Dr. to the Bell-tree for a fortnight's lodging A.62. B.62 Mr Whittle 16 Dr. to the Bell-tree for 12 weeks' lodging A.63. B.63 Mr [?] Chabran Dr. to the Bell-tree for 3 weeks' lodging A.64. B.64 My Lady Mostyn Dr. to the Bell-tree for 7 weeks' lodging and dressing

5 5 0 1 16 0 50 15 10 3 2 0 9 17 0 0 7 0 4 8 9

o 12 o 12

0 0

3 12 0 3 15 0 18 3 6 102 6

N.B. Here Mr Whittle's lodgings are reckoned (though not charged) as received and his eateing and dressing should be:

o

which would make my account: Mr Whittle's lodging to be deducted: Dressing deducted:

103 7 3-12-0 1- 1-0 4-13-0

Due to the House: Mr Whittle's money deducted:

103- 7-1 4-13-0

Due to the House:

98-14-1

[p.117] Received the 6th year beginning October 7th 1751 C.53 C.54

16

October 21st. Received of Mr Bartlett for 6 weeks' lodging and dressing October 23rd. Received of Mr Dormer (alias Ld. Dormer) for 6 weeks' lodging

Dom Roger Joseph Whittel O.S.B. (see supra., p. 56 & note 283).

5 5 0 1 16 0


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES C.55 C.56 C.57 C.58 C.59 C.60 C.61 C.62 C.63 C.64

January 13th 1752. Received of Sir Edward Smith for 19 weeks' lodging and dressing October 20th. Received of Thos : Stapylton Esqr. for 2 weeks' lodging and dressing December 9th. Received of Mr Widderington for 5 weeks' lodging and dressing November 25th. Received of Mrs Guillrni for one weeks' lodging January 29th. Received of Mrs Symmons for 2 weeks' lodging Received January 5th, of my Lord Langdale for Mr Baker's lodging Received of Mr Brookes February 16th 1752 for 2 weeks' lodging May 14th. Received of Mr Chabran for 3 weeks' lodgings June 15th. Received of my Lady Mostyn for 7 weeks' lodging and dressing

121 50 15 10 320 9 17 0 070 489 012 0

o 12 0 000 3 15 0 18 3 6

From October 7th to October 7th 1752 Received: Expended: Received this year more than spent: Carryd from the last year as due to the House: Left in my hands when I last balanced with Mr Howard:

94 18 1 85 5 6 13 8 7 10 19 4Y2 23 5 5%

Due to the House: 47 13 N.B. Mr Whittle's lodgings etc. are not charged here, nor Mr Stear's and his servants in the last year' s account, 4-13-0 both which would amount to: 9- 4-0 and

5~

13-17-0 Servants on Mr Stear's account when not content:

1- 7-0

15- 4-0 What I advanced in money to Mr Whittle by order is to be seen in my other account book and to be repayd.

[p.1l8] The Bell-tree accounts from November 5,1750 to October 7, 1752 Bell-tree Debtr. Balance of last account when stated to Mr Howard, 23: 5 : 5% November 5, 1750: Received since for lodgeings etc. to

Credr. p. cont. Expended in house-rent taxes etc. from November 5 to October 7, 1751: 72 : 19 : 10Y2 ditto to October 7, 1752: 85: 5: 6 Paid to the Bell-tree


122

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

October 7, 1751: Received from ditto to October 7,1752:

83 : 19: 3

servants and p. order:

13 : 19 : 0

98 : 14 : £205 : 18: 9% Debtr. Credr. Balance due:

£172: 4: 4% [sic.] 205 : 18 : 9% 172: 4:4% 33 : 14 : 5%

January 23, 1753: The above accounts examined and approved p. me. D.P. Howard, Prov.C. 1 7 The above statement is in Howard's handwriting; the note below in Bradshaw's: 18 N.B. There is a mistake in the 3d year's receipts, 10 pound being omitted (see the 3d year) and the balance of the accounts to the* House in the year 1750 when Mr Howard stated them should have been £33-5s.-5%d. instead of £23-5s.-5%d. which 10 pounds I will repay the House.

[p.119] N.B. payd to Mr Howard, November 5th, 1750 when I stated accounts with him: 20 0 0 More when I stated accounts, January 23,1753: 13 19 0 N.B. Mr Stear's lodgings and dressing for himself and man should be allowed me (towards discharging the yearly interest upon the House): 940 and likewise Mr Whittle's lodgings etc.: 413 0 N.B. 19 Mr Stear's lodgings and dressing should be 10 pounds. N.B. My accounts were passed January 3d [sic.] 1753 by Mr Howard from November 5th 1750 to October 7th 1752, the beginning of my 7th year; but Mr Stear's and Mr Whittle's lodgings etc. as above were not included due from the Province to this House but the 12 guineas I advanced to Mr Whittle and the moid [?], or £1. 7s. Od. I gave to servants on Mr Stear's account was accounted for; and as I had at the end of my sixth year (i.e. October 7th, 1752) in my hands belonging 47-13-5% to the House for lodging etc.: including the 12 guineas payd to Mr Whittle and £1-7s.-0d. 13-19-0 on Mr Stear's account, this being deducted: There remained in my hands as due to the House October 7th, 1752, the beginning of my 7th year:

33-14-5%

N.B. Mr Howard and I have differed one farthing. 20 Dom John Placid Howard O.S.B., Provincial of Canterbury, 1745-53 (Birt, pp. 105,343). 18 Everything on this page of the Ac~ount Book as far as the asterisk is written on a piece of paper affixed to the page with sealing wax; the remaining words are written on the page itself. 1 9 In the original this is a marginal note. 20 Perhaps a reference to the error in addition on the preceding page of the Account Book (credit side). 17


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES

123

[p.120] Due to the Bell-tree the 7th year (from lodgers) commencing October 7th 1752 N.B. For old pewter and brass A.65. B.65 Mrs Arundell Dr. to the Bell-tree for 10 weeks' lodging and dressing A.66. B.66 Mrs Cary Dr. to the Bell-tree for one week's lodging A.67. B.67 Mr Maire Dr. to the Bell-tree for 8 weeks' lodging A.68. B.68 Mr Southwell Dr. to the Bell-tree for one week A.69. B.69 Mr Barkiey Dr. to the Bell-tree for 6 weeks' lodging A.70. B.70 Mr Furnace Dr. to the Bell-tree for 5 weeks' lodging A. 71.B.71 Mr Gradell Dr. to the Bell-tree for 21 weeks' lodging A.7 2. B.7 2 Mrs Scarisbrick Dr. to the Bell-tree for 3 weeks' lodging A.73. B.73 Mr Jones Dr. to the Bell-tree for one weeks' lodging A.74. B.74 Lady Mostyn Dr. to the Bell-tree

1 8 0 18 15 2 2 18 9

11 9 6 o 15 0 12 12 3 1 10 0 7 4 0 1 19 4 0 7 0 0 0 0 58 19 0

[p.121] Received the 7th year commencing October 7th 1752 from lodgers s d 1 8 0

ÂŁ

N.B. For old pewter C.65 January 1st 1753. Received of Mrs Arundell for 10 weeks' lodging and dressing November 1st 1752. Received of Mrs Cary for one weeks' lodging April 25th. Received of Mrs Maire for 8 weeks' lodging March 6th. Received for Mr Southwell's lodgings June 24th. Received of Mr Barckley for 6 weeks' lodging June 14th. Received of Mr Furnace for 5 weeks' lodging Received of Mr Gradell for 21 weeks' lodging June 12th. Received of Mrs Scarisbrick for 2 weeks' lodging and dressing June 18th. Received of Mr Jones for one weeks' lodging Received this 7th year from October 7th 1752 to October 7th 1753 : Spent this year: Received this year: Spent more the [sic.] received:

18 15

2

2 18 9 11 9 6 o 15 0 12 12 3 1 10 0 7 4 0 1 19 4 0 7 0 58 19 0

ÂŁ s d 60 15 2Y2 58 19 0 1 16 21/2


124

CATHOLICISM IN BATH N.B. the expenses of this year were much diminished by taxes and other dues not being demanded till the year was expired, which are placed to the accounts of the following year. Balance due to the House, October 7th 1752 when the accounts were passed: The deficiences of this year deducted: Balance due to the House:

33 14 5% 116 2% 31 18 3%

[p.122] Due to the Bell-tree the 8th year commencing October 7th 1753 ÂŁ A.74. B.74 Lady Mostyn Dr. to the Bell-tree for 7 weeks' lodging and dressing A.75. B.75 Mr Conquest Dr. to the Bell-tree for 7 weeks' lodging and dressing A.76. B.76 Mrs Monington Dr. to the Bell-tree for 7 weeks' lodging and dressing A.77. B.77 Mrs Lee Dr. to the Bell-tree for 14 weeks' lodging and dressing A.78. B.78 Miss Hardland Dr. to the Bell-tree for 28 weeks A.79. B.79 Mr Mostyn Dr. to the Bell-tree for one weeks' lodging and dressing A.80. B.80 Mr Meredith Dr. to the Bell-tree for 8 weeks A.81. B.81 Mrs Fairfax, alias Harvy, Dr. to the Bell-tree for X (see 86) A.82. B.82 Mr Barckeley Dr. to the Bell-tree for 3 weeks A.83. B.83 Mrs Molloy and Mrs Dayly Dr. to the Bell-tree A.84. B.84 Mr Bennion Dr. to the Bell-tree for 3 weeks' lodging A.85. B.85 Sir Edward Smith's21 Butler John [space] due to the Bell-tree

s d

14 10 6 2114 3 9 16 0 22 8 9 12 17 9

o 16

5 2 19 4

3 18 6 413 0 0 2 0 0

Sir Edward Smith's man's lodging gratis:

96 15 6 2 0 0

Received this year:

94 15 6

[ p.123] Received the 8th year of my comeing, commencing October 7th 1753 ÂŁ C. 74

C.75

October 20th. Received of my Lady Mostyn for lodging and dressing October 31st. Received of Mr Markham for Mr Conquest's lodging and dressing

s d

14 10 6 2114 8

21 Probably Sir Edward Smythe, 4th Bart., of Acton Burnell (Kirk, p. 214). His brother Walter, when living in Bath many years later, had a butler called John Owen (Reg. 1).


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES C.76 C.77 C.7S C. 79 C.SO C. Sl C.S2 C.S3 C.S4 C.S5

November 24th. Received of Mrs Monington for 7 weeks' lodging and dressing February 4th 1754. Received of Mrs Lee for 14 weeks' lodging and dressing May 23: Received of Miss Hardland for 2S weeks' lodging and dressing Received December 25 of Mr Mostyn for one weeks' lodging and dressing Received of Mr Meredith April 16 for 7 weeks' lodging This line is blank May 9th. Received of Mr Barckley for 3 week July 25: Received of Mr Molloy and Mrs Dayly for 2 [?] weeks' lodging and dressing September 23d. Received of Mr Bennion for 3 weeks' lodging these lodging etc. given gratis

125 9 16 0 22 S 9 12 17 9 016 5 2 19 4 3 IS 6 4 13 0 1 1 0 0 0 0

Received this Sth year: Spent this Sth year on all accounts: Received this 8th year:

94 15 6 101 S 11 -% 94 15 6

Spent more than received: Balance due to the House from other years: Deficiency of this year to be deducted:

6 13 5 ~ 31 18 3 ~ 613 53,4

Balance due to the House: N.B. Advanced to Mr Warmold,22 to be deducted:

25 4 10 4 4 0

Due to House:

21 010

[p.124] 9th year commencing October 7th 1754, due for lodgings ÂŁ

A.86 [sic . ] Mrs Fairfax (alias Harvy) Dr. to the Bell-tree A.S6 . B.S6 Mr Molineux Dr. to the Bell-tree for 9 weeks' lodging and dressing A.S7. B.S7 Mr Englefield Dr. to the Bell-tree A.8S. B.S8 Mr Gillybrand 23 Dr. to the Bell-tree for lodging A.89. B.S9 Mrs Pepper to the Bell-tree for 10 weeks' lodging and dressing A.90. B.90 Mr Berkeley Dr. to the Bell-tree for 2 weeks' lodging A100 B100 Mrs Fairfax Dr. from March 3d 1755

93 5 0 18 14 8 3 2 6 1 14 0 15 19 5 2 4 0 0 0 0 Due:

22 23

s d

Dom Jolm Bernard Warm oil O.S.B. (Birt, p. 127). Perhaps one of two Jesuits of this name; cf. F oley, VII. pp. 313-4.

134 19 7


CATHOLICISM IN BATH

126

The following statement is in the handwriting of Dom Henry Jlrybume:

24

The Bell-tree accounts from November 7th 1752 to the 4th August 1755. Debtr. Bell-tree 33 14 5% To Balance of last account: Received for lodgeings from October 7, 1752 to 58 19 0 October 1753: Received for Do. to October 1754: 94 15 6 134 19 7 Do. Received to August 4th 1755: Total Debtr : Bell-tree Expended in house-keeping, house rent, taxes and parish dues and repairs from the 7th of October 1752 to October 7th 1753: Expended to the 7th of October 1754: Expended in Do. to the 4th of August 1755: August 5th 1755 to Mr Wyburne arrears due :

322 8 6% Credr. 60 15 2% 101911% 82 1 0%25 27 8 0

Total Credr.

271 14 2%

Debtr : Credr:

322 8 6% 271 14 2%

Due to Balance:

5014 3%

August 5th 1755 the above accounts examined and admitted of p. me D. Hen. Wyburne, Provo Cant. In Bradshaw's hand: N.B. this should have been 92 pounds etc. and the 10 pounds I expended this year more than mentioned or charged balanced for the 10 pound in the 3d year received and not charged. I began to correct the whole accounts but found it perplexing so meade this short memorandum which shews they are just in the whole: there is a mystake of a shilling etc.

[p.125] 9th year. received for lodgings

e.86 e.87 e.88

February 1st. Received of Mrs Fairfax ÂŁ50 the 3d of March. March 22d ÂŁ43 5s. due for lodging and dressing 93 5 0 January 25th. Received of Mrs Molineux for 9 weeks' lodging and dressing 18 14 8 May 20th. Received of Mr Inglefield 3 2 6 March 20th. Received of Mr Gillibrand for lodging and dressing 1 14 0

24 Provincial of Canterbury; cf. Birt, pp. 107, 343 (the latter page gives the correct date on which he became Provincial: 1753, not 1750). 25 In the original, the note in Bradshaw's hand, printed at the end of this page of the Account Book, is written alongside these figures.


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES C.89 C.90

127

May 25th. Received of Mrs Pepper for 10 weeks' lodging and dressing May 8th. Received of Mr Berkeley for 2 weeks' lodging Received:

15 19 5 240 134 19 7

N.B. The 27 pounds mentioned to be payd to Mr Wyburne for arrears includes 4 guineas advanced to Mr Warm old by Mr Wyburne's orders, which 27 pounds if Mr Howard accepts for all arrears supposed to be due from the Bell-tree (as Mr Wyburne imagines he will) there will then be due to Mr Wyburne from the Bell-tree House (or to whoever is Provincial) on the 7 th of October 1756 the summe of 10 pounds; but if Mr Howard does not accept of the aforesayd summe of 27 pounds for all supposed arrears, then Mr Wyburne has received (more than is due to him at this time) seven pounds eight shillings, and there will be only 2 pounds, 12 shillings due to the Provincial from the Bell-tree, October 7th 1756. N.B. There was spent upon the House and chappell and myself the 9th year from the 7th of October 1754 to the 6th of October 1755:House expenses before the accounts were stated by Mr Wyburne House expenses after, and before the end of the 7th year Chappell expenses not charged to the House Payd arrears to Mr Wyburne Expenses on myself not charged to the House Ground-rent paid after 7th year was out but due before A carpett bespoke this year and wrote for about A very extraordinary expensive year: N.B. The carpet and carriage cost me only ÂŁ5 lOs. 6d.

82 20 07 27 29 05 06

1 16 13 8 16 12 0

0 9 1 0 4

4 0

179 7 6

[p.126] The 10th year commencing October 7th 1755. Due for lodgings ÂŁ A.100 B100 A.101 BIOI A.102 B.102 A.103 B.103 A.104 B.104 A.105 B.105

Mrs Fairfax Dr. from March 3d 1755 [no figure entered] Mrs Hyde Dr. to the Bell-tree for 5 weeks' lodging etc. Mr Thornton Dr. to the Bell-tree for one week lodging and dressing Mrs Piggot Dr. to the Bell-tree for 22 weeks' lodging Mr Jones Dr. to the Bell-tree for a week's lodging Mr Allen Dr. to the Bell-tree for 2 weeks' lodging

s d

14 9 10 2 17 6

14 19 11

o 11

0

240


CATHOLICISM IN BATH

128 A.106 B.106 A.107 B.107 A.108 B.108 A.109 B.109 A.110 B.110 A.ll1 B.ll1 A.1l2 B.1l2

Madam Howard 26 Dr. to the Bell-tree for 10 weeks' lodging and dressing Mr Dormer Dr. to the Bell-tree for 4 weeks' lodging and dressing Lord Dormer Dr. to the Bell-tree for 5 weeks' lodging Mr Leith Dr. to the Bell-tree for a fortnight's lodging etc. Mr Chichester Dr. to the Bell-tree for 5 weeks Mr Welch Dr. to the Bell-tree for 2 weeks' lodging and dressing Lord Dormer Dr. to the Bell-tree Due and received this 10th year:

[p.127] C.101 C.102 C.103 C.104 C.105 C.106 C.107 C.108 C.109 C.110 C.111

December 27th. Received of Mrs Hyde for 5 weeks' lodging etc. November 12th. Received of Mr Thornton for one week's lodging and dressing May 2nd. Received of Mrs Piggott for 22 weeks' lodging December 9th. Received for Mr Jones's lodging etc. December 19th. Received of Mr Allen for 2 weeks' lodging etc. April 19th 1756. Received of Madam Howard for 10 weeks' lodging and dressing May 8th. Received of Mr Dormer for 4 weeks' lodging and dressing June 1st Received of Lord Dormer for 5 weeks' lodging July 5th. Received of Mr Leith for 2 weeks' lodging etc. July 29th. Received of Mr Chichester for 5 weeks' lodging and dressing September 3d. Received of Mr Welch for 2 week lodging and dressing Received this 10th year: Spent the 10th year in rent, taxes, repairs, housekeeping etc. : Received this 10th year:

2019 4 5 7 0 2 10 0 013 0 7 3 0 2 6 3 0 0 0 74

o 10

£

s d

14 9 10 2 17 6 14 19 11 011 0 2 4 0 20 19 4 5 7 0 2 10 0 013 0 7 3 0 2 6 3 74 010

8217 1%* 74 0 10

The deficiences of this 10th year: 8 16 3% *Against this entry is written, it was only £82 16s. 10V2d. Balance due to the House last year: 29 17 6% Deficiences this year: 8 16 3% 21 1 3 This should have been only £ 11 Is. 3d. bu t if we add the £ 10 mystaken in favour of the House it will be the summe mentioned. 26 Perhaps Mary Agnes (Anne) Howard, Abbess of the "Blue Nuns" in Paris, for whom see CR.S. , 8, p. 371.


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHNES NATIONALES

129

[p.128] Incomes due for lodgings the 11 th year commencing October 7th 1756 £ A.1l2 B.112 A.1l3 B.1l3 A.1l4 B.1l4

A.1l5 B.115

Lord Dormer Dr. to the Bell-tree for 5 weeks' lodging etc. Mr Englefield Dr. to the Bell-tree for a fortnight's lodging etc. Captain Paston Dr. to the Bell-tree for 4 weeks' lodging N.B. The remainder of Mrs Fairfax's lodgings to the time of her death. 27 N.B. her servants remained some while after for which is nothing is charged Mr Dormer Dr. to the Bell-tree for 4 weeks' lodging and dressing

s d

1 18 0 017 3 2 0 0

26 7 7 5 5 4 36 8 2 33 5 31h

Presents made this and other years:

69 13 51h

End of Bradshaw's debit entries: the following are by Fr. Naylor: Receipts for lodging and dressing C.1l6 [sic.] B.1l6

B.1l8

B.1l9

Mr Leigh came the 6th of August 1757; had a room at 6 shillings a week. Due from Mr Leigh for 4 weeks' lodgings till the 4th of September: £14s. Od. Mr John Chichester came to the Bell-tree the 26 of October; he at first had two bedchambers and a dining room at 10 shillings per week each with the room on the back stairs at 7 shillings per week and a garret at 5 shillings per week. Then the second week of his coming had a servants' hall at 5 shillings p. week. He staid here till November the 6th himself; lady and Mr Paston's family went off the 8 of November 1757. Due for 6 weeks: for lodgings, 16 pounds; for dressing to the 30 of November, £2 5s. Od. Mr Walmesley Lord Bishop came to board here the 11 th of November and to lodge the 8th of December 1757

B.116 B.1l6

C.1l8 £16 OOs. Od.

C.119

27 Described in two earlier entries (pp. 122 & 124 of Account Book) as alias Harvy. In the burial register of Bath Abbey the interment of a Mrs Mary Harvey on 9 June 1755 is recorded (R.B.A., p. 443).


130 B.121

B.120 B.121

CATHOLICISM IN BATH Mrs Chichester came to the Bell-tree on Thursday the 5th of January; had a room and parlour at 7 shillings per week each, the paper room at 6 shillings and a garret at 5 shillings per week. Mrs Web owes from Michaelmas to the 29th of December 1758 [no figure] Mr John Chichester and lady had two seven shilling rooms and the paper room at 6 shillings each with a garret for ten weeks and a servants' hall for 8 weeks.

C.120

C.121

[p.129] [Bradshaw's hand] Received for lodgings this 11 th year commencing October 7, 1756 ÂŁ

C.112 C.1l3 C.1l4

C.1l5

October 24th. Received of Lord Dormer for 5 weeks' lodging etc. November [blank] Received of Mr Englefield for a fortnight's lodging and dressing December 8th. Received of Captain Paston for 4 weeks' lodging Received for Mrs Fairfax's lodgings (arrears) to the time of her death April 30th. Received of Mr Dormer for 4 weeks' lodging and dressing

s d

1 18 0

o 17

3

2 0 0 26 7 7 5 5 4

Presents made this and other years:

36 8 2 33 5 31h

Total received:

69 13 5Y2

End of Bradshaw's credit entries: the following are by Naylor: C.116 C.118

C.119 C.117

28

Paid by Mr Lejgh for 4 weeks' lodgings at 6 shillings per week, September 5 tho Found in the church box August 24th 1757 Received of Mr John Chichester the 5 of November 1757 for lodgings Received from the same for dressing to November 30th. Received from Mrs Chichester of Arlington for one week's dressing after the departure of Mr Chichester, December 7 tho Mr Walmesley went away the 31st of July. Received of Mr John Henneage 28 ofCadeby for lodgings from the 22d of September till the 29 of December A.D. 1757 the sum of ÂŁ19 05s. Od. Item for dressing to December 25th 1757

See supra., p. 63. CR .S. 59 contains much on this family.

001 04 0 00005 11h 01600 0 00205 0 00007 0

01905 0 001 06 1


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES

C.120 C.121

Item for lodging him and his brother Winsor, with dressing to March 13 tho Mrs Web paid for her garret a quarter now due Mr John Chichester paid for lodging and dressing for the family and Mr Paston's dressing

131 ÂŁ. s. d. 011 03 4 00110 0 017 17 0 71

2 6%

[p.130, unnumbered] 1759 B.122 B.123 B.124 B.125 B.126 B.127 B.128 B.129 B.130 B.131 B.132 B.133

B.134

B.135

B.136 B.137

29

Mr and Mrs Paston of Horton for a bed-chamber, garret 8 weeks; with another garret 3 weeks for Mr Englefield For Mr Windsor Henneag's lodging 4 weeks, see Mrs Web for a garret, a quarter due last Lady Day Lord Dormer owes for lodging here six weeks, 1-16-0, his dressing not being taken notice of, being very little and wont formerly to have been never counted Lord Dormer staid here in September 6 weeks at 6 shillings per week Mr John Stonor staid here till March 9th, having occupied a bed-chamber, parlour and garret Mrs Lorymer, daughter and maid lodged and boarded here part of three weeks till November 26th. Miss Mosten and Blundel staid here with a maid 9 weeks: viz. 6 weeks out of season and three weeks in season Mr Charles Englefield staid here seven weeks, having a room at 7 shillings and also boarding Mr Edwd. Markham had his room for 4 weeks, at lOs. each Wm. Middleton Esq. of Stockhill 29 staid here till April 24, being part of seven weeks: for his lodgings, dressing and two dozen and half of old bottles and hamper at three shillings Mr John Stonor Esq. staid till the 30th of May. Having lodged here six weeks, his nephew paid 4 weeks for the garret, wherefore remain only two weeks for the garret due, besides his own lodgings Mr Thos. Stonor staid till May 14th. Had for the first week a bedchamber, then afterwards for part of three weeks also a dining room. Two of these last weeks in season, the third week out of season Miss Betty Stonor staid till June 20th, having occupied one room in season 2 weeks, out of season the same two weeks and lastly 2 rooms for three weeks The Right Ronble. Lady Molyneux lodged here five weeks till July 31st. The Bell-tree accounts from the 4th of August 1755 to the 21st of August 1759:

Stockeld, Yorks.

C.122 C.123 C.124 C.125 C.126 C.127 C.128 C.129 C.130 C.131 C.132

C.133

C.134

C.135 C.136 C.137


132

CATHOLICISM IN BATH Do. for lodgeings : Do. to donations:

B.138 B.139

251 1 6 186 16 4

Total received : 437 17 10 N.B. The accounts here begun in a hurry August 21, 1759, are settled in the book of general accounts by the V.R. Mr Henry Wyburne, Provine. Cantuar. John Rowe Esqr. staid here two weeks C.138 The Honble. Mrs Cary staid here eleven weeks and six days in season, and nine weeks out of season till March 3d 1760, the whole for lodgings being ÂŁ55. 18s. 4d.

[p.l3l] 71 02 6Y2

A.D. 1758. Receipts for lodgings and dressing. C.122 } From Mr and Mrs Past on, paid for lodgings C.123 Paid for Mr Windsor Henneage, see C.117 above C.124 Paid for a garret May 6, a quarter due last 24 of March C.125 by Mrs Web C.126 May 16th. Received of Lord Dormer for lodging here six weeks Received for lodgings and dressing this year.

C.127 C.128 C.129

C.130 C.131 C.131 C.133 C.134 C.135

Total:

005 11 0 000000 00110 0 001 16 0 79 19 6%

July 4th. Received a quarter due 24 last for a garret, from Mrs Webb 00110 October 8. From Mr Peter Holford and John Wright Esqres. for 00404 here and boarding 8 days, unexpectedly detained October 24th 1758. Received of Lord Dormer for six weeks' 00202 lodgings and for other expences March 8th 1759. Received from Mr John Stonor for lodgings 023 12 and dressing in and ou t of season Mrs Lorymer paid November 26th for her lodging and boarding. 006 16 The twelfth of January 1759 the Honble. Mrs Webb paid 00300 for her garret April 1st, 1759. Received of Miss Mostyn for lodgings and dressing 01018 Received April 2 of Mr Englefield for lodgings and boarding 00505 here 7 weeks April 6, 1759. Received of Mr Edw. Markam for 4 weeks' 00200 lodgings April 23. Received of Wm. Middleton Esq. for lodgings, dressing, 010 05 viz. dozen and half of bottles with an old hamper May 29, 1759. Received of John Stonor Esq. for his lodgings 005 10 here six weeks, his dressing and two weeks a garret May 13th, 1759. Received of Mr Thos. Stonor for lodgings 00404 June 8, 1759. Received of the Honble. Mrs Webb for her garret half a year's rent, being the last in alilikelyhood, 00300 according to the agreement made in A.120

0 0 0 0 6 0 7 0 0 4 0 0 0


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES C.136

June 19, 1759. Received of Miss Betty Stonor for lodging and 004 10 8 dressing Received for lodgings and dressing this year,

C.137

133

Total:

086 18

July 31, 1759. Received of the Right Honble Lady Viscountess Molyneux for lodging and dressing for five weeks 014 10 5 101 8 6

C.138

C.139

Received of John Rowe Esq. for lodging and dressing two weeks the 8th of October 1759 003 19 November 21, 1759. Received of the Honble. Mrs Cary for lodgings . 01800 Item : April 11th 1760. Received for lodgings from the 037 18 Honble. Mrs Cary For damages suffered from that Hon. Lady 001 09 January 4th 1760. Received of the Honble. Mrs Webb for her garret, being half a year's rent, now elapsed at Christmas 003 00

7Y2 0 4 2 0

06407 1V2

fp.132]

Lodgings, 1760 B.140 B.141 B.142

B.143 B.144 B.145 B.146

B.147

Mr Phil1. Langdale staid here six weeks, all counted out of season; as several pressed him to quit his lodgings, he always eat abroad, so there was no dressing Mr Englefield staid here till the 20th of July; his different absences being counted, the time was computed about seven weeks John Bodenham Esq. staid here till November 2d , part of seven weeks, 2 out of season as reckoned and five in season, with a truckle bed a day or two after arrival at 2 shillings and 6 pence. Dressing was agreed for at 5 shillings per week Mrs Gentil stayed till March 2d 1761: eleven weeks, three in season and eigh t ou t of season WilIm. Scarisbrick Esq. remained here till May 12, being six weeks Mr and Mrs Orpwood stayed here till June 14th. I had been intreated to let the parlors cheaper; this was a promise I made to Mr Orpwood, yet nothing fixed Mrs Lucy Thomson staid here till May 4 th 1762, having had the dinning room, the bedchamber and a garret all at that time besides three weeks the hall and another room which on her long stay I let her have at five shillings per week as a garret John Chichester Esq. and lady went away with Wm. Paston and lady on the 24th of May 1762. But Mr Chichester and lady, returning with servants on the 31st, retook the same appartments, besides the white room, and stayed to July 5th

C.140 C.141

C.142 C.143

C.144 C.145

C.146

C.147


134 B.148 B.149

B.150 B.151 B.152

CATHOLICISM IN BATH Miss Sayer stayed to August 6th. But soon, having parted with her maid, mine attended her and therefore nothing was then counted her for the turn-up bed in the parlour Mr Joseph Baker stayed to July 19th and left his wife and maid till the 6th of August. So that for five weeks were due and at his departure paid ÂŁ9.10s.0d. as the rest was paid by his wife at her departure Mr Charles Englefield stayed to August 15th. Mrs Vander came stayed to August 24th, boarded and lodged Miss Allice Rice stayed 56 weeks, boarding at lOs. lodging at 7s. John Chichester Esq. and lady stayed here to the 21 of December, being eight weeks, with Mr Paston

B.153

C.148

C.149 C.150 C.151 C.152 [blank]

[p.l33] brough t over C.140

ÂŁ. s. d. 06407 IV2

Received June 1st 1760 of Mr Phill. Langdale for lodging here six weeks

005 14 0

Received for lodging this year.

07001

Total:

IV2

A.D. 1760 C.141

C.142 C.143 C.144

JUly 20th. Received of Mr Charles Englefield for lodgings and boarding part of seven weeks Received July 22, 1760, of the Honble. Mrs Webb for her garret, half a year's rent, due last Midsummer November 2, 1760. Received of John Bodenham Esq. for 7 weeks' lodgings and dressing all due, the sum of March 2d 1761. Received of Mrs Gentil all due for lodgings and dressing for Miss Rice to this time Received May 11 th of Willrn. Scarisbrick Esq. for lodging and dressing for six weeks, all due This year total:

C.143 C.145

C.146 C.147

N.B. Received April 23 , 1762 from Mrs Gentil all due for Miss Alice Rice as agreed on last March 2d, when Mrs Gen til departed Mr Orpwood, being suddenly seized with sickness, went away June 14th 1761 without paying, but returning April 28, 1762, he paid as agreed on all accoun ts in full December 9th. Received of V.R. Mr John Howard 3o for boarding himself and servant Mrs Lucy Thomson paid May 3, 1762 all due for lodgings and dressing July 5 th 1762. Received of John Chichester Esqr. all due for lodgings and dressing

00411 0 00300 0 016 17 0 011 15 11 007 19 0 44 2 11

21 7 6 10 10 0 5 5 0 4013 0 14 12 9

President-General of the English Benedictine Congregation, 1753-66 (Birt, p. 336).

30


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES C.148

C.149 C.150 D.151 D.152 D.153

t. August 6, 1762. Received of Miss Sayer for lodging all due to this day of her departure from Bath 11 A.D. 1762, June 27th. Received of the Rt. Honble. Ld. Bp. of Rama 31 for his board 9 August 6th 1762. Received of Mrs Mary Baker, and before from 012 her good husband, all due for boarding and lodging Received for lodging and boarding, January 18, 1763 of Mr Englefield 04 Mrs Vandercame paid August 23d for her board and lodging 01 Received of Mrs Gentil October 3d 1763 for Miss AI. Rice boarding 28 From ditto for dto. boarding 18 January 8, 1763. Received of John Chichester Esq. of Arlington for his and Mr Paston's lodgings and dressing, all due 22

135 s. d. 12 6 11 0 18 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 2 0 1 0

fp.134] 1763 B.154 B.155 B.156 B.157 B.158 B.159 B.160 B.161 B.162 B.163 B.164 B.165 B.166 B.167

Mrs Mulcraim and Mrs Burck stayed here to March the second, having remained six weeks Edwd. Harrold Esq., lady and son stayed here to the 8th of July 1763 Mrs Doughty, son and daughter staid here till January 9th 1764, 2 weeks out of season and 13 in season Thos. Suffield Esq. stay to February 17th 1764; all along keeping the rooms agreed on John Chichester Esq. stayed to February 20th, one week Mr Eccles 3 2 from Mr Lorimer's of Perthyre stay here till Thursday the 7th of June, being 11 weeks for lodgings and seven weeks for boarding A.D. 1764, June 10th. Miss Hellen Burke and Mrs Nacqten set off for Hammersmith, having lodged and boarded here nine weeks Humphrey Trafford Esq. of Croston stayed here till the 23d of June, that is eleven weeks, with his servant-man Miss Helen Burke and Mrs Nacqten staid here to the 6th of December 1764 A.D. 1765. Sir Walter Vavasour and family staid to the 21st of January The V.Rd. Mr Howard, Presid. GenI., stayed with his servant in this House to the fifteenth of February 1765 Mrs Fenwick33 stayed to the 17th of November Mr Stanley stayed to the 26th of October The V.Rd. Mr Jon. Howard, Prest. G., stayed here with his servant to the 10th of February 1766

D.154 D.155 D.156 C.157 C.158 C.159 C.160 C.161 C.162 C.163 C.164 C.165 C.166 C.167

Bishop Walmesley. Thomas Eccles O.F.M.; cf. Thaddeus, The Franciscans in England (1898) p. 176. 33 See supra., p. 63 & note 313.

31

32


136 B.168 B.169 B.170

B.171 B.172 B.173 B.174

B.175

CATHOLICISM IN BATH Philip Jones's lady and sister stayed here, the Esquire returning home and coming back again, to the 20th of March 1766 Mr Thoms. Suffield stayed with me to the 16th of May, that is four weeks John Tuite Esq. and sister stayed here till November 4th, four weeks; but the last week Mr Tuite had the side room, kindly giving place to Mrs Curson Mr Jno. Darrell stayed to January 31st 1767, deducting a week at Wardour Mrs Cursons stayed to the 8th of March 1767 Mr Elliot stayed to the 2d of March 1762 [sic.] Mr Willm. Metcalf stayed here to July 8th, being nine weeks, and boarded all the time; having tea, coffy, suggar etc. found him Mrs Markham stayed here on the conditions first agreed on to the 9th of April 1768

C.168 C.169 C.170 C.171 C.172 C.173 C.174 C.175

[p.135] 1763 D.154

D.155

ÂŁ March 2d 1763. Received in full for lodging and dressing from Mrs Mulraim and Burk 010 A.D. 1763. May 27. Received for boarding of the R.Rd.Ld.Bp. of Rama 12 July 8th 1763. Received of Edwd. Harrold Esq. for lodging and dressing in full from the 14th of March last 33 January 2d 1764. Received of the Honble. Mrs Webb elapsed for her garret 4 January 9th 1764. Received of Mrs Doughty all due for lodging and dressing, comprising the stay of Mrs Manock for 2 weeks 33 A.D. 1764. February 17th. Received of Thos. Suffield Esq. all due for ten weeks' lodging and dressing 09 A.D. 1764. February 26th. Received of John Chichester Esq. all due for lodging and dressing one week 2 A.D. 1764. June 7th. Received of Mr Eccles all due for lodgings eleven weeks at 7 shillings in and out of season, and boarding seven weeks at ten shillings a week 7 A.D. 1764. June 8th. Received of Mrs Nacqten all due for lodging and boarding Miss Helin Burk and her self for nine weeks 013 A.D. 1764. June 22d. Received of Humy. Trafford Esq. all due for lodging and little or no dressing 012

*

D.156

D.157 D.158 D.159

D.160

D.161

D.162 D.163

s d 5 4 0 0 11 10 0

16 13 0 2 0

3 0 12 0 17 2

A.D . 1764. july 1st. Received for boarding of the R.R.L.Bp. Rama 14 8 0 A.D. 1764. December 5th. Received of Mrs Nacqten all due for board and lodging 018 0 0 A.D.1765. January 18th. Received of Peter Vavasour Esq. in full 3118 6


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATION ALES D.164

D.165 D.166 D.167 D.168 D.169

D.170 D.171 D.l72 D.173

D.174 D.175

137 ÂŁ. s. d .

A.D. 1765. Received of V.Rd.Howard for boarding his servant February 14th. Lodgings not counted, but fire, candle etc. for his V.Rd.Paterny from last December 18th. 33 0 A.D. 1765. May 18th. Received of Ld.Bp.Ramath. out of his kindness for boarding, though by public act settled to live and be found here subsistence 13 12 0 Total: 81 6 November 17th 1765. Received of Mrs Fenwick all due for lodgings and dressing 31 8 9 October 26th 1765. Received of Mr Henry Stanley in full 07 11 0 for lodging and boarding all due February 9th 1766. Received of the V.R. Mr Jno. Howard for his and servant's board 550 March 19th 1766. Received of Phil. Jones Esq. all due for 13 13 0 lodgings and dressing victuals May 16th 1766. Received of Mr Suffield all due for board and lodgings 6 14 0 June 2d 1766. Received for boarding the R.R.Ld.Bp. of Ram. 12 16 0 A.D. 1766. November 4th. Received of John Tuite Esq. all due for lodgings and boarding four weeks 9 17 0 January 31,1767. Received ofMr Darrell all due 933 February 14. Received of Honble. M.W.34 7 10 0 30 4 3 A.D . 1767. March 8th. Received in full of Mrs Cath. Curs on A.D. 1767. March 1st. Received of Mr Elliot in full for lodgings and dressing 2 0 0 May 11 th 1767. Received of the R.R.Bp. Ramath. for boarding 12 8 0 Mr Metcalf for nine weeks' board and lodging [no figure entered] Received of Mrs Markham in full for dressing and lodging 33 7 9

[p.136] A.D. 1769 B.176

B. l77 B.178 B.179

Mrs John Stonor stayed a fortnight out of season and for the last week was joined by her husband Mr John Stonor , who for himself had the parlour bedchamber 3 The Right Honble. Lord Fairfax , Honb1e Miss, and Mr Bolton 5 stayed here to the 5 th of May, being eight weeks Mr Thos. Daniel, with servant, stayed to January 14th, being five weeks and half Mrs Bearcroft with Mr Young stayed here to the thirteenth of April 1773 N.B. A.D. 1773, July 31. The very R. Mr Bernard Bradshaw, Provo Cant., having for about ten days been here, examined all the accounts and my Bill of Poverty etc., did fully approve of the same. But testified a desire that R.J.J.Pl. Naylor would provide some certain furniture of a more genteel nature, which

C.176 C.177 C.1 7 8 C.179

34 Doubtless "Mrs Webb", as in other entries. 3 5 Dom John Anselm Bolton O.S.B. , chaplain to the Fairfaxes of Gilling (Birt, p. 125). See also H. Aveling, Northern Catholics (1966) pp. 376-7 , 385-6; J. McCann & c. Cary-Elwes, Ampleforth and its Origins (1952) passim.


138

B.180 B.181 B.182 B.183 B.184

B.185 B.186 B.187

CATHOLICISM IN BATH he was not able from poverty to do; but if abilities enabled him afterwards, he promised to comply with, as also to get rid of the noise and inconveniencies caused by the School, which very unwillingly Mr Naylor had hitherto suffered. A.D. 1773. October 25th. Received for V.Rd.Mr Carteret for lodging and boarding seven weeks. N.B. Boarding at 12s. though all this [illegible] 14 C.180 Mr Parker stayed to the 16th of October and went to the Parades C.181 John Berkeley Esq. and lady with Mr Butler departed December 30th and paid all due C.182 Mrs Lunt lodged here to the 17th of November, being eleven weeks, and Mr Standish took other lodgings C.183 Mrs Martin pleading sickness and distress, and that she would give no trouble etc., it was agreed she should only pay five shillings a week, and this much out of humanity for her afflictions C.184 April 17th 1775. Clemt. Paston Esq. departed and paid his bill C.185 May 1st 1775. Clemt. Paston Esq. departing paid his bill C.186 Mr Rich and Mrs Grig stayed contrary to all their first resolutions to the 11th of June A.D. 1776 C.187

[p.137] A.D. 1768

D.176 D.l77

D.178

A.D. 1768. Received of Mr Walmesley for board of him and servant this 2d of June 24 10 March 4th A.D. 1769. Received in full for lodging and dressing of Mr Jno. Stonor 3 0 A.D. 1769. Received May 4th of the Right Honble. Lord Fairfax all due for lodging and dressing victuals 25 8 A.D. 1769. May 22d. Received of the Rt.Honble.L.Bp.Ram for his servant's boarding 27 6 January 13th 1770. Received of Mr Thos. Daniel lodging and dressing from the 5th ulto. in full. I gave him the half week and the turn-up bed 2 15 A.D. 1770. June 19th. Received of Rt.H.L.Bp.Rama for boarding him and servant for 38 weeks at 14s. p.week, and the apartment 35 0 eight guineas August 3d. Received for Mrs Paston, widdow, for lodgings and 9 4 boarding wi th her maid, 1770 October 12th 1770. Received of Jno. Stonor Esq. for a 5 14 fortnight's lodging etc. June 5th 177l. Received of the Rt.R.Bp.of Rama for the board of himself and servant at 14s. per week for both, and 36 8 lodgings eight guineas a year August 17th 177l. Received of Mrs Paston for her and maid's 3 14 lodging and board for a fortnight September 26 th, 1771. Received of Mr and Mrs Nor thy for one 011 room, lodging and dressing 35 16 Mr [?] Walmesley paid

0 6 6 0 9 0 0 6 0 0 8 0


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHNES NATIONALES

139

April 12th 1773. Received in full of Mrs Bearcroft for lodging and dressing, but no damages paid, which were many, in breaking glasses, plates etc.; nothing also given my servants 48 12 0 May 21,1773. Received ofMr Walmesley in full 32 18 0

D.179

July 31, A.D. 1773, ends the visit by V.H.D.Bernd Bradshaw, Prov.Cant. A.D. 1773. October 25th. Reeeived for lodging and board of Mr Carteret 07 A.D. 1773. October 16th. Received in full of Mr Parker 1 A.D. 1773. December 29th. Received of Jno.Berkeley in full 12 A.D. 1774. ~ay 14th. Received of Ld.Bp.Walmesley for boarding 30 A.D. 1774. December 18th. Mr Lunt paid all due for his wife's lodgings 3 1775. June 14th. Paid by Mrs Martin 3 A.D. 1775. April 17th. Received of Clemt.Paston for lodging and 001 dressing A.D. 1775. May 1st. Received in full of Clement Paston Esq. 01 A.D. 1775. June 7th. Received in full at different times from lodgers for boarding and lodging, the full sum 038

D.180 D.181 D.182 D.183 D.184 D.185 D.186

8 0 7 0 9 6 16 0 17 0 3 0 7 1 7 3 10 0

N.B. Visit36 here. Bp. of R. A.D. 1776. March 27th. Paid in full by Mrs Martin 010 7 0 A.D. 1776, May 21st. Received of Rt.H.Ld.Bp. of Rama for 031 10 0 etc. [sic.] A.D. 1776. June 11 tho Received in full of Mr Rich for lodging 017 15 11 and dressing

D.187

End of Lodgers' Accounts; here follow blank pages, then the House Accounts, in Bradshaw's hand.

[unnumbered]

1746

D

The House accounts beginning from October 8th 1746, the first year of my comeing October 15th

5th Week

6th Week 36 37

Expended the first week during Mr Stear's stay here The second week The third week 4th week, 2 washers Is. each and and House-expenees More brou ht into this week's expenses for coales, flower 3 9and washing Mr Steer's shirts and one of my own November 7th. 10 loads of coal Tea 1qr. Malt 4 [illegible] 12s. Hetty's account 8s.2d. Sugar 1s.7d. Tobaco 4V2 [pence?] A gallon wine for altar extr. [?] and House-expences

? visitation; underlined in original and written in margin. Presumably flour.

o 10

6Ih 7 8V2 034 o 15 3Ih

o

012 5 01010 1 10

2 1Ih 3 6


140

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

7th Week

An old debt for milk 3s.6d. Coals 6s.6d. and other House-expenees 1 0l1% December 5 th a poor lay 083 8th & 9th Washing, coals 6s.6d., repairs, brewing and Week House-expenees 1 14 1 December 10th Letters, journeys and horse keeping to this time 1 5 2 10th Week [blank] 11 th Week Mending my wigg 2s. Coals 4s.4d. Mending windows 8s.10d. and other House-expenees 1 18 6Yz To the water man 2s.6d. and other expenees of the 12th Week House o l1 10 13th Week To a servant 5s. To the barber and boys a New Year's gift 2s.6d. and House-expenees 14th Week Land tax l1s. Wine for altar 6s.8d. Coals 4s.4d. and House-expenees 113 0* 14th Week To Hothershall £ 2 2s. Od. Coals 1s.l d. and [sic] House-expenees 395 16th Week Coals 4s.4d. Oats 6s.8d. and for the water lOs. and other House-expenees 1 10 0 17th Week Hay 3s.6d. Wax candles 3s.8d. Coals 4s.4d. and other House-expenees 18th Week House-expenees o 9 5Vz 19th Week Poor lay 8s.3d. Hay 3s.6d. Coals 1s.1d. and other House expenees o 19 10 20th Week Coals 4s.4d. Flower 3s. Cheese 8s.4d. Butter 4s.6d. Hay 3s.6d. and other expenees 1 10 21st Week House expenees 014 7Yz 22nd Week Hay 19s. Coals 5s. Other expenees 113 7 23 Week 6 measures of malt and hops £1 Is. Id. Wine for altar 6s.8d. and other expenditure 1 15 7 24th Week o 18 1 6 loads of coals 6s.6d. Wax and other House-expenees 28 8 1OY4

[ p .141] D Carryed from other syde [i.e. above] 28 8 10Y4 March 25th 1747 25th week Lamp money 4s.6d. March 30th, ground rent £5 .2s.4d. March 31st, window money ISs. The same day watch money 2s.3d. The same day for museeline 3 8 and 8 5 4Yz other House-expenees this week 01311% House-ex penees 26th week Stone cutter's bill £1.4s.5d. and other 27th week House-expenees 1 11 7% 7 loads of coal 7s.8d. and other House-expenees 28th week o 18 8 015 10 29 week April 27 , a poor lay 8s.3d. and other House-expenees Altering coat and breeches 16s.6d. and House-expenees 1 4 4Yz 30th week o 10 8% Expenees 31 st week Mending House. Wine for altar. Journey to Horton and 32 1 6 6Yz other House-expenees 38

Probably muslin (O.E.D.) .


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES 33 & 34 35 week 36th week 37th week 38th week 39th week 40th week 41st week 42d week 43d week 44th week 45th week 46th week ' 47th week 48th week 49th week 50th week 51st week 52 week

141

A hatt 13s.3d. Pair of shoes £l.ls.0d. and Houseexpenees House accounts Cloaths £5 .15.0d and House-expenees A gallon of wine for altar and House-expenees July 1st, a poor lay, 4 rates, lIs. Water rent lOs. and House--expenees July 8th, back stairs Is. July 9th, window money 12s.3d. Cloaths makeing £3.17s.6d. My journey to East Harterl 9 9s.1d. Cloath for waistcoat 19s. July 20th, land tax lIs. July 21st, watch money 4s.6d. with House-expenees House-expenees Mending windows and House-expenees August 8th, for whitewashing the outwalls of the House £1.2s.0d.; for painting a window shutter, whitewashing the staircase and House-expenees Gallon of wine for altar 6s.8d. Coals 4sAd. and other House-expenees House-expenees House-expenees 3% yrds of frize at £1.6s.0d. A busher [sic.] of flour 7s. other House-expences Makeing coat and triming £1.2s.0d. Bushel of malt 125. Coals 4s. and House--expences To Hothersa1 £ l.ls.0d. and House-expenees House-expences House-ex pences October 2d 1747, ground rent £5 .2sAd. and Houseexpences Spent from October 7th 1746 to October 7th 1747:

2 14 9

o 9 11 6 2 OY2 o 18 4 233 502 2 15 8Y2 0% o 13 5

o 11

1 12 11% 1 6 2 4 8%

o 10 o 16

2 0 2 19 1 6 013 0 3

0% 9 1/2 6 8

6 14 9 1/2

83 8 7%

on the other side [i.e. below]

[p.142] An account of money payd and spent the first year of my comeing to the Bell-tree £

D

Spent in housekeeping etc., necessaryes for myself, taxes etc. from October 7th 1746 to October 7th 1747 Payd Mrs Hothershall the expences of her journey from Lancashire and for her box Payd her her wages for one year. N.B. 40 This does not content her November 12th 1746, payd the House debts which I found at my comeing 39 40

East Harptree, Somerset. In the original this is a marginal note.

s d

83 8 7% 5 2 0

4 4 0 13 011


142

CATHOLICISM IN BATH Paid an after bill for milk Paid a glazier's bill

3 6 810

Spent in all this year in housekeeping, cloaths, taxes, servants' wages, repairs, letters, journeys, horse hyer and on other accounts from October 7th 1746 to October 7th 1747: 106 7

10~

N.B. as I layd out on all occasions this year a great deal of my

own money (the House being in debt at my comeing) I kept but one account, so joynd the expences upon myself for cloaths etc. to the House-expences etc. but shall be willing to allow for my cloaths etc. what my Superior shall think proper on the balanceing the accounts. What I spent is to be seen in the particular accounts or day-book and what I expended in housekeeping and what I received from the church-box shall be summed up and accounted for when I make up my accounts. Disbursed 106 7 10~ Received this year from lodgers: 51 0 7 Spent more than received: To be deducted' as received from Mr Howard to pay debts:

55 7 3~ 20 0 0

October 8th 1747 - wanting then to make up the balance :

35 7

3~

N.B. I tooke the remainder of the 20 pounds advanced to pay

debts (which was £6.6s.9d.) to buy cloaths as Mr Howard ordered me. I look upon it as my right. 6 6 9 Which added to the £35.7s.3~d, deficiency of this year is: £ s From which I deduct my own expences this year: 20 8 A bill due from Lady Gerningham's cook 2 0 N.B. Money found in the church box 3 5 219 Expences in keeping my horse In all deducted from the general account of this year as expended upon myself and horse:

4114 d 8 0 9 1%

O~

2813 6Yz 4114 O~ 28 13 6%

The deficiency of this year:

13 0 5 3,4

[ p.143] The 2d year's expences, beginning October 8th 1747; ending October 8th 1748 £ 1747 October 8th Spent Ist week October 8th, a poor lay lIs. 9th October a window tax 12s.3d. and House-expences 2d week House-ex pences 3d week 4 loads of coal 4s.4d. For lamps and scavenger 11s.3d. Coals 3s.3d. and other expences

s d

224 11

o 10

1 2 8%


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES 4th week 5th week 6th week 7th week 8th week December 9th week 10th week 11th week 12th week 13th week January 14th week 15th week 16th week February41 17th week 18th week 19th week 20th week March 21st week 22nd week 23d week

House-expences 3 loads of coals 3s.3d. November 10th, wages to Hothersal £4 4s. Od. etc. Expenees Butter, 12 pounds, 6s. and other House-expenees Wine for altar etc. and House-expenees House-expenees Coals 9s.9d. A new door lock and key 5s.6d. House-expenees Wine for altar 6s.6d. Watch money 2s.3d. [or 2s.6d.] Repairs and other House-expenees A generall wash 16s.6d. Coal 3s.3d. and other House eX'Penees Chief rent Is. Lamp men Is. and House-expenees Coals 4sAd. The water man 2s.6d. and House-expenees Land tax lIs. Wine 6s. Wax 8s. and other Houseexpenees Barrs and door for a boyler 6s.10d. Water money lOs. Candles 5s. and other expenees Setting a boyler, flagging in the kittehen and other repairs £ 1 6s. Od. House-expenees Payd Molly wages 9s.9d. and House expenees Payd Mr Haviland's bill for Hothersal and myself £3 2s. Od. To a nurse £11s. Od. and expenees Wine for altar 6s.8d. Coals 12s. and other House-expenees 4 poor rates lIs. and House-expenees Soap 5s.6d. Butter 3s. 2 washers 2s. and Houseexpenees House-expenees A gallon of wine and House-expenees

143 013 6V2 4 16 1 o 17 3 o 19 5~ 0 8 9V2 1 14 1 5

9~

113 2

o 12 4 o 16 11 1 17

111 8 2 1 2% 019 1V2 4 4 10 1 410V2 019 4

o 19 8% 0 410% o 15 8 32 11 8%

[p.144]

24th week 25th week 26th week 27th week 28th week

£ s 3211 Carryed over 6 bushells of malt 16s. March 22d, watch money and 1 3 House-expenees March 28th 1748, ground rent and church dues £5.2s.4d. 510 and House-expenees Hanging a room 18s. A window tax April 5th, £1.4s.6d. 3 5 Poor rates 11 s. House-expenees A wagon-load of coals carryed gratis 14s. and House019 expenees 013 Spent

d 8V2 6 4% 10 6 0

41 "February" and "March" are inserted (here, as in the original) in the wrong places; the 17th week began on 28 January and the 21st on 25 February.


144 29th week 30th week 31st week 32d week 33d week 34th week 35th week 36th week 37th week 38th week 39th week 40th week 41st week 42d week 43d week 44 45 46 47 48

week week week week week

49th week 50 week 51 week 52 week

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

o 13 9% A gallon of wine for altar, 6s.8d. and House-expenees Hou,se-ex penees 075 House-ex penees 044 A church lay May 16th, 5s.6d. and House-expenees 093 To the ehambermayd 10s.6d. and House-expenees o 16 6V2 A wagon-load of coals earryed gratis 13s.2d. and 11011% House-ex penees House-expenees o 13 5% 14 pounds of soap and other House-expenees 014 10 June 17th, watch money 4s.6d. and House expenees o 16 2% House-expenees o 13 4% July 4th, 5 poor 1ates lIs. and land tax 5s.6d. and House-expenees 1 8 3V2 o 12 11 Sugar 4s. with other House-expenees A load of coals earryed gratis 14s. with other 147 House-expenees o 15 6 Washer woman etc. and other House-expenees Sweeping ehymneys, joyner's work and whitewashing 195 and House-expenees 087 Joyner's work and House-expenees 012 5% 2 quarter barrells of beer and House-expenees o 1110 Unloading coals and House-expenees 1 3 10 2 gallons and half of wine 15s. and House-expenees House-expenees, letters etc. 3 waggon-Ioads of coals 2 11 11 and the carriage given me £2.0s.0d. Chamber brushes and rubing brushes and other 010 9 House-expenees Water rent lOs. A gallon of wine 6s. and House-expenees 1 2 3% A copper pann 9s. A gallon of wine 6s. and Houseexpenees 5 6V2 October 5th, window tax £1.5s.0d. October 6th, ground rent £5.2sAd. and House-expenees 6 16 10 Coales 3 3 0 Total spent this year:

[ p.145]

75

£ Received this 2d year for lodgings from October 8th 1747 to October 8th 1748: Expended in the same time in housekeeping, furniture, repairs, taxes, servants etc:

1 9%

s d

95 4 10 75

9 34

Balance this year due to the House: Deficiency of the last year:

20 3 0% 13 0 5%

In bank for the House :

07 2 6V2

The 3d year beginning October 7th 1748 1st week 2nd week

House expenees October 14th, a poor rate 11s.; the 18th, lamps etc. 5s.7%d. Wine 6s. and House-expenees

0 4 1 1 12 10Yl


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES 3d week 4th week 5th week 6th week 7th week 8th week 9th week 10th week 11 th week 12th week 13th week 14th week 15th week 16th week 17th week 18th week

145

To the eooek 5s. To the chamber mayd 5s. Sugar lOs. Soap 6s.4d. Land tax 5s.6d. and House-expenees 2 2 41'2 Hothersall remainder of wages £3.3s.0d. and Houseexpenees 3 10 2 Pewter £l.ls.2d. Hair doath £1.2s.0d. Wax 7s.6d. and House-expenees 316 Salt butter 6s. and other House-expenees o 17 1Yz A gallon of wine 6s. and other House-expenees 086 Pewter scouring and other House-expenees 080 Soap 6s. and other House-expenees o 17 6 Watch money 4s.6d. 2 candle sticks 5s.6d. A grate and brass tripet 42 17s.6d. and House-expenees 270 A fish 'kettle £1.3s.0d. Coals 16s. Wine 6s. and Houseexpenees 2 9 8 1/2 Postman and waterman New Year's gift 3s.6d. January 4th. Land tax 5s.6d. and House-expenees 0 12 9 To Mr Stapleton's servant 5s. and House-expenees 0 6 9 January 11 th, a quarter's window tax 12s.6d. and Houseexpenees 0 16 11 January 18th, a poor rate lIs. Wax 7s.3d. Carriage of carpet 4s.6d, and House-expenees 9 7 To Hothersal belonging to last years wages £1.1s.0d. and House-expenees 2 3 3 A load of coals, the carriage given 14s. Wine 6s.8d. and House-expenees 8 10% To Hothersal the remaining part of last year's wages and to makeing defieienees £3.3s.0d. Water rent lOs. and other House-expenees 4 13 0 29 9 11 1'2

[p.146]

19th week 20th week 21st week 22d week 23d 24th week 25th week 26th week 27th week 28th week 29th week 30th week 42

£ Carryed over 29 House-expenees 00 House-expenees 00 6 measures of malt £ l.ls.0d., hops 3s.6d. and House01 expenees 01 Coals 14s. Soap 3s.5d. and House-expenees 00 House-expenees A load of coals £1.4s.4d. Wax candles 2s.6d. and House02 expenees To chamber mayd 19s.10d. Ground rent etc. £5.2s.4d. and House-expenees 06 March 5th, lamps and scavengers 5s.7Yzd. April 11th, land tax 5s.6d. Wine for altar 6s. A church lay and stock [? 1 8s.3d. and House-expenees 1 April 12, a window tax 12s.6d. and House-expenees 0 Scouring pewter 2s. and House-expenees 0 0 House-expenees House-expenees 0

Trivet (O.E.D.).

s d 9 111'2 11 3 10 10 12 9

5 1 8 1 011% 5 61'2 14 18 6 5 2

6 1 6 8 11


146 31st week 32d week 33d week 34th week 35th and 36th week 37 week 38th week 39th week 40th week 41st week 42d week 43d week 44th week 45th week 46th week

CATHOLICISM IN BATH Soap and blew 4s.6d. 2 washer women 2s. A gallon of wine 6s. and House-expenees 0 17 4 A cheese 4s. 1d. and other House-expenees 0 12 3 House-expenees 0 3 4% House-expenees 0 7 11 A dozen napkins and table cloath £l.ls.0d. Shutters for dineing room £l.14s.6d. and House-expenees 4 14 6 House-expenees o 10 3 3 loads of coals at £l.10s.0d. per load and Houseexpenees 5 5 2~ Bottles and corks 7s. Washer woman ls.6d. and Houseexpenees 015 5% House-expenees 065 House-expenees 012 Ph July 28th, window tax for 1 quarter 12s.6d. Quilting 3 days 3s. and House-expenees: 1 8 6% House-expenees 0 10 8% A load of stones and pitching 6s.1 Od. and House-expenees 1 6 01'2 House-expenees 0 8 2 Whitewashing 12s. A plummer's bill 3s.10d. and Houseo 0 expenees 64 10 4%

[p.147] 47th week 48th week 49th week 50th week 51st week 52d week

64 10 4% Carryed A washing tub 3s.6d. Soap 3s.6d. Masons 2s.6d. and other House-expenees o 17 11 September 13, payd wages to Hothersal £4 4s. Od. and 4 11 3 House-expenees o 16 1 House-expenees 119 8 Malt 14s. A poor rate 11s. and House-expenees 114 3 Water money lOs. and House-expenees Lamps and scavengers 5s.7d. Dymothy43 £1 Os. Od. Damask 12s. 51'2d. Ground rent and Parson's dues, and 7 1111 House-expenees Spent this third year from October 7th 1748 to October 7th 1749 in taxes, repairs, rent and House-expenees: 82 Received this year: Spent this year:

3d year 2d year

£ s d 155 18 7 82 1 5%

Ballance due to the House this year: Last's year's balance: Balance due to the House : N.B. I have not as yet received Mr Howard's accounts for

43 Probably dimity (see Q.E.D.).

5%

73 17 1~ 7 2 61'2 80 19 7%


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES

147

things bought for the House, which will diminish this balance, nor payd myself for discharging a weekly obligation, which when done, my stock will be but low, if any at all.

[p.148] House accounts for the 4th year beginning October 7th 1749 1st week 2d week 3d week 4th week 5th week 6th week 7th week 8th week 9th week 10th week 11th week 12th week 13th week 14th week 15th week 16th week l 17th week f 18th week 19th week 20th week 21st week 22d Week} 23d week 24th week 25th week 26th week

44

£ s d A quarter's window tax 12s.6d., October 9th. Watch money 0 19 7 4s.6d. [October] 11th and House-expences 4 dozen of candles £1.6s.6d. 7 pound of wax 8s.3d. Breads 3s. etc. 2 411 Half a hundred of cheese and carriage 16s.2d. and Houseexpences 1 8 Usquebath 44 and House-expences 010 Ph Mops and brushes 3s.6d. and other House-expenees o 10 9 A gallon of wine 6s. and House-expenees 095 7 pounds of soap 3s.6d. and other House-expenees o 8 11

House-ex penees

015 7%

Tea 4s. December 11th, watch money 2s.3d. and Houseexpenees 0 17 2 More tea 4s.3d. A gallon of wine 6s. and House-expenees 0 18 4 7 pounds of sugar 2s. Scouring pewter and Houseo 13 3 expenees January 8th, to the water man 2s.6d. The 9th, a quarter's window tax 12s.6d. and poor rate 11s. To the post man etc. and other House-expenees 1 15 4 January 16th, a quarter's land tax 5s. and House-expences 0 15 1% To Hothersall wages and to supply her yearly losses in buying and other House-expenees 3 19 0 Soap and blue 3s.6d. Flower and other House-expenees 0 12 6% A ferkin of table beer and hops 3s.1d. and other Houseo 12 expenees Ashes and to a washer woman 1s.4d. and other House0 6 4Y2 expenees To Mr Stapylton's man upon the House account and House0 12 10% expenees 14th March, a church lay l1s. Water money the 16th, lOs. and other House-expences 1 13 9% A bushel of malt 14s. Hops 2 pounds 5s. and Houseexpenees 1 6 9% 10 pounds of north cod and other salt fish 4s.4%d. 7 pounds of cheese 19s.3d. March 28th, 1 quarter's window tax due Lady-day 12s.6d. and other expenees 2 9 11% April 3d, to Hothersal wages 1 guinea. Same day, ground rent £5.2s.4d. etc. 6 15 2%

Usquebaugh or Whiskybae (see O.E.D. under these) i.e. whisky.


148 27th week 28th week 29th week 30th week

CATHOLICISM IN BATH Cheese 15s.7d. 6 poor rates 16s.6d. April 12, lamps and scavengers 5s.7%d. and House-expenees House-expenees H ouse-expenees May 4th and 5th. Coals 5 pounds and other Houseexpenees

2 7 lY2 013 2 o 7 101;2

598 39 13

[p.149] 31st week 32d week 33d week 34th week 35th week 36th week 37th week 38th week 39th week 40th week 41st week 42d week 43d week 44th week 45th week 46th week 47th week 48th week 49th week 50th week 51st week 52d week

Carryed over 39 13 o 7 71;2 House-expenees o 16 11;2 House-expenees To Hothersall part of wages 10s.6d. and House-expenees o 18 8 House-expenees 030 To the eooek 10s.6d. Wine for altar and House-expenees 1 6 91;2 Soap and blue 3s.6d. and other House-expenees 11 8 013111;2 4 poor rates and 2s. for stock 11 s. and House-expenees Watch money for half a year 4s.6d. Malt 9s. and Houseexpenees 0 19 6Y2 Sweeping chimneys 3s. Soap 3s. and other House-expenees 0 15 10 To Hothersal part of wages 10s.6d. and House-expenees 0 15 10 One quarter's window money 12s.6d. Land tax 3s. Painting etc. 2 1 11 Water money 10s. and other House-expenees 1 5 7 10 pounds and half of bu tter 4s.4d. Bread 2 week 3s.9d. and other House-expenees 1 0 10% Lace and mending chairs and House-expenees 0 13 7 A joyner's bill4s. To a painter for paint lOs. and Houseexpenees 1 0 2 House-expenees 0 12 31;2 15 gallons of wine £3.15s.0d. and other House-expenees 4 4 3Y2 A whitewasher's bill 16s.6d. 40 bushel of coal and Houseexpenees 2 0 111/2 To Hothersal part wages £ l.s.Od. and House-expenees 1 6 4¥.! House-expenees 0 16 3 4 poor rates and stock lIs. Watch money 2s.3d. Salt 1 14 6 butter 7s.6d. and House-expenees o 12 11 Malt 7s. and House-expenees Spent this 4th year from October 7th 1749 to October 7th 1750 in taxes, repairs, furniture and other House-expenees: Received this 4 th year: S pen t this year: Balance due to the House from this year: and from other years to be added: Due to the House: on the other side

64 11 10 68 6 11 64 11 10 3 15 80 19 7*


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES

149

[p.150] October 7th 1750. Ballance carryed over as due to the House: Payd myself for 3 years, discharging an obligation £5 p. ann: Ballance due to the House:

84 14 8% 15 0 0 69 14 8%

House expences the 5th year beginning October 7th 1750 1st week 2d week 3d week 4th week

£ s d October 8th, ground rent£5.2s.4d. and other House-expences 5 16 3% One quarter's window money 12s.6d. Land tax 3s.9d. and House-expences o 19 1 Breads 2s.6d. and House-expences 012 5 A Turkey carpet £5.lOs.0d. To Hothersall and other Houseexpences 9 5% 16 9 3 N.B. November 5th 1750, Mr Howard being at the Bell-tree, we stated our accounts. The ballance from last year due to the House was: 69 14 8% House expences from the 7th of October to the 5th of November 1750 deducted: 16 9 3 November 5th 1740. Ballance due to the House: 53 5 5% November 5th 1750. Payd Mr Howard in part of 3 Annuities due from the Bell-tree from Michaelmas 1746. N.B. I 20 0 0 discharge the 4th obligation my self. Then ballance due:

33 5 5%

In Howard's hand: November 5th 1750. I have examined the above accounts and approve the same and find there remains in Mr Bradshaw's hands twenty [sic. ] -three pounds, five shillings, five pence and three-farthings. D. Plac. Howard, Provo Cant. This is rong X [in another hand]

[p.151] The accounts continued from the fourth week of the fifth year and 5th of November 1750 £

5th week 6th week 7th week

House-expences To Hothersal £l.ls.0d. A subscription 5s. and Houseexpences Cheese 10s.6d. and other House-expences

s d 9

o 14

1 13 5Vz 102


CATHOLICISM IN BATH

150 8th week 9th week 10 week 11 12th week 13th week 14th week lSth week

16th week 17th week 18th week 19th week 20th week 21st week 22nd week 23d week 24 2Sth week 26th week 27th week 28th week 29th week 30th week 31st week 32d week 33d week 34th week

To a gent. for supplying my absence 10s.6d. Soap and blue 3s. l0d. and House-expenees 7 7Ih Wine £l.ls.0d. 4 poor rates December 7th, 9s. and House2 2 4 expenees To eooek and ehambermayd 10s.6d. To Mr Pleuras [?] servant Ss. Watch money 2s.3d. etc. 2 111 Tea 10s.6d. To the watchman Is. and other House-expenees 0 19 4Ih To the postman Is. and House-expenees 010 9V2 Lamps and scavengers for a year 13s.6d. To servants £ 1. 7s.0d. and House-expenees 2 9 9% Window money and land tax £l.Os.Od. Soap 3s.6d. and Houseexpenees 111 0 Mending the water pipes 7s.6d. Water money January 24th, lOs. and House-expenees 1 2 6% 3 measures of malt 10s.6d. Hops 2s. To Hothersal wages £l.ls.0d. and House-expenees 2 12 OIh H ouse-expenees 0 9 SV2 To Hothersal wages 3s. and House-expenees 1 2 4 House-expenees 0 8 1 A fortnight's bread and flower and other House-expenees 014 0 House-expenees 0 S 0 40 bushells of coals £1.1s.8d. 4 poor rates lIs. March 20th, watch money 2s.6d. March the [smudged] payd ground rent and Minister's dues £S .2s.4d. 7 7 S March 29th, window money 12s.6d. and House-expenees 1 4 4 o 14 S Candles for altar and House-expenees o 12 4 House-ex penees 1 7 4% 4 bushells of malt 14s. Breads 3s. and House-expenees 0 9 9 House-ex penees A church rate 8s.3d. A journey 10s.4d. and House-expenees 1 310% 01310 A quarter of a pound of tea and other House-expenees o 10 2Ih House-expenees 0 811 House-expenees 1 8 OV2 40 bushells of coals and other House-expenees 37 S 2

[p.152] House-expenees Carryed over House-ex penees A joyner's bill June 20th 47 45 and House-expenees 4 poor rates June 19th, lIs. and House-expenees Sugar and tea ISs. Knifes and forks Is.10d. and Houseexpenees 39th week To Hothersal wages in part £1.11s.6d. and House-expenees 40th week july 11 th, water rent lOs. Wax 10s.6d. and House-expenees 41st week Payd an yearly aunnuity £S.Os.Od. and House-expenees 42d week Sheets, table cloaths, tow ells etc. and House-expenees

35th week 36th week 37th week 38th week

45

Perhaps 4s. 7 d.

37 S o 11 o 13 1 1

2 9V2 10Ih 10Ih

114 0% 2 7 1% 282 S 2 10 4 17 7


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES 43d week 44th week 45th week 46th week 47th week 48th week 49th week 50th week 51st week 52d week

151

House-expences 0 9 5 pounds of soap 3s. and other House-expences o 12 A cheese 3s.3d. Tea and sugar 4s.1d. and other House-expences 0 19 House-expences 0 4 House-ex pences 0 8 September 6th, 83% loads of coal £4.10s.5%d. and cloath for towells 5s. etc. 5 0 4 bushells of malt at 3s.8d. per bushel 14s.8d. Hops 2s.8d. for the back stairs etc. 1 10 House-ex pences 0 8 24th September, 4 poor rates 11s. 28th, a whitewasher's bill 111 12s.8d. and House-expences October 2p, ground rent and Minister's dues £5 .2s.4d. A quarter's watch money 2s.3d. and other House-expences 5 12

6 6 4 9 3

5V2 9 5

5V2 0

The expences of this 5th year from November 5th 1750, the time Mr Howard and I balanced accounts, to October 7th 1751: 72 19 10% N.B. Sixteen pounds nine shillings and 3 pence of this year's expences was accounted for September 5th when Mr Howard and I balanced, so that the whole expences of this year are:72 19 10% and 16 9 3 the whole expences of this year: 89 9 1% but I payd this year debts to Mr Howard, which were contracted years before. Received this 5 th year: 83 19 3 72 19 10V2 Expended: Due to the House: Due to the House when balanced: Due from this year: Due to the House:

10 19 4% 23 5 5 3,4 10 19 4V2 34 4

1O ~

[p.153] House-expenees the 6th year of my eomeing to the Bell-tree from October 7th 1751 1st week 2d week 3d week 4th week 5th week 6th week 7th week 8th week 9th week

£ s o 14 A window tax October 10th and House-expences 1 4 Wine for altar. A joyner's bill 8s. and House-ex pences To Hothersall remainder of wages £3.11s.6d. and other House3 19 expenees 0 8 House-expences 013 Lamps and scavengers 6s.5* d. and other House-ex pences Poackers and 2 setts of fyer irons, 16s. New curtains 213 etc. £1.8s.6d. etc. 0 7 House-expences and scouring pewter 013 Breads for altar 3s. and House-expenees 0 7 House-ex pences

d

3 3 6 8 7*

3Vl 6 0

2V2


152

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

10th week 18 pounds of sugar 10s.6d. Mops and brushes 3s.6d. Chairs 5s. and House-expenees 11th week Carriage of 47 pounds of bu tter from Twerton 3s. and House-expenees 12th week To the watchman Is. and House-expenees 13th week 4 poor rates January 3d, lIs. Watch money 2s.3d. and House-expenees 14th week Wine 3% gallons £l.ls.0d. Butter 3 dozen and cheese and other House-expenees 15th week January 14th, a window tax and other House-expenees 16th week January 23d, water money lOs. and House-expenees 17th week Wax candles 5s. Soap and blue 4s. and House-expenees 18th week 2 new heaters and mending others 2s. and other Houseexpenees 19th week Flowers for the altar lOs. To Hothersal £l.8s.0d. and other House-expenees 20th week 4Vz bushells of malt 17s.3d. Hops 3 and 4% and other House-expenees 21st week 38 pounds of salt fish and 1% gallons of wine and sugar £l.2s.6d. and House-expenees 22d week 40 bushells of coals £l.ls.8d. and other House-expenees 23d week 100 herrings and cheese 11 s.l O%d. A harth stone and [sic.] £l.Os.Od. and House-expenees 24th week House-expenees 25th week 28th of March, ground rent and Minister's dues £5.2s.4d. A Paschal candle and House-expenees 26th week Window tax 2d April, 12s.6d. Land tax 3s. Lamps and scavengers 6s.5%d. House-expenees 27th week ~ pound of tea 4s. and other House-expenees 28th week House-expenees 29th week Barometer 7s.6d. Mop and brush 1s.6d. Carriage of butter and House-expenees

1 12 3Vz 013 3 0 8 7% 0 210 1 0 o 18 o 14

o 14

5 3 11 5

3Vz

2 5 0% 8 71h

811Vz 8 6% 1 18 4 0 8 9 6 8 7 113 6~ 013 5 0 6 0 3 3% 39 17 10

[p.154 ] 30 week 31st week 32d week 33d week 34th week 35th week 36th week 37th week 38th week

Carryed over Breads for altar 6s. 40 bushells of coals £l.ls.8d. and House-expenees Mending the sink and other House-expenees A ehafeing dish 5s. Soap 3s.6d. Carriage of wine 2s. and House expenees House-expenees House-expenees To Hothersal, to make up deficienees in buying £ l.ls.0d. and House-expenees A glazier's bill1s.8d. and House-expenees 4 poor rates, June 18th, lIs. and other House-expenees Payd Hothersal more of her wages, £l.8s.0d. A whitewasher's bill lls.5d. Colours and painting £l.6s.10d. More for colours etc. £l.Os.10d. Putty 2s.6d. June 29th, watch money 2s.3d. and House-expenees

£ s d 39 17 10 112 11 0 411 1 2 6% 9 5Vz

o 18 o 17

1 14 8% 3% 1 3 6%

o 12

5 0 3


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES 39th week House-expences 40th week 3 bushells of malt 11 s. 20 bushells of coal 1Os. 1Od. A quarter's window tax 12s.6d., July 9th and the same day half a year's land tax 6s. Hops 2s.6d. Another painter's bill £1.14s.5d. and House-expences 41st week To a gardiner Is. and House-expences 42d week 8 pounds of soap 4s.6d. and other House-expences 43d week A cheese 3sAd. and other House-expences 44th week A gallon of wine 6s. and other House-expences 45th week A washer-woman Is., a milk bill 2s. and other Houseexpences 46th week A whitelymer's bill 12s.10d. Mops Is. 3d. and other Houseexpenc€ts 47th week Tea and coffee 4s.5d. 165 bushells of coals £4.9s.4Y2d. and House-expences 48th week 6 poor rates 16s.6d. A whitewasher's bill5s.7d. A quarter's watch money 2s.3d. 4 bushells of malt 15s.4d. 49th Hops 3s.9d. and other House-expences 50th Payd Hothersal part wages £1.8s.0d. A joyner's bill 17s.4d. 51st My own annuity for discharging a weekly intention £5.0s.0d. Spent this year 1752: N.B. The painting of the House this year and the whitewashing without and within and joyner's work etc. very much encreased the accounts of this year.

153

o

7 9%

4 10 7 093 016 9% 016 8% o 19 3%

o 15 1 5 11 4 18 OYz

3 17 2% 13 3 7Yz 85 5 6

[p.155] Received this 6th year from October 7th 1751 to October 7th 1752 from lodgers etc., Mr Whittle's lodging not included: 98 14 1 Expended on the House account in this time: 85 5 6 Received more than spent this year: Last year: In my hands when last balanced:

13 8 7 10 19, 4Y1 23 5 5%

47 13 5Y4 N.B. Neither Mr Stear's lodging etc. (14 weeks with a servant) nor Mr Whittle's lodgings etc. (12 weeks) are accounted for as received although charged as due in my accounts above. They both amount to £13 17s. Od. What I advanced in money to Mr Whittle, being 12 guineas, is part of the £47 13s. 5%d. [sic.] due to the House and must be either repayd or accounted for when the accounts are balanced with Mr Howard. 12 12 0 On Mr Stear's account: 1 7 0 13 19 0 January 23d 1753 the accounts were stated to October 7th 1752, the 1st day of my 7th year when I had in my hands belonging to the House £47 13s. 5Y4d. , including what I advanced to Mr Whittle. I paid for Mr Stear's £ 1 7s. Od.


154

CATHOLICISM IN BATH Both these being deducted, there remained in my hands £33 14s. 5~d. October 7th 1752.

47 13 5~ 13 19 0

33 14 N.B. October 7th 1752, to which time the accounts were stated, I had in my hands ballanee to the House: 33 14 [Added in margin:] N.B. Mr Stear's £ 1 7s. Od. was placed to the House accounts and should not have been deducted from the £47 13s. 5~d.

5~ 5~

[p.156] House accounts for the 7th year of my being at the Bell-tree commenceing October 7th 1752 £

1st week 2d week

A gallon of wine 6s. Soap 3s. and other House-expenees A quarter's window tax 12s.8d. 2 cheeses 7s.8d. and House-expenees 3d week Coals 18s.7d. Pewter candlesticks and snuffers, saucepan and mending a wash kettle and other House-expenees 4th week House-expenees 5th week Soap 3s.6d. and other House-expenees 6th week 2 chairs and a matt 3s. and other House-expenees 7th week A sugar loaf and tea lOs. 3 dozen of butter 18s. and House-expenees 8th week Breads for altar 3s.6d. and other House-expenees 9th week House-expenees 10th week House-expenees 11 th week A joyner's bill4s. and other House-expenees

g!~ !eeks Rice, sugar and raysons 6s.0Yld. and other House-expenees 14th week A quarter's window tax 13s.6d. of [?] land tax 3s. Watch Is. To Hothersal 13s.6d. and House-expenees 15th week 3 pounds of soap 3s.6d. and House-expenees 16th week Wax 4s.10d. January 22nd, lamps and scavengers for a year 12s.1Phd. and House-exEenees 17th week Cassock for saerysty 7s.9d. 6 Makeing and buttons 4s.6d. and other House-expenees 18th week Apples 2s.8d. To February 7: to Hothersal 7s.6d. and Houseexpenees 19th week 6 poor rates 16s.6d. 5 gallons of wine £1.10s.0d. 20th week Watch money 4s.6d. and other House-expenees 21st week House-expenees 22d week Candles 3s. Herrings 3s. and other House-expenees 23d week Sugar 1s.8d. Bread 3s.6d. and other House-expenees 24th week House expenees

s d

o 17 11

11110 5 17 6% o 6 9~ o 11 2% 088 118 6

o 7 11

090 o 10 10 01310 410Yl

2 4 11 013 3% 3 11Yl

3 7% 0 2 6 o 17 o 8 011 011 o 6 26 7

46

9 6 9 5 7 5 2 3~

Written 7 - 9 - 0, but evidently 7s. 9d. in view of total in right-hand column.


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES

155

[p.157]

25th week 26th week 27th week 28th week 29th week 30th week 31st week 32d week 33d week 34th week 35th week 36th week 37th week 38th week 39th week 40th week 41st week 42d week 43d week 44th week 45th week 46th week 47th week 48th week 49th week 50 week 51 week 52d week

House accounts for the 7th year, carryed from the other syde [i.e. above] 26 7 3~ House-ex pences 0 7 3 April 4th, a quarter's window money 12s.6d. The same day land tax 3s. Soap 3s.6d. and other House-expences 1 2 8 A fortnight's bread 3s.6d. and other House-expences 010 3 April 13th, ground rent and Minister's dues £5 2s. 4d. 3 bushells of malt lIs. and other House-expences 6 1 2Ih House-expences 013 8Y2 House-expences 010 5Ih House-ex pences 013 6 40 bushells of coals £1 Is. 8d. and other House-expences 111 3 Breads for altar and other House-expences 013 9Ih Carriage of butter and House-expences 011 7Y2 House-expences 0 9 8Ih House-expences, scouring pewter etc. 014 5 House-expences 0 6 9Ih June 26th, watch money 4s.6d. Soap 3s.6d. and Houseexpences o 17 8Ih House-ex pences 010 7 Water-rent £1 Os. Od. Water man 2s. 6d. and House-expences 1 10 4Ih My retribution £5, and House accounts 5 10 7Ih Spent in my absence these weeks, in housekeeping

2 5 9

In land tax, window tax, August 15. Church dues, the 26th. Soap 11s.6d. and coals 4 lIs. 6d.

6 1010

Half a dozen pounds of candles 3s. and other House-expences

o 10 10

House accounts House accounts 8 poor rates October 5th £1 2s. Od. and House-expences

0 3 9~ 0 9 1 111 9

Spent this year:

60 15 21/2

[p.158] Spent this 7th year from October 7th 1752 to October 7th 1753 in housekeeping, taxes, repairs etc. : Received from lodgers etc. during this time: Spent this 7th year more than received: N.B. As part of the ground rent for last year and other taxes due were not demanded till after October 1753, they are charged in the accounts of 1754, which diminishes much the expences of the [?] year past but will increase the expences of the presen t.

60 15 2Ih 58 19 0 1 16 2Y2


156

CATHOLICISM IN BATH N.B. Balance due to the House in my hands October 7th 1752 when my accounts were passed by Mr Howard: 33 14 5~ The deficiences of the last year deducted: 1 16 2Ih Balance in my hands due to the House:

31 18 2%

[ p.159] House accounts for the 8th year of my being at the Bell-tree, commenceing from the 7th of October 1753. N.B. Debts and dues of last year, not being demanded till this, are placed in this year's account. 1st week House expences and mending a lock Is. o 3 10 2d week Quarter's window tax October 19th, 12s.6d. Quarter's land 3d tax 2s. Michaelmas rent October 18th, £5 2s. 4d. and other House-expences 6 4 8 4th week Scouring pewter and tining saucepans and other Houseexpences 1 o 81h 5th week House-ex pences 0 511 6th week Wine for altar 6s. Salt butter 4s.8d. Candles 6s. Wages to Hothersal £3 3s. Od. and other House-expences 4 9 1 7th week Carriage of lease from London Is. and House-expences 0 6 7 8th week Scouring pewter and other House-expences 0 8 8 9th week Renewing the lease £1 12s. 6d. For the seale 6s. For entring etc. 2s.6d. and other House-expences 2 10 6 10th week House-expences 010 11 11th week House-expences o 911 12th week Breads for altar and other House-expences. Malt 11s. Hops 2s.4d. Wine for altar 6s. 1 6 2 13th week House-ex pences 014 OIh 14th week Paper 2s. To a gardiner Is. and other House-expences 013 4 15th week A cheese 3s.4d. 6 poor rates January 11th, 16s.6d. and other House-ex pences 1 13 11 16th week Beeswax 7s.6d. Clock cleaning and line [?] and other Houseaccounts 1 1 9 17th week Mending a carpet 3s. and other House accounts 013 5 18th week 2 new grates etc. £1 15s. 8d. Setting grates 7s.6d. and House accoun ts 211 4 19th week 40 bushells of coals £1 Is. 8d. A cheese 3s.6d. and other House accounts 2 2 3Ih 20th week Tea 8s. The carriage of a bed from Swainswick and other House accounts 1 15 8 29 2 8%

[p.160] Carryed over 21 st week A dial lOs. 4 chimney stones 8s. and House accounts 22d week Paveing and pitching £6.5s.6d. and other House accounts 23d week House accounts 24th week 40 bushells of coal £l.ls.8d. and other House accounts 25th week A gallon of wine 7s. and other House accounts

29 2 8Ih 1 17 5V2 6 18 7 o 12 1Ih 1 13 10 106


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES

157

26th week Watch money March 10th, 4s.6d. and House accounts o 13 10 27th week 4 bushells of malt 14s.8d. House rent £5.12s.4d. and other House accounts 6 2 10 28th week Half a year's window tax £l.5s.0d. A joyner's bil18s.3d. Whitewashing 3s.7d. Land tax 4s. etc. 3 7 1 29th week A workman's bill 3s. and other House-expences o 11 6 30th week Opening the shore4 7 in the kitchen 12s.1 Vzd . and other House-expences 8 4 31st week A cheese 4s.4Vzd. To Hothersal part of wages £2.3s.0d. 40 4 9 bushells of coals £l.ls.8d. and other House-expences 32d week Sugar brown and white 12s. Tea 4s. and other House1 311% expences 33d week A dozen 0f wine for altar 18s. and other House-expences 1 10 5 34th week Mending the water cock Is. and other House-expences o 15 0 35th week Collyer's Dictionary48 £l.5s.0d. and other House1 12 10% expences o 16 5Y2 36th week 7 pounds of soap 3s.6d. and other House-expences o 9 91/ 2 37th week House-expences 096 38th week Milk 2s. and other House accounts o 15 2% 39th week House accounts 1 13 4% 40th week Water rent July 9th, £l.Os.Od. and other House accounts 1 16 9Y2 41st week To Hothersal part of wages 16s. A cheese 5s.8d. etc. o 13 4Y2 42d week House accounts 43d week 2 annuityes payd £10.40 bushells of coals £1.1s.8d. A 11 18 8 plummer's bill 5s.4d. etc. 44th week Watch money 4s.6d. 30 pounds of cheese 9s. and other 611 House-expences 45th week Soap 3s.9Vzd. To washerwoman etc. and other House-expences 1 3 2

[In the total, "16" is overwritten upon "17"; hence the following:] Here is a mystake of a shilling and I have corrected some of the sums but is is not worth while to correct all to the end.

[p.161] Carryed from the other syde 46th week 166 bushells of coals £4.9s.11d. Window ta,"\: for one quarter 12s.6d. Land tax 2s. and other House-expences 47th week House-ex pences 48th week House-expences 49th week Malt 10s.6d. Hops 2s.3d. and other House-expences 50th week House-expences 51st week 7 pounds of soap 4s.7d. A fortnight's bread 4s. and other House-expences 52d week A white-washer's bill 19s.6d. Painting windows £l.5s.0d. 24 yards of sheeting £l.10s.0d. 28 pounds of soap 14s.

83 16 OY2 5 17 I Y2 075 o 15 1 1211 Y! o 10 3Y2

o 19

10

Perhaps a reference to timber or metal supports (shore up, Q.E.D.). Probably Jeremy Collier's Great Historical, Geographical, Genealogical alld Political Dictionary, based on that of Lewis Morery (various editions; see British Museum Catalogue of Printed Books). 47 48


CATHOLICISM IN BATH

158

Sugar and tea before 18s.6d. To Hothersal19s. Window tax a quarter due at Miehaelmas last

8 0 2%

Spent on all accounts this year : Received:

101 8 11% 94 15 6

Spent more than received:

613 5%

Balance due to the House earryed from other years : To be deducted this year's deficiency :

31 18 3% 613 5%

Balance yet due to the House: N.B. Advanced to Mr Warm old, to be deducted:

25 410 4 4 0

Balance due to the House:

21 010

N.B. Nothing has been received for Mr Stear's and Mr Whittle's lodging etc.

[p.162] House accounts for the 9th year of my being at the Bell-tree commenceing October 7th 1754 £ 1st week 2d week 3d week 4th week 5th week 6th week 7th week 8th week 9th week 10th 11th 12th 13th

week week week week

14th week 15th week 16th week 17th week

October 14th, House rent £5.12sAd. , and Houseexpenees Beeswax 3s.1d. and other House-expenees Mending the jaek49 £1.10s.0d. Wax 7s. and other Houseexpenees House-expenees Dictionary 8s. To Hothersal 7s. Cheese £1.5s.0d. Salt butter lOs. Carriage of more from Twerton 4s.2d. and House-expenees % pound of tea and other House-expenees Pair of blanketts £1.5s.0d. A glazier's bi1l5s.5d. 5 hundred breads 3s. and other House-expenees Cotton for curtains £2 and other House-expenees 12 poor rates December 14th, £1.13s.0d. An upholsterer's bill £1.7s.3d. A frame for a screen 5s. Shutters for the white room and House-expenees House-expenees House-ex penees House-ex penees To Hothersal14s. A brazier's bill6s.10d. and other House-expenees House-expenees House-expenees House-expenees House-expenees

s d

6 2 4% 013 8 1 19 2 0 9 6 214 6 5

o 17

2 4 6 2 6 6Y2 4 12 011 0 5 013

1Y2 4 5% 1

1 8 014 0 9 0 5 0 8

3% 1 5 2 8%

Perhaps a machine for turning the spit when roasting meat (for this and other contrivances of the same name, see O.E.D.).

49


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHNES NATION ALES 18th week 19th week 20th week 21st week 22 week

House-expenees House-expenees House-expenees House-expenees March 2d to Hothersal wages 11s.6d. A brazier's bill 8s.0%d. and other House-expenees

159 017 6Y<. 011 7 014 0

o

9 S 6 0%

301310%

[p.163] Carryed over 301310% 23d week 40 bushells of coals £ 1.1s.8d. and House-expenees 191 24th week 4 bushells of malt 12s.8d. Hops 2s.9d. and other Houseexpenees and to Mrs Fairfax's50 mayd £1.1s.0d. 248 25th week March 26 payd for a weekly Mass for a year and Houseexpenees 5 11 7 26th week Payd April2d, the window tax for half a year £1.5s.0d. The same day half a year's land tax 4s. and House-expenees 204 27th week Apri110th, ground rent £5.12s.4d. and House-expenees 692 28th week April 18th, lamps and scavengers 12s.11 %d. and Houseexpenees 1 6 9Yz 29th week House-expenees o 6 6Yz 30th week May 3d, watch money 9s. Close stools 17s. and 40 bushells of coals and other House-expenees 2 11 31st week Laekering the carts and painting the dyal 6s. and 5 pounds 10 ounces of wax 9s.10d. and House-expenees 148 32d week May 14th to Hothersal wages 17s.6d. and other Houseexpenees 1 13 9Y2 33d week To the ehambermayd 10s.6d. To Mrs Pippard's mayd Ss. and other House-expenees 1 S 3Yz 34th week May 31st, 6 poor lays 16s.6d. A weekly Mass for a year £S.Os.Od. A settee bed 67 weeks £lO.ls.0d. and Houseexpenees 16 11 7 35th week Payd for 6 gallons of wine received last November £1.14s.8d. and other House accounts 279 012 10 36th week House-expenees 37th week House-expenees 068 o 911 38th week Sweeping ehymneys and other House-expenees 39th week Soap 3s.4d. Tea 4s. Sugar 10s.6d. and other House-expenees 116 4 and 7 yards of check to cover a great chair 40th week July 9th a church lay 16s.6d. 9 yards of ticken 51 for a bed 16s.6d. 6Yz pounds of feathers 7s.7d. Check for a mattrass 1s.10d. Wooll and quilting 2s.3d. Seven yards more of check 9s.11 d. To Hothersal wages 14s. and other House-expenees [sic. ] 8117

6~

50 For Mrs Fairfax, or Harvey, see pp. 122, 124, 126 and 128 of Account Book; also note 27. 51 Ticking.


160

CATHOLICISM IN BATH Here's a mystake of£10. It must be £8l.17s.6%d. as here corrected instead of£7l.1 7s.6%d. 52 , which makes the expences of this year as you see over the leafe where the my stake is corrected and this balances the mystake of the 3 d year. 5 3

[p.164 ] Carryed over 54 41st week House-expences 42d week July 3d, water rent and back stairs £l.ls.0d. and Houseexpences 43d week A tyler's bill, Mr Attwood £7.17s.0d. and other Houseexpences total

£ s d *81 17 6% o 15 1 1 8 9 7 19 8 *92 1 01f4

Except where indicated, the following is in the hand of Dam Henry Wyburne: Bell-tree Credr. It appears by the accounts that there has been expended in housekeeping, grown [sic.] rent, taxes, church and poor rates and repairs from the 7th of October 1752 to the 7th of October 1753 the sum of: 60 15 2% In Do. to the 7th of October 1754: 101 09 11% In Do. to the 4th of August 1755: *92 01 001f4 In Bradshaw's hand: Here was a mystake of £10; it was only 82 before corrected. Paid to Mr Wyburne arrears due from the Bell-tree: 27 0800 Totall Credr. *281 14 August 5, 1755. I have examined the above accounts and admit of the same and fmd there remains in Mr Bradshaw's hands the sum of fifty pounds, fourteen shillings and three pence three-farthings. D.Hen.Wyburne, Provo Cant. The remainder of the page is in Bradshaw's hand: There is here a mystake of 10 pounds, so ten pounds less than the sume here mentioned remained in my hands only when they were passed by Mr Wyburne: £40.14s.3%d. N.B. Accounts continued from August 5th 1755 to October 7th 1755, the end of my ninth year: £ s 44th week A gallon of wine 6s.8d. and other House accounts 1 6 45th week 4 yards of cotton check 6s.4%d. To a coock 3s. and other House-expences 4 46th week A washer woman one day Is. To a gardener Is. and other House-expences 0 13

2Y2

d 6 9 6

As originally written. Perhaps a reference to Fr. Howard's error of ten pounds at the foot of p. 150 of the Account Book. 54 The figures asterisked in the right-hand column were originally £10 less; the 8, 9, 9 and 8 have been overwritten upon 7, 8, 8 and 7. 52 53


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES

161

47th week Breads for altar 3s.6d. Coals £5.3s.5%d. and other Houseexpences 6 4 9% 48th week To the chamber mayd lo-s.6d. Tea 4s. and other House-expences1 7 9 49th week For tyleing the outhouses £1.5s.0d. and other House-expences 1 10 10% 50th week 4 bushells of malt 12s. To Hothersall £1.ls.0d. and Houseexpences 248 51st week A gallon of wine 6s.4d. and other House-expences o 18 7 15 11 5

[p.165] Carryed over 15 11 5 52d week Curtains for the parlour £1.10s.0d. Rings , tassells etc. 11s.7%d. A joyner's bill £1.4s.6d. Hothersall's wages in part 18s. 2 brass sconces candlesticks for the parlour 9s. A double dozen of knives and forks 8s.6d. Soap 3s.6d. and other House-expences and an upholsterer's bill 2s.6d. 5 5 41/2 Expended since the ballanceing of the accounts: Expended before in this 9th year not 82 only55 but: Total expended this 9th year on the House : Received this year: Expended: Received more than expended:

20 16 9% *92 1 0%

* 112 17 91/2 134 19 7 * 112 17 91/2 *22 1 9%

August 5th 1755 Balance to the House when the accounts were stated according to Mr Wyburne's account (a mystake; I have only £49) Expended since:

50 14 3% 20 16 9%

Remains in hand to begin the 10th year (a mystake; it is only £19 etc.) 29 17 6% See the beginning of the 10th year over the leaf. 56 The remainder of this page, as printed below, is crossed-out. 57 N.B. Balance from last year due to the House: 25 4 10 Received for lodgings this year: 134 19 7 160 3 55 The four figures asterisked are as overwritten; originally the first three were £ 10 less and the fourth £ 10 more. 56 i.e. p. 166 of Account Book. 5? Altered from "3". This balance is brought forward from p. 123 of the Account Book. 58 Actually £160.4s.5d. - evidently not altered when the "3" mentioned in the previous note was altered.

5


162

CATHOLICISM IN BATH Expended this year when the accounts were balanced the Sth of August: 82 1 O¥.! Payd arrears: 27 8 0 In hand received this year: Expended and payd arrears when the accts. were balanced: In hand when the accounts were stated: Mr Wyburne and I differ one penny. This year spent since the accounts were balanced from August Sth to October 7th:

Total : 109 9 O¥.! 160 3 S 109 9 O¥.! SO 14 4% 20 16 9¥.!

Remains in hand to begin the 10th year: 29 17 7Ih See on the other syde [i.e. beZow]the large expences with which the year begins.

[p.166] The expenees of the 10th year eommeneeing October 7th 1755 first week House-expences 2d week October lSth, ground rent etc. £S 12s. 4d. A joyner's bill1Ss. 11d. and other House-expences 3d week A gallon of wine 6s.4d. and other House-expences 4th week A Turkey carpet £S.8s.0d. and carriage 2s.6d. and other House-expenees Sth week A pair of blankets £ l.Ss.Od. Check for chairs Ss. and other House-expenees 6th week To Hothersal wages 6s.6d. A large cupboard in the servants' hall and other House-expenees 7th week 36 pounds of salt butter 18s. and other House-expences 8th week A washer woman 1s. and other House-expenees 9th week Mason's bill4s.1d. and other House-expenees 10th week Tea and candles 7s.9d. and other House-expenees 11th week A gallon of wine 6s. and other House-expenees 12th week December 21st, % of a year's window tax £1.17s.6d. and land tax 6s. etc. Expences 13th week House-expences 14th week To Hothersal wages lSs. and other House-expenees lSth week Wax 20%pounds£1.11s.7d. and other House-expenees 16th week February 4th 17S6, 10 poor rates £1.7s.6d. and other House-expences 17th week House-expenees 18th week A quarter of a pound of tea and other House-expences 19th week 2 Locks mended 1s.2d. and other House-expenees 20th week House-expences 21st week House-ex penees 22d week House-expenees 23d week To Hothersal wages 16s.3d. and other House-expenees

£ s d 0 S 9Ih 6 14 9 3

o 14

6 2 S 2 3 8 1 4 111 0 8 011 017 019

7 3 0 OIh 4% 4Ih

10 7 1 19

lOIh 9 1% 9

2 0 1 1

2 4 1 0 6 7 o 10 S 0 9 1 0 Sl1 0 3 7Ih 0 6 0 o 18 7


163

DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES 24th week Wax 7s. To workmen mending the goist S9 3s. and other House-expences

016 4 33 12 7%

[p.167] Carryed from the other syde: 60 25th week March 31st, half a year's watch money 4s.6d. and lamps and scavengers 12s.1 Phd. and to Mr pary61 for the English Colledge one guinea and other House-expences 26th week To Mrs Web's servant when he brought a carpet presented and other House-expences 27th week April 7th, window money for one quarter 12s.6d. Land tax the same day for half a year 2s. April 8th, 2 poor rates 5s.6d. April 10th, ground rent and Minister's dues for % a year and other House-expences 28th week A weekly Mass for the House due March 26th for a year and other House-expences 29th week House-expences 30th week 4 bushells of malt 3s.6d. per bushell14s. Cleaning the clock 5s. and other House-expences 31 st week 40 bushells of coals £ l.1 s. 8d. and other House-expences 32d week Hothersal wages to the 10th of May, 13s. Tea 4s. and other House-expences 33d week House-expences 34th week Half a dozen pounds of soap 3s.6d. Washerwomen 2s. To the mayor [?] and rector May £l.ls.0d. and other House-expences 35th week June 6th, 32 bushells of coals £l.ls.8d. and other House-expences 36th week House-expences 37th week To the nuns of Syon House62 £l.ls.0d. An annuity £ 5 for dischargeing a Mass a fortnight per annum. June 19th, 6 poor rates 16s.6d. Wages to Hothersal 38th week A green haratine 63 bed £6.16s.0d. and other Houseexpences 39th week House-expences 40th week House-expences 41st week House-expences 42d week House-expences 43 d week House-expences 44th week House-expences

33 12 6% 2

6%

0 9 4

6 16 3 5 7 1 011 9 5 2 7 1 1 7 7 0 7 3 1 9 8 113 4% 7 4

o

7 14 2 7 5 11% 010 3 056 012 3% o 10 6 o 9 1% o 5 8

S9 Joist? 60 In fact a penny less. 61 ? Rev. Pierce Parry, formerly of the English College, Rome, and of Lisbon; cf. Kirk, p. 177; Gillow, V, p. 244 (also I, p. 311); Croft & Gillow, Historial Account of Lisbon College (1902) pp. 23-8; Mrs B. Stapleton, Oxfordshire PostReformation Catholic Missions (1906) p. 148. 62 See supra., p. 59. 63 Harrateen (type of linen).


164

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

45 th week 12 pounds of bu tter to pott and other House-expences 46th week 49 bushells of coals £1.5s.5d. Sweeping chimneys 2s.6d. and House-expences

o 14

9

1 16 9V2 77 011V2

[ p.168]

47th week 48th week 49th week 50th week 51st week 52d week

Carryed over House-expences Chamber rent and 6 back stairs 1s.0d. Hony [?] 6s.3d. and other House-expences Mending chairs 3s.6d. and other House-expences A cheese 4s. 7 d. and other House-expences A dozen of wine £ 1.0s.0d. and other House-expences October 1st, half a year's watch money 4s.6d. Tea 4s. A joyner's bill4s.7d. and other House-expences ,J

In taxes, repairs, housekeeping spent this 10th year: Received:

£ s d 77 011V2 011 4 1 14 6 01311 o 7 1 140 5

82 16 10V2 74 0 10

Spent more than received: 8 16 0% Balance due to the House the beginning of the 64 10th year 29 17 6V2 (this is false; it is only £19 .17s.6%d.) Deficient this year: 8 16 3%

I

In hand to begin the 11 th year: 11 3 False; it was only to which if you add the 10 pounds in favour of 10 0 0 the House which was myscounted the 3 year

21 1 3

21 1 3 then it is true that there was in hand to begin the 11 th year £ 21.1 s. 3 d. N.B. There is a shilling mystaken in the 8th year. 65 N.B. There was a mystake of ten pounds in the reconing of my 3d year to the predjudice of the House, and a mystake in the 9th of 10 pounds to my prejudice, which brings the whole accounts to a just balance excepting a shilling or the like trifling sum which I find myscounted in reviewing the accounts. I began to correct the mystakes and to alter the figures but, finding it very troublesome and scarce worth the while, contented myself by makeing this memorandum.

64

65

Against this, and partly deleted, is written "7p according to my accts." See p. 160 of Accoun t Book.


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHNES NATIONALES

165

[p.169] House-expenees in the 11 th year eommeneeing October 7th 1756 1st week 2d week 3d week 4th week 5th week 6th week 7th week 8th week 9th week 10th week 11th week 12th week 13th week 14th week 15th week 16th week 17th week 18th week 19th week 20th week 21st week 22d week 23d week 24th week 25th week

House-expenees October 20th, ground rent etc. £5.12s.4d. and other House-expenees October 27th, 8 poor rates £1.2s.0d. and other Houseexpenees Candles 7s. A whitewasher's bill 3s.6d. and other House-expenees House-expenees To Hothersal wages £1.9s.0d. November 13th, lamps and scavengers 9s. and other House-expenees 28 gallons of bear [sic.] 5s.6d. A cheese 5s.2d. and other House-expenees House-ex penees 42 bushells of coals £ 1.1 s. 8d. and other House-expenees House-expenees To Hothersal part of wages 9s.6d. Soap 3s.3d. and other House-expenees To the watch man, lamp man, bell man and water man 6s.6d. and other House-expenees House-expenees A cheese 5s.6d. and other House-expenees 3 quarter's window tax £1.17s.6d. 3 quarter's land tax 12s. Coals £1.Os.Od. and House-ex penees House-expenees Candles (tallow) 3s. and other House-expenees Wax candles 3s. and other House-expenees House-expenees Candles 3s.3d. Sugar 2s.4%d. and other House-expenees House-expenees (Mr HusSy66 here) Breads 7s. To the ehambermayd £1.1s.0d. and other House-expenees A cheese 5s.10d. and other House-expenees 42 bushells of coals £1.1s.8d. 3 bushells of malt IS s. A joyner's bill etc. House-expenees Bread and flower 3s. and other House-expenees

£ s d 0 4 2 6 6 6% 1 11 2 1 1 6 4%

o 10

2 9 11

o 14

7% 0 7 10 1 10 Ph 0 9 7% 8 9%

o 10 7% 011 5% o 12 6% 3 15 0 6 0 9 0 10 0 7 014 o 13

8 10V2 11% 0 3 7% 10%

1 19 9 0

o 15

3 1 8 0 9 1% 31 13

[p.170] Carryed over 26th week 4 poor rates lIs. Watch money for half a year 4s.6d. A plummer's bill 2s.4d. and other House-expenees 27th week An extinguisher for the paschal candle 2s. and other House-expenees

£ s d 3113 1 7 4V2 0 8 1V2

66 Perhaps Giles Hussey, the artist, in whose name the Bell-tree House was officially held (see supra., pp. 51-2) or his Benedictine brother, Edward, for whom see CR.S. Monograph 1, p. 177 and works there cited.


166

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

28th week Ground rent and Minister's dues April 5th, £5.12sAd. Land tax the same day for a half year and stock 11s. The 18th, lamps and scavengers 9s. and other House-expences 6 19 29th week A cheese 5s.3d. and other House-expences 0 16 30th week Tea 4s. and other House-expenees 0 18 31st week 42 bushells of coals £1.1s.8d. and other House-expenees 1 8 32d week 2 annuityes £10. Hothersal wages and arrears £4.12s.6d. and other House-expenees 14 17 33d week A glazier's bill4sAd. and other House-expenees 013 34th week House-expenees o 15

7 9 1 3Y2 2 2 0

59 16 7%

End of Bradshaw's entries; those below are by Naylor: 1757 June 12th 15 20 27 July 1 1 4

9 11

18 25 August 8 16 23 26 30 September 5 12 19 20 26

Expenees of the Bell-tree House from the 6th of June to the 14th of [sic] 1757 01 17 F or a pair of shoes 0007 For a pair of breeches 0101 In House-expenees from 6th to the 20th 0009 In House-expenees from the 20th 00 15 To the land tax all due till Miehaelmass next 0105 To window money paid till Miehaelmas next inclusively 0009 To House-expenees from 27 of last [sic.] 00 12 House-expenees to the 11 th 0007 Watch money 0004 For a pair of boots 0104 A journey to Mr York 6 7 on business by his direction 0108 00 10 In House-expenees from the 11 th to the 18th In House-expenees and 175 bushells of coals to the 25 th 05 10 From 24th to the 1st of August in House-expenees and repairs 00 16 In House-expenees and candles from the 1st to the 8th 0016 In House-expenees from the 8th instant 0011 In House-expenees from the 16th 0007 To six poor rates at 2s.3d. each, and stock to each at 6 pence everyone 0016 In House-expenees from the 26th 000 17 000 11 In House-expenees from the 30th of August 00006 In House-expenees from the 5 th In House-expences from the 12th 00006 001 01 For water and the back stairs, for the year past 000 12 In House-expenees from the 20th In repairs; viz. for a casement 6d., for a sweeping and scrubbing brush 2s.1d., a bath rug 4s.6d., for white000 10 washing 3sAd. Total

67

6 0 6 7 6Y2 0 0 10% 9 6 0 0 4% 2 10% 3 4 10 6 7% 8% 9 8 0 9 5

23 18 2 [sic]

Bishop Laurence York O.S.B., Vicar-Apostolic of the Western District.


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES

167

[p.17l]

This page is in Bradshaw's hand: Bell-tree accounts from August 5th 1755 to June 6th 1757. Mr Bradshaw Dr. to the Bell-tree and cash etc. To ballance at the last account: To lodging money paid from August 5th to October 7th 1756: To Ditto from October 7th 1756 to June 6th 1757: To arrears received: To presents given at different times etc. to the Chappell box: Total Dr : Mr Bradshaw Creditor. To money expended in taxes, repairs, housekeeping etc. from August 5th 1755 to October 7th of the same year: To ditto from October 7th 1755 to October 7th 1756: To Ditto from October 7th 1756 to June 6th 1757: Total Cred:

£ 50 74 10 26

s d 14 3* 010 0 7 7 7

33 5 3Vz 194 8 714 £

s d

20 16 914 82 16 10% 59 16 7% 163 10 314

Dr. 194 8 714 Cr. 163 10 314 Debtor to the House: 30 18 4 This sume I have left in Mrs Hothersall's hands. N.B. Mr Wyburne lately demanded £20 as a debt due from the Bell-tree House, but it was not then due and I desired him by letter to leave it for Mr Naylor my successor; he gave consent by silence, mentioning nothing of it in his last letter to me; but if he insists upon it, it must be payd out of the above £30 18s. 4d.

[p.172]

£ s d N.B. If the Province insists upon Mr Naylor's paying the twenty pounds beforementioned, I have a right to demanding £20 for my viaticum, but if the Province will make a free gift to Mr Naylor of the £20 to begin housekeeping, I will be at the expences of my journey to London and Lambspring68 and make no demands upon the Province.

The above is in Bradshaw's hand; the rest of the page in Naylor's. Receipts A.D. 1757 August 9 18

When Mr Bradshaw departed the 6th of June he left thirty pounds in the hands of J.J. Naylor upon the aforesaid condition Received from Mrs Collings at churching 69 Received of Mr Virtue

03000 0 001 01 0 00002 6

English Benedictine Abbey, then in Germany; continued at Broadway, Worcs. (under Dom J.A. Birdsall, for whom see index); now at Fort Augustus. 69 In this and the nex t entry the fust word is followed by a cross, perhaps denoting Mass-offerings; also 26 Nov. ("prayers" = Mass). 68


168

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

November 8 12 26 26 December 3 6 25 January 11 1758 January 26 February 3 March 12 24 22 24 25 28 April 2 7 11 16 26 28 May 16 27 29 29 30 September 4 19 28 3

Of Mr and Mrs Arundell the right honorable Of Councillor Duhane From Mr Sheldon of Weston From Mr and Mrs Macnamara From Lady Teynham - to be remembered at prayers From Mr Leigh, vulgarly Lee Found in the church box From Baron Newman 2 guineas, one for the wax, the other for me From Lady Brown

000 05 a 001 01 a 00101 a 00101 a 00101 a 00101 a 000 12 OYZ 002 02 00101

From Mrs Pepper 001 01 From Mr Linch 002 02 From Mr Arundell at nf [sic] 000 02 Mrs Chichester 001 16 From Mr Arundell 002 02 From Mr Nicholas Flemming 000 10 Mrs Joye 00101 G. Friday 70 006 14 Mr Berne 000 05 Mrs Friars 000 10 Mr Virtue 000 05 Mr Colgrave 000 10 Mr and Mrs Curtis at Widcombe 002 02 000 10 From Mrs Gready From Mr Vox well 000 10 Mrs Arundell 002 02 00101 Miss Mathew From Mr Corby, who lodged here four days, sometimes eat 00101 also 000 02 From Mr Arundell at nf [sic] From Mr Markam 002 02 000 05 At nf [sic] 000 05 Ditto Found in the chappel trunk 000 07 From Mr York, who would absolutely pay for his dinnerOOO 04 002 02 From Mr Langley Hill 001 07 From Mr Walmesley for bringing in strangers 003 00 Mr Tuet and Mrs Carteret The Right Honble. Lady Arundell 00101 In benefactions, receipts total:

075 12

a a a a 6 a a 6 a 8Yz a 6 a 6 a 6 6

a a a 6 a a a 3 a a a a a a

[p.173] AD 1757 October 3

brought over 71 In House-expences from the 26 last and 4 bushells of malt and hopps

23 18 2 00112 OYz

70 Good Friday. Easter Sunday 1758 was on 26 March; cf. C.R. Cheney, Handbook of Dates (Royal Historical Society, 1970) p. 93. 71 From p. 170 of Account Book.


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES October 3 10 14 17 24 November 1 8 15 25 28 December 5 9 12 19 21 26

30 1758 January 2 9 16 27[?] 23 30 February 6 13 20 22 23 27 March 9

To a joyner's bill for 2 coolers and a cover for the furnace In House-expences from the 4th To the Minister's dues and half a year's ground rent due 29th last In House-expences from the 10th In House-expences from the 17th In House-expences from the 24th of last [sic] House-expences from the first of November In House-expences and 8 poor rates at 2s.3d. each From the 15th House-expences to the 25th In House-expences In House-expences from the 28th last For a pair oflether breeches and a pair of gloves For salt butter and in House-expences In House-expences from the 12th For a douzen of mountain for the S. [sic] In House-expences from the 21st In half a year's rent for paying the lamps, scavengers, water man, lamp-lighter, watch-man etc. as in the journal 72 To Mr Scudamore73 for 3 dozen of genuine Spanish wine In housekeeping, and new years gifts to towns men In House-expences In House-expences from the 9th For a pair of blankets In House-expences and in 4 bushels of malt In House-expences for the 23rd In House-expences from the 30th In House-expences from the 6th In House-expences from the 13th To 21 bushels of coals at 6Vzd. each [sic] To 42 yards of linnen for sheeting at 20 pence per yard To 2 dozen of diaper and damask napkins and ten others Ditto In House-expences from the 20th In House-expences and coals from the 20th [sic] Hothersall's wages for 9 months and a gratification In House-expences and coals A douzen of wine In House-expences In House-expences To a maison for mending the chimneys, the furnace etc. To the collectors of the poor To land-tax and window money To a hundred and fifty pounds of sope from Bristol and a [illegible ] box In House-expences and 4 bushells of malt, hops etc.

169 00204 6 000 10 3 005 12 000 10 001 00 00008 00005 001 13 000 12 000 14 001 05 001 02 001 18 000 16 001 00 000 19

4 61/z 2 3 9 7 10Vz 41/z 5 0 6 4[?] 0 41/z

000 17 10[?] 002 10 0 001 001 001 001 001 000 000 000 001 000 003

08 00 01 01 14 17 15 13 00 10 10

001 000 001 004 001 001 000 000 001 000 001

19 15 08 09 07 00 18 06 07 11 14

2 1 4 0 2

IVz 11Vz 8~

7 11 Vz 0 8 5Vz 8 3 9Vz 0 6Vz OVz 6 3 0

004 04 6 001 16 11

Now apparently missing. Probably the Jesuit serving the Bristol mission at this time; cf. Foley, VII, p. 694, also supra., p. 73. 72

73


CATHOLICISM IN BATH

170 April 7

In House-expences and 2s. 6 pence Y2 watch money and coals For lamps and scavengers Minister's dues and half a year's ground rent To John Atwood the smith for work done as by the bill To a cooper's bill To Mrs Boardman for her expences in travelling hither In House-expences from the 7th In House-expences

12 13

14 20

Total

002 12 000 11 005 12 00006 000 06 005 05 001 05 001 00

8 3 4 1 1 0 4 4

102 09

6~

10209 00118 00100 00104 00009 00102 00015 00009 001 03 00016 000 18 00206 000 13 00102 00103 006 18 00019 00103 00417 003 15 000 00 00011 00215 00010 00012 00000 00011 000 19 00015 00205 00101 000 19 00211

6~

[p.174 ] A.D. 1758 April 27 May 5 11 18 25 June 1 9 16 23 30 July 7 14 21 24 28

August 4 11 18 25 September 1 8 15 22 28 October 6 13 74

Disburst 1758 brought over In House-expences, 4 bushels of malt and hops A dozen of wine In House-expences In House-expences In House-expences In House-expences Half a dozen of wine In House-expences In House-expences House-expences 4 bushels of malt apd House-expences House-expences House-ex pences House-expences Linnen for sheets, sugar and other House-expences A dozen of wine House-expences To 180 bushells of coals Window tax [sic] Eight poor rates Land tax 74 To Betty, making a door, painting and House-expences House-expences In House-expences A looking glass [sic] House-expences House-expences House-expences House-expences and 4 bushells of malt House-expences House-expences House-expences, Mrs Holford and Wright boarding here For a dozen of wine not paid for before and another dozen and for a sash [?] 9s. House-expences, with 41 pounds of butter and a looking glass

"Ground rent" deleted.

1 0 3Y2 0 2% 10% 0

10Y2 3~

6 9% 11% 2Y2 6 3% 0 9Y2 6 0 0 3 3 7 7% 0 1% 9 10% 3% 3 0Y2 31/2

00205 0 002 19 5


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES 20 27 November 3 10 17 18 25 December 8 16 22 29

Half a year's ground rent and Minister's dues House-expences Water money House-expences House-expences For wine House-expences and 4 bushels of malt To Joseph Albin, a joyner, his bill paid House-expences, Mrs Lorymer, daughter and maid boarding A whitewasher's bill House expences House-expences House-expences House-expences House-expences, 20 pounds of candles, Christmas gifts

Expended since June 6th 1757 to December 29 1758. 75

171 005 12 001 05 001 01 002 11 001 00 000 18 002 11 00010

4 0 0 1

00301 001 02 001 16 001 16 00103 00201

2 0 10 7 1V2 1V2

91h

0 6 6

00202 11 1'2

Total 182 18 5V2

[p.175] A.D. 1775. September 9. In visiting this House and circumstances it appears that since last visit made by Mr Bradshaw, July 31 , A.D. 1773 , the accounts are as follow:ÂŁ s d Expended in extraordinarys, rents, repairs, taxes, furniture, wash-house and brewhouse, firing etc.: 265 9 10 In victuals per week from the above time to September 3d 1775: 133 9 9 Received from lodging and boarding from July 21st 1773 to September 9th 1775: 100 4 10 Received in pious donations and benefactions from July 31 , 107 6 3~ 1773 to September 9th 1775: Total receipts: Remains due to balance: 191. 8. 5~ Approved by me D. Jos. Carteret, 7 Provo Cant. In another hand: I don't know this. Receits in lodgings and board from September 9th 1775 to July 28th, A.D. 1776: In pious donations and benefactions from do. to do.: In chappel and pious uses at Christmas 177 5 : At Ditto from Messirs. Porter and Stonor Esquires:

207 11

1~

ÂŁ

s d

59 16 12 3

12 '11 16 0 6 8 3 0

75 From this point, Fr. Naylor's accounts of expenditure are not continued in this Account Book but are recorded on pieces of paper and, apparently, in another book or books, now lost (see infra., pp. 173, 175; also note 72 above). 76 Dom Francis Joseph Carteret O.S.B. who had succeeded Fr. Bernard Bradshaw as Provincial (Birt, pp. 113, 343).


172

CATHOLICISM IN BATH Good Friday: At Easter 1776: April 29th in Book Room box:

11 7 7 20 6 6 436

127 16 Expences from September 3, 1775 to July 28th. ' From September 3d 1775 to December 29th [?] 1755: 21 9 Victuals per week From December 31 st 1775 to May 19th 1776: 24 6 { From Ditto to July 14th: 7 18 Expences in extraordinaries, i.e. fuing, brewhouse, candles, chal,77 washouse, taxes, repairs, etc. from September 9th 1775 to July 24th 1776 : 114 10

2 4% 3 11 5%

Expences total: Receits total :

168 5 0 127 16 2

Due to ballance:

40 8 10

July 27th. Examined and viewed by us underwritten in the year 1776 D, J.J. PI. N?'slor D.B. Brewer

ARCHIVES NATIONALES, PARIS: S.4619, LIASSES 3 AND 5 (ENGLISH BENEDICTINE CORRESPONDENCE).

Liasse 3

[1]

General accounts divided under different heads. Expences. 79 From August 20th 1759 to December 31 st 1760. Provisions Malt and wine Fireing, candles Furniture Repairs, work Rents, taxes Wash-house Chappell Incidental charges

5 15. 4. 6. 14. 2, o. 6. 0.19. 2. 19.

15. 3. 6. 3. 1. 8.

1% 0 8* 6 5 4 6 5 111'2

42.13.11* 77 Chapel? 78 Dom John Bede Brewer O,S.B., Fr. Naylor's successor at the Bell-tree House (see supra. , pp. 66-70 & index). 79 Fr. Naylor's "house accounts" , continued (see note 75 above) .


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES

173

A.D.1760. January commencing to June 27th. Provisions Malt, wine Fireing, candles Furniture Repairs, work Rents, taxes Wash-house Chappell Incidental charges

16. 14. 4.13. 12. 11. 64. 8. 9. 8. o. 4. o. 12. o. 8.

3V2 6 5V2 5V2 8 1/2 7V2

5V2 11 8

97. 15.

General accounts divided under heads, from June 27th to 27th December 1760. Expences. [1 verso] Provisions Malt, wine Fireing, candles Furniture Repairs, work Rents, taxes Wash-house Chappel Incidental charges

18. 15. 10

6. 7. 0 6. 10. 6. 11.

Provisions Malt, wine Fireing, candles Wash house Furniture Repairs, work and wages Chappel Incidental charges

2V2 10 6 7

O. 7. 0 6.19. 9

2. 8. 8 Total

From December 27th to June 27th in 1761.

2. 10. 17. 19.

70. 8. 4V2

Expences. 18. 18. 0V2 4. 19. 10 1. 13 8V2 0.17. 7 12. 6. 11 Vz 8. 16. 8 2. 18: 6 1. 2. 6

Total 51. 13. 9V2 N.B. These accounts taken out of the Book of Separate Articles [2]

Receits at or of Bell-tree House from August 20th 1759 taken out of the Account Book, divided into separate articles. Receipts. From August 20th 1759 to June 24th 1760, ÂŁ s d In lodgings and dressing 70 1 1V2 In ditto time, donations etc. 48 3 3


174

CATHOLICISM IN BATH From June 24th 1760 to June 24th 1761, In lodgings and dressing In ditto time, donations

44 2 11 52 16 6

To June 24th 1761, receipts total: Last ballance:

215 3 9Yz 410 2* 219 14

Received from the 24 of June to July 30th 1761, pious donations:

O~

14 3 6

Receipts total: Disbursements, out of the same Book of Accounts. Expences. From August 20th 1759 expended to the 31st of December: From January 1st 1760 to June 27th: From June 27th 1760 to December 27th: From December 27th 1760 to June 27th 1761:

233 17

6~

4213 97 15 70 8 58 12

5* 1 4Yz 5%

269 9 4*80 219 14 O~

A.D. 1761 to June 24th, receipts total: June 24th 1761, due to ballance:

[sic] a~ove

49 15 O~ 14 3 6 219 14 74 16

O~

7~81

Since July 24th to July 30th in 1761 Expended

39 4 9 269 9 4* 308 14 1*

[3]

Accounts out of the Book of Different Heads. Expences From August 20th 1759 to December 31st. From January 1st 1760 to June 27th: From June 27th to December 27th 1760: From December 27th 1760 to June 27th 1761: Expences to June 27th 1761: Receipts out of the said book. From August 20th 1759 to June 24th 1760, In lodgings, dressing meat, board etc.: In said time, donations, offerings etc.:

42.13 .11% 97. 15. 1 70. 8. 4% 58. 12. 5% 269. 9.10*

70. 1. 1% 48. 3. 3

80 In the original the calculations printed at the foot of this page of the Account Book are squeezed in to the left of this total. 81 For these and the preceding figures, see also document no. 4 (~d. different). .


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES From June 24th 1760 to June 24th 1761, In lodgings, b oarding, dressing etc. : In ditto time, donations, offering:

175 44. 2. 11 52. 16. 6

To June 24th 1761 , receipts total: Last ballance:

215. 3. 9% 4.10. 2* 219. 14. 49. 15.

Due to ballance

O~ O~

269. 9. OYz [4]

Accounts at Bell-tree taken from the Book of Weekly Expences. From From Fro m From

ÂŁ 43 97 70 58

August 20th 1759 to December 31st: January 1st 1760 to June 27th: June 27th to December 27th 1760: December 27th to June 27th 1761: To June 27th 1761 , expences total:

d 5* 1 4% 5%

269 9 4*

Receits at Bell-tree House from August 20th 1759, taken out of the Account Book, divided into separate Articles. From August 20th 1759 to June 24th 1760 , 70 In lodgings and dressing meat: In ditto time, donations, offerings etc. 48 From June 24th 1760 to June 24th 1761, 44 In lodgings and dressing meats: 52 In ditto time, donations, offerings : In the visit August 21st 1759 the accounts were settled and fixed as follows, viz. Received in lodgings etc. and donations: 398 4 7% Expended, as appears by the books: 393 14 4* Due to ballance: Signd. Henry Wyburne, Cant. Provo

s 13 15 8 12

1 1Yz 3 3

21 1 16 6

410 2* 410 2*

To June 24th 1761, receits total: Remains due to ballance : ÂŁ 1 1 8 27

A.D.1761. Expences per week. From June 20th to 27th: to July 4th: to the 11th: to the 18th. Bills to the 30th :

s 5 9 14 15

219 14 O~ 49 15 4* 269 9 d 11% 4 2 3%

To July, in bills to the 30th, expended : Expended above:

39 4 9 269 9 4*

Expences total :

3081 4 1*

4%~


176

CATHOLICISM IN BATH Receipts from June 24th to July 30th. Donations: Receits above:

14 3 6 219 14 0%

Receits total: Due to ballance:

23317 6% 74 16 7% 308 14 1=%

[5] Copy of previous document, except that the farthing in the balance of 24 June 1761 is altered to two -farthings and the following added at the foot of the page. To June 24th 1761, there remains due to ballance : 49 15 4% To July 30th 1761, due to ballance: 74 16 7% Four years' salary at £25 per annum: 100 0 0

July 30th 1761, due to [illegible]

17416 7%

[6] In Brewer's hand, signed by Naylor: I underwritten promise to pay towards building a house and chapel at Bath at the sum of twenty pound a year for the peace of five years from the present date 13th of August 1777 to the incumbent of the Bell-tree. Witness my hand, D.J.J. P., Naylor

[7] The obligation of the Bell-tree to pay the Province £20 per annum, viz, 2 funds for Mrs Grey £10 per annum;Mr Needham's fund £5 per annum; MrYork£5 for life. N.B.As Mr Naylor performed two of Mrs Grey's he is only to pay £10 per annum. Mr Naylor Cr. £ s 1759 August. Received of Mr Naylor as appears by the Provincial book 40 0 1763 June 9. Received of Mr Naylor 10 0 1765 July 9. Received of Mr Naylor 10 0 1766 April 20. Received of Mr Naylor 10 0 December 7. Received of Mr Naylor 5 0 1767 May 28. Received of Mr Naylor 5 0 1769 May 25 [?] Received of Mr Naylor 20 0 To Mr Simpson of Coughton 82 by Mr Bradshaw's orders: 10 10 Allowed by S.Province to Mr Naylor 12 years of£100 sunk at 5 per cent from July 16, 1764 to Do. 1776: 60 0 To balance due to the Province 44 10

d 0 0 0 0 0 0

s d 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

0

0 0

0 0

0 0

215 0 0 82

P. Contra Dr. £ To Mr Needham's fund at £5 per annum from 1757 to 1776, being 19 years, makes 95 To Mr York £5 per annum from 1757 to 1770, he dying April 14, 1770, makes 13 years 65 1759 December, to cash advanced to Mr Naylor 20 1760 December 24, to cash advanced to Do. 15 1761 March 16, to cash advanced to Do. 10 July 2, to cash advanced to Do. 10

215 0 0

Dom John Cuthbert Simpson, O.S.B.; at Coughton, 1760-84 (Birt, p. 114).


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES [8]

177

Estimate of the repairs wanting at Bell-tree House 83 Bishop's apartment: pUlly peices and casings for 4 windows To repairing 2 outside shutters Hall: casings and pully peices for 1 window To 56 foot yallow deal flooring board and labour Room next the hall : pully peices and casings for 2 windows To hearth stone Great staircase: 3 pairs of sashes with pully peices and casings etc. To 1 top sash with pUlly peices and casings Chappel: 3 top sashes with blocks etc. Dressing rooms next the altar: 1 pair of sashes, pully peices and casings for 2 windows ÂŁ 1 18s. 8d. Plastering the walls in Do. 7s. Book room: 2 pairs of sashes, pully peices and casings etc. To new floor and skirting to Do. Dining room : 2 pairs of sashes, pUlly peices and caseings Bed room: 2 pairs of sashes with pully peices etc. White room: 2 pairs of sashes with Do. Bed room : 1 pair of Do. with pully peices To new floor, white deal with skirting Mrs Webb's room: new ceiling, labour and joists if wanted To elm floor Room next Mrs Webb's: new window and caseing House-keeper's room : new door and repairing the window Studdy : new floor and skirting To repairing the sashes, mending the sills Bishop's garret: 1 new ledge door and mending the window Back stairs : mending 2 windows To 1 new door for the necessary house, and repairing 1 Do. The necessary house floor to be laid with the same stone To new water trough and fixing To repairing the kitchen stairs To painting the sashes etc. To altering the gutter upon the house, per judgement more or less To mending the locks To papering the 2 dressing rooms next the altar To furring the joists To repairing the passage floors To glazing the sashes and som new glass etc.

ÂŁ s 2 8 0 3 010 1 5 1 4 0 8

d 0 6 6 0 0 4

4 0 0 18 8 1 5 0 2 5 213 6 3 213 213 213 1 2 3 12 1 0 212 o 10 1 2 2 9 0 5 OlO 0 5 o 12 0 7 111 o 15 6 0

8 4 6 4 4 4 8 0 0 6 6 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0

6lO 0 2 014 010 0 5

0 6 0 0 0

62 111 2lO 0 64 11 11

83

See also liasse 5, no. 137 (infra. , pp. 178-80).


178 liasse 5, no. 126

CATHOLICISM IN BATH Bath, no. 13 St James's Parade, October 23, 1792.

Dear Sir, In primis inquiring How'd you do? Yourself and flock well, I hope! I am desired by Mr Edmund John Harold to procure from you a certificate of his baptism. Your baptismal register was consumed by the riotous flame, 1780. That you may be enabled the better to recollect him - he was born 1770 on the festival of St John Baptist, June the 24. At the time his parents, Mr and Mrs Harold, lived with their mother, the late Mrs Harold, in Charles Street. A certificate also is desired of his sister's baptism, by name Elizabeth, born 3 years after in August. As matters pending on the said certificates require dispatch, he begs you will return as speedy answer as possible. Please to remember me to Sister Scholastica Greenway. 84 With best wishes, Your affectionate confrere and humble servant, Mich. Pembridge. Mr Edmund Harold at present lives with Mr Nagle, no.l Circus. A Mr Ainsworth from Dieulvart 85 is my colleague at Bath - vice Mr Heatley, deceased 28 April 1792. [verso] Mr Naylor aux Benedictines Anglaises rue D' allouets A Paris. no. 137 [undated] Mr Naylor agreed with Mr Carteret that I, Anthony McHugo, should act for him concerning the affairs of the Bell-tree House. When Mr Carteret came to Bath I waited on him concerning the settling the said business. Mr Carteret told me the house wanted to be repaired. I answered it was in much better repair than when Mr Naylor came to it; that he had made several heavy repairs, which I would bring witnesses to attest if he thought proper; that I could not agree with him that Mr Naylor should be at the expence of the alterations and repairs to be made, as I believed Mr Naylor was not out of debt for the expences he had already contracted for reparations of the said house. I produced a list of some of them which Mr Carteret told me could not be true; I offered to produce witnesses in proof of it. I asked him if the floor of the room he was then in and laid in wanted to be taken up and new laid; he said, no. I told him there were several repairs and alterations of the said nature in the estimate given in by Robinson and Hall to Mr 84 Mother Mary Scholastica Greenway O.S.B. who died in 1809 at Cannington, Som., where the former Paris community had settled; cf. C.R.S., 12, p. 108; B. Whelan, Historic English Convents of Today (1936) p. 224. 85 St. Laurence's Priory, Dieulouard, Lorraine; now Ampleforth.


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES

179

Brewer long before he, Mr Carteret, came to Bath;that those carpenters understood the repairs and alterations were to be paid by subscription, or by the whole body of the clergy belonging to the Bell-tree House; that there was a wide difference between the expences of such repairs and amendments falling upon the public at large, and a single individual; that I knew and would prove, since the affair was to be left to arbitration, that the house was indebted to Mr Naylor as he laid out some hundreds on it and as the furniture was far preferable to what he found in the house; that Robinson and Hall as well as myself gave it as their opinion that Mr Naylor had no right to pay anything towards any repairs to be made, as they think the Bell-tree House in every respect much better than when he took possession of it. Yet, not withstanding, to shew Mr Naylor's good heart he would make a present of thirty pounds for any profitable use that should be made of it for the pub lick good. Mr Carteret asked me who I would chuse to look into the repairs that were to be done, as he would wish to have nothing done but what was necessary. At the same time he took hold of the window-sash of the room we were in, which was the room he laid in, and asked if that sash and suchlike did not want repairing? I told him, undoubtedly; and that I had no objection to the two carpenters (that looked over the house before for Mr Brewer) Robinson and Hall. Mr Carteret then said he would send for me when it was to be done, and that he would make it agreeable to Mr Naylor. I asked him if I might make use of his name to Mr Naylor; he said I might, and desired I would write and tell him so. Some days after, Mr Brewer came to my house and asked who I would choose to look over the Bell-tree House; I told him I had no objection to Robinson and Hall with the addition of Mr Jno. Dowding, another carpenter, as umpire, if any disputes should arise between them. Mr Brewer made not the least objection and went from my house. I expected Messrs. Carteret and Brewer would send and let me know when the parties were to meet at the Bell-tree in order that I might be present in Mr Naylor's behalf. They sent for Robinson and Hall, and neither for myself nor Dowding; neither did I know that any of the parties met till Hall came to me at my own house, told me that Robinson and he valued the repairs of the Bell-tree House, that he imagined they would not cost above ten or twelve pounds; that Mr Carteret was with them all the time they looked over every thing that was necessary to be repaired in the whole house. Mr Brewer was with them part of the time and did not seem to be pleased at what they thougllt necessary and left them; that Mr Robinson took down in writing every thing that was necessary to be repaired; and that he should know the expences when Robinson and he should make the estimate. Hall surprised me when he told me this story, all being done without my knowledge; for neither Dowding nor myself knew any thing of the matter. Robinson carried an estimate to Mr Carteret of £23 or thereabouts, and £6 for a gutter, without consulting Hall, nor did he ever shew what the estimate was for. Mr Carteret ordered Robinson to make out another, which he did to the amount of £64 and


180

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

upwards,86 and that he, Mr Carteret, would be his paymaster for what work he did at the Bell-tree House. The discourse that passed between Mr Carteret and Anthony McHugo, or to the same effect, is contained in the above, as witness my hand, Ant. McHugo. N.B. I paid Mr Brewer ÂŁ30 on Mr Naylor's account. no. 143 [undated] R. for the gravel

R. cassia, newly drawn, one ounce and half. Powder of rhubarb one drachm and half. Cypruss turpentine, well washed, eight dragms. The species of diabracant [?] one scruple. With a sufficient quantity of syrop of march mallows, enough to make an electuary. Take the quantity of a walnut in the morning fasting. Drink a draught of plain ail posset after it, then walk an hour, drink a pint (if your stomach can bear it) of white wine posset sweetened with syrop of marsh mallows. [verso] To Mr Naylor at the Bell-tree Bath. no. 15i [undated] If your pictures are very dirty, take soap and sand on a brush and rub them quick with warm water, then wrence them well under a pump, so that no sand etc. remain; let them dry in the sun or by a moderate fire. When perfectly dry rub them over with oil (prepared as follows) till it be quite sunk in so as not to appear on the clean flannel it is rubbed with. Sett a quarter of a pint of the best sweet oil in a bottle pretty near the fire; let it be kept without shaking till it will look as pale as spring water (but less than 2 or 3 weeks will hardly make it so); use a piece of spunge to lay on the oil and clean flannel to run it in, don't put too much in one place at a time. Written at right angles in left-hand margin: Tye a bit of leather over the bottle to keep out dust; it will last for years; a little does well. [verso] To Mr Naylor at the Bell-tree House, Bath. no. 155 [undated] Sir, Please to pay upon sight to Mr Duvivier alias Walters 8 7 the sume of 86 See liasse 3, no. 8 (supra., p. 177). or Waters, O.S.B.; at Horton, Glos., 1772-7 (Birt, p. 127). In document no. 177 he himself spells his surname "Walters" (infra., p. 182). This document (no. 155) has "ÂŁ5.5s.0d." written in the left-hand margin.

87


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHNES NATIONALES

181

five pounds five shillings (value received) and place it to the account of, Hond . Sir, your most obedt. and humble servant, B. Handford. To Mr Naylor at the Bell-tree House in Bath. no. 158 Honoured Dear Sir, I think in my last we gave you full discretionary power to act as you thought for the best advantage both for the boy and the good of the House; this we repeate to you again, confiding in your discretion and benevolence, and leave such a fund as you propose to be disposed of as you think proper, provided that the interest will produce to the House £ 15 or £20 per annum while the boy stays here and in case the boy should return again to the world then the said fund might return to him or his father, for it would be very hard for the poor boy to be cast naked into the world. However, whatsoever agreement you make with the father, that we will stand too, but we expect something yeady for his maintenance, for our family 88 is at present very numerous (27 in the refectory every day besides a great number of servants etc.), therefore we cannot think of coming into your scheme of sinking money without receiving constant interest; let us first pay our debts here. We pay here 5 per cent for a good round summ and great repairs are wanting in the House; so that we cannot live without our interest. Your bank bond of £20 will be very acceptable; you may either send it enclosed to Mr Cowley 89 or to me, for I can get it changed any day at Nancy; the sooner you send it the better . You tell me the one half is a gift but you don't say to whom; is it to Sharrock or to the House? I have often told Mr Daniel 9 0 both by letter and word of mouth that he should be very welcome here and that I would make all things as easy to him as possible; we have received by his death in money, books etc. to the value of between £40 and £50. R. in P. You want to know whether Mr Brewer 91 has anything from his parents; I suppose he had something left him by his father, but how much I am as ignorant of as you can be. I hear he has been making a turn all over England; I wish he had employd that money in endemnifying this House for the expences it has been at on his account. But now for it; I have just now received a letter in which it is surmised that he is going to supplant you at Bath and that you are going to his place at Paris, but this I cannot think true; indeed some time ago I received a letter from Mr Fisher 92 intimating 88 i.e. the Benedictine community at St Laurence's, Dieulouard, whence this letter came. 89 Dom William Gregory Cowley, O.S.B., Prior of St Edmund's, Paris (Birt, p. 122). 90 Perhaps John Benedict Simpson, or Daniel, who died on 10 July 1775 (Birt, p. 109). For Sharrock, see note 94 below. 91 Dom John Bede Brewer O.S.B. 92 Probably Dom John Fisher, President-General of the English Benedictine Congregation, 1772-7 (Birt, p. 117).


182

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

that you might perhaps be removed soon from Bath to Cheame, but as you have made no mention of it in your last to me I hope it is not true. 93 Sharrock and Coupe made their last engagement here the 1st instant;94 I hope they will both answer expectations. I am Honoured Dear Sir Your most obedient humble servant, D. Dns. Holderness. 9 S Dieulouard, October 27th 1775. [verso] Mr Naylor At the Bell-tree in Bath, Somersetshire. Par Calais et Londres. no. 177 Honoured Sir, I received some days ago the inclosed bill from Mr Handford 96 which I beg you would discount, if convenient, to the bearer of this, James Walmesley; and for which he will, if agreeable he [sic.] give you a receipt. Mr and Mrs Paston desire their best compliments to you and the Bishop, to whom they have sent a hare which they hope will be acceptable. I hope you received mine about the woman for service; an answer would be agreable. I beg my duty to Mr Walmesley and remain Honoured Sir Your affectionate humble servant , J. Walters. Horton, October 12th 1772. If you should see Mr Orpwood be so good as to let him know, with my compliments to him and his lady, that I did his commission, but we cannot get any waggon to bring his bottles which ready [sic.] packed up. [verso] A.D.l772. October 12th. Received of Mr J.J. Naylor for Mr J. Walters the sum of five guineas by me James Walmesley. To Mr Naylor at the Bell-tree Bath. no. 179 [undated] Dear Sir, God be praised, the affair which has given you so much uneasiness is at last and with much ado finished; and I hope to your satisfaction. It 93 It was; see supra., p. 62. 94 i.e. their Profession. The two monks were Dom John Dunstan Sharrock (see Birt, p. 138) and Thomas Jerome Coupe (ibid., p. 136). 9S Dom Peter Dunstan Holderness, Prior of St Laurence's, (ibid., p. 113). 96 i.e. document no. 155, printed supra., pp. 180-1


DOCUMENTS IN THE ARCHIVES NATIONALES

183

has given me great trouble that it could not be done so soon as you expected, but though late I hope it will be no prejudice to any concerned. I promised indeed to send it for the beginning of this week, but could not do it. Am always ready for any further service; but as on such occasions you usually preach activity to me, let me in return recommend to you some grains of patience. To particulars: £4 lOs. half year's interest; £306 l6s. 10d. price of the bonds; in all £311 6s. 10d., out of which 3s. payed to the broker that sold them and 3s. for two parcels sent to me; remains due to you £311 Os. 10d. which I have here sent and inclosed to you, and am Dear Sir, Your very affectionate humble servant, W. Garstang. 9 7 9 Mr Wilkes 8 from Paris arrived here yesterday on a visit to his friends and is to stay about 3 months. [verso] Mr Naylor at the Bell-tree House, Bath. Dom William Dunstan Garstang, mainly in London from 1767 to his death there in 1814 (Birt, p. 129). He performed a baptism in Bath on 9 July 1782 (no. 34 in Reg. 1). 98 Dom Joseph Cuthbert Wilkes, or Wilks, later of Bath (see index).

97


GORDON RIOTS DOCUMENTS IN THE PUBLIC RECORD OFFICE In the Public Record Office there are two large volumes of documents connected with the Gordon Riots of 1780 - mainly reports, informations etc. relating to London (S.P.37/20 & 21). These are not consistently in chronological order, but in the present volume they are thus rearranged. These papers have been utilised by Professor George Rude in "The Gordon Riots: a Study of the Rioters and their Victims" (Transactions of the Royal Historical Society, 5th series, VI, 1956; reprinted in Paris and London in the 18th Century, 1970) and by other writers, e.g. Christopher Hibbert in King Mob (1958) and J. P. De Castro, The Gordon Riots (1926), as well as in a "Jackdaw" collection for use in schools, but little mention has hitherto been made either of the Bath rioting or of the State Papers connected with it and they are therefore published in this volume. Like the London documents, they include first-hand reports on the episode, together with rumours and scaremongering, and official appeals for information and they supplement the material from other sources cited in the Introduction local newspapers, Corporation records and the MS. account of the Bath Mission compiled by Dom J.A. Birdsall O.S.B. which contains information communicated to him by Father Michael Pembridge. The latter had come to Bath to replace Father Brewer who, in the penultimate document in this collection, describes himself as "the unfortunate Roman Catholic clergyman, who was hunted from place to place and pursued through several streets the evening of the Bath riot". This letter, written in November 1780, drew the attention of Lord Stormont, one of the two Secretaries of State concerned with home affairs, to the threat of a further anti-Catholic outbreak in Bath; the earlier items, connected with the June rioting, are from the mass of intelligence communicated, either directly or indirectly, to Stormont's colleague Lord Hillsborough. The majority of these documents are endorsed with the date of receipt, usually signified by the letter "R", and such endorsements are here printed prior to each document. In these transcripts punctuation and capitalisation are modernised, erroneous repetitions are eliminated and obvious omissions made good in square brackets. The latter also enclose editorial comments, which are italicised. Obvious abbreviations are silently expanded; otherwise spelling, including the persistent and inappropriate rendering of gaol as "goal", remains uncorrected.

S.P.37/21/127. [Handbill re Bath Riots, 10 June 1780.J Bath City, June 10, 1780. Whereas a great number of disorderly persons have assembled them184


GORDON RIOTS DOCUMENTS

185

selves together in a riotous and tumultuous manner and have been guilty of many acts of treason and rebellion, whereby it is become absolutely necessary to use the most effectual means to quiet such disturbances, to preserve the property of individuals and to restore the peace of the country: This public notice is therefore given to advise and exhort all peaceable subjects to keep themselves quietly in their own houses lest they should suffer with the guilty. And all masters of families are requested to keep their apprentices and servants at home. John Chapman, Mayor Francis Bennett, Justices. Simon Crook,

S.P.37/21/72. [Handbill, 11 June 1780] 1 Guildhall, Bath, June 11, 1780. Whereas a man about twenty-three years of age, about five feet and ten inches high, stoutly made, and has a patch over one of his eyes, and is employed by one Mr. Saunders, who lives in or near Slippery-Lane in this city, in the carrying of milk, was on the 9th instant principally concerned and assisting in the unlawfully and feloniously pulling down and setting fire to the Roman Catholic Chapel in this city, and other houses and buildings thereto adjoining, and has lately absconded from and left this city: Therefore, whoever will give information to the Justices of this city of the man above described, or of any other person or persons who were aiding, assisting, or in any manner concerned in the pulling down and setting fire to the said buildings, so that he or they may be brought to justice, shall on conviction of each of such offenders receive a reward of twenty guineas, to be paid them by the Chamberlain of this city. John Chapman, Mayor. Francis Bennet, Justices. Simon Crook,

S.P.37/21/68-71. [No endorsement] Bath, Monday morning the 11 of June 1780. My Lord, I hope your lordship will excuse the hesty scroll I troubled you with last night. I now have the honour of mentioning what has happened 1

S.P.37/21/128 is a duplicate of no.n (11 June 1780, here printed).


186

CATHOLICISM IN BATH

since and submitting my poor remarks relative to the situation of this town. About 11 of clock last night I rode on horseback attended by my servants through all this city and found it extremely well garded. Parties of malitia were posted in different places and in other places the three hundred chearmen armed with poles [illegible] 10 in a party. The volunteers were also very allert and parties of Lord Townshend's Dragoons, mounted, patroled the streets all night. There was also a captain's gard on the goal. I could not suppose after all these precautions that any rioters would again venter to assemble and yet after ~y return home after 12 a clock seventeen were taken up and cornitted to goal and others to the watch-house, but they were only assembling and had not begun to do any rnischeif. Some of them come from the villages in the neighborhood, particularly colliers and others in a large body, who were intercepted by the mounted Dragoons on the Lower Bristol Road and seven of them taken and comitted. One more was wounded in the scuffle and those who escaped cried out that they would come again when the soldiers were away. It is very certain that if the town had not been so well garded much more mischeif would have been done last night than the night before. The great quantity of plunder and drink got out of the houses they had burnt unmolested encouraged them, without any other motive, to go on in the same way. It was also well known that the [y] intended to burn the other Mass-house and this morning every article of value is taken out of the Mass-house and of others under the same roof and the Catholicks, it is said, have consented it should be pulled down, for if it was burnt a great part of the town would risk being burnt with it. It is thought very strange that no enquiry has been made relative to that fire which was discovred yesterday morning at half after one in Stall Street and which I mentioned in my last, in as much as it is supposed here that out enirnies avails themselves at every opportunity to distress this country and have their emissaries in all quarters, but the Mayor is old and inactive and Mr. Jeffris the Town Clark, who transacts the business, though very sensible and diligent in other matters, has not been so in the late riot. It is principally by his interest that it is supposed Mr. Pratt will be returned for this city. I beg leve to mention to your lordship some particulars which I have just heard relative to the above mentioned fire which may be depended on. Mr. Mauglen and Mr. Ogle by , from the first of whom I rent this house and who is wealth [y] honest man, were drinking at the Feathers 2 in Stall Street, to which place the [y] had retired for a little refreshment from the fire in St James Parade. About half after one they 2 i.e. The "Plume of Feathers" in Horse Street (the section of Stall St. approaching the bridge across the Avon); cf. New Bath Directory for the year 1792, p. 107;1819 Directory, p. 68, etc.


GORDON RIOTS DOCUMENTS

187

were allarmed by being told that there was a fire in the narrow part of Stall Street; they immediately went to the place and found that some persons had seen the flame through the kitchen window which was wiered and looked to the street, that the house was allarmed by nocking violently at the door and that the combustables were broght up and throwen in to the street and appeared to be about a peck of char-coal, Some old corks and a board on which "Lodgings to be Lett' was painted, and it was this board, which was of deal, that caused the flame. Joly the perfumer wa~ not at home; he was, as one Grant a musician this day tells me, along with him at a house oposate to the chapel which was on fire and that when word was broght him that his house was on fire he immediatelÂĽ went home but laughed and said it was he himself had done it in making a preparation for grey hair powder; that there could be no danger as the kitchen was vaulted. Mr. Palmer the manager of the Playhouse 3 and Mr. Symons a surgeon, who are both of the Corporation, said to Mr. Mauglin that this affair should be inquired in to, as if that house had taken fire the greatest and most opulent part of the lower town could not be saved at that tme of confusion or indeed with great difficulty at any time as the old houses in that part of the town to the Grove on one side and to the bridge on the other run into one another by a wood communication. This Jolie a perfumer is a foreigner and a Roman Catholick and a second time bankrupt who lives in a small house of lit!le value joining the large perfumer's shop he used to keep, which little house and shop is said to belong to it. He married the widow of Coopeau and it is said got 1,000 with her which he squandred, as also 1,000 of her daughter's, and became a bankrupt by extravigance. All this considered, to which may be added his being absent from his house at half-past one in the morning the chapel and five other houses were wilfully set on fier in the town; the frivioulous excuse he made in saying he was making hair powder; the combustables and the deal board over them which caused the flame; all this, added to the opinion of many here that it was designed at the instigation of our enimies, should cause some inquiry to be made into it, though it should appear that the kitchen was vaulted and of such construction that no danger could happen, yet those circumstances it true [sic.] is not known to every body and so many reasons for those that he may be bribed, as it is supposed many are in these turbulent times by our enimies, it might perhaps be thought proper to be allert on the occasion, for [if] nothing should be discovered it will be quiet the minds of the people and intimidate others who may [have] serious designs. If any such should be intended it is also an opportunity of shewing that every precaution is taken. Many Roman Catholicks and even protestant families have left town 3 John Palmer, also mail-coach projector; cf. D.N.B.; C.R. Clear, John Palmer, Mail Coach Pioneer (1955). The playhouse mentioned here is the one in Old Orchard Street (Pierrepont Place) which later became the Catholic chapel; see supra., pp. 80-82 .


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sooner than they intended as they are in great terror of what may happen if the soldiers go away; the Bath volunteers and chairmen are absolutely nothing in this town, so near Bristol and very large collieries. One of the colliers who escaped had his cheek cut of in his flight by a Dragoon and some colliers have declared that they will attempt this night to rescue some of those who are in prison. The goal is a fme new building a little way from the town and may be attacked on all sides, haveing no house near - as it is reported that some of the insurgents have been tempted to it by the money of our enimies. The livery servant and the other two ringleaders should have been searched to see what money they had and where the [y] got it and also to find if they had any letters and from whom, and Jolie and his house should have been searched for money and letters, though it should even appear that the house was not in danger from the situation of the combustables. If it appears that there is sufficient proof to convict the servant and the other two leaders capitaly I humbly think they should be immediately broght to tryal to terrify others, but if there is not sufficient proof to make their crime capital it [is] perhaps better to postpone their trial. The other culprets should be removed to some other town where there are troops constantly, for the colliers are a very numerous, desperate body of men and it be the only method to avoyed having a contest with them. I have the honour to be with the greatest respect my lord, your lordship's most obliged humble servant, J .Caldwell. P.S. the chairmen are to get half-a-crown a night. 2 persons from each street are to see that the [sic.] keep their post. All the troops in town are to be under arms this night.

S.P.37/21/125-6. [Endorsed Bath, 15 June 1780. Mayor. R. 17th.] Bath, 15th June 1780. My Lord, In answer to your lordship's favor - the riotous and tumultous persons illegally assembled together last Friday evening and pulling down and destroying a new building called a Rornish chapel with five small houses adjoining belonging to or occupied by Catholics, two lying on one side of the chapel and three on the other, situate near or adjoyning to a place called Saint James's Parade in this city, together with great part of the furniture therein, was so very sudden and unexpected that I had not any notice of the same until sometime after these riotous persons were riotously formed and began to put their riot into execution by pulling down, setting fire to and destroying of the above houses and the furniture therein.


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As soon as I heard of the same I went in person with the civil power of the city and taking in aid as many of the associated men called Bath Royal Volunteers as I could immediately collect, amounting, as I believe, to between twenty and thirty, and proceeded with them directly to the place, but when we came there the rioters were so numerous and had put their riot so far into execution by having in part destroyed the said chapel and houses, with some of the furniture therein, that it was impossible wholly to suppress the same. However I proceeded as near to the houses where the fire was as I possibly could with any degree of safety to my own person, having pieces of wood, stones etc. throwed at me and the persons so accompanying me so far as we ventered among and in opposing of them. And some of the persons accompanying and aiding me were hurt by the rioters. But nothwithstanding this I commanded the public peace to be observed, and all persons to depart to their respective habitations; and at the same time caused the Riot Act to be distinctly read to, and in the presence and hearing of the rioters, but all was in vain; for the rioters nevertheless proceeded in destroying the said chapel and houses, and the furniture therein, which they wholly effected that night. But in order fully to check the progress of this business , immediate orders were sent to the commanding officer of Dragoons at Devizes and Bradford in Wilts. and to the commanding officer of the Herefordshire Militia which had that very morning proceeded on their rout from hence to Wells, to request them to come to Bath, to aid and assist in quelling the said riot; and the respective officers with their corps of men came here the next morning, as early as could reasonably be expected, considering the respective distances they respectively came; and they have continued here respectively ever since, so that with the united aid both of the civil and the military power we have been able to restore, preserve and keep the public peace of the city - the civil power patrolling by night all parts of the city, and the Horse doing the same and the neighborhood thereof, and the Foot guarding the prison and the Guildhall with the internal parts of the city: so that from this chain of union and concord has arisen and is preserved the entire and internal perfect peace of the place. On Saturday the 10th instant, being the day following the night of the said riot, I and the other city magistrates formed and caused to be printed the hand-bill inclosed;4 great numbers of which were immediately publicly dispersed in and about all parts of the city and its neighbourhood. And I and the other Justices of the city had our whole time every day since taken up in making the strictest and fullest inquiry we could of the originating cause of this business, and by whom set on, aided and carryed into execution; and human nature being so generally unwilling to become informers, it has been with great difficulty and attention that we have been able to get informations fully to ground a commitment and we hope a conviction for the offence. 4

S.P.37/21/127, printed supra., pp. 184-5


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We have sat dayly on this business and nearly to 12 o'clock each night in examining and committing offenders and receiving informations and contriving modes for apprehending the delinquents; in which apprehendings the military have been very useful. On the 11th instant we issued forth another printed hand-bill (one of which is inclosed)s as means for apprehending the person therein described or any other who were concerned in this riotous business, with a reward to the person for each person so apprehended. No persons here have worn any blue or other cockade, on this riotous business, so that from the hand-bills already printed and distributed, we did not see any use in printing and distributing either of the hand-bills that your lordship were pleased to send me, and have suspended so doing until your futher pleasure is known. We have eight persons in goal, most of whom we think capital, and we have informations against eight more or thereabouts, some of whom I am informed are absconded . We have not been able to discover that any persons from London came here, forming the plan for, or setting the chapel and houses on fire . Nor have we been able to discover any person in particular here that had so formed the same, except one John Butler, a servant to a Mr. Baldwin in the Crescent, who headed a parcel of boys running after the popish priest, who lived in one of the houses adjoyning the chapel, th [r] ough several streets of the city. But this servant appears to me not to be in a capacity or station fit for to form and execute any kind of such like business; and declares no person set him about it. We are in hopes that we shall complete our informations and examinations this week and we had previous to the receipt of your lordship's letter, formed our resolution to transmit to your lordship copies of all our proceedings when finished - from which your lordship would be enabled to advise what would be proper for the Crown to do; which copys we intend for your lordship to receive Monday next. It did not appear to me to be material to have troubled your lordship on this business, until we could furnish your lordship with the copys above mentioned; and the rather as all things were quiet here. I have caused inquiry to be made respecting the supposed fire which your lordship mentions at the house of one Jolly; and the best account that I can learn is that no actual fire has been in his house, otherwise than as aftermentioned: which was, that he and some other persons living with him in his house, had been using a charcoal fire in the kitchen, in their respective businesses; from which had issued a suffocating, disagreeable smoak; and this as far as I have learnt is the whole of the supposed fire at this man's house. I am my lord your lordship's most obedient and obliged humble servant, John Chapman, Mayor. To the Right Honourable Lord Hillsborough. S.P.37/21/72, printed supra., p. 185. See also note 1.


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S.P.37/21/153. [Endorsed Guildhall, Bath, 17 June 1780. The Mayor R. 19th by a private hand. One inclosure.] Guildhall, Bath, 17th June 1780. My Lord, With this your lordship will receive copys of all the informations that we have taken here respecting the late riot and rioters - as also a copy of the Coroner's inquest taken on the body of a rioter who was shot in the late riot, wherein the verdict is that is [sic. ] was a justifiable homicide by a person unknown. Nothing has arisen here material since I had the honor of writing last to your lordship - but all is peace here. We are endeavoring to apprehend those rioters whom we have informations against that are not yet taken. The Town Clerk will send your lordship tomorrow a short abstract 6 of the substance of the charge against each individual for your lordship's ease in seeing and discovering each person sooner with the crimes charge[d] on him. I have the honor to be, my lord, your lordship's most obedient humble servant, John Chapman, Mayor.

S.P.37/21/155-6. [Endorsed Bath, 18 June 1780. Mr Jefferys, Town Clerk. R. 19th by a private hand.] Crescent, Bath, 18th June 1780. My Lord, With this I trouble your lordship with a short abstract 6 of the names and descriptions of, and the crimes charged on, several of the rioters in the late sad and alarming riot here on the 9th. instant, against whom informations have been made, distinguishing such as have been taken and are in prison from such as are not yet taken, with the names of the witnesses, proving each charge and by whom if committed - from which your lordship will easily see at one view what has been done and is doing here to bring these rioters to punishment and to restore and preserve the public peace of the city. The magistrates have been so arduous and vigilant in their duty in this business that they have sat every day since until near twelve o'clock at night, sometimes until early the next morning, from whence has arisen the public peace and safety of the place as well as the cause of so many persons being apprehended and informations taken against others who for the most part at present are fled from and endeavoring to avoid justice. But the magistrates will not lose sight of using every means in their power to bring these miscreants to open and public justice. The ¡ 6

Not among the State Papers in the P.R.O.


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prison here is only belonging to the city in which the prisoners are confined and the charter power directs the Justices to commit offenders which they cannot try (such as the present are, having no jurisdiction given them to try such like offences) to the county goal, one of which is at Ivelchester 7 35 miles from Bath and the other, being less and a kind of bridewell only, is at Shepton Mallet 16 miles from hence. Of both we have had informations given that they are at this time unsafe to remove the prisoners to, there having been rumors and alarms of the populac's intention of threatening to rise and break open those goals to make a kind of general goal delivery themselves (as it is said) of all persons confined within them. For these reasons the magIstrates have thought fit to detain the prisoners here at present that are taken until your pleasure is known, as being as they think now the most safe place for their imprisonment, it being now well guarded by the militia that are here, which neither of the other goals are by any soldiery at all as I have learnt. And secondly, if the Crown should be advised or think fit to issue a special commission for trying these criminals here, it would save all expences and hazard not only in removing them to either of the above goals but also in removing them again to any other place (which perhaps would be the case) to be tryed either at a general goal delivery or at a special commission of delivery for that purpose. And if tryed at Bath all expences of witnesses and loss of time to attend the tryal at any different place (which must be many miles if at all) will be saved. And as the late riot will be pretty generally and dearly fe [1] t by the inhabitants of this place in the general idea of its once being an agreeable assilum of a peaceable retreat of ease, safety and security to persons with their property being now in part lost unless something can be done to restore, revive and continue that once agreeable and general idea, and nothing seems to me a more likely means of doing it than the delinquents being speedily tryed and punished, if convicted, at the place where the offence arose; all which is submitted to your lordship's wisdom and consideration. I shall be in Town the 26th. instant if your lordship should want to know anything that you may think I can inform you - if your lordship will please to send to me at Mr. Whittingham's, Cary Street, I will await on your lordship when you please. I am, my lord, your lordship's most obedient humble servant, Jno. Jefferys, Town Clerk. The Right Honourable Earl Hillsborough.

7

llchester.


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S.P.37/21/167. [Endorsed Bath, 21 June 1780. Mr Jefferys, Town Clerk. R.23d.] Bath, 21st June 1780. My Lord, I sent your lordship the abstract of the informations, and the names of the persons against whom made, with those that had been taken,S by the Bath fly, on Sunday last (which arrives in Town 12 hours sooner than the post) in hopes that your lordship would receive it, near at the same time, with the copys sent of the informations made etc., in order to endeavor to ease your lordship (if you that prefer) of the trouble of reading the whole of the tedious formal informations. Nothing has materially occurred since writing that letter. We have this day had an information made against an additional rioter - but the man on search we found absconded. The tradesmen and reputable persons of the city have been desirous to form and associate themselves under the power of the civil magistrates; and in aid of, and subserviency and obedience to the legal constables of the city. This at present has been permitted; binding each man to fidelity by an oath, which is extrajudicial as I conceive; and they are to patrole the city in parties, under the directions of the constables, by night - the inferior class of men having been tried and found very remiss and negligent in their duty. Your lordship will please to signify your approbation, or the contrary, of this measure; and the magistrates will, I trust, act in obedience thereunto. All is peace and quiet here. I am, my lord, Your lordship's most obedient and faithful servant, Jno. Jefferys, Town Clerk.

S.P.37/21/184. [Endorsed Cary Street, 1st July 1780. Mr Jefferys, one inclosure. ] At Mr. Whittingham's,9 No.5, Cary Street, Lincolns Inn. 1st. July 1780. My Lord, I trouble your lordship with the extract of a letter that I received this day from my deputy at Bath, by which your lordship will be informed what has been further done, and is still doing, since my last letter to your lordship, by the magistrates and corporation of Bath, in consequence of the late sad unhappy riot there. I believe a subscription will be set on foot (following the corporation S 9

See note 6. See end ofletter of 18 June (supra., p. 192).


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bounty) by the inhabitants of the city for the same laudable purpose of demonstrating their gratitude to the soldiery and chairmen for their services on the late unhappy occasion . . Your lordship were pleased to express a pleasing testimony of your approbation of the method with which the late extract I sent your lordship of the riots and riotings committed at Bath was formed - a method which, your lordship was pleased to declare, made it so easy as to see and fully comprehend the whole of the business almost at one point of view - and this I think, ought always to be observed to persons in public character, whose time is scarcely measurable in point of value. From your lordship's feeling, and experimentally knowing, the speedy, as well as both easy and safe dispatch of the most weighty and important business, when reduced into strict method, and approved good order - in which the happiness of the public, as well as every individual, is inseperably founded - it induced me to take the liberty to mention to your lordship that whilst I am in Town, if agreeable to your lordship, I can shew you such accurate methods, and approved forms, of keeping landed estates, that I am persuaded will strike your lordship with a pleasure known only to those who wish to be in the practice of those methods, which reduces everything to ease, clearness and certainty, joyned happily to a speedy dispatch, by which a multitude of other loborious ways are saved, and more business done with satisfaction in one hour than in 10 where a long confused manner is followed. I am, my lord, your lordship's faithful and obedient Jno. Jefferys.

S.P.37/21/186. [Enclosure with the above, endorsed 30 June 1780, extract of a letter from the Deputy Town Clerk of Bath to Mr Jefferys in London. In Mr Jefferys's, 1st July 1780.] Extract from a letter which Mr Jefferys received this morning, 1st Jul~ 1780, from the Deputy Town Clerk of Bath, dated 30th June 1780. 1 Corporation Hall, Tuesday 27th June 1780 The corporation resolved that ÂŁ100 be paid to the chairmen who were assisting, and acted in aid of the civil magistrates of the city, in endeavouring to quell the late riot and to preserve the peace of the city - the same to be distributed among them by or under the direction of the Chamberlain, Mr. Street, Mr. Horton and Mr. Harford, or any three of them. 10 The extract which follows is evidently from Council Book no. 10 (Bath City Archives) which adds, "Resolved that the loss sustained by persons in this city during the late riot ought to be restored to them by the public, as it is thought will be in London."


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That 100 guineas be also paid to the soldiery under the direction of Mr. Wiltshire, Mr. Horton, Mr. Jacob Smith, Mr. Chas. Shillott and Mr. Cary, or any three of them. , And that the two troops of Horse and militia now quartered here were in their opinion a sufficient force to guard and preserve the general peace of the city, and for that end desired their continuance. Riot - I sent the warrants against the several persons who were concerned in the riot to Bristol, Sir John Fielding and Taunton as you directed. Sir Abraham Elton has since been with me, and told me that he had caused the descriptions of the men to be wrote out and stuck"up about the Council House He thinks it would be best to advertise them with their descriptions, with a reward to be paid on conviction, in the Bath, Bristol and Gloucester papers. If you think this method advisable I will get it done.

S.P.37/21/227. [Endorsed Carey Street, 9 July 1780, Mr Jefferys. R. Do.] At Mr Whittingham's, Cary Street, 9th July 1780. My Lord, In pursuance of your lordship's request, I have enquired after the Christian name of Mr. Baldwin in the Crescent and fmd his Christian name is Winthrop. The Attorney-General has been pleased to inform me that a special commission will be executed at Bath for trying the late rioters there. If the Crown does not take up the prosecutions and give some directions for preparations to that end in time, I fear little will be made of it - for the commission I find is to be executed on 24 August next. Some directions, I submit to your lordship, ought to be given respecting the prosecuting, or making one Geo: King an evidence for the Crown. The latter I submit is what unquestionably strikes me ought to be pursued, for the reasons in the extract I sent your lordship. I am, my lord, Your faithful and obedient Jno. Jefferys.

S.P.37/21/229. [Three copies in the same hand, endorsed R. 11 July from Mr Jefferys, Town Clerk of Bath] Mr Daniel Millsom, as I do not care to be seen in this matter, I acquaint you by letter, but I would have you go out a town directly as there is 4 or 5 men is going to the Town Hall to swear against you for


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burning and destroying the furniture and house on St. James's Parade. I heard one man say that you done more mistchife there than anyone and he swears that he will bring 4 or 5 more that will give evidence against you; therefore if you have got any regard for your life I beg you will leave the town as soon as possible. Mr Dan!. Millsom, to be left at Mr. Cottle's, shoe maker, with speed. Mr. Coalman. As I do not chuse to appear personally in this affaire, accations me to write to you. I beg of you to abscond emeaditely if you have got any regard for your life; there is no less than 4 people going to swear against you respecting burning the popish chapel and abusing one of the Bath Volintears, but I do not know his name - I have sent a note to Danel Millsom to desire him to leave Bath as soon as posible - I am sure he will be taken if he does not go of. I will make myself known to you I hope soon if all is safe, and no more notice taken. I was very fearfulliast night but I hope I am safe. Radstock, Thorsday morning. Mr Coalman, grocer, near Mrs. Busell's, Market Plase, Bath. Most worthy Sir, It is with horror and grief I inform your worship that Gordan's mob, who lately destroyed the Romish chappel and building adjoining thereto in this once famous and most beautiful city, threatens likewise to destroy many more before it be long, if Providence don't interfere; therefore, kind sir, let me earnestly beg the favour of your worship to put your self and this almost ruined city in a proper posture of defence before it is too late, as your worship and the ever worth Mr. Phillott at the Bear are in imminent danger, likewise the new prison and the Town Hall. It is true I spent many thousands in this city, and that with a deal of pleasure and satisfaction, and would be heartily sorry to leave it on account of a destructive and rebellious set of ruffians, as it is the only part of England I like best. Therefore, if I thought that I could live in peace and safety, I should, with many more worthy and respectable gentlemen of my acquaintance, rest contented and fear no danger. Those ungrateful, and wicked miscreants, I am credibly informed, intends, as soon as the town is a little quiet and evacuated of its present trifling force, and the militia encamped, to assume their former destruction, with double force, and are certain to gain their most abominable point if not timely repelled by force and justice. 0, what an unparrell'd scandal it has brought, on all faithful protestant subjects and our holy religion, and that all over Europe. Yet I hope that the judicious and ever worthy mayor and corporation of this city will do all that lies in their power to re-establish its former lustre and secure its noble benefactors from the fury of the irreligious and plundering vagabonds who glory in their neibours' downfall and utter distress. I am most worthy sir, your worship's most humble servant.


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P.S. Slight not this, I beseech you, as it comes from your sincerest friend. The worshipful Francis Bennett Esq., Belmont.

S.P.37/21/239. [EndorsedMr Chamberlayne S.P. R. 12 July 1780.] Sir, Agreeable to Lord Hillsborough's directions, I laid Mr. Jeffreys's letter respecting the Bath rioters before Mr. Attorney-General who desired me to acquaint you, for the information of his lordship, that he is of opinion a special commission is unnecessary as the prisoners may easily be removed from Bath to Wells at the time of the Assizes and if any of them are convicted they may be brought back to Bath to be executed. He likewise desired me to add that it is very proper the Crown should be at the expence of the prosecutions and therefore desires a letter from his lordship directing him to carry on the prosecutions at the expence of his Majesty. I am, sir, Your most obedient and most humble servant, Wm. Chamberlayne. Southwark, Wednesday afternoon.

S.P.37/21/257-8. 11 [Endorsed 15 July 1780. Mr Attorney General's report on the mode of trying the rioters at Bath. R. same day.] To the Right Honourable The Earl of Hillsborough, one of His Majesty's Principal Secretaries of State. My Lord, In humble obedience to his Majesty's commands signified to me by your lordship's letter of the 2d instant, transmitting a letter from the mayor of Bath dated 17th June last together with copies of all the informations taken respecting the late riot and rioters in that city, also a letter from the Town Clerk of Bath dated the 18th June and a list with it of such of the said rioters against whom informations have been made, distinguishing such as are taken and in prison, and such who are not yet taken, and directing me to take these papers into my immediate consideration, and report to your lordship for his Majesty's information my opinion, whether it will be right and expedient to try the said rioters by a special commission at Bath, or to remove them to the 11 Between this and the preceding document is S.P./37/21/245: an information laid in Bath against two London tavern-servants, allegedly implicated not in the Bath riots but in the London events (at Newgate and St George s Fields).


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county goal to be tried at the ensuing Assizes under the difficulties, dangers and expences mentioned by the Town Clerk or in any other mode I may suggest: I have taken the said papers into my consideration and I am humbly of opinion that it will be proper to try the offenders at the next Assizes for the county of Somerset which will be holden at Wells about twenty miles from the city of Bath. The safe conduct of the prisoners from the city of Bath to Wells and attendance of the witnesses, who are very few in number, will not, as I conceive, be attended with any difficulty and may be done at a small expence. Special commissions are generally issued where the nature of the offence demands a more expeditious trial and example than can be had in the ordinary course of justice or where the trials of offenders may take up more time than can with convenience to the country be allowed upon a circuit, but in the present case the Assizes at Wells will be as soon or sooner than a special commission can conveniently be executed and, on consideration of the several informations, there does not appear to me a probability of more than four or five persons being convicted of capital offences and in case all the prisoners were to be tried, their trials may be had within the time allotted by the judges for the dispatch of business at Wells but as the offences of most of them seem to amount only to misdemeanors they will have it in their power to postpone their trials until the Spring Assizes. It may be proper for the sake of example that the execution of such of the offenders as shall be convicted capitally may be at Bath, which the judges under their general commission may direct. All which is humbly submitted to his Majesty's royal wisdom. 15th July 1780. Ja. Wallace.

S.P.37/20/362. [Fr. Brewer's letter; no endorsement.] To Sir Stanier Porter, Knight, Secretary to the Right Honourable Lord Stormont, London. Honoured Sir, I am sorry the person I had commissioned to lay before you the incendiary letter which was sent to me here and which was delivered to you last Monday, was out of town, otherwise he could have acquainted you with every particular relating to me and to my situation in life. I am the unfortunate Roman Catholic clergyman, who was hunted from place to place and pursued through several streets the evening of the Bath riot: it was with great difficulty I escaped from falling a victim to the fury of the mob. Being here the public minister for persons of our persuasion I am well known and was openly attacked in the street that evening by one Butler, who is mentioned in the incendiary letter and was then servant to Mr. Baldwin, a gentleman living in this town. After pursuing me at the head of his mob he led them to my house and


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chapel, both which, together with all the furniture and books, were entirely destroyed. This unhappy man was afterwards tried and hanged on the spot, though from motives of delicacy I did not give evidence at his trial. The Belltree, which is threatened to be fust set on fire, is the house I now live in, in the upper part of which there is a long room set aside for divine worship. The incendiary letter was sent to me a few days after the Scotch Greys were ordered away from this town, which now being left without any military force, makes people, particularly those of our persuasion, apprehensive for themselves and property, and nobody has more reason to be so than myself after what I have already undergone and am now threatened with. I beg leave to observe that all the Catholics here, most of whom are gentlemen of family and property, chearfully took the late oaths of allegiance tendered to them by his Majesty and therefore, both on that account and for their constant peaceable behavior, flatter themselves they will be entitled to his Majestys' protection. I have the honor to be, honoured sir, Your most humble and most obedient servant, John Brewer. Bath, Belltree, November 15th 1780. S.P.37j21j406. [Endorsed Bath, 26 November 1780. Mr Wiltshire, Mayor.]

My Lord, I had the honor of your lordship'S answer to my lettre Friday morning and one troop of the Inniskillins came in yesterday, which has dispelled the fears of those most pointed at and will fully answer all purposes - if my own private opinion had lead me to think that an application to your lordship was unnecessary at this juncture and contrary to that, any mischiefs had ensued, such a plea would have been a very poor vindication of my conduct, more especialy as I have so recent an example before my eyes as the late disturbance here. The very loose conversation of many persons, who think themselves of consequence, and the minds of the common people so exceedingly prompt to execute what that suggests, determined me to judge, that it was best to be prepared for the worst that might happen and more so as the inconvenience and trouble of removing a few troops from one-quarters to another stood in no competition with an insurance of the pub lick safety. Your lordship's very kind and ready compliance with our wishes deserves the warmest acknowledgements of this city, for which, I have the honor to be Your lordship's most obedient humble servant, Walter Wiltshire. Bath, the 26th November 1780.


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THE JOURNAL OF PETER AUGUSTINE BAINES O.S.B., 1817-19 This document, The Student's Journal, measuring 4~"X7~"and quarterbound in red morocco with marbled boards, contains 106 diary-pages two to a week with Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday occupying the left-hand pages and the other four days the right. The names of the days of the week are printed, but not the dates, and where Baines does not himself give these I have added them, in italics. Some perceptive notes on this journal and its contents were printed in The Downside Review for July 1900 (pp. 182-8) under the title "A Priest's Diary, 1817-18", and two modern writers who have referred to it are Father J .B. Dockery O.F.M. and Mr Bryan Little,! but it has never been printed in extenso. The journal calls for little preliminary comment and can be allowed to speak for itself save on five occasions when its message is obscured by short snatches of cipher. These I have been unable to de-code and they are therefore reproduced as they stand. No doubt, as suggested in the Downside Review article (p.183), the letters M.,D.,T.,s. and SS., which occur in many of the journal-entries, stand for Mass, dinner, tea, supper and sacraments, while "Conf." clearly means confession, "Cornn." communion and "int." intention. These obvious and recurrent abbreviations are here printed as originally written; others are expanded, save in the case of personal names (including titles) and place-names. Original spellings are retained but punctuation and capitalisation have been modernised. All editorial comments or additions, in italics, are enclosed in square brackets. Other words here italicised are ones underlined in the original. [Flyleaf entries, unpaginated; my numbering. ] 1. This Journal of Rev. P.A. Baines (afterwards V.A.W.D? and Bp. of Siga) was in Mr Quin's possession at his death at 14 S. Parade - 3.11.90 and was probably given to him by Mgr. Brindle D.D., a colleague of Rev. P.A. Baines on the Bath mission. Mgr. Brindle lived for some years in Mr Quin's house when the N.P. Bank was in Abbey Church Yard. G.J.D.3 St John's Priory , S. Parade [The first part of this note, as far as the word "mission ", and the initials "G.J.D. ", are printed in the Downside Review ex trac t.] 2. [Letter on black-edged notepaper, addressed: Revred Mr Baines 6 Philip St.] Mr Eyston is extremely sorry that Mr Baines has had the trouble of sending up an answer. Mr Eyston had first sent his servant to Philip St. ! In Collingridge: A Franciscan Contribution to Catholic Emancipation (Newport, Mon. 1954) and Catholic Churches Since 1623 (1966) respectively. 2 Vicar-Apostolic of the Western District. 3 Dom George Joseph Davis O.S.B., at Bath 1864-1900 (But, p. 195). The Post Office Directories for Bath from 1858-9 to 1864-5 show Brindle at no. 2 Abbey Churchyard, the address of the National Provincial Bank of which James Quin was manager. The Directory for 1866-7 gives Brindle's address as 8 Ainslie's Belvedere and the following issue shows the bank (and Mr Quin) in Milsom Street.


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As Mr Baines says he is disengaged at 7 Mr Eyston will take the liberty of naming that hour. ~ after four Wednesday4 3. [On the reverse side of the above letter are the following calculations, unexplained, in Baines's hand. ] Rec ts 0- 3 - 0 ~..r 1 "3 - 10 1- 0- 0 Nov. 5.1817

6-0

1-

0- 0 12 - 0

3-0 49 - 15 -

3~

1- 1- 0 1---

1-

1-

16 18342- 04-

0

4 0 0 6 0 0 0

1

1- 2 - 0 15 - 0 5- 0 3- 4 9 - 10 1- 7 - 0 6 - 15 - 0 1- 6- 8 9-

7-

6

26 - 17 -

0

81 4. Dr Baines had begun to look out for a residence and to purchase furniture soon after his arrival in Bath which was early in August 1817. His assistant, Mr Brindle, arrived while he was yet in Philip Street, coming on 18th of September. At once he took him to see the future residence. Five days after, they went to P. Park; saw through the house and grounds. [This note and the next are in the hand of Dam C.1. Davis, OS.B.] 5. [On reverse side of the above] Some papers of early and preparitory arrangements for the future P. Park establishment, prefaced by some previous account of the then state of things [The words "the then" are added in pencil. Now follow the diary-entries. ] 4 This undated letter may refer to Baines's visit to the Eystons on the evening of Wednesday 5 Nov. 1817 to baptise their son. A few days later (8 Nov.) he moved from Philip Street. See his journal-entries for these two dates. Philip St. (now demolished) was parallel to Horse St. on the east side (see frontispiece).


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Thursday 11 Sepr. 1817. M. Mrs Mary Morgan. Went to a sale at Lincomb House; bought two bronze candlesticks and a shade lamp £1. 1., also a reading screen 12s. D. Mr Knap. T. Mrs. Langton. 5 Read ~ an hour in the French Grammar (Pybus's).6 Attended two sick men in Walcot workhouse and a sick woman in Avon St. ~SS). Friday [J 2 Sept.] M. Mr Thos. Day. An: Attended a sale in Pultney st. Measured and took an exact plan of the chapel; benches, numbering etc. D. home. T. Do. Called at Mrs Ferrers. Attended the girls' school 2 hours with Miss M. Hyde. 8 Read nothing. Spent an hour in preparing a sermon for Sunday. Saturday [J 3 Sept.] M. Miss French's int. Went to look at furniture at Green Park Buildings and Montpellier. Bought a dining Pembroke table £6. Cons. from ~ past 1 till ~ past 3. Examined the burying vaults. D. at home. Conf: from 6~ to 8~. Sermon from 9 to 11. Read nothing. Sunday [14 Sept.] Buried at infant of Mrs Strutter of the North Parade in the vaults below the chapel at 7 0'c1ock. 9 Sung the Mass and preached. Said vespers.D. Mr Day. T. Mrs Riddell.1O Had a long visit from Mr Brown and son. Mrs Strutter promised to make some acknowledgment on a future occasion should it be in her power but I allowed her not to consider it as an obligation. I had particular reasons for allowing her this privilige. Monday 15th Sept. 1817. M. Miss C. Fleming. Bought at a house in Seymour St. 10 chairs at a guinea and 2 Grecian couches for 11 guineas and at a sale, 48 Pultney St., a 100table 11 £5. 10., screens, fire-irons etc. D. Madme de Beaurepaire 1 2 with Genl. Auriol 13 etc. T. Do. Called at Miss Hotham's. 14 Saw two sick. Read nothing.

5 Respectively of 1 Bathwick Street and 14 South Parade (1819 Directory, p. 74). For other Knapp references, see CR.S., 56, p. 169 and E. Castle (ed.) The Jemingham Letters, 1780-1843 (1896) I, p. 329, and, for the Langtons, ibid., II, p. 232 & passim. See also journal-entry for 30 May 1818 & note thereon. 6 W.H. Pybus, An Easy, Natural and Rational Mode of Teaching and Acquiring the French Language on a Plan Entirely New, etc. (1816). 7 Anniversary? 8 Respectively of 27 Henrietta Street and 9 Marlborough Buildings (1819 Directory, pp. 60, 71). Both families are mentioned in The Jerningham Letters, I, pp. 327-8, 334; II, 400,407. See also note 21 below (Ferrers) & journal-entry for 11 Dec. (Mrs Hyde). 9 See also Reg. 2 (death-entry). 10 12 Royal Crescent (1819 Directory, p. 88). 11 A circular card-table for playing the round-game of 100 (a three- to five-handed variant of whist). 12 Miniature-painter, of 3 Montpelier (1819 Directory, p. 45; Jemingham Letters, 1, p. 325; II, pp. 171-2). 13 Of Hanging-land (1819 Directory, p. 42) 14 Sir W. Hotham of 10 Cavendish Place occurs in ibid., p. 70.


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203

Tuesday [16 Sept.] Went at ~ past 7 with Mr and Mrs John 1 5 Miss and Miss Cath. Wright to Kings' Weston Point, the cottages. Church at - , B. and D. at Bath Hotell, Clifton. Returned home before 10 p.m. Read nothing. Wednesday [17 Sept.] M. Mrs Ann Reino. 16 Auction, 10 North Parade; bought a wash-hand stand, dressing table etc. D. Mr Dennie. 1 7 Read a little in the French Grammar etc. T. Mrs. Fitzgerald, 10 Sth. Parade. Thursday [18 Sept.] M. Mr Cornelius Dealy. Mr. Brindle arrived at 110' clock. Called on Mr l0a~ with Do.; on the Miss and !'J;s Hyde and Miss Talb ot. D. Mr Pa tnck. 8 Walked to Mrs Harzamk s. 1 9 T. Mrs Langton. Read French Grammar ~ an hour. Friday [J 9 Sept.] Mass. Pro felici [?] statu Congo Bought two pedestals for busts etc., lOs. Introduced Mr Brindle to Madm. De Sommery,20 Mrs Flin, Mrs Wright, Mrs John Wright, Miss W. and sister, Miss Riddell and called at Mrs Riddell. Walked after D. at home to Bathwick Church and Sydney Gardens. T. at home. Miss Cary with us. During tea Miss Ferrers came in great distress, informed that hour of her brother's death by accident. Saturday [20 Sept.] M. Major Ferrers. Confs. at 11. Told Mrs Ferrers of her son's death; got it inserted in the paper? 1 Con: from ~ past 1 till 4. 3 general confession of converts. D. at home. Went to see Mrs Westall (sick) and heard her confession. Sermon and office from 6 to 11. Read nothing. Heard confess: from 8 to 9 a.m. [sic.]. Sunday 21 [Sept.] M. Miss Riddell. Confessions after. Mr Brindle said the High Mass the first time. I preached. Visited the Mrs and Miss Ferrers. Sung vespers etc. D. and T. Miss French. S. Mr Knapp . Met there Mr Sarn!o Day and Mr Bendry. Returned home and wrote to my mother by Revd. Vinct. Glover 22 who returns tomorrow morning to Liverpool. Monday 22 Sepr. 1817. M. Madm. de Sommery. Instructed Mr i.e. Mr and Mrs John Wright (see entry for 19 Sept.). See also note 168. A Miss Renau of 3 Springfield Place occurs in the 1819 Directory, p. 88. 17 J. Denie, woollen draper, of 24 Milsom Street, occurs in the 1819 Directory, p. 57 but see entry for 29 Dec. where his address appears to be 7 Sion Row. Perhaps the former was his business address and the latter his private residence, See also entries for 30 Oct. & 29 Dec. 1 g Perhaps of 9 South Parade (1819 Directory, p. 84). 15 16

19 Surname variously spe1t; see index. An 1836 reference to "the late C. Hartsinck, Esq., of Great Malvern" occurs in CR.S., 12, p. 216 20 Or de Sommerie (Jerningham Letters, I, p. 325; Davey, p. 99). 21 See also entries for 19 & 23 Sept. and Jerningham Letters, I, pp. 334-5. In the Bath Chronicle for 25 Sept. 1817 is an account of the fatal accident which befell Major Ferrers at Carnbrai. 22 Dom Vincent Joseph Glover O.S.B. of St. Peter's, Seel Street, Liverpool; cf. Birt, p. 142; T. Burke, Catholic History of Liverpool (Liverpool, 1910) pp. 25-8 ; 63-4.


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Philips, a young gentleman applied to be a convert. Called on Mrs Willan with Mr Knapp and Brindle. Went to Prior Park with Miss Hotham, Swift etc. and saw all through the house and grounds . D. at home. Wrote to Mr Birdsal1. 23 T. Mrs FitzGerald. Read nothing . Tuesday 23 [Sept. ] Gave directions for painting the two lower rooms in No.2 Pierpont Place and engaged to give the painter £3 for it. Conf: M. Major Ferrers. Mrs John and Miss and Miss Cath. Wright breakfasted with me . Went to an auction, no. 20 Pultney St., and bought a quantity of plate and linen, £23.6.6. Admitted to the profession of faith - 3 persons. Visited Mrs Ferrers and had an article inserted in the paper about her son. D. and T. Madm. de Sommery. Read nothing. Wednesday 24 [Sept. ] Conf: Mr Lawson 24 breakfasted with me. Mr Knap and Mr Day called. Went to see some goods for auction at -Southcot House. Attended the sale at 20 Pultney St.; bought nothing. Saw 2 poor men at Walcot poor house. D. Mrs Hartzink. T. Mr Knap. Lost almost the whole day in the above occupations. No reading. Thursday 25 [Sept. ] Conf: at 8. M. Lady F.G's25 int. Said mattins and lauds from 5 to 6 a.m. Mr Lawson breakfasted with me. Gave instructions etc. till 12. Visited Mrs Ferrers and Lady Fitzgerald, Mrs Hackett, Mr Bence and Mrs John Wright. Chose paper for drawing room. Hair cut. D. at home. T. Miss Talbot. Got wet coming home. Read nothing but a newspaper. Paid £23.6 . 6. for goods as 23rd by a check on the bank. Friday 26 [Sept.] M: Miss French. Breakfasted with Mrs Mo.rgan. Visited Mrs Edgcumb Plunket with Miss M. Hyde. D. Mr Patrick. T. Mrs Langton. Walked home with Miss Cary. Found a set of tea things at home. Saturday 27 [Sept.] Conf: M. Lady Fitz-G. Conf: to 10. Breakfast. Conf: Saw Mrs Hippisly's shop and ordered a set of prints of saints.2 6 Settled with Miss M. Hyde most particularly regarding the house, No.2 Pierpont Place. 27 Conf: from ~ past 1 to 4 . D. at home. Con: from 6 to 8. T. Mrs Ferrers. Sermon till 12~ from 9~. Confessed and baptized the three following converts [no names given] . Sunday 28th [Sept. ] Mass. Conf: Mass, Mrs O'Driscol. Sermon till 11; preached on the forgiveness of sins - partly controversy, seemed to be liked. Walked along the canal saying my office till 3. Vespers. D. Mr Knap. T. Mrs Langton, in company with Miss Hotham, Swift etc. Read nothing. Later Baines's adversary (see supra., p. 87); Definitor of S. Province and missioner at Cheltenham (Birt, p. 141; Oliver, p. 242). 24 See note 145. 25 Doubtless Lady Fitzgerald. Sir J. Fitzgerald, Bart., of 4 Brunswick Place, occurs in the 1819 Directory, p. 61. For Lady Fitzgerald see also supra., p. 73 and Jerningham Letters, I, p. 329. 26 See supra., p. 84. 27 See also entry for 29 Sept. 23


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Monday 29 Sept. 1817. Conf: Miss Maria Hyde and Miss Cary breakfasted with me. Transacted business and settled the letting of the house to them. Saw a sick woman (Mrs Butler, Abraham's Court). D. Mr Knap. Conf. till 8. Evening Mr Knap. Wrote to Mr Bar informing him of having taken the house etc? 8 Paid Mr Harris ÂŁ3. 7. 6. for November Masses. Tuesday 30 [Sept.] conf: Went with Miss Hotham, Swift and Bruce to Corsham; returned at 3. Office. D. Miss Hotham. Conf: T. Miss Hotham. Read nothing. Very bad cold, with headache. Wednesday 1 [October] Conf: Gave Comn: to Miss Walsh's servt and breakfasted with them. Conf: at 2. D. Mrs Willan. Conf: from ~ past 6 to 8. T. Mrs Willan. Read about half an hour in Butler's Lives of Saints. 29 Promised to be at the chapel at 2 on Friday. Thursday 2 [Oct.] Conf: At 9 went to give comn. to Mr Bence. 9 Lampard's Buildgs. Mrs John Wright and two sisters and Mr Jenkins at breakfast. Consulted Mr John English on the lease for No.2 Pierpont Place and got him to go with me to Mr Trirnnell - seemed to do the business with great dexterity.30 D. Mr Hussy, Richd. Hill.3 1 Conf: T. Mr John English. Met the Miss Humbles. Read ~ an hour in Butler's Lives of Sts. [Here follows a drawing of a hand, with pointing finger, followed by an asterisk, presumably refen-ing to the asterisk in the next entry. ] Friday 3 [Oct.] Conf: Com: to Dennis Calaghan, Walcot poor house, and Mrs Ennis, Horse Parade. Attended several calls from the poor. Gave 6s 6d to different persons of the congregation etc. Introduced Mr Brindle at Mrs Butler's. * Conf: at 2 and till 4. D. at home with Mr Tate from Bristol. 32 Called with him at Mrs Butler's and obtained from Mr Combes 33 faculties for Mr Brindle. Conf. from 7 till ~ past 8. T. at home. Read a discourse by Kirwin. 3 4 Baptized and absolved Mrs N oke. Saturday 4 [Oct.] Conf: from 8 to 9. M. Mrs Susanna Day. Mr Tate and Mr CQmbes to breakfast. Conf: from ~ past twelve till 2 at private Dom Thomas Bernard Barr, O.S.B. was Provincial of Canterbury (Birt, p. 134). For Mr Harris see note 115. 29 Lives of the Saints by Alban Butler (various editions). 30 Mr English was a solicitor of 2 Henry Street (this was a prominent Bath Catholic family); Trimmell, or Trimnell, an upholsterer and auctioneer of 19 Westgate St. Both occur in the 1819 Directory (pp. 8,59 & 98). 31 Not a name, but Mr Hussey's address: 4 Richmond Hill (1819 Directory, p. 71). ~~ Joseph Tate S.J.; cf. Oliver, pp. 111-2,419-20; Foley, VII, p. 763. A Mrs Butler of Bath, niece of Lady Eleanor Butler (of the "Ladies of Llangollen") is mentioned in The Jerningham Letters, I, p. 326. See also ibid., II, pp. 12-14, 30-35; D.N.B.; E. Mavor, The Ladies of Llangollen (1971). But see also note 171. The "Mr Combes" from whom faculties were obtained was William Coombs the elder, Grand Vicar of the Western District; see Introduction, note 341. 34 Perhaps in Sermons by Walter Blake Kirwan, Dean of Killala, With a Sketch of his Life (1816). 28


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houses. Do. at chapel from 2 to ~ past 4. D. at home. Conf: from 6 to 10. T. home. Read nothing. Saw a sick man, 12 Milk St. Baptized conditionally Mr Noke. Sunday 5 [Oct.] 7 to 8 - conf: 8 to 9~ comn: out. Office; heard Mass, 11; sung High Mass. Mr Brindle preached for the first time. Dr. Nihe1l 35 called and invited us to dinner on Tuesday next, 5 o'clock. Called half an hour at Mrs Ferrers'. Sung vespers; gave Benediction. Conf: Office till 5. D. Mrs Butler and Mr Combes. T. Miss Hotham. Read nothing. Began to prepare a sermon for Liverpool. Monday 6 [Oct.] Conf: M. Sarah Garden. Many calls at my house. Called on Mrs Blundell from home,3 6 on Mrs J. Wright; introduced Mr Brindle to the Ferrers; got the key of my new house. D. Mrs Hartzink; staid all night and returned with Miss Cary. Tuesday [7 Oct.] D. Dr. Nihell 5. Heard Mass at Mrs Hartzink; returned home with Miss Cary. Received some visits. Spent 3 hours in preparing a sermon for the opening of the Seel St. chapel, Liverpool. D. Dr. Nihell. T. Do. Took leave of him previous to his departure for the West Indies tomorrow. Wednesday 8 [Oct.] Conf: Com: Mrs Hippisly, 19 Grove St. Breakfast Miss Cary. Visited Mrs Hacket and two old women in Guinea Lane. Sermon from 1 to 3. Visited old Mrs Butler, 33 Walcot St. Conf: Mrs Hacket, Northampton St. D. Mrs John Wright. T. Do. Thursday 9 [Oct.] Com: .to Mrs Hacket and old Mrs Martin, 8 Guinea Lane. Saw Mr Hawarden? 7 Paid for the house in Peirpont Place. Conf: Sermon from 2 to 4. D at home. Conf: T. Mrs Ferrers. Mr Morris called. Friday 10 [Oct.] Conf: SS. to Mrs Warren, Com St. M. Major Ferrers. Shewed the new house to the Miss Ferrers. Conf: Attended the school committee as chairman. D. at home. Entered some baptisms. T. Mr Hussy. Read nothing. Saturday 11 [Oct.] Conf: M. Mr Charles Bowman. House. Helped 35 For this family, with West Indian interests and Jesuit connections, see Foley, VII, pp. 546-7; Oliver, pp. 364-5. In the 1819 Directory (p. 81) Dr Nihell's address is given as 45 Pulteney St. See also entry for 7 Oct. 36 ? of 41 Park Street (1819 Directory, p. 46). "from home" probably means " not at home." though it may mean from Baines's own part of Lancashire. 3 7 Perhaps Dom Joseph Bernard Hawarden O.S.B. , then at Bonham, Som., where he opened a school (Gillow, III, p. 182). Birt gives no account of him, though he includes him (p. 343) in the list of Provincials of Canterbury - an office to which he was elected in 1822 when he either was, or was about to be married. Within the year he left the Benedictines, took a farm at Wellow, near Bath, and brought up a family of six children. About 1838 they moved to Hinton Charterhouse a short distance away where Dom Joseph Peter Wilson (at Bath, 1836-40; Birt, p. 180) visited them, helped with the children's education and got on well with his former confrere who, however, differed from him about clerical celibacy. Hawarden died in 1851 in his eightieth year after receiving the last rites from Fr. Charles Parfitt of Midford (for whom see Oliver, pp. 372-3). This account of Hawarden is based on Allanson, "Biography", II, pp. 150-6 (at Downside). The "Mr Morris" mentioned in this journal-entry may perhaps be the future bishop; see note 74.


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the Miss Ferrers in packing up my things for my journey. Shewed the new house to Miss Brun [?]. Conf: Mrs Langton and at home . Conf: Chapel till 4. D. at home. Went to receive my rent from Mrs Bretton,3 8 £13.2.6. Called on Mr Day and took a place in the Worcester coach for Monday at 6. Said my office from beginning to end. Sunday 12 [Oct.] Conf: M. Mrs Blundell. Breakfast Miss Cary and Miss Blundell. Preached. Call from Mrs Willoughby and [illegible hieroglyphic] Fanny Ferrers and Mr J. English. Conf: Sung vespers. Conf. D. Mr Knap. T. Do. Also at Mrs Nihell's and Mrs Langton's. Prepared for journey. Monday 13 Oct. Journey to Liverpool. Left Bath at 6. 39 Gave Mr Brindle £10. Arrived at Worcester "at 4. Fare etc. [?] £1. 9. and [illegible] 2s. Mr Hibdin met me at the Worcester turnpike. D. with him and bed. Miss Robinson came with me to Worcester. Tuesday 14 [Oct.] Went this morning to Worcester to settle with Miss R. about our journey; determined to go to Birmingham the same day. Saw the cathedral; took an early dinner with Mr and sons Hibdin and left Worcester for Birmingham at ~ past 4. Arrived at Birmingham about ~ past 9. Wrote a note to Mr Hibdin and another to Mr Peach, ordering 2 copies of Dr. Milner's portrait. Slept at the Swan. Wednesday 15 [Oct.] Left Birmm. at 6 in the Bang-up; breakfasted at Wolverhampton; dined at Newcastle;40 reached Liverpool at 9 p.m. Went with Miss Robinson to Mr Robinson's;41 waited to near 11 before he came home. Slept at Mrs Slater's. Thursday 16 [Oct.] Went to Mass at the new chapel with Mr Robinson at 8~. Breakfasted with him; objected to the opening of the chapel being postponed. 42 Saw Mr E. Glover and Mr Fisher.43 Refused an invitation to Dr. Latham. Dined with Mr Robinson. Went in the evening to Mrs Chris. Waterton; returned to sleep at Mrs Slater's at 11~. Friday 17 [Oct.] Went to Mass at 7~ with Mr Glover. Breakfasted with Mrs Slater and met Mrs Baines of Oakhill. Called at Mr Fisher's and saw his house and chapel. Met Mr Glover and went with him to Miss McAvoy44 at ~ past 2. She is a pleasant-looking, artless girl. The chief things [sic.] she did was to tell me the time to ~ a minute (4~ min. 38

Mistress of a school at 13 St James's Parade (1819 Directory, p.47).

39 A "four-inside" coach for Birmingham via Worcester left the White Hart inn, Bath, at 6 a.m. (1819 Directory, p. 23).

40 Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffs. 41 Dom Thomas Gregory Robinson O.S.B. (Birt, p.141; also supra. , p. 00). See also entries dated 25 Oct., 30 Oct to 3 Nov. 42 St. Peter's, Seel Street, Liverpool; opening of extended chapel postponed until 27 Nov. (See entry of that date; also Burke, op. cit., p. 35). 43 Edward Glover and Thomas Fisher, both Benedictines, of St Mary's, Liverpool (Birt, pp. 139, 146; Burke, op. cit., pp. 41,60,68, 70; CR.S., 9, p. 191). 44 Margaret McEvoy, or McAvoy - reputedly blind, but able to read, trace map outlines with her fingers, tell the time and to distinguish colours and materials, including metals, by touch. This much-publicised case led, not surprisingly, to considerable controversy. Among the literature on it are: T. Renwick, A Narrative


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before 3); told the colour of the watch hands and that they were still; told the colour of a piece of paper (crimson) put under my watch glass, which she could not tell when she touched the paper itself; told me that my watch was gold, but that the face was only gilt, she thought. My seal was gold with a stone of a milk colour, the key brass and something else. Could not tell anything put into a hat with the top of the hat towards her ... * see below (tea with Mrs Birch) [The asterisk refers to a continuation of this entry, written at the foot of the page, after that for Sunday 19 Oct. Here, however, the additional matter is appended to the entry for the 17th. ] * She read a passage from the Knights of St John in the followg manner ... "I know nothing of the note replied Zeila" the book being - was Zeila's ansr. She felt a long time before she read at all. She often tried to warm her hands by rubbing and wrapping them in her handkerchief. I felt them and they were very cold. She failed in many things proposed to her. Saturday 18 [Oct.] Mass at the new chapel (heard); breakfasted at Mr. Robinson's. Met my brothers Thos. and Burnaby and my sisters Ann Bains and Jane Baines at John Kaye's. Went to dine at Mrs C. Waterton's and agreed to postpone the opening of the chapel and to corrie again to Liverpool for the occasion. Sunday 19 [Oct.] Went with Mrs and Misses Slater to Mr Fisher's chapel 4 S and sung High Mass at 10~. Walked with him and Bennet to see for a horse [sic.] and to see the Old Church steeple. Left Liverpool on a hack for Crosby, where I arrived at 4 o'clock and dined with Mr Calderbank,46 his brother and sister. Went in the evening to my brother's at Ince and slept there. Monday 20 Oct. Returned to Crosby and said Mass (Mrs Blundell) for Mr Calderbank, who was very unwell, at 8~. Breakfasted with him. He walked back with me to my brother's and saw the farm. I dined with my brother at 12 and at 1 rode over to my mother's at Kirkby, whom I found quiet well. Saw also my sister's family - Harrison who had married the edest [sic. ] daughter Kitty. Left my mother at 5 and reached Liverpool at 7. Called on my brother-in-law, J. Kaye. 47 of the Case of Miss Margaret McAvoy, with an Account of Some Optical Experiments Connected with it (1817); J. Sandars, Hints to Credulity on the Subject of Miss McAvoy's Blindness (Liverpool, 1818); Renwick, The Continuation of the Narrative of Miss Margaret McAvoy's Case (1820) etc. The Benedic tine brothers Edward and Vincent Glover appear to have played a prominent part in publicising the case. An account of a visit to Miss McAvoy, given to the Bath Literary and Philosophical Society on 15 Dec. 1817, is prin.ted in the Bath and Cheltenham Gazette of 31 Dec. and two letters on the subject appear in the issue of 14 Jan. 1818. See also D.N.B. 4S St Mary's (see note 43). 46 Dom James Calderbank O.S.B., sometime of Bath; then of Crosby (Birt, p. 132 ; supra. , pp. 72, 81). 47 ? John Kaye, solicitor, a prominent Liverpool Catholic (Burke, op. cit., pp. 15, 21, 34, 42, 45).


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Arranged with Mr Robinson the journey of next day and slept at Mrs Slater's. Tuesday 21 [Oct.] Left Liverpool with Mr and Miss Robinson at 11 o'clock. Dined with Mr Molineux48 and proceeded to Knutsford. Slept at Newcastle. Wednesday 22 [Oct.] Left Newcastle at 7Yz. Breakfasted at Stone;4 9 reached Wolverhampton at 1Yz and called on Dr. Milner. 50 He said he had given up architecture and antiquities entirely; that the last thing he had written or meant to write on those subjects was the article respecting them in Rees Encyclopedia. 5 1 Showed us the print of Mr Butler's new chapel. Dined at Wolverhampton. Left it at 3 and reached Worcester at BYz. Staid all night at the Hop-pole. Thursday 23 [Oct.] Left Worcester at 7~. Breakfasted at Tewkesbury and saw the church and bought a history of the town. Arrived at Cheltenham at 1; called on Mr Birdsall, but did not find him at home. His chapel is neat and very chaste. Left Cheltenham at 2 for Rodborough. The scenery here and to Pety France romantic and beautiful beyond description. Dined at Rodborough. Reached Bath atJ O. Paid the Chaise ÂŁ1. 3. o. Friday 24 [Oct.] M. Mrs Blundell's into After breakfast went to see my new house and took a carpet chosen by Mr Knap. Other business about the house till dinner at Yz past 5 at Mr Charles Conolly's ,5 2 with Mr and Mrs John Clifton. T. at the same place. Miss Riddell and Mrs and Miss Blundell. Mr Clifton assured me that Lord Malpas (Rocksavage)53 declared he could never bring himself to be a member of that religion which declared that his wife, lately dead, could not be an angel in heaven. He had applied to Mr Tibeaux, a French priest,54 to say Mass for her, which he refused on account of her not being a Catholic. 48 Dom John Alban Molyneux O.S.B. (Birt, p. 153). Staffordshire; later (in the 1840s) evangelised by Fr. Dominic Barberi and, since the 1850s, the location of a convent of Dominican nuns. 50 Bishop John Milner D.D., Vicar-Apostolic of the Midland District (see CR.S. , 63, p. 414 and works there cited). 51 Rees's Cyclopaedia came out in parts over a period of 18 years, title-pages being provided on the completion of the work in 1819. Milner's article appeared in vol. II, section 2 (May 1803). On the dating of this work, see B.D. Jackson, An Attempt to Ascertain the Actual Dates of Publication of the Various Parts of Rees's Cyclopaedia (pamphlet, 7 pp., London, 1895). 52 Doubtless the Catholic owner of Midford Castle (built c. 1775) on the outskirts of Bath; see C. Hussey, "Midford Castle, Somerset", parts 1 & 2 in Country Life, 3 & 10 March 1944, pp. 376-9; 420-3. See also supra., p. 90. 53 George James, Earl of Rocksavage and Marquess of Cholmondeley (1749-1827) was not pre-deceased by his wife; she died in 1838 ("G.E.C.", Complete Peerage, III, p. 204 & note c). Possibly some other lady is referred-to, or perhaps the statement was hypothetical. Coming from so notorious a libertine, it should be treated with reserve. 54 Abbe Thebault of Sidmouth, Devon (Oliver, p. 420). 49


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Saturday 25 [Oct. ] Went to Mr Wittaker 5 5 and engaged 3 curtains for my study - and a sofa-bed. Conf: at 1~ to 3~. D. at home. Mr Robinson here _ ,., ,,"''1 ,o...rJ '"' Conf. T. home. Sermon till past 12. Sunday 26 [Oct.] Gave comm: early to Mrs Langton. M. Mrs.

('1 .".)

Blundell. Preached Called upon by Mr Brown and son, also Mrs Hartzink, the Abbe, the Countess Nugent S 6 and a young lady with her. Called on Mrs Ferrers. Sung vespers . D. Mr Knap. To . Do. Went at 11 to see a man Sullivan, no. 4 Orchard St. Monday 27 Octr. - M. Miss Weston. Breakfasted with Mrs Ferrers. Got my watch repaired. Called on Mr and Mrs John Dalton 5 7 with Miss Cary. Saw the broker about my furniture. Heard the conf: of Sullivan. D. Mrs Wright to meet the Mernills. T . at Mr Weston's. Whilst writing this was called to Mr Phelan s whom I found dangerously ill from a paralytic stroke. Tuesday 28 [Oct.] Called this morning before 6 to see Mr Phelan; found him d~ing, gave him absolution and extreme unction and last benediction: 9 Office. M. Mr Phelan. Breakfast Mrs Wright, Brock St. Saw several beautiful views of the Simplon etc. This road over the Alps made by Bonaparte quite stupendous. Mr Menyll said that in all his travels through Italy he met with traces of the French, highly creditable to their energy and greatness of idea. Conf: Wednesday 29 [Oct. ] M. Miss Weston. Breakfast with Mr Day. Went to Mrs Wright's and staid with Mr Meynell till ~ past 2, looking at his drawings and engravings from Italy, Switzerland etc. D. Mr Dennie. Visited Mrs Phelan. T. Mr John Wright; met the Meynills and Mr Eyston. Thursday 30 [Oct.] M. Miss Anna Maria Bishop. Breakfast Mr. Robinson and Miss Cary. Saw the new house and went to the brokers' about it. Communicated to Mr Day my ideas of improving the chapel. Bought a reading screen etc. 28s. Mr Eyston called, also Mr Meynill and Mr Lawson. Ordered a suit of black (a great coat and pair of pantaloons) of Mr Dennie. D. T. Mr Weston; met Mr and Mrs Meynill etc. Friday 31 [Oct.] Called to visit a poor man, sick, 13 Avon St. Gave him absolution. Also Mr Ryan, St James's st. M. Mrs Flin's br. 60 Went Perhaps of the linen warehouse, 18 Kingsmead Square (1819 Directory, p. 102). 56 Lady Nugent of 9 (Royal) Crescent appears in the 1819 Directory, p. 81. The Abbe may be one of several emigre priests named elsewhere in the journal; see entries for 11 & 15 Nov. 1817,31 Dec 1817,9 April 1818, etc. 57 Of 4 Green Park Place (1819 Directory , p. 55). 58 A Mrs Phelan of 6 South Parade occurs in the 1819 Directory, p. 85 doubtless the widow. See also Reg. 2 (death of Mr Phelan of S. Parade, 28 Oct. 1817). 59 See previous note. 60 ? brother. 55


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with Mr Knap to Whittaker etc. Conf: from 2 to 4. D. at home. Went to see Mr Ryan; gave him absolution. Conf: from 6 to 8. Went to see Ryan; gave him extreme unction and last blessing. 61 T. at home with Mr Robinson. Sermon of Sunday till 12. Read nothing. Saturday 1 [Nov.] M. Mrs Blundell's int: Sung High Mass; Mr Robinson 6 2 deacon, Mr Brindle sub: Conf: from ~ past 12 till past 1 and from ~ past 2 till 3. Sung vespers. Mr Combes here. Conf: till ~ past 4. D. at home. Mr Robinson. Conf: from 6 to 8~. T. at home. Sermon. Got Mr J. English to collect for the poor. Mr Knap called. Sunday 2 [Nov.] Conf: M. Mrs Lincoln. To breakfast Miss Cary, Miss Blundell and Miss Wright. High Mass: Mr Robinson priest, myself deacon and Mr Brindle subdeacon. Preached a sermon for the poor. Solemn Te Deum for the harvest. Collections amounts [sic] to £49 . 15. 3~, besides some more promised. Boxes £17.2. Sung vespers. D. Mr Day with Mr Robinson. T. Do. Wrote a letter to go by Mr Meynill tomorrow to Miss Maria Selby. Mr Knap brought a £1 from Mrs Fordyce 63 included in the above. Monday 3 Novr. Conf: at 9. Office of the dead in front of the altar. M. for all the faithful departed. B. at home. Mr Robinson with me. Gave £4 to Mrs Hippisly for the poor and £5 to Mrs Corbin. Called on Mrs Metcalf. Saw Mr and Mrs Eyston. Called on Mr J. Wright and sawall the family. C. Mrs Eyston. D. Mrs Ferrers. Saw the Queen64 arrive at the top of Pultney St. Illuminations with Miss and Miss Fanny Ferrers; Mr and Mrs Madden of the party. Tuesday 4 [Nov.] Conf: Ordered Mary to light fires for the first time in the new house. Mr O'Conner called and paid me £2. 2. for a seat next year and £2.2. for the music of 1818. Conf. a French servant of Mrs Tunstall's and Mrs Langton. Paid a visit to Mrs Bradford at St Winefrid's Cottage. D. Miss Humbles with Mr Combes. Conf. T. Miss Humbles. Met Miss Gibson and Miss Walton. Wednesday 5 [Nov.] Medicine. Conf: - Breakfast. Mr Day called. I mentioned to him my idea of chan!ing the situation of the chapel and went to Queen's Square chapel 6 to see it and heard the service. For entry of death (1 Nov.) of Mr Ryan of James Street, see Reg. 2. ? Dom Thomas Gregory Robinson O.S.B. See also entries for 15-21 Oct., 25 Oct., 30 Oct. to 3 Nov. 63 Of 2 Bathwick St. (1819 Directory, p. 61). 64 i.e. Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, wife of George III. Her visit, with Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Clarence (later William IV), which was cut short by the death of Princess Charlotte two days later, is reported in the Bath Chronicle of 6 & 13. Nov. After the funeral the royal party returned to Bath, on Monday 24 Nov. (Bath Chronicle, 27 Nov.) - an event not recorded by Baines as he had that morning set off for Liverpool. See, however, his entry for 15 Dec.; also Jerningham Letters, II, pp. 110-13. The royal party stayed in Sydney Place, next door to the Bedingfields' house (ibid.) See also R.E. Peach, Historic Houses in Bath, I (1883) pp. 13-14; J.F. Meehan, Eight Episodes in the History of Bath (Bath, 1809) pp. 44-8. 65 St Mary's chapel, Queen Square, designed by John Wood the elder, opened in 61

62


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Ordered some things at Mr Whittaker's and went with him to West66 hall to see a book-case. Called on Miss Barret, Mr Becker, Mrs Croft. In the evening after dinner at home and conf: went to 18 Marlborough Buildings to baptize Charles John Eyston, born the same day.67 Saw Mrs Metcalf for the 1st time. T. at the same place. Went to Mr Dennie's to take leave of Miss Dennie (going to Brussels) and commissioned her to buy me a watch for about 20 napoleons . Thursday 6 [Nov.] Conf: M. Mr and Mrs Day. Breakfast Miss Cary. Buried Mr Ryan - Miss Cary going with me. Visited Andrew Quin, 17 Avon St. Also Mrs Smith, 1 Stanhope Place. Let a seat to Mrs Osborne. Conf. at 3; again at 6 and 8. D. at home. T. do. Heard of the Princess Charlotte's death and her child's.6 8 Friday 7 [Nov.] Conf: M. Mr Edd . Mede. Churched a woman. Breakfast. Went to a sale in Bathwick St. Called on Mrs Knap, Mrs Ferrers and was there introduced to Mrs Gartside. 69 Called on Whittaker and ordered a book case etc. Removed into the house 2 Pierrepont Place. Sleep [?] here for the first time. Mr Becker 70 called and paid for a seat for the ensuing year etc., ÂŁ5.5. D. at home. Conf: till 8. T. Mrs Langton; met Misses Hotham, Swift and Cary. News of Princess Charlotte's death confirmed. Saturday 8 [Nov.] Conf: Mr John and Miss Cath: Wrig!lt breakfasted with me, the first morning I had been in my new house. 71 Conf: Went to Whittaker's and bought a sofa-table ÂŁ5.5. O. Conf: Called on Mrs Langton. Conf. till 4. D. at home. Conf: Wrote a letter to Mr Page 72 in favour of a poor black who was imprisoned for begging. T. at home. Sermon. Sunday 9 [Nov.] Conf: M. At breakfast Miss Cary, Mrs Hussy and Miss Wilmot. Sermon. Preached on the gospel and alluded to the premature death of the Princess of Wales. Called on Mrs Ferrers and Mrs Nihell. Sung vespers. D. Mr John Dalton. T. D.73 Met Mrs Butler, Miss 1734 and demolished in 1872. See W.J. Jenkins, "History of the Proprietory Chapels of Bath" (M.A. Thesis, Bristol, 1948) chap. 1 & passim. 66 i.e. West-hall Place. 67 For baptismal entry, see Reg. 2. 68 Princess Charlotte Augusta, daughter of George, Prince of Wales (later George IV) and wife of Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg (later King of the Belgians; uncle of Queen Victoria) died 5 Nov . 1817 after giving birth to a stillborn child. See D.N.B.; J. Richardson, "The Princesss Charlotte" in History Today, Feb. 1972, pp. 87-93 & works cited ibid., p. 157. 69 ? of 13 Edward Street (1819 Directory, p. 63); n~e Howard of Corby (Jerningham Letters, I, p. 328; II, p. 401. The fIrst entry rnistprints her surname as "Gartrick"). 70 8 Green Park Buildings (1819 Directory, p. 45). 71 i.e. 2 Pierrepont Place, to which he had moved from 6 Philip Street. 72 J. Page, Clerk to the Magistrates and to the Police Commissioners (1819 Directory, pp. 2-4, 83). See also note 103. 73 Presumably this "D" stands for "Ditto".


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Archbald and Mr Eyston . Spent the evening in looking over a fine collection of drawings and prints. Monday 10 Novr. M. Mrs. Sophia Cary. Signed the agreement about the house with Mrs Hyde. Mrs Ferrers, the Miss Ferrers and Mr Willougby called, also Mr and Mrs Weston, also Miss Cary and Mrs Corbin. Attended a school-committee and voted the expulsion of John Moon. D. Mr Weston. T. Do. Met there Mr Peter Myddleton. Wrote a note to Mrs Wright of Brock St. She leaves Bath tomorrow morning. Gave orders to a jOiner for my bed in the library. Received a letter from Mr Rishton and one from Placid. 7 4 Tuesday 11 [Nov.] M. Daniel Ryan. Wrote a letter to Mr Rishton and one to Mr Manners 7 5 - the latter to go tomorrow. Mr Hawarden called and staid a good while. Mrs Crouch also came. An hour and a half for a sermon. Went to visit a sick man in Avon St., No.3 in 79. 76 D. Mrs Hartzink, with Mr Brindle and Abbe Valgalia. 77 T. Do. Returned home at 9. A very rainy day .... Mr Day called in the morning and paid me for his seat and that of his maid, also subscription to the choir etc. Wednesday 12 [Nov.] Went to Mr Whittaker about the furniture. Heard Mass. Shewed Mrs Weston and Mr Peter Middleton through my new house. Mr Knap called; went with him to see Knight and Davies' speaking-pipes,78 determined on having one and gave directions about it to the tinman. Received a letter from Mr Coombes. Answered it. Sent a letter this morning to Mr Manners. D. Mr Weston. Met the Daltons, Middletons, Mrs Riddel , Miss Wright, Miss Cary and in the evening Mrs Richardson. T. Miss Hotham. Thursday 13 [Nov.] Set of at 8 o'clock to Cannington to see the Bishop,19 arrived at Bridgwater some time after 2 and took a chaise to Cannington, which is 3 miles from Bridgwater. Saw the Bishop, dined 74 Mr Rishton is doubtless Dom Thomas Clement Rishton , formerly at Bath (see supra., p. 81). If "Placid" was a Benedictine he was probably Edward Placid Metcalfe, then O.S.B. but later secularised (and therefore omitted by Birt) who joined Baines at Prior Park in 1830. See supra., pp. 93-4; also J.e. Almond, History of Ampleforth Abbey (1903) pp. 322-4, correcting Gillow, IV, pp. 568-70. The only monk in Birt named Placid and living in 1817 is the future Bishop Morris, Visitor-Apostolic of Mauritius, then still in minor orders at Downside (pp. 163-4). 75 Probably Baines's friend Cumberland William Manners, organist at Ampleforth; subsequently a "Professor of music" and teacher of singing and of the pianoforte in Bath, music master at Prior Park and choirmaster at the Pierrepont Place chapel, in whose vaults he was buried in 1842 (Gillow , IV, pp. 406-7, corrected by Bath Directories, 1824-42, which show Manners in Bath six years earlier than the date given by Gillow). 76 ? tenement 3 in no. 79. 77 The Abbe Alexis Valgassier died in Bath in 1838 , aged 86 (CR.S. , 12, p. 227 ). 78 Messrs. Knight & Davies, Chemists and Druggists, occur in the 1819 Dirctory, p.74. 79 Bishop Collingridge O.F.M., then living at the Benedictine convent at Cannington; see W. Maziere Brady, Annals of the Catholic Hierarchy (1877) p. 312; J.B. Dockery, Collingridge.


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and transacted the business I had to do. Attended the Bishop at Benediction. Took tea with the nuns and supper with the Bishop. Friday 14 [Nov.] Heard the Bishop's Mass and said one myself pro defunctis fratribus et sororibus. Breakfasted with the Bishop. Left Cannington at 11 on the Bishop's horse. D. at Cannington at the George. Went in the Bristol coach to Bristol and took a chaise to Bath, where I arrived at 11 o'clock. Saturday 15 [Nov.] Conf: M. Called on Mr Day to hear of Mr Robinson. Received a letter from him telling me of the deferring of the opening of his chapel. Called on Mr Whittaker. Con: Mrs Langton. Do. chapel from 2 to 3*. Called again on Whittaker. D. a [sic.] home. Conf: 6 to 7. T. at home. Mr Dourlin 80 called. Sermon. Answered Mr Robinson's letter. Sunday 16 [Nov.] Conf: Mass, Major Ferrers. Miss Cary breakfasted. Sermon. Preached and gave out the new regulations fixing the letting of all the seats only from Advent to Advent or from the time they are taken to the Advent following. Miss Blundell, Miss Wright, Mrs Nihell, Mrs Hyde and Miss Hyde called. Mr Conolly and Mr Knap to take places in the chapel. Conf: Vespers. D. Countess Nugent. Met a Mr and Mrs Mitford, Mr Laurenson (a young man preparing for protestant orders), also Captn. O'Brien. T. Do. Received a letter from Miss Maria Selby. Monday 17 [Nov.] Conf: Breakfast with Mr Plunkett. Ordered a pair of halfboots etc. Gave directions for a Mass etc. on Wednesday. Made arrangements for the books of seats in the chapel etc. Gave the last sacraments to a woman in Avon St. D. Mr John Wright. T. Do. Tuesday 18 [Nov.] Gave comm. to the woman in Avon st. and to Mrs Hippisly, Grove St. Called on Mrs Hacket in -- by the Crescent and found her unprepared for commn. by having eaten. Transacted business all the morning about the tickets. Mrs J. Dalton and Miss Cary called. Bought the chimney-glass and had it put up. D. at home. Mr Wasse1l 81 called and dined. Conf: T. Mrs Langton. Met Miss Hotham, Swift and Cary. Wednesday 19 [Nov.] Conf: Mass at 11 on account of the funeral of the Princess Charlotte, with (abridged) latanies [sic.] for England and prayers for the King. 8 2 Many calls all morning. Went to see Mrs Hyde, who is sick. D. Mr Weston. Met Mrs Riddell and Miss Wright - T. Mrs Corbin. Met Miss Cary. No reading or writing. Thursday 20 [Nov.] Conf: M. Mr Edwd. [? Edmd.] Mede. Conf: Breakfast. Visited a sick man, 27 Stall St. Remained at home all morning receiving rents. Went at 4 to see Mrs Hyde, who is rather better. D. at home. Called on Mrs Butler and took tea at Mrs Ferrers and supper. Paid Miss Dealy her rent in full for the house, 6 Philip St. Friday 21 [Nov.] Con: Mass, Constantia, Thos. and Edd. Meade. B. 80 Abbe Louis Dourlians (variously spelt; Dourlens in Oliver, p. 287; Dowlin in D.R.; July 1900, pp. 185-6) for whom see also Introduction, p. 78. 81 Probably Dom Thomas Benedict Wassail O.S.B. (Birt, p. 162). 82 George III, in his 80th year and in "mental and visual darkness" (D.N.B.)


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Miss Wright. Sat at home receiving bench-rents till 4. Called to see Miss Esmonde, sick. D. Mr Knapp. Went to see a convert, No. 8 [blank space] , heard her conf: Baptised and gave her absolution and extreme unction. Mr Brindle returned from Downside. Took a warm bath at 10 o'clock (96). Visited 2 sick man, 59 Avon St. Saturday 22 [Nov.] Took medicine. Remained at home all morning receiving rents. Called before 4 o'clock on a Mr and Mrs Fraser, a Scotch family just come to Bath, and then at the White Hart. D. at home. Conf. as usual before and after. Mr Wassel and Mr Pope 83 came. Sermon till I!. T. at home. Sunday 23 [Nov.] Mass at 8. Mr Kent. T. Miss Cary, Mr Pope and Mr Brindle. Mr Pope sung the High Mass. I preached on the Last Judgment. Received some visits. Made one to Mrs Blundell and Mrs John Wright. Mr Weston called after Mass. Called on Mrs Hacket, sick. D. Mr Knapp. Met the Days of Englishbach 84 and Miss Green and the Husseys. Returned home and called on Miss Esmonde, 18 Henrietta St. , and heard her conf. Prepared for my journey. Monday 24 Novr. Breakfasted ~ past 5. Left Bath from the York House ~ past 6 85 with Mr Wassell for Evesham. Arrived there about ~ past 4 p.m. Took a chaise to Salford to take up Miss Brewer. Staid there till about 8 o'clock. Arrived with Miss Brewer bv chaise at Birmingham at after 12 at night. Slept there but could not get anything before going to bed. The castle. 86 Tuesday 25 [Nov.] Left Birmingham in the Bang-up at 6 a.m. with Miss Brewer. Breakfasted at Wolverhampton. D. at Newcastle under Line. A very bad, cold day with a good deal of sleet and snow. Reached Liverpool ~ past 8; found at Mr Robinson's Mr Cooper and Mr Day8 7 come to be present at the opening of the chapel. Slept at Mrs Slater's. Wednesday 26 [Nov.] Breakfast Mr Robinson. Spent a good deal of time this morning in writing the sketch for my sermon. Saw the singer, Mr Molineux, and organist, Mr Bond, about accompanyin~ the Preface etc. D. Mr Fisher at 3. Met Mr Robinson, the two Glovers,8 Mr Cooper and Day. Molineux came at the end of dinner. Spent the evening in preparation for tomorrow. Thursday 27 [Nov.] Conf: Sung the High Mass and preached at ~

*

83 For WassaIl, see note 81. Dom Richard and Dom James Alexius Pope are mentioned in Birt, pp. 136, 140. 84 Frequently mentioned elsewhere; see supra., p. 77 & note 382, also index. 85 This coach is stated in the 1819 Directory, p. 23 , to have departed at 6.45 a.m. 86 Presumably the name of the inn at which Baines went hungry to bed (see also entry for 6 July 1818). Salford Hall was the predecessor of Stanbrook Abbey. 87 Probably Dom Lewis Francis Cooper, Procurator of the North Province, and Dom Samuel Bede Day (born at Wellow, near Bath), then at Standish, Lanes. (Birt, pp. 148, 161). 88 For these four Liverpool priests, see Burke, op. cit. and supra., entries for 15-21 Oct. and notes thereto.


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past 10. The chapel not full. All satisfied with the service. 89 Saw Dr Brewer 90 and afterwards called on Mr John Kaye and saw my mother, brother etc. Met Dr. Brewer again and Mr Calderbank. D. Mr Robinson, with all the priests as before and Mr Penswick, 9 1 Parker ,92 Molineux etc. Friday 28 [Nov.] Breakfast Mrs Slater. My uncle Thos. from Claughton called with my aunt and John Kaye. Arranged with Mr Robinson the prices of the pews in his chapel. Went with the Miss Slaters to see the blind asylum - heard them sing and saw them work . Bought a hearth-rug and some other little things. D. Mr Robinson. Called before it on Mr and Mrs Birmingham, Nile St. Saturday 29 [Nov. ] Walked out with Mr Molineux to Everton and saw the iron church, Domingo House 93 etc., Wellington Rooms 94 etc. Breakfasted at Mr Robinson. Saw Dr. Brewer. Took [?] a note to Mr Calderbank and took some letters to the post. Saw the Town Hall - a most beautiful suite of rooms - and from the cupola a most beautiful view of Liverpool and the Mersey, which seems to run amost [sic.] round the town. Hair cut. D. Mr Robinson. Sermon. Sunday 30 [Nov.] Said Mass at before 8. Breakfast at Mr Robinson's. Prepared for the sermon. Served at High Mass at past 10 as deacon and preached - very indifferently. Collected ÂŁ83 odd pounds. Went in a chaise to Ince, after meeting my brothers Thos., James and Wm. Dined with Mr Blundell at past 3; slept at Ince Hall. 9s N.B. Preached today upon the Last Judgment, a subject I had treated very well the foregoing Sunday - found my imagination and memory equally to fail me. The failure probably owing to the size and fulness of the place, which required too great an exertion of voice; to its dampness and warmth etc., etc., all which obstacles, however, a little more preparation on my part would probably have removed. Monday 1 Decr. Went at 8 o'clock to breakfast at Carside with my brother. Met my mother and my uncle and aunt from Claughton. After breakfast walked to Crosby to see Mr Calderbank. Called with him at Crosby-hall and saw the family. Went to Ince and called on Mr Blundell.

*

*

*

*

See Burke op. cit., p. 35. Dom John Bede Brewer O.S.B., once of Bath (at the time of the Gordon Riots; see supra., pp. 66-70) and now at Woolton, Lanes.; cf. Birt, p. 133, also H. Baker, Historical Notes of the Parish of St Mary's, Woolton (unpaginated booklet, Liverpool, 1960, with author's name misprinted as "Barker" on the cover). 91 Thomas (later Bishop) Penswick, then attached to a Liverpool mission (Gillow, V, p. 259; C.R.S., 63, p. 417). 92 Perhaps James Parker S.J., a native of Liverpool, who had served at Bristol before returning to Liverpool where he died in 1822 (Foley, VII, p. 568). 93 Both at Everton, where the Anglican parish church (St George's) is of cast iron. 94 In Liverpool; then Assembly Rooms, now (1973) the Irish Centre. 9S Residence of Charles Robert Blundell; see T.E. Gibson, Lydiate Hall and Its Associations (1876) pp. 134-144. 89

90


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Took lunch with Revd . Messrs. Parker, Hughes 9 6 and Pope. Went with Mr Calderbank to Great Crosby to see a sick persons [sic.]. Dined at Crosby Hall and met Mr Moore, Mr Peter and Mrs P. Middleton, Mr and Mrs Walter Selby, Mr Frank Middleton. Returned to Ince. Tuesday 2 [Dec. ] [Written at right angles across this entry is] "Went to see the blind asylum with the Miss Slaters on Friday last." [See entry for 28 November, above. ] Breakfasted with Mr Blundell at Ince at ~ past 7. Mr Peter Middleton called. Went in a chaise at ~ past 9 to Netherton and called on Mr Pope and Mrs Aspinall on my way to Liverpool. Arrived at Liverpool about 12. Went with Mr Glover to see Miss McAvoy.97 She was sitting in her bedroom working silk purses. She gave me a paper cross wrought on silk, neatly. Had a violent contraction in her left leg when the foot touched the floor. Stretched out her hand to meet mine like a person that can see but could not distinguish colours at all, being then only just recovered from a late most severe illness. Dined with Mr and Mrs Birmingham, Nile St. Went in the evening to the King's Arms to [illegible] Mr and Mrs John Gerrard. Wednesday 3 [Dec.] Left Liverpool at 6 in the Bang-up. Breakfasted at Knutsford, dined at - . Tea at Birmingham and bed. In the coach read the whole of Dr Renwick's account of Miss McAvoy ,9 S who lately exerted so much notice by distinguishing colours etc. and reading by the touch. It is true I saw it myself and am quite perfectly convinced of the fact. Thursday 4 [Dec.] Left Birmingham at ~ past 6; arrived at Coughton between 9 and 10. Breakfasted at Mr Barr's.99 Went out with him a shooting. Dined with him. Went in the evening to Mr Richd. Morgan's and met there a Mr Reeve. Slept at Mr Barr's. N.B. The centre, which is the most ancient part of the castle or mansion at Coughton, is beautiful; the modern wings horrible. A good house but in bad repair a fine country. Friday 5 [Dec.] Left Coughton ~ past 7 in a chaise for Droitwich; arrived an hour after the Bath coach was gone. Got into a Bristol coach. Dined at Tewkesbury. Arrived at Bristol about ~ past 8 - rather earlier. Slept at Bristol. Saturday 6 [Dec.] Left Bristol ~ before 5 and reached Bath ~ past 6; found all in bed. Went to [illegible] Mass. Transacted various ? John Hughes S.l, superior of the Jesuits' Lancashire District (Foley, VII, pp. 379-80). 97 See also entry for 17 Oct. 9S T. Renwick, A Narrative of the Case of Miss Margaret McA voy; with an Account of Some Optical Experiments Connected with it, published that same year (1817). See also note 44. 99 Dom Thomas Bernard Barr O.S.B. (see also note 28) had long been attached to the Throckmortons' chaplaincy at Coughton, Warwicks. - the birthplace of Dom Joseph Cuthbert Wilks O.S.B., formerly of Bath (Birt, pp. 134, 136; supra., p. 71). Wilks was a son of the Throckmortons' steward (CR.S., 9, p. 396, note). 96


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business till 12. Called on Mrs and Miss Ferrer's [sic. ], also on Mrs Butler. Went to Mrs Lanron's as usual. Conf: at home and the chapel. Churched Mrs Eyston,l 0 D. at home. Conf: Tea at home. Conf: Wrote out my journal since Monday last. Sunday 7 [Dec.] Conf: till ~ past 8. Took com: to Mrs Langton . Wrote a notice for public instructions during Advent to be read from the pulpit and fixed on the chapel door. Office. Sung High Mass. Mr Brindle preached. Mrs Hartzinck called, also Mr Knapp. Visited Miss Hyde on St James's Parade, sick; also Mr Butler, Do. Called on Mrs Cooper, 33 Henrietta St ., and met Mrs Osburne. Returned home and found Mr and Mrs Denie. Sung vespers and gave benediction. Visited Mrs Westall (sick) and heard her conf. Went to dine at Mr John Dalton. Met Mr C. Mostyn, Mr Butler, Mr G. Care [?], Mrs and the Misses Nihell and in the evening Genl. Ambrose,l 61 Lady Fitzgerald, Misses Archbald, Blundell, [illegible] . Monday 8 Decr. Conf: till 9~. Went and gave com: to Mrs Westall. Called on Mrs Brown. Miss Cary at breakfast. Ordered Mary to begin getting the books down from the chapel. Put ÂŁ300 in the bank. Called. on Mrs Blundell and delivered some letters. Called on Mrs Hacket, sick; on Mr Butler, Do. and Miss Hyde, Do. (St. Jas' Par.). D. Mrs Fraser. To. Do. Called afterwards onMrs Butler and met a large party - Lady Butler, Mr Mostyn, Mr Cary etc. Tuesday 9 [Dec.] Went to give com: to Mr Butler, New Key St., and to Mrs Hacket, to whom I also gave extreme unction, and com: to Mrs Harris. Mrs Corbin at breakfast. Ordered marks to be printed for the books of the library of the mission. Began writing a sermon for the press. Attended an auction, Old Bond St., and bought a tea urn, tea pot , bread basket etc. - plated articles. Called on Mrs Nihell on business. On my way to dinner called on a French man opposite the theatre, sick. D. at Mrs Metcalfs and T. Wednesday 10 [Dec.] Office . Mass. Province. At breakfast Mrs Nihell, Mr and Mrs Knapp and Miss Wilmot called. Went to see about a plate for the door, bought a warming pan. Prepared for first instructions. Visited a sick person . D. at home. 1st Instructions at 7 till 8. T. at Mrs Fryer's, 8 Prospect Place. Miss Fryer a most beautiful performer on the harp. 1 0 2 Called this morning on Miss Morritt and Miss Gooderick and on Mrs Osburne. Thursday 11 [Dec. ] Heard M. B. Mrs Nihell called. Wrote a letter to the newspaper on the Bath police respecting the poor. 103 Called on See also entry for 5 Nov. See The Jerningham Letters, II, pp. 224-6; also pp. 191,208. 102 Miss Fryer, "teacher of the harp and pianoforte", and J. Fryer, "teacher of drawing and professor of perspective", both of 8 Prospect Place, occur in the 1819 Directory, pp. 10, 62; perhaps connected with the priests from a Somerset family of this name mentioned elsewhere (see Reg. 1; also Baines's journal-entries for 5 & 8 May and 4 & 6 June 1818). l03 i.e. Bath and Cheltenham Gazette, 17 Dec. 1817; letter signed "Mediator", 100 101


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Mrs Nihell, Mrs Butler, Mrs Ferrers, Mrs Fitzgerald etc. Went up to see Mrs Hacket whom I had found dying or dead, after she had received all the SS. and last absolution. 104 Walked with Miss Cary to dine at Mrs Hartzinck's, where I staid all night. Mrs Hyde came into No. 2

Pierrepont Place. Friday 12 [Dec.] Heard M. and breakfasted at Mrs Hartzinck's. Walked nearly home with Miss Cary . Prepared an instruction etc. Called on a sick man and heard part of his confession. D. for the first time with Mrs Hyde. Gave instructions. T. Mrs Langton. Met Miss Archbold, Mrs Cooper, Gen. Ambrose. Saturday 13 [Dec.] M. Mrs Lincoln, sick. Gave Miss Cary change for a ÂŁ30 post bill and gave her full change in small notes. Visited Mr Butler and Mr Melin, 1 05 sick. Ordered some new things at Whittaker's. Conf: D. at home. At Conf: Tea at home. Sermon; office for tomorrow. Sunday 14 [Dec.] Mass. Mrs Lincoln, sick. Breakfast home. Sermon. Preached. Mr Dalton, Mrs John and Miss Wright called - also Mr Knapp. Called on the Misses Humble who go tomorrow to Yorkshire. Wrote a letter for them to carry to Mrs Allen. Vespers and Benediction. Called on Mrs Whickham (sick) and heard her conf: D. Mrs Butler; met Mr Feild, Jun., a fine musician. Monday 15 Decr. Went to see the Queen at the Pump Room with Miss and Miss Fanny Ferrers. Saw her Majesty, the Princess Elizabeth and the Duke of Clarence. Breakfast at Mrs Ferrers; met a Mr and Mrs Moore. Called on a sick man, Beaufort Sqr. Buried Mrs Hacket. D. at home. Office. Wrote a letter to Mr Metcalf of Ampleforth. T. at home. Called on Mr Weston (not at home) and Mrs Riddell (at home). Tuesday 16 [Dec.] Gave com: to Mr Melin, Beauford Sqr. Heard Mass. Went with Mr J. English to calIon Mr Edd. English about Mrs King. Called on Mr Knapp and borrowed his watch. In the morning wrote to Bp. Collingridge and sent his watch; also to Mr Robinson and Mrs Slater. Recd . a visit from Mrs Corbin. D. Mr John Wright. Met Mr Mrs and Miss Sotheby and Mrs Strickland from Hooke. Wednesday 17 [Dec.] Called on Miss Lincoln, sick. M. Mr Thos. Burke. During breakfast Mrs Nihell called and Mr Knapp. Afterwards Countess Nugent. Mr J. English called and Miss - English, with whom I went to see Mrs King. I heard her conf: and gave her absolution and extreme unction. Gave extreme unction to Mr Butler. [In the original

this sentence is squeezed in between the 2nd and 3rd lines,' to print it thus could be misleading.] D. Mr Knapp. Instructions at 7 till 20 mildly criticising the Bath police for roughness and lack of discrimination in dealing with the poor. This produced a rejoinder, signed "Scrutator" in the issue of 24 Dec. (mentioned in Baines's journal-entry for 23 Dec.) to which Baines replied, as "Mediator", on the 26th (see journal-entry for that date), this letter being printed in the Bath and Cheltenham Gazette of 14 Jan. 1818. 104 For entry of death, see Reg. 2; also journal, 15 Dec. (burial). 105 In the 1819 Directory, p. 78, is "Melen", dressmaker, of 17 Beaufort Square - perhaps the widow of Mr (Augustin) Melin who died on 19 Dec. 1817 (see journal-entries, 15 - 20 Dec.; also death-entry in Reg. 2).


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minutes past 8. T. Mr John Wright. Met Mrs Strickland, Mrs Bennet and Mrs Holroyd. Thursday 18 [Dec.] Called to Mrs King. Gave her the viaticum and last blessiI1f. Conf: heard Mass. Read the Introduction to Mr Fletcher's Manual, I O an excellent work. Called on Quin, 17 Avon St. - his [?] conf: and absolution, and on Melin, Beaufort Sqr. D. Mrs Hartzinck. T. Miss Hotham, a musical party: two Italian harpers and a French violin, excellent. Friday 19 [Dec. ] Gave extreme unction and com: to QUin, 17 Avon St. Called on another sick man. After breakfast called on Mr Weston. Afterwards on Miss Walsh about a poor man, on Mrs Butler about Do., on Mrs Ferrers etc . Met there Mr Romeo Coates 1 07 and was introduced to him. Miss Shaw called. D. at home . Prepared for instruction. Gave Do. from ~ past 7 to ~ past 8. T. at home. Said office. Read a little in Brittain's Cath: Principles. 1 08 Saturday 20 [Dec.] Conf: Heard Mass. B. Conf: Baptized Mrs Wilkes's child. 1 09 Called on Mrs Melin and appointed Monday morning for burying her husband, who died on Friday. Called also on Mr Dalton and Mrs Willan. D. at home. Conf: 2 general ones. T. at home . Sermon from 9 till 11. Mr Phipps of Leighton House, near Westbury, Wilts., called. Agreed to go to his wife Monday sent. 11 0 Sunday 21 [Dec.] M. The obligation of this district. B. Miss Cary. Preached. Counted the money collected for the hospital, ÂŁ16. 4. 3~; something more promised. Called on Mrs Nihell. Vespers and Benediction. An Irishman came with the child of a protestant woman (it had no legitimate father) and requested me to baptize it. When I refused on the plea of its parent being protestant he said "I command you in the name of the Father, Son and Holy Ghost (to baptize the child) to make this child a Christian" etc. - a funny scene. D. Mr Conolly. Met Dr. and Mrs Barlow - Entered the new way into the chapel first time. Monday 22 Decr. Took medicine. Mr Pattrick called about the music. Called on Mr Butler, Mrs Willan, Mrs and Miss Barrett. Buried Augustine Melin, 17 Beauford Sqr. D. at home. T. Misses Morrill and Gooderick. Afterwards Mrs Langton and met Miss Conolly. Prepared this morning a sketch for Thursday's sermon. Tuesday 23 [Dec.] Visited Mrs Lincoln, sick. M. Mrs Mary Aimylll 106 The Catholic's Manual: An Exposition of the Controverted Doctrines of the Catholic Church , with Preliminary Reflections and Notes, by the Rev. John Fletcher (1817), based on Bossuet's Expostion de la Doctrine de I'Eglise Catholique sur les Matieres de Controverse (1671). 107 The wealthy and flamboyant amateur actor, Robert Coates (D.N.B.). 108 Lewis Brittain, Principles of the Christian Religion and Catholic Faith Investigated (1790) 109 For entry of baptism, see Reg. 2. 110 Presumably sennight: the Monday after next; see, however, entry for 30 Dec. For the Phipps family see Burke's Landed Gentry; also v. C.H. , Wilts., VIII, passim. 111 Mrs Arney of 6 St John's Place occurs in 1819 Directory, p. 41.


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B. Miss Cary here. Went after breakfast to Mr Fryer's, Prospect Place, to arrange something about the Mass Christmas Night. Called on Mrs Nihell (not at home) and Mrs Ferrers. D. at home. Sermon. Received a letter from Bp. Collingridge. Party at Colonel Nagle's. 1 1 2 Read a letter in the Bath and C: Gaz: against Mediator. 113 ,

T).'

Wednesday 24 [Dec. ] M. Mad Crosby 1 14 /

"

<..,/-

~

.

Walked to Mrs

Nihells' to meet Miss Fryer; arranged about the music for midnight. Called on Mrs Ferrers. Conf: D. at home. Conf: from 6 till 10. Arranged with Mr Fryer about the midnight music. Thursday 25 [Dec.] 2 Masses. Midnight - for those to whom due. Sermon till near [01] 4. Slept till 7. Sermon till 9. Mrs Ferrers and Mrs John Wright. Mr Dourlin priest, myself deacon and Mr Brindle subdeacon. A beautiful Mass of Hayden, full band. ll 5 Preached. Walked with Miss Cary. Miss Wright and Miss Blundell called. D. Mr Knap. Met Mr, Mrs and Miss Hussy etc. Friday 26 [Dec.] Gave com: to Miss Lincoln. After B. went to Mrs Butler to calIon Mr Combes; arran ged with him about the Sheffield sermon. 1 1 6 Called on Dr Barlow. 1 1 D. Mrs Butler. Met Mr, Mrs and Miss Mostyn and Mr Coombes. T. Do. Wrote a letter signed Mediator on the Bath police etc. for the Bath and Cheltenham Gazette. 11 8 Saturday 27 [Dec.! Conf: and com: to Miss Esmond, 18 Henrietta St. Conf: Heard Mass. Mr Conolly called. Mr Knapp and Miss Cary. Mr Loder,119 the architect, by appointment at 12. Met Mr Layton and Duncan. Went to Mrs Nihell's to get the letter inserted. Conf: Mrs Langton. Do. chapel. Agreed to receive 3 months warning from the Pierrepont Society for quitting my premises. Conf: D. home. Conf : Poor-box stolen. Offered 5 guineas reward. Sunday 28 [Dec.] M. to whomsoever due. B. Miss Cary. Sermon. 112 Of 10 Henrietta Street (ibid. , p. 80). See entry for 11 Dec. (& note thereon); also 26 Dec. See entries for 4 & 8 May and 17 June 1818 (Mrs & Madm. Cosby; Mr Crosby). 115 See Bath and Cheltenham Gazette, 31 Dec., for report which notes that the organist, Mr E. Harris, was "constantly producing in this chapel Masses, the works of the classic authots". Mr Harris occurs in the 1819 Directory, pp. 12 , 66, as a teacher of the pianoforte, 3 Kingston Buildings. 116 Taken in conjunction with the entries for 6, 7, 13 & 14 March 1818, this suggests that Baines was contemplating publishing some "Remarks" on his Sheffield sermon published two years earlier, viz: The Leading Doctrines of the 113

114

Catholic Religion, being the substance of a Sermon preached at the Opening of the new Catholic Chapel at Sheffield, May 1st, 1816 (London, 1816). In October 1817 it was reported that Bishop Collingridge objected to passages in the sermon; cf. Dockery,Collingridge, p. 302. 117 Of 102 New Sydney Place (1819 Directory, p. 43). 118 See entry for 11 Dec. (& note thereon); also 23 Dec. 119 J. Lowder, Chapel House, Lansdown Grove (l819Directory, pp. 11,76). See also B. Little, Catholic Churches Since 1623 (1966) p. 60.


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Preached on Holy Innocents. Mr Conolly called and gave me 10 guineas for the poor. Miss Ferrers and Miss Fanny F. called. Vespers. D. Mr Weston. Met Gen. Ambrose, Dr. Leigh, Mr Leigh, Mr Ensay, Major Bird, Mrs Riddell. T. Do. Received a letter from Mr Rolling. 120 Monday 29 Decr. M. to whomsoever due. Mrs Nihell called . Bought at an auction in Milsom St. a few small articles . Called on Mr Conolly, Mr Dennie, the Miss Taylors. Saw the American lady without arms. Saw the wild beasts. Gave directions to Higman 121 about printing the Directory. Conf: D. Mr Doudin. Met Mr Day. T. Do. Accepted an invitation from Mr Dennie to dine Wednesday week at 4, 7 Sion Row. Tuesday 30 [Dec.] Conf: Buried little Miss Eyston in the vaults .122 Office. Breakfast Mrs Nihell. At 12 met Miss Swift by appointment on the subject of religion. Attended the school dinner. Placed a sum of money in the bank: ÂŁ49.5. O. Conf: Din: home. Went in the Portsmouth mail to the Black Dog, Standerwick Common, and met Mr Phipps's carriage to take me to Leighton House. 123 I there heard Mrs Phipps's conf: and gave her com: after 12. Wednesday 31 [Dec.] B. at Leighton House . Came in Mrs Phipps's carriage with Miss Phipps and Mr Thos. Phipps to Trowbridge and took a chaise home for 2 o'clock. Conf: till 4~. D. Mr Day. Met Abbe Douden. Conf: from 6 to 9~. T. at home. [Thursday's space on this page is blank, as are the spaces on the next page for Friday, Saturday and Sunday. On the following page, entries are resumed from Monday 2 March 1818.] Monday 2 March 1818. M. Edwd. Cary Es~r. D. home. Instructions. T. Mrs Langton's. Mr Morris from Downside 12 called this morning. Tuesday 3 [March] Very unwell. Remained at home all day and dined by myself in my drawing room. Sent for Mr Hay1 25 who came and pronounced my complaint owing to the damp weather. Wednesday 4 [March] Very unwell. Mr Stanley Cary called about the chapel. D. by myself. Do. T. Instructions. A most dreadful night; wind and rain so violent as to force their way through into the drawing room windows etc. A person called requesting subscriptions for Mr

120 Dom Thomas Austin Rolling O.S.B., formerly of Bath, now at KnaresboIOugh, Yorks. (Birt, pp.155-6;Oliver, p. 405;supra.,p. 81). 121 B. Higman, printer, New Bond St., Bath (1819 Directory, p. 68). 122 Not in the mortuary-list in Reg. 2, which contains very few entries between December 1817 and November 1818; perp.aps Mary Theresa Eyston, born 15 Aug. 1815 (see Reg. 2). There seems to be no corresponding memorial in the vaults. 123 See entry for 20 Dec. The Portsmouth mail-coach left the White Hart, Bath, at 5 p.m. (1819 Directory, p. 23). Standerwick Common and Black Dog Hill are on the main Bath-to-Warminster road, the former just in Somerset; the latter just in Wilts. (information from Mr R.E. Sandell). 124 Presumably the future bishop, mentioned supra., note 74. 125 Probably of Messrs. Hay & Phinn, surgeons and apothecaries, 3 Bladud's Buildings (1819 Directory, p. 6).


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Feraud's chapel at Coventry.l26 Gave a guinea. A violent storm this evening. Thursday 5 [March] Very unwell. Bishop called to inquire after my health and sat with us during breakfast. Did not go to dine at Mrs Knapp's cottage. Mr Brindle went instead. D. home. T. Do. Miss Lucy Esmonde, 18 Henrietta St., died. l 2 7 Friday 6 [March] Very unwell in the morning. Wrote an appendix to my Sheffield sermon 1 2 8 etc. Called on Mrs Henty and Miss Lincoln. Paid a mason of the name of Bladwell, Philip St, 13s. 6d. for rent for [illegible]. D. home. T. Do. Instructions. Countess Nugent called for conf. Miss Gibson called . an: 1 29 Saturday 7 [March] Much better. Miss Cary called. Went at my usual hour to Mrs Langton's. Called on the Bishop and read to him an appendix to my sermon l3 0 which he approved. Conf: as usual at 2. D. at home. T. Do. Sunday 8 [March] M. Mrs Marr and Cochrane. Mrs F errers and Miss Cary breakfasted with me. Preached and made a collection for the schools: ÂŁ31. 4. 8, including some received after. D. Mr Knapp. T. Mr Conolly. Met a large party, and was brought home by Miss Blundell in her carriage with Miss Lacon. 13 1 Monday 9 March. M. Mrs Mary Gibson. Called after breakfast on Mrs Metcalf and Miss Cary; also on Mrs John Wright etc. Mr Wright walked with me to Mr Lowder's (not at home) and returned with me home. Sent for to Lady Mount Earll 3 2 and Mr Lynch; saw both. D. home. Instructions. Read. Mr p-lover's pamphlet against Sandars.l 33 Tuesday 10 [March] M.Mrs Moore's intention. The Bishop breakfasted with me. I called on Lady Mount Earl, sick, and on Mr Weston. Engaged to dine with Do. Met Miss Swift at home. Mr Weston's carriage called for me. D. Mr Weston - private - and T. Called at Mrs Butler's and saw Mr Coombes, Miss Archbold and Miss Sommery . Wednesday 11 [March] M. Henrietta Maria Fingall. Mr Coombes and 126 Dom Charles Ambrose Feraud, O.S.B. (Birt, p.146). An unsatisfactory entry in B.W. Kelly, Historical Notes on English Catholic Missions (1907) pp. 143-4, calls him Ferand and places him at Coventry only in 1824, the year in which, according to Birt, he left for Sawston, Cambs. See baptismal entries by him in Reg. 2 (March - May 1812). 1 27 Not in the mortuary-register, See note 122. 128 See entry for 26 Dec. 1817 (& note thereon); also 7, 13 & 14 March 1818. 129 ? anniversary. 130 See previous entry; also 26 Dec. 1817 (& note thereon), 13 & 14 March. 131 Ten years earlier Lady Bedingfield's Bath acquaintances included a Miss Lacon: "a sensible good humoured Squinting Girl, whom I formerly knew at Liege" (Jerningham Letters, I, p. 328). 132 Margaret Mary, second wife of 1st Viscount Mount-Earl, later (1822) Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl. She died, 6 Nov 1821, in The Circus, Bath ("G.E.C.", Complete Peerage, IV, p. 548. The 1819 Directory; p. 80, gives her address as 24, Circus). For their marriage, see Reg. 2. 133 Perhaps the "Scrutator" pamphlet in the McEvoy controversy; see note 44.


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CATHOLICISM IN BATH

Miss Cary breakfasted. Called on Miss Dealy. Bought Fontaine's fables and called on Lady Mount Earl, sick. D. home. Instructions. T. home. Thursday 12 [March.] M. Mrs [sic.] Lucy Esmond, a solemn dirge and High Mass - Called on Mrs Butler. D. home. To. Do. Took a hot bath. Friday 13 [March.] Mr Coombes called and advised me to call the Remarks on my sermon by that name instead of Appendix. 134 Refused to hear me read the proof, saying he had heard it before. Called on Mrs Osborn and Lady FitzGerald. Saw Miss Swift. D. home. Called on Mrs Garland's servant, sick. Instructions an hour and 20 minutes; finished a course. Heard part of Miss S's general conf: T. home. Saturday 14 [March] M. Lord Fingal 1 3 5 and Mrs Marr and Cochrane. Miss Cary called and Mrs Eyston. Saw the miniature artist in glass, Mr Du ... [partly illegible.] 136 Signed Mrs Langton's will. Conf. D. home. T. Do. Received from the printer the remarks on my sermon. 1 3 7 Engaged Mrs Short this morning in Mrs Lovelass's place at the chapel door at 3s. a week and her two rooms only. Sunday 15 [March] High M. Lord Fingal and Mrs Ma" and Cochrane, all that is due. Explained the ceremony of distributing the palms before the blessing and requested the people to come one way and go another at the distribution. Sung the Mass, which was not finished till ~ past one. Ought to have omitted the sprinkling of holy water. Mrs John Wright called and Miss Cary and Mrs Eyston, also Mr Eyston to take leave; they go tomorrow. D. Mr Weston. T. Do. Monday 16 March. M. Miss Fanny Taylor's intn. Sent a music book back to Downside. Called on Mrs Unsworth and family,S Milsom St.; also on Mr Lynch and Mr Butler. Likewise on Mr and Mrs Dalton (not at home). Conf: at 2. D. home. A person called saying that a gentleman at the Castle and Bull [?] 138 inn had hanged himself and that they suspected him to be a Catholic priest of the name of D. Burges. He proved a protestant clergyman. T. Mrs Butler. Tuesday 17 [March.] M. Mrs Mary Dealy. Home all morning. Put ÂŁ44 in the bank. Mr Dalton called. Admitted Miss Swift into the church. Attended a school committee. D. home. T. Do. Wednesday 18 [March.] M. Mrs Moore's into Called on Mrs Lincoln and Mrs Henty [?] and appointed next Tuesday, 8 o'clock, to give them comm. Heared the conf: of Mrs Birkett. In the confessional from 2 to 4~.D. home. Heard Mrs Loveless's conf. sick. Tenebrae at 6. Conf. till past 9. Mass at 9 a.m. Thursday 19 [March.] Thursday - M To whom due - Mrs Blundell, See entry for 26 Dec. 1817 (& note thereon), also 6,7& 14 March 1818. Irish Catholic leader; see "G.E.C.'''' Complete Peerage, V, p. 388, etc. 136 This does not look like Dukes, the name of the "decorative and transparent painter" who occurs in the 1819 Directory, pp. 10,58. 137 See previous entry & note thereon. 138 Only the Castle inn appears in the 1819 Directory (p. 16). 134 135


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Miss Blundell and Miss Eliza Wright breakfasted at my house. Miss Cary. took some refreshment after Mass. Called on Mrs Fraser, Mrs Butler, Mrs Gartside and on Mr Welby, sick - D. home. Tenebrae at 6. Miserere sung without organ. Very ill. Mass at 10. Friday 20 [March.] Mass at 10. No kissing of the cross. Preached a sermon after the cross was uncovered. The deacon and subdeacon did not perform the kneeling etc. at the venite adoremus. Conf: at 2 till 4, and at 7 till 9. Tenebrae at 6; so hoarse I could not sing. Collection for the use of the altar. Mr Wm. Selby called. Saturday 21 [March.] Mat 10. Sung the Exultet etc., not the Mass. Read the prophecies but Mr Coombes said it was not necessary. Said vespers during it . .Conf. at 2 till 4 and at 6 till 9~. D. home. T. Do. Walked with Mr Wm. Selby to Mrs Clifton's Sunday 22 [March.] 139M. Sung by Mr Dourlin; myself deacon and Mr Brindle subdeacon. The music very fine. The band was led by Mr Loder. 140 Miss Wood sung. D. at Mr Conolly's. T. Do. Monday 23 March. M. at Mr Webbe Weston's141 for M. .. Robinson. High Mass by Mr Dourlin. No sermon by mistake. D. Mr John Wright. T.Do. Tuesday 24 [March.] Went to give comn: to 4 out-patients. Breakfasted with Miss Walsh. Conf. from two to 4. Do. from 6 to 10 nearly. D. home. T. Do. Put ÂŁ25. Is. in the bank. Wednesday 25 [March.] Gave Comm: out to Mrs Harris, Mrs Westall and Mr Butler. Called on Mr Lynch but found him at breakfast. Sung High Mass, for a French priest or Mrs Barbara Taylor. No sermon (Feast of Annunciation in Easter week). D. Mrs Moore. T. Do. Called on the

[smudged, unfinished entry.] Thursday 26 [March.] Gave Comn: out to Mrs Marten's mother, Mr Bence and Mrs Hussey. Call'ed on Mr Lowder and Mrs Blundell and Mrs Wright. Mrs Crouch called with Mrs Mitchell - returned yesterday. D. home. T. Do. Mr Simon 142 called on his way to Cannington. A very bad cold - bad weather. Friday 27 [March.] Gave Com: out to Mrs Ensay, Mrs Robinson and Lucy Warren. The Bishop and Mr Simon breakfasted. Bought some

139 Easter Sunday, 1818. 140 The 1819 Directory, p. 76, includes J.D. Loder, director of music at the Theatre Royal, and G. and A. Loder, teachers respectively of the flute and of the pianoforte and singing, as well as an advertisement (unpaginated) by J.D. Loder, "Music & Musical Instrument Seller to her late Majesty and their Royal Highnesses The Princesses", of 46 Milsom Street. 141 Of 1 Royal Crescent (1819 Directory, p.101); see also Jemingham Letters, I, p. 326. Perhaps an anniversary-Mass for Henry Robinson, formerly an armysurgeon, who had died in Nova Scotia on 22 March 1817 (CR.S., 12, p. 137) 142 See also next entry which, with others relating to Bishop Collingridge, is reproduced in Dockery, op. cit., pp. 303-4, though "Mr Simon" is not there identified. He was doubtless the Abbe Alexandre Julien Simon, for whom see Oliver, pp. 411-2; CR.S.â&#x20AC;˘ 56, pp. 173, 192.


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boxes for papers and arranged Do . D home. T. Do. Late in the confessional (till 10 p.m.). Saturday 28 [March.] Gave no com : early. At 12 took a chair 1 4 3 to Mrs John Wright, Lady Mount Earl and Miss Fanny French. D. home. T. Do. Late in the conf. Sunday 29 [March.] M. sung : Mr Brindle preached . Called on Mrs Butler. D. Mr Weston. Met there a Revd. Mr Morrell and had a long theological discussion with him. T. Do. Called afterwards on Mrs Butler and met Mrs and Mr Walter Moore. Monday 30 March: Gave com: to Mrs John Wright and Lady Mount Earl at their houses. Walked with Miss Lacon to see a glass manufactory in Oxford Row. Lady FitzGerald called. D. Miss Kyane 144 T. Do. Went to Mrs Riddell's party and met most of the Catholics. Mr Welby died. Tuesday 31 [March.] Assisted at the blessing of the holy oils in Mrs Butler's drawing room. Breakfasted there - the whole party. D. Countess Nugent. T. Do. Went to Mr Weston's party - very full. No Mass in the chapel today. Wednesday 1 April. Cornn. to Dennis Callaghan at the Walcot poor house. Mr Edwd. Glover arrived last night from Liverpool and called this morning at breakfast. Walked with him to Mr Dennie's and with the Bishop to Gt. Bedford St. to see Miss Lee. Called on Mrs Weston. D. Mrs John Wright. Met Miss Stoner. T. Do. Thursday 2 [April] Com: to Sullivan. Mr Glover and Mrs Kaye called. Breakfasted with Miss Gibson. Admitted a young woman into the church. D at Mr Langton's. Do. tea. Gave extreme unction to Mrs Loveless. Received rent due today from Mrs Bretton for No.13 St. Jas. Parade. Mr Lawson 14 5 called. Friday 3 [April] Cornn: to Mrs and Betty Brown. Mr Glover, Mrs Kaye, Miss Gibson and Miss Cary breakfasted. Put into the bank ÂŁ85. 12. 6d. Paid Mr Day at the quarterly committee, at which I was chairman, ÂŁ6.11.0. D. and T. Mr Dennie at Sion Hill. Saturday 4 [April] M first Saturday in the quarter. Walked out with Mr Glover and called on Mrs Nihell. D. home. T. Do. Sunday 5 [April] M. Mrs Valentine. Miss Cary breakfasted. Mr Glover sung the Mass. I preached. Called with Mr Glover on the Ferrers and Mrs Butler who was out. Wrote a letter to Miss Harriet Selby at Hammersrnith. 146 D. Mr Osborne. T. Do. Met Captn. White etc. Monday 6 April. Performed the funeral of Mr Welby who was buried in the vaults. Went with Mr Glover to Downside. Dined there and slept. Presumably a sedan chair. Keeper of a boarding-house, no. 19 The Circus (1819 Directory, p. 74). 145 Possibly Dom Henry Lawson, formerly at Bath (see supra., pp. 72) or his elder brother Dom Thomas Austin Lawson (Prior of Downside, 1814-18). See Birt, pp. 137-8. For Mrs Bretton see note 38. 146 ?Sister Placida Selby who in 1819 became superior of the Hammersmith Convent (CR.S., 26 , p. 59). 143

144


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Read some passages from Dr. Geddes's translation of the Bible, his letter to Bp. Douglass etc. 1 4 7 Tuesday 7 [April] Shewed Mr Philips 148 how to paste maps and pasted myself a quarter of the globe. Gave Mr Morris a commission to copy some Masses for me. A rainy day, confined all day. Accounts of scrupulosity in some persons there - a servant at confession from 8 till 1 o'clock p.m.; a boy 3 hours overnight; as many next morning; a servant 5 days in the week an hour or two; a priest leaving the altar at the creed to go to confession, etc., etc., etc. Wednesday 8 [April] Taught some of the boys some Geography on my own plan. Left Downside at ~ past 11. D. at Mr John Dalton's met Mr John Clifton and Mr Seel Molineux. A small party in the evening. Pritchard 149 began to lay the crimson drugget in the drawing room. Thursday 9 [April] Heard Mass. Called with Mr Glover on Mr Weston, Mrs John Wright and Mrs Blundell. Called by myself on Mrs Phipps, 28 Crescent. D. Miss Gibson. T. Do. Paid Harris ÂŁ4 for Miss Esmond's funeral and a guinea for 3 tickets to Mr Percival's concert. 1 50 Paid Dowding1 5 1 his bill. Paid Howe ÂŁ2.5. o. the full amount of subscription. Abbe Boideuvre 1 52 called [In the bottom right-hand corner of this entry are the words "for him ", preceded by marks which may represent another word, now indecipherable. These words could be intended to follow either "subscription" or "called"; it is not clear which.] Friday 10 [April] M. Miss F. Taylor's inten: Breakfasted at Mrs Ferrers's. Called on Mrs Willan; engaged to dine with her Tuesday 21st. at 4. Also on Mrs Phipps and heard her conf. D. Mr W. Weston with Mr Glover. T. Miss Hotham. Paid Mr Trimmell ~ a year's rent for my house, due Lady-day. Saturday 11 ~April] Gave com: to Mrs Phipps, 28 Crescent. M. Mr Bryant Barrett. 1 3 Mr Lawson called and informed me that the General Chapter was fixed to be at Ampleforth. D. home. T. Do. Dr Brewer and Mr Calderbank came. Paid the ground-rent for the chapel and Langley's [?] house. Sunday 12 [April] M. Mad. de Sommery's in ten tn. Preached. Mr 147 Rev. Alexander Geddes, translator of the Bible (1792); author of many works, including the Letter here mentioned to the Right Rev. J. Douglas, Bishop of Centuriae, etc. (1794). See Gillow, II, pp. 410-15; also M.D. Petre, The Ninth Lord Petre (1928) chap. 5; B. Ward, Dawn of the Catholic Revival in England (2 vols., 1909) passim.; D.N.B.. ; etc. 148 Probably Dom Samuel Maurus Philips O.S.B. (Birt, p. 151). 149 Auctioneer and upholsterer, 12 Westgate St. (1819 Directory, p. 86). 150 W. Harris Esq., Master of Ceremonies at the Guildhall (ibid., pp. 17,67). 151 A mason and carpenter of this name occurs in ibid., p. 57. 152 The Abbe de Boisdefure died at Bath in 1833, aged 82 (CR.S., 12, p. 201). 153 Of Milton, Berks., in whose vault Bishop Challoner was buried in 1781; see E. Burton, The Life and Times of Bishop Challoner (1909), I, p. 184, II, pp. 277-9; also note 172 below.


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Glover sung Mass. Dr. Brewer and Mr Calderbank present. Called with Dr. Brewer on Mr Dennie, Dr Birkett 154 and Miss Gibson. D. Mrs Blundell. T. Do. Monday 13 April. M Marquis De Sommery. Lady Fitzgerald and Mrs Willoughby called. D. Mrs Butler. T. Do. Called to baptize Mr English's child Wm. Orchard English. 1 5 5 . Tuesday 14 [April] Prepared for my journey to Salisbury and Spetisbury. D. Mrs Ferrers at 3~. Left Bath in the Salisbury mail at 5. 1 56 Arrived at Salisbury a little before 12; visited the cathedral as near as we could get (The Close being shut up) by moonlight. Slept at the Red Lion - a very uncomfortable inn. Best inn the White Hart. Wednesday 15 [April] Breakfasted at the Red Lion. Called on Mrs Husser, Martin St., by the chapel. Saw the cathedral- injured much by Wyat. 57 Took chaises at 3 o'clock for Spetisbury. 15 8 Arrived there at 6~. T. and supper there. A swelled cheek with rheumatism. Thursday 16 [April] M Mrs Blundell's int: walked out with Mrs and Miss Willoughby and a few of the young ladies. D. at 12. T. at 4. Supper - did not go on account of sore face. Read a canto of Lady of the Lake up to Mrs Willoughby. Friday 17 [April] Jubilee-day of Dame Mary Placida Berrington.l 59 M Mrs Blundell's into Gave a discourse and served as subdeacon at the High Mass. D. at 12. Miss Arundell and Mr Marest 160 there. Saw the convent by the Bishop's leave. Saturday 18 [April] Brought by Mrs Willoughby in a chaise to Blandford by 9 0 'clock. Took the coach to Bath. Arrived at home at 6~. D. Mrs Ferrers. T. Do. Mr Barr arrived at Bath. Sunday 19 [April] Sung the Mass. Mr Edd. Glover preached. D. at Mr Weston's. Called after dinner with Mr Barr at Mrs Metcalfe's. A collection in the chapel for the general hospital: ÂŁ19. 2. 6. Monday 20 April. M. a French priest. Miss and Miss Fanny Ferrers and Miss Browne breakfasted with me. Mr Brindle went to Sodbury.161 154 Of 19 St James's Parade (1819 Directory, p. 46). 155 See Reg. 2 for baptismal entry. 156 i.e. the Portsmouth coach, via Salisbury, from the White Hart, Bath (1819

Directory, p. 23). 157 A reference to James Wyatt's "restoration" of the cathedral at the end of the eighteenth century. For a short account of his "iconoclastic vandalism", see R.L.P. Jowitt, Salisbury (1951) pp. 32-9. 158 At Spetisbury, Dorset, there was a convent of the English Augustinian Canonesses, formerly of Louvain, founded in 1799 and transferred to Newton Abbot, Devon, in 1861; cf. B. Whelan, Historic English Convents of Today (1936) p.234. 159 Sister of Bishop Berington, Vicar-Apostolic of the Midland District, who had died in 1798. This was her golden jubilee in religion. She died in the following year, on 22 December, at the age of 76. See C.S. Durrant, A Link Between Flemish Mystics and English Martyrs (1925) p. 387, note; CRS, 12, p. 145. 160 Jean Baptiste Marest, a French priest, chaplain to the Theresian nuns at Canford, Dorset (Oliver, p. 354). 1 61 i. e. Chipping Sodbury, Gloucs.


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D. Miss Gibson. Met Mr Hunt. Mr Barr with me and T. at home. Dr Brewer came from Downside. Tuesday 21 [April] M. Mrs Esmonde. Baptized a child 162 and churched a woman. Called on Mr Lowder the architect and saw the plan for the altar. D. Mrs Willan with Dr. Brewer and Mr Barr. Gave the collection to the man from the hospital. Wednesday 22 [April] M. Lady Fitzgerald. Dr. Brewer and Mr Barr breakfasted. Baptized Mr Hussey's son Hubert John Hussey16 3 born on Thursday last. D. Mr Hussey. T. Mrs Knapp: a party and Mrs Nihell. Took leave of Dr. Brewer who goes home tomorrow morning. Thursday 23 [April] M. John Burningham Nugent. Dr. Brewer went away home. Settl~d my account from Mr Barr and obtained his leave to make repairs in my chapel. D. Mr Knapp. Called at Mrs Ferrers with Mr Barr. Mr Hawarden came. Told me faculties are renewed in the event of my making the usual retreat. 16 Friday 24 [April] M Major Ferrers. Called on Mrs Blundell and Mr Lowder the architect. D. Miss [letter crossed-out] Taylor's. T. Miss Gibson. Met Mr Hunt etc. Prepared a sermon. Saturday 2S [April] M. Benet¡ of Cong: for April. Miss Cary breakfasted - subscribed to the chapel. D. home. T. Mr Dennie's. Went to see Mr Glover. Took a warm bath. Sunday 26 [April] M. Benet' of Cong: Mr Brindle preached. D. Mrs Ferrers. T. Mrs Slack [? Stack] .165 Monday 27 April . Mrs and Miss Willoughby and Miss Fanny Ferrers breakfasted with me. M Mrs Blundell's int: Tuesday 28 [April] M. The French priest. D. Mr John Wright. T. Do. Called on Miss Talbot. Wednesday 29 [April] M. The French priest. Mrs and Miss Nihells [sic.] called at breakfast time. Miss Mary Wright called. Miss Swifts. Bought at Fasana'sl66 an eye-glass and tooth-pick-case. D. home. T. Do. Thursday 30 [April] M. Mr Ferrers. Preached. Mr Dourlen sung the High Mass. Deacon and subdeacon. Went with Mrs Nihell to see the the exhibition of sculpture, Union St. D. Mrs Butler. T. Do. Met Mr Hunt. Friday 1 May. M. Lady Fitzgerald. Miss Cary breakfasted. Read part of Milner's article on persecution 16 7 and of a treatise on history. D. Mr

ml

162 Reg. 2. contains no baptismal entry for 21 April, but there are several dated only 1818, of which this may perhaps be one. 163 No corresponding entry in Reg. 2, nor in the register of Marnhull, Dorset, printed in CR.S., 56. 164 As required by the "Rules of the Mission" (Benedict XIV's Apostolicum Ministerium, 1753). The remaining pages of his journal do not show whether Baines fulfilled this condition during the next three months. 165 Perhaps of 3 Johnstone St. (1819 Directory, p. 92). The surname Stack does not occur in the directory, but see also journal-entry for 2 May. 166 Jeweller and stationer, 35 Milsom St. (ibid., p. 60). 167 ? in Rees's Cyclopaedia, vol. 26, section 2 (Dec. 1813). See also note 51. If


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Pattrick. T. Do. Went to see Bathwick church and the exhibition of sculpture with Mr Brindle. Went in the evening to Mrs Langton's. Saturday 2 [May] M. Lady FitzGerald. Mr Hunt, Mrs Stack and Miss Gibson breakfasted. D. home. Walked beyond Prior Park. T. home [In

the MS. this entry and the next are transposed.] Sunday 3 [May] M. Miss Cary breakfasted. Preached. Called on Mrs Hussey before vespers. Mrs Butler called. D. Mrs Metcalfe. Met Mr Cary and Mr John Wright, banker. 168 Evening Mrs Clifton: a Catholic party. N.B. This article is misplaced. Monday 4 May. M. Mrs Cosby. Called on Mr Weston, Miss Cary etc. D. Mr Weston. T. Mr Langton. Took a hot bath. Tuesday 5 fMay] Went to Shepton Mallet with Mrs Butler and Miss Archbold. Met Mr Fryer 16 9 there. Called on my return at Downside. D. Mrs Butler. Wednesday 6 [May] M. Miss Esmonde. Took a drive with Mr Knapp to see - a house belonging to Genl. Popham. D. Mr Knapp. T. and party, Mrs Butler's. Thursday 7 [May] M. Miss Riddell's father. Breakfasted at Mrs Ferrers'. Called on Miss Cary" Mrs John Wright etc. D. Madm. de Sommery's. A concert at Mrs Barlow's, Sydney Place. 1 70 Mr Lawson from Downside dined with us. Friday 8 [May] M. Madm. Cosby. Mrs Butler and Miss Archbold breakfasted with me, also Mr Lawson. Revd. Mr Fryer called. Went with him to Mrs Dalton and Miss Cary. D. Mrs Butler and tea. Unwell; came away early. Saturday 9 [May] M. Called and heard Mr Dalton's conf: who was very unwell. D. home. T. Do. Sunday 10 [May] M. Mr Dalton. Went in Lady FitzGerald's carriage to give him extreme unction and afterwards the viaticum. Preached. Whit Sunday - a grand High Mass. D. Mr John Wright, the banker, 50 Pulteney St. Called in the evening at Mr Dalton's and staid there all night - lay down in my cloaths. Mr D. very ill. Monday 11 May. M. Mr O'Connor's father - at Mr Dalton's. D. at Mr Dalton's. T. Do. and staid all night. Slept from 2 till ~ past 5 in the morning. Tuesday 12 [May] M. at Mr Dalton's. D. Do., T. Do. Remained there all night and went to bed all night. Attended at Mrs Butler's the ladys' committee of the school and received the management of it. Wednesday 13 [May] M. Mr Dalton's. D. Do., T. Do. Staid there all night. Milner contributed a second Cyclopaedia article, it is not recorded by F.e. Husenbeth, Life of Bishop Milner (1862) and Baines may be referring to one of Milner's numerous writings which Husenbeth does mention (op. cit., passim). 16~ See, the article by Father T.G. Holt, S.J., "The Failure of Messrs. Wright & Co., Bankers, in 1840" in Essex Recusant, 11 (Brentwood, 1969) pp. 66-80. 169 See also entry for 8 May and supra., note 102. 170 Dr Barlow of 102 New Sydney Place occurs in the 1819 Directory, p. 43.


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Thursday 14 [May] M. Mr Dalton's. D. Do., T. Do. Slept at home. Friday 15 [May] M. at home. D. Lady Stourton.! 7! T. Mr Dalton. Saturday 16 [May j M. Miss Lincoln. Called on Mr Dalton and Mr Weston; shewed to the latter my plans for altering the chapel. Churched Mrs Hussey. D. Mr Dalton. T. home. Sunday 17 [May] Sung High Mass. D. Mr John Wright, Pultney St. T. Mrs Unsworth. Wrote to Mr Rishton, Miss Maria Selby and Miss Norris - by Mrs Riddill and Miss Wright who go to Yorkshire tomorrow . Monday 18 May. M. Mr John Pattrick. Called on Mr John Dalton ill . Mr C. Connolly's servant - ill. Received the profession of faith of Mrs Welby and her two eldest daughters. D. General Ambrose. T. Mr Dalton and Mrs Ferrers. Tuesday 19 [May] M. Mrs Blundells' int. Dr. Coombes called. Wrote an address about the improvements in the chapel. Baptized the two eldest Miss Welbys. D. Mrs Dalton. T. Do. Wednesday 20 [May] M. Mrs Blundells' int. Continued occupation. D. home. T. Mr Dalton's . Prepared a sermon for tomorrow. Thursday 21 [May] M. Preached at the High Mass on the real presence an hour and half Mass with a band, very fine. D. Mrs Dalton. T. Mrs Nihell. Friday 22 [May] M. Mrs Ferrers. Attended a committee of the boys' school, about the girls' school. D. Mr Dennie. T. Mrs Langton's. Met Revd. Mr Spooner and Revd. Mr Basil Barrett 172 at Mrs Barrett's. Benediction at 7 during the oct: 1 73 Saturday 23 [May] Gave comn: to Betty Browne and her mother. Got an address printed for improving the chapel. Called on Lady Stourton and her sister Mrs Butler. D. home. T. Mrs Barrett. In confessional till 10 p.m. Benediction at 7. Sunday 24 [May] M. Mr W. Lacon. Preached. Mr Spooner sung Mass. D. Mr J. Wright, Pulteney St. T. Do. Monday 25 [May] M Mrs Burke., Mr Conolly called about the chapel etc. Attended the ladies' committee. D. Mrs Blundell. T. Do. Called on Mr Dalton. Tuesday 26 [May] M. Mr Walter Lacon. D. Mrs Butler. T . Do. Kept very long in the confessional after Benediction. Wednesday 27 [May] M Mrs Tully 1 74, Miss Cary breakfasted. Wrote 171 Mary, nee Langdale, widow of Charles Philip, 17th Lord Stourton who died in 1816. Her elder sister, Elizabeth, married Robert Butler of Ballyragget. 'See "G.E.C.", Complete Peerage, XII, pt. 1, p. 313; C.B.J. Lord Mowbray, Segrave & Stourton, The History of the Noble House of Stourton (1889) II, pp. 567-621; also journal-entry, 23 May. 172 Secular priests Samuel Spooner (see Oliver, p. 414; Dockery, Collingridge, passim) and Basil Richard Barrett, son of Bryant Barrett (see note 153) and his wife Winefrid, nee Eyston (Gillow, I, p. 144). 173 Presumably octave. 174 J. Tulley, pastrycook and confectioner, 3 Argyll Buildings, occurs in the 1819 Directory, p. 98.


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letters to Mr Rimmer of Sheffield, Mr Molineux etc. 1 75 D. Mrs Dalton. T. Do. Kept in the confessional after Benediction. Thursday 28 [May] Went out in the morning and gave comn. to Mrs Ensay, Lucy Warren, Mr Bence, old Mrs Martyn and Dennis O'Callighan. D. Mrs Butler. T. Miss Hotham. Wrote a letter to Mons. Boideffre. Called on Mrs Blundell and walked with Miss B. to chuse some lamp-glases. Called on Lady Fitz-Gerald. Friday 29 [May] M. Miss Eliza Edwards. D. home. T. Mrs Butler. Walked out after dinner into the country. Determined on having the boys' school over the sanctuary - the roofs are all in such a wretched state. Saturday 30 [May] M. Mrs Wm. Throckmorton. Miss Cary breakfasted. Mr Knapp called and talked about the chapel. 1 76 Asked if he might not be bound in conscience to oppose my proposed alterations as trustee of the chapel - that he conceived the trustees ought to step forward if any of our body attempted any thing injurious to the place. Called on Miss Swift, Mr C. Connolly's servant, Mrs Willan and Mr Dalton. Walked after D. (at home) in Sydney Gardens. T. at home. Received a letter from Mr Barr on the chapel. Sunday 31 [May] M. Mrs Butler. Mr BarberI 77 sung Mass. I preached. Mr Brindle absent at Downside. D. Mr John Wright, 50 Pulteney St. T. Mr Conolly. Monday 1 June. M. ob. 1 78 Shewed Mr Day my plans of the chapel and gave him a printed address. Went with Mrs Conolly, Mrs and Miss Blundell to Midford Castle. Returned for 5 o'clock and D. at Mrs Nihells'. Met there the Revd. Mr Senior and wife. T. Mrs Butler - took leave of her. Tuesday 2 [June] M. ob. D. at Mrs Ferrers. Went in the evening to the first Abbey concert 179 with Mrs and Miss Willoughby. Wednesday 3 [June] Mob. Mr Hawarden called with Mr Nagle. D. Mrs Hartezinck. Met Mrs Irvine, Miss Irvine and Madm. De Roncy.l 80 175 Rev. Richard Rimmer (1754-1828) for whom see C.R.S., 63 , p. 420; C. Hadfield, A History of St Marie's Mission & Church, Norfolk Row, Sheffield (Sheffield, 1889) chap. 2, and perhaps Dom John Alban Molyneux O.S.B. of Warrington (see also entry for 21 Oct. 1817). For Baines's visit to Sheffield, see entries for 7-9 July 1818. 176 According to the undated MS. mentioned in note 408 to the Introduction, Mr Knapp had been invited to become one of the original trustees of the chapel in 1809 but had declined because it could not be guaranteed that the building would "always remain a Catholic Chapel and be always appropriated to Catholic worship." 177 Probably Dom Luke Bernard Barber O.S.B. who became Prior of Downside in 1818, or possibly his brother Dom Samuel Stephen Barber, then at Ampleforth (Birt, pp. 147, 149). 178 ? obligation. 179 See also entries for 4 & 5 June. Baines here refers to events in the sixth Bath and Somersetshire Musical Festival (June 1st - 5th 1818), announced in the Bath Chronicle from the end of April and partially reported in the issue of 4 June. 180 Madame De Rounsey, 3 Richmond Hill (1819 Directory, p. 57).


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Thursday 4 [June] Abbey concert in the morning, The Messiah. D. Mrs Nihell. Met Mr and Mrs Senior and Mr Browne. Went in the evening to Mr Fryer's. Friday 5 [June] M. Lady FitzGerald. Abbey concert, The Creation, and a Mass of Beethoven's. The former the most beautiful music I ever heard - Braham, Signora Corri, Miss Carew and Mr Tinney the principal singers. 181 D. home. T. at Mrs Dalton's. Saturday 6 [June] M Mrs Butler. Mr Hawarden and Mr Nagle breakfasted. Mr Fryer, the artist, called and saw my plans of the chapel. D. home. T. Do. Called on Mr Barrett at his mother's, on Mrs Willan and on a servant-maid of Mr C. Conolly's. Sunday 7 [June] M. Congo Mrs Butler. D. Mrs Ferrers. T. Mrs Clifton. Monday 8 [June] M. Mrs Butler. Committee at which agreed that the ladies' school should be under ours and that the gentlemen would take at a fair rent a school which I might provide for the boys in the new alterations of the chapel. Tuesday 9 [June] M. Ob. Went to Downside [letter crossed-out] with Mr and Mrs Hussey and Miss Wilmot; returned in the evening and called by appointment on Lady Blount at Mrs Blundell's. Wednesday 10 [June] M. Ob. Called on Mr Gifford [?] . D. Mr John Wright, St James Sqr. T. Do. Met at dinner Miss Eliza and Miss Kitty Ecc1estone. Thursday 11 [June] M Ob. Went to Bristol to see the Langtons at Clifton and supply for Mr Tate. D. Mr Langton's, 9 Glouster [sic.] Row. T. Do. After, a walk on the downs with Mr L. and two of the Miss Gabets. Slept at Mr Tate's. Friday 12 [June] M. at Bristol. Mrs Butler. Called on a man in St Peter's hospital of the name of Frederic Callighan, quite ingorant. Gave him instructions, baptised conditionally, penance, extreme unction and last benediction. Took a hackney coach to see Mrs Loveless at Clifton. Saw Ratcliff and the College churches, Bristol. 182 The former a most beautiful edifice of the Gothic of York chapter-house; the latter curious and rather handsome. Returned to Bath at 1. Met at Bristol Mr - , priest from Birmingham - old friar. 183 Saturday 13 [June] M Mrs Aranza's int: Miss Cary breakfasted. Mrs English called with some regulations for the school of girls. Called on Mr Becker,184 who promsed to contribute. D. home. Called on a man

181 For the fust two, see Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians (5th edition, ed. E. Blom, 1954); also, for John Braham, the D.N.B. 182 Presumably the churches of College Green, viz. the Cathedral, the church of St Augustine-the-Iess (destroyed in the second World War) and possibly St Mark's chapel. "Ratcliff' is St Mary Redcliff. 183 Perhaps the jubilarian Fr. Lawrence Hawley O.F.M.; see Thaddeus, Franciscans in England, passim. 184 8 Green Park Buildings (1819 Directory, p. 45).


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of colour, Avon St. 185 T. home. Sunday 14 [June] M. Province. Preached. After Mass walked with Mr Knapp to see Mr White, apothecary,186 concerning Mrs Hussey. D. Mrs Ferrers. Called after dinner on Lady FitzGerald and on Mrs Hussey. Received a letter from Mr Burgess 1 87 of Ampleforth giving an account of ~ ~ J~. Made a collection in the chapel for the infirmary ÂŁ10.8.6. Monday 15 [June] M.Ob. Went to Bristol to see Mr Brindle about the letter of yesterday. Wrote to Burgess at Ampleforth and the President 188 at Woolton. D. at Mr Tate's. Returned home for 7 o'clock. Saw the Bath antiquities and Guildhall. T. at Miss Hotham. Met a Mr Cooke. Tuesday 16 [June] M. ob. Went with Mr Day and Mrs Browne to see old Mrs Hussey, who yesterday morning was found dead with her throat cut. Think she must have done it herself, but in a frensy. 189 Possible that a man may have barred the door inside and got up the chimney. D. Mr Hussey. T. Do. Called at past 11 to a man sick on the quay. 1 go Wednesday 17 [June] M. Province. Went with Mr and Mrs John English to see Mr Crosby's house in the Crescent. 191 D. home; found the Bishop come to give confirmation. T: at Mrs Ferrers. Walked with Mrs Willoughby and Miss Fanny Ferrers along the canal to Bathampton. Called on three sick persons. Paid the subscription for the infirmary to Mr Crosby, ÂŁ10. 8. 6. Thursday 18 [June] M. Mrs Loveless. Attended the ladies' committee and procured its dissolution. D. at Miss Taylor's with Bp. Collingridge. Visited a sick man. T. Mrs Dalton. Walked with her and Miss Cary in the gravel walk. Friday 19 [June] M. D. home. Instructions to [?] 70'clock.Conf: to a late hour. T. home. Saturday 20 [June] M. D. home. T. Do. Great deal of work in the confessional. Mr Brindle returned to Bristol after dinner to supply for Mr Tate. 185 Perhaps the young "Black Man" of Avon St. whose death is recorded in Reg.

2.

186 A Mr White, M.R.C.S., surgeon to Bath Dispensary, occurs in the 1819 Directory, pp. 6, 101. 187 Dom Thomas Laurence Burgess O.S.B. (later secularised and 2nd Bishop of Clifton). On him, see Oliver, and works listed supra., note 468 to Introduction. 188 Dom John Bede Brewer, President-General of the English Benedictine Congregation (see note 90). 189 See entry for 14 June. 190 An undated entry in the mortuary-list in Reg. 2 reads, "A man drowned in the river, young". 191 Mr J.I. Crosby, apothecary to Bath Dispensary (1819 Directory, pp. 5,55). The second letter of his surname was inserted by Baines after he had spelt it "Cosby" - a name which occurs in journal-entries of 4 & 8 May.


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Sunday 21 [June] M Said the 1st Mass. Province. The Bishop gave confirmation to 100 persons. 192 D. Mrs Ferrers. T. Do . Mr Barber sung the High Mass. Mr Doudin, Mr Barber and Mr Walgallia 1 93 and myself (receiving the names) assisted at confirmation. . Monday 22 [June] M. Db. D. Mrs John Wright. Had a very violent headache and otherwise unwell. Met Mrs Strickland. Tuesday 23 [June] M. Db. Unwell and confined at home all day. Mr Hay attended me in the morning. Wednesday 24 [June] M. Province. Mrs Strickland called. D. at Mrs John Wright; walked thither with Mrs Strickland. To. Do. Mr Hay attended. Found me nearly well. Thursday 25 [June] M. Mrs Willan's. D. Mrs Hartzinck. T. Mrs Ferrers. Met Mrs Strickland and Mrs John and Miss Wright. An Irish priest from Cork, Mr McSweeney, called. Friday 26 [June] M. Mrs Butler. D. Mrs John Wright. Met Mrs Strickland. T. Do. Received a letter from Dr. Brewer. Saturday 27 [June] M.Mrs Butler's Br. D. home. T. Do. Sunday 28 [June] M. Mrs Butler's. Preached. A placard fastened on the chapel door about ladies' head-dresses. D. Mrs Ferrers. Met Mrs Edwards. T. Do. walked out with them. Monday 29 [June] M. Mrs Butler. Feast of SS. Peter and Paul. Sung the High Mass. No sermon. Deacon and subdeacon. D. Countess Nugent. T. Mrs J. Dalton. Walked home with Miss Dundas who went in a wheel-chair. Miss Blundell and Miss Eliza Wright at breakfast. Tuesday 30 !June] M. Mrs FitzGerald's into Wrote to Dr. Brewer, Lord Arundell 1 4 etc. D. Mrs Nihell. Went in the evening to see Mr Woodison's stained-glass manufactory! 95 T. Mrs Nihell. Wednesday 1 [July] M. Mrs Fitzgerald's into Took medicine. D. home. Walked after dinner. Mrs John Wright called to know why I had not [illegible] there. T. Miss Hotham, no party. Attended the general meeting of the committee for the pentitentiary and Lock hospital. Thursday 2 [July] M. Mrs Lincoln. Breakfasted at Mr John Wright's to meet Mrs Strickland. Called on Mr Lowder and Mr Brown, builder! 96 D. at Mrs Hartzinck's with Miss Cary. Took a walk with Miss Blundell, Wright, Lacon and Sandford to the top of Beechen Cliff. 1 97 T. Mrs Blundell's. Friday 3 [July] Attended a committee at 2 o'clock of gentlemen. See confirmation-list in Reg. 2 (101 names). See entry for 11 Nov. 1817, and note 77. 194 James. Everard Arundell, 10th Lord Arundell of Wardour, who succeeded to the barony on the death of his father at Bath on 14 July 1817; see E. Doran Webb (ed.) Notes on the Family History by the 12th Lord Arundell of Wardour (1916) genealogical table facing p. 84; also Reg. 2. 195 Perhaps Wooddeson, Sion Hill, Bath (1819 Directory, p. 103). 196 Two carpenters and builders named Brown occur in the 1819 Directory, pp. 48-9. 197 Overlooking the city and giving a fine view of Bath. 192 193


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Miss Blundell breakfasted. Took a chaise to Downside. Saw the Bishop. Returned, Dr Elloy19 S with me. Saturday 4 [July] M. Placed in the bank £21 and left my banking book with them. Saw Mr Lowder about the chapel. D. at Mrs Ferrers. In the confessional till 11 o'clock. Called to Mrs Brennen, Avon St., and escorted back by an unknown man, who said, "I know you, sir; I was afraid some one might insult you in this blackguard street, sol took the liberty of walking after you." Sunday 5 [July] M. Attended the first ladies' committee of the new members. Saw Mr Lowder and authorised him to make the agreement with a builder to do the chapel for £780 - his own expences being £50 in addition. D. Mrs Dalton. Called on Mrs John Wright and Mrs Strickland. Packed up, wrote some letters and went to bed at 2 o'clock in the morning. Monday 6 [July] Met L. Barber and Mr Jenkins at the coach at ~ before 7. 199 Travelled with the latter as far as Birmingham - which we reached about 9 o'clock in the evening. Slept at the Castle Inn. On my way dropt a line to Mr Barr recommending him to go to chapter in person. Tuesday 7 [July] Left Birmingham at 9 o'clock a.m. and reached Sheffield at about 7 or 8 in the evening. Met Mr Rimmer at the coach. Staid all night at his house. Dr. Knight, Mr Morton and Mr Gainsford 2 00 called etc. Wednesday 8 [July] Preached a charity sermon at Sheffield 20 1 for the general infirmary of that place - a moderate sermon and small audience; collection £25. 1. 8~. Dined at Mr Rimmer. Met there a brother of the late Sr. Windsor Hunlock; the Revd. Mr Mac Donald, an Irish priest; Dr. Knight and most of the principal people of the congregation. Evening at Mr Gainsford. Slept at Mr Rimmer's. Thursday 9 [July] Saw Mr Gainsford's works and the round chapel at the hospital - curious echo in the latter. Dined at Mr Rimmer's early. Left Sheffield at 2 o'clock p.m. for Wakefield. Reached Heath2 0 2 198 No doubt the 83-year-old French priest of this name who died at Downside in 1824, aged 89 (C.R.S., 12, p. 161). 199 The coach departed from the York House, Bath (1819 Directory, p. 23). For Barber see note 177. If "Mr Jenkins" was Dom John Jenkins, O.S.B. (later of Bath) he was then in minor orders (Birt, p. 171). 200 R. Gell, A New General and Commercial Directory of Sheffield and its Vicinity (Manchester, 1825) p. 39, lists silversmiths and platers of this name (see also journal-entry for 9 July) and they also occur in the Sheffield section of a nor thern Commercial Directory for 1816-17 published at Manchester in 1816, p. 313. On p. 137 of Gell's Directory their London agent is stated to be Mr C. Morton and on p. 55 occurs James Knight, M.D., 43 Norfolk Street. 201 Baines had earlier preached at the opening of this chapel, the predecessor of St Marie's, in May 1816; see Hadfield, op. cit., pp. 38-9; also note 116 to this journal 202 Heath Hall, West Riding of Yorkshire near Wakefield, occupied from 1792 to 1821 by the Montargis community of French Benedictine nuns; see C.R.S., 6, p.


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a little after 7. Saw the Lady Abbess. Called on Mr Manners and Mr Reeve. Slept at a house on the Heath. Friday 10 [July] Remained at Heath till 4 o'clock p.m. Walked to Wakefield and took a coach to Leeds. Met at Leeds the mail to York and reached the latter place about 10 o'clock. Called on Mrs Allen and staid all night. Miss Brickle [? Buckle] there very unwell. Saturday 11 [July] Took a chaise for Ampleforth and prevailed on Mrs Allen to go with me. Reached Ampleforth soon after one o'clock. The boys gave 3 cheers when they saw me. Mrs Allen returned to York with the chaise. I reoccupied myoId room. Officiated as priest at high vespers, which were sung very well by the religious and boys. Sunday 12 [July] Said M Miss [?] Taylor's into Preached. Wrote to Miss Cary and some-one else. Monday 13 July. Remained all day at Ampleforth. M.Miss Taylor 's

into Tuesday 14 [July] Examination. Went off very well. Lord Stourton and Mr Langdale, Mr Cholmeley etc. present. Play in the evening - well performed, particularly by Stourton. An epilogue to the examination very good - pronounced by Stourton, written by Rooker. 203 Wednesday 15 [July] Remained at Ampleforth. Wrote to Mr Morris at Downside recommending a memorial to be presented at Chapter praying for an arrangement to be made between the two houses of Ampleforth and Downside. Dr. Brewer and Mr Calderbank recommended this. 204 Thursday 16 [July] Remained at Ampleforth. Friday 17 [July] At Ampleforth. In the evening rode over to Mr Coupe's with Dr. Brewer - who returned to the college the same night. Slept at Mr Coupe's. Saturday 18 [July] Conf: Rode to Sion Hill 2 0 5 - saw Mrs and Miss Maria and Ralph Selby - also Mr Higginson. Staid all night. Sunday 19 [July] Mass at Mrs Selby's. Pro Provincia. Dined there and returned to Ampleforth. Had a walk in the morning with Miss Maria. Rode to Thirsk and was informed of the death of old Mr Talbot of Kilvington, who died that morning. Took a chaise to Coxwold and rode from thence to Ampleforth on horseback - a wet night. Reached Ampleforth about ~ past 10. Monday 20 July. Went with Edwd. Clifford to York to meet his 220, note 1; S.R. Clarke, New Yorkshire Gazetteer or Topographical Dictionary (1828) pp. 113-4. They later moved to Princethorpe, Warwicks. 203 ? Baines's future associate at Prior Park, Dom Thomas Cuthbert Rooker O.S.B. (see supra., Introduction, pp. 94, 96-7 & note 473); secularised and so not in Birt. 204 On the proposed merger between Ampleforth and Downside see Birt, Downside, pp. 172-9. For Morris, who had been ordained in March 1818 , see also note 74. 205 North Riding of Yorks., 4 miles from Thirsk. Seat of Joshua Crompton Esq. in 1821; T. Langdale, Topographical Dictionary of Yorkshire (Northallerton, 1822) p. 104.


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brother Hugo. 2 0 6 The latter observed that the Court of Rome was, and must naturally be favourable to Regulars. Dined with Mrs Allen. Called on Dr. Lawson and met Mr T. Lawson, the prior of Downside. Slept at Mrs Allen's. Tuesday 21 [July] Called in the morning on Miss Salvin and Miss Gibson, on the Roses, on the Ladies at the Barr;20 7 saw Miss Chalmers. Called also on Mr Gage, Mrs Anne and Miss Gage. Saw the Yorkshire Giant, 7ft 9 inches high.20 8 Dined with Dr. Goldie 20 9 t~te at~te and took a walk to St Mary's abbey21 0 etc. Wednesday 22 [July] Left York in the Sunderland mail at 12 o' clock and arrived at Stockton at 7 o'clock a.m. Called on Mr Story, who drove the gig sent by Mr Meynil from Hartlepool to meet me and sent the servant home on foot. Reached Hartlepool at 1 o'clock. Saw Mrs Selby just setting off home . Found Mrs and Miss Wright and Mr Bradley with Mr and Mrs Meynill . Had a room in their house. Thursday 23 [July] Went on a sea expedition to Castle Eden dean (dell) 8 miles north of Hartlepool - sailed thither in an hour. Walked up the dell. The ladies in gigs and on horseback. Dined in the wood under a rock. Returned to the sea and embarked at 6 o'clock. The wind fallen - becalmed in a rough sea. All very sick. Short breezes. Tacked about [continued on next page, in space for Friday 24 July] till 4 o'clock this morning; saw the sunrise at this time from the boat in which we left the vessel. Took some warm brandy and water and went to bed before 5 o'clock. Got up about 10 - very well but fatigued. Saturday 25 [July] Remained quiet at home all day. Bathed, walked out etc. Mr Meynil took Mr Bradley to Yarm and returned to dinner. Sunday 26 [July] Said Mass at 9 o'clock. Walked out on the moor. Vespers at 3. Prepared for an expedition to the Fern Islands 211 tomorrow morning. Monday 27 [July] Wind almost due north, cold and unfit for the expedition. Met with a return-chaise and went in it to Durham at 6 o'clock p.m. Reached Durham at 10. The town full on account of the assises. Paid 5s. for a bed in a garret. Tuesday 28 [July] Called upon the Bishops2 12 and breakfasted 206 Probably sons of Charles, 7th Lord Clifford of Chudleigh; i.e. Edward (Augustine), later a Benedictine, and Hugh Charles, later 8th baron; cf. Birt, p. 144; Gillow, 1, pp. 509-11. 207 i.e. the Bar Convent, York (St Mary's Convent, Micklegate Bar). 208 William Bradley of Market Weighton, E. Riding; see F. Ross, Celebrities of the Yorkshire Wolds (1818) pp. 33-4; Yorks. Notes & Queries, I, pp. 347-8; A.G. Cox & D. Stather, A History of the Parish of Market Weighton and District (Market Weighton, 1957) pp. 54-5 , 86-8; also Guinness Book of Records (p. 16 of 1973 edition) . . 209 George Goldie M.D., eminent Catholic physician and citizen of York (Gillow, II, pp. 510-3). 210 For an account of these remains, see v.c.H., City of York, pp. 357-60. 211 Fame Islands. 212 William Gibson, Vicar-Apostolic of the Northern District, and his coadjutor,


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239

with them. Bishop Smyth put me in the road to Ushaw about ~ way. Arrived at Ushaw ~ past 1. First dinner over. Dined at the second table with Mr Anderton and Mr Kirk the procurator. Mr Gillow said he did not believe the storys of the girls at the Barr and that Mr Croskill 213 did not either. Occupied the Bishop's room. Wednesday 29 [July] Mr Gillow informed me that Old Hall Green is new modelled - ecclesiastical students seperated from others etc. Left Ushaw after breakfast, accompanied a little way by Mr Anderton and Newsham 214 junior. Reached Durham at 10, went to the cathedral, heard part of the service, saw the church. Could not get a chaise to Castle Eden . Procured a Hack horse. Rode 10 miles in an hour and met Mr Meynil's gig at Castle Eden, which brought me to Hartlepool for dinner. Met Simon and Miss Kitty Scroope. Thursday 30 [July] Had a pleasant cruise off the coast from 1 o'clock till 4. Bathed in the Ark. Wrote to Placid 21 5 about a journey to France. [Here follow three blank pages, numbered 87 to 89, then, on page 90, occur the last three entries, below, headed "April 1819 "] Easter Sunday. 2 1 6 Grand High Mass. Monday - High Mass with one priest. Benediction afternoon. Thursday 15 [April] Gave comn: to Mr John Dalton. The canvas began to be fastened up on which the painting behind the altar is to be made by O'Neil.21 7 Dined at the Ferrers's.

[The remaining pages, 91 to 146, are blank]

Bishop Thomas Smith. For them and for John Kirk and John Gillow (President of Ushaw) see D. Milburn, A History of Ushaw College (Ushaw, Co. Durham, 1964)

passim.

213 Rev. William Croskell, chaplain at the Bar Convent; cf. H.J. Coleridge, St Mary 's Convent, Micklegate Bar, York (1887) p. 281; C.R.S.. , 63 , p. 396 & works there cited. 214 Perhaps Charles Newsham, later President of Ushaw (Gillow, V, pp. 174-6 ; Milburn, op. cit., passim). The Rev. J. Anderton was General Prefect (Records and Recollections of Ushaw by "An Old Alumnus" [E. Buller], Preston, 1889, p. 273). For the changes at Old Hall Green (St Edmund's, Ware), see Bishop Bernard Ward's History of that College (1893) pp. 225-7. 215 See note 74. 216 11 April 1819; C.R. Cheney, Handbook of Dates (Royal Historical Society, 1970) p. 125. 217 Draughtsman and landscape-painter, 1 Wade's Passage, Bath (1819 Directory, pp. 10, 82).


INDEX Entries may occur more than once to a page of text; footnotereferences are indexed separately, with the abbreviation n. Catholic priests are given the prefix "Rev." (or "Abbe") or the suffixes S.J., D.S.B., etc; non-Catholic clergy have the suffix "Rev." in brackets. Similarly the titles of Catholic bishops and archbishops precede their Christian names while Anglicans' follow theirs, in brackets. English place-names are both indexed separately and grouped under their counties, using the historic county-names prior to the 1974 reorganisation. Places in Wales are indexed both under their own names and under "Wales". Cross-references are given to variant spellings of surnames and where the same Christian name clearly belongs to different persons, these are numbered. If it is uncertain whether an entry relates to one or more persons it is marked with an asterisk. It should be noted that in the period covered by this volume "Mrs" does not necessarily denote a married woman; the unmarried Dorothy Cottington and Mary Frampton (supra., pp. 40, 51) are cases in point, as is Miss Wroughton (p. 74), repeatedly shown in local directories as "Mrs" (see note 11 to Reg. 2), and perhaps the Mrs Hippisley and others (e.g. Lucy Esmond) referredto in Baines's journal. Here too, and in the Bell-tree account book, a surname may be preceded either by a Christian name or by "Mr", "Mrs", "Miss" etc. (often, doubtless, the same person) and this may result in more than one index-entry for a single individual. Some marked "Mr" have been identified in footnotes as priests but there are probably others not so identified - could "Mr Baker" (pp. 120, 121) be the Franciscan, Arthur Pacificus Baker (see eR.S., 4, p. 272)? - and there may be more nuns than those mentioned on pages 128, 178,226 and 228. Acton, Sir Richard, 105 Acton Burnell, Salop., SOn, 93, 124n Aimy, Mrs Mary, 220 Ainsworth, Ralph, O.S.B., 72, 80-81, 108, 178 Albin, loseph, 171 Albyn, Mr, 106 Alexander, Bishop Mervyn, 91n Allen, Elizabeth, 101 Allen,Mr, 127, 128 Allen, Mr (Catholic schoolmaster), 76n Allen, Mrs, 219, 237-8 Allen, Ralph, 91 Allen, Cardinal William, 4 Alley, William (Bishop) 13n, 14 Ambrose, General, 218-9, 222, 231 Arney, see Aimy Ampleforth, Yorks., 81, 88, 92-4, 17811, 213n, 227, 232n, 234, 237-8. See also Dieulouard. Anderson, Sir Edmund, 9 Anderton, Rev. 1., 239

Anglesbatch, see Englishcof!1be Anne of Denmark, Queen, 25 Anne family, 33 Anne, Mrs, 238(?) Antwerp, 49 Aranza, Mrs, 233 Arbuthnot, Mary, 108 Archbald (?Archbold), Miss, 212-3, 218-9, 223, 230 Arley, Cheshire, 29n Arlington, see Bennet(t), Arlington, Devon, 131, 135 Arnoll, Adam, S.l., 7, 28n Arundell family, 49, 65 Arundell, Hon. Everard, 105 Arundell, Lady (l748), 49n; (1758), 168; (1777), 106 Arundell, Lord (1748), 49n; (6th Baron), 65; (1777), 106; (lOth Baron), 235 Arundell, Miss, 228 Arundell, Mr,¡ 49n, 168

240


241

INDEX Arundell, Mrs,· 105, 106, 123, 168 Arundell, Mrs Mary (Ann?), nee Mitchell (wife of Thomas Arundell I), 65 Arundell, Thomas I, 65 Arundell, Thomas II, 65-6 Ashby, see T himelby Aspinall, Mrs, 217 Atkinson, John, O.S.B., 1l0n Atterbury, Francis (Bishop), 47 Atwood, John, 17 0 · Attwood, Mr, 160 Auriol, General, 202 Avill, Som., 22 Aylmer, John (Bishop), 20 Aylmer, Mr, 105 Baggs, Bishop Charles Michael, 90 Baines family, 216 Baines, - (brother of Bishop Baines), 216 Baines, Ann, 208 Baines, Burnaby, 208 Baines, James, 216 Baines, Jane, 208 Baines, Mrs (mo ther of Bp. Baines), 208, 216 Baines, Mrs, 207 Baines, Bishop Peter Augustine, 78-96, 200- 39 Baines, Thomas, 208, 216 Baines(?), Thomas (uncle of Bp . Baines), 216 Baines, William, 216 Baker, Arthur Pacificus, O.F.M., 240 Baker, Joseph, 134, 135 Baker, Mr, 120, 121, 240 Baker, Mrs. Mary (wife of Joseph Baker), 135 Baker, William, 42 Baldwin, Winthrop, 68, 190, 195, 198 Baltimore, U.S.A., 110 Banester, William, O.S.B., 54, 58n, 100-10l. See also Taverner Banks, Lady, 52-3 Barber, Rev. J .V. (Cistercian), 72n Barber, Luke Bernard, O.S.B., 232(?), 235(?),236 Barber, Samuel Stephen, O.S.B., 232(?), 235(?) Barberi, Rev. Dominic, 209n Barckley, Barkley, Barkly, see Berkeley Barford, see Burnford . Barlow, Dr, 220, 221, 230n Barlow, Mrs, 220, 230 Barr, Thomas Bernard, O.S.B., 205, 217, 228-9,232,236 Barrett, Rev. Basil, 231, 233(?) Barrett, Bryant, 227, 231n

Barret(t), Miss,· 212, 220 Barrett, Mrs, 220, 231 Barrett, Mrs Winefrid, nee Eyston (wife of Bryant Barrett), 231n, 233(?) Bartlett, Mr, 113, 114, 115, 116, 118, 120 Bartlet, Mrs, 113 Bath Abbey (& parish : Ss. Peter & Paul), 1, 6, 9, 28, 29, 30n, 36, 40, 42, 45-7, 49 & n, 50, 51, 55n, 64, 66, 75n, 85, 101-2, 232-3 Bath, Abbey House, 24, 26, 27 Bath, Assembly Rooms, 64 Bath, Bathwick, 30n, 230 Bath, Bear inn, 100, 196 Bath, Beechen Cliff, 235 Bath, Bellot's Hospital, 50 Bath, Bell-tree House, 47-63, 66-7, 70, 72, 75n, 76, 77n, 80, 83, 98-9, 106-7, 110-83, 186, 199 Bath, Brunswick Place chapel (St Mary's), 80n, 86n, 87-8 Bath, Castle (and Bull?) inn, 224 Bath, Catholic chapel (1780), 67-9, 184-99 Bath, Catholic schools, 57, 76, 80-3, 86n, 88-90, 202, 213, 223, 231-3 Bath, Corn St. chapel, 71 -2, 81, 83 Bath, Cross Bath, 36,43, 50, 63 Bath, Duke of Kingston's baths, 24n.64 Bath, Guildhall, 68,85,189,195,196, 234 Bath hospitals, 41n, 63, 83, 220, 234, 235 Bath, King's Bath, 34, 46, 50 Bath, King Edward's School, 7, 27-8, 41-2 Bath, Lady Huntingdon's chapel, 64 Bath, Lansdown, 34, 39n Bath, Lyncombe & Wid combe parish, 75-6, 104 Bath, Octagon chapel, 64 Bath, Odd Down, 75 Bath, (old) Orchard St. chapel (St John's), 72, 80-7, 90, 187n, 202-39

passim, Bath, Philip St. (no. 6), 84, 200-1, 204-6 Bath, Pierrepont Place, 84, 204, 206, 212,219. See also (old) Orchard St. Bath, Plume of Feathers inn, 186 Bath, Portland chapel (St Augustine'S), 88 Bath, Prince of Wales inn, 76 Bath, Prior Park, 79, 80n, 86, 90-7, 201,204,213nn, 230 Bath, Pump Room, 50, 63, 64 Bath, Roman baths, 24n Bath, St James (& parish), 10, 36, 47, 50, 75 & n, 85


242

INDEX

Bath, St James's Parade (12/13), 71-2, 81,82,84,178,207n Bath, St John's Catholic church, 80n Bath, St John's Hospital, 55n, 100 Bath, St Mary's Catholic church, 80n, 88 Bath, St Mary's (proprietory) chapel, Queen Sq., 211 & n Bath, St Mary de Stalles, 10, 28, 30n Bath, St Michael (& parish), 6, 9, 10, 75n, 79n, 85 Bath, Ss. Peter & Paul; see Bath Abbey Bath, Sydney Gardens, 232 Bath, theatres, 41, 46, 64, 80-1, 100, 187 Bath, Twerton, 46, 47,158 Bath, Walcot, 74, 75n, 76, 85, 104-5, 109,202,205,226 Bath, Weston, 4, 46, 47 Bath, White Hart inn, 215 Bath, White Lion inn, 68 Bath, Widcombe, 168. See also Bath, Lyncombe & Widcombe parish Bath, York House, 66,215, 236n Bath & Wells diocese, 1-2, 8, lOn, 19-20, 22, 23nn, 27n, 28, 30, 31, 39, 75n, 79n, 85 Bathampton, Som., 79, 234 Bathford, Som., 4, 10 Bearcroft, Mrs, 59, 137, 139 Beaurepaire, Mme. de, 202 Beaty, Mr, 64 Beaufort, Duke of (1706), 48 Beaufort, Dr, 65 Beaumont, John, 76n Becker, Mr, 212, 233 Bedingfield family, 61n, 67 Bedingfield, Anthony, 61 Bedingfield, Edmund, 11 Bedingfield, Sir Henry, 63 Bedingfield, Lady, nee Jerningham (wife of Sir Richard Bedingfield), 63, 78, 81n, 223n Bedingfield, Sir Richard, 106 Belisy, Rev. Emilius (Rosminian), 94n Bellot, Thomas, 50 Belson family, 49 Bence,Mr, 204,205, 225, 232 Bendry, Mr, 203 Bennet(t), Francis, 185, 197 Bennet(t), Sir Henry (later Earl of Arlington), 35n Bennet, Mr? (or abbreviation of Benedict?),208 Bennet, Mr, 61 n Bennet, Mrs, 220 Bennet, Philip, 98 Bennet, Thomas Bede, O.S.B., 61nn Bennion, Mr, 124, 125 Berington, Bishop Charles, 228n

Berington, Dame Mary Placida, 228 Berkeley family, 72 Berkeley, Gilbert (Bishop), 1-2, 4-6, 19 & n, 20, 22 Berkeley, John, 138, 139 Berkeley, Mr, 123, 124, 125, 127 Berkeley, Mrs (wife of John Berkeley), 138 Berkeley, Mrs, 118 Berkshke, 19n, 34, 72,227n Berne, Mr. 168 Beswick, Francis Edward, O.S.B., 110n "Betty", 1 70 Beylot, Abbe, 78 Biddestone, Wilts., 51n, 52n Bkch, Mrs, 208 Bkd, Major, 86n, 222 Bkd, Mrs, 64 Bkdsall, Rev. John Augustine, O.S.B., 50, 61, 68n, 72, 80n, 87, 167n, 184,204,209 Bkkett, Dr. 228 Bkkett, Mrs, 224 Bkmingham, 207, 215, 217, 233, 236 Bkmingham, Mr & Mrs, 216, 217 Bishop, Charles, 108 Bishop, Mrs Elizabeth, 108 Bishop, Rev. Francis, 108 Bishop, John, 3n, 23n, 27n Bitton, Glos., 75n "Black Hopperkin", see "Hopperkin" Bladwell, - (Mason), 223 Blanchard, Abbe, 78 Blandford, Dorset, 228 Blount, Lady (1818), 233 Blount, Martha, 92 Blount, Mrs, 74 Blundell family (of Crosby), 216 Blundell, Charles Robert, 216(?) & n, 217(?) Blundell, Miss, * 131, 207, 209, 211, 214, 218, 221, 223, 225, 232, 235, 236 Blundell, Mr, 216-7 Blundell, Mrs,¡ 206-11,215,218,224-5, 227-9,231-3,235 Boardman, Mrs, 58, 170 Bodenham,John, 133,134 Bodenham, Mr, 116, 117 Body, John, 3 Body, Mrs, 3 Boisdefure, Abbe de, 227, 232 Bolton, Anselm, O.S.B., 72n, 137 Bond, Mr, 215 Bonham, Som., 206n Bonner, Bishop Edmund, 1, 13, 14 Booth, Lady (Elizabeth) nee Warburton (wife of Sir William Booth), 28-9 Booth, George, 29n


INDEX Booth, Sir George, 1st Bart., 29n; 2nd Bart. & 1st Baron Delamere" 34 Booth, Henry, 2nd Baron Delamere (later Earl of Warrington), 29n Booth, Sir William, 29n Borley, Essex, 43 Bosgrave, James, 21 Bostock, Dr Richard, 49 Bourne, Bishop Gilbert, 1-2,6Bournford etc ., see Burnford Bowes (or Lane), Rev. Robert, 72 Bowman, Charles, 206 Box, Wilts., 40,60, 75n Boyce, Mrs Elizabeth, 99 Boyce, William, 99, roo Bracy, Mr, 116, 117 (& son) Bradford, Mrs, 211 Bradford, Yorks., 86n Bradford-on-Avon, Wilts., 55n, 60, 75n, 189 Bradley, Mr, 238 Bradley, William (the "Yorkshire Giant"), 238 Bradshaw, Bernard, O.S.B., 56-8, 61, 113-30, 137, 139-67, 171 & n, 176 Braham, John, 233 Bramston, Rev. Thomas, 33n Breen, see Brun Brennen, Mrs, 236 Brett family, 18, 30n, 32 Brett, Robert, S.J., 32n Bretton, Mrs, 207, 226 Brewer, John, S.J., 60n, 107n Brewer, John Bede, O.S.B., 6On, 66-70, 105, 106, 107n, 172, 176, 178-81, 184, 198-9, 216, 227-9, 234n, 235, 237 Brewer, Miss, 215 Briant, Alexander, S.J., 21. See also Parsons Brickle (?Buckle), Miss, 237 Bridgewater, Rev. John, 3 & nn Bridgwater, Som., 86n, 108, 213 Brindle. Rev. Thomas, 81-7, 93-4, 96, 200-1, 203-7, 211, 213, 215,218, 221, 223, 225, 226, 228-30, 232, 234 Bristol,S, 24, 41, 55n, 59,64, 73n, 76, 77, 79n, 90, 97n, 169 &" n, 188, 195, 214, 217, 233, 234 Bristol, Clifton, 79n, 90, 97, 233 Broadway, Worcs., 167n Brockholes, Joseph, 106 Brookes, Mr, 120, 121 Brown(e), Betty (& mother), 226, 231 Brown, Lady (1758), 168 Brown(e), Miss, 228 Brown(e), Mr,路 202, 210, 233, 235 Brown(e), Mrs,路 218, 226, 231, 234

243

Brown, Bishop Thomas Joseph, O.S.B., 85n, 90 Brown, William Ambrose, O.S.B., 55, 113, 114 Browne, Robert (Rev.), 9n Bruce, Miss (?), 205 Bruges,73 Brun,(?Breen), Miss, 207 Bruning, Francis, O.S.B., 55 Bruning, Richard Placid, O.S.B., 55n Brussels, 49, 212 Brympton, Som., 21 Bucer, Martin, 23n Buckland, Berks., 72 Buckle, see Brickle Burck, see Burke Burford, see Burnford Burges, D. (Rev.), 224 Burgess, Bishop Thomas, 88, 93 & n, 94-7, 234 Burghley, see Cecil Burke, Helen, 135, 136 Burke, Mrs, 路 135, 136, 231 Burke, Thomas, 219 Burney, Fanny (Mme. D'Arblay), 69 Burnford, Gilbert, 2n Burton Constable, Yorks., 77n Busell, Mrs, 196 Butler, Lady Eleanor, 205n Butler, Mrs Elizabeth (wife of Robert Butler),231 Butler, James, 108 Butler, John, 68, 190, 198-9 Butler, Lady (1817), 218 Butler, Mr,路 138, 209, 218-20, 224-5 Butler, Mrs, * 74n, 205-6 , 212, 218-21 , 223-6,228-33, 235 Byfleet family, 32n Byrne, see Berne Cadeby, Leics., 131 Calaghan, Dennis, 205, 226. See also Callighan; O'Callighan Calderbank, James, O.S.B., 72, 81, 83n , 208,216-7,227-8,237 Caldwell, J., 188 Callighan, Frederic, 233 . See also Calaghan Cambrai, 49, 203n Cambridge, 16, 23n Cambridgeshire, 11, 16, 23n, 61n, 63, 223n Camden, Marquis of, see Pratt Camerton, Som., 69, 75n, 77,82, 108 Campion, Edmund, S.J., 9n, 15,22 Canford, Dorset, 228n Canning, Mrs Mary Eugenia, nee Blount (widow of Charles Stonor; wife of Thomas Canning), 66n Canning, Thomas, 66n, 108


244

INDEX

Cannington, Som., 79n, 178n, 213-4 Canterbury Province, lOn, 22 Capel, Rev. Giles, 3n Cardiff, 76 Carew, Anthony, 39n, 40 Carew, Miss, 23 3 Carey(?), G., 218. See also Cary Carne family, 36n, 39-41,45-6,47 Carne, Mrs Anne (wife of Francis Carne), 41n, 99-101 Carne, Berkeley, 36n, 39-40 Carne, Edward, 41 n, 100-1 Carne, Sir Edward, 15 Carne, Mrs Elizabeth, nee Speke (wife of Berkeley Carne), 36n, 39n Carne, Francis, 41, 45, 46, 48, 54, 99-101 Carne, Mary; see Guest Carne, Mrs Mary (wife of Francis Carne),41n Crurrin~on, Lady, 48 CrurroIf, Bishop John, 110 Carteret, Francis Joseph, O.S.B., 138-9, 171, 178-80 Carteret, Philip, S.J ., 73n Cartwright, Thomas (Rev.), 23n Caru, see Carew Cary, Edward, 222 Cary, Miss, 203-7, 210-15, 218-21, 223-6,229-35, 237 Cary, Mr, * 105, 195, 218, 230 Cary, Mrs, 123; Hon. Mrs, 132,133 Cary, Mrs Sophia, 213 Cary, Stanley, 222 Castle Eden, Co. Durham, 238-9 Catalini, Angelica, 81 Catterall, Alexander Benedict, D.S.B., 110n Causer, Benedict, D.S.B., lIOn Cavern, Mrs, 113, 114 Cawser, see Causer Cecil, Sir Robert, Earl of Salisbury, 24, 33 Cecil, Thomas, 2nd Lord Burghley, 12 Cecil, William, 1st Lord Burghley, 7, 12, 13n, 50 Chabran, Mr, 120, 121 Challoner, Bishop Richard, 63, 227n Chalmers, Miss, 238 Chamberlayne, William, 197 Champneys, George, 9 Chandos, Duchess of (1777), 106 Chapman family, 56n Chapman, Henry, 36n Chapman, John, 185, 186, 190-1 Chapman, Rev. John, 21 Chapman, Robert, 37 Chapman, Walter (Rev.), 55n, 60n "Chapman, William, D.F.M.," 55 Charles I, 30

Charles II, 35-9, 42 Charlotte, Princess, 211n, 212 Charlotte, Queen, 211 & n, 219 Cheam, Surrey, 62, 112, 182 Cheltenham, Glos., 60, 72, 204n, 209 Chemite, Rev. Antony, 77n Cheney, see Cheyney Cheney Court, Wilts., 40 Chepstow, Mon ., 79n Cheshire, 10, 15, 17, 29-30, 209, 217 Chester, 15, 17 Chetwynd, Mrs Sarah, 74, 108 Chewton, Som., 7,43 Cheyney, Richard (Bishop), 5n Chichester, John,¡ 57, 106, 129-31, 133-6 Chichester, Mr, 128 Chichester, Mrs, * 130, 168 Chichester, Mrs (wife of John Chichester), 57, 130, 133-5 Chideock, Dorset, 30 Chillington, Staffs., 12 Chippenham, Wilts .. 65 Chipping Sodbury, Glos., 75n, 84, 228 Cholm(e)ley family, 33 Cholmeley, Mr, 237 Church, Mrs Ann (wife of James Church), 108 Churchyard, Thomas, 12-15, 16 Clare, John, S.J., 33 Clarence, Duke of; see William IV Clark, Thomas, 74-5 dark(e), see Clerke daughton, Lanes., 216 daveson, Mr, 115 dement, Thomas, 9 Clement, William (Rev.), 9n Clerke, Henry, 16 Cliborne, Richard, 11 Clifford, Mrs Appollonia, nee Langdale (wife of Hon. Hugh Clifford), 61 Clifford, Edward, 237-8 Clifford, Edward Augustine, D.S.B., 238n Clifford, Hugh, 61; Hugo (?Hugh Charles, later 8th Baron), 238 Clifford, Lady (1749), 49n; (1750), 118,119 difford, Lord (1st Baron), 37; (1749), 49n; (7th & 8th Barons), 238n Clifford, Mrs, 74 Clifford, Thomas,. 106 Clifford, Thomas Hugh, 77 Clifford, Bishop William Joseph Hugh, 97n difton, see Bristol Clifton, John, 209, 227 Clifton, Mrs, 230, 233 Clifton, Mrs (wife of John Clifton), 209, 225


INDEX Coalman, Mr, 196 Coates, Robert ("Romeo"), 220 Coesneau"see Quyneo Coleman, see Coalman Colgrave, Mr, 168 Colleton, Alice, 20 Colleton, Rev. John, 20-21 Collingridge, Bishop Peter Bernardine, O.F.M., 78-9, 84, 92-3, 213-4, 219, 221 & n, 223, 225,226, 234-6 Collings, Mrs, 59, 167 Combes, Mrs Margaret (wife of Henry Combes), 36n Compton Pauncefoot, Som., 19n Connolly, Charles, 90, 209, 231-2 (servant of), 232, 233 (servant-maid of) Connolly, Miss, 220 Connolly, Mr, 214, 220-3, 231 Connolly, Mrs, 232 Conquest, Mr, 124 Constable, Francis, 80 Constable, William Maxwell, 105 Cook, Mrs Hester (wife of Henry Cook), 39n Cooke, Mr, 234 Coombs family, 69, 77n Coombs, Rev. William, 70n, 74, 77, 108, 205, 206, 211, 213, 221, 223-5 Coombs, Rev. William Henry, D.O. (Dr Coombs), 70n, 231 Coopeau, see J oly Cooper, Lewis Francis, O.S.B., 215n Cooper, Mr, 215 Cooper, Mrs, 218-9 Cooper, Ralph Maurus, O.S.B., 84-7, 89 Copsell, see Capel Corbin, Mrs, 211, 213, 218-9 Corby, Mr, 168 Cornwall, 34, 90, 95n, 98n Cornwallis, Sir Thomas, 12n Corri, Signora, 233 Corsham, Wilts., 205 Cosby, see Crosby Cottell, see Cottle Cottington family, 3n, 54 Cottington, Dorothy(?), 39n, 40, 240 Cottington, Edward, S.J. 3n Cottington, Canon James, 3n Cottle, Mr, 68, 196 Cotton, George, 11 Cotton, Mr, 115, 116 Coughton, Warwicks., 6n, 176, 217 Coupe,Mr,237 Coupe, Thomas Jerome, O.S.B., 182, 237(?) Coventry, 223 Cowdray, Sussex, 53n

245

Cowley, William Gregory, O.S.B., 72n, 181 & n Cratford, Rev. Edward, 3 Creech (or Crick), Mr, 118, 119 Crockford, see Cratford Croft, Mrs, 212 Crombleholme, Bro. John, O.S.B., 110n Crompton, Joshua, 237n Crook, Simon, 185 Crosby, Lancs., 208, 216-7 Crosby, Mr (J.I?), 234 Crosby, Mrs (& "Madam"),· 221, 230 Croskell, Rev. William, 239 Cross, Nicholas, O.F.M., 42 Croston, Lancs., 135 Crouch, Mrs, 213, 225 Crowe, Rev. J.F., 89 Cumberlege, John Benedict, O.S.B., 54, 55n Cummin, Rev. Thomas, 89 Curson(s), Mrs, 136 Curson, Mrs Catherine, 137 curtis, Mr & Mrs, 168 Dakins, John, O.S.B., 54 Daley, see Dayley, Dealy Dalton,family, 213 Dalton, Mrs Bridget, nee More (wife of Dr Robert Dalton), 73, 108 Dalton, John, 210,212,218,227, 231, 239 Dalton, Mr, 219, 224, 230-2 Dalton, Mrs, 224, 230-4, 236 Dalton, Mrs (wife of John Dalton), 210, 214, 219, 235 Dalton, Dr Robert, 73 Dalton, William, 73 Daniel, Thomas, 137, 138. See also Simpson, John Benedict Darrell, John, 136 Darrell, Mr, 137 Davis, Elizabeth, 108 Davis, George Joseph, O.S.B., 200-1 Davy, Mrs Sarah (wife of Thomas Davy),101 Dawes, John, 9n Day, Mr, * 106,202, 204, 207, 210-15, 222,226,234 Day, Mrs, 212 Day, Samuel,· 77n, 203 Day, Samuel Bede, O.S.B., 215n Day, Susanna, 108 Day, Mrs Susanna, 205 Day, Thomas, 202 Day, Thomas (of Englishcombe), 77, 108 Day, Thomas (of Forscote), 77, 109 Day, William, 76, 108 Dayly, Mrs, 124, 125 De Beaurepaire, see Beaurepaire


246

INDEX

Dealy, Cornelius, 203 Dealy, Miss, 224 Deday, James Benedict, O.S.B., 87 De Kermel, see Kermel Delamere, 1st & 2nd Barons, see Booth Denie, John Baptist, 108 Denie, Miss, 212 Denie, Mr, 203, 210, 212, 218, 222, 226, 228, 229, 231 Denie, Mrs, 218 De Sommery, see Sommery Dessaux, Rev. Romain, 77n Deverall, Miss (Catholic schoolmistress), 81 Devizes, Wilts., 69, 189 Devon, 9n, 30, 32, 34, 90, 95n, 131, 135,209n,228n Dicconson family, 67 Dicconson, William, 105 Dieulouard (St Laurence's Priory), Lorraine, 178n, 181n, 182. See also Ampleforth Digby, William Jerome, O.S.B., 70-71 Dillon, Henry, 108 Dillon, Mrs, 113, 114 Dixon, Miss (Catholic school-mistress), 81 Dolton, Philippa, 36n Dominic, see Clare Dormer, Lord, 120, 128, 129-32 Dormer, Mr,* 115,118,120,128,129, 130 Dorset, 8n, 9n, 21, 26n, 27n, 30, 32, 51, 74, 90, 98, 100, 228, 229n Douai, English College, 3,49, 7On. See also Rheims Douai, St Gregory's, 54, 56n, See also Downside Douane (Matthew?), 168 Doughty, Mrs (& son & daughter), 13 5, 136 Douglass, Bishop John, 227 Dourlians, Abbe Louis, 78, 214, 221, 222, 225,229, 235 Dowding, John, 179 Dowding, Mr, 227 Dowling, Mr, * 105, 107 Dowling, Nicholas, 108 Downside, Som., 72n, 77, 85n, 90, 92-4, 96, 110, 213n, 222, 224, 226-7, 230, 232 & n, 233, 236, 237. See also Douai, St Gregory's Droitwich, Worcs., 217 Dryden, John, 51 Duhane, see Douane Dullcan, Mr, 221 Dundas, Miss, 235 Dunham Massey, Cheshire, 29 Dunkerton, Som., 60 Dunster, Som., 22

Durham (city), 238-9 Durham (county), 33, 86n, 238-9 Duviviers (or Walters or Waters), James Placid, O.S .B., 60n, 180, 182 East Harptree, Som., 59, 75n, 141 Easton Grey, Wilts., 56 Eaton, Reginald, S.J., 16, 21(?) Eccles, Thomas, O.F.M., 72n, US, 136 Eccleston, Mrs, 116, 117 Ecclestone, Eliza, 233 Ecclestone, Kitty, 233 Eddrington, Ambrose (Rev.), Sn Edward VI, 2, 6 Edwards, Eliza, 232 Edwards, Mrs, 235 Elizabeth I, 7, 1 7 Elizabeth, Princess, 211n, 219 Elliot, Mr, 136, 137 Elliott, Nathaniel, S.J., 73n Ellis, Bishop Philip Michael, O.S.B., 44 Elloy, Rev. Dr, 236 Elton, Sir Abraham, 195 Englefield family, 49 Englefield, Charles, 131, 134 Englefield, Sir Henry, 49n Englefield, Mr, 125, 126, 129, 130-3, 135 English, "Edd", 219 English, Edmund, 108 English, J., 207, 211, 219 English, John, 205, 234 English, Miss, 219 English, Mr, 228 English, Mrs, 23 3 English, Mrs (wife of John English), 234 English, William Orchard, 228 Englishcombe, Som., 9, 62, 108,215 Ennis, Mrs, 205 Ensay, Mr, 222 Ensay, Mrs, 225, 232 Errington, Archbishop George, 90n, 97. See also Stapleton Esmond(e}, Lucy, 215, 221, 223,224, 227, 229(?), 230(?), 240 Essex, 7, 40, 43 Eton College, 23n Evans, Mrs Anne, 46 Evans, Mary, 46 Evelyn, John, 35n Everton, Lanes., 216 Evesham, Worcs., 215 Ewens family, 32 Ewens, Maurice, S.1-, 32n Eyre, Mr, 106 Eyston, Charles John, 212 Eyston, Miss (Mary Theresa?), 222 & n Eyston, Mr, 200-1, 210-11, 213, 224 Eyston, Mrs, 211,218,224


INDEX Fa~us, Paul, 23n Fairfax family, 49, 72n, 137n Fairfax, Hon. Charles Gregory, 55n Fairfax, Mrs Elizabeth. 5 5 Fairfax, Lord (1769), 13 7, 138 Fairfax, Miss, 137 Fairfax' (o r Harvy), Mrs (Mary?), 124, 125, 126, 127, 129, 130, 159 Fairford, Glos., 75n Falmouth, Cornwall, 95n Fame Islands, 238 Farrell, Garrett, 107 Fasana, - , 229 Feckenham, Abbot John, O.S.B., 17-18, 23n Fenn, Rev. James, 8, 19n, 21 Fenn, Rev, John, 3 Fenwick, Mrs Anne, 63,135,137 Feraud, Charles Ambrose, O.S.B., 222-3 Ferdinand II, Emperor, 29 Feria, Don Gomez Suarez de Figueroa, Count (later Duke) of, 2 Feria, Jane Dormer, Duchess of, 7 Ferrers family, 206, 226, 239 Ferrers, Fanny, 207, 211, 219, 222, 228, 229,234 Ferrers, Major, 203-4, 206, 214, 229 Ferrers, Miss,· 74, 206-7, 211, 213, 218-9, 222, 228 Ferrers, Mr, 229 Ferrers, Mrs, 202-4, 206, 210-14, 218-21,223,227-36 Field, Mr, 219 Fielding, Sir John, 195 Finch, Bishop William, 2n Fingal, Lord, 224 Fingall, Henrietta Maria, 223 Fisher, John, O.S.B., 181n Fisher, Thomas Wilfred, O.S.B., 207, 208,215 Fitzgerald, Bridget Ann, Lady (wife of Sir James Fitzgerald), 73, 108 Fitzgerald, Sir, J., 204n Fitzgerald, Lady, 204 & n, 218, 224, 226, 228-30, 232-5 Fitzgerald, Mrs, 203, 204, 219, 235 Fitzherbert family, 49, 77 Fitzherbert, Thomas, 105 Fitzjames family, 18,21n Fitzjames, Archdeacon John, 4n Fitzjames, Nicholas, O.S.B., 21, 31 Flanders, 14 Flemin¥, Miss C., 202 Flemmmg, Nicholas, 168 Flin, Mrs, 203, 210 (brother) Flintshire, 52 Fludd, Evan, 11 Foljambe, see Fitzjames, Archdeacon Fonthill Gifford, Wilts., 54, 55n Fordyce, Mrs, 211

247

Forscote, Som., 77, 109 Fort Augustus, Scotland, 167n r.0rtescue:, Sir Francis, 61n Foxcote , Som., see Forscote Frampton family, 52n Frampton, Mary, 51, 240 France, 74, 239 Fraser, Mr, 215 Fraser, Mrs, 215, 225 Frederick V, Elector Palatine, 29 Frederick, Prince of Wales, 49 Freeman William, 100 French emigres, 77-8 French, Fanny, 226 French, Miss, 202-4 Freshford, Som., 75n Friars, Mrs, 168. See also Fryer Frome, Somerset, 36,64, 77n Fryer family, 218n Fryer, J., 218n Fryer, Miss, 218, 221 Fryer, Mr,· 221, 231, 233 Fryer, Mrs, 218 Fryer, Rev. Mr, 230 Furlong, Rev. Moses (Rosminian), 95 Furnace, Mr, 123 Gabet, Miss,· 233 Gage, Mrs Anne(?), 238. See also Anne Gage, Miss, 238 Gage, Mr, 238 Gainsford, - (artist), 88 Gainsford, Mr (of Sheffield), 236 Garden, Sarah, 206 Garland, Mrs (servant of), 224 Garstang, William Dunstan, O.S.B., 183 Gartside, Mrs Catherine (wife of John Gartside), 108,212, 225 Gascoigne, Sir Thomas, 56n Gatehouse prison, 33 Geary, John Anselm, O.S.B., 56-7, 67 Geddes, Rev. Alexander, 227 Gennings, Rev. Edmund, 25 Gentil, Mrs, 13 3-5 Gentili, Rev. Luigi, 94-5 "George" (Countess of Leicester's servant), 113, 114 George III, 211n, 214 George IV, 212n Gerard, John, S.J., 22. See also Gerrard Gerningham, see J erningham Gerrard, John, 217 Gerrard, Mrs (wife of John Gerrard), 217 Gerrard, William, 8 & n3 i Gibbons, Rev. Andrew, 3 Gibbons, John, S.J., 3 Gibbons, Mrs, 3 Gibbons, Richard, S.J., 3 Gibbs, Thomas, 39n


248

INDEX

Gibson, Miss,¡ 211,' 223, 226-30, 238 Gibson, Mrs Mary, 223 Gibson, Bishop William, 238-9 Giffard family, 12 Giffard, Bishop Bonaventure, 44, 50 Giffard, John, 12 Giffard, Mrs, 66 Gifford (?), Mr, 233 Gillibrand, Richard, S.J., 61n, 125-6(?) Gillibrand, William, S.J., 125-6(?) Gilling, Yorks., 72n, 137n Gillow, Rev. John, 239 Glamorgan, 14, 107n Gloucester, 5n, 20, 92, 195 Gloucestershire, 5 & n, 20, 24, 25n, 32, 36n, 41, 49, 55n, 59, 60, 64, 72, 73n, 75n, 76, 77, 79n, 84, 90,97n, 131, 169 & n, 180n, 182, 188, 195, 204n, 209, 214,217, 228,233, 234 Glover, Edward, O.S.B ., 207, 208n, 215, 217(?), 223(?), 226-9 Glover, Vincent Joseph, O.S.B., 203, 208n, 215, 217(?), 223(?) Godsalf, Rev. George, 4 Godwin, Ignatius, S.J., 32 Godwin, Thomas (Bishop), 18, 19 & n, 22 Goldie, Dr George, 238 Good, William, S.J., 2-3, 3n Gooderick, Miss, 218, 220 Gordon Riots, 60, 62, 66, 67-70, 111, 184-99 Gore, Lord (1706), 48 Gradell (? Gradwell), Mr, 123 Grafton, Worcs., 11 Grant, Mr, 187 Grantham, Lord (1706), 48 Granville, Lord (1706), 48 Gravelines, 49 Gready, Mrs, 168 Green, Miss, 215 Greenway, Mother Mary Scholastica, O.S.B., 178 Grey, Lady Jane, 17 Grey, Mrs, 176 Griffith, Dr John, 33n Griffith, Mrs Lucina (wife of Thomas Griffith), 39n Griffith, Mrs Mabel (or Mabella), 33n Griffith, Thomas, 39nn Grig, Mrs, 13 8 Grove (or Winscomb), Mrs Martha, 51 Guest, Mrs Mary, nee Carne (wife of Richard Guest), 39n, 41, 101 Guilimi, Mrs, 120, 121 Gunpowder Plot, 33 Guttery (or Guthery), Mr, 118, 119 Hacket(t), Mrs,¡ 204,206, 214-5,218-9 Haggerston, Sir Carnaby, 58, 115

Haggerston, Lady, 116 Hales, John (Rev.), 28n Hall, Giles, 76, 109. See also Robinson & Hall Hambley, Rev. John, 21 Hammersmith, 226 Hampshire, 11, 14, 31n, 32, 105,228n Hampstead Norris, Berks., 19n Handford, B., 181, 182 Handford, Mrs, 105 Hardland, Miss, 124, 125 Harford, Mr, 194 Harington, Sir John, 6, 9,22, 25n Harold, Edmund John, 178. See also Harrold Harold, Elizabeth, 178 Harold, Mr & Mrs (parents of Edmund John & Elizabeth Harold), 178 Harold, Mrs (grandmother of Edmund John & Elizabeth Harold), 178 Harp sfield , Archdeacon John, 17 Harpsfield, Archdeacon Nicholas, 14, 17 Harris, E, 221n Harris,Mr,205,227 Harris, Mrs, 218, 225 Harris, Richard, O.S.B., lIOn Harris, W, 227n Harrison, Mrs Kitty, 208 Harrison, Mr (Husband of Kitty), 208 Harrold, Edward (& wife & son), 135, 136. See also Harold Hart, Rev. William, 3 Hartlepool, Co. Durham, 238, 239 Hartsinck, C., 203n Hartzinck, Mrs, 74, 203, 206, 210, 213, 218-20, 232, 235 Harvey, or Harvy, Mrs (Mary?), see Fairfax Haviland, Mr, 143 Hawarden, Joseph Bernard, ex-O.S.B., llOn, 206 & n, 213, 229, 232-3 Hawley, Lawrence, O.F.M., 233n Hay,Mr, 222, 235 Hay & Phinn, Messrs., 222n Hazelbury, Wilts., 40 Heal, Hannah, 77n Heath (& Hall), Yorks., 236-7 Heatley, Hugh Jerome, O.S.B., 71-2, 76,108,112 Hellier, Amelia, 108 Henbury, Glos., 5n Hendren, Bishop Joseph William, O.F.M., 90, 96-7 Heneage, John, 63, 130 Heneage, Mrs (wife of Windsor Heneage), 63 Heneage, Windsor, 63, 131, 132 Henkin,Mr, 113,114 Henty, Mrs, 223, 224(?)


INDEX Henwick, Berks., 34n Herefordshire, 90 Hertfordshire, 96, 239 "Hetty", 139 Hewghes, see Huishe Hewse, Thomas, 9n Hibdin, Mr, 207 Hickes, Walter, 37-8 Higginson, Mr, 237 Higman, B.(?), 222 Hillsborough, Wills Hill, 1st Earl of, 184-98 Hinton Charterhouse, Som., 9, 206n Hippisley, Ann, 76n Hippisley, "Mrs" Ann, 82, 84, 204 Hippisley, Mrs" 206, 211, 214 Hippisley, William, 76n Hockley, John & wife, 36n Hodchin (or Hotchin), Mr, 118, 119 Hodson, widow, 21 Hoghton, Thomas, 12, 13n Hoghton Tower, Lancs., 12 Holderness, Peter Dunstan, O.S.B., 182 Holford, Mrs (? Messrs.), 170 Holford, Peter, 132 Holman, Mr, 61n Holme-on-Spalding Moor, Yorks., 61n Holroyd, Mrs, 220 Holt, Wilts., 75n Holywell, Flints., 52 Hook, Yorks., 219 "Hopperkin",77 Horagan, see Horrigan Hornby, -, 41 Hornyold family, 67 Hornyold, Mr, 106 Horrigan, Miss (Catholic schoolmistress), 89 Horton, Glos., 36n, 49, 59-60, 75n, 84, 131, 180n, 182 Horton, Mr, 194-5 Hoskins, Ralph, S.J., 73n Hotchin. see Hodchin Hotham, Miss,· 202,204-6, 212-4, 220, 227, 232, 234, 235 Hotham, Sir W., 202n Hothersall, Mrs, 58, 140, 141, 143, 145, 147-54, 157-9, 161-3, 165-7, 169 Houghton-Ie-Spring, Co. Durham, 86n Howard (of Corby), family, 212n Howard, john Placid, O.S.B., 116, 118, 119, 121-2, 127, 134-5, 137, 142, 146-7,149,151,153,156 Howard, Abbess Mary Agnes (Anne), 128 Howard, Philip, 107 Howe, Mr, 227 Huddleston, Mrs jane, 63 Huddleston, John, O.S.B., 42, 53n

249

Hughes, john, S.j., 217(?). See also Hewse, Huishe Huishe, Sylvester, 9n Humble(s), Miss" 205, 211, 219 Hunlock, Sir Henry, 105 Hunt, Mr, 229, 230 Hussey family, 45, 49,51-2,215 Hussey, Edward, O.S.B., 165n Hussey, George, 51 Hussey, Giles, 51, 165n Hussey, Hubert john, 229 Hussey, john, 51,98-9 Hussey, Miss, 221 Hussey, Mr,· 165, 205,206,221, 229, 233 Hussey, Mrs,· 212, 221, 225, 230-1, 233, 234 Hussey, William, 11 Hutton, Rev. Peter (Rosminian), 95 Huysshe, see Huishe Hyde, Anne, Duchess of York, 43 Hyde, Lord (1706), 48 Hyde, Maria, 205 Hyde, Miss,· 203, 214, 218 Hyde, Miss M., 202, 204 Hyde, Mrs" 127, 128, 203, 213, 214, 219,228 "Iacobyen", 14 Ilchester, Som., 21, 39, 192 Ince Blundell, Lancs., 208, 216-7 Inglefield, see Engelfield "lnglesbatch", see Englishcombe Ireland, Irish etc., 22, 27, 67, 74, 76, 77, 80, 235 Irvine, Miss, 232 Irvine, Mrs, 232 Isham family, 22 Jacobitism, 44-5, 47-8, 54, 55 Jadoul, Mrs Ann (wife of james jadoul, sen.),77n Jadoul, james, sen. & jun., 77n James II, 37,42-4,48, 53 James Francis Edward Stuart, Prince of Wales, 43, 47 Jedoull, see jadoul Jefferys, john, 186, 191-5, 197 Jenison, james, S.j., 73 Jenkins, Mr,· 205, 236 Jenkins, Mr (Catholic schoolmaster), 81 Jenkins, john jerome, O.S.B., 84n, 89, 236n Jemingham family, 49, 61n Jerningham, Lady (wife of Sir William Jerningham), 74; (1747), 142 Jervis, Mrs Martha, 111-2 Jewel, john (Bishop), 15n "John" (Sir Edward Smythe's butler), 124


250

INDEX

Jones, Mr,· 123, 127, 128 Jolly, see Joly Joly (or Jolie), Mr, 187, 190 Joly (or Jolie), Mrs, nee Coopeau, 187 Jones, Philip (& wife & sister), 136, 137 Joye, Mrs, 168 Kaye, John, 208, 216 Kaye, Mrs, 226 Kellet, Robert Augustine, O.S.B., 110n Kelston, Som., 75n, 101n, 104 Kemish, Mrs Katherine, 36n, See also Sloper Ken, Thomas (Bishop), 42 Kendal, Westmorland, 5 Kendal, John, 106 Kendal, Peter, O.S.B., 61 Kenilworth, Warwicks., 17 Kennion, Mrs Susanna, 45 Kennion, Thomas, 45, 51n Kent, Mr, 215 Kenyon, see Kennion Kermel"Rev. Maurice de, 77n Kerne, see Carne Kew, Nathaniel, 101 Keynes family, 18,21-2, 30n, 32 Keynes, Alexander, 35n Keynes, Edward, 19n, 27n Keynes, Edward, S.J., 32n Keynes, George, jun., S.J., 32n Keynes, John, S.J., 32n Keynes, Mrs Katherine, nee Knowell (wife of Edward Keynes), 19n, 27n Keynes, Maurice, S.J., 32n Keynsham, Som., 4, 9 Kierwan, John, 105 Kilvington, Yorks., 237 King, Edward, 86 King, George, 195 King, Mrs, 219-20 Kircombe, John, 39n Kirk, Rev. John, 239 Kirkby, Lanes., 208 Knap(p) family, 202n Knap(p), Mr, 202-5, 210-11, 213-5, 218-9,221,223,229,230,232,234 Knap(p), Mrs, 212, 218, 223 Knaresborough, Yorks., 222n Knight, Dr (? James), 236 & n Knight & Davies (chemists), 213 Knipe, William, 49n Knolle, Knotte, see Knowell Knowell family, 27n, 32n Knowell, Edward, 27 Knutsford, Cheshire, 209, 217 Kyane, Miss, 226 Lacon, Miss, 223, 226, 235 Lacon, Walter, 231

Lake, Arthur (Bishop), 28-30 Lambspring Abbey, Germany, 167 Lan cash rre , 12, 13, 14,48, 56, 58,60n, 82, 83n, 135, 141, 203n, 206-9, 211n, 215-~226,232~ 234 Lancaster family, 18, 19n Lancaster, John, 18 Lancaster, Rev. Roger, 19n Lancaster, William, 2, 23n Lane, Mrs Mary (wife of Robert Lane), 100-101. See also Bowes Langdale family, 49, 77 Langdale, Lord (1750-2), 118, 119, 121; (1777), 105 Langdale, Mr,· 116, 117, 237 Langdale, Philip, 58,133,134 Langley(?), -, 227 Langley, Benjamin, 81 Langton, family , 202n, 233 Langton, Michael Tho(?), 108 Langton, Mr,* 226,230,233 Langton, Mrs, 202-4, 207, 210-12, 214, 218-24, 230-1 Lansdown, see Bath Latham, Dr, 207 Laud, William (Archbishop), 30-1, 37 Laurenson, Mr, 214 Law, George Henry (Bishop), 85 Lawson, Dr, 238 Lawson, Henry, O.S.B., 72, 108, 204(?), 226(?) Lawson, John, 105 Lawson,Mr, 204, 210,226 Lawson, Thomas Austin, O.S.B., 204(?), 226(?), 238 Layer, Christopher, 47 Layton, Mr, 221 Le Cordiere, Abbe, 78n Lee, Miss, 226 Lee, Mrs, 124, 125. See also Leigh Leech, Mrs, 58 Leeds, 237 Leese, "Doctor"; Dr Robert, 8 & n, 23n Leicester, Margaret, Countess of, 113, 114 Leicestershrre, 131 Leigh, Dr, 222 Leigh, Mr,· 129, 130, 168, 222 Leighland, Som., 31n Leith, Mr, 128 Leopold I, King of the Belgians, 212n Leveaux, Joseph Martin, O.S.B., 78n Lewicke, John, 9 Lewis, Mr, 113, 114 Lichfield, Staffs., 50n Liege, 223n Linch, see Lynch Lincoln, Miss, 219,221,223,231 Lincoln, Mrs, 211, 219-20, 224, 235


INDEX Lisbon, Bridgettine convent (Sion House), 59, 163 Lisbon, English College,S 3n Liverpool, 82, 203n, 206-9, 211n, 215-7,226 Uewellyn, Austin, O.S.B., SOn, 54 Uoyd, Mrs, 113, 114 Uoyd, Thomas, 105. See also Fludd Loape, see Loope Loder, A.; G. ; J.D., 225n Loder, Mr, 225. See also Lowder Logan, Rev. Thomas, 94 London (and places therein), 1, 7, 14, 17-18, 21, 24n, 25, 27, 33, 38,63, 64, 65n, 66n, 6'7-8, 77, 112, 167, 183n, 184, 192, 193-5, 197n, 226 Long, Ann, 36n Long, Sir James, 36 Loope family; Anne; Joan; Roger,· 8n Lorymer, Mr, 135 Lorymer, Mrs,· 131, 13 2, 171 (with daughter & maid) Loupe, see Loope Louvain,49,228n Loveless (?Lovelass), Mrs,· 224, 226, 233,234 Lowder, J ., 221, 223(?), 229, 235-6(?). See also Loder Lulworth, Dorset, 74 Lunt, Mr, 139 Lunt, Mrs, 138, 139 Lutterell, Dr, 99 Lynch, Francis Anselm, O.S.B., 113, 114 Lynch, French, 106 Lynch, Mr,· 116, 117, 168, 223-5, Macham, -, 21 Mackenzie, Kenneth, 48, 10D-101 Macnamara, Mr & Mrs, 168 Madan, Robert, 105 Madden, Mr & Mrs, 211 Maire, Mr, 123 Maire, Mrs,· 106, 123 Mallett, Gregory, O.S.B., 50 Malpas, see Rocksavage Malpass, Mrs, 105 Malvern, Worcs., 203n Man eel, Rev. Jean Marie, 77n Manners, Cumberland William, 213n, 237(?) Manners, Mr,· 213,237 Mannock family, 67,77 Mannock, Sir Francis, 106 Mannock, Mrs, 136. See also Doughty Marest, Rev. Jean Baptiste, 228 Mansfield, 2nd Earl of, see Stormont Market Weighton, Yorks, 238n Markham, Edward, 131, 132

251

Markham, Mr,· 124, 168 Markham, Mrs, 136, 137 Marksbury, Som., 4 Marlborough, Wilts., 72n Marnhull, Dorset, 51,98, 100, 229n Marr & Cochrane, Mrs, 223, 224 Marsh, Peter, O.S.B., 110n Marshalsea prison, Southwark, 19n, 21, 24n Martin, John, O.S.B., 32 Martin (or Marten or Martyn), Mrs,· 58, 105, 138" 139, 206, 225, (mother of), 232 Martyr, Peter, 15n Marvin, Edward, 9n "Mary" (Baines's servant), 211, 218 Mary I, 1, 15, 17 Mary II, 44 Mary Beatrice of Modena, Queen, 37, 42,43 Mary, Queen of Scots, 13, 22 Massey family, 29 Massey, Mrs Anne (nee Booth), 29n Mathew, Miss, 168 Mauglen (or Mauglin), Mr' 186-7 Maunsell family, 32n Mawhood, Dorothy, 64 Mawhood, Maria, 64 Mawhood, William, 63-4 MCAvoy, Margaret, 207-8, 217, 223n McCann, Michael, 108 McDonnell, Francis, O.F.M., 78 McHugo, Anthony, 62n, 112n, 178-80 McSweeney, Rev., 235 Mede, "Edd", 212 Melen, see Melin Melfort, John Drummond, Earl of, 43 Melin, Augustine, 219-20 Melin, Mrs (wife of Augustine Melin) , 219n(?),220 Mendoza, Bernardino de, 19 Merchant Taylors School, 40 Meredith, Mr, 124, 125 Metcalf, Rev. Edward, 93 & n, 94, 219 Metcalf, Mr,· 137,218 Metcalf, Mrs, 211, 212, 223, 228, 230 Metcalf, Mrs Teresa (wife of Thomas Metcalf), 73, 108 Metcalf, William, 136 Mews, Peter (Bishop), 38 Meynel(l) family, 67, 210 Meynel(l), Mr,· 106, 210-11, 238-9 Meynel(l), Mrs,· 210, 238 Middlesex, 48 Middleton family, 33, 21 3 Middleton, Frank, 217 Middleton, Mrs (wife of Peter Middleton), 217 Middleton, Peter, 213, 21 7 Middleton, William, 1 31, 132


252

INDEX

Midford (& Midford Castle), Som., 86n, 90, 206n, 209n,232 Millsom, Daniel, 195-6 Milner, Bishop John, 207, 209, 229 Milton, Berks, 227n Milverton, Som., 20 Minns, Bro. James, O.S.B., lIOn Mitchell, Mrs, 225 Mitford, Mr & Mrs, 214 Molineux, Mr, * 125, 215, 216, 232 Molineux, Mrs, 126 Molineux, Seel, 227. See also Molyneux Molloy, Mrs, 124, 125 "Molly" (? Bell-tree servant), 143 Molyneux, John Alban, O.S.B., 209, 216(?),232n Molyneux, Lady, 1 31, 13 3 Monington, Mrs, 124, 125. See also Monnington Monmouth, Duke of, 38 Monmouthshire, 79n, 90, 135 Monnington, Miss, 106. See also Monington Montacute, Som., 8, 21 Montague, James (Bishop), 28 Moon, John, 213 Moore, Messrs., 106 Moore, Mr,¡ 217, 219 Moore, Mrs, 219, 223-5 Moore, Walter & wife, 226 Mooreton, Sarah, 99 . See also Morton More, Christopher, S.J., 73 More, Mother Mary Augustina, 73 More, Thomas, S.J., 73n Morgan, Mrs Mary, 202, 204 Morgan, Richard, 217 Morrell, Mr (Rev.), 226 Morrill, Miss, 220 Morris, Mr, 206, 227 Morris, Bishop William Placid, O.S.B., 206n(?), 213n, 222(?), 227(?), 237, 239(?) Morse, Henry, S.J., 24n Morton" Mr (?C.), 236 & n. See also Mooreton Mostyn, c., 218 Mostyn, Lady (1747), 113, 114; (1751-4), 120-4; (1777), 106 Mostyn, Miss,* 131, 132, 221 Mostyn, Mr,¡ 124, 125, 218, 221 Mostyn, Mrs, 221 Mostyn, Pierce, 116, 117 Mount Earl, Lady, 223, 224, 226 Moysey, Dr (Archdeacon), 93 Mulcraim, Mrs, 13 5, 136 Murhill, Wilts., 52 Murphy, James, 76, 108 Murphy, Mr (Catholic schoolmaster), 89 Musson, John, S.J., 72

Muttlebury, John Placid, O.S.B., 3n Nacqten, Mrs, 135, 136 Nagle, Colonel, 221 Nagle, David, 105, 107 Nagle, Joseph, 105 Nagle, Mr, * 178, 232-3 Nash, Richard ("Beau"), 48-9, 92 Naylor, John Joseph Placid, O.S.B., 57-9, 62, 63, 66, 67, 75n, 76, lIOn, 111-2, 129-39, 167-83 Nechills, William Bernard, O.S.B., 110n Needham, Mr, 176 Nether Stowey, Som., 8 Netherton, Lancs., 217 Nevell, Henry, 30n Nevill, Mrs Frances I, 30n, 36n Nevill, Mrs Frances II, 61n Newcastle-under-Lyme, Staffs., 207, 209, 215 Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 83n Newgate prison, 33 Newman, Baron, 168 Newman, Edward, 99, 101 Newport, diocese, 97 Newsham "junior" (? Rev. Charles Newsham), 239 Newton Abbot, Devon, 228n Newton St Loe, Som., 75n, lOIn, 104 Nihell, Dr, 206 Nihell, Miss, * 218, 229 Nihell, Mrs, 207, 212, 214, 218-22, 226,229, 231-33, 235 Noke, Mr, 206 Noke, Mrs, 205 Norfolk,24n Norfolk, Edward Howard, 9th Duke of 67, 105; Thomas, 8th Duke of, 47, 48, 50(?) Norfolk, Mary (nee Shireburn), Duchess of, 48, 49 Norris, Miss, 231 Northbrook(e), John (Rev.), 5 & n North Duffield, Yorks., 11 Northumberland,83n Northy, Mr & Mrs, 138 Norton St Philip, Som., 9, 45, 60, 75n Norwich,24n Nottingham, diocese, 97 Nugent, Colonel, 118 Nugent, John Burningham, 229 Nugent, Lady ("Countess"), 210, 214, ,219,223,226,235 O'Brien, Captain, 214 O'Brien, Mr, 74 O'Callighan, Dennis, 232. See also Callaghan O'Connor (or O'Conner), Mr, * 211, 230


INDEX O'Driscol, Mrs, 204 O'Flaherty, Mr, 105 Old Down, Som., 85n Old Hall Green (St Edmund's, Ware), 239 O'Neil(l), - (artist ), 83, 239 Orpwood, Mr· & Mrs,· 13 3, 134,182 Osborne, Mr, 226 Osborne; Osburne, Mrs,· 212, 218, 224 Owen, John, 124n Oxford University, 3, 24, 25 Oxfordshire, 11, 12, 34, 66 Page, J., 212 & n Palatinate, The, 28 Palmer, John, 187 Panting, John, S.J ., 84n Parfitt, Rev. Charles, 86n, 206n Parham, John, 27n Paris, 19, 62, 110-2, 128n, 178 & n, 181, 183 Parker, Henry, O.S.B., lIOn Parker, James, S.J., 216n, 217(?) Parker, Matthew (Archb ishop), 4, 5n Parker, Mr,· 117, 138, 139, 216 Parkham, Devon, 34 Parlington, Yorks., 56n Parry, Rev. Pierce, 163 Parsons, Robert I, S.J., 21, 32 Parsons, Robert II, S.J., (alias Briant or Richardson), 32 Paston family, 49, 129 Paston, Captain, 129, 130 Paston, Clement, 105, 138, 139 Past on, John, 49 Paston, Mr,· 129, 131, 132, 134-5, 182 Paston, Mrs,· 131, 132, 138, 182 Paston, Mrs (wife of William Paston), 133 Paston, Mrs Mary, 36 Paston, Will iam, 113, 114, 13'3 Pattrick, John 231 Pat(t)rick, Mr, 203, 204, 220, 220, 22930 Peach, Mr, 207 Peach, R.E.M., 111 Peel(?), Amelia Maria, 108 Pembridge, Michael, O.S.B., 67, 68n, 70,71-2 & n, 112, 178, 184 Pendrill, Mr, 113, 114 Penswick, Bishop Thomas, 216 Pepper, Mrs·, 125, 127, 168. See also Pippard Percival, Mr, 227 Perryn, Sir Richard, 70 Pepys, Samuel, 35n Persons, see Parsons Perthyre (Perthir), Mon., 135 Phelan, Mr & Mrs, 210

253

Phelps, William, 21 Philip II, of Spain, 19n Philips, Mr, 203-4, 227 Philips, Samuel Maurus, O.S.B., 227n Phillips, John, 108 Phipps, Miss, 222 Phipps, Mr, 220, 222 Phipps, Mrs,· 220, 222, 227 Phipps, Thomas, 222 Piers, William (Bishop), 31 Piggot(t), Mrs, 127, 128 Pippard, Mrs,· 118, 119, 159. See also Pepper Pitt, William, Earl of Chatham, 92 Pius V, Pope, 6n Pius IX, Pope, 97 Pleuras(?), Mr, 150 Plowden family, 72, 77 Plowden, Robert, S.J., 84n Plunket, Mrs Edgcumb, 204 Plunkett, Margaret, 108 Plunkett, Mr, 214 Plymouth diocese, 97 Poore, see Power Pope, Alexander, 48, 49, 54n, 92 Pope, James Alexius, O.S.B ., 215(?) & n, 217(?) Pope, Mr, 215 Pope, Richard, O.S.B., 215(?) & n Popham, General, 230 "Popish Plot", 35n, 37-9 Population, Bath & Catholic, 79-80 Porter, Mrs Catherine, 106 Porter, Mrs Frances, 106 Porter, John, 105 Porter, Mr,· 73, 171 Porter, Mrs, 70n Porter, Mrs (of Belmont), 106 Porter, Sir Stanier, 198 Portsmouth,228n Powel, Philip, O.S.B., 31-2 Power, John & wife, 41, 46, 99, 100 Powys, Marquis & Marchioness of, 48 Poynter, Bishop William, 78 Pratt, John Jeffreys (later Marquis of Camden), 186 Preshute, Wilts" 45 Price, James Bernard, O.S.B., 56, 113, 114 Princethorpe, Warwicks., 237n Prior Park, see Bath Priston, Som., 4, 9 Pritchard, Mr, 227 Privy Council, 10, 11, 16, 17, 18, 20, 35,44 Prynne, William, 36-7 Quin, Andrew, 212, 220(?) Quin, James, 200 Quyneo, Anne, 52,98


254

INDEX

Quyneo, Bernard, O.S.B., 52, 54 Radstock, Som., 85 Raleigh, see Rawlee "Rama" , "Ramath", etc., see Walmesley, Bishop Raphael family, 97 Raphael, Alexander, M.P., 96 Rawlee; Ann, 36n Rawlee, Elizabeth, 36n "Read" (or "Reed"), "John", 42n Reeve, Mr,· 217, 237 Reino, Mrs Ann, 203. See also Renau ReIly, James, S.J., 42n Renau, Miss, 203n Rey, Rev. Antonio (Rosminian), 94n Rheims, English College (Douai) at, 19, 24,26n Rheims, University of, 24 Rice, Alice, 134 Rice, Miss, 134 Rich, Mr, 138, 139 Richardson, Mrs, 213. See also Parsons Riddell,Miss, 203, 209, 230 Riddell, Mr, 230 Riddell, Mrs, 202-3, 213, 219, 222, 226,231 Rigby, John Bede, O.S.B., 72 Rimmer, Rev. Richard, 232, 236 Risdon, Giles, 34 Rishton, Thomas Clement, O.S.B. (& wife), 81, 213, 231 Robinson & Hall (Bath carpenters), 178-9 Robinson, Mrs Elizabeth (wife of William Robinson), 108 Robinson, Henry, 225n Robinson, John, 106 Robinson, Martha, 108 Robinson, Miss, 207, 209 Robinson, Mr, 106, 210, 219, 225 Robinson, Mrs, 225 Robinson, Thomas Gregory, O.S.B., 82, 207-9, 210(?), 211, 214-6, 219(?) Robinson, William, 76, 107 Rocksavage, George James, Earl of (& wife),209 Rodborough, Glos., 209 Rolling, Thomas Augustine, O.S.B., 81, 222 Rome, 15, 26n, 75, 79n, 95-7 Rome, English College, 27, 90 Roney, de, see Rounsey Rooker, Rev. Thomas, 93 & n, 94, 97, 237(?) Rose family (of York), 238 Rosminians (Fathers of Charity), 94-5. See also Sisters of Providence Rounsey, Mme. de, 232

Rowe family, 30,n132 Rowe, John, 132, 133 Rowe, Mrs (?), 30n Rudderham, Bishop Joseph, 91 n Rutland, Lady (1605), 25n Ryan, Daniel,· 108, 213 Ryan, Mr, 210-12 Sadler, Theodore, 39n Salford (Hall?), Warwicks., 215 Saltford, Som., 4 Salisbury, 15n, 16, 106 Salisbury, first Earl of, see Cecil, Robert Saltmarsh family, 77 Salvin, Miss, 238 Sandford, Miss, 235 Sandford Orcas, Dorset, 27n Saunders, Mr, 185 Sawston, Cambs., 61n, 223n Sayer, Miss, 134, 135 Scandinavia, 3 Scarisbrick, Mrs, 123 Scarisbrick, William, 133, 134 Scot, Bishop Cuthbert, 17 Scro(o)pe, Kitty, 239 Scro(o)pe, Simon(?), 239 Scudamore, John, S.J., 73,169 & n(?) Scudamore, Mr, 169 Seaforth, Lady, 48 Segar, Mrs, 61 n Selby, Harriet, 226 Selby, Marie, 211, 214, 231, 237 Selby, Mrs,· 237, 238 Selby, Mrs (wife of Walter Selby), 217 Selby, Sister Placida, 226n Selby, Ralph, 237 Selby, Walter, 217 Selby, William, 225 Semley, Wilts., 49n Senior (Rev.) & wife, 232-3 Seymour, Hobart (Rev.), 85 Shann, Austin, O.S.B., 89n Sharrock, Bishop Gregory, O.S.B., 71, 72n, 78-9 Sharrock, John Dunstan, O.S.B., 181-2 Shaw, Miss, 20 Shaw, Ralph Maurus, O.S.B., 110n Sheffield, 221n, 223, 232, 237 Sheldon family, 72 Sheldon, Mr, 168 Sheldon, Mrs, 114, 115 Sheldon, William, 114, 115 Sheppard, Joyce,46 Shepton Mallet, Som., 59, 70n, 84n, 107n, 192, 231 Sherstone, John, 16 Sherwood, Mrs Anne, nee Morse (wife of Dr John Sherwood II) 24n Sherwood, Elizabeth, 26n


INDEX Sherwood, Mrs Elizabeth, nee Tregian (wife of Henry Sherwood I), 24n, 2 5, 26n Sherwood, Henry I, 24n, 26n Sherwood, Henry II, 27n Sherwood, Rev. Henry, 2 5, 26n, 27n Sherwood, John, 26n, 27 Sherwood, Dr J ohn I, 16, 23-8, 34 Sherwood, Dr John II, 24n Sherwood, John, S.J., 26nn Sherwood, Bro. John, O.S.B., 32 Sherwood, Mary, 24, 27, 28 Sherwood, Mrs Mary, nee Knowell (wife of Dr John Sherwood I), 27, 28 Sherwood, Philip, 3-4 Sherwood, Dr Reuben, 23n, 24n Sherwood, Rev. Richard, 25, 26n, 27n, Sherwood, Robert, O.S.B ., 26, 27, 32 Sherwood, Thomas, 2 5, 26n Sherwood, Thomas, S.J ., 26n, 27, 32 Sherwood, William Elphege, O.S.B., 27, 32 Shillott, Charles, 195 Shireburn family, 48, 52n Shockerwick, Som., 40 Short, Mrs, 224 Shrewsbury, diocese, 97 Shrewsbury, Duke & Duchess of (1706), 48 Shropshire, SOn, 124n Sid mouth, Devon, 209n Simon, Abbe Alexandre Julien, 225 Simpson, John Benedict, O.S.B., 181n Simpson, John Cuthbert, O.S.B., 59n, 70, 176 Singers, see Smith, Mary Sion Hill, Yorks., 237 Sion House, see Lisbon Sisters of Providence (Rosminian), 89-90 Slack (?Stack), Mrs, 229, 230 Slater, The Misses, 208, 216-7 Slater, Mrs, 207-9, 215, 216, 219 Sloper, Simon, 36 Sloper, Mrs Winifred, nee Kemish (wife of Simon Sloper), 36n Slyman, Henry, 7, 28n Smith, Ann, 108 Smith, Anthony, 108 Smith, Sir Edward, see Smythe, Smith, Jacob, 195 Smith, Rev. James (& Rev.), 53 & n Smith (or Smyth), Rev. John, 65-6 Smith, (?Smythe), Lady, 118, 119 Smith (or Singers), Mary, 101 Smith, Mrs, 212 Smith, Peter, 108 Smith, Bishop Richard, 30 Smith, Bishop Thomas, 238-9 Smyth, Rev. John; see Smith

255

Smythe family, 72, 77. See also Smith Smythe, Sir Edward, 105, 120, 121, 124 Smythe, Walter, 106, 124n Somerset (and places therein other than Bath), 2n, 3 & nn, 4, 6-10, 14, 15n, 16n, 18-19 & n, 20 & n, 21 & n, 22, 23 & n, 25n, 27, 29-32, 34, 35nn, 36, 38n, 39, 40, 43, 45, 46, 59-61, 64, 69, 70 & n, 72n, 75n, 76n, 77 & n, 79, 84n, 85, 86n, 90,92-4,96, 98-9, lOIn, 104, 107-9, 141, 178n, 189, 192, 195, 197, 198, 206n, 209n, 213-4, 215 & n, 222, 224-7, 231,232 & n, 236, 237 Sommery, Marquis de, 228 Sommery, Miss, 223 Sommery, Mme. de, 203, 204, 227, 230 Sotheby, Mr & Mrs, 219 Southampton, 14 Southcote,farnily, 36 Southcote, Sir Edward, 36 Southcott, Mrs, 106 Southwell, Mr, 123 Southworth, Rev. John, 15 Southworth, Sir John, 14-16 Spain, 14, 22 Speke, George, 40 Speke, Mrs Margaret, 40 Spencer, Daniel, O.S.B., lIOn Spencer, Joseph, 86 Spencer, Mr (Catholic schoolmaster), 81 Spetchley, Worcs., 72 Spetisbury, Dorset, 228 Spooner, Rev. Samuel, 231 Stack, see Slack Stafford,Archdeaconry, IOn Staffordshire, 12, SOn, 84n, 207, 209, 215 St Alban's, Herts., 96 Standerwick, Wilts., 222 Standish, Lancs., 56n, 215n Standish, Edward, 105 Standish, Mr, 138 Stanhope, James, Earl, 45 Stanley, Elizabeth, 108 Stanley, Henry, 137 Stanley, Mr, 135 Stapleton family, 49 . Stapleton, John, 49, 116, 117 Stapleton, Mrs Mary (wife of Nicholas Stapleton, formerly Errington), 49 Stapleton, Mr,· 58, 115, 116, 117 (& sister), 120, 121, 145, 147 Stapleton, Thomas, 116, 117 St Decuman's, Watchet, Som., 9n St Donat's, Glam., 14


256

INDEX

Steare, Robert Benedict, O.S.B., 56, 118, 119, 121, 122, 139, 153-4, 158 Stibbs, Dr George, 100-101 Stibbs, John, jun., 46, 100-101 Stibbs, John, sen., 46 Still, John (Bishop), 9, 19 & n Stillington, William, 12n Stockeld, Yorks., 131 Stockton-on-Tees, 238 Ston Easton, Som., 76n Stone, Staffs., 209 Stonor, Oxon., 66 Stonor family, 12,65,67, 77. See also Canning Stonor, Lady Cecily, 6n, 11, 34n Stonor, Charles, 66, 105 Stonor, Elizabeth (Betty), 131, 133 Stonor, Sir Francis, 33-4 Stonor, John, 66, 105, 131, 132, 138 Stonor (Stoner) Miss, 226 Stonor, Mr, 171 Stonor, Mrs (of Winchester), 105 Stonor, Mrs (wife of John Stonor), 137 Stonor, Thomas, 131, 132 Stonyhurst, Lanes., 48 Stormont, David Murray, Viscount (later 2nd Earl of Mansfield), 184, 198-9 Story, Mr, 238 Stourton, Wilts., 21, 84n Stourton family, 52, 55n Stourton, Botolph, 52 Stourton, Mrs Catherine, nee Frampton (wife of Charles Stourton), 52n Stourton, Charles, 52n Stourton, John, O.S.B., 52n Stourton, Lady (1777), 106 Stourton, Lord (11th & 12th Barons), 52nn; (1777), 106; (1818), 237 (& son?) Stourton, Mary, Lady, nee Langdale, widow of 17th Lord Stourton, 231 Stourton, Thomas, O.S.B., 52n Stourton, William, 52 & n Stradling, Sir Thomas, 14-15 Stratford, see Cratford Stratton St Margaret, Wilts., 45, 100 Street, Mr, 194 Strickland, Mrs,· 219-20, 235, 236 Strutter, Mrs, 83, 202 Strype, Rev. John, 19 Suffield, Mr, 137 Suffield, Mrs, 113, 114 Suffield, Thomas, 135, 1 36 Suffolk,33 Sullivan, Mr,· 210, 226 Sunderland, Co. Durham, 238 Sunderland, Robert Spencer, Earl of, 43

Surrey, 19n, 62, 112, 182 Surrey, Earl of (1777), 106 Swainswick, Som., 156 Swift, Miss, 204, 205, 212, 214, 222-4, 229, 232 Swynnerton, Staffs., 84n Sydenham family, 18, 19n, 21n, 32n Sydenham, Sir John, 18 Symmons, Mrs, 120, 121 Symons, Mr, 187 Syon House, see Lisbon Talbot, John, 11 Talbot, Miss, 203, 204, 229 Talbot, Mr, 237 Tate, Joseph, S.J., 205,233-4 Taunton, Som., 2n, 4, 21, 70, 72n, 79n, 109, 195 Taverner, Rev. Edward (alias John Davis, or Banister), 54n Taylor, Mrs Barbara, 225 Taylor, Fanny, 224, 227(?) Taylor, Miss,· 222, 229, 234, 237 Tempest, Mr, 113, 114, 117 Tempest, Rev. Robert, 26 Tewkesbury, Glos., 209, 217 Teynham, Lady, 168 Thebault, Abbe, 209 Thimelby (or Ashby), Richard, S.J., 37 Thirsk, Yorks., 237 Thompson, Nathaniel, 42n Thomson, Mrs Lucy, 133, 134 Thornton,Mr, 127, 128 Thrale, Mr & Mrs, 68n, 69 Throckmorton family, 6n, 72, 77, 217n Throckmorton, George, 108 Throckmorton, Mrs, 106 Throckmorton, Mrs (wife of William Throckmorton),232 Throckmorton, Thomas (1780), 70; Sir Thomas (1809),80 Thurstaston, Cheshire, 10 Tibeaux, see Thebault Tichborne family, 49 Tichborne, Sir Henry, 119 Tichborne, Lady, 118 Tinney, Mr, 233 Tiverton, Devon, 95n Tobin, John, 107 Tobin, Mrs Mary (wife of John Tobin), 108 Tournai,21 Towneley family, 6n, 47 Towneley, Francis, 47 Towneley, William, 61n Trafford, Humphrey, 135, 136 Trant(?), Margaret Mary, 108 Tregian, Francis, 25 Trent, Som., 8 Trimmell (or Trimnell) Mr, 205, 227


INDEX Trowbridge, Wilts., 222 Tucker, John I, 10 Tucker, John II, 5 1n Tuite, J ohn, 136, 137 Tuit(e), Mr, 168 Tuit(e), Mrs, 118, 119 Tulley, J ., 231n Tully, Mrs, 231 Tunstall, Mrs (servant of), 211 Turner, John, O.S.B., lIOn Twerton, see Bath Twickenham, 48 Udall, J ohn, 9n Ullathorne, Archbishop William Bernard, 90, 96 Unsworth, Mrs, 224, 231 Ushaw, Co. Durham, 239 Valentine, Bro. Joseph, O.S.B., lIOn Valentine, Mrs, 226 Valgassier, Abbe Alexis, 213 & n, 235 Vandercame, Mrs, 134, 135 Vaughan family, 67, 77 Vaughan, J ohn, 105 Vavasour family, 49, 135 Vavasour, Peter, 136 Vavasour, Sir Walter, 106, 135 Victoria, Queen, 212n Virtue, Mr, 167, 168 Voxwell, Mr, 168 Wade, General George, 43 Wadham family, 32n Wakefield, Yorks., 236-7 Wakeman, Sir George, 37 Waldegrave family, 43 Waldegrave, Sir Edward, 7 Waldegrave, Dr William, 43 Wales (& places therein), 52, 54, 76, 90, 107n WalgaIlia, see Valgassier Walker, George Augustine, O.S.B., 62n, 110n, 112 Walker, John, 8 Wallace, James, 198 Walmesley, Bishop Charles, O.S.B., 59, 60-61, 64, 66n, 69, 70-71, 75, 76, 78-9, 105(?), 106-8, 112, 129, 130(?), 135, 136-7, 138-9, 168(?), 182 Walmesley, James, 182 Walmesley, Mr (? Bishop), 105, 130, 138,168,182 Walsh, Constantia, 108 Walsh, Mrs Eleanora (wife of Pierce Walsh),107 Walsh, Miss (& servant), 205, 220, 225 Walsh, Pierce, 107 Walsingham, Sir Francis, 11

257

Walters, see Duviviers Walton family, 32n Warblington, Hants., 11 Warburton family, 29 Warburton, Sir John, 29n Warburton, William (Bishop), 92 Wardour, Wilts., 136 Ware (St Edmund's), see Old Hall Green Warmington, Rev. William & father, 21n Warminster, Wilts., 76n Warmoll, John Bernard, O.S.B., 62, 67, 71n, 125, 127, 158 Warren, Lucy, 225,232 Warren, Mrs, 206 Warrington, Lanes., 232n Warrington, Earl of; see Booth, Henry Warwickshire, 6n, 17, 168, 207, 215, 217,223, 233,236,237n WassaIl, Thomas Benedict, O.S.B., 214n, . 215(?) Wassell, Mr, 214-5 Watchet, Som. ; see St Decuman's Waters, see Duviviers Waters, Mrs Elizabeth (wife of Thomas Waters), 39n Waterton, Mrs "Chris", 207, 208 Webb, Mrs Dorothy (wife of William Webb),99 Webb, Lady, 61n Webb, Mrs,¡ 57, 58, 130-4, 136-7, 163, 177 Webb, William, 99, 100 Weeble, Messrs., 106 Welby, Miss,¡ 231 Welby, Mr, 225, 226 Welby, Mrs, 231 Welch, Mr, 128 Weld, Mrs, 74 Weld, Cardinal Thomas, 80 Weldon, Mr, 106 Wellow, Som., 60, 20672, 215n Wells, Som., 3 & n, 4, 6, 9 & n, 14, 15n, 16n, 32, 39, 46, 59, 69, 189, 197, 198. See also Bath & Wells diocese Wesley, Samuel, lIOn Westall, Mrs, 203, 218, 225 Westbury, Wilts., 220 West Harptree, Som., 75n Westminster Abbey, 17-18, 33 Westmorland, 5 Weston, Som., see Bath Weston, Warwicks., 168 Weston, Miss, 210 Weston, Mr, 210, 213, 215, 219-20, 222-4, 226-8, 230-1 Weston, Mrs, 213, 226 Weston, Webbe, 225, 227(?) Weston, William, S.J., 21


258

INDEX

Wheble, see Weeble Wheeler, Mrs, 52n Whickham, Mrs, 219 White, A(?), 234 White, Captain, 226 Whitelackington, Som., 2n, 3n Whitgift, John (Archbishop), 22, 23 Whitmore, John, 10 Whittaker, Mr, 210-14,219 Whittel, Roger Joseph, O.S.B., 56, 120, 121,122,153,158 Wickham, Thomas, 39n, See also Whickham. Widdrington, Mr,路 56, 120, 121 Widdrington, Hon. William Tempest, 56 Wilkes, Mrs, 220 Wilks, Joseph Cuthbert, O.S.B., 66n, 71, 112, 183, 217n Willan, Mrs, 204, 205 , 220, 227, 229, 232, 233, 235 William III, 44 William IV, 211 n Williams, Anselm, O.S.B., 53-4 Williams, Miss, 106 Williams, Mr, 115, 116 Willoughby, Miss,路 207, 228, 229, 232 Willoughby, Mr, 213 Willoughby, Mrs,路 228, 229, 232, 234 Wilmot, Miss, 212, 218, 233 Wilson, Joseph Peter, O.S .B., 89n, 206n Wiltshire, 15n, 16, 21, 30, 31, 40, 45, 49, SIn, 52, 54, 55n, 56, 60, 65, 69, 72n, 75n, 76n, 84n, 90, 98n, 100, 106, 136, 189, 205, 220, 222, 228 Wiltshire, Mr, 195 Wiltshire, Walter, 199 Winchcombe, John, 34n Winchester, 31n, 32, 105 Winscomb, see Grove Winsley, Wilts., 52 Wisbech, Cambs., 16, 17 Wiseman, Cardinal Nicholas, 82, 85-6, 94, 97 Wittaker, see Whittaker Wollascott, Mr, 115 Wolverhampton, 207, 209, 215 Wood, Antony, 24 Wood, John, the Elder, 25; the Younger, 72

Wood, Miss, 225 Woodison (? Wooddeson), Mr, 235 Woolton, Lanes., 216n, 234 Woolverton, Som., 45 Wootton Bassett, Wilts., 65 Worcester, SOn, 207, 209 Worcestershire, 11, 50n, 72, 203n, 207, 209,215,217 Worsley, John Clement, O.S.B., 89 Wright family, 211

Wright, Anthony, 105 Wright, Captain, 226 Wright, Catherine, 203, 204 Wright, Eliza, 225, 235 Wright, John,. 132, 203, 210-12, 214, 219-20,225,229-33, 235 Wright, Mary, 229 Wright, Miss,路 203,204,211,213,214, 219,221,231,235,238 Wright, Mr, 223 Wright, Mrs, * 210, 213, 225, 238 Wright, Mrs (wife of John Wright), 203-6, 215, 221, 223, 224, 226-7, 230, 235, 236 Wright, "Mrs" (? Messrs.), 170 Wroughton, Miss, 74,240 Wyatt, James, 228 Wyburne, Henry, O.S.B., 126-7, 132, 160-2, 167 Wyndham, Sir William, 45 Yarm, Yorks., 238 York, 1, 5n, 11, 12, 18, 32, 73n, 83n, 84n, 237-9 York, Bishop Laurence, O.S.B., 47, 54, 55,59, 73n, 166, 168, 176 Yorkshire, 1, 5n, lOn, 11, 12, 32, 33, 56n, 61n, 72n, 73n, 77n, 81, 83n, 86n, 88, 92-4, 131, 137n, 178n, 213n, 219, 221n, 222n, 223, 227, 231, 232 & n, 234, 236-9 Young, Rev. John, 16 Young, Mr, 137

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Records Volume 65: Post Reformation Catholicism in Bath Volume 1  

In 1559 the last Bishop of Bath and Wells in communion with Rome was deprived; nearly three hundred years later the first Bishop of Clifton,...

Records Volume 65: Post Reformation Catholicism in Bath Volume 1  

In 1559 the last Bishop of Bath and Wells in communion with Rome was deprived; nearly three hundred years later the first Bishop of Clifton,...

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