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Implementation: Center for Development of Community Initiative and Environment (C&E) This guidebook was compiled and published under the sponsorship of Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung – Southeast Asia Copyright: This guidebook can be copied or cited for non-commercial purposes only Compile: Nguyen Duc Tung, Dinh Thuy Nga, Nguyen Khanh Linh Edit: Vu Van Tuan, Ngo Thi Phuong Thao, Bui Thi Thanh Thuy Design: Nguyen Khanh Linh Photo: C&E Center and colleagues Address: No 12 lane 89 Xa Dan street, Phuong Lien, Dong Da district, Hanoi Phone number: +84 24 3573 8536 Email: Website:

PREFACE “Guidebook on the integration of ecological lifestyle into educational activities for youth – Topic: Sustainable Water Use” is one of the three ecological lifestyle education toolkits (Tourism, Food and Water) designed for teachers, trainers and youth activists. It belongs to the project “Partnership to support and promote informal and non-formal education for advocating an ecological lifestyle and climate change adaptation and mitigation in Vietnamese Universities – year 2017” sponsored by Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung. This guidebook aims to support trainers and youth activists to inspire their learners in a diverse, scientific-based and interesting way. It is designed to bring necessary skills and knowledge of the importance of sustainable water use in different fields and levels. This guidebook focuses on integrating “sustainable water use” into educational program and activities in order to change learners’ awareness and action. Hence, learners can apply this into their future career and spread to their community where they live, study and work. Another objective of this guidebook is to support trainers and youth activists to inspire their learners in a diverse, scientific-based and interesting way. It introduces methods to integrate “sustainable food consumption” into educational program as well as activities in order to change learners’ awareness and action. Hence, learners can apply this into their future career and spread to their community where they live, study and work. Furthermore, this guidebook is not designed for trainers and youth activists only, it is a simple tool for every individuals and organizations who seek to understand and integrate topics related to ecological lifestyle into extracurricular, training or educational activities for young people. No matter who you are or where you work, you can be an inspirer to your community. The compilation team hope to receive comments and suggestions from individuals and organizations to better revise and publicize this guidebook in upcoming times.

The compilation team C&E Center






Is water an unlimited resource? 7 Fresh water and its role 9 Fresh Water 9 The importance of fresh water 9 Major water issues 12 The shortage of sanitary water for living needs 12 Urbanization13 Pollution13 Climate change 14 Some concepts about water consumption 16 Virtural water 16 Water footprint  17 Sustainable water use 18 Micro-Angle (Scale of individuals and households) 19 Macro-angle (By field) 21

METHODOLOGY TO INTEGRATE THIS TOPIC INTO EDUCATIONAL ACTIVITIES FOR YOUTH 24 Forms of integration 25 Some training methods 29 Experiencial learning cycle 29 Best practices analysis 32 Debate35 Water audit 37

03 04

INTEGRATION EXAMPLES Example 1: a training lesson plan Sample 2: a field trip Evaluation of training and field trip

39 40 42 43

READING MATERIALS AND REFERENCES45 Reading material 46 Reference47 Vietnamese Material 47 English Material 47



01 Big picture about water consumption


IS WATER AN UNLIMITED RESOURCE? Water is living source for all beings. Therefore, when scientists look for life in another planet, the first thing they pay attention to is whether there is water available or not. The Earth is told to be a giant blue planet. From satellites, the blue colour can be seen on the Earth’s surface is from water. So, how much water do we have on this planet? According to NASA Space Place 2016, water covers 71% the Earth’s surface on the area of 361 million km2. Almost 96.5% of that amount is salt water and only 3.5% is fresh water. And most of that fresh water, 68 percent, is trapped in ice and glaciers. 30% of the fresh water is in the ground and the last 2% is in the rivers, lakes, and streams. A very small amount is in our atmosphere, where it exists as water vapor and forms clouds. Water also exists in living bodies for example 70% of human body is made from water. Water really presents in all motions on Earth. If you took all the water on Earth and put it together it would be a ball 860 miles wide, equivalent to 1,384,035.84 km.


96,5% is salt water 3,5% is fresh water

IN ALL OF FRESH WATER 68% is trapped in ice and glaciers 30% is underground water 2% lies on the surface


WATER RESOURCE IN VIETNAM: IS VIETNAM A WATER-SCARCE COUNTRY? Vietnam is a developing country and standing in front many challenges in water shortage and water pollution due to the unsustainable development of urban and industrial zones. Vietnam has 108 river basins with about 3,450 rivers and streams. The total annual volume of surface water in Vietnam is about 830 billion m3, mainly in 9 major river basins including Hong river, Thai Binh river, Bang Giang - Ky Cung rivers, Ma river, Vu river, Thu Bon river, Ba river, Dong Nai river and Mekong river. However, about 63% of Viet Nam’s surface water (520 billion m3) is generated from abroad, only 310 billion m3 is generated in Vietnam territory yearly. The total potential reserve of underground water is about 63 billion m3 per year. The total volume of water currently being exploited is about 80.6 billion m3, accounting for approximately 10% of the country’s total water volume. However, the water volume provided for Vietnam is reducing every year. If we consider only the total annual water volume of the whole country, it can be mistaken that Vietnam is a country with abundant water resource. However, according to the criteria of the International Water Resources Association, a country that has water per capita less than 4,000 m3/person/ year is considered to be water scarce. Meanwhile, if we only take into account the surface water resource that is generated from the country, water per capita in Vietnam is 3,344.3 m3/person/ year (310 billion m3 for 92,695,000 people according to General Statistics Office of Viet Nam in 2016). Therefore, Vietnam is a water-scarce country and will face many challenges related to water resources in the near future. Considering water distribution characteristics over time and space, population distribution characteristics, economic development, the level of water use and exploitation, it can be seen that Vietnam’s water resource is under a lot of pressure. Urban water pollution is evident when major rivers are polluted. For example, Thi Vai River is the heaviest polluted river in Dong Nai River system or To Lich River in Hanoi has become the “sewer” of municipal wastewater. The Mekong and Red River deltas are also contaminated with suspended solids such as nitrate, nitrite, coliform, oil, and zinc. This will be a huge challenge for Vietnam in water security.


FRESH WATER AND ITS ROLE Fresh Water Fresh water is naturally occurring water on Earth’s surface in ice sheets, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and underground as groundwater in aquifers and underground streams. Fresh water is generally characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids. The total volume of fresh water on Earth is around 10,633,450 km3. However, 30% of it is underground water, most of which is not accessible yet (according to NASA Space Place 2016).

The importance of fresh water Fresh water plays a crucial role in supporting the economy, society and environment. Eco-systems like wetland, rivers, lakes and water storing layers are necessary for all lives on Earth. It is essential to directly guarantee some services and benefits such as drinking water, water for food and energy, living environment for underwater beings, purifying and restoring the climate. A good management of fresh water eco-system will support on-land eco-system like forest, ocean and seaside ecosystem.


The body of living beings, from animal, plants to other forms of life use water to form their cells and organisms to adjust body temperature and maintain life functions. Water is solvent for chemical reactions happening inside bodies, it supports the transportation of nutrition to every body part. Here are some important roles of water to living activities of animals: • Digests nutrients in food • Transports matters within the body • Participates in chemical reactions • Regulates osmotic pressure, carries out metabolism between cells and the aqueous humor • Reduces the effect of friction • Engages actively in body temperature regulation Humans can survive fasting for 2 months, but cannot live without water for 3-4 days. If the body loses 2% of its water capacity, its ability to work is reduced by 20%. If the number increases to 10%, the body will poison itself. 21% loss of the body water will lead to death. With plants, water is the essential part of living cells. They can only function normally with enough water. However, the amount of water in different plants are not alike, it varies depending on species or different branches of the same specie.



Water on Earth exists in 3 different forms: solid (ice, snow), liquid and gas (vapor). It has moving state (river, spring) or static state (pond, lake). Fresh water, together with salt water, make up the hydrosphere of the Earth. Hydrosphere regulates environment, climate and is the living environment for living beings. Besides, the water cycle plays an important role in exchanging energy among the atmosphere, the ocean and the land therefore form climate of the earth and affect the changes of climate in nature. According to the research “The research path for the next decade” (National Research Council – NRC, 1999), water is the core reason and consequence of climate change.

Furthermore, water with its cycle take part in geological formation on Earth. For example, the formation of limestone cave in limestone mountain is caused by chemical abrasive in which water containing acid carbonic is absorbed or run through causing calcium dissolve which forms caves.



Water is a limited resource, it is the foundation to human safety and can only be regenerated with careful management. The following sections will provide insights from different fields where smart water management will help reaching sustainable development goals. IN AGRICULTURE Agriculture is the most water-consumed industry, accounting for 70%. Most of it is used for irrigation, as well as creating bio-condition and energy for cultivation. While the world population increases, consumption changes along with the prosperity of economics and the needs for food worldwide will increase accordingly, water will be the key to food security. Fresh water maintains industries and helps make sure there are enough food for human’s need. Water for irrigation usually comes from surface water or underground water. When there is no rain for a few weeks and a farm can not provide water from any other source, it can lose all its income. All plants might dry to death, cattle can die within a few days without water. In poultry, farmers know that egg is made mainly from water, hence, if there is not enough water for hen, they will lay less eggs. When cow can not drink enough water, their milk will be less as well.

IN INDUSTRY Industry has large scale ranging from production, industrial extraction and agriculture product manufacturing with machines and technologies. Water is used in industry for various purposes such as manufacturing, processing, dilution, cooling or transportation; water can be put into products or used for factory sanitation. Some industries use a large amount of water to produce certain types of products such as food, paper, chemicals, essential oils or metal. The need of water for industry accounts for 20% the total amount that human use. However, this need is growing more and more especially with the development of industrialization. [10] Remarkable improvements on water conservation has been recognized by many companies, mainly those from countries in The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Develop-


ment (OECD). This trend will continue to rise when we are face the increasing need for water especially in the downstream. The industry will have to continue adjusting and developing suitable policies for water management. [14] ENERGY Energy and water has a dependant relationship. Energy is needed to pump, store, transport and treat water. Water is necessary for the production of most types of energy. While the role of water in hydroelectricity is undeniable, water also plays a vital role as bio-catalyst, support the cooling process in coal, gas, oil thermal plant and nuclear plant. The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimated that the amount of water consumed for energy production in 2010 took up to 15% the total amount worldwide. Electricity accounts for 5% to 30% the total operation cost of water and wastewater construction and in some developing countries like India and Bangladesh, it could account up to 40%. Furthermore, the need for energy is projected to raise by a third in 2035. In response to the increasing need for energy, the stress over water consumption will also go up. When all industries require water in energy consumption, there is an urgent demand for development cooperation.

MAJOR WATER ISSUES The shortage of sanitary water for living needs

The amount of water consumed in households accounts for 10% the total water consumption. However, when the global population increases, the need for fresh water will rise as well. According to the United Nations, until 2025 there is estimatedly 1.8 billion people living in water-scarce areas. In addition, there is estimatedly 768 million people do not have access to safe water and 2.5 billion people can not access to sanitary water in 2011 worldwide. Using unsanitary unsanitary water will badly affect human health. In 2000, the death rate caused by water unsanitation is estimated to be


around 2,213,000 people. What is even more threatening is that most of people who died or got sick because of water problems are children under 5 years old.


Urbanization affects water resources used for economic development, social equity and sustainable environment. According to the United Nations in July 2015, the world population will rise from 7.3 billion to 8.4 billion in 2030; 9.7 billion in 2050 and reach 11.2 billion in 2100. Together with urbanization, water will be used greatly in economic field, household consumption and social activities for sustainable environment. [12]

Water used in urban area includes water for household use and water for processing and production in factories. When the amount of water being consumed as well as the water treatment capacity can not meet with their management capacity, there will be environmental pollution and water shortage. Since water resource is not limited inside the boundary of one certain province, the affect of water pollution will not only affect one city but also other surrounding areas.


Water pollution is caused by various sources such as pesticides and fertilizers coming out of farms, human waste-water which was not treated properly and industrial waste. Even underground water is being polluted and become unsafe because un-treated water from the sources above can be absorbed into the underground water layer. The use of pesticides and fertilizers in farms has increased by 26 times in the last 50 years, which increases the crop quantity globally and causes serious environmental threat at the same time. The abuse of pesticides and fertilizers will pollute the soil and water in the area. Fertilizer itself might not be toxic but the existence of it can change the nutrition system in fresh water and sea water. These changes can lead to the algae booming due to eutrophication. Therefore water will be out of dissolved oxygen, which leads to the death of fish and underwater creatures. Besides, industry is a huge source of water pollution, it creates pollutants that are greatly toxic to human and the environment. Many industrial factories uses fresh water to dis-


solve their waste hence, after participated in series of process, water has been exposed to heavy metals, toxic chemicals, radioactive waste and even organic mud. These waste will eventually be released into rivers and oceans.

Climate change

Observed global warming over several decades has been linked to changes in the large-scale hydrological cycle such as: increasing atmospheric water vapour content; changing precipitation patterns, intensity and extremes; reduced snow cover and widespread melting of ice; and changes in soil moisture and runoff. In the twentieth century, the proportion of heavy rain increase in almose every area. There have been significant decreases in water storage in mountain glaciers and Northern Hemisphere snow cover. Additionally, shifts in the amplitude and timing of runoff in glacier- and snowmelt-fed rivers, and in ice-related phenomena in rivers and lakes, have been observed By the middle of the 21st century, annual average river runoff and water availability are projected to increase as a result of climate change at high latitudes and in some wet tropical areas, and decrease over some dry regions at mid-latitudes and in the dry tropics. Many semi-arid and arid areas (e.g., the Mediterranean Basin, western USA, southern Africa and northeastern Brazil) are particularly exposed to the impacts of climate change and are projected to suffer a decrease of water resources due to climate change. Besides, global warming also make water temperature rises and changes in precipitation in different areas creates extreme weather events such as floods and droughts. This will affect water quality and exacerbate many forms of water pollution – from sediments, nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, pathogens, pesticides and salt, as well as thermal pollution, with possible negative impacts on ecosystems and human health. In addition, sea-level rise is projected to extend areas of salinisation of groundwater and estuaries, resulting in a decrease of freshwater availability for humans and ecosystems in coastal areas. Furthermore, changes in water quantity and quality due to climate change are expected to affect food security and increased vulnerability of poor rural farmers, especially in the arid and semi-arid tropics and Asian and African megadeltas. [8]


OVER 1.7 BILLION PEOPLE live in river basins where water use exceeds recharge, leading to the desiccation of rivers, depletion of groundwater and the degradation of ecosystems.

Demand for water will


Water shortages have been identified by industry, government, academia and civil society as one of


TWO-THIRDS OF THE WORLD’S POPULATION will live in water-stressed countries by 2025 if current consumption patterns continue

WATER-RELATED DISASTERS ARE THE MOST ECONOMICALLY AND SOCIALLY DESTRUCTIVE OF ALL NATURAL DISASTERS Since the original Rio Earth Summit in 1992 floods, droughts and storms have affected 4.2 billion people (95% of all people affected by disasters) and caused US$ 1.3 trillion of damage (63% of all damage).

Some estimates suggest

OVER 80%

of wastewater is discharged without treatment



According to UN Water, virtual water is the amount of water that is used in the production processes of commodities during their entire life cycle and is measured right where it was produced. It can also be defined as the amount of water needed for one products at the phases that it consumed water. The word “virtual” implies the fact that most of water is used in the making of the product, not in the product itself. Therefore, “virtual water” is also called “embedded water”. This concept was introduced for the first time in 1993 by Professor John Anthony Allan who works at both Kings College London and School of Oriental and African Studies. “Virtual water” has a big impact on commercial and research policies in the world especially in water-stressed areas. This concept has a particularly important meaning when it comes to water market and virtual water trade.





PRODUCT Beef White bread Coffee Cotton Chicken egg Hamburger Leather Cow milk Orange Paper Pork Potato chips Sugarcane sugar Tea Wheat







THE AMOUNT OF VIRTUAL WATER/ PRODUCT UNIT 15.500 litres /1 kg 40 litres / 1 slide 140 litres / 1 cup 2.700 litres / 1 cotton t-shirt medium size 200 litres / 1 egg 2.400 litres / 1 hamburger (150 gr) 16.600 litres / 1 kg 1000 litres / 1 litre 50 litres / 1 orange 10 litres / 1 A4 white paper 4.800 litres / 1 kg 900 litres / 1 kg 1.500 litres / 1 kg 30 litres / 1 cup (250 ml) 1.300 litres / 1 kg Source: Product Gallery


Water footprint

On the issue of water consumption, beside the concept “virtual water”, we need to take into account another concept which is “water footprint”. While virtual water is the amount of water needed to produce one unit of commodity, the water footprint is an indicator of freshwater use that looks not only at direct water use of a consumer or producer, but also at the indirect water use. (Water Footprint Manual, Nov,2009). Water footprint includes direct water use (take water from the source) and indirect water use (water used to produce food, goods, energy and even cycling process). Water footprint is categorized into three types: • Green water footprint is water from precipitation that is stored in the root zone of the soil and evaporated, transpired or incorporated by plants. It is particularly relevant for agricultural, horticultural and forestry products. • Blue water footprint is water that has been sourced from surface or groundwater resources and is either evaporated, incorporated into a product or taken from one body of water and returned to another, or returned at a different time. Irrigated agriculture, industry and domestic water use can each have a blue water footprint. • Grey water footprint is the amount of fresh water required to assimilate pollutants to meet specific water quality standards. The grey water footprint considers point-source pollution discharged to a freshwater resource directly through a pipe or indirectly through runoff or leaching from the soil, impervious surfaces, or other diffuse sources. Source: SAB Miller and WWF, 2009 Comparison water footprint between animal-based and plant-based products: By tons, animal-based products usually have bigger water footprint plant-based products. In fresh water consumption, in order to reach the same amount of calories, protein and fat, products from plants use water more efficiently than products from animals. PRODUCT





















Chicken meat











10.19 Source: Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2010)


While we are facing many challenges in water shortage and water pollution caused by citizen activities and industries, the use of the concepts of virtual water and water footprint, the calculation of them in water use and extraction planning, and socio-economic development policies planning will give us scientific-based and reality-based foundation to sustainable management of water resource. It challenges policy makers to find solutions that can protect the environment and develop the socio-economic at the same time. With appropriate policies, consumers will have a scientific and realistic base to use water resource efficiently and sustainably.

SUSTAINABLE WATER USE Population growth, the expansion of residential land along with the development of community – all affect the use of water. Besides, factors like climate change and environmental pollution contribute to the shortage of water in the future, especially in agriculture and industry. Sustainable water use should be seen not just about to save water but also to avoid polluting the clean water resource that we have. The question is how can we do that? In the last section, you were introduced to the concepts of “virtual water” and “water footprint” used to relatively calculate the amount of water needed for production and consumption of commodities. These concepts are not only meant to translate the impact of human on water resource in our daily activities but also show the relationship between water management to socio-economic and political issues. Besides, having a systematic view about the impact of individual, organization and nation in different fields and roles to water resource requires us to have more knowledge in consideration of our influence on water resource, on whether we are wasting or polluting water. Hence, readers can choose actions and lifestyle that are more reasonable and water-friendly under different roles and positions such as farmers, producers, planners…


Micro-Angle (Scale of individuals and households)

At this angle, we will look into different ways to reduce water wasting, water pollution and promote the efficient use of water as the role of individuals, households and communities. Human uses a lot of water for their needs in daily lives. The average water use of one person in a day is 10 – 15 litres for personal hygiene, 20 – 200 litres for showering, 20 50 litres for eating and 40 – 80 litres for washing machine. The wasting of water happens when water is leaked from pipes, faucets in restrooms in the houses and when people use water wastefully. Estimatedly we wastes 20-35% water provided for our everyday use. What can we do to reduce water wasting as well as use water in a more efficient and reasonable way? Others: 8%

HOW MUCH WATER DO WE USE? Source: Water Research Institute, Water use in households, Feb. 2016

Toilet: 24%

Leaking: 12% Washing

Shower: 20%

machine: Faucet:




While using water in everyday life, we might have participated in the chain of water pollution and wasting without acknowledging it. Following are some actions to use water more sustainably SAVE WATER AND AVOID WATER WASTING According to Home Water Works, a member of The Alliance for Water Efficiency, some methods below can be applied to reduce water wasting [9]. When taking a shower or doing personal hygiene • Switch the faucet to lighter mode while taking a shower to reduce the amount of water used • Take shorter showers. Reduce your shower time from 10 minutes to 5 minutes can save up to 47.3 litres of water (if the flow rate of the showerhead is 9.5 litre/minute). • Find the type of showerhead that has flow rate below 7.5 litre/minute. • Use toilet that has 2 modes of water and flush less water per time. When cooking and washing • Use showerhead to help the cleaning process and save water when you shower or wash dishes • Turn off the faucet when you are washing instead of keep it open all the time • Use a high-efficiency washing machine with a low water factor • Only wash clothes full loads and when it is needed. This will not only save water but also help your clothes to stay new longer.


OTHER ACTIVITIES • Wash your vehicles near the garden. This will reuse water to water the soil. However, you should consider using organic or environmentally friendly detergent, avoid chemical detergent that might pollute your garden. • When planting, prioritize native varieties to minimize needed water. Native plants have higher adaptation level to the local environment, therefore you do not need to take care of them too much or water them too often. Apart from tips in saving and less wasting water, we can reuse and store water as well [9] • Reuse water whenever possible. Water that was used for cleaning vegetable can be reused to water plants. Washing water can be used to clean the floors. • Install rainwater storage if the quality of rainwater in your area is good enough to reuse (rainwater that do not contain to much pollutants or acids). PROTECT WATER SOURCES • Use less chemicals or replace them with environmentally friendly products. Waste water pipe system in Vietnam, especially in rural and mountainous regions, do not have a careful treatment process. Therefore, chemicals in shampoos, soaps, detergents, cleaning products when being discharged can be absorbed into the soil and underground water. Reconsider cleaning your house with natural detergent made from vinegar and water, or washing your hair with herbs such as gleditsia, holy basil, grapefruit peel, lemon… to protect water source. • Do not use products that has microbeads. Microbeads can be found in toothpaste, detergent, face cleanser… They are used to increase physical impact to clean the surface. However, since they are too small, microbeads can pass through all waste water treatment while absorbing more chemicals and floating in the ocean after going through the water system. Microbeads can not bio-degrade, they will exist for thousands year underwater and cause serious damage to sea creatures and the environment. • Do not throw non-degradable waste such as plastic bag, plastic wrapper into the waste water system. • Support companies that produce environmentally friendly products. Instead of buying a random shirt, you can choose to buy one that is certified organic or uses environmentally friendly ink. Pay attention to factories, companies that your products came from. During their production, do they discharge toxicants to the environment? Do they consider environmental protection in the procedure? Are they wasting water? Be a smart consumer!


Macro-angle (By field)

In this section, we will analyze some methods to reduce the pressure of water problems which can be applied to some basic fields in each country. WITH MANUFACTURING IN GENERAL • Support and orient enterprises: Countries can support and orient enterprises by developing “water friendly” label based on their water management report. • Support and develop transparent products: to guarantee the quality of products and find those that is friendly to water. Beside eco labels, we can develop water labels for products as well. • Encourage the use of technology for efficient use of water. For example: the government can encourage enterprises and households to install water saving appliances for their toilets. • Build regulations, contracts with enterprises that need water in their manufacturing process (applied for factory, machine, transportation, local business…) to conserve water and develop water-friendly products. IN INDUSTRY Five industries that consume water the most are food industry, petrochemical industry, paper production, metallurgical industry and chemical industry. Water after being used will not be treated carefully, therefore it contains a lot of pollutants and will be discharged into rivers. In order to reduce polluted water and also lessen water wasting in industry activities, there are some directions to follow such as: minimize water use in industry even if it means switching some factories to dry-process technique, bring thermoelectric stations and industrial factories to close-water-cycle in which water after being used in one factory will be cleaned and reused in another factory. IN AGRICULTURE In order to cut down the water wasting in agriculture, technology has been applied to improve the irrigation system. Many irrigation systems has proven their efficiency not only in terms of environment but also in crop quantity and quality. For examples:


• Drip irrigation system: In drip irrigation, water is run through pipes (with holes in them) either buried or lying slightly above the ground next to the crops. Water slowly drips onto the crop roots and stems instead of the entire field surface. Therefore it only uses ½ to ¼ the amount of water that traditional irrigation would need. • Sprinkler irrigation system: this is a modern system and usually used in large-scale farms. The system can be simply a long pipe with sprinkler along the pipe or a central axle system going in circles on the field. Water is distributed through a system of pipes usually by pumping. It is then sprayed into the air through sprinklers so that it breaks up into small water drops which fall to the ground. With the installation of modern irrigation systems, the water wasting is reduce by 30 – 50% comparing to the traditional irrigation methods. Besides, during crop cultivation and animal breeding, human can reduce the amount of water used and limit pollutants in agriculture while remaining food quality by: • Smart water management is not only about the act of providing water to agriculture activities but also including when, how long and how much. Farmers need to follow weather forecast carefully as well as soil moisture and adjust irrigation plant accordingly. • Grow plants that is adaptive to local climate to minimize water use. • Do not use water-intensive agriculture cultivation in water-scarce areas. • Reduce or do not use chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides to avoid infecting chemicals into water. • Collect and store rainwater to reuse. • Manage grazing effectively to raise the water absorbing ability of the fields. The increase of organic matters in the soil and the better cattle food cover are some advantage of grazing in water preservation.


IN TRADING SECTOR In trading, main solutions are: • In water-scarce region, reduce exporting products that are water intensive in manufacturing • Import by the shortest way to conserve water and other resources [11]

What an enterprise – a company can do to conserve water? In order to calculate the amount of water used internal in a company, there are some guideline questions that can be used: • How much water is needed for all manufacturing appliances? • How much of that water is used effectively? • How much waste water is discharged to the environment and how is its quality? What is the main elements in waste water? • How much water is used for supply chain? How efficient is it being used? How much waste water is discharged in this process and how is its quality? [11] These questions are recommendations for each company in different field of work to have their own approach to calculate the amount of water being used within the company. However, besides direct impact on water consumption, the activities related to water of a company can affect the community and eco-system. This can lead to risks in business due to water shortage. In this situation, water consumption over supply chain of most companies is spreaded all over the world. Therefore the work of one company can directly affect the chance of another company to approach water resource. [11] Furthermore, the direction of a company needs to consider the local conditions such as: what proportion of water can be used for human purpose, the allowed amount of water based on environment factor, the amount of water that managing institute can control and provide, the amount of water that local community can access and use. From these local conditions, companies can orient their internal management, how to extract and consume effectively to reduce their impact on water resource. This is not just for the community but also for the sustainable development of themselves.


02 Methodology to integrate this topic into educational activities for youth


This guidebook not only focuses on providing information about the topic “Sustainable water use” but also pay attention to the procedure and tools to design trainings and activities about sustainable water use. Models and skills to organize activities like these will not only help changing awareness and actions of young people but also orient their vision in the future when they play different roles in the society. However, behaviour change and vision formation are not easy and can not be rewarded with result in short-sighted time. This requires the investment of hard work, consistence and appropriate methodology. For an individual and a community to take action on sustainable water use, they need to have basic understanding, know how to act as well as have strong motivation and desire to take part in. We can equip this to others by education, trainings or simply integrating information into other activities in a smart way.

FORMS OF INTEGRATION “Sustainable water use” is a cross-section topic involving many fields in life. Young people are taking part in different roles in sustainable water use and management in their lives and also in their future career. Therefore, the integration of this topic into programs and activities for young people both in and out of formal education has a significant importance in the education of sustainable consumption and ecological lifestyle. Following are suggestions on some forms of integration that teachers, trainers and planners can use to bring the topic “Sustainable water use” to young people in a practical and exciting way.


INTEGRATION INTO TEACHING PLAN, EXERCISE, RESEARCH Topic “Sustainable water use” can be analyzed under different angles and has a correlation with many fields from economics, environment, production to technology, tourism… Therefore, the possibility to integrate this content into teaching subject is very potential. Professors, teachers can use this topic as examples or give supporting information for the lecture depending on the specific lessons. For example: introduce the irrigation management method with the participation of community in a lesson related to agriculture and/or irrigation; Actual cost of a bottle in a lesson about environment…Besides, in order to let students approach actively with this topic, teachers can assign exercises or orientation to look into, research more about the topic such as an audit exercise at home. In many cases, personal research, scientific research for student can be used to integrate topics related to “Sustainable water use”. For example: scientific research on science solutions (water treatment, water saving technology…) or desk study (statistics about water consumption in their field, numbers about the situation of water pollution cased by their field…). INTEGRATION INTO TRAINING ACTIVITIES Extra-curriculum training is an effective way to introduce deeper about a certain topic to students. Depending on specific conditions in terms of human resources, time, venue, finance…, these training can be organized accordingly. For example, in limited time and resource condition, trainer can organize a short sharing in about 2-3 hours on the topic “Virtual water and water footprint” at a location inside the university. With the same topic, you can hold a talk show inviting a water expert come to share with students in about 2 hours, or organize a game integrating information about “Virtual water and water footprint”. One characteristic of this method is that the number of participants should be limited because it can interfere with the quality of the class. Depending on specific method being used, each training should have around 30-40 participants. The more interactive activities there are, the less people should be involved. With a talk show or a movie show, the number of participants can be bigger.


In the next section, we will introduce in details some suitable methods to use in training course about “Sustainable water use”. INTEGRATION INTO FIELD TRIPS This is a highly practical activity which usually attracts the participation of many students. A field trip usually lasts for at least half a day (without transportation time) and can be limited in the number of participants due to the specific location of the trip. A field trip requires more investment in preparation and organization because the visiting venue is usually outside of university. Depending on the local condition as well as available resources, trainers/organizers can choose from a diverse range of location related to the topic such as: water plant company, a processing factory, a bottle manufacturing factory, a water monitoring at a lake… INTEGRATION INTO EVENTS This is a familiar form of integrating a topic to students in university since they usually have extra-curriculum events happening during all school year. These events can be varied from competition, exhibition to fair, performances or a combination of different forms. Events usually have a big communication impact and can reach a much bigger audience than training courses or field trips. Another interesting point of integrating into events is that students can participate from the planning and organizing process along with teachers. This will help them to level up in personal skills and have a better chance to research about the theme or main topic of the event. Some examples of such events: a writing contest and photo exhibition about “Water and Life”, a debate/knowledge contest about water, a creative contest to compose song/poem/ drawing about a certain message related to water (teacher can choose the specific message), building team, club working on water reservation to promote messages about saving water…


The competition: Eco Challenge – The Future City in Vietnam (2014 – 2015) This is a national competition for high school students with the main activity is an serious online game contest about environment and water governance. The competition is based on a serious game named Aqua Republica which was developed by UNEP-DHI with the purpose of raising people’s awareness on the importance and challenges of managing the limited natural resources in the context of rising need and competition in society leading to a threat to sustainable development. The game starts from water governance methodology of UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), emphasizing on the importance of eco-system including the clean water sources, natural disaster reduction and food security… This online competition used technology, communication and internet which are modern tools that attracts young people. It targeted the huge trend among youngsters nowadays which is online game. It is a new and useful way to provide practical knowledge about life, natural resources management and sustainable national development to the youth. At the same time, it helps young people to approach realistic information, to seek for more knowledge and find solution to design a sustainable ecological city of their own.


SOME TRAINING METHODS Experiencial learning cycle

One highly recommended method that can increase the efficiency of training and integration is experiential learning cycle, or it can be called “lessons translate into actions” (Felicia, 2011). David Kolb, an American theory educationist proposed 4 steps of experiential learning model as follow:





How can we design a training based on this learning model? First and foremost, the role of trainer/teacher or facilitator (hereafter we will use the word “trainer” for short) is to assist participants to learn and apply the lesson correctly. Therefore, before designing an integrated lesson plan, trainer needs to clarify what the core focus of the training is. Trainer can follow this step-by-step guide: Step 1: Analyze participants Where are they? How is their attitude towards this topic, are they eager to learn? How much do they know about the topic? How much have they practiced or applied? What do they need to learn and how do they want to learn? Step 2: Identify objectives of the lesson The learning objectives need to be very clear so that you can design its content easily and appropriately. For example: what should learners receive after 45 minutes, after 90 minutes? In order to identify the objectives, you need to answer two questions: what are the objectives? (skill or knowledge, or both?) at which level? For example: the objective can be that students will understand the concept or they understand and can repeat or they understand and can explain from their point of view? Step 3: Design experiential activities Experiential exercise is one of the most important indicator defining the success of your lesson. Learners will conclude the lesson points for themselves after going through each experience designed by trainer. Therefore, the experiential exercise needs to be closely related to the topic for learners to be able to analyze. Experiential activities can include: listen, watch, smell, taste, hands-on, feel or deep thinking. However, note that these activities should create emotion, excite learners and make them think deeply.


Step 4: Design analyzing activity and summarize the lesson At this step, trainer will ask questions about the activity for learners to recognize their own experience, come up with deduces and lessons. Step 5: Design application activity Application activity is the part where trainer can suggest how learners can relate from lesson to reality. The application activity has different levels: relate to real life, apply to act, apply to go deeper into the lesson. To help you get a clearer understanding of “Experiential learning cycle”, we would like to provide a detailed example

Sample lesson The context: design a lesson about water shortage and water conservation for a group of 20 students in Hanoi. The lesson will be in 90 minutes (2 classes) STEP 1: ANALYZE PARTICIPANTS Our participants are 18-22 year old students who are studying in Hanoi. In terms of attitude, we will try targeting students who are eager to learn but do not have basic understanding about the water situation. Hence, we identify what students should learn are overall and basic information about water shortage, the importance of saving water and how to save water in city life. The lesson should be designed to be cheerful, interactive with both individual and group activities.

STEP 2: IDENTIFY OBJECTIVES OF THE LESSON We only have 90 minutes, therefore we should focus on the main message of “Water for human’s use is becoming scarce”. This objective limits the lesson in providing basic information. After this lesson, we hope students would understand and can repeat the message. STEP 3: DESIGN EXPERIENTIAL ACTIVITIES Since the message is “Water for human’s use is becoming scarce”, we choose experiential activity to be watching short clips about water shortage, sending “wow” numbers about how the water resource is being depleted.


STEP 4: DESIGN ANALYZING ACTIVITY AND SUMMARIZE THE LESSON After the experiential activity, we can ask students some questions to conclude what they learn: • What have you seen? Which part gives you a big impression? (Students will sum up issues about water they have watched in the clips) • How do you feel? (Check their feeling and attitude towards the topic) • Why the situation is like this? How did we get here? (Let students brainstorm on the causes of water shortage) • What can we do? (Let students think of actions they can do, prepare for the next step – Step 5).

STEP 5: DESIGN APPLICATION ACTIVITY We will design application activity using green living tips to save water in the city. To complete the exercise, trainer can invite students to choose the actions that suit them, try doing that in at least a month and audit to see the differences. You can include group activities in either step 4 or step 5 to let students interactive with each other. This is a basic example of designing lesson plan using experiential learning model. Based on the lesson’s message, for example “water is being polluted” or “the agriculture sector in Vietnam is using too much water”…, the experiential activity will need to be re-designed accordingly.


BEST PRACTICES ANALYSIS Relevant examples are usually provided as story-telling, best practices or case study. This tool is being used widely nowadays with the same objective of inspiration. Sometimes knowledge about sustainability might be seen as “theorical”, “too idealistic” or even “dreamy”. Therefore, showing true stories with real people doing real actions will help make the sustainable picture become clearer and more realistic. The closer the case to learners’ life context, the more persuasive it would be. Main values of best practices: • To be examples (to understand complex issues); • To create emotions (learners will interact with real people in real life with true experience); • To be proves (of what has been done of is being done) Using this method, trainers can fulfil many objectives such as: • Draw attention of learners (have you imagine that…?); • Check learners’ knowledge (do you know that…?); • Provide proves for their argument (it shows that…); • Help learners to connect theory and practice; • Develop critical thinking (what would you do in this situation?) and understanding about complex relationship among economics, social and environment in one country; • Raise awareness and encourage actions from learners (what can we do to achieve this?) Some notes when using this method: • Case-study need to be well prepared and checked for its credibility and update (is it still working? Is it available?) • Avoid using controversial cases with too many opposite opinions and do not have a credible source to check. • Even if the lesson time is limited, you should provide enough information for learners to connect from the best practice to themselves and their living condition. Providing more references for learners to research deeper on their own afterwards is highly recommended. To assist the best practices or case studies, trainers can collect more documents like maps, statistics, professional experience, successful stories, products and services related to organize more activities in class and support deeper research upon a certain topic. We will provide 2 case-study examples for your references as follow.


HOW CLEAN WATER CHANGES LIVES IN A SMALL TOWN OF SOUTH SUDAN In South Sudan, estimatedly only half the population has access to clean water. Imagine having to spend more than an hour to go get water from the river everyday. Especially, having to do that on a wheelchair. This is the challenge Nyahok Yar has to face everyday at Bentiu town located in the north of South Sudan. She has to move on the 3-wheel cycle by herself under the harsh temperature that sometimes rise over 40 degree Celsius. When the rainy season comes, getting water becomes an impossible task for her. If no one helps, she will have to go out in the rain even though it might mean getting trapped for hours on the way. “Sometimes I got trapped on the way, I had to stay the whole night because no one was there to help. I had to be away from my kids and that made me very worried since there’s no one to take care of them” – Nyahok said.

Photo: Nyahok Yar – disabled and has to move in 3-wheel cycle to get water with her kid in Bentiu – South Sudan.

Water service change lives In Bentiu, UNICEF and other partners recovered and upgraded the town’s water treatment plant via the initiative of USAID. The water provivder is now operating fully and the factory produces around 500.000 litres of water per day. All of the water is safely treated. Water then will be pumped to 22 water supply stations in the city, including schools, health centers and resident areas. The station near Nyahok’s house is one of them. Because of this new water system, now she only has to spend 5 minutes to go and take water with the help of her children, therefore she can go many times during a day. Basic service like this has transformed the lives of people in a positive way, not only for people like Nyahok but also for the whole community. In Machakos elementary school in Bentiu, the principal – Mr. James Thudan Kuol said that there were more children going to school after the water pump works. In 2017, UNICEF has supported over 600.000 people in South Sudan to access to clean water and over 200.000 people to have proper sanitation.


TWO 8TH CLASS FEMALE STUDENTS DESIGNED A SYSTEM TO TURN SALT WATER INTO FRESH WATER USING SOLAR ENERGY With simple tools that cost under 200.000VND, two female students Nguyen Thi Thu Ngan and Nguyen Thi Yen Linh (from class 8A3 - Thuan Hung secondary school – Long My – Hau Giang) created a water purification equipment using solar energy to help their community. Taking about the idea for this unique equipment, Thu Ngan said that her hometown just suffered salinization, many families do not have enough water to use. Therefore she kept thinking of building a water purification tool to help them. Sharing the same thought, Yen Linh and Thu Ngan registered for the Green Creation Contest in Hau Giang in 2016. According to Yen Linh, once they agreed on building an equipment to turn salt water into fresh water, they started to sketch images and then went to find materials. “After many research and argument, Thu Ngan and I decided to use solar energy to purify salt water into fresh water. We started to finish our sketch on proposal so that we can start building it” – Yen Linh said.

Left photo: Their teacher instructors Yen Linh and Thu Ngan complete filtering equipment Right picture: Filtering equipment

Materials like Styrofoam boxes, plastic bottles, pipes, glasses in the house were reused and brought to school to execute their idea. They did this with great determination. From the sketched design, Thu Ngan and Yen Linh actualized it by putting their materials together. “However, when we started experimenting, there were some problems came up that we have not thought of when we draw the sketch. For example, using only 1 layer of glass, water will vapor very fast and does not condense because of the heat, then when it finally condensed it can not get out…”- said Thu Ngan. With the support from teachers and the school, added on by their patience, hard work and intelligence, finally the water purification system to turn salt water to fresh water of Thu Ngan and Yen Linh worked successfully after 2 months of research. The structure of this equipment is quite simple: a Styrofoam box, the inside is covered with black plastic to absorb sunlight from the lens. Lens and a glass layer work to increase the reflection of sunlight. Together with that are 2 bottles to store hot water and drinking water, some pipes and faucets. The model is rather simple, materials are easy to find and can be used widely so that people do not have to worry about water shortage due to alum and salinization. This equipment can be placed anywhere with sunlight, even on the roof. The time to turn salt water into fresh water is quite short. Source:


Debate Debate is defined as an argument or discussion expressing different opinions about a certain topic. A debate occurs between two sides with opposing opinions: Proposition and Opposition about a specific notion, under one certain topic. In another way, two debate sides will bring up a controversial matter and members of each team will need to protect their notion. Examples of some motion related to “Sustainable water use”: “Water should be treated as trading good”, “Vietnam should have a water-friendly label for all products on the market”. The proposition team will need to look for arguments and evidences to convince people that this is necessary and should be supported. On the other hand, the opposition team needs to bring out reasons to prove why they disagree with the notion. Components of a debate: • Proposition team: agrees with the notion • Opposition team: disagrees with the notion • A jury (usually with un-even numbers of members, one of them will be time-keeper) • Audience (can be students or members of the other groups that is not involved directly in the debate) • One person to assist the jury in collecting and checking their vote The notion should be sent to teams a few hours to a few days before so that they have time to research and prepare for the debate. During the debate: • No high-tech can be used for the purpose of searching information • No support from others is allowed • Debaters need to cite sources for their evidence • Debaters have to speak the truth • Debaters need to work in teams. Objectives: Debate requires participants to work together in research, looking for information and coming up with evidences to support their arguments. In addition, information given in a debate needs to be correct. Hence, participants will be equipped with a lot of knowledge not only about the notion but also about the bigger topic. Besides, with the principle that everyone has the right to speak their opinion, ask questions, defend their side, debate helps connect participants to each other and to the trainer. Therefore, it encourages peaceful arguments, not criticism and provoking arguments. Additionally, debate helps learners to see different angles and understand why people with different opinions react the way they do and result in such actions in reality. Hence, multi-dimensional perspective and useful solutions will turn out.


Time Depending on the numbers of participants, the debate style and numbers of notion. Usually each debate takes at least 45 minutes - 1 hour.. Numbers of participant Depending on the debate style. The common style is Karl Popper which has 2 teams, each team has 3 official members. Venue: in the classroom Debate model There are many different debate styles and models, trainer can choose the one the most suit their objectives, the notion and the effect they want to create to participants. Trainers can read more about some common debate models that are popular in universities and colleges in Europe, the US, some Asia Developing countries and international competitions such as Karl Popper Debate, Parliamentary Debate, Lincoln-Douglas Debate (L-D). Advantage • Actively support learners to build skills on information synthesis, presentation, critical thinking • Learners will practice active listening and respect others’ opinion • Stimulate and encourage their curiosity Disadvantages • The law of debate usually is quite complicated, therefore it takes time to explain • If participants do not focus and pay attention to their research, the debate will not be productive


Water audit

Auditing is a strong tool to help bring the lesson closer to reality and do a knowledge check. In this method, trainer will invite participants to be involved in a audit of the water they use in their house, office or university.

Following is a sample example of a home audit exercise, however trainer can adjust it to fit with the content of specific lesson plan.

Home water audit STEPS

• Collect information: you can ask participants to create a list of activities that consume water in the house everyday, separate them into categories based on certain rooms or appliances. This will help to estimate how much and where water is being used, and how to save it. The list can include activities like shower, teeth brush, washing clothes, dish washing, water for toilet… It can also count the indirect use of water via “virtual water” or “water footprint” (using water in bottle, food, the production of stuff they use). • Conduct auditing: ask participants to audit at home (it could be before one class or between two continuous classes). Examples of audit: how much water run out of your faucet in a minute, volume of washing machine, toilet, bathtub…, check water bills of recent months, check possible water leaks in the house… • Compare and share data: organize a discussion in the class to compare the data they collected. Trainer can ask some guiding questions: is water being used reasonably in your house? Is it leaking? Do you use old and water intensive appliances? Do you think saving water mean saving money? What are the consequences of wasting water to the society and environment? Can you create an action plan to reduce your water use? • Action plan: the final purpose of this exercise is to come up with actions learners can do to reduce the water use and loss in their house. Participants can compare water bills of 2 continuous months to check the different before and after they apply this action plan.


EVALUATION Trainer can evaluate the success of this method in saving water by: • Information objectives: learners understand about water wasting intentionally and un-intentionally happening in their house, the difference in water use all over the world and develop a critical thinking about in-equality of water access among developed, developing and underdeveloped countries. • Action objectives: (1) Participants check their home appliances, water clock and water bill to track the use of water in their house and compare after each month; (2) Participants start applying water saving habit and encourage others to use water more responsibly.

Other methods can be used effectively in training facilitation are World Café, Nominal Group Technique (NGT), Circle Negotiation, Fast Prioritization… You can read more about these methods in the guidebook “Ecological lifestyle – Trainer guide” published by Center for Development of Community Initiative and Environment with the support from Rosa Luxemburg Stiftung (July, 2016).




In this guidebook, we will introduce some suggestions of program together with examples about organization agenda for trainers to use as reference. EXAMPLE 1: A TRAINING LESSON PLAN When building a training plan, you can use the combination of different content and method to integrate a topic efficiently. After identifying your objectives and target groups, the next step is to build an organizing plan for the training. The content of a training should take into account 5 important factors: • Lesson’s objective • Main content • Approach • Teaching documents • Evaluation method Besides, a training plan needs to have further specific information such as time, venue… To give you a clearer image, we would like to introduce a basic plan sample design based on the model from the toolkit “Training for Trainer: Training Fundamentals” of UN ESCAP (2001)

Trainer: Nguyễn Văn A

Date: 20/04/20XX

Time: 8:30 – 10:00 (AM)

Topic: Fresh water is scarce

Venue: Classroom X – University Y

CLASS’S OBJECTIVES - Send a message on “Water for human use has become scarce” - Give some tips on saving water that learners can apply in their lives. CONTENT Introduction: Introduce the main topic of the lesson



10 minutes 2 minutes to explain the rule and form groups 3 minutes for groups to work on the mission 5 minutes to sum up

Game: Match words with numbers Trainer divide the class into 2 or 4 groups. Each group needs to match key-words in box A with numbers in box B to form correct facts about water The group has the most correct matches win.

DOCUMENTS/ TOOLS 2-4 sets of kit (depending on the numbers of group). Each kit contains 1 box with key-words about water and 1 box with numbers relevant to the facts go with key-words


Main content: Part 1: The situation of water shortage

5 minutes

Projector, screen, Experiential activity: Watch video clip: “WATER - our most laptop. Viet sub for video precious resource” clip (if needed)

10 minutes

Summarize activity Ask questions related to the clip: - What have you seen? (Suggest participants to talk about numbers related to water) - How does that make you feel? - Why the situation is like this? (Suggest participants to talk about reasons led to water shortage and pollution) - What can we do about it? Sum up

5 minutes

Give detailed lesson about the water situation (give shocking photos, numbers; try to include numbers and photos from their city to make it feel closer)

Slide, laptop, projector, screen

Big photo with different rooms in a house Small pieces of paper, color pen, glue

Break time

15 minutes

Main content: Part 2: How to save water

15 minutes

Group activity Divide participants into 2 groups Each group receive photo of a house with different room: bathroom, kitchen, laundry room, living room, garden… Their task is to think of what can they do to save water in each room of the house They can write these actions on small pieces of paper and stick it on the relevant room.

5 minutes

Sharing Each group shares what they have done

10 minutes

Summarize actions to save water (you can add on the sharing of participants)

5 minutes

Invite participants to do water audit at Water audit form home. They will apply water saving tips for a month and keep track on the water bill to see the difference.


Reserved time

10 minutes


SAMPLE 2: A FIELD TRIP Duration: 2 hours In each training course we should have at least 1 field trip to visit cases or individuals who are practicing sustainability. These are cases or individuals that applied sustainable lifestyle into activities or places that might have an impact on the change in awareness and behaviour of participants. When organizing a field trip, trainers should pay attention to these factors to create a relevant practicing plan: • Choose cases that are realistic, practical with simple actions, easy to follow and appropriate to the context that participants come from • Guarantee that participants understand fully about what is happening at the destination or what they are about to do. • Try organizing hands-on experience instead of just talk or introduction. • Encourage participants to ask questions to understand deeper about the cases. Visit water treatment model of SEAPRODEX Hai Phong (a branch of Vietnam Seafood Corporations) NO





Explain the plan and activities of the field trip

- Go through the schedule - Form groups for later activities - Explain the rule of the integration team that will be used in the field trip: collect information and answer quizzes in the given form

10 minutes



Sharing and visit different zones inside the seafood production areas of SEAPRODEX Hai Phuong such as office zone, port zone, domestic and export manufacturing factories, waste water treatment plant. During the visit, participants will learn about the use of water during the whole production process, how much water is being used everyday for running the system, about waste water and its treatment before going out to the environment

60 minutes



Groups turn in their answer form Trainers sum up information, check the form answers and explain some difficult questions. Trainers can ask expert or representative from the company to provide more professional information Ending by a circle of sharing about how participants think or feel at the end of the field trip

30 minutes


Evaluation of training and field trip

One of the important steps in building training and integration plan is evaluation. Have we reached our objectives via this educational activity? Have the given knowledge matched the expectation of learners? Have our approach been successful?... All the above questions can be answered if we have an appropriate evaluation tool. One of the most common evaluation tools is survey. We usually come back to the objective set out at the beginning of the class. Based on the result and expected outcome, we can access whether our training succeed or not, what should be changed, what have been done well. You can refer to 4 levels of training evaluation built by Kirk Patrick (in 1994) including: LEVEL 1: ATTITUDE Observe attitude and the participation of students before, during and after the training. Do they show that they like the training? Do they actively participate in activities or just sit and listen? Suggestion: • Use short questions about their feelings or thoughts after the training (regarding content, approach, in general,…) • Short survey after the training LEVEL 2: KNOWLEDGE RECEIVED What knowledge that participants received from the training? Did they learn something new? Do they find these knowledge useful? Suggestion: • Ask students to take a knowledge test before and after the training • Make a list of key points that they learn in the training • Check with them by asking questions, talking after the training LEVEL 3: ACTION How would participants apply knowledge and skill that they have learnt? Would they change their behaviour or remind/spread it to their community? Suggestion: Evaluate after 3-6 months by checking skills, knowledge via survey or interview


LEVEL 4: RESULT At this level, you need to identify the impact of the training in both short term and long term Suggestion: Interview – evaluate not only participants but their community to check the short term effect and using survey and data analysis to check the long term impact. The time for this evaluation might take a few years depending on the capacity of trainers.  




READING MATERIAL 1. Center for Development of Community Initiative and Environment, Lessons on Sustainable Development: Teacher guide of We Learn To Live Green program, 2015 2. Center for Development of Community Initiative and Environment, Pilot Training Guide of Building Capacity towards Sustainable Lifestyle, 2010 3. Center for Development of Community Initiative and Environment, Sustainable Lifestyle – Trainer Guide, 2016 4. United Nations Environmental Program, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, YouthXchange – Guidebook on Lifestyle and Climate Change, 2012 5. United Nations Environmental Program, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, YouthXchange – Guidebook on Responsible Consumption, 2011 6. United Nations Environmental Program, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Youth, Sustainable Consumption Patterns and Lifestyles, 2000 Other materials from United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP), United Nations Water Program (UN Water) and World Wide Fund For Nature.


REFERENCE Vietnamese Material

[1] Đinh Thị Như Trang, (2014), Sử dụng tiết kiệm tài nguyên nước ở một số quốc gia và bài học kinh nghiệm cho Việt Nam, Tạp chí Khoa học ĐHQGHN, Kinh tế và Kinh doanh, Tập 30, Số 1 (2014) 72-77. [2] Nguyễn Thanh Sơn, (2005), Đánh giá tài nguyên nước Việt Nam, NXB ĐH Quốc gia Hà Nội. [3] Nguyễn Thị Thúy Hà, (2015), Thực trạng, nguyên nhân gây ô nhiễm nước từ hóa chất và đề xuất các giải pháp kiểm soát ô nhiễm nước, Tạp chí Môi trường số 11 – 2015, Trung tâm Dữ liệu và Ứng phó sự cố hóa chất, Bộ Công Thương. [4] Trần Thanh Xuân, (2011), ‘Tài nguyên nước mặt Việt Nam và những thách thức trong tương lai’, Trang thông tin điện tử trung tâm quy hoạch và điều tra tài nguyên nước quốc gia, [truy cập ngày 15/10/2017] [5] Trung tâm Quan Trắc Môi trường, (2012), Báo cáo môi trường quốc gia năm 2012: Môi trường nước mặt

English Material

[6] A.Y. Hoekstra, (2015), The Water Footprint: The Relation Between Human Consumption and Water Use, Springer International Publishing Switzerland, Switzerland. [7] Arjen Y. Hoekstra, Ashok K. Chapagain, Maite M. Aldaya and Mesfin M. Mekonnen, (2011), The Water Footprint Assessment Manual, Earthscan, Washington, DC. [8] Bates, B.C., Z.W. Kundzewicz, S. Wu and J.P. Palutikof, Eds., 2008: Climate Change and Water. Technical Paper of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Secretariat, Geneva, 210 pp. [9] The Alliance of Water Efficiency - Home Water Works [Online] - [10] Formas, the Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, (2008), Water for Food [11] Global Reporting Initiative, Pacific Institute, United Nations Global Compact, (2011) The CEO Water Mandate. [12] United Nations, (2014), Internationa Decade for Action, Water for Life 2005-2015, Water and food security UNESCO – World Water Assessment Programme, (2003), World Water Development Report: Water for People - Water for Life [14] UN-Water Decade Programme on Advocacy and Communication (UNW-DPAC), (2015), Water and sustainable development (Information brief) [15] World Business Council for Sustainable Development and the United Nations Environment Programme, (1998), Industry, Fresh Water and Sustainable Development

The Earth provides enough to satisfy every man’s need, not for every man’s greed -Mahatma Gandhi -

Sustainable water use  
Sustainable water use