Issuu on Google+

www.fidibe.eu


Initiative realized by Sviluppo Basilicata SpA within the framework of the FIDIBE Project (wp 3.1) SEE Programme 2007-2013 Raffaele Ricciuti - Sole Administrator Responsible of project local activities: Vittorio Simoncelli - Head of Sviluppo Basilicata SpA Project Area Sviluppo Basilicata SpA Project Team: Valentino Abbatantuono, Maria Giovanna Lecce, Assunta Lo Tito, Gaetano Torchia, Annamaria Verrastro Analysis and text elaboration: Maria Giovanna Lecce - Project Area Sviluppo Basilicata SpA Translation: Manuela Lapenta Editorial coordination: Annamaria Verrastro - Communication Service Sviluppo Basilicata SpA

Sviluppo Basilicata SpA Head Office Via Centomani, 11 85100 Potenza Tel. +39 0971 50661 Fax +39 0971 506664 Matera Office Rioni Sassi Recinto I° Fiorentini 75100 Matera Tel. +39 0971 50661 Fax +39 0971 506655 Business Incubators » Area Industriale Alta Val D’Agri di Viggiano 85050 Grumento Nova Tel. +39 0975 311343 Fax +39 0975 350174 » Rioni Sassi area Civita (under completion) Via San Nicola del Sole 75100 Matera info@sviluppobasilicata.it www.sviluppobasilicata.it We apologise in advance for any mistakes that might remain in the text Graphic project: BEAT di Giovanni Brienza - Potenza Final print December 2010


FIDIBE Project in Basilicata (Val d’Agri) The present publication has been accomplished by Sviluppo Basilicata within the framework of FIDIBE project - Development of Innovative Business Park- aimed at promoting innovation and entrepreneurship in SEE (South East Europe) transnational cooperation area, through the implementation of transnational partnerships and joint actions on strategic issues. Sviluppo Basilicata is developing the actions of FIDIBE Project in Basilicata in the Val D’Agri area. The company has already carried out: the present publication, consisting in the Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata and the Best Practice ‘Innovation Factory’; the start-up of High Val D’Agri Business Incubator, whose presence may allow to better interpret the needs of the whole area. Furthermore, an IBP (innovative business park) operational manual, to be used as a guide for both the creation of new parks and the enlargement of already existing parks, is expected to be drafted. The actions of FIDIBE project in Basilicata fall within the 2007-2013 Regional Strategy for Research and Innovation, conceived to ‘improve context conditions’ and promote innovative projects and activities carried out by enterprises and stakeholders working for the research (University, Research Bodies, Innovation Centres, Technology Transfer Centres), towards which Sviluppo Basilicata pays particular attention for the creation of partnerships aimed to set up an energy district of innovative enterprises. As foreseen by the project, during local action planning, a working group (the RNM Regional Network Meeting) has been created by involving the members of industry, science and research systems, institutions, local administrations, universities, associations/foundations, and enterprises of the area. Since its creation, the RNM has been conceived as a multi-voice instrument, so to have the possibility and availability of several contributions, able to orient the project proposals at a local level and to keep a constant attention on the issues of innovative enterprise in the Val d’Agri Area. We would like to thank all the stakeholders involved. Raffaele Ricciuti Sole Administrator Sviluppo Basilicata SpA

2

www.fidibe.eu Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


CONTENTS ABSTRACT5 PART I - Executive Summary PART II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

8 24

II.1 Introduction

24

II.2 Specific characteristics of the region under study

33

II.2.1 General Situation in the region and regional indicators

33

II.2.2 SWOT analysis of the region

53

PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

58

III.1 The general situation of the business sector, mostly focusing to innovative entrepreneurship

58

III.2 Entrepreneurship policies in the region-country mostly focusing on the impacts for the innovative enterprises, start-ups and spin-offs

73

III.3 Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability of the region

92

III.4 SWOT analysis for the general situation of the business sector mainly identifying the main problems innovative enterprises are faced with

100

PART IV - Suggestions and proposals for over-passing problems of entrepreneurship (innovative SMEs) in the region of Basilicata

106

PART V - Main Conclusions

112

Bibliography

115

3 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


4 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


ABSTRACT The study on Basilicata’s innovation potential has as a primary objective to investigate the socio-economic situation, paying special attention to the problems associated with the development of innovative entrepreneurship. The authors intend to investigate the overall scenario concerning the specific characteristics of the region and the main socio-economic indicators, by formulating a detailed SWOT analysis on various items such as: policies, infrastructures, programmes/legislation, social – political - legal factors, technological progress, presence/absence of science and technology parks, business incubators. This study deals with the enterprise policies enabled both on regional and national level; a special focus is devoted to the impacts that these policies have and/or will have on innovative companies, start-ups and spin-offs. Later on, the authors examine the scientific supply system in Basilicata and present the key actors contributing to the development of innovative capability within the region. A further SWOT analysis focuses on issues related to innovation and, in particular, to the problems faced by innovative companies in the reference territory. In the last section, they give suggestions and proposals to overcome the problems related to entrepreneurship in Basilicata, and indicate a possible path to follow for small and medium sized enterprises in order to develop and consolidate themselves, so leaving the impasse.

5 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


6 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART I Executive Summary

7 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART I - Executive Summary

The study on Basilicata’s innovation potential has as a primary objective to investigate the socio-economic situation, paying special attention to the problems associated with the development of innovative entrepreneurship. The adopted methodology is an analysis starting from “the bottom”: data and indicators are used in order to verify the state of the art of innovation in Basilicata. Tables and graphics have been exploited to present a glaringly picture of the socio-economic situation of the region. From the analysis carried out, it emerges that even in Basilicata, as in the rest of the Country, the core of the current crisis stands in the industrial sector, which has ended 2008 with the absolute worst ever results. At the end of the year, in particular, manufacturing activity recorded a fall of 4.5%, and a 5.4% loss of the turnover. Unfortunately, negative trends characterize almost all main sectors (as well as a large tranche of companies regardless of their sizes), with very heavy falls in textile and clothing, wood and furniture, where the crisis has assumed a structural character over the years. The record levels achieved by short-time allowances certify the state of deep unease of local industry: 5 million and a half throughout 2008. Besides, labour market went through a very difficult year: on the one hand, the sharp jump in unemployment (+18.5%), almost entirely due to the expulsion of labour force from production; on the other, the employment trend kept positive in services sector (particularly for the “independent” component), until a sharp fall in late 2008 (-2.3%), coinciding with the hardening of the economic crisis. The turnover analysis also confirms the trends shown for industrial production: after a start of 2008 with limited losses (-0.5%), the turnover of manufacturing SMEs has recorded even more marked drops and, in the last fraction of 2008, showed a fall of 5.4%; there was a -2.2% trend variation during 12 months against the +0.2% of the previous year. This situation reflects the presence, within the regional productive structure, of small and very small enterprises, that are not strong enough, from a management or finance point of view, to enter the foreign trade (in fact, the incidence of exporting firms does not exceed 2% of the units with less than 10 employees, but reaches 55% among those with more than 50 employees).

8

The crisis affecting Basilicata production system since 2000 is partially explained by entrepreneurial weakness -both economical and dimensionalbeing in most cases family-holdings and the objective difficulty of access to credit (even deeper after Basel 2 rules), which in fact impedes long-term planning. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part I - Executive Summary

The following table resumes the scenario in Basilicata and highlights the negative trends of the industrial production, turnover, orders, and so forth: Tab. 1 - Main indicators of regional economic conditions annual rate of change (%) - unless otherwise indicated 2007 Gross Domestic Product Manufacturing

2008

IV quarter of 2008

1.0

0.5

0.5

-0.1

-1.9

-4.5

Industrial turnover

-0.2

-2.2

-5.4

Industrial orders

-1.1

-2.2

-5.7

Retail sales

-1.7

-3.4

-1.9

6.5

0.3

...

Number of tourists Exports

22.00

-6.6

-43.5

Imports

2.6

-11.2

-31.7

Non-agricultural holdings (a)

0.78

0.48

0.00

Bank lending to companies

10.0

1.2

...

Bank lending to families

11.5

-3.8

...

Consumer prices Total Employed • in industrial Sector • in service sector Total amount of short-time allowance hours (b) Rate of unemployment (c)

2.0

3.3

2.3

-1.0

0.4

-2.3

-1.8

-3.8

-8.7

0.2

3.1

-0.1

-7.7

159.2

283.8

9.6

11.1

11.5

a. Companies birth and death rates b. manufacturing c. absolute level Source: Unioncamere, L’Economia della Basilicata nel 2008, April 2009 *Unioncamere is the institutional body representing the Italian Chambers of Commerce

After two years of sustained growth, the exports suffered a setback in 2008, due to the lower volume of foreign sales in car industry, that keeps on influencing the statements of made in Basilicata products, both in a positive (expanding markets) and negative (declining market) sense. Imports decreased as well; its trend was affected by lower demand for raw materials and semi-manufactured products by the local production system. Auto industry influenced last year negative balance in exports: the sales in international markets fell by 23.7% (more than 330 million Euros less). In addition, Basilicata has also a series of problems linked to the orography of its territory and in the recent years it went through a decline in birth rates, very strong in 2000-2005 period, when the region lost something about the 1% of the population (passing from 599,404 to 594,086 unities). Besides this decline, a progressive process of ageing (in 2005 the 19.6% of the total population was composed by over 65 years old people) is recorded, as well as an increase of the migratory flow; and this is particularly true for young people. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

9


Part I - Executive Summary

In fact, the region Basilicata has a structural difficulty, due to the geographical position (it is very far from richest markets) and to its uneven and problematic orography and geological profile. Therefore, the investments needed to remove these conditions of isolation and difficult accessibilities are practically out of reach for the Region and, often, also for the Nation itself. An underground mountain thoroughfare can, for example, cost 400 million Euros, that means almost six years of oil royalties collecting by the region. But transport services are penalized as well, essentially because of the very small serviceable market, for which it is impossible to maintain transport services, without consistent state aids to dealership enterprises (recent cases show, for example, the cancellation of the Eurostar train linking Taranto, Potenza and Rome, a fundamental service for the whole territory that only after a long debate - even in the Parliament - and several demonstrations was opened up again). Even the absence of an airport (the project of Pisticci airport, near Matera, is still in a discussion phase) deeply penalizes both tourism (it has a very good potential on international market, thanks to the city of Matera and to the coast of Metaponto, but, obviously, foreign tourists must be able to travel easily and quickly) and fresh fruit and vegetables coming from Metaponto. With regard to road and railway infrastructures, at the beginning of 20002006 cycle, Basilicata placed itself at the bottom of Southern regions’ rank, with an index of 45.1% (being 100 the total amount of national endowments). In particular, it occupied the second-last position in Southern Italy ranks in terms of total kilometres of road network (about 4,900 Km of highways, main roads and provincial roads, equal to 48,78 Km /10,000 sq Km). As regards to social facilities, a fundamental issue concerns the socio-health system. Regional framework is characterized by unbalance factors such as the ageing population (in terms of average age). In order to face the above described criticalities, 2000-2006 Regional Operational Programme (ROP) adopted a strategy to fill the gap of infrastructure services, relying on both physical and intangible networks; within information economy, in fact, web accessibility is a fundamental factor for inclusion. The starting situation justified a particular focus on such aspect, since in 2000 only 11.4% of families had Internet access, being the national average 15.4%. Within this vision, the Information Society in Basilicata received a strong input in the previous period of EU planning thanks to BASITEL Plan. The efforts made by the Region (2000-2006 cycle) to promote and diffuse ICT tools, services and applications, found a confirmation in the implementation of BASITEL 2 integrated project Basitel 2 introduced many changes, worth mentioning: 10

Âť a complete and combined network system for regional Public Administration, that is the interconnection among all local and corporate Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part I - Executive Summary

bodies, the providing of Internet tools for over 40,000 families and for about 120,000 citizens (20% of the total population); » a central reservation unit call centre for health services (call centre, named CUP); » a multiplex contact centre portal for the improvement of the accessibility to regional services; » support services for e-commerce and e-learning; » the introduction of electronic signature for a safe use of telecommunication services. A consistent part of the physical network interventions forecasted by the Operational Programme, has been reprised, in its strategic aspects, by the so-called “Objective Law”. Tab. 2 - Primary interventions of national interest in Basilicata Region: “Objective Law” Rail corridors Road corridors

Transversal road connections

Basilicata sector of Taranto – Sibari line Basilicata sector of Salerno- Reggio Calabria highway (with an intervention on Nova Siri – Metaponto sector) North South Tirrenian Adriatic between A3 and A16 highways (Lauria – Potenza – Melfi – Candela line) Salerno – Potenza – Bari (with a programmed intervention in Vaglio junction and S.S. 96/S.S. 169) Pollino – Murgia (with intervention between Matera and Gioia del Colle, Pisticci and Valsinni, Ferrandina and Matera)

Source: M. Spinedi, Regione Basilicata “Strategie nazionali e scenari regionali della Basilicata nella mobilità delle merci e dei passeggeri, 2006

The following is a more general list of the strategic infrastructural interventions planned by ROP and regional programmatic documents for 2000-2006: » upgrading of local transport networks: this measure aims at overcoming the existing infrastructural discrepancy inside the regional transport system; » intangible networks: the measures aims at favouring the use of new computer technologies, facilitating the access of the citizens to fundamental services, promoting the knowledge of Information Society’s potentialities, as well as sustaining internationalization and cooperation – both transnational and interregional- processes; » policies for strengthening and upgrading urban areas: the measure aims at enhancing the quality of the regional urban system primarily in the cities of Potenza and Matera; » integrated water cycle: it aims at ensuring the suitable water availability for municipal and industrial uses; » waste and pollution: this measure aims at environmental preservation and protection, trough the reduction in waste production- and in their dangerousness - and through an integrated management. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

11


Part I - Executive Summary

The Regional Development strategy The Regional strategy for innovation focused priority interventions around the already existing potentials of the territory, both in terms of geological resources and in terms of production and research settlements. The activities of earth observation, energy, mobility, agro-biotechnology find their focus poles, respectively, in Potenza and Matera, Val d’Agri, Melfi and Metaponto. The fifth area considered, the one dealing with materials and new production technologies, is transversal because it can be actually referred to all research and production sectors. The strategy behind investments in these areas aims not only to reinforce each pole and field, but especially to develop and strengthen every possible connection between the four sectors. Therefore, the possible interconnections between the various existing poles may be the following: Mobility  Earth Observation The interconnectivity between Melfi automotive pole and earth observation poles in Potenza and Matera, can find useful applications within security and mobile-information sectors, by developing, for example, satellite communications systems with radiolocation technologies, radio and satellite systems, driving assistance via sensors (loops, infrared, radar, ultrasound), and so forth. Mobility  Agri-biotechnologies With regard to this possible connection, it may concern the development of technologies able to fight desertification and climate change, agro-meteorology, environmental monitoring, etc. Energy  Agri-biotechnologies The possible connections between the energy poles of Val d’Agri and agricultural–biotechnologies developed in Metaponto, concern investments in terms of research and development of renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic energy, wind power, biomass energy and, not least, algae oil production. Energy  Mobility The possible connections between the energy poles of Val d’Agri and the automotive in Melfi concern sustainable mobility, that is to say investments in research and development of transport technologies with low environmental impact such as electric vehicles, LPG hybrids, etc. Energy  Earth Observation

12

The possible connections between the energy poles of Val d’Agri and earth observation poles in Potenza and Matera concern the security and mining technologies. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part I - Executive Summary

Research and Development’s Activities The weakness of Basilicata production system, with a prevalence of smallsized enterprises operating in traditional sectors with low propensity to innovation, is clearly visible for the low investments in Research & Development (R & D) activities. The following Table shows the constant and sharp gap between Basilicata and Italy in 2002-2005 cycle, despite the Region has invested an increasing amount of financial resources in scientific research and technological innovation. Indeed, in 2005, the regional expenditure on R&D amounted to 53 million Euros, equal to 0.34% of the national expenditure. Tab. 3 - Expenditure for intra muros R&D on GDP at current prices – Years 2002-2005 Expenditure for intra muros R&D on GDP at current prices Italy

Years 2002 1.13%

2003

2004

1.11%

1.10%

2005 1.10%

South

0.76%

0.78%

0.83%

0.80%

Convergence area

0.76%

0.79%

0.85%

0.82%

Basilicata

0.48%

0.51%

0.56%

0.53%

Source: ISTAT (National Institute of Statistics) processing – 2005

This expenditure is mainly supported by Universities and research centres with 44.4% and by the enterprise system with 37.8%; public institutions follow with 17.7% and, finally, at a significantly lower cost (0.1%), the sector of private non-profit institutions. In 2002-2005 period R&D employees of Basilicata Region (Table 4) are gradually increased, following the positive trend that has characterized Italy as a whole. Tab. 4 - R & D Employees - Years 2002-2005 (expressed in full-time equivalent *) R&D EMPLOYEES

Absolute values 2002

2003

2004

2005

164,023.0

161,827.8

164,026.3

175,247.6

South

32,201.0

32,730.8

33,801.2

35,675.9

Convergence area

25,309.0

25,659.0

26,702.7

28,247.6

678.0

707.9

708.9

726.4

Italy

Basilicata

*Units expressed in full-time equivalent. The consultants operating within enterprises, public institutions and private non-profit institutions for R&D development account as a research staff to all effects. The datum of university sector also includes those who receive a research grant. Source: Processing on ISTAT data – 2005

Nevertheless, Basilicata records a strong delay when compared to Italy. Indeed, in 2002, R&D employees in Basilicata are equal to 0.41%, in 2003 to 0.44% and in 2004 to 0.43%. These data are confirmed in 2005, when Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

13


Part I - Executive Summary

Basilicata, with 0.41% of employees in R&D sector, is still among the Italian regions with the lowest amount of resources in the area. Only Molise and Valle d’Aosta have a lower value. The analysis of the breakdown by institutional sector in Basilicata shows that the biggest contribution in terms of R&D human resources is given by the University and national research institutions (CNR, ENEA, CRA), and to a smaller extent, by businesses. Another important way to look at the innovative capability of Basilicata, consists in measuring the patents obtained in relation to population. Restricting the analysis to European Patent Office data, Italy shows a positive growth trend from 58.2 patents per capita per million inhabitants in 2002 to 67.1 in 2005. The number of patents generated in Basilicata, although lower than the national average and beyond the strong fluctuation from 2002 to 2003, seems to be in line with the average of Southern Regions (Table 5). Tab. 5 - Number of European patents submitted to EPO - 2002-2005 Per capita per million inhabitants European patents submitted to EPO Italy

Years 2002

2003

2004

2005

58.2

59.6

68.4

67.1

South

4.9

6.1

5.4

6.5

Basilicata

6.7

3.3

3.3

3.4

Source: European Patent Office

These findings are confirmed by the European Innovation Scoreboard 20061, which shows R&I performance level of the regions of EU Member States through the RNSII2 index. For the Basilicata region this index, measuring the innovation capacity of competitive research, technology transfer and modernization of regional systems over time, is equal to 0.29 (where 1 is the score of the most innovative region of the EU). Basilicata occupies a lower position compared to Lazio (0.57), Lombardy and Piedmont (0.49), while it is less negative than other Southern regions, with the exception of Campania. On the contrary, a strong competitive ability of Basilicata stands in high tech sectors where employment reaches 8.92%, exceeding both the national level (7.3%) and the European average (7.41%)3. This datum is related to the presence of major national groups in chemical and automotive industries on the territory. Regional technological equipment Despite the successful policies so far implemented by the Regional Admini1 2

14

3

The European Innovation Scoreboard is a study of the Directorate General for Research European Commission for the annual audit of the progress made in achieving the objectives identified under the EU Lisbon Strategy in 2000. The Regional National Summary Innovation Index, a composite index calculated on basis of 25 indicators of innovation, gives a measure of the overall innovation performance of a region. In particular, the reference indicators are: education, employment, R&D, patents, innovation of enterprises, diffusion of new technologies, dynamic performance and quality businesses, competitiveness, economic freedom. Source: PO FESR Regione Basilicata 2007-2013

Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part I - Executive Summary

stration to improve regional technological equipment, the infrastructural gap with other regions (especially the Northern) is largely explained by three factors: » a limited ADSL coverage: in June 2007 the total population served by ADSL was equal to 74% (against 89% in Italy and 86% of South and Islands) and, on 131 municipalities, only 50 had a coverage of over 95%; » low level of competition between operators: ULL (Unbundling Local Loop) telephone exchanges are still little-spread (12% of the population), compared with a 51% presence in Italy and 44% in the South; » unclear perspectives about the evolution of future access speed: in December 2006 Basilicata showed a clear separation from the national average and other regions of the South in terms of the fibre optic density both for backbone infrastructure and MAN infrastructures (as for the backbone: 7 Km/km2 against 15 Km/km2 of Italy and 11 Km/km2 of the South; for MAN: 2 Km/km2 against 12 Km/km2 of Italy and 7 Km/ km2 of the South). In 2007, the Region has a large number of autonomous data processing offices within its organizational structure. Another positive factor is the number of employees operating in regional ICT administrations: at the end of 2006 it is much higher than the national average (equivalent to 1.9 operator for every 100 employees). A reverse trend concerns employees’ training. The tendency of local governments to train their employees in ICT is much lower than the Italian average: employees who have participated in ICT training courses are only 3.3% against an 8.2% Italian average. Always referring to 2007, there are 74.7 personal or laptop computers for every 100 employees within Italian local governments, while Basilicata Region records an higher value (80.3%), even on the averages of Convergence area and Southern Italy. These positive results were achieved for the Intranet as well: 39.2% of regional administrations have such a network, to which 59.8% of the employees have access. The Internet connection, as well as e-mail use, is widespread in all local governments of Basilicata and is almost aligned with other governments of the Country. The computer equipment in local enterprises is in line with the national average: 94.4% of regional firms have been using personal computers and 92.1% have a connection to the Internet being the national average respectively 96.08% and 92.4%. A positive picture concerns the diffusion of companies’ websites (Table 6); although below the national datum (55.6%), it is in line with the average of the South (44.2%) and the Convergence area (44.0%). Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

15


Part I - Executive Summary

Tab. 6 - Computer equipment of enterprises – 2006 ENTERPRISES Italy South Convergence area Basilicata

Computer equipment PC use 96.0% 93.5% 94.0% 94.4%

Website 55.6% 44.2% 44.0% 44.6%

Internet 92.4% 88.9% 88.4% 92.1%

Source: Elaboration on ISTAT data, Database of the principal variables obtained in ‘Survey on the use of information and communication technologies in enterprises’ Year 2006.

Entrepreneurship policies in the region-country: overview The following tables show the national and regional regulatory and programmatic framework as regards to Research and Innovation and Information Society.

16 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part I - Executive Summary

Tab. 7 - Overview of national programmatic framework NATIONAL REGULATORY AND PROGRAMMATIC FRAMEWORK RESEARCH AND INNOVATION

INFORMATION SOCIETY

NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME 2005 – 2007 (NRP)

E-GOVERNMENT ACTION PLAN

PLAN FOR INNOVATION, GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT (PICO)

GOVERNMENT GUIDELINES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION (31.5.02)

NATIONAL STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK (NSF) 2007-2013

NATIONAL STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK (NSF) 2007-2013

NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM (PAN) RESEARCH AND COMPETITIVENESS 2007-2013

PLAN FOR INNOVATION, GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT (PICO)

INDUSTRY STRATEGIC PLAN 2015 (INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION PROJECTS)

ACTION PLAN FOR SIMPLIFICATION (PAS 2007)

FINANCIAL LAW 2007

COUNTRY PROJECT

STATE AIDS N. 302/2007 (EC 6461)

INCENTIVES FOR INNOVATIVE ENTERPRISES (L. 388/00)

FINANCIAL LAW 2008

FINANCIAL LAW 2003

REVOLVING FUND FOR TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION (FIT)

E-GOVERNMENT FOR REGION AND LOCAL BODIES: II PROGRESS PHASE

ORDINARY FINANCIAL FUND FOR UNIVERSITIES (FFO)

PROVISION FOR PA TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION (L. 3/03)

FUND FOR RESEARCH FACILITIES (FAR)

FINANCIAL LAW 2005

BASE RESEARCH INVESTMENT FUND (FIRB)

LEGISLATIVE DECREE 82/05 (DIGITAL ADMINISTRATION CODE)

RESEARCH PROJECTS WITH RELEVANT NATIONAL INTEREST (PRIN)

L. 80/05 (COMPETITIVENESS DECREE)

REVOLVING FUND FOR ENTERPRISES (FRI)

DECREE-LAW 115/05

INCENTIVES FOR INNOVATIVE ENTERPRISES (L. 388/00)

L. 296/06

L. 326/03 (TECNO-TREMONTI)

L. 244/07

LEGISLATIVE DECREE 35/05 (START UP WITHIN TECHNOLOGICAL DISTRICTS)

MINISTER OF SOCIAL SUPPORT DIRECTIVE 23/07/07

L. 80/05 (COMPETITIVENESS DECREE)

CIPE DECISION 17/03

CIPE DECISION 20/04

CIPE DECISION 20/04

CIPE DECISION 35/05

CIPE DECISION 35/05

CIPE DECISION 1/06

CIPE DECISION 3/06

CIPE DECISION 3/06

CIPE DECISION 83/03

CIPE DECISION 166/07

CIPE DECISION 35/05 CIPE DECISION 166/07 CIPE DECISION 1/06

Source: Operational Programme ERDF Basilicata Region

17 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part I - Executive Summary

Tab. 8 - Overview of national programmatic framework RESEARCH AND INNOVATION

INFORMATION SOCIETY

REGIONAL REGULATORY AND PROGRAMMATIC FRAMEWORK REGIONAL LAW FOR DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS OF BASILICATA PRODUCTION SYSTEM

L.R. 53/96

L.R. (Regional Law) 598/94

OP ERDF 2007-2013

L.R. 28/2007 art. 18 paragraph 3

OP EFS 2007-2013

Operational Programme (OP) ERDF 2007-2013

INFORMATION SOCIETY PROGRAM AGREEMENT

OP EFS 2007-2013 PROGRAM OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT EAFRD 2007-2013 SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PROGRAM AGREEMENT GUIDELINES FOR THE REVITALIZATION AND THE COMPETITIVENESS OF REGIONAL INDUSTRY AND CRAFTS INSTRUMENTS PROTOCOL OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN MIUR, BASILICATA REGION AND UNIVERSITY OF BASILICATA FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF UNIVERSITY SYSTEM AND RESEARCH PROGRAM AGREEMENT BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION AND CNR (National Research Centre) (DECREE n. 915, 18/06/2008) PROTOCOL OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN BASILICATA AND LOMBARDY REGIONS FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT BETWEEN BASILICATA AND CRA

FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF BASILICATA

PROGRAM AGREEMENT BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION AND CNR CONVENTION BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION AND “CONSORTIUM GARR” PROGRAM AGREEMENT BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION, SVILUPPO ITALIA AND INFRATEL ITALIA CONVENTION BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION AND CNIPA CONVENTION BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION AND BETWEEN SPA

Source: Operational Programme ERDF Basilicata Region

Scientific and technologic offer system

18

One of the strengths of the region is the fact that Basilicata is characterized by the presence of significant scientific and technical ‘manufacturers’ - public, private and mixed-activity holding - in strategic areas of socio-economic development. Although they have not formulated a complete innovation system yet, they are creating the necessary conditions for a network of supply items for research and innovation, and for its transfer to the productive and social fabric. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part I - Executive Summary

The public presence within the scientific system is due to the activity of some major research centres such as the University of Basilicata, the National Research Council (CNR), the National Agency for New Technologies and Environment (ENEA), the National Institute of Agricultural Economics (INEA), the Italian Space Agency (ASI), the Centre for Integrated Geomorphology for the Mediterranean Area (CGIAM), the Council for Research and Experimentation in Agriculture (CRA) and as far as the science and technology parks/ excellence centres: Valbasento Technopark, ICT-SUD Competence Centre (CC ICT SUD); Consortium TeRN; Impresambiente; CRC Basilicata In addition to these public research centres, the Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) has approved 27 research laboratories in Basilicata, mostly operating in private companies (13), in national public bodies (9) and in University (5) (see table 9). Tab. 9 - Research laboratories approved by MIUR Name

Seat

CNR Lab. - Analysis of clay minerals - Institute of Research on Clays

Potenza

CNR Lab. - New Laser Spectroscopy and Applied Materials - Institute for Special Materials (IMS)

Potenza

Edp La Traccia Cooperative of Edp La Traccia LTD

Matera

Enea Lab. - Integrated Food Innovation Centre - Trisaia Research Center

Matera

Enea Lab. - Laser Applications Laboratory - Trisaia Research Center

Matera

Enea Lab. - Laboratory of Experimental Biomass and Solar Thermal Plant - Trisaia Research Center

Matera

Enea Lab. - Laboratory of Waste Recovery and Treatment - Trisaia Research Centre

Matera

Enea Lab. - Laboratory for Chemical Processes and Analytical Chemistry Trisaia Research Centre

Matera

Enea Lab. - Dynamics and Environmental Test Laboratory - Trisaia Research Centre

Matera

Enea Lab. - Radiation Protection Laboratory - Trisaia Research Center

Matera

I.R.S.A.Q. Lab. of I.R.S.A.Q. LTD

Potenza

Inpes Prefabs SpA Lab.

Potenza

Valdagri Fish SpA Lab.

Matera

Metapontum Agrobios Lab. - Chemical Laboratories of Metapontum Agrobios LTD Matera Metapontum Agrobios Lab. - Agronomy Laboratories of Metapontum Agrobios LTD

Matera

Metapontum Agrobios Lab. - Biotechnology Laboratories of Metapontum Agrobios LTD

Matera

Polinea Lab. of Polinea SpA

Potenza

R&S Management Lab. of R&S Management SpA

Potenza

Sinter & Net Lab. of Sinter & Net SpA

Potenza

Sniaricerche Lab. of Sniaricerche S.c.p.a.

Matera

Tab Consulting Lab. of Tab Consulting S.r.l.

Potenza

Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

19


Part I - Executive Summary

Tecnoparco Valbasento Lab. of Tecnoparco Valbasento SpA

Matera

University of Basilicata Lab. - Department of Architecture

Potenza

University of Basilicata Lab. - Department of Chemistry

Potenza

University of Basilicata Lab. - Department of Animal Production Science

Potenza

University of Basilicata Lab. - Department of Structures, Geotechnics and Applied Geology

Potenza

University of Basilicata Lab. – Technical-economical Department for management of agricultural land and forest

Potenza

Source: MIUR

Suggestions and proposals, main conclusions The analysis conducted so far shows some relevant considerations to investigate Basilicata’s innovative potential and to understand how it can develop its capacity for innovation. Basilicata needs to accelerate the dynamics of the regional production system, since it has suffered delays in recent years, but shows a marked recovery in the most recent period. This can happen by: (a) focusing on strengthening the most important production centres in the region (particularly in manufacturing and agro-foodstuffs), (b) facing the weaknesses of the regional economy such as fragmentation, insufficient productivity and lack of innovation propensity within the productive fabric, (c) promoting the diversification and the articulation of the economic system through the diffusion of innovation, the valorisation of historical and environmental heritage, the strengthening and the qualification of tourism activities, rapidly expanding in recent years, (d) improving the relationships between enterprises and the banking system, which still constitute a weakness of the regional productive system. Despite recent progress, the dissemination of research and development in Basilicata is very low, and far from Lisbon strategy goals. The acceleration of investment in research and innovation within the regional production system, however, is an essential condition to reach the objective of speeding up regional production dynamics. This acceleration is a possible goal for regional policies, considering the important strengths of the region: the University and several major public Research Centres, able to act proactively for the production, mediation and dissemination of innovation advantages of the regional production system, a highly qualified human capital, as shown in ISTAT surveys on scientific and technical disciplines graduates and high school participation; the wide diffusion of the knowledge society, so deeply promoted in recent years by Regional policy, which led to a significant spread of ICT; the existence of significant potential for attracting investment in research and development, related both to the need for innovative management of natural resources (water, energy, biogenetic and environment) and to favourable context conditions. 20

And finally, one of the best practices and one of the possible suggestions that Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part I - Executive Summary

will serve as a tool for the transfer of common knowledge and experience to encourage the establishment of innovation and support services for innovative enterprises in Basilicata, could be represented by the case of Innovation Factory a “first mile incubator” located in AREA Science Park in Trieste, Italy. Unlike other incubators, the incubator run by Innovation Factory manages not only the aspect of providing financial assistance but it assists entrepreneurs in all the phases of the company’s development by providing technical assistance already in the pre-seed phase, professional assistance in running the funds and necessary office utilities in the seed-phase, professional internal and external tutors through the whole process of development until the company’s expansion phase (market penetration and market share realization) and exits once the company’s incubation life cycle is completed and the company is in the market. It provides support in each phase of the development from a business idea to a business plan to market expansion reducing the potential risk by developing entrepreneurial competences and transforming the “potential entrepreneur” in the entrepreneur whose idea will enter the market (see following representation): Life Cycle of a start up company

Source: PolyTechnos Venture Partners

In this way, entrepreneurs are never alone even when they enter the market, that is the last step of a long “tutoring” path which ends only once the entrepreneur has achieved the competences to remain alone.

21 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


22 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART II Report on regional situation of Basilicata

23 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata II.1 Introduction This introductory part has the aim of outlining the general situation of regional entrepreneurship and innovation capacity, sketching the main problems and obstacles that innovation development has to face and presenting the regional programmes and tools supporting SMEs. Under the pressure of the sharp reversal of both national and international economic cycle sparked by the explosion of the global financial crisis, the economy of Basilicata ended 2008 financial year with a strong drop. The symptoms of this recession were already clear in the first half of last year (worsening of all the main indicators of manufacturing industry, persistent drop in consumption, strong rise in unemployment, a marked deceleration of bank lending to firms and households); however, this crisis has begun to show its full virulence at the end of 2008, involving almost each sector of the regional production plant. What it is very alarming today is not only the intensity of this drop, but the long time presumably needed to come out of it. If this is true for the Italian economy (the latest valuations suggest a modest economic recovery starting from 2010), it is even more factual for the economy of Basilicata, where the difficulties of the cycle itself are worsened by a series of structural weaknesses regarding especially those productive areas which are most exposed to competition (such as, primarily, the manufacturing industry). This makes the function of local policies particularly challenging, since they have to find measures not only to embank the crisis, limiting the negative impact on businesses and families, but also to encourage and support the processes of reorganization and restructuring - on both business and sector level - able to raise enterprises’ efficiency and competitiveness. In recent years, a significant part of Italian industry has started a complex transformation centred on qualitative raising, so shifting its interest on higher added-value production, changing the governance, enhancing innovation, internationalization and skills. These structural adjustments are particularly urgent for companies in Basilicata, since they still get behind from this point of view; it must be noticed that the differences between regional and national productivity have been further increased, and that the investment cycle has shown a greater weakness on the local level. The present context (strong break in aggregate demand, high uncertainty, confidence to a minimum) makes the approach to overcome still existing structural weaknesses very hard, since they tend to discourage business investment; but the prospects for recovery and development of a new local economy depend on “how� Basilicata will come out of the recession. 24

Even in Basilicata, as in the rest of the country, the core of the current crisis stands in the industrial sector, which has ended 2008 with the absolute worst Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

ever results. At the end of the year, in particular, manufacturing activity recorded a fall of 4.5%, and a 5.4% loss of the turnover; however, the lowest degree of international openness of industry in Basilicata allowed to contain losses in terms of production and trade, since they have been more consistent on a national level because of the strong contraction in foreign demand. Negative trends characterize almost all main sectors (as well as a large tranche of companies regardless of their sizes), with very heavy falls in textile and clothing, wood and furniture, where the crisis has assumed a structural character over the years. The record levels achieved by short-time allowances certify the state of deep unease of local industry: 5 million and a half throughout 2008 and already more than 2 million in the first 3 months of 2009. Indicators of perspective valence (trend of order books and companies confidence) indicate the first half of 2009 as the period of major recession. A partial attenuation of this negative scenario could be carried by a recovery of car industry: the eco-incentives provided by anti-crisis decree are starting a significant resumption of registrations and Fiat, more than other carmakers, is benefiting of this back-up line in domestic demand. Tab. 1 - Main indicators of regional economic conditions annual rate of change (%) - unless otherwise indicated Gross Domestic Product Manufacturing

2007 1.0 -0.1

2008 IV quarter of 2008 0.5 0.5 -1.9

-4.5

Industrial turnover

-0.2

-2.2

-5.4

Industrial orders

-1.1

-2.2

-5.7

Retail sales

-1.7

-3.4

-1.9

6.5

0.3

...

22.00

-6.6

-43.5

Imports Non-agricultural holdings (a)

2.6 0.78

-11.2 0.48

-31.7 0.00

Bank lending to companies

10.0

1.2

...

Bank lending to families

11.5

-3.8

...

2.0

3.3

2.3

Total Employed  in industrial Sector

-1.0 -1.8

0.4 -3.8

-2.3 -8.7

 in service sector

0.2

3.1

-0.1

-7.7

159.2

283.8

9.6

11.1

11.5

Number of tourists Exports

Consumer prices

Total amount of short-time allowance hours (b) Rate of unemployment (c) (a) Companies birth and death rates (b) manufacturing (c) absolute level

Source: Unioncamere, L’Economia della Basilicata nel 2008, April 2009 *Unioncamere is the institutional body representing the Italian Chambers of Commerce Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

25


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

While manufacturing is facing its worst crisis, also building industry is recording a constraint since 2007, with investment drops both in the residential sector and not, as confirmed by the recent slump of real estate market. This situation deeply affects employment levels that, in the last two years, recorded losses of about 3 thousand units. The strong break in aggregate demand is affecting the services-producing sector as well, especially in the area of retail trade, damaged by the consumption crisis. During 2008, the turnover of commercial enterprises decreased of 3.4% on a regional level and, for the first time, the sales budget recorded the “minus” sign even in retailing and distribution industry, so far able to increase or at least to maintain their revenue levels by detracting market share from the traditional commerce. As to sector of non-commercial services, while data confirm a discrete vitality of business and personal services and, the other way round, problems for road transport, work indicators suggest a slowdown trend for all services (in the last part of the year the increment of employees was cut-off.) Unlike in past negative cycle of regional economy (as for 2005 recession) where the increase of tertiary sector mitigated GDP fall, in the present economic situation the same sector seems not to be able to play an anti-cyclical role, since it is involved in the crisis itself, so confirming its massive nature. Labour market went through a very difficult year: on the one hand, the sharp jump in unemployment (+18.5%), almost entirely due to the expulsion of labour force from production; on the other, the employment trend kept positive in services sector (particularly for the “independent” component), until a sharp fall in late 2008 (-2.3%), coinciding with the hardening of the economic crisis. The increase in unemployment has stimulated, however, the search for new work; in other words, instead of discouraging the crisis is forcing a growing number of people to look for a job actively (in this situation of crisis for families, inactivity has a highest price). The “knot” of credit strongly affects the capacity prospects of regional economy an so in terms of time and mode needed to come out of this recession. After the explosion of financial crisis, both companies and families started fearing a credit crunch: credit rationing has been much more marked in Basilicata than in the rest of the country, with a strong disadvantage especially for small enterprises. Since the regional production system is based precisely on small businesses, this state of crisis can have very heavy consequences in terms of worsening of the recessionary effects.

26

Moreover, the tightening of bank loan conditions goes hand in hand with the increasing deterioration of firms’ financial features -caused by the economic crisis- thus creating a very dangerous vicious circle. The presence of an industrial structure that is still unwilling to innovate and overburdened by an unfavourable context (strong deficit in infrastructures, difficult relationships between business and credit system), further endangers the “keeping capaStudy of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

city� of the production system and its competitiveness in medium and long term, so delaying the time needed to come out of the recession. According to the inquiries conducted by Unioncamere Basilicata Study Centre on business with up to 500 employees, industrial production recorded a trend fall of 1.9% in 2008, after having remained almost steady in 2007 (-0.1%). The quarterly trends indicate a progressive deterioration of the situation during the year: if the negative trend was quite contained (-0.7%) in the first quarter, the following fraction reached -1.6%, to slightly slow in third quarter (-1.0%) and suffered a crack in the last three months, when the production index dropped by 4.5%. Also the turnover analysis confirms the trends shown for industrial production: after a start of 2008 with limited losses (-0.5%), the turnover of manufacturing SMEs has recorded even more marked drops and, in the last fraction of 2008, showed a fall of 5.4%; there was a -2.2% trend variation during 12 months against the +0.2% of the previous year. These trends have been conditioned by the progressive weakening of both domestic and foreign market; the turnover contraction has been less intense for the second one: the value of exports had a 1.2% decline in 2008 and a 2.4% decline in the fourth quarter. But there are very few local enterprises operating in foreign market: only 5.9% last year, against a national average of 20.5%. This situation clearly reflects the presence, within the regional productive structure, of small and very small enterprises, that are not strong enough from a management or finance point of view to enter the foreign trade (in fact, the incidence of exporting firms does not exceed 2% of the units with less than 10 employees, but reaches 55% among those with more than 50 employees). Over the past two years, the presence of regional SMEs in international markets significantly reduced: the number of firms with foreign sales has almost halved, falling from 10.1% in 2006 to 5.9% in 2008. Another very alarming aspect of the present industrial crisis, in addition to the significant number of enterprises of all sizes involved, is the almost generalized distribution of recessionary pressures all over the sectors. The situation of the textile and clothing is particularly difficult, since the decrease of production levels reached 10.5% in the last part of the year, while turnover was reduced by over 13%, despite the price setbacks charged by companies. Equally important is the retreat of the wood and furniture, which showed, in 2007, some signs of recovery: after a still slightly positive start (+0.8%), the production index has suffered a significant contraction, grazing -10% in the last quarter of year (which did not however prevent from the accumulation of growing stocks of unsold goods). Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

27


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

Moreover, both areas record the highest number of firms with negative trends of production levels at the end of 2008 (73% in textiles and clothing, 84% in wood and furniture). High above average is the fall in volume of activity and turnover of nonmetallic minerals industry (around -7.5% the trend variations in the fourth quarter), which is affected by the sharp slowdown in construction, that is the main sales area of the whole industry. The negative results on the metal working industry (in crisis also on a national level) are mainly caused by the lower demand for intermediate and semi-manufactured products by other enterprises. A further criticism is represented by the increased costs of raw materials and energy during the year. The escalation of the crisis in automobile industry has had a stronger impact on mechanical sector trends, which had ended in 2007 with a slightly positive balance (+1.8%). Again, the worst results have been recorded in the last part of the year, when production decreased by 5.7% (a drop that has affected, for the first time, even larger firms). The sector of “electric and electronic machines and devices” seems so far to be less affected by the sharp deterioration of the economic framework: the trend production has ended 2008 with a decline of only 0.5%, and something like 90% of firms have kept business and turnover volumes unchanged. Positive signals come, instead, from the extraction of materials and “chemical and plastic” sectors, the only ones to show increases in production even in the last months of 2008 that, as already seen, were marked by a sharp intensification of recessionary pressures. In extraction industry, in particular, production levels increased by 1.8%, during 2008, mainly thanks to the strong rebound recorded in the last part of the year (+4.2%). Smaller but still significant recovery has been realized by chemicals and plastics: a +0.9% trend variation in production (during 2008) versus the -1.3% in 2007. Handicraft, that is a key component of regional productive capacity, gathers about 70% of firms operating in industry. In recent years, both the production and the turnover of manufacturing craft have been presenting a negative trend, that remained almost constant even in the early stages of recovery in industrial activity (like in 2006 one), when it showed just a partial attenuation. Indeed, besides suffering the effects of the whole economic cycle, the evolution of the sector also suffers for some of its own structural criticalities (from the small dimension of business to the scarce differentiation and specialization of functions and duties, from low innovation proneness to high dependency on local market) that prove to be “constraint” factors in the current competitive landscape. Year 2008 confirmed a more negative trend of craft compared to the industrial system as a whole, although at the end of the year the two negative trends perfectly overlap. 28

On average, the production of craft manufacturing enterprises last year fell to 4.8%, while the turnover drop has been slightly lower (-4.5%). In both cases, Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

losses were very significant if compared with the ones of the entire industrial sector, with a differential of about 2-3 percentage points. In this context of strong weakness of consumer demand, the trend of volume business in commercial retail in Basilicata remained negative all over 2008, showing a marked worsening compared to the previous year. The seriousness of the crisis is also indicated by the fact that, for the first time, the sales drop involved the large-scale retail trade, so far able to increase or, at least, maintain the same revenue levels detracting market share from the traditional commerce The following tables resume the amount and the type of businesses in Basilicata, as recorded by the Chamber of Commerce (Data: 30/06/2007). Tab. 2 and 3 - SMEs in the region (number, sector allocation, cooperation between SMEs) Working-companies registered in the registers of business of the Regional Chambers of Commerce (absolute values at the end of six-months period) I.

II.

2005

I.

2005

II.

2006

I.

2006

2007

Mining Industry

64

61

61

61

57

Energy, gas, water

28

28

28

29

29

4,940

4,952

4,926

4,916

4,864

Industria Manifatturiera

1,266

1,277

1,276

1,288

1,283

• Textile-clothes

• Agro-food

511

491

476

468

452

• Furniture

890

896

880

863

852

• Minerals

356

359

358

359

354

1,506

1,517

1,525

1,525

1,509

• Chemical, rubber, plastic

• Mechanic

132

132

129

129

129

• Others manufacturing Industry

279

280

282

284

285

6,228

6,326

6,375

6,427

6,465

15,532

15,516

15,552

15,594

15,638

1,564

1,583

1,556

1,548

1,532

661

667

669

683

715

2,324

2,376

2,427

2,435

2,497

Building Trade / Public exercises Transport Credit / insurance Services to enterprises

2,301

2,312

2,356

2,379

2,391

Tot. extra-agricultural Companies

Other services

33,872

33,949

34,065

34,196

34,314

Tot. Industrial Companies

11,196

11,306

11,329

11,372

11,358

Tot. Services Companies

22,385

22,454

22,560

22,639

22,773

Tot. Agricultural Companies

22,270

21,995

21,824

21,530

21,271

Source: Chamber of Commerce of Potenza

29 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

Working-companies registered in the registers of business of the Regional Chambers of Commerce (per legal status and economical activities) - 30/06/2007 Limited Unlimited Companies Companies 57 61 61

Total Mining Industry Energy, gas, water Manufacturing Industry • Agro-food • Textile-clothes

Other Companies 61 57

Firms

29

28

28

29

29

4,864

4,952

4,926

4,916

4,864

1,283

1,277

1,276

1,288

1,283

452

491

476

468

452

• Furniture

852

896

880

863

852

• Minerals

354

359

358

359

354

1,509

1,517

1,525

1,525

1,509

129

132

129

129

129

285

280

282

284

285

• Mechanic • Chemical, rubber, plastic • Others manufacturing Industry Building

6,465

6,326

6,375

6,427

6,465

15,638

15,516

15,552

15,594

15,638

1,532

1,583

1,556

1,548

1,532

715

667

669

683

715

Services to enterprises

2,497

2,376

2,427

2,435

2,497

Other services Tot. extra-agricultural Companies Tot. Industrial Companies

2,391

2,312

2,356

2,379

2,391

34,314

3,641

4,469

24,821

1,383

Trade / Public exercises Transport Credit / insurance

Tot. Services Companies Tot. Agricultural Companies

11,358

1,738

1,631

7,609

380

22,773

1,858

2,811

17,138

966

21,271

100

258

20,687

226

Source: Chamber of Commerce of Potenza

There are four strategic industrial clusters for regional development, as indicated by Basilicata Region in the ‘Regional Strategy For Research, Innovation And Information Society - 2007-2013” document: Earth Observation, mobility, agri-food and renewable energy, which, after the economic crisis that stroke Italy in 2000-2005, showed a slight recovery. The weakness of businesses is counterbalanced by the excellence of the regional scientific system, characterized by the presence of the University of Basilicata, national public research institutions (CNR, ENEA, ASI, etc.) and research qualified laboratories approved by MIUR (Ministry of University, Science and Technology). Despite the awareness of the importance of research and innovation as growth and competitiveness factors, Basilicata has not provided a regional innovation system yet. Indeed Basilicata occupies a low position in the scale of regions’ innovation ability, especially in relation to some Central-Northern regions. 30

The main strengths of R & I system in Basilicata are represented on the one hand, by the high percentage of people employed in high and medium-high Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

technology sectors (Basilicata is among the ten most dynamic regions for the employment in services with high-level knowledge) and, on the other hand, by the number of graduates in technical and scientific field. Weaknesses, however, are represented by the low investment on R & D, particularly with regard to business investment, and the small number of people employed in R & D activities, if compared to the national level. Even with reference to the Information Society, despite Basilicata Region provided plans for the diffusion of infrastructures and services based on ICT, there are still some difficulties: Basilicata, in fact, is one of the regions with less broadband coverage and lower extension of fibre optic cable (2 km less than national average). A positive aspect is represented by the level of computerization of public administration, characterized by a high diffusion of computer equipments among employees and by the creation of an official web side for each municipality. Regional normative and planning documents for research & innovation and for the Information Society, follow EU and national guidelines and are summarized in the table below (further in-depth examination will be provided in the next sections): Tab. 4 - Regional framework for law and programming on Research and Innovation and Information Society RESEARCH AND INNOVATION

INFORMATION SOCIETY

FRAMEWORK FOR REGIONAL PROGRAMMING REGIONAL LAW PROGRAM FOR DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS OF REGIONAL PRODUCTION SYSTEM

R. L. 53/96

R. L. 598/94

OP ERDF 2007-2013

R.L. 28/2007 art. 18 paragraph 3

OP ESF 2007-2013

OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME ERDF 2007-2013

FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME FOR INFORMATION SOCIETY

OPERATIONAL PROGRAMME ESF 2007-2013 RURAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME EAFRD 2007-2013 FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH GUIDELINES FOR INDUSTRY AND CRAFT RECOVERY

TOOLS PROTOCOL AGREEMENT BETWEEN MINISTRY OF RESEARCH, BASILICATA REGION AND UNIVERSITY OF BASILICATA FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND THE OPTIMIZATION OF UNIVERSITY AND RESEARCH SYSTEM FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION AND THE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (D.G.R. n. 915 _ 18/06/2008) Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF BASILICATA

31


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

PROTOCOL AGREEMENT BETWEEN BASILICATA AND LOMBARDIA REGIONS

FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME BETWEEN c AND THE NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL CONVENTION BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION AND “CONSORTIUM GARR” FRAMEWORK PROGRAMME BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION, SVILUPPO ITALIA AND INFRATEL ITALIA CONVENTION BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION AND “CNIPA” CONVENTION BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION AND “BETWEEN SPA”

Source: Operational Programme FESR Basilicata Region

Science and technology parks, technology centres With regard to science and technology parks, on the regional territory there are not “structured centres”. However, the following are technology centres/competence centres that will be analyzed in detail in Part III.3: » in the Province of Matera: • Valbasento Technopark; » in the Province of Potenza: • ICT-SUD Competence Centre (CC ICT SUD); • Consortium TeRN; • Impresambiente; • CRC Basilicata.

32 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

II.2 Specific characteristics of the region under study II.2.1 General Situation in the region and regional indicators

The surface area is 9,992 square kilometres; the 594,086 inhabitants are shared throughout the 131 comuni (town councils) in the provinces of Matera and Potenza: 7/10ths of the territory covers mountainous areas, 2/10ths are hills, while 1/10 is plain. The mountains are found to the West while the coastal and central area is hilly and in the Melfese area the ground is higher and woodier reaching towards the arid Murgia in the Matera district. Basilicata enjoys a very varied climate depending on latitude and altitude. The same region can offer seaside activities from spring to autumn and, at the same time, skiing on snow for the four months of autumn-winter. This unique possibility puts the region in a league of its own and this is an important factor in the continuous flow of tourism to the area. Basilicata is one of the very few reference points for skiers from Rome and the South of Italy. The mountains provide a typical continental climate while the Jonian and Tyrrhenian coasts enjoy a Mediterranean one. These two opposite climates meet Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

33


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

up in the Matera district and in the Vulture, especially. The pattern of mounts influences rainfall: to the South West an annual rainfall rate of 1,400 mm is recorded, while between the basins of the Bradano and Basento rivers minimum levels of 600 mm per year are found. However, the main feature of the rainfall is its irregularity which causes the rivers to fill and flow very quickly and then to drain equally as quickly. Being mostly a mountainous region, Basilicata has some characteristics peculiar to high places: tranquillity, clean air and wildlife. Basilicata is unquestionably a region of strong contrasts so clear even in the nature of the different types of land. The scenery is truly unique. Mainly mountainous, it faces the Tyrrhenian Sea on the South-West on the natural scenic beauty of the Gulf of Policastro. In the South-East, we have the Jonian Sea of the Gulf of Taranto. Maratea is the unchallenged jewel of the Tyrrhenian coast while Metaponto and Policoro, important reference points as old as the Magna Graecia when the Ancient Greeks founded colonies here, dominate the Jonian coast. Today, major tourist attractions in Basilicata, like Matera and its ‘Sassi’, are focussing their efforts on even greater achievements through the reappraisal of the natural environment of their ancient past. Basilicata has a structural difficulty, due to the geographical position (it is very far from richest markets) and to its uneven and problematic orography and geological profile. Therefore, the investments needed to remove these conditions of isolation and difficult accessibilities are practically out of reach for the Region and, often, also for the Nation itself. An underground mountain thoroughfare can, for example, cost 400 million Euros, that means almost six years of oil royalty collecting by the region. Another big problem is the entity and of the diffusion of hydrogeological risk areas, covering the 98% of the whole regional territory, that need an exorbitant costs increase in terms of routine maintenance, prevention and safety of the existing road system. That is true for facilities. But transport services are penalized as well, essentially because of the very small serviceable market, for which it is impossible to maintain transport services, without consistent state aids to dealership enterprises (recent cases show, for example, the cancellation of the Eurostar train linking Taranto, Potenza and Rome, a fundamental service for the whole territory that only after a long debate - even in the Parliament - and several demonstrations was opened up again).

34

The absence of an airport (the project of Pisticci airport, near Matera, is still in a discussion phase) deeply penalizes both tourism (it has a very good potential on international market, thanks to the city of Matera and to the coast of Metaponto, but, obviously, foreign tourists must be able to travel easily and quickly) and fresh fruit and vegetables coming from Metaponto, that need to be moved in a quicker way than the one offered by rubber transport. This means that two of the principal productive vocations of the territory of Matera Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

have particularly important infrastructure requirements. The absence of a direct rail link to Matera is another huge deficiency. Basilicata went through a decline in birth rates during last years, very strong in 2000-2005 period, when the region lost something about the 1% of the population (passing from 599,404 to 594,086 unities). Besides this decline, a progressive process of ageing (in 2005 the 19.6% of the total population was composed by over 65 years old people) is recorded, as well as an increase of the migratory flow; this is particularly true for young people, and it is due to the morphological characteristics of the Region, that make very difficult both the accessibility to smaller villages and the search for a job. Tab. 5 - Population in Basilicata (last census in 2001)

Italy Region

Population 2001 56,995,744 597,768

Population Variation (%) 1991 56,778,031 0.4 610,528

- 2.13

Province of Potenza (100 municipalities)

393,529

401,543

- 2.0

Province of Matera (31 municipalities)

204,239

208,985

-2.3

Source: Istat (National Institute of Statistics)

2008 started with a strong rise of unemployment in the regional labour market, also owing to an increase of offer rates in female and young population, and to a fair recovery of employment (declining in 2007) fed, above all, by the vivacity of job demand in the services sector. All over the year, the situation has been progressively worsening: on the one hand, unemployment has kept on growing quickly, on the other, employment trend slowed down for a while to return negative again, under the pressure of the industrial crisis, that has caused even more serious and consistent job losses. Although a sense of discouragement of workforce is still very diffused, in recent times, the stimulus to face labour market prevailed. This can be understood, after all, if we think about families, where the job loss of a parent can push the others to abandon inactivity and to look for a job. From this point of view, the increase of women participation in labour market is particularly meaningful: last year they better succeeded in making use of job opportunities in services sector. As for data details, regional employment recorded a slightly positive balance in 2008 average: a +0.4% variation compared with 2007, about a thousand of working people more. This trend ensues from a growth of workplaces in the first 9 months of the year, followed by marked regress in the last quarter, when the number of employed reduced by 4.5 thousand unities on annual base. Unemployment, on the other hand, has constantly shown an expanding trend in the 12 months, with the only exception of the II quarter (coinciding with the period of greater increase of employment): on 2008 annual mean, unemploStudy of the innovative potential of Basilicata

35


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

yed people increased by 3.8 thousand unities, that is the 18.5% more than the stock recorded in 2007.

36

Along with the contraction of workplaces occurred in the last months of 2008, this imbalance has been caused by other factors as well: in the first place, the increasing number of active job seekers; in the second place, the replacement process of employed labour force. The fact that the number of people expelled from the productive system is notably increased while the total amount of workplaces was slightly growing, leads to believe that several enterprises have replaced a certain number of employed with more flexible personnel, not belonging to the labour force. Nevertheless, considering that the losses of workplaces occurred mainly in industry, while the new places have been created within services, it is possible that the apparent “paradox” of people loosing job in a growing context reflects the lack of mobility through the different sectors of the regional labour market: that means that someone who has been expelled from industry can hardly be engaged in services. Because of the observed trends, labour force in Basilicata increased by 4.6 thousand unities in 2008 (+2.1%), so balancing exactly the drop recorded in 2007. Only a quarter of this increase can be due to the growth of working-age population, the remainder can be referred to the raising of participation rates to labour market, climbed up to 55.8% (a point more than the previous year). The comparison with the rest of the Country underlines a deviation not so much in the “sign”, but more in the “intensity” of dynamics regarding the main aspects of work supply. Basilicata incurred a stronger increase of unemployment, especially if compared to the rest of Southern Italy (+18.5 against +9.8%, in 2008 average), but it has also shown a good “maintaining capacity” of employment levels (slightly decreasing in the South) and a meaningful increase of people present on labour market. Regional unemployment rate has therefore recorded a sharp jump (from 9.6% in 2007 to 11.1% in 2008), but it is always a point lower than the average of Southern Italy (12.1%). Still compared with Southern Italy, Basilicata has a more favourable differential in employment (49.6 against 46.1%) and in activity volume rates (55.8 against 52.5%). The slightly positive occupational balance recorded in the whole 2008 (+0.4%) has been favoured by the significant expansion of job demand within services (stationary in 2007) that has balanced job losses in agriculture and, above all, in industry. Services have created about 4 thousand new workplaces, that is the 3.1% of the employed stock in the previous year. Commercial sector gave a positive contribution: here employment has started growing again after two years of strong fall, thanks above all to selfemployment, that is responsible for the 80% of the general employment increase (about 1.2 thousand unities). Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

This trend contrasts with the economic difficulties the distributive system has been going through because of the long-lasting consumption crisis. A possible explanation can be referred to the role of trade as a “shelter-sector” to which people refer to when there are not other job opportunities. Tab. 6 - Regional employment by sectors (absolute values -in thousand- and annual changes) 2008 average Agriculture Industry

Absolute annual changes 2007 2008

15.2

-1.3

Annual percentage change 2007 2008

-1.0

-7.4

-6.0

53.1

-1.0

-2.1

-1.8

-3.8

• in narrow sense

32.3

1.3

-1.2

4.0

-3.5

• buildings

20.8

-2.3

-0.9

-9.6

-4.2

Services • trade • other services Total employed

127.5

0.2

3.9

0.2

3.1

26.9

-0.0

1.2

-0.1

4.5

100.6

0.3

2.7

0.3

2.7

195.8

-2.1

0.8

-1.0

0.4

Source: Unioncamere

The greatest quota of new tertiary employment, however, concentrates on non-commercial activities: +2.7 thousand unities (+2.7%), equal to the 70% of the general increase. Also in this case, the most dynamic component is represented by self-employment (+5.4%), although the greatest contribution to the absolute growth of employment base is given by employees, with an increase of 1.6 thousand unities. Currently the industrial sector is paying the highest price of the economic crisis, with over 2 thousand workplaces lost, in addition to the thousand already lost of 2007. Employment in agriculture keeps on decreasing since 2005: about a thousand unity were lost in 2008, but they are contained (both in absolute and relative terms) if compared to the ones recorded in the recent past. Tab. 7 - Job seekers and out of the labour force (absolute values -in thousands- and annual changes) 2008 Absolute Annual average annual changes percentage change 2007 2008 2007 2008 Job seekers • unemployed in narrow sense • first-time Job seekers Out of the labour force • non-active job seekers • available for work, but not seekers • not seekers and not available Source: Unioncamere Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

24.4

-2.6

-3.8

-11.2

18.5

16.7

-0.2

3.1

-1.8

22.8

7.7

-2.3

0.7

-25.2

10.0

174.2

6.3

-3.4

3.7

-1.9

21.0

-0.7

0.8

-3.3

3.8

23.7

6.0

1.3

36.4

5.7

129.5

1.0

-5.5

-0.8

-4.0 37


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

From a more “structural” point of view, regional unemployment differentiates itself from national one for the following interrelated aspects: » a higher rate of youth unemployment, exceeding the national average by over 10 points, despite a lower degree of participation of young people from Basilicata to the labour market; » a deeper incidence of long term unemployed (job seekers of more than 12 months); » a deeper incidence of first-time job seekers, that means people without working experience. The components of labour force and out of the labour force show enough diversified trends by gender: a greater disadvantage emerges, as to labour market, for masculine population. First of all, we can notice how employment is increased only among women (1.8 thousand more in 2008), while job opportunities for men decreased (a thousand employed less). This trend dichotomy can be essentially referred to the different occupational dynamism in the principal sectors of economy, to the different incidence of the male and female work inside each sector. Tab. 8 - Labour force and out of the labour force absolute values (in thousands) by gender (2008 average) Absolute values men

% change 2007/2008

women

1.9

women

139.6

Employed

127.5

68.3

-0.8

2.7

12.2

12.2

41.3

2.1

Job seekers

80.6

mens

Labour force

2.6

• unemployed in narrow sense

9.0

7.8

49.3

1.9

• first-time seekers

3.2

4.5

22.9

2.3

58.7

115.5

-3.3

-1.2

7.5

13.6

-3.5

8.4

Out of the labour force (15-64 years) • non active seekers • not seekers, but available • not seekers and not available

7.6

16.1

-0.8

9.0

43.6

85.9

-3.7

-4.2

Source: Unioncamere

The masculine component has strongly paid for employment crisis in industry, where men cover 90% of the whole employed force, suffering a drop of over 2,000 people employed. Instead, the feminine component enjoyed the significant expansion of employment in services, where over 70% of new job opportunities (around 2.8 thousand) have been filled by women.

38 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

Tab. 9 - Labour force and out of the labour force absolute values (in thousands) by gender (2008 average) Absolute values men

% change 2007/2008

women

mens

women

Agriculture

10.0

5.3

2.4

-18.7

Industry

46.7

6.4

-4.6

2.4

• in narrow sense

26.4

5.9

-5.5

6.4

• buildings

20.2

0.5

-3.3

-28.3

70.8

56.7

1.5

5.3

17.2

9.7

2.7

7.9

Services • trade • other services Total employed

53.6

47.0

1.1

4.7

127.5

68.3

-0.8

2.7

Source: Unioncamere

In this context of a sensitive raising of participation in labour market from both genders (last year, the active population rose from 69.3% to 70.4% among men and from 40.3% to 41.2% among women), the different dynamics of employment caused a strong increase of masculine unemployment, jumped up to 12.2 thousand unities (3.6 thousand more in comparison with the previous year) and a substantial stationarity of female employment. Data regarding Earnings Supplement Fund for the protecting of employment level in industry symbolize the seriousness of the present economic crisis. Manufacturing enterprises of Basilicata authorized something like 5,515,000 hours in 2008, against the 2,128,000 of the previous year; in the first quarter of 2009 the quota of 2,148,000 has already been reached. If we turn this last amount of time-off rights into full-time employed, we can record a “surplus” labour force provided by enterprise equal to 4.6 thousand unities at the beginning of the present year. Ordinary interventions (provided to face the low cyclical point) suffered a sharp rise, but extraordinary interventions recorded a high jump as well, to signify an hardening of the structural crisis, already existing in the regional productive framework. The ordinary Earnings Supplement Fund showed an almost exponential progress during 2008, since it passed from 183 thousand hours in the first quarter to 1 million and 818 thousand of the fourth one, for a total amount of almost 3 million and 300 thousand in the whole year (about 60% of the total amount). The interventions, however, mainly focused on metal industry sector, (because of the SATA of Melfi), that absorbed 85% of the total time-off rights. Also chemical industry increased Earnings Supplement Fund: from 77 thousand of hours in 2007 to 256 thousand hours in 2008 (two-thirds of which granted in the last part of the year). The interventions in the other main compartments of manufacturing industry, including clothing/textile and woods/furniture, record a fall: the crisis in this Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

39


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

sector has now a structural nature and is faced through Earnings Supplement Fund as well. Even enterprises belonging to building sector - both industrial and handicraft business – had recourse to Earnings Supplement Fund: last year 860 thousand hours have been authorized, although they were in strong fall in comparison with 2007 (-34.6%). From a territorial point of view, it must be noticed that 93% of ordinary Earnings Supplement Fund concerns the province of Potenza, while the majority of the extraordinary one concerns the province of Matera. In the context of a generalized productive crisis, the two areas are characterized, therefore, by different aspects of the same situation, with a wide prevalence of structural criticalities (more difficult to be faced) in the province of Matera and problems of cyclical nature in the province of Potenza. Despite labour market still present objective difficulties, a comforting datum concerns the educational level of population; 76% of young people from 20 to 24 years reached a secondary school diploma. There are some deficiency concerning University offer, and the attractiveness of University4 seems to confirm this data (-164.5 in 2005 and -203.0 in 2006), so fostering intellectual migration flows. Outlook on infrastructures facilities in Basilicata At the beginning of 2000-2006 cycle, Basilicata appears penalized by a serious gap in networks and infrastructures both towards the external borders, and in regional inland connections, so to create a further unbalance in the access to the strategic transport network. Given the fragmentary nature and the lacks of the regional infrastructural network, border areas more easily realized an integration processes with the productive systems of the neighbouring regions (Matera with Bari, the Vulture with Foggia, Metaponto area with Taranto, Lauria and Lagonegro with the Vallo di Diano). These processes have unavoidably widened the isolation of inner areas (Pollino National Park, Val d’Agri, High Bradano, Collina Materana, High Basento, Senise and Serrapotamo) where settlement costs are worsened by the territory orography. Even many important productive sites are served by inadequate infrastructures: the Fiat of Melfi pole can be reached through a one-lane road, the Sofa District in Matera is practically isolated from any logistic connection. This weakness in accessibility, determined by the prevalence of highland, is worsened by a deficient infrastructural system, that placed Basilicata among the last regions at the beginning of the 2000-2006 cycle. Therefore, morphology and weakness of infrastructural endowment contribute to make Basilicata an isolated area if compared to the main national carriage flows of goods 4

40

Percentage ratio between the net migration balance of students (difference between the registered members in offices of the region and the residents enrolled in the regional university system) and the total number of registered students

Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

and passengers, despite its potentially core position between the Tyrrhenian and the Adriatic seas. The regional economic system suffers the lack of an equipped territory, able to give enterprises a positive externality, useful to increase their competitiveness towards firms in other territories. There is a generalized lack of services for enterprises and adequate connection infrastructures with the rest of the Country, above all with important port and airport couplings, such as Bari, Brindisi, Taranto, Salerno, Naples and Gioia Tauro, that are fundamental connection terminals between Southern Italy and Central-northern Europe. Moreover, the absence of a regional airport and the insufficient railway system penalize the potential regional development, especially in tourist compartment. With regard to road and railway infrastructures, at the beginning of 20002006 cycle, Basilicata placed itself at the bottom of Southern regions’ rank, with an index of 45.1% (being 100 the total amount of national endowments). In particular, it occupied the second-last position in Southern Italy ranks in terms of total kilometres of road network (about 4,900 Km of highways, main roads and provincial roads, equal to 48,78 Km /10,000 sq Km). It must be however underlined that data do not take into account the very uneven orography of the internal highland areas. Moreover, Basilicata occupies the second-last position also for the total kilometres of the railway system (440 Km on a surface of 9,992 sq Km and only 15 municipalities on 131 are served by the railway system). Only 46.6% of the whole railway system, corresponding to Battipaglia – Potenza - Metaponto line and to short portions of Tirrenica and Jonica lines, is electrified. On a national scale, Basilicata railway system is equal to 0.8% in terms of trains, to 1.2% in terms of trains/km and to 0.7% in terms of sits/ Km.; it is also fragmented, both for covered areas and for a ‘dual management’ (F.S. – state railway - and F.A.L. – private local railway); this circumstance did not allow to create an integrate service network to the territory and the demand. On the other hand, the road transport system, modernized by the Region during the last 20 years in order to face the lack of alternative transport systems, offers a diffused facility but only suitable only for fundamental internal services (school movements and commuters), but insufficient to medium-long routes. The lack of a suitable infrastructure system, both in terms of road and railway, brings to a limited accessibility to cities, industrial areas and tourist destinations, so hardening the geographical isolation traditionally characterizing Basilicata.

41 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

Fig. 1 - Plan of Basilicata transport system

Motorways Highways Railways

Source: Tagliacane Institute – CNEL, Infrastructures Atlas

Moreover, in the field of environmental infrastructures, the following particular criticalities refer to:

42

» water: the considerable water resources available (about 900 million annual cm) is mainly used for irrigation (370 million annual cm). As for drinkable waters, the relationship between the volumes brought into the network and the really supplied volumes underlines a middle loss equal to 63.9% primarily due to diffused losses in the distribution system (51.7%). Sewer system covers the 88.8% of the regional population, purification system the 74.7% with about the 80% of working plants. There are still remarkable lacks of integrated water system, that can’t be considered complete yet; Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

» waste: the separated collection of municipal waste in 1999 included 4,919 tons/year, that is the 2.25% of total municipal waste. The landfill is the principal waste disposal, used both for municipal and special wastes. The endowment of waste treatment and disposal of the municipal refusals consists in a selection and composting plant and in 37 dump sites; there are also 13 dumps for special and dangerous wastes. Therefore, both recycling-reuse and disposal systems are still lacking. As regards to social facilities, a fundamental issue concerns the socio-health system. Regional framework is characterized by unbalance factors such as an ageing population, (in terms of average age) that perceives in a much more critical way its state of health (such data are confirmed by a higher mortality rate in 2001 due to specific pathologies: diabetes and digestive apparatus diseases, infectious diseases, circulatory system diseases). In order to face the above described criticalities, 2000-2006 Regional Operational Programme adopted a strategy to fill the gap of infrastructure services, relying on both physical and intangible networks; within information economy, in fact, web accessibility is a fundamental factor for inclusion. The starting situation justified a particular focus on such aspect, since in 2000 only 11.4% of families had Internet access, being the national average 15.4%. As a result, a strategy aimed to strengthen and modernize the “backbone” – by extending the wideband to the whole regional territory – and to spread the use of Internet within all regional families, would have allowed to overcome, even if partially, the peripheral condition and the geographical isolation of the region. Within this vision, the Information Society in Basilicata received a strong input in the previous period of EU planning thanks to BASITEL Plan. The efforts made by the Region (2000-2006 cycle) to promote and diffuse ICT tools, services and applications, found a confirmation in the implementation of BASITEL2 integrated project, (AX VI of ROP) and will be further encouraged by the following progress phase of the integrated BASITEL plus project, that will allow the complete equipment of tools and services connected to National e-government plan. Basitel 2 introduced many changes, worth mentioning: » a complete and combined network system for regional Public Administration, that is the interconnection among all local and corporate bodies, the providing of internet tools for over 40,000 families and for about 120,000 citizens (20% of the total population); » a central reservation unit call centre for health services (call centre, named CUP); » a multiplex contact centre portal for the improvement of the accessibility to regional services; » support services for e-commerce and e-learning; » the introduction of electronic signature for a safe use of telecommunication services. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

43


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

Moreover, Entiloc@linrete (Localbodies-network) project activated a target investment to fill the ‘’digital divide” of the several smallest villages, by financing a basic technological equipment, the computer literacy of personnel, the creation of information and services desk for citizens, and by strengthening the cooperation between corporate bodies for the realization of common services. Focus on the Basitel Plan Basitel Plan was divided into the four integrated sub programs explained below: INFRATEL PASERV RISUPA INFOSOC

the sub program aims at the development of Public Administration telecommunication network on the regional territory the sub program aims at the development of basic services and applications of local Public Administrations, accessible to citizens and enterprises on the regional territory the sub program aims at the education of human resources and at the development of organization contexts in local Public Administrations, connected to innovation processes of Information Society development the sub program aims at the development of economic, social and cultural contexts on the regional territory through their integration within the Information Society.

As you would expect, the general strategy did not leave out the strengthening of physical connections - with particular attention to the road system- and the filling of the existing gaps in environmental and socio-health infrastructures. As for road interventions, trough the adoption of a Regional Plan of Viability, the Region gained a wide range of plans and started the interventions. Moreover, the Updating Document of Regional Transports Plan underlines the need to identify an integrated system of the existing transport modes on the regional territory, able to optimize the performances, to make the most of the general available property in terms of infrastructures, and to satisfy the plenty of requirements in transport matter. A consistent part of the physical network interventions forecasted by the Operational Programme, has been reprised, in its strategic aspects, by the so-called “Objective Law”: Tab. 10 - Primary interventions of national interest in Basilicata Region: “Objective Law” Rail corridors Road corridors

Basilicata sector of Taranto – Sibari line Basilicata sector of Salerno- Reggio Calabria highway (with an intervention on Nova Siri – Metaponto sector) North South Tirrenian Adriatic between A3 and A16 highways (Lauria – Potenza – Melfi – Candela line)

Transversal road con- Salerno – Potenza – Bari (with a programmed intervention in Vaglio nections junction and S.S. 96/S.S. 169) Pollino – Murgia (with intervention between Matera and Gioia del Colle, Pisticci and Valsinni, Ferrandina and Matera) 44

Source: M. Spinedi, Regione Basilicata “Strategie nazionali e scenari regionali della Basilicata nella mobilità delle merci e dei passeggeri”, 2006 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

The following is a more general list of the strategic infrastructural interventions planned by ROP and regional programmatic documents for 2000-2006: Tab. 11 - Infrastructural intervention divided by transports modes Completion of Ferrandina – Matera la Martella – Venusto – Altamura – Bari of railway Rail corridors

Rationalization and improvement of Matera – Bari line of AppuloLucane Railways (FAL) Modernization of Potenza – San Nicola of Melfi line Realization of a relief track on Potenza – Avigliano line (FS/FAL) Marinella – Venusto by-pass (FAL) Connection routes to SNIT network (National Transport Integrated Systen) Completion of Bradano axis Completion A3 – Agrina (Paterno – Padula) Connection. Bradanica – Potenza – Melfi Superior connection: Bradanica – Ofantina

Road corridors

Lagonegro – A3 connection Transversal routes between valley roads: North-South connection (Bradanica – Sinnica) Bradanica – Agrina connection Basentana – Sinnica connection High Agrina – Sinnica connection Connections among villages - valley roads - industrial districts

Intermodal centres

Tito dry port Ferrandina Intermodal centre Completion of FAL municipal ring (Potenza) Completion of bus station and pedestrian walkway (Potenza) Pedestrian mechanic connection from the railway station to the bus station (PZ)

Municipal mobility

Realization of moving staircases between Porta Salza – and Monte Cocuzzo (PZ) Improving of pedestrian and drive way access to the city centre (Potenza) Realization of a Visitor’s Center in Piazza Vittorio Veneto (Matera) Realization of a camper service area (Matera) Urban strategic plan for Potenza hinterland (Potenza) Urban strategic plan for Matera municipality (Matera)

Air transport

Widening of Grumento air-area Realization of Basilicata civil airport

Source: M. Spinedi, Regione Basilicata “Strategie nazionali e scenari regionali della Basilicata nella mobilità delle merci e dei passeggeri”, 2006 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

45


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

The measures adopted by Basilicata ROP 2000-2006 for infrastructural improvement and the related progress up to 31.12.2006 are below illustrated. (The reference source is the Annual Report of Execution 2006 of Basilicata ROP). Measure VI.1 – Upgrading of local transport networks (ERDF) This measure aims at overcoming the existing infrastructural discrepancy inside the regional transport system and consists of 6 different actions facing the following themes: regional Viability, interregional Viability, Air-areas, logistic Infrastructures. The physical progress of the Measure is unsatisfactory, above all if compared with the good financial progress. In fact, the only started action was the realization of 95 interventions of regional viability, but this action still appears far from the realization of this measure’s expected actions. As to the realization of an airport, the necessary intervention has not been realized yet, because the discussion about the best solution to grant connection with Basilicata has been very long and, in some sense, unresolved. The Region chose to restructure and strengthen an existing runway, the “Mattei” one in Pisticci, that is used currently only for tourist flights. The project is born to satisfy mainly the needs of seasonal tourists, directed to the Ionian coast of Basilicata and Puglia and to the area of Matera. Another great project, that has not been realized yet, concerns Tito dry port. The dry port is situated in Tito municipality, that is connected to the city of Potenza by 8 km of motorway, and on the railway line crossing the region and connecting Rome to Taranto; it is also situated in one of the largest industrial areas of the Region, managed by the ASI Consortium, absorbing more than 1,900 employees. Tito dry port aims at becoming a “ Services Centre for the Logistics, the distribution and the International Commerce”, particularly useful for agroindustrial productions. The project, in its final configuration, covers a surface of over 1 million sqm, for a total investment cost of about 160 million Euros. Measure VI.2 Intangible networks (ERDF) The measures aims at favouring the use of new computer technologies, facilitating the access of the citizens to fundamental services, promoting the knowledge of Information Society’s potentialities, as well as sustaining internationalization and cooperation –both transnational and interregional- processes. 46

As evidenced by the Annual Report on ROP Implementation, “the measure has proven to be pursuing its objectives, as documented by (...) the achieveStudy of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

ment of the objective of increasing the number of households with personal computers”. The conclusion in 2006 of “Electronics Citizenship - a Computer in every house 2nd Edition” project contributed to the realization of this last objective. This project’s positive impact has been recognized by ISTAT, attesting that Basilicata is one of the Italian regions with the greatest diffusion of the Internet. During 2006, e-government system and computerization of the PA have been further improved, together with the strengthening of the services given through the institutional portal, for which a phase of reengineering has also started. It has also begun the experimentation of a digital terrestrial platform, aimed at developing interactive services with the resident population. In order to reduce the digital divide, operations for optical fibre and wireless networks communication started in 2006. Infrastructures in urban areas have been pursued through the measures of ROP Axis V, programmed through the two Pisu (integrated programs for urban development) of Potenza and Matera. At the date of 31.12.2006, the situation is as follows: Measure V.1 - Policies for strengthening and upgrading urban areas (ERDF) The measure aims at enhancing the quality of the regional urban system, primarily in the cities of Potenza and Matera. The implementation of interventions is well advanced, particularly interventions concerning the redevelopment of urban green (100%). The interventions that the monitoring system defines as “urban design”, including “upgrading of the city centre” and its historical-cultural emergencies, evidence a physical realization percentage of about 40%. The progress of the implementation of integrated mobility systems is in an advanced stage as well, while the creation of parking zones started only in 2007. The status of environmental infrastructures, however, can be summarized as follows: Measure I.1 - Integrated water cycle (ERDF) This measure, in agreement with the Regional Plan for Aqueducts and with the Water Protection Plan, aims at ensuring the suitable water availability for municipal and industrial uses, mainly through the improvement and the rationalization of storage conditions, through the transit, the distribution and the collecting of water and through the promotion of wastewater purification and reuse. Measure I.3 – Waste and pollution (ERDF) This measure aims at environmental preservation and protection, trough the reduction in waste production- and in their dangerousness - and through an integrated management. To achieve these objectives, the measure was diviStudy of the innovative potential of Basilicata

47


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

ded into four target activities concerning: the implementation of follow-up and support activities (Action A), the promotion of waste separation and recycling (Action B), the creation of disposal facilities for municipal waste (Action C) and the recovery of contaminated sites (Action D). With regard to the physical implementation, this measure underlines the significant progresses within the construction of disposal facilities and the restoration of polluted sites, with a special attention to the recovery of contaminated sites (Actions C and D). Encouraging signs come from the actions promoting separated collection (“B” action) which, in the last months of 2006, launched two important projects in the territories of Vulture-Melfi and Lagonegro. Thanks to the significant progresses in the field of disposal and remediation of asbestos waste, the measure records a significant success in terms of results achieved. Foreign market: trade interchange, a general outlook After two years of sustained growth, the exports suffered a setback in 2008, due to the lower volume of foreign sales in car industry, that keeps on influencing the statements of made in Basilicata products, both in a positive (expanding markets) and negative (declining market) sense. The “restrain” started emerging during last summer -together with the progressive deterioration of economic conditions- to become a real collapse at the end of the year. In this negative scenario, some exceptions can however be registered: some productions (including “traditional” ones) succeeded in finding new opportunities on international markets and in increasing sales. Basilicata met the greatest difficulties on the EU market, which demonstrated a strong contraction, while the markets outside the EU remained expanding, so becoming, in recent years, even more important within Basilicata trade interchange and realizing more than a third of the total flow of exported goods. Imports decreased as well; its trend was affected by lower demand for raw materials and semi-manufactured products by the local production system, as a consequence of lower activity volumes, characterizing the current business cycle. The total amount of abroad sales value realized by “Basilicata system” has touched just 2 billion Euros in 2008, recording a 6.6% decline compared to 2007, but remaining on the highest level recorded in recent years. On a national level, however, exports remained almost stationary, while it has continued growing – even if slightly- in the South, with a rising trend of 3.3%.

48

As already said, auto industry influenced last year negative balance in exports: the sales in international markets fell by 23.7% (more than 330 million Euros less) after two years of strong expansion, with almost doubled values compared to those recorded in the first half of the decade. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

The new exploits of petroleum products could partly compensate this decline, thanks to the sharp rise in world prices: with 380 million Euros (about 90% more compared to 2007), this product sector is now the second most important “item” of regional export. Tab. 12 - Regional exports by product categories absolute values (in thousands of Euros) and % change on the previous year Absolute values 2006 Means of transport

2007

% annual change 2008

1,166,242

1,395,007

1,063,963

Energy

72,143

201,983

380,299

Metal

96,402

104,915

170,625

Chemical

78,045

90,160

Furniture

2006 86.4

2007

2008

19.6

-23.7

180.0

88.3

53.7

8.8

62.6

86,582

57.3

15.5

-4.0

148,673

123,216

84,104

-31.2

-17.1

-31.7

Agri-foodstuffs

33,596

39,661

61,821

3.7

18.1

55.9

Rubber, plastic

48,308

57,938

45,333

0.2

19.9

-21.8

Textile, clothing

34,648

37,485

38,240

33.8

8.2

2.0

Leather, footwear

27,928

25,815

14,511

22.9

-7.6

-43.8

Other products

15,535

24,296

15,707

3.9

56.4

-35.4

1,721,520

2,100,476

1,961,185

56.5

22.0

-6.6

540,621

705,469

897,222

14.0

30.5

27.2

Total Total – means of transport Source: Unioncamere

Moreover, the expansive trend of engineering products started in 2006 continued: +62.6% variation on an annual basis, for a total value exceeding 170 million Euros. The turnover of foreign agri-food sector recorded an equally significant increase (+55.9%), mainly due to unprocessed agricultural products, whose exports rose from 18.8 million Euros in 2007 to 37.3 in 2008; in food industry, however, there was an increase of 3 million Euros and a half. Textile products exports showed a positive trend (+2.0%), although the whole “fashion system” has slowed down, for the markedly negative trend in “leather and footwear” sector. More or less dramatic failures characterized remaining goods, starting from furniture, free-falling in the last 4 years: in 2008 the value of exports in the whole sector fell to 84.1 million Euros, the 31.7% less compared to 2007. The fall in rubber and plastic products exports was very heavy as well (-21.8%), while chemical industry contained the “loss” by 4.0%, thanks to the positive results achieved in the first half of the year. The so far analyzed export trends, in terms of money, reflect both changes in the amount of total goods exported and the variations of their unit value. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

49


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

Regional imports: outlook With regard to the other component of trade interchange, 2008 balance closed with minus sign as well; imports decreased, in fact, of 11.2% after two years of fair expansion. Almost all major market areas influenced such a trend, with the only exception of food products, whose purchases have significantly increased (+48.4% compared to 2007), thus exceeding, for the first time, the 100 million Euros (47% of which coming from overseas markets). However, the most significant decreases concerned imports of parts and accessories of motor vehicles and engines (belonging to “means of transport� category), which correspond to intermediate processing made by Fiat Group industrial units located in Poland on behalf of the Melfi SATA (-24.4%, representing over 100 million Euros less). Even in imports, expanding trends have been recorded only on extra-European markets, which as a consequence assume a more important role within foreign trade with Basilicata. Tab. 13 - Regional imports by product categories absolute values (in thousands of Euros) and % change on the previous year Absolute values 2006

2007

% annual change 2008

2006

2007

2008

Metal

306,704

349,603

340,160

77.8

14.0

-2.7

Means of transport

431,911

413,402

312,609

60.1

-4.3

-24.4

72,592

70,700

104,887

2.6

-2.6

48.4

Chemical

106,587

108,579

82,587

38.1

1.9

-23.9

Furniture

57,251

43,016

32,159

19.1

-24.9

-25.2

Agro-foodstuffs

Rubber, plastic

16,394

33,123

27,233

-12.3

102.0

-17.8

Paper, printing

12,819

16,459

15,296

8.5

28.4

-7.1

Leather, footwear

10,127

10,389

5,815

1.6

2.6

-44.0

Textile, clothing

10,092

5,833

5,567

105.6

-42.2

-4.5

13,806

14,560

19,942

56.0

5.5

37.0

1,038,281 1,065,663

946,257

49.7

2.6

-11.2

Other products total Source: Unioncamere

The Regional Development strategy The Regional strategy for innovation focused priority interventions around the already existing potentialities of the territory, both in terms of geological resources and in terms of production and research settlements. The activities of earth observation, energy, mobility, agro-biotechnology find their focus poles, respectively, in Potenza and Matera, Val d’Agri, Melfi and Metaponto. The fifth area considered, the one dealing with materials and new production technologies, is transversal because can be actually referred to all research and production sectors. 50

Such a definition does not preclude the possibility, by the side of the Basilicata Region, of adopting developing and strengthening measures - also throuStudy of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

gh conversion processes - of traditional sectors like textiles and health care, so to facilitate their placement within new global competition challenges. To this end, it must be underlined that 80% of the financial resources available for the implementation of the regional strategy for innovation, will be focused on the four priority sectors, while the remaining 20% will be destined to traditional sectors. The strategy behind investments in these areas aims not only to reinforce each pole and field, but especially to develop and strengthen every possible connection between the four sectors, involving territorial stakeholders into common government policies and partnerships. A demonstration of the possible connections is represented in the figure below. Fig. 2 - Research and Innovation: existing poles, stakeholders and major business opportunities

Source: Regional Strategy for Research, Innovation and Information Society, November 2008, Basilicata Region 51 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

Therefore, the possible interconnections between the various existing poles may be the following: Mobility  Earth Observation The interconnectivity between Melfi automotive pole and earth observation poles in Potenza and Matera can find useful applications within security and mobile-information sectors, by developing, for example, satellite communications systems with radiolocation technologies, radio and satellite systems, driving assistance via sensors (loops, infrared, radar, ultrasound), and so forth. Mobility  Agri-biotechnologies With regard to this possible connection, it may concern the development of technologies able to fight desertification and climate change, agro-meteorology, environmental monitoring, etc. Energiy  Agro-biotechnologies The possible connections between the energy poles of Val d’Agri and agricultural–biotechnologies developed in Metaponto concern investments in terms of research and development of renewable energy sources, such as photovoltaic energy, wind power, biomass energy and, not least, algae oil production. Energy  Mobility The possible connections between the energy poles of Val d’Agri and the automotive in Melfi concern sustainable mobility, that is to say, investments in research and development of transport technologies with low environmental impact such as electric vehicles, LPG hybrids, etc. Energy  Earth Observation The possible connections between the energy poles of Val d’Agri and earth observation poles in Potenza and Matera concern the security and mining technologies. It also must be stressed that, in the field of Earth observations, there is a strong ICT component (Web sensors, web services, inter-operability and data sharing, Location Based etc.) whose applications are deeply interesting also for Mobility, Security and Energy sectors. In order to exploit, develop and strengthen the strategic sectors of Basilicata, the regional strategy for research and innovation will be based on the creation of a network between production and science systems through the implementation of specific actions, as shown below:

52 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

Fig. 3 - Lines of action of the Regional Strategy for Research and Innovation

Source: Regional Strategy for research, Innovation and Information Society, November 2008, Basilicata Region

II.2.2 SWOT analysis of the region The following SWOT analysis is the compendium of the study carried out in the previous paragraphs concerning the specific characteristics of Basilicata region. It could be considered as a sort of basis for the other chapters of the present investigation, that is Part III. The SWOT analysis framework has identified several internal strengths and weaknesses as well as several external opportunities and threats for the Basilicata region. The four categories are represented as follows: STRENGHTS Presence of significant and increasing production centres (automotive, basic chemicals, mining, agri-food for the high-end production) Rich supply of water, environmental and agricultural resources, useful to produce alternative energies and pave the way for the birth of new productive areas Good level of employees involved in training and education activities Increased awareness of R&I role as growth and competitiveness factors Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

WEAKNESSES Decline of some productive sectors such as: upholstered furniture, corsetry, building and agri-food industry for low-end production A production system mainly characterized by under-capitalized and family holding micro and small enterprises Difficult access to credit for enterprises, particularly after Basel agreements Productive specialization focused on traditional sectors, particularly exposed to emerging countries competition

53


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

Fast development of tourism

Poor spending on intra-muros R & D and low number of R & D employees

Presence of worldwide important public Difficulty in investment attraction from facilities for training and research in relevant abroad and scarce propensity to internatiofields (space observation, environment, nalization energy) Limited ability of companies to collaborate Presence of major oil fields, able to generate with other productive realities and with the benefits for Basilicata community scientific system Significant endowment of natural resources Negative trend of dynamic business demofor renewable energy production graphy (mortality rate> birth rate) Secondary education level higher than the Weakness of regional urban systems national average Good number of employees in high and Lack of adequate connections - rail, air, sea medium high-technology sectors and road – within and with the Region High level of ICT dissemination within Public Growth in imports from other countries Administrations Good diffusion of computer equipment and Imbalance between net exports of primary Internet connection among companies energy and imports of secondary energy Presence of a skilled human capital Hydro-geological instability of the area 2 Start-up incubators managed by Sviluppo Italia Basilicata in Val d’Agri (MunicipaliLack of energy- components producing ties of Viggiano and Grumento Nova) and enterprises Matera Large proportion of population with longterm risk of digital divide due to poor Employment trend kept positive in services economic attractiveness towards investors sector (internal and mountainous areas in a 'market failure' condition) High percentage of people employed in high and medium-high technology sectors The institutional system of promoting Fo(Basilicata is among the ten most dynamic reign Direct Investments needs improvement regions for the employment in services with high-level knowledge) The rate of graduates in scientific and technical disciplines is high in comparison with Lack of structured industrial parks the national level Insufficient n. of spin-offs Relations between the scientific research and the economic sectors are still weak Activities of the regional economic actors, mainly SMEs, are often not oriented to R&D Technology and knowledge transfer is scarcely functioning between education institutes and research centres and businesses OPPORTUNITIES THREATS Traditional productions exposed to emerging Strategic geographical position for Southern countries – such as China and India- comregions connections petition Possible increase of oil royalties, able to The persistent overvaluation of Euro negatienhance financial resources for local devevely influences exports and investments lopment 54 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

The successful implementation of Basel 2 Relevant availability of national and Commucould become an additional constraint for nitarian facility resources small enterprises to access to bank credit New countries’ access to EU, with a consePossibility of exporting high quality local quent reduction of resources facilities for the products to emerging countries South of Italy Creation of networks between the technology district and other production and scienThe growth of oil and gas prices turns into tific situations in national and international an extra-cost for regional enterprises contexts Absence of crime and relevant social disad- Persistent trend to depopulation and aging vantage, high quality environment of the population High propensity to voluntary work and assoIncreasing emigration phenomena, especialciationism, leading to development of social ly within young people services Large portions of region territory are occuUnbalance in socio-economic development pied by protected areas between internal and border areas Presence of a potentially high tourist dePoverty phenomena relating to specific mand for environmental and historic-cultural population groups heritage Existence of high-quality agro-food proPossible increase in skilled human reduction for qualified market niches within sources emigration, due to the lack of job agro-industrial sectors and enogastronomic opportunities in relevant positions tourism. Difficulty in making efficient and effective Existence of innovation opportunities (envi- the cohesion policies due to the absence ronment, biogenetics, energy) of system and strengthening actions of the governance Vitality and responsiveness of Basilicata civil Possible increase in CO2 emissions caused society, able to share and support the efforts by socio-economic development of public policies on cohesion. The region's topography, predominantly mountainous and hilly, together with the low Existence of a human resources potential population density discourage infrastructure yet to be fully appreciated investment in the field of tangible and intangible network services Presence of an important cultural and historical heritage, still widely to be exploited Spreading of European innovation policies

55 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Part II - Report on regional situation of Basilicata

Prioritisation matrix Possible impact to the region High Old and bad regional transportation system;

Chance of Occurring

High

R&D activity (lower than the economic potential

A ‘human resources potential’ yet to be Medium fully appreciated; increase in spin-offs

Decentralisation;

Low

Development of Industrial Parks; access to the banking system; Spending on intra-muros R & D and number of R & D employees

Medium

Low

Capital supply of SMEs; Innovation services

Increasing role of the Information Society; sectorial diversity

Increase in n. of Incubators; adaptation of European innovation policies; improvement of the institutional system of promoting Foreign direct investments

Low level of industrial added value

Abilities of companies to collaborate with other productive realities and with the scientific system; efficient and effective cohesion policies (absence of system and strengthening actions of the governance)

Scarce propensity to internationalization

56 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

57 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region III.1 The general situation of the business sector, mostly focusing to innovative entrepreneurship Regional productive structure The total 38,432 local production units in Basilicata are divided as follows: 25% belongs to industry in narrow sense and building (9,771), about 32% to trade (12,533), nearly 7% to tourism and catering (2,531), while 35% is concentrated in other services (13,597). The comparison of net incorporation rates (Table 14) between 2002 and 2006 shows a reduction in net incorporation rates both is Basilicata and in the rest of the Country. In 2007, however, in Basilicata, the rate remains the same of the previous year, so exceeding not only the data of the Southern Italy and convergence Area, but also the corresponding Italian datum. Tab. 14 - Incorporation rate – Years 2000-2007 DISTRIBUTION

NET INCORPORATION RATE ENTERPRISES/YEAR

Italy

2.5

2001 2.6

South

3.2

3.3

3.0

2.4

2.6

2.3

1.2

0.5

Convergence area

3.3

3.3

3.2

2.3

2.7

2.4

1.1

0.5

1.7

2.9

1.7

1.3

1.3

1.1

0.8

0.8

Basilicata

2000

2002 2.1

2003 2

2004 2.2

2005 1.9

2006 1.4

2007 0.4

Source: ISTAT (National Institute of Statistics) processing on Infocamere data Updated June 2008

Firms in Basilicata are generally characterized by an under-sizing situation: local units with 1 to 9 employees are the majority (Table 15). Tab. 15 - Enterprises local units by employees number and geographical Distribution LOCAL UNITS DISTRIBUTION

1-9 employees

10-19 employees

20-49 employees

50 employees or more

Total

INDUSTRY IN NARROW SENSE Italy

501,986

54,627

27,178

13,203

596,994

South

134,190

9,006

4,139

1,715

149,050

Convergence area

104,571

6,751

3,040

1,097

115,459

3,995

272

138

97

4,502

Basilicata

BUILDING 58

Italy

501,986

54,627

27,178

13,203

596,994

South

145,445

6,065

1,574

351

153,435

Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Convergence area Basilicata

108,041

4,466

4,984

217

1,209

272

113,988

54

14

5,269

TRADE Italy

1,326,329

28,026

9,632

2,990

1,366,977

South

469,071

6,200

1,636

385

477,292

Convergence area

381,668

4,814

1,244

281

388,007

154

27

9

12,533

Basilicata

12,343

HOTELS AND RESTAURANTS Italy

282,660

11,765

3,497

989

298,911

South

78,826

2,321

836

244

82,227

Convergence area

58,706

1,686

646

185

61,223

2,446

59

19

7

2,531

1,814,050

39,026

19,108

11,771

1,883,955

South

440,576

9,319

4,454

2,401

456,750

Convergence area

341,231

7,161

3,512

1,868

353,772

13,138

277

119

63

13,597

Italy

4,519,367

154,744

65,435

30,237

4,769,783

South

1,268,108

32,911

12,639

5,096

1,318,754

994,217

24,878

9,651

3,703

1,032,449

36,906

979

357

190

38,432

Basilicata

OTHER SERVICES Italy

Basilicata

TOTAL

Convergence area Basilicata

Source: ISTAT (National Institute of Statistics) – 2005

A natural consequence of this small size is the undercapitalization of most businesses: the incidence of capital companies on total enterprises in 2005 was equal to 8.7% (Source: ISTAT 2005), with a clear majority of one-man businesses. In mid 2007 one-man businesses are still the most diffused firms, with an incidence on the total companies of 81.9% (Source: Infocamere-Movimprese). The crisis affecting Basilicata production system since 2000 is partially explained by entrepreneurial weakness -both economical and dimensional- being in most cases family-holdings and the objective difficulty of access to credit (even deeper after Basel 2 rules), which in fact impede long-term planning. Sector/territory specialization Economy in Basilicata is characterized by a certain degree of diversification. At the production level, it can be divided into the following industrial sectors: » » » » » »

automotive cluster; earth observation; agro-food; renewable energies; mining industry; chemical pole (Val Basento);

Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

59


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Âť upholstered furniture industry (Matera); Âť corsetry pole (Lavello); Âť building The automotive cluster, although settled throughout the region, has a high concentration of companies in the province of Potenza. There are both enterprises designing and manufacturing diesel engines, including ships and aircrafts engines for important companies (such as Peugeot, Porsche, etc.), and companies connected to SATA-FIAT cluster in San Nicola di Melfi. It counted 7971 employees in 2001 (Industry Census 2001) and 8192 employees in 2004 (ISTAT survey). The fate of the pole is essentially tied to FIAT sales trends. The cluster, which focuses primarily on components, mechanics, electronics, spare parts and maintenance services, records a positive trend in terms of motor vehicles exports. The Region gives a strategic importance to the sector of earth observation, since it aims at monitoring the area, in order to prevent natural risks and/ or mitigate damages through the acquisition and the processing of satellite data. One element supporting this regional policy is the frequency with which atmospheric and environmental phenomena occur on the territory, threatening its hydrogeological integrity. That being so, the Region signed (2005) a Scientific Research Framework Program with the Ministry of University and Research and the Ministry of Economy and Finance for the creation of a Technology District in the field of detection technologies, systematic monitoring, reporting, prevention and repairing of environmental risks related to hydrological, climatological and seismic structure of the territory. This agreement provided for public and private funds aiming at the construction of a public-private technological platform for the development of innovative technologies and methodologies. In particular, it is expected to develop: anti-seismic building technologies and detection and monitoring systems of hydrological risk in the area of Tito - Potenza; aerial and satellite detection technology for climatological and hydrological risk in the area of Valbasento Matera. In the field of risk forecasting-prevention-security- mitigation, the use real time (RT) or near-real time (NRT) data is essential; moreover, the fact that, in many cases, the same data interest different applications and can be shared on multi-media platform, closely links these issues to Information and Communication Technologies, within which many of the SMEs of the two provinces operate.

60

The agri-foodstuffs industry, although extending over the entire region, is essentially made up of two major districts: the district of Metaponto and the district of Vulture. In agricultural products processing there are about 1,289 companies, while in the agricultural sector there are about 21,000 businesses. Both districts have been certified through Regional Laws. The district of Metaponto is the largest regional horticultural centre, characterized by a high production capacity, a high degree of process mechanization and the ability of companies to create important networks with the scientific and technological system (ENEA). The food district of Vulture is specialized in the Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

production of wine, olive oil, mineral water and dairy products; some of the companies operating here are part of major international food companies such as Barilla, and the whole area can boast PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) recognition. With regard to wine, very important are the Agri-Sinni wine industry, the Roccanova IGT and the DOC Terre Alta Val d’Agri (from Viggiano), products made by a growing local food system, proper of an “Area of Excellence”. The economic results of agricultural sector have been particularly negative in 2004-2005 for environmental factors (drought in 2001-2003) and structural factors (law presence on international markets, companies mostly characterized by small size and low capitalization). The renewable energy sector has instead a great importance, especially as a future development strategy. At the present time, renewable sources represent more than a quarter of the total regional production of energy, with two thirds of hydroelectric power and one third for wind energy. Negligible contributions come from photovoltaic, biomass and agro-energy crops which, though having high management costs, are among the most suitable forms of energy recovery. Regional strategies provide for future development of productive chains based on renewable sources, encouraging the growth of enterprises engaged in energy production (photovoltaic, biomass and biofuels based on energy crops) and in components efficiency, and promoting the cooperation with research centres. The mining industry is concentrated in the Val d’Agri area, extracting more than 75% of the total oil extracted in Italy and producing a significant quantity of gas to the national total. The biggest stakeholder in this sector is ENI, but there are also other important international oil companies (Total, Shell, Exxon). The presence of mining multinationals produces a steady growth in royalties, thanks to which interesting development programmes were started on the territory. The chemical cluster in Val Basento has been the core of a long production crisis, due to the closure of some major industrial facilities. At the present time the centre is made of little more than 10 production units, mainly concentrated in the production of polymers and synthetic fibres. Some re-industrialization initiatives have been carried out in order to stem this crisis, which had caused about a thousand job losses: a Programme Contract launched by the New Valsud Consortium; an investment of about 30 million Euros in the chemical sector; another initiative is the “ Val Basento Call”, whose main objective is the resumption of much of the staff currently in mobility or laid-off workers. The upholstered furniture cluster covers the provinces of Bari and Matera and counts about 70 companies settled in Basilicata, 80% of total revenues comes from exports, while the production represents 10% of the worldwide production. Nevertheless, a drop is taking place since 2002: it can be due to both commercial cyclical factors (international negative trend and Euro appreciation against the dollar) and structural reasons (not very high quality Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

61


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

level of production and competition from emerging countries such as China): the result was a halving of exports (-49.4%) between 2003 and 2006, about 4,000 jobs and 330 production units lost from 2002 to 2007. In order to stem this crisis, companies are trying to raise the quality of the products and to strengthen the distribution network by enhancing customer services. At the present, however, the commercial crisis persists and the exports during first half of 2007 declined further by 19.6% over the corresponding period of 2006. The corsetry cluster of Lavello is located between the towns of Lavello, Venosa, Melfi and Ginestra and is specialized in brassieres production. There are about 250 employees in the 35 companies working within the clusters. After a phase of rapid expansion during the nineties (one fifth of national production was concentrated in the area), the cluster has experienced a downward trend - still continuing now- due to strong competition from Asian countries (especially China) and to demand reduction. Entrepreneurs are trying to face this crisis by delocalizing in the Eastern Europe, where labour costs are lower. Finally, the building sector represents a strategic industry because its added value is above the national average (8.9% versus 6.1% in Italy); but even this sector has suffered the consequences of the crisis started in 2000. The weakness of Basilicata production system, with a prevalence of smallsized enterprises operating in traditional sectors with low propensity to innovation, is clearly visible for the low investments in Research & Development (R & D) activities. Table 16 shows the constant and sharp gap between Basilicata and Italy in 2002-2005 cycle, despite the Region has invested an increasing amount of financial resources in scientific research and technological innovation. Indeed, in 2005, the regional expenditure on R&D amounted to 53 million Euros, equal to 0.34% of the national expenditure. The average level of percentage expenditure of GDP at current prices (which expresses the innovation capacity of the region) is equal to 0.53%, which is rather low if compared to the average of Italy (1.10%), Convergence area (0.82%) and South (0.80%). Tab. 16 - Expenditure for intra muros R&D on GDP at current prices Years 2002-2005 Expenditure for intra muros R&D on GDP at current prices Italy South Convergence area Basilicata

Years 2002 1.13% 0.76% 0.76% 0.48%

2003 1.11% 0.78% 0.79% 0.51%

2004 1.10% 0.83% 0.85% 0.56%

2005 1.10% 0.80% 0.82% 0.53%

Source: ISTAT processing – 2005

62

This expenditure is mainly supported by Universities and research centres with 44.4% and by the enterprise system with 37.8%; public institutions folStudy of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

low with 17.7% and, finally, at a significantly lower cost (0.1%) the sector of private non-profit institutions. These data, on the one hand reflect the recent history of Basilicata, characterized by the consolidation of major universities and public research centres, and, on the other hand show a greater awareness of the need for companies to invest in research in order to dialogue with the Scientific system and to be competitive on the international market. The breakdown of Basilicata expenditure on R & D by institutional sector (Table 17) is consistent with the data collected in the South and in Convergence area, where the contribution to innovation from the ‘academic world’ and research is greater in relation to the entrepreneurial system; at the national level, instead, the private spending for scientific research is significant. Tab. 17 - Expenditure for intra muros R&D by institutional sector - Year 2005 Expenditure For Intra-Muros R&D (% values)

Institutional sector Public Private non University Enterprises Administrations profit institutions

Total

Italy

17.3%

30.2%

2.1%

50.4%

100.0%

South

14.5%

53.9%

1.5%

30.1%

100.0%

Convergence area

13.4%

55.0%

1.6%

30.0%

100.0%

Basilicata

17.7%

44.4%

0.1%

37.7%

100.0%

Source: Processing on ISTAT data – Research and Development in Italy, 2005

In 2002-2005 period, R&D employees of the Basilicata Region (Table 18) are gradually increased, following the positive trend that has characterized Italy as a whole. Tab. 18 - R & D Employees - Years 2002-2005 (expressed in full-time equivalent *) R&D EMPLOYEES Italy

Absolute values 2002

2003

2004

2005

164,023.0

161,827.8

164,026.3

175,247.6

South

32,201.0

32,730.8

33,801.2

35,675.9

Convergence area

25,309.0

25,659.0

26,702.7

28,247.6

678.0

707.9

708.9

726.4

Basilicata

* Units expressed in full-time equivalent. The consultants operating within enterprises, public institutions and private non-profit institutions for R&D development account as a research staff to all effects. The datum of university sector also includes those who receive a research grant. Source: Processing on ISTAT data – 2005

Nevertheless, Basilicata records a strong delay when compared to Italy. Indeed, in 2002, R&D employees in Basilicata are equal to 0.41%, in 2003 to 0.44% and in 2004 to 0.43%. These data are confirmed in 2005, when Basilicata, with 0.41% of employees in R&D sector, is still among the Italian regions with the lowest amount of resources in the area. Only Molise and Valle d’Aosta have a lower value. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

63


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Tab. 19 - R&D employed in Basilicata on total national amount of R&D employed R&D employed in Basilicata on national total Basilicata/Italy

Years 2002

2003

0.41%

2004

0.44%

2005

0.43%

0.41%

Source: processing on ISTAT data

The analysis of the breakdown by institutional sector in Basilicata (Table 20) shows that the biggest contribution in terms of R&D human resources is given by the University and national research institutions (CNR, ENEA, CRA), and to a smaller extent, by businesses. This distribution is consistent with the one of the Convergence area and the South, but different from national data, where values are almost equal among the productive system and the university. This allows to say that in areas of the Southern Italy there is less tendency for firms to innovate products, processes and organization with internal resources, mainly because of their small size. Tab. 20 - R&D employees by institutional sector and region 2005 (expressed in full-time equivalent) R&D EMPLOYEES Italy

Absolute values Public Adm. 32,684.0

University 66,975.7

Non profit

Enterprises

4,863.0

70,724.9

South

5,675.0

21,309.1

688.0

8,003.8

Convergence area

4,378.0

17,215.3

536.0

6,118.3

134.0

410.0

3.0

179.4

Basilicata

Source: Processing on ISTAT data – Research and Development in Italy, 2005

A strong competitive ability of Basilicata stands in high tech sectors where employment reaches 8.92%, exceeding both the national level (7.3%) and the European average (7.41%)5. This datum is related to the presence of major national groups in chemical and automotive industries on the territory. Moreover, as stated by the “Fifth Progress Report on economic and social development - growing regions, growing Europe” prepared by the Directorate General for Regional Policy of the European Union Commission {SEC(2008) 2047 def.}, Basilicata is one of the ten regions with the largest increase in employment in high knowledge services (in 2006 6.3 percentage points more than in 2000). Analyzing data on education and training regional system, a positive picture of the Basilicata system emerges: this is due to the consolidated presence of the University of Basilicata, featuring primarily technical-scientific faculties, and national research centres. The rate of graduates in scientific and technical disciplines in 2005 is equal to 52.9% against 33.7% recorded on a national level6. 5

64

6

Source: ERDF OP Basilicata Region 2007-2013

Source: ERDF OP Basilicata Region 2007-2013

Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Another important way to look at the innovative capability of Basilicata consists in measuring the patents obtained in relation to population. Restricting the analysis to European Patent Office data, Italy shows a positive growth trend from 58.2 patents per capita per million inhabitants in 2002 to 67.1 in 2005. The number of patents generated in Basilicata, although lower than the national average and beyond the strong fluctuation from 2002 to 2003, seems to be in line with the average of Southern Regions (Table 21). Tab. 21 - Number of European patents submitted to EPO 2002-2005 (per capita per million inhabitants) European patents submitted to EPO Italy

YEARS 2002

2003

2004

2005

58.2

59.6

68.4

67.1

South

4.9

6.1

5.4

6.5

Basilicata

6.7

3.3

3.3

3.4

Source: European Patent Office

The analysis so far carried out shows a low innovative capability of Basilicata, which occupies a weak position, especially if compared to central and northern regions. These findings are confirmed by the European Innovation Scoreboard 20067, which shows R&I performance level of the regions of EU Member States through the RNSII8 index. For the Basilicata region this index, measuring the innovation capacity of competitive research, technology transfer and modernization of regional systems over time, is equal to 0.29 (where 1 is the score of the most innovative region of the EU). As already indicated, Basilicata occupies a lower position compared to Lazio (0.57), Lombardy and Piedmont (0.49), while it is less negative than other Southern regions, with the exception of Campania.

7

The European Innovation Scoreboard is a study of the Directorate General for Research European Commission for the annual audit of the progress made in achieving the objectives identified under the EU Lisbon Strategy in 2000.

8

The Regional National Summary Innovation Index, a composite index calculated on basis of 25 indicators of innovation, gives a measure of the overall innovation performance of a region. In particular, the reference indicators are: education, employment, R&D, patents, innovation of enterprises, diffusion of new technologies, dynamic performance and quality businesses, competitiveness, economic freedom.

Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

65


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Graph 1 - Basilicata performance in the field of innovation in comparison with the Italian Regions

*The data regarding Trentino Alto-Adige are not available. Source: Invitalia (the Italian government agency for inward investment promotion and enterprise development) processing on European Innovation Scoreboard 2006

The awareness of the strategic role played by the Development of Information Society has led the Basilicata Region to develop and implement an action plan for the circulation, within the territory, of infrastructure, tools and services based on information and communication technologies (ICT), in order to recover the delay compared to Centre-North regions and to reach peaks of excellence. On 20 December 2006 a Decree of the Prime Minister stated the institution of a Committee for broadband nationwide deployment. The Committee has carried out a survey on the availability of backbone infrastructures (high-speed networks connecting high-capacity hosts and carrying the greatest amount of information) in Italy. In 2002-2005, the backbone optic fibre increased by 17%, exceeding 4.3 million km. The growth rate observed in 2005 is equal to 4%, similar to the one observed in 2004 and lower than 7% recorded in 2003. The figure below shows how Northern-Eastern Italy was characterized by higher growth rates in each year considered.

66 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Fig. 4 - Backbone: national extension

Source: Broadband Observatory – Between, 2006

In terms of fibre density per km2 of surface, the regions which have the higher extension of backbone infrastructures are: Liguria, Emilia Romagna, Lombardy, Lazio and Veneto. Basilicata, instead, lies among the regions to the opposite extreme, with a significantly lower fibre density per km2. Fig. 5 - Backbone: regional extension and competition

Source: Broadband Observatory – Between, 2006

Considering the number of operators with optic fibre infrastructure, the most difficult conditions in terms of competition are found in Italian islands, Basilicata, Calabria and Valle d’Aosta, which are precisely the regions with a more difficult orography and with the lowest market potential. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

67


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

As for the digital divide9, by analyzing both first and second generation (Figures 6 and 7), it can be observed that the broadband coverage is highly differentiated across the regions and, despite a high level of national coverage, for some regions -including Basilicata- this coverage appears to be below average. Fig. 6 - First generation Digital Divide

Source: Broadband Observatory – Between, 2007

Fig. 7 - Second generation Digital Divide

Source: Broadband Observatory – Between, 2007

9

68

The term digital divide means the gap between people living in areas equipped with broadband infrastructure and services and people living in areas where such infrastructure and services are not available. “First generation” digital divide refers to the territories excluded from the basic service level (from 640 Kbps up to 4-7 Mbps available). “Second generation” digital divide refers to the territories excluded from advanced service (up to 20 Mbps).

Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Despite the successful policies so far implemented by the Administration to improve regional technological equipment, the infrastructural gap with other regions (especially the Northern) is largely explained by three factors: » a limited ADSL coverage: in June 2007 the total population served by ADSL was equal to 74% (against 89% in Italy and 86% of South and Islands) and, on 131 municipalities, only 50 had a coverage of over 95%; » low level of competition between operators: ULL (Unbundling Local Loop) telephone exchanges are still little-spread (12% of the population), compared with a 51% presence in Italy and 44% in the South; » unclear perspectives about the evolution of future access speed: in December 2006, Basilicata showed a clear separation from the national average and other regions of the South in terms of the fibre optic density both for backbone infrastructure and MAN infrastructures (as for the backbone: 7 Km/km2 against 15 Km/km2 of Italy and 11 Km/ km2 of the South; for MAN: 2 Km/km2 against 12 Km/km2 of Italy and 7 Km/km2of the South). As regards to the Public Administration computerization, Basilicata made significant progresses in recent years, in step with the whole Country. In 2007, the Region has a large number of autonomous data processing offices within its organizational structure. Another positive factor is the number of employees operating in regional ICT administrations: at the end of 2006 it is much higher than the national average (equivalent to 1.9 operator for every 100 employees). A reverse trend concerns employees’ training. The tendency of local governments to train their employees in ICT is much lower than the Italian average: employees who have participated in ICT training courses are only 3.3% against an 8.2% Italian average (Table 22). Tab. 22 - Municipalities with computer offices and organizing ICT training courses for employees (% of municipalities and employees) Computerization level MUNICIPALITIES Italy South

With computer offices 16.0%

With ICT employees (31.12.06) 1.9%

Organizing ICT training courses 19.6%

With employees attending ICT training courses 8.2%

15.8%

2.5%

15.6%

5.1%

Convergence area

18.3%

2.0%

19.2%

5.0%

Basilicata

20.7%

3.1%

11.3%

3.3%

Source: Processing on ISTAT data, Information and communication technologies in local government - Year 2007

Always referring to 2007, there are 74.7 personal or laptop computers for every 100 employees within Italian local governments, while Basilicata Region records an higher value (80.3%), even on the averages of Convergence area and Southern Italy. These positive results were achieved for the Intranet Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

69


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

as well: 39.2% of regional administrations have such a network, to which 59.8% of the employees have access. The Internet connection, as well as e-mail use, is widespread in all local governments of Basilicata and is almost aligned with other government of the Country (Table 23). Tab. 23 - Computer equipment of Municipalities (% of municipalities and employees) Computerisation level MUNICIPALITIES

Italy

PC for every 100 employees

74.7%

Employees with Intranet access

Intranet access

29.8%

62.0%

Internet connection

99.9%

Employees with E-mail use Internet access

61.5%

98.5%

South

74.2%

26.8%

54.9%

99.9%

58.5%

97.4%

Convergence area

62.0%

26.3%

46.2%

99.9%

48.6%

96.9%

Basilicata

80.3%

39.2%

59.8%

100.0%

63.5%

100.0%

Source: Elaboration on ISTAT data, information and communication technologies in local government - Year 2007

The external telecommunication connections are frequently used by local governments for services provided by other public administrations as well as exchanging data, information, documents and computer applications. By contrast. in 2006, the use of electronic acquisition procedures of goods and services (e-procurement) by the local government is quite limited, at both national and regional levels. The institutional website is widespread in all the regional municipalities, so allowing the government to provide telecommunication services to families, businesses and institutions, and carrying out e-government policies. In this context, Basilicata lies well above the average of Italy and South. Finally, local authorities show a low inclination to enable citizens and businesses to make online payments (table 24). Tab. 24 - Services provided and used by Municipalities (% of municipalities and employees) Computerisation level MUNICIPALITIES

Italy South

70

Use of Connection to other PA’s E-procurement Institutional On line external bank telecom. purchases website payments treasurer services 88.2% 61.4% 13.9% 78.2% 9.4% 84.6%

50.8%

11.0%

79.8%

7.2%

Convergence area

84.0%

47.9%

12.2%

81.0%

7.0%

Basilicata

91.0%

39.0%

12.8%

100.0%

4.6%

Source: Elaboration on ISTAT data, information and communication technologies in local government - Year 2007 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

With reference to the levels of computerization of households (Table 25), the most popular technologies in Basilicata are televisions, present in 95.7% of families and mobile phones (78.9%). Fairly common than the national average are the personal computers (46.6%) and access to the Internet (34.1%), compared with a low broadband penetration (13.2%). Tab. 25 - Families by technological assets owned (for 100 families in the same area) FAMILIES Italy

Computerisation level Computerisation Accesso ad Internet level 47.8% 38.8%

Connessione a banda larga 22.6%

South

45.1%

34.5%

17.2%

Convergence area

41.3%

34.1%

16.7%

Basilicata

46.6%

34.1%

13.2%

Source: Elaboration on ISTAT data, information and communication technologies in local government - Year 2007

In line with the data collected at the national level, in 2007, 40% of the population of 3 years and more than 3 years uses personal computers and 32.3% of the population of 6 years and more than 6 years browses on the Internet. As for the frequency, about half of those who use the PC do it every day, while only a third of the consumers accessing the Internet do it every day. The favourite place for families to use personal computers (in the last three months of 2007) is their home (86.3%). Then, the workplace (32.4%), the place of study (28.1%), other people’s house (20.8%) and other places (17.7%). For Internet there is a very similar situation with 77.9% of users using it at home, 34.4% the workplace, 26.5% other people’s house, 24.5% the place of study and 18.5% elsewhere. People of 6 years and over 6 browsing in the last 3 months have mainly used the Internet to communicate through electronic mail (68.4%), to have information about goods and services (59.5%) and for health information (37.1%). These data are consistent with the national level (tables 26-27-28). Tab. 26 - People aged 6 and more than 6 who have been using the Internet in the last three months to search for information (per 100 persons in the same area) PEOPLE AGED 6 AND MORE

Information search Goods and services

Health information

Other information

Italy

64.8%

37.8%

57.6%

South

58.7%

35.2%

56.0%

Convergence area

57.2%

34.1%

53.2%

Basilicata

59.5%

37.1%

60.0%

Source: Elaboration on ISTAT data, information and communication technologies in local government - Year 2007 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

71


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Tab. 27 - People aged 6 and more than 6 who have been using the Internet in the last three months to communicate (per 100 persons in the same area) PEOPLE AGED 6 AND MORE

Communication Send/receive email

Internet telephone

Other activities

Italy

77.3%

13.7%

32.1%

South

73.0%

12.4%

35.9%

Convergence area

73.1%

12.2%

40.6%

Basilicata

68.4%

8.4%

30.1%

Source: Elaboration on ISTAT data, information and communication technologies in local government - Year 2007

Tab. 28 - People aged 6 and more than 6 who have been using the Internet in the last three months to exploit services (per 100 persons in the same area) PEOPLE AGED 6 AND MORE

Use of services Travelling and staying

Bank

Italy

43.4%

27.9%

South

35.6%

19.5%

Convergence area

35.1%

17.4%

Basilicata

32.3%

18.9%

Source: Elaboration on ISTAT data, information and communication technologies in local government - Year 2007

As for the adoption of ICT in the business system, we refer to industrial and service companies with more than 10 employees all over 2006. The computer equipment in local enterprises is in line with the national average: 94.4% of regional firms have been using personal computers and 92.1% have a connection to the Internet being the national average respectively 96.08% and 92.4%. A positive picture concerns the diffusion of companies’ websites (Table 29); although below the national datum (55.6%), it is in line with the average of the South (44.2%) and the Convergence area (44.0%). Tab. 29 - Computer equipment of enterprises – 2006 ENTERPRISES

72

Computer equipment PC use

Website

Internet

Italy

96.0%

55.6%

92.4%

South

93.5%

44.2%

88.9%

Convergence area

94.0%

44.0%

88.4%

Basilicata

94.4%

44.6%

92.1%

Source: Elaboration on ISTAT data, Database of the principal variables obtained in “Survey on the use of information and communication technologies in enterprises” Year 2006 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

With reference to the Internet connection, the spread of broadband in Basilicata compared to more traditional technologies such as modem, is lower than the national and South average; moreover, there is still a limited use of the Intranet communication system. Finally, a positive datum concerns the use of e-mail as an internal and external communication tool; it is in line with the national average and higher than the South average (Table 30). Tab. 30 - Type of computer connection - 2006 ENTERPRISES

Computerisation level Broadband

Modem

Intranet

Email

Italy

68.6%

21.7%

32.6%

90.0%

South

61.9%

22.5%

28.4%

86.1%

Convergence area

62.0%

22.8%

28.5%

85.9%

Basilicata

52.6%

29.7%

27.4%

89.6%

Source: Elaboration on ISTAT data, Database of the principal variables obtained in “Survey on the use of information and communication technologies in enterprises” - Year 2006

III.2 Entrepreneurship policies in the region-country mostly focusing on the impacts for the innovative enterprises, startups and spin-offs Overview of national programming and regulatory instruments on Research and Innovation, and on Information Society: Tab. 31 - Overview of national programmatic framework NATIONAL REGULATORY AND PROGRAMMATIC FRAMEWORK RESEARCH AND INNOVATION

INFORMATION SOCIETY

NATIONAL RESEARCH PROGRAMME 2005 – 2007 (NRP)

E-GOVERNMENT ACTION PLAN

PLAN FOR INNOVATION, GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT (PICO)

GOVERNMENT GUIDELINES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION (31.5.02)

NATIONAL STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK (NSF) 2007-2013

NATIONAL STRATEGIC FRAMEWORK (NSF) 2007-2013

NATIONAL IMPLEMENTATION PROGRAM (PAN) RESEARCH AND COMPETITIVENESS 2007-2013

PLAN FOR INNOVATION, GROWTH AND EMPLOYMENT (PICO)

INDUSTRY STRATEGIC PLAN 2015 (INDUSTRIAL INNOVATION PROJECTS)

ACTION PLAN FOR SIMPLIFICATION (PAS 2007)

FINANCIAL LAW 2007

PROGETTO PAESE (COUNTRY PROJECT)

STATE AIDS N. 302/2007 (EC 6461)

INCENTIVES FOR INNOVATIVE ENTERPRISES (L. 388/00)

FINANCIAL LAW 2008

FINANCIAL LAW 2003

REVOLVING FUND FOR TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION (FIT)

E-GOVERNMENT FOR REGION AND LOCAL BODIES: II PROGRESS PHASE

ORDINARY FINANCIAL FUND FOR UNIVERSITIES (FFO)

PROVISION FOR PA TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION (L. 3/03)

Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

73


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region FUND FOR RESEARCH FACILITIES (FAR)

FINANCIAL LAW 2005

BASE RESEARCH INVESTMENT FUND (FIRB)

LEGISLATIVE DECREE 82/05 (DIGITAL ADMINISTRATION CODE)

RESEARCH PROJECTS WITH RELEVANT NATIONAL INTEREST (PRIN)

L. 80/05 (COMPETITIVENESS DECREE)

REVOLVING FUND FOR ENTERPRISES (FRI)

DECREE-LAW 115/05

INCENTIVES FOR INNOVATIVE ENTERPRISES (L. 388/00)

L. 296/06

L. 326/03 (TECNO-TREMONTI)

L. 244/07

LEGISLATIVE DECREE 35/05 (START UP WITHIN TECHNOLOGICAL DISTRICTS)

MINISTER OF SOCIAL SUPPORT DIRECTIVE 23/07/07

L. 80/05 (COMPETITIVENESS DECREE)

CIPE DECISION 17/03

CIPE DECISION 20/04

CIPE DECISION 20/04

CIPE DECISION 35/05

CIPE DECISION 35/05

CIPE DECISION 1/06

CIPE DECISION 3/06

CIPE DECISION 3/06

CIPE DECISION 83/03

CIPE DECISION 166/07

CIPE DECISION 35/05 CIPE DECISION 166/07 CIPE DECISION 1/06

Source: ERDF OP Basilicata Region

The national policy on research witnessed, in the last decade, a profound reexamination of instruments and procedures: the new focus on programming and the deeper connection with European and international dimension can be found in the Guidelines for science and technology policy, approved by CIPE (Interministerial Committee for the EU Programming) in 2002 and in the adoption of the National Research Program (NRP) 2005-2007. The NRP establishes required interventions for the participation in the European program on Technology Platforms and the VII Framework Program, and pursues the following strategic objectives: 1. strengthen the scientific basis of the Country by supporting basic research, both free and “mission oriented”, so promoting multidisciplinary cooperation at international level. 2. strengthen innovation capacity and technological content of the national production system, 3. stimulate the internationalization of the national research system, 4. promote, enhance and develop human capital. Action sub 2 presents the most direct connection to the definition of regional strategies for innovation; it contains a series of national programs to support production and high technology sectors and a number of actions that must be carried out together with the regions to strengthen the competitiveness of local systems (Technological Districts). 74

A significant part of the general interventions presented in the NRP has been included in the Plan for Innovation, Growth and Employment (PICO), apStudy of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

proved by the government in 2005. The Plan sets out reforms, measures and actions to pursue the objectives of Lisbon and to renew its potential. More specifically, among the actions proposed in the NRP, the PICO incorporates: a general reorganization of national research system through the adaptation of the organizational structure of public research system, the redefinition of fund allocation system to universities and the Implementation of the National Space Plan; incentives (primarily of a fiscal nature) for research expenditure; the strengthening of the Industrial Liaison Office (ILO) and refinancing of Technological Innovation Fund; the support for industrial innovation through the development of small-scale enterprises towards high value-added facilities and the enhancement of technology transfer networks with the involvement of regional governments. These measures are supported by other measures, mainly aiming at: the participation to European Sectorial Technology Platforms (ETP); the production of Italian technology platforms supporting competitiveness in several innovative sectors; the establishment of the Protocol of Agreement for international research programs. Among the major projects of PICO, with important implications in the definition of regional strategies for technological innovation and research, there are the following: » the completion of Galileo project for the creation of a European satellite network; » the implementation of IT platforms; » the implementation of 12 strategic research programmes; » the creation of 12 public-private laboratories; » the development of 24 technology clusters. The national strategy identifies the Programme Institutional Arrangements and the Program Agreements (APQ) as instruments to achieve synergies within the programmes and complementarities within financial aids. Basilicata Region has identified the “Science Research” Agreement as an instrument of regional policies implementation on scientific research and technological innovation and a support for technology transfer among universities, public and private research centres and productive sectors. The arrangements will act in synergy and together with the EU structural funds; the procedures for using structural and national funds in 2007-2013 cycle are determined by the National Strategic Framework (NSF). The NSF 2007-2013 represents the unitary programming document setting out priorities and strategies for regional development policy in line with EU. The document addresses regional policy towards objectives of productivity, competitiveness and innovation within sustainable development, through the improvement of community services, the increasing competition in public services markets and capital, the provision of incentives encouraging innovation and the raising of human resources’ skills and quality of life. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

75


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

The strategy has four macro objectives: a) developing knowledge circuits; b) improving quality of life, safety and social inclusion; c) strengthening productive sectors, services and competition, d) modernize and internationalize economy, society and government - and ten priority themes. Among the ten priorities of the NSF 2007 – 2013, Priority 2 has a big importance: “promotion, enhancement and dissemination of research and innovation for competitiveness”, which fits in broader objective of promoting the knowledge society. The overall goal of this priority is “to strengthen and developing research and cooperation network between the research system and companies, to contribute to competitiveness and economic growth; to support the widest possible dissemination and use of new technologies and advanced services; to raise the level of scientific and technical skills and knowledge within the production system and the institutions”. This priority will be implemented through the National Operational Program (NOP) for Research and Competitiveness 2007-2013 for Convergence regions, and the National Implementation Program (PAN) for Research and Competitiveness 2007-2013, which refers both to South and North-Centre regions and that will be financed by the Fund for Underutilized Areas (FAS). The PAN for Research and Competitiveness has a systematic approach, aimed at enhancing the production and the use of knowledge through the qualification of the research offer and the establishment and the strengthening of networks between universities, public and private research centres, and production system. Its specific objectives provide for “support to structural changes and strengthening of scientific-technological potential for the transition to a knowledge economy” and “the strengthening of the innovative context for the development of competitiveness.” CIPE operating in this direction as well, granted funds for research activities in the South. The government defined a series of measures establishing new programs and tools to support research and innovation, also in relation to their funding. The Industry Strategic Plan 2015 has been presented in September 2006: it sets out the strategic lines on the development and the competitiveness of future Italian production system, concerning a concept of industry extended to new production chains integrating manufacturing, advanced services and new technologies.

76

The European Commission Decision -C (2007) 6461 of 12 December 2007, State aid No 302/2007, approved the aid scheme for granting facilities for research, development and innovation programs within projects of basic research, industrial research and experimental development, technical feasibility studies, costs relating to Industrial Property rights for SMEs, innovative enterprises, innovation projects of service organization, support services for innovation and innovative clusters. The scheme is based on Industrial Innovation Projects (PII) whose priorities are similar to the objectives of the Seventh Framework Program, with several common areas such as: health, Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

biotechnology, ICT, nanotechnology, materials and production processes, energy, environment and transport. The strategy implemented through the Industrial Innovation Projects (PII) aims at organizing and coordinating public and private companies, business networks (industrial and technological districts), research centres, financial institutions and universities. Consistent with this strategy, the Financial Law 2007 provides for: » the establishment of a Fund for Competitiveness and Development (FCS - art. 1 paragraph 841) for industrial innovation projects within the following areas: energy efficiency, sustainable mobility, new life technologies, new technologies for the made in Italy; innovative technologies for cultural activities and heritage; » the establishment of a Fund for business finance (Article 1 paragraph 847) to help enterprises to access to credit and financial markets, thanks to targeted measures for credit guarantees and venture capital participation also through banks or financial companies; » the establishment of an Investment Fund for scientific and technological research (FIRST-art. 1 paragraphs 870-874) gathering in a single fund the previous four existing funds provided by the Ministry for research activities support; » the definition of a three-year programme for the recruitment of 2,000 researchers; It is also useful to note that there are national incentives and funds managed by the ministries (some of which previously introduced), with the goal of encouraging research and innovation. Among them: » Revolving Fund for Technological Innovation; » Ordinary Fund for universities; » Research Facilities Fund; » Investment Fund for Basic Research; » Research Projects of Relevant National Interest; » Basic research investment revolving fund; » Incentives for the development of innovative enterprises and riskcapital operations in tax credit (Law 388/00 art. 103, 106 and 108): the goal is to facilitate access to capital risk of SMEs in disadvantaged areas and new innovative enterprises through the granting of advances and tax incentives (tax credit) for the facilitation of investment and expenditure on R & I; » Law No. 326/03 Art. 1: for duty-free investment in R & D and digital technologies; » Legislative Decree 35/2005: allows to finance start-ups with highStudy of the innovative potential of Basilicata

77


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

tech profile within technology clusters defined by MIUR (Ministry of Education, University and Research)/ Regions; » Law n.80/05 art. 6 – Competitiveness Decree: strategic programs and projects designed to support research and development conducted by firms in cooperation with universities or research centres; » P.I.A. (Area integrated Project) Innovation: its purpose is the promotion of industrial research and the industrial application of achieved results. CIPE also provides financial resources to MIUR for the promotion of industrial research projects and technological interventions aimed at implementing the Italian Network for Innovation and Technology Transfer to SMEs (RIDITT), for the financing of initiatives promoting technological transfer from research system to SME system. The actions of the Italian government for the Information Society have mainly focused on e-government. E-government Action Plan (June 2000) has emphasized the reforms to be undertaken involving a revolution in the organizational culture of public administration. It aims to move from an interventionist, vertical and segmented administration to an inclusive and service-oriented administration, characterized by intense exchange of information both inside of it and towards the external environment. The strategic guidelines of the Government program involve the transformation of Public Administration through ICT and infrastructures within the Country System for innovation and development of Information Society. The general objectives provide for: » online services to citizens and enterprises (online priority services, electronic identity card, national services card, digital signature); » increased efficiency of PA (through e-procurement, e-mail, online commitment and money orders); » development of human resources (literacy of employees, e-learning provided training); » Transparency (2/3 of PA practices are accessible online by citizens), quality (user satisfaction system). “E-government for Regions and Local Authorities: II implementation phase”, approved in 2003, describes objectives, actions and arrangements concerning e-Government implementation for Regions and local authorities.

78

The second stage of e-government has the prerequisite to define a common strategic vision within State, Regions and Local Authorities. Its main objective is the extension of already started innovation processes to the majority of local authorities, both for the delivery of services to citizens and businesses, and for the implementation of infrastructure services all over the territory. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

This context also includes the revision of the Plan for Innovation, Growth and Employment (PICO), drawn as an implementation line of Lisbon Strategy for growth and employment The 37 measures initially contained in PICO were rationalized and merged, so allowing the definition of a new program that provides eleven measures for the achievement of four priority objectives: » modernize the public administration, with particular attention to services for citizens and businesses (e-government); » carrying out projects of great innovation and impact in areas like school, healthcare, tourism, info-mobility, the electronic recognition; » promote the technological innovation of the production system, with particular attention to SMEs; » reduce the digital divide. The eleven measures included in the PICO are summarized as follows: Tab. 32 - PICO Measures PICO MEASURES PA Modernization Innovation in strategic sectors

Innovation of productive system Digital divide reduction

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

E-government – improvement of PA efficiency E-government – high-impact initiatives Electronic platform for tourism ICT and digital content for schools ICT@ University National platform for health Platform for info-mobility Actions to foster processes and product innovation especially for SME 9. Regional plans for strengthening the competitiveness of local industries 10. Diffusion of ICT 11. Access for all to education and training

Source: ERDF Operational Programme Basilicata Region

The Program called Toward national e-government system- strategic guidelines and the first Action plan for simplifying (PAS 2007) contains important innovations: » combines organizational innovation and technological innovation so to simplify the administrative work, using opportunities provided by new technologies; » adopts the method of the involvement of citizens’ and consumers’ associations through the use of telecommunication consultation. These provisions are supported by other measures of national policy establishing specific measures aimed at supporting the Information Society. Consistent with this strategy: » L. No 388. 23 December 2000. Art. 103 (Provisions for the formation of annual and multi-year balance - Financial Act 2001). Paragraph 1 in particular established a fund for scientific research and Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

79


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

for projects of Information Society development, related to the introduction of new technologies in public administration. » L. No 3. 16 January 2003. Art. 27. (Rules on technological innovation in public administration). It establishes the “Fund for strategic projects in the computer sector” to support highly innovative projects. » L. No 311. 30 December 2004 art. 1 (Rules for the formation of annual and multi-year balance – Financial Act 2005) ensuring a partial insurance to the loans granted by credit institutions for innovative projects. » Decree No 82. 7 March 2005. The “Digital Administration Code”, setting out the general rules for the use of information technology and communications within administrative action. » LD 115/2005 converted with L. 17August, 2005, no 168, art. 2 bis. paragraph 1. It allocates sums to universities for the provision of educational innovations based on wireless connections; it promotes the purchase by students of suitable personal computers. » Law No. 296/2006, Art. 1 paragraph 893 provides for the establishment of a fund for the digitization of administrative activities; Paragraph 925 allocates resources to support broadband development and diffusion, so to complete the “Program for the development of broadband in the South.” » Guidelines of the Minister of Social Solidarity, 23/07/2007. The Guidelines support both databases computerization projects in the field of social associations and experimental projects developed by the association to face particular social emergencies. CIPE, through the allotment of FAS (Underdeveloped Areas Fund) resources, has allocated funds for the financing of Information Society initiatives. In particular: » Decision No. 17/2003: resources are allotted to the MIUR, for the development of information society in the South; » Decision No. 20/2004: in Section 4.1.2 resources are allotted to the Department for Innovation and Technologies to help the South in innovative finance action for high-tech development, for e-government integration to increase the use of the network; » Decision No. 35/2005: assignment of financial resources for the regions of Southern Italy, in particular to encourage both business investment in digital innovation and the continuation of the Broad Band Programme;

80

» Decision No. 3/2006: resources are allotted to the Minister of Innovation and Technology in order to finance, in the South, an integrated program of actions to promote: innovation culture among citizens and enterprises, administrative efficiency (particularly in the relationship with business), the promotion of digital content and services, and a new finance for innovation. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

As for the development of broadband, CIPE has provided (decisions n. 83/2003 and 35/2005, art. 7), the allotment of resources for the realization of infrastructure for broadband telecommunications network, in order to eliminate the digital divide in the South and in underdeveloped areas of the Central and Northern Italy. Finally, CIPE devotes funds (decision No. 1/2006) to the Ministry of Innovation and Technology, in order to promote business investment in innovation through digital projects within the announcements called “Technological Poles” and “Technological Districts”, and to finance the initiative called “Competence in exchange for experience”. Overview of Regional legal and program instruments for Research, Innovation and Information Society: Tab. 33 - Overview of regional programmatic framework RESEARCH AND INNOVATION

INFORMATION SOCIETY

REGIONAL PROGRAM AND REGULATORY FRAMEWORK REGIONAL LAW FOR DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS OF BASILICATA PRODUCTION SYSTEM

L.R. 53/96

L.R. (Regional Law) 598/94

OP ERDF 2007-2013

L.R. 28/2007 art. 18 paragraph 3

OP EFS 2007-2013

Operational Programme (OP) ERDF 2007-2013

INFORMATION SOCIETY PROGRAM AGREEMENT

OP EFS 2007-2013 PROGRAM OF RURAL DEVELOPMENT EAFRD 2007-2013 SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH PROGRAM AGREEMENT

INSTRUMENTS PROTOCOL OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN MIUR, BASILICATA REGION AND UNIVERSITY OF BASILICATA FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF UNIVERSITY SYSTEM AND RESEARCH PROGRAM AGREEMENT BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION AND CNR (National Research Centre) (DECREE n. 915, 18/06/2008)

FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT WITH THE UNIVERSITY OF BASILICATA

PROTOCOL OF AGREEMENT BETWEEN BASILICATA AND LOMBARDY REGIONS

PROGRAM AGREEMENT BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION AND CNR

FRAMEWORK AGREEMENT BETWEEN BASILICATA AND CRA

CONVENTION BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION AND “CONSORTIUM GARR” PROGRAM AGREEMENT BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION, SVILUPPO ITALIA AND INFRATEL ITALIA CONVENTION BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION AND CNIPA CONVENTION BETWEEN BASILICATA REGION AND BETWEEN SPA

Source: ERDF ROP Basilicata Region Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

81


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

As for the issue of Research and Innovation, the key regulatory measures are provided by the “Regional Law on Development and competitiveness of local productive system” art. 2 paragraph b e art. 4 paragraph 3 and by the law No 598/1994. Through the Regional Law on Development and competitiveness of local productive system- which repealed and replaced the LR No 4, 02/01/2003 Basilicata Region has defined the regulatory framework for all the strategic and operational decisions supporting the development and competitiveness of the productive system. The topic of research and innovation is clear in article 2, paragraph b, on the basis of which the Region promotes and supports: » the qualification of research and innovation demand of enterprises; » the meeting and the stable connection between innovation and research supply and demand, by stimulating the cooperation of businesses, the orientation of programs and activities of research facilities toward topic areas, consistent with companies and market demand; » industrial research and experimental development, together with technological transfer to SMEs; » SMEs’ investments in innovation; » the development of human capital, also promoting the attractiveness of the Region for students, scholars and Italian and foreign researchers; » the diffusion of ICT in the production system to develop new models of organization, of productive processes management, of products’ promotion and marketing; » the strengthening of businesses ability in creating a network through the activation or the strengthening of partnerships with other companies and with world of national and international research. The Law No 598/1994 “Measures to pre-competitive development and technology transfer” has the purpose of supporting research, innovation and technology transfer. The beneficiaries are industrial, mining and manufacturing enterprises, the SMEs engaged in the direct production of goods and/or services. Finally, the LR 28/2007 (Regional Financial Law 2008) art. 18, paragraph 3 through which the Region provides aid for research, development and innovation according to the condition settled by the European Commission on 12/12/2007 (State aid No 302/2007). On the programming level, the principal documents are:

82

» » » »

ERDF Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013; ESF Operational Programme 2007-2013; EAFRD Rural Development Programme 2007-2013: Programme Framework Agreement on Scientific Research: Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

» Guidelines for the revitalization and competitiveness of Basilicata industry and crafts 2007-2013. Here are the details of the above documents: ERDF Regional Operational Programme (OP) 2007-2013 Consistently with the Regulation (EC) No 1080/2006 and with the guidelines contained in the National Strategic Framework 2007-2013, ERDF Operational Program promotes the economic growth and the innovation capacity of Basilicata, in order to qualify the region as an open, attractive, competitive, inclusive and cohesive territory thanks to its environmental and human resources and to support its transition towards the “Competitiveness and Employment” objective. The OP consists of eight axes: I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII.

Accessibility Knowledge society Productive competitiveness Enhancement of cultural and natural heritages Urban systems Social inclusion Energy and Sustainable Development Governance and technical assistance;

As for research and innovation issue, the axis II pursues the overall objective of making Basilicata a company focused on the “knowledge economy” through the strengthening of research, dissemination of innovations and development of ICT networks. Axis II is subdivided into two specific objectives; the specific objective II.1 specifically deals with the innovation of enterprises with the aim of raising the competitiveness of the productive system through the strengthening of regional cooperation networks between companies and research organizations. On the operational level, within the specific objective II.1, investments in industrial research and experimental development will be encouraged by companies in cooperation with research centres, primarily in technological and productive clusters. The technology transfer from the research system to enterprises will be strengthen as well. ESF Operational Programme (OP) 2007-2013 Consistently with Regulation (EC) No 1081/2006 and with the guidelines contained in the National Strategic Framework 2007-2013, ESF Operational Programme promotes the development, full employment and quality of work, the adaptability of workers and public and private companies, the social integration and equal opportunities. To implement this strategy, it identifies seven priority objectives to achieve, in the next seven years, in terms of employment, training and education: Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

83


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

1. Adaptability 2. Employability 3. Social Inclusion 4. Human capital 5. Transnational and interregional cooperation 6. Technical Assistance 7. Institutional capacity. The topic of research and innovation can be found especially in “Adaptability” and “Human capital” axes. As for the Adaptability axis, one of the specific objectives is to encourage innovation and productivity through a better organization of working life, while the regional administration -within the Human Capital axis - has set among its objectives, to create networks between universities, technology and research centres, institutional and productive world, with particular attention to research and innovation. EAFRD Rural Development Programme (RDP) 2007-2013 Consistently with Regulation (EC) No 1698/2005, the Rural Development Program EAFRD shall pursue the following priorities: » the increase of services for rural population and economy; » the support for the multifunctionality; » the spread of local marketing actions; » the closer integration within production chains; » the enhancement of Mountain, cultural and wine & food heritage; » the implementation of the quality of local and high-quality products. These priorities will be implemented through four main axes: 1. Improvement of competitiveness in agriculture and forestry; 2. Improvement of the environment and the countryside; 3. Interventions on quality of life in rural areas and diversification of rural economy; 4. Implementation of the Leader approach. The scope of innovation can be found in Axis 1 “Improvement of competitiveness in agriculture and forestry” which, among other measures, includes actions for the modernization of Agricultural farms (measure 121) and the cooperation in the development of new products, processes and technologies in agriculture, food and forestry (measure 124). Programme Framework Agreement on Scientific Research 84

The Ministry of Economy and Finance, the Ministry of Education, University and Scientific and Technological Research, together with the Basilicata Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Region have signed, on December 22, 2005, the Framework Programme Agreement for Scientific Research (Technology Cluster). This agreement aims at implementing the guidelines of the regional strategy for scientific research and technological development and implement the Regional Plan for Research and Technological Development and Innovation (PRR & STI) 2003-2005, through actions in the field of detection technologies, systematic monitoring, reporting, prevention and remedying of environmental risks related to hydrological, climatological and seismic trim. The objectives of the Agreement are summarized as follows: » establishment of a public-private technological platform for developing innovative technologies and methodologies; » observation of the earth from the ground, from aircraft and satellite for the monitoring, prediction and prevention of hydro- geological instability; » prevention and the mitigation of natural disasters; » development of SDI (Spatial Data Infrastructures) for the sharing and the interoperability of data and Grid technologies for Earth Observation. In addition to the Framework Program, the Ministry of Economy and Finance, the Ministry of Education, University and Scientific Research and Technology and the Basilicata Region signed, on 26 June 2006, a further agreement with the objective of creating a research and advanced training Campus, connected with the production site of the FIAT-SATA. Guidelines for the revitalization and competitiveness of Basilicata industry and crafts 2007-2013 Consistently with the strategic guidelines given by the “Law on Regional Development and competitiveness of Basilicata productive system” and with the regional action supporting the production system, these guidelines pursue the overall goal to promote development and improve the competitiveness of industry and crafts in Basilicata. This general objective is defined in the following strategic objectives, promoting and supporting: » the growth and the development of entrepreneurship; » Investments in research, development, innovation and technology transfer; » business expansion and internationalization of enterprises, attraction of foreign investment; » the management of business and industry crisis; » sustainable use of environmental resources; » efficiency and government of decision making processes. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

85


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

With reference to Research and Innovation, the guidelines aim to stimulate the propensity of firms, particularly SMEs, to invest in research, development and innovation, to strengthen their environment, and to improve their capacity to create and consolidate networks for dialogue, collaboration and exchange with other stakeholders, in Italy and abroad, in a context of greater public-private cooperation. The objectives underlying the document strategy are pursued through a series of measures divided into six axes: » AXIS 1 – Entrepreneurship » AXIS 2 - Research and Innovation » AXIS 3 - Market, international expansion and investment attraction » AXIS 4 - Crisis Management » AXIS 5 - Sustainable use of environmental resources » AXIS 6 - Efficiency and government of decision making processes. The implementation of these measures is up to the Regional Executive; by its own resolutions it promptly determines both procedural and substantial rules. Such definition is made with the participation of all the territorial stakeholders and with the necessary technical inputs. The guidelines are inspired by the vision of an industrial system in which individual components coordinate and complete, so converging toward the revitalization and the competitive strengthening of the manufacturing fabric. The policy document therefore represents an organic strategic reference and a contextual action system, both for the regional administration and for the potential recipients of the provided interventions. In order to implement the regulatory program, Basilicata Region has the following tools: Protocol of Agreement between MIUR (Ministry of Education, University and Research), Basilicata Region and the University of Basilicata for the enhancement and development of the University system and research The Basilicata Region has approved the Three Year Programme 2007-2009 for the support of University of Basilicata, and on the basis of LR (Regional Law) No 12, 24/07/2006, the Region signed (March 2008) a Protocol of Agreement with the MIUR and the University of Basilicata, in order to enhance and develop regional academic and research system. The purpose of the agreement is to define and implement a plan for the support of high training, scientific research, internationalization, exploitation of research results, strengthening of both research and industrial system and services. These goals must be achieved by identifying the following priority sectors: 86

» integration between research and development of society, economy and territory; Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

» assistance for students, with an upgrading of services to support didactics and research enjoyable by the students and the academic staff of the University of Basilicata; » lifelong learning system in the Basilicata Region; » consolidation and internationalization of the University of Basilicata. One of its objective is to foster integration and cohesion between the research system and the social, economic and territorial system, by promoting initiatives in areas of interest including the enhancement of cultural and environmental heritage, life sciences and technologies for health. In relation to the latter two fields, two Centres of Excellence will be created: the first one, in Matera, to promote innovation of arts, environment and archaeology; the second one, in Potenza, to promote research activity in the field of life sciences and health technologies. Framework agreement between CNR and the Basilicata Region The Region has approved the draft agreement between CNR (National Research Council) and the Basilicata Region on scientific research and technological innovation. Through this agreement they agreed to cooperate for the implementation of research and development programs aimed to social and economic needs of the region. To this end, both actors promote the participation of other local bodies, public and private enterprises, regional agencies, research institutes and consortia, University, and the social forces present in the Region. The collaboration between the Regional Authority and the CNR will primarily focus on the following actions: » consolidate a scientific system internationally competitive and significantly large towards international standards; » jointly formulisation of research, industrial development and demonstration projects, identified through a careful analysis of the structure and evolution expected for each application area (e. g. health, energy, production systems, cultural heritage, environment, cultural enhancement, security) and identification of related technologies (e.g., ICT, new materials); » participate, together with the formulation of new project proposals, into research, development and demonstration activities within the national, EU and international context; » enhancing research staff through the recruitment of young researchers, the development of information, training and high-training measures and the upgrading of established staff’s skills; » developing research infrastructures of European level; » promote innovation and technology transfer, including support to spinoff creation. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

87


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Protocol of Agreement between Basilicata and the Lombardy Region A partnership agreement with the Lombardy Region is going to be formalized with the aim to: » analyze the regulatory and legislative experience in the respective territories in the field of research and competitiveness; » realize joint research programs; » share the accreditation scheme of research centres; » create networks of specific tools and initiatives for technology transfer and innovation; » share evaluation methods and systems. The collaboration agreement between the two regions comes from the need to strengthen competences, so fostering the link between research system and companies, with the aim of supporting the demand for innovation coming from the productive structure, basing on -as regards the Basilicata Regionalready existing initiatives in Lombardy. Framework agreement between the Basilicata Region and the Council for Agricultural Research and Experimentation (CRA) On 19 October 2008, the Agreement between the regional Authority and the CRA was signed in order to activate cooperation in the implementation of agriculture research and experimentation programs, targeted to the needs of the Region. To this end, they particularly promote the participation of other local bodies, public and private enterprises, regional agencies, research institutes and consortia, University, and the social forces present in the Region. As for the regional territory, and with particular regard to agriculture, agro-foodstuffs, agro-environment and forestry, the cooperation between CRA and the Regional Authority will be primarily characterized for the following types of actions: » programmatic arrangements with institutions and/or ALSIA (Regional Agency for Development and Innovation in Agriculture) in planning and streamlining research activities; » technical and scientific tutoring for innovative companies; » definition and presentation of research projects within national and Community programs; » carrying out research projects; » consultancy for the regional authority.

88

The CRA, at the instance of the Region, will also perform monitoring and control over research activities conducted by third parties and supported by regional funds. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Regional programmatic framework for the Information Society The main legislation for the Information Society is the Regional Law 53/1996 “Promotion and Development of Information Society and Teleworking”: this measure, whose beneficiaries are businesses, citizens and public administration, has the purpose of strengthening industrial competitiveness, creating new workplaces, new skills and vocational abilities, and promoting new forms of work organization in both public and private sectors. The promotion of Information Society and Teleworking also aims to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of public services provided for citizenship and enterprise system, thus responding both to the needs of social inclusion and competitiveness of the economy. The policy framework is made up of the following documents: » ERDF Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 » ESF Operational Programme 2007-2013 » Programme Framework Agreement (APQ) on the Information Society. ERDF Operational Programme (OP) 2007-2013 With regard to the OP ERDF 2007-2013, the axis II “Knowledge Society” has as its overall objective to contribute to make Basilicata a territory focused on the knowledge economy; the issue of the Information Society is expressed in the specific objective II.2 “Dissemination of new technologies and advanced services related to the use of ICT, by strengthening the modernization of public administration and the innovation of SMEs” This specific objective aims: on the one hand, to improve and strengthen regional infrastructure endowment of ICT networks, by eliminating the digital divide and ensuring regional connectivity to major national and international networks; on the other hand, to the expansion and diversification of the range of services offered through the information society, so as to ensure the usability of online services by users such as PA, citizens, businesses, etc. In order to implement these goals, the Region proposes to: » strengthen ICT regional networks; » strengthen the innovation processes of the PA through the use of new technologies of information society; » support product and process innovation in SMEs and in micro-enterprises through the use of new technologies of information society. ESF Operational Programme (OP) 2007-2013 The issue of the Information Society can also be identified within the Priority Axes: I) Adaptability and IV) Human Capital. And in particular, Axis IV provides, under h) target, to “develop and implement reforms in the fields of education, training and work, to improve the integration and to develop employability, with particular attention to guidance” through the use of new ICT techniques. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

89


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Programme Framework Agreement (APQ) on the Information Society Within the objective of developing the Information Society, considered by the Regional Authority as a key mean for overcoming the situation of marginality of the regional production system, the first Program Framework Agreement on the Information Society was signed on 25 March 2004. It has been followed by four additional acts: the first on March 31. 2005, the second on June 30, 2005, the third on May 30 2006, the fourth on November 28, 2007. The Regional Authority has the following tools for the implementation of the regulatory program: Framework Agreement with the University of Basilicata for the implementation of the “Basitel “ strategic plan The agreement, signed on 19.03.2002, has been followed by specific conventions for the management of some projects belonging to the strategic plan, including: » SAXP (social connectivity advanced systems) project for the activation of ISPs (Internet social points) on the entire regional territory (agreement signed on 21.09.2004 with supplementary document signed on 22.05.2006. conclusion in December 2008); » ICAR (application interoperability and cooperation between the regions) project for the definition of the operating platform for interoperability and application cooperation between regions. The Convention was approved by Regional Council Decree No. 2098 - 29/12/2006 for a period of 36 months and was signed by the General Director of the Chair Department of the Executive and by the Director of Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of the University of Basilicata. The objects of the agreement are: the conduction of research activities, the study for the prototype implementation, the testing and the evaluation of innovative solutions for application cooperation within the e-government, as part of national ICAR project. The form of collaboration with the University of Basilicata is also ratified by a specific regional law (DL n ° 12 - 24/07/2006): “Support to the University of Basilicata for the promotion of quality regional development“. Framework Agreement with CNR for the support of e-Health projects

90

The framework agreement, which lasts 4 years, was approved by resolution of the Regional Government (DGR n° 439 of 27/03/2006) and signed by the President of Basilicata Region and by the President of the National Research Council. Its aim is to support Basilicata Region in the implementation of research, development, communication, and training programmes, and in the realization of applications designed for health and environmental needs of the region. This Agreement has been followed by specific conventions for the control of projects within e-health: Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

» with the CNR - ITB (Institute of Biomedical Technologies) for LUMIR project, aimed at the realization of electronic health records (15/12/2006 convention, until June 2009). Convention between Basilicata Region and “Consortium Garr” The Convention aims at developing the cooperation between the Region, GARR Consortium and the University of Basilicata, for the interconnection of their telecommunication networks, and, for the interconnection of the RUPAR system (telecommunication network for the interconnections of the Public Regional Administration) to GARR network (the Italian academic and research network). It belongs to the implementation phase of Basitel+ regional plan, above all in its parts of mutual interest for the interconnection to the connectivity public system. The Convention was signed on 22/05/2006 by the President of the Basilicata Region, the President of the Consortium GARR and by the Chancellor of the University of Basilicata, with a 5 years duration. Framework agreement between Basilicata Region, Sviluppo Italia and Infratel Italia The agreement, aimed at developing broadband network all over Basilicata territory, was signed on 15/12/2005 by the President of the Basilicata Region, the Managing Director of Invitalia (ex Sviluppo Italia S.p.A) and by the President of Infratel SpA (Infrastructure & Communications for Italy) with a supplementary measure signed in July of 2006. The agreement has a 36-months duration and provides for: the implementation of specific interventions for the realization of the GigaRupar secondary network of Basilicata; a share of the project for regional broadband services in SPC optical and all the actions planned for broadband development in the South and directly managed by Infratel (CIPE resolution 17/2003). Convention between Basilicata Region and CNIPA (National Center for Public Administration Information) for the development and consolidation of the CRC (Regional Centre of Competence for e-government and Information Society) The convention was signed on 14/ 06/2006 by the President of the Basilicata Region and the Chairman of CNIPA to support the CRC national network with the aim of: » promoting innovation in local public administration and fostering collaboration initiatives, both inter-regional and territorial, especially towards small municipalities; » promoting and communicating new e-government services; » improving innovation knowledge and measurement. Convention between Basilicata Region and Between SpA The agreement aims at setting up an observatory on broadband and at supporting the definition and the implementation of a regional policy on broadband. The date of completion is December 2008. The agreement follows Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

91


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

the other one signed in 2002 by the same company, the Ministry of Communications and the Minister of Innovation and Technology with the aim of establishing a national observatory on broadband. The main objectives are: » to assist the Region in developing the strategy on broadband; » the rationalization of existing projects, besides a support on technical and economic evaluation of the various infrastructure projects presented; » evaluation of local public services systems. Spin offs in Basilicata The Operational Programme 2000-2006 of the Basilicata Region, with the Public Call n. 1/2006 dedicated 3,331,098.00 Euros as overall budget for spin off activities within the so-called “Patto con I Giovani” (agreement with young people). The measures aims at developing the human potential in the research, technological development and innovation fields by trying to facilitate the creation of new businesses trough spin-off mechanisms in order to enhance the production and sale of products that come from the research, the technological development and innovation. The action was conceived as a stimulus for the creation of new enterprises both for subjects operating in the world of the research, technological development and innovation and for external subjects (experts, consultants with technical and managerial competences) who intend to participate into as partners bringing complementary competences to the new entrepreneurial initiatives. The number of applications submitted was 75, the eligible ones 35 and the financed applications only 22. The sectors of applications have been 9: Technology (9 applications), Environment (6), Data Processing (7), Tourism (4), Services (3), Agriculture (3), Medicine (1), Publishing (1), Other (1).

III.3 Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability of the region Scientific offer system

92

Basilicata is characterized by the presence of significant scientific and technical ‘manufacturers’ - public, private and mixed-activity holding - in strategic areas of socio-economic development. Although they did not formulate a complete innovation system yet, they are creating the necessary conditions for a network of supply items for research and innovation, and for its transfer to the productive and social fabric. The public presence within the scientific system is due to the activity of some major research centres such as the University of Basilicata, the National Research Council (CNR), National Agency for New Technologies and Environment (ENEA), the National Institute of Agricultural Economics (INEA), the Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Italian Space Agency (ASI), the Centre for Integrated Geomorphology for the Mediterranean Area (CGIAM), the Council for Research and Experimentation in Agriculture (CRA). The University of Basilicata has its seat in Potenza; it is one of the central research systems of Basilicata. The scientific activity is organized in 8 faculties, 6 of which belong to science area (Economics, Pharmacy, Architecture, Engineering, Mathematics, Physical and Natural Sciences, Agronomy), 2 to Humanities (Liberal Arts, Education), and 12 departments. In addition, the university hosts 6 interdepartmental service centres and 3 research centres. The university offer is rich and diversified, both for undergraduate courses and for post-graduate specialization. In the academic year 2005/2006 students matriculated10 were 1,237 and students enrolled11 7,809, which represent 0.4% of the students enrolled at national level. Analysing table 34, a slight decrease of the students enrolled is evident, both of the students matriculated and of the enrolled ones in the academic year 2006/2007, as it is at national level. Tab. 34 - Matriculated, enrolled and graduate students in the University of Basilicata - AY 2005-2006/AY 2006-2007 * FACULTY Agronomy Engineering Liberal Arts M.P.N. Science Economy Pharmacy Education Science TOTAL

A.Y. 2005-2006

A.Y. 2007-2008

A.Y. 2006-2007

Matriculated Enrolled Graduate Matriculated Enrolled Graduate Enrolled Graduate

195

1,476

158

171

1,438

149

1,377

138

348

2,088

254

295

2,087

272

2,038

244

464

2,972

225

427

2,913

372

2,325

297

230

1,273

107

265

1,360

129

1,333

126

499 101 139 1,237

7,809

854

1,158

7,798

922

7,812

805

* The Faculties of Economics, Pharmacy and Education Science started in 2007-2008 academic year. Source: MIUR data - Office of Statistics

The total number of Basilicata University teachers (professors, associate and researchers) is equal to 318, in 2006, with a slight increase over 2005 (+3.2%) due to the entry of new researchers in the academic system. The increase in the number of teachers has further reduced the students/teachers ratio, which is a potential lever for the increasing of the quality of teaching and services. 10 11

Matriculated: Students enrolled for the first time at the University.

Enrolled: Students enrolled in a given Academic Year independently form the course year.

Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

93


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

The National Research Council in Basilicata is settled in the industrial area of Tito Scalo near Potenza, with three institutes: » the Institute of Methodologies for Environmental Analysis (IMAA), » the Institute of inorganic methodologies and plasmas (IMIP), » Institute for archaeological and monumental heritages (IBAM). IMAA research activities are directed to the development and the integration of “Observations of the Earth” technologies by satellite, air and the ground, for the study of geophysical processes and environment, with a special attention to natural hazards, security and cultural heritage. A strong ICT component characterizes this area (management and interoperability of geospatial data, web services and web sensors, grid technologies). The products developed relate to many fields of application, as Location Based Services. The activity of the scientific research and technology transfer is conducted by a group of about 130 researchers, 50 of which are staff. IMAA Institute is characterized by many facilities, such as the Atmospheric Observatory, the Hydrogeosite (for the measurement of hydrogeological processes under controlled conditions), a system of mobile means, the system for satellite data receiving and archiving; it coordinates the ASOS- Earlinet European network for aerosol monitoring through lidar techniques. IMIP Institute, consisting of 8 researchers and 3 technicians, conducts research on laser methods applications for the production of innovative materials and the detection of environmental pollutants. IBAM Institute conducts research activities on innovative approaches for ancient landscapes’ knowledge, diagnosis activities for the preservation of architectural and archaeological heritage in the Mediterranean area, and for the preservation, restoration and presentation of archaeological and monumental heritages. Located in Policoro Municipality (in the province of Matera), the Institute of Plant Genetics (IGV) conducts research analysis within the agricultural sector, in order to meet the demand for innovative technologies coming from the pharmaceutical, chemical and food industries. All the institutes mentioned take part into national and international research projects, working with research organizations and enterprises and promoting programs high-education and doctoral research programmes, in collaboration with Italian and international universities. The Italian Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Environment (ENEA) has its seat at the Trisaia Centre, in the province of Matera. It operates in energy, environment and new technologies sectors, to support competitiveness policies and the sustainable development of the Country.

94

Its main tasks are related to the promotion and conduction of research and technological innovation activities, also through the creation of prototypes and the collaboration with organizations and institutions of other countries. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

The Institute carries out its activities through 19 research laboratories, ranging from agro-biotechnology to waste treatment, from metrology to renewable sources. The National Institute of Agricultural Economy (INEA), based in Potenza, conducts socio-economic analysis within agriculture, forestry and agri-food sectors. Moreover, it carries out national and regional assistance and monitoring programs in agriculture and rural development. The Italian Space Agency (ASI) is active in various fields of science, promoting research in the field of both spatial and terrestrial observations. The Centre for Space Geodesy based in Matera, through an organization of 100 employees, develops systems for the management of natural disasters and fires, landslides and mudslides. It is also engaged in remote sensing, robotics and space interplanetary missions. All activities are conducted in cooperation with research centres, such as the Interdisciplinary Centre for Environmental Monitoring (CIMA). The Centre of Integrated Geomorphology for the Mediterranean Area (CGIAM) has as main objective the characterization of the territory, in order to reduce damage to people and things from seismic, hydrogeological and environment risks, through research activities aimed at identifying new technologies and advanced methodologies by drawing on experiences and expertises, nationally and internationally recognized. The Centre also develops advanced training activities and dissemination of scientific culture, and supports the government in the transposition / implementation of EU directives within Civil and Environmental Defence. The Council for Research and Experimentation in Agriculture (CRA), has its national headquarter in Rome, and operates in Basilicata with three research units: in Bella with the Research Unit for extensive animal husbandry and in Metaponto, with the Research unit for the Study of cropping systems and with the Research unit for genomics and post-genomic research, both settled in Metaponto Pantanello farm, in chain with Metapontum Agrobios and ALSIA. Research Unit for extensive animal husbandry – it is responsible for extensive cattle farming, sheep and goats raising for the production of meat and milk. It studied the nutritional needs and the relationship between nutrition and quality of products, with particular attention to the exploitation of cheeses of the Southern Italy. Research Unit for the Study of cropping systems – it works within functional genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and plant metabolomics, aiming at the diffusion of knowledge about the function of genes and their products, at the application of molecular biology techniques, at the genetic improvement of plant species and at the development of diagnostic techniques for the improvement of food safety, product quality, traceability within production processes. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

95


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Research Unit for genomics and post-genomics – it develops studies and experiments regarding the technical management of cropping systems, with a particular focus on the use of agro-environmental resources, the planning of environmentally friendly systems and production techniques, the patterns of integrated and organic farming, by optimizing the utilization of technical means and factors of production, environmental protection and health conditions of products. In addition to these public research centres, the Ministry of Education, University and Research (MIUR) has approved 27 research laboratories in Basilicata, mostly operating in private companies (13), in national public bodies (9) and in University (5). The areas of scientific and technological research are various: from chemistry to environment, from IT to the natural sciences (see table 35). Tab. 35: Research laboratories approved by MIUR Name

Seat

CNR Lab. - Analysis of clay minerals - Institute of Research on Clays CNR Lab. - New Laser Spectroscopy and Applied Materials - Institute for Special Materials (IMS) Edp La Traccia Cooperative of Edp La Traccia LTD

Potenza

Enea Lab. - Integrated Food Innovation Centre - Trisaia Research Center

Matera

Enea Lab. - Laser Applications Laboratory - Trisaia Research Center Enea Lab. - Laboratory of Experimental Biomass and Solar Thermal Plant - Trisaia Research Center Enea Lab. - Laboratory of Waste Recovery and Treatment - Trisaia Research Centre Enea Lab. - Laboratory for Chemical Processes and Analytical Chemistry - Trisaia Research Centre Enea Lab. - Dynamics and Environmental Test Laboratory - Trisaia Research Centre Enea Lab. - Radiation Protection Laboratory - Trisaia Research Center

Matera

I.R.S.A.Q. Lab. of I.R.S.A.Q. LTD

Potenza

Inpes Prefabs SpA Lab.

Potenza

Valdagri Fish SpA Lab.

Matera

Potenza Matera

Matera Matera Matera Matera Matera

Metapontum Agrobios Lab. - Chemical Laboratories of Metapontum Agrobios LTD Matera Metapontum Agrobios Lab. - Agronomy Laboratories of Metapontum Agrobios LTD Matera Metapontum Agrobios Lab. - Biotechnology Laboratories of Metapontum AgroMatera bios LTD Polinea Lab. of Polinea SpA Potenza

96

R&S Management Lab. of R&S Management SpA

Potenza

Sinter & Net Lab. of Sinter & Net SpA

Potenza

Sniaricerche Lab. of Sniaricerche S.c.p.a.

Matera

Tab Consulting Lab. of Tab Consulting S.r.l.

Potenza

Tecnoparco Valbasento Lab. of Tecnoparco Valbasento SpA

Matera

University of Basilicata Lab. - Department of Architecture

Potenza

University of Basilicata Lab. - Department of Chemistry

Potenza

Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

University of Basilicata Lab. - Department of Animal Production Science University of Basilicata Lab. - Department of Structures, Geotechnics and Applied Geology University of Basilicata Lab. – Technical-economical Department for management of agricultural land and forest

Potenza Potenza Potenza

Source: MIUR

One of the most important MIUR-accredited laboratories is Metapontum Agrobios, a limited liability company between the Basilicata Region and the Regional Agency for Development and Innovation in Agriculture (ALSIA), based in Matera. The laboratory works within research, development and innovation transfer in agriculture and agro-industry system, through projects and analytical services in the field of plant biotechnology and the environment. In particular, it concentrates its research on techniques for crop protection against viruses and insects, to improve the quality of plants – of both industrial and agricultural interest- and to obtain substances with a high added value from plant species. Moreover, on the environmental front, it is engaged in monitoring programs in the territory (water, air and land) and in the evaluation of safe use and risks associated with the release of genetically modified products. Fig. 8: Public Research Centres by province

Source: Invitalia

Science and technology parks, technology centres. With regard to science and technology parks, Basilicata, as anticipated in the introduction, does not have really structured centres/parks yet. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

97


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

However, the following technology and excellence centres can be mentioned: » in the Province of Matera: • Valbasento Technopark; » in the Province of Potenza: • ICT-SUD Competence Centre (CC ICT SUD); • Consortium TeRN; • Impresambiente; • CRC Basilicata. Valbasento Technopark SpA is an industrial park, operating in Basilicata since September 1, 1990 and based in Pisticci Scalo, in the province of Matera. It covers an area of 500,000 square meters with 1,500 square meters of buildings and 120,000 square meters of streets, squares and green. It offers three types of services: » environmental services: wastewater treatment and purification; » specialized services: monitoring of groundwater, superficial, civil, industrial and waste water, soil and subsoil, gaseous emissions and air quality, raw materials, chemicals and industrial products, waste characterization for recovery and disposal classification, analytical control, identification and determination of risk factors and physical chemist in workplaces, risk maps in working environment (noise, dust, microclimate, etc.); » collective services: a canteen for day workers, who can also avail themselves of a kitchen, a shuttle service for personnel and equipment transport, fire safety service, surveillance, first aid. ICT-SUD Competence Centre (CC ICT SUD) is a consortium, born in 2006 with the presentation, to the Ministry of University and Research, of a project for the construction and the opening of a Competence Centre network in 6 regions of ‘Objective 1’ area. Basilicata activated a technology desk at the University. The primary objective is the achievement and the start of a centre of excellence for the provision of technology transfer services targeted to the qualification or requalification of demand and supply of ITC solutions. The demand concerns the production system in general, since it uses ICT to enhance the effectiveness of its processes and to increase its competitiveness, and so the Public Administration, which improves its organization and services management, acting as an engine for the sector’s development. The qualifying offer is given to ICT companies in Southern Italy which work to adequately respond to ICT demand not only on a regional level, so to allow their inclusion in a national and international market.

98

TERN Consortium “Technologies for Earth Observations and Natural Hazards” is a public (51%) - private (49%) consortium born in 2005 with the following partners: “the Regional Agency for environmental protection Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

in Basilicata - ARPAB “, the National Research Council - CNR, the Network of University laboratories of Earthquake Engineering - RELUIS, Telespazio SpA, CREATEC Consortium for “Environment and technological innovation”. TeRN Consortium aims to develop industrial research and pre-competitive development for the creation – in Basilicata - of a technological district in the field of detection technologies, systematic monitoring, prevention and mitigation of natural and environmental hazards, and specifically: » the development and the integration of observation technologies from the ground, by aircraft and satellite, for the forecasting, monitoring and mitigation of natural hazards; » the development of innovative technologies for the preservation of historic and architectural monuments and for the monitoring of civil infrastructure of strategic interest in high seismic and hydrogeological risk areas, with particular care to earthquake-resistant buildings and non-destructive diagnostic techniques. ImpresAmbiente is a public-private owned consortium set up in 2006. The company team consists of many qualified southern universities, major research institutions, corporations, consortia, associations and SMEs operating within Objective 1 regions. The company is the implementing body of the project of the Ministry of Universities and Research concerning the establishment of a technological research centre on “Analysis and prevention of environmental risk”, as part of the National Operational Program for Objective 1 regions: “Scientific Research, Technological Development, Higher Education” 2000 - 2006; Axis II. The Technology Competence Centre is part of a “network” model consisting of a limited number of nodes: the main node is located in Basilicata, while the other 5 are located in Objective 1 regions. The CCT is responsible for promoting technological innovation in the fields of environmental risks for companies, governmental bodies and major utilities, by transferring high scientific and technological services, enabling training processes, playing a supporting role in the fields of quality and certification, stimulating technological brokerage activities in line with the Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Program (2007-2013). The connections between the scientific realities involved in CCT and European (GMES, Galileo) and national (COSMOSky-med, Industry 2015) initiatives allow to boost business competitiveness, to promote internationalization processes and, more generally, to create the conditions of a “ quality industry “ development within the competitive European market, the Mediterranean area and the international context. The CCT thus plays an interface role between supply and demand of technological innovation, by strengthening networking among scientific and technical subjects, business and end users. The role of end users is to dictate the priorities of technological development, the role of scientific parties is to Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

99


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

transfer scientific know-how and enable high education processes, while the role of the enterprise system is to develop and engineer innovative products and services in order to meet the system demand. CRC Basilicata, the Regional Competence Centre, has been established following up the agreement between the Minister of Innovation and Technology and Basilicata Regional Authority aiming at increasing cooperation between the institutions and strengthen the e-government skills on territorial level. The Centre’s task is to assist local authorities in the development of e-government projects and plans, in the dissemination of the information society on a regional level and in the innovation of services to users. The Regional Competence Centre of Basilicata has a project team, constituted by the representatives of the Regional Authority, the consultants provided by the Minister of Innovation and Technology, personnel coming from the University of Basilicata, local health offices, municipalities, provinces and mountain communities. The aims of the Regional Competence Centres project for e-government and information society are: » to develop cooperation between the Department for Innovation and Technology and regional systems, through a CRCs national network; » to support the local authorities and to build up their skills in the drafting and implementation of e-government and information society programs and projects, consistent with the objectives established on a regional, national and community level; » to develop and disseminate models, approaches and tools that have to be shared and integrated on the critical aspects of implementation and innovation processes; » to develop cooperation and coordination among the different levels of government within regional systems and to promote trade and joint actions on cross-regional scale.

III.4 SWOT analysis for the general situation of the business sector mainly identifying the main problems innovative enterprises are faced with STRENGHTS

100

WEAKNESSES

Presence of skilled human capital

Strong weakening of the dynamics of development and transformation of the regional economy, intervened in recent years

Good dissemination of the information society

Modest opening to the foreign system and lack of regional economic attractiveness of foreign direct investment

Presence of important public facilities for research and training

Decline of the regenerative capability of the enterprise system, as measured by the fall in birth rates net Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Growing presence of ICT

The tendency of local governments to train their employees in ICT is much lower than the Italian average: employees who have participated in ICT training courses are only 3.3% against an 8.2% Italian average

Rapid development of tourism industry

Persistent depopulation trend and aging of the population particularly in inland areas

Good quality of life in terms of low social disadvantage, poor dissemination of crime, environmental quality, no serious congestion phenomena and saturation

High proportion of the population at risk of digital divide for long-term economic attractiveness

Presence of oil that can generate benefits for the community

Persistent critical relationships between banks and enterprises

Significant allocation of natural resources for the production of renewable energy

Strong phenomenon of emigration of the population especially of young people

Presence of regional centres of excellence in the specialized fields of spatial observation, energy exploitation from renewable sources and energy conservation

Low degree of accessibility to regional land shortage and poor quality of road and rail

Growing attitude toward innovation within SMEs

Strong fragmentation of the system of small and medium enterprises in different regional areas

Well-developed network of Association of Enterprises

Industrial parks need big improvement

Well developed and accessible educational infrastructure

Insufficient n. of business incubators

Strong competitive ability of Basilicata in high tech sectors, where employment reaches 8.92%, exceeding both the national level (7.3%) and the European average (7.41%)

Less competitive enterprises compared with other EU member states

Growth of enterprises engaged in energy production (photovoltaic, biomass and biofuels based on energy crops)

Problems accessing the knowledge in case of rural SMEs

Presence of mining multinationals producing a steady growth in royalties, thanks to which interesting development programmes were started on the territory

The technology level of local micro, small and medium-sized enterprises is low

Basilicata is one of the ten regions with the largest increase in employment in high knowledge services (in 2006 6.3 percentage points more than in 2000)

Insufficient propensity to “complex innovations�

Institutional websites widespread in all the regional municipalities, so allowing the government to provide telecommunication services to families, businesses and institutions, and carrying out e-government policies

Lack of a stable network among the operators: internal and external to the territory

101 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Good diffusion of the Intranet areas: 39.2% of regional administrations have such a network, with 59.8% of employees’ access

Reduced cooperation among the research centres and between the research centres and the local productive system

The rate of graduates in scientific and technical disciplines in 2005 is equal to 52.9% (against 33.7% recorded on a national level)

Basilicata is one of the regions with less broadband coverage and lower extension of fibre optic cable (2 km less than national average)

Italy shows a positive growth trend if the analysis is limited to the European Patent Office data

Small number of people employed in R & D activities, if compared to the national level.

The number of employees operating in regional ICT administrations is much higher than the national average (equivalent to 1,9 operator for every 100 employees)

Preponderance of micro-enterprises mainly operating in the traditional manufacturing sectors, characterised by a low innovative rate and a low added value

74.7 personal or laptop computers for every 100 employees within Italian local governments, while Basilicata Region records an higher value (80.3%), even on the averages of Convergence area and Southern Italy

Unclear perspectives about the evolution of future access speed (in December 2006 Basilicata showed a clear separation from the national average and other regions of the South in terms of the density of fibre optics) Low level of competition between operators: ULL (Unbundling Local Loop) telephone exchanges are still little-spread (12% of the population), compared with a 51%presence in Italy and a 44% in the South A limited ADSL coverage: in June 2007 the total population served by ADSL was equal to 74% (against 89% in Italy and 86% of South and Islands) and, on 131 municipalities, only 50 had a coverage of over 95% Low investment on R & D, particularly with regard to business investment

OPPORTUNITIES

102

THREATS

Significant demand for the creation of local entrepreneurs’ incubators

Greater exposure to competition from countries with low labour costs, in the absence of a regeneration model of regional production specialization towards innovation and R & D

Existence of foods valuable, exploitable niche market for qualified food and wine in tourism and agro-industrial quality

Possible increased emigration of skilled human resources, lack of adequate job opportunities in relevant positions

Accessible EU programmes and tools supporting SMEs

Ageing of population

Presence of qualified internationalization processes activated by the public administration

Worsening of hydrogeological phenomena as a result of depopulation

Policy background supporting private entrepreneurship

Difficulty in making efficient and effective cohesion policies, in the absence of an action system Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART III - Main actors contributing to the development of innovative capability and entrepreneurship of the region

Increasing international cooperation capability

The orography of the regional territory and the low population density discourage investment in the field of infrastructure networks tangible and intangible service for low profitability

Launching of Regional/National programmes supporting innovation

Possible increase in CO2 emissions in correlation to the socio-economic development of the region

The Basilicata Region has been paying particular attention to innovation in recent years

Low wages in national and regional R&D system Lengthy procedure to obtain a patent

103 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


104 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART IV Suggestions and proposals for over-passing problems of entrepreneurship (innovative SMEs) in the region of Basilicata

105 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART IV - Suggestions and proposals for over-passing problems of entrepreneurship (innovative SMEs) in the region of Basilicata The analysis carried out so far shows some relevant considerations to investigate Basilicata’s innovative potential and to understand how it can develop its capacity for innovation. Basilicata needs to accelerate the dynamics of the regional production system, since it has suffered delays in recent years, but shows a marked recovery in the most recent period. This can happen by: (a) focusing on strengthening the most important production centres in the region (particularly in manufacturing and agro-foodstuffs), (b) facing the weaknesses of the regional economy such as fragmentation, insufficient productivity and lack of innovation propensity within the productive fabric, (c) promoting the diversification and the articulation of the economic system through the diffusion of innovation, the valorisation of historical and environmental heritage, the strengthening and the qualification of tourism activities, rapidly expanding in recent years, (d) improving the relationships between enterprises and the banking system, which still constitute a weakness of the regional productive system. The development of Basilicata is still constrained by the inaccessibility of the region and by the incompleteness of the regional infrastructure network for logistics and transportation of goods and people. The implementation of the major investments -made possible in recent years by regional structural policies- is therefore an important condition for increasing the productive dynamic of the regional system within a framework of qualifications and further spread of services to citizens and businesses. The realization of the investments necessary to increase accessibility and complete the infrastructure system can not leave aside a strong integration of regional policies with national plans and programs. Starting from here, the Region has to develop systems of integrated mobility of people and goods, increase interoperability and intermodality of logistic and transport networks towards a sustainable and environmentally friendly mobility. Basilicata economic system is still not very open to foreign trades, with the significant exceptions of top productive sectors. The investment attractiveness is still very modest. Increasing the openness of Basilicata, spreading its propensity to export and making the area attractive for new investments are the priority tasks of the new structural policies, both for strengthening the production system and for qualifying economic and territorial contexts. Despite recent progress, the dissemination of research and development in Basilicata is very low, and far from Lisbon strategy goals.

106

The acceleration of investment in research and innovation within the regional production system, however, is an essential condition to reach the objective of speeding up regional production dynamics. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART IV - Suggestions and proposals for over-passing problems of entrepreneurship (innovative SMEs) in the region of Basilicata

This acceleration is a possible goal for regional policies, considering the important strengths in the region: the University and several major public research centres, able to act proactively for the production, mediation and dissemination of innovation advantage of the regional production system, a highly qualified human capital, as shown in ISTAT surveys on scientific and technical disciplines graduates and high school participation; the wide diffusion of the knowledge society, so deeply promoted in recent years by regional policy, which led to a significant spread of ICT; the existence of significant potential for attracting investment in research and development, related both to the need for innovative management of natural resources (water, energy, biogenetic and environment) and to favourable context conditions. The low incidence of crime and the high level of safety, the quality of the overall social climate, the absence of severe congestion and saturation phenomena, the development capability of social services (an indicator of high social capital) continue to strongly characterize Basilicata (especially compared to other Southern regions) and to represent important potential factors of attraction. These factors should be valued by regional policy in an overall increase of the region‘s attractiveness. Some elements still prove an obstacle to social and territorial cohesion: a persistent trend of depopulation in some internal areas; the presence, however in limited areas, of poverty and unease; an economic and demographic imbalance between internal and external areas of the region; a still difficult situation of employment (measured both by unemployment and employment rates), if compared to national and community averages. These elements show how competitiveness and innovation measures must always be supported and complemented by strategies for social and territorial cohesion in the framework of regional structural policies. Moreover, these strategies should avoid the risks of new migration - especially of younger and specialized work force- of further ageing of population, depopulation of inland areas and the resulting socioeconomic and territorial impairment. In recent years, Basilicata has increased the amount of energy produced from renewable sources. This trend must be confirmed and accelerated through structural policies improving regional energy balance - which presents an imbalance between primary and secondary energy imported - and moving in the direction of energy saving, development of renewable resources’ use and creation of productive chains resting on both the use of agro-energy crops for energy and biofuels production and also on the birth of a new entrepreneurship in the field of energy production and energy components. As previously indicated in the project outline, the area of South Eastern Europe is faced with low performance when it comes to research and development, innovative activities and motivation of SMEs to realize the innovation activities that will bring them closer to R&D activities and provide a favourable environment for their development and competitiveness. In this respect, the objective of FIDBE is to develop standards, provide mechanisms of cooperation and demonstrate best practices in the area of busiStudy of the innovative potential of Basilicata

107


PART IV - Suggestions and proposals for over-passing problems of entrepreneurship (innovative SMEs) in the region of Basilicata

ness development with the goal of ensuring sustainability and capitalisation of results and outputs in the establishment of frameworks to motivate SMEs. One of the best practices that will serve as a tool for the transfer of common knowledge and experience to encourage the establishment of innovation and support services for innovative enterprises, will be presented through the case of Innovation Factory a “first mile incubator” located in AREA Science Park in Trieste, Italy. The business incubator, program designed to accelerate the successful development of companies in their earliest starting stage was born in the United States in the 1960s and since then it has become an international phenomenon. As a concept it provides support to the business through resources, services, and developed, orchestrated management. The types of sectors that incubator programs support vary from manufacturing, medical devices, energy, media to technology and science. In certain countries they are created as public or private entities and can be found in countries with a lack of investment institutions, venture capital or business angels, that create crucial pre-conditions for the development of entrepreneurship, but can also be found in the countries in which risk capital is developed in a way to intervene in the pre-incubation phase as seed capital and help the start of the company and its activity. The one thing that is common to all SMEs is the need to develop competitiveness and create an environment that will enhance their sustainability and growth. The main activity of the business incubator is exactly addressed to a specific aspect of the company’s development and that is to facilitate the transformation of a business idea into a company by assisting the entrepreneur through the different phases of a company’s development and accelerating the creation of a new company but also reducing the probability of failure during the initial phase of growth or during the development process. Basic research and development is not easily and automatically translated into commercial success. Young innovative entrepreneurs need more than just capital. In contrast to their competence in research and development, potential technology entrepreneurs tend to be rather inexperienced in commercial matters. Young technology companies (i.e entrepreneurs) need access to special market knowledge and managerial know-how in order to succeed on the market and not to risk a failure. Innovation Factory “a first mile incubator”

108

In 2006, AREA Science Park established Innovation Factory, a first mile incubator for future entrepreneurs interested in the realization of their own project: “creating a company from an innovative idea”. The main activity of the incubator is the creation and development of new companies through continuous assistance (capital, professional and office utilities) that carries an innovative idea (a “business dream”) to defining an appropriate business model (a “business plan”) and matching it with potential market needs (“potential clients”). Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART IV - Suggestions and proposals for over-passing problems of entrepreneurship (innovative SMEs) in the region of Basilicata

The idea of creating Innovation Factory, was born from the conviction that in Italy, and especially in the Region of Friuli Venezia Giulia, venture capital and business angels do exist. There are also many regional, national and international programs that provide financial support for the development of “innovative ideas” but activities of professional assistance to future entrepreneurs are missing either in the phase of creation of an entrepreneurial idea or during the actual creation of a company and its market entry. This lack of assistance and support results in a relatively significant percentage of failure of “new ideas” either in the starting phase or even in the developing phase, also due to a lack of specific professional competences that are necessary for a new entrepreneur to succeed in the market. In that respect, Innovation Factory intervenes exactly at the most crucial phase in the development, the phase of pre-incubation (pre-seed phase) and continues until the ultimate phase of the company development (start-up) i.e. market penetration and market share realization. Unlike other incubators, the incubator run by Innovation Factory manages not only the aspect of providing financial assistance but it assists the entrepreneur in all the phases of the company’s development by providing technical assistance already in the pre-seed phase, professional assistance in running the funds and necessary office utilities in the seed-phase, professional internal and external tutors through the whole process of development until the company’s expansion phase (market penetration and market share realization) and exits once the company’s incubation life cycle is completed and the company is in the market. Life Cycle of a start up company

Source: PolyTechnos Venture Partners 109 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


110 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART V Main Conclusions

111 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART V - Main Conclusions

The region has all the elements needed to build a pole of regional competitiveness, from research centres of national level to high-tech company fabric and university settlements with a specific scientific vocation. The development of the innovative capacity of the regional production system must be supported by pursuing the following objectives: » to convey the knowledge economy through a strong integration with the policies developed in terms of Research and Innovation, together with an extensive and pervasive spread of Information Society’s techniques and technologies in the main areas of operational programme; » to stimulate and accompany SMEs in order to increase their level of innovation by creating the conditions needed for an effective transfer of knowledge between research organizations and enterprises; » to target investment towards a coordinated strategy of action. On the other hand, scientific research and innovation are a central priority for the development of world economy. The results of research and innovation processes are presented as key instruments for enterprises to meet the increasingly intense international competition due to the participation of particularly dynamic emerging economies in global markets. Innovation, research and, therefore, knowledge are the basis of development in most advanced economies. The poles of development of the new economy are not located around the best research centres by chance. However, all around Europe and even more in Basilicata, research sector suffers a discomfort state. The great processes of change triggered in the world of production and in research institutions, together with the higher availability of economic resources provided by EU and EU cohesion policies, are an opportunity to build strong relationships between business and research in Basilicata. This relationship, where already built, allowed the improvement of socioeconomic conditions, particularly in low technology areas such as Basilicata, the strengthening of research institutions in the territory, and the emergence of other research organizations oriented to provide science and technology support to the production system and to the bodies of territorial government. However, if it is true that both the European and the regional model of development is mainly based on the old economy, the new economy can be a development opportunity for weaker areas only when connected to the old economy. 112

The market on which combining supply and demand of knowledge and technology has yet to be created in Basilicata. Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


PART V - Main Conclusions

Achieving this goal means to promote and increase enterprises’ propensity for innovation. In particular, it means increasing the number of high-tech settlements and all those advanced technologies and processes operating on the international stage. The world of business has to face a greater economic effort both towards organization and management innovation and towards technological research and innovation. Essential conditions to compete on international markets and to access to dedicated funds of the European Union are: encouraging the creation of consortia, like the Technologies for Earth Observations and Natural Hazards (TeRN) one, born in Basilicata and involving research institutions operating within the region (CNR, ENEA Telespazio, University), the Regional Agency for the Environment and some local associated companies (Createc); completing the incorporation process of the Technological District on Innovative technologies for the protection of hydrological risks, made by scientific institutions (CNR and University of Basilicata), government institutions (MIUR and Regione Basilicata) and associations (ASI - Consortium for Industrial Development of Potenza); stimulating the emergence of other technological districts on topics of regional interest (food, furniture, automotive, energy, etc.) able to meet the main priorities designated by the National Strategic Framework 2007-2013 and the seventh EU Framework Program. If these initiatives could always be connected to the priority guidelines given by national and EU policies, they would create, in Basilicata, a continuous and effective synergy system between the institutions of the territorial government, the institutes of excellence and the most innovative companies, and would prove to be the right approach in order to create an opportunity from an example of excellence. The widespread presence of research institutions (Metapontum Agrobios, ASI, CNR, ENEA, ISTAT, university, etc..) in Basilicata is one of the strengths of the Region to promote knowledge and innovation. Therefore, the spin-off promotion must be accelerated, since it is still in a start-up phase both in Italy and above all in Basilicata; that means ‘real’ companies set up by researchers. The spin-off is one of the most common ways in which foreign universities and research institutes transfer research results out of their laboratories. In the U.S.A., but also in other European Countries, professors and researchers become entrepreneurs. Boston MIT has established more than 4000 companies of this type, while many of these were purchased by major industry groups. There are not such examples in Basilicata. At the present time, the creation of spin-offs in Basilicata can be stimulated by the reorganization process of research institutions, that is trying to grow more managerial culture among researchers, to change the attitude of closuStudy of the innovative potential of Basilicata

113


PART V - Main Conclusions

re towards the outside - that, especially in the past, characterized the world of research - and to assist spin-off activities for some years. The creation of connections between the research system, the productive world and the institutions proves therefore to be essential. Finally, the best practice “Innovation factory – “ From a business dream to a business plan” we have presented in the previous part can serve as a good example to be used in Basilicata to motivate new potential “entrepreneurs to learn on how to become entrepreneurs”.

114 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Bibliography 1. http://www.istat.it/ 2. http://www.basilicatanet.it/ 3. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/themes 4. http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basilicata 5. http://www.bas.camcom.it/ 6. http://www.bancaditalia.it/ 7. Regional Operational Programme ERDF 2007-2013 8. Regional Operational Programme ESF 2007-2013 9. Information Society Program Agreement 10. Unioncamere Basilicata Study Centre, “L’economia della Basilicata nel I semestre 2008”, October 2008 11. Tagliacarne Institute, “Prodotto lordo e investimenti per regione (20002007)”, Collana “Le Ricerche”, 2008 12. Bank of Italy, Economic Bullettin, April 2009 13. Rapport ISAE, “Le previsioni per l’economia italiana”, February 2009 14. OECD, Economic Outlook, March 2009 15. ISAE, “Le imprese italiane e l’accesso al credito durante la crisi finanziaria”, February 2009 16. Observatory Banche Impresa, “Rapporto 2008 – Impresa e competitività”, Giannini editore 17. Tagliacarne Institute, “Il ruolo delle infrastrutture nello sviluppo economico della Basilicata”, Research report, 2009

115 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Website of FIDIBE Project www.fidibe.eu Visit the partners’ websites and the sub-pages of FIDIBE project • Mid-Pannon Regional Development Company http://www.kprf.hu/ • Sviluppo Basilicata S.p.A. http://www.sviluppobasilicata.it/ • Venice Gateway for Science and Technology http://www.vegapark.ve.it/ • Centre for Research and Technology Hellas http://www.certh.gr/ • Alexander Dubček University of Trenčin http://www.tnuni.sk/ • West-Pannon Regional Development Company http://www.nyupan.hu/ • Technology Park Ljubljana Ltd. http://www.tp-lj.si/ • Business Innovation Centre of Croatia http://www.bicro.hr/ • Harghita County Council http://www.hargitamegye.ro/ • INOVA NOVA, n.o. http://www.inovanova.sk/

116 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Background of FIDIBE project Development of Innovative Business Parks to Foster Innovation and Entrepreneurship The SEE area has a low performance with respect to R&D. The majority of the countries of the area are facing low levels of innovative activity and thus of competitiveness. The main objectives are to increase the innovative potential and competitiveness of the SEE area with the development and support of competitive and innovative small and medium-sized enterprises operating in the Area, to facilitate innovation, promote entrepreneurship and the development of knowledge economy in the SEE area and to decrease the big disparity in economic development in the SEE area. Objectives would be achieved through developing and improving support networks and services for innovative SMEs in the area. Main outputs: » the Manual of Business Innovation Park, which can be used as a guide to establish new and further develop existing parks, » regional analyses and feasibility studies of the foundation of new parks or of the enhancement of old parks coupled with the in-depth analysis of needs of SMEs, » forums for exchange of best practice, knowledge and experience in the framework of training, study tour, international seminar and final conference. Project duration: 01/04/2009 - 31/08/2011 Partnership 9 Partners from 7 different countries joined the project representing Science Parks and Business Incubators, Research Centres and Universities, Development Agencies and Local Authorities • • • • • • • • • •

Mid-Pannon Regional Development Company (Hungary) Lead Partner Sviluppo Basilicata SpA (Italy) VEGA Venice Gateway for Science and Technology (Italy) Centre for Research and Technology Hellas (Greece) Alexander Dubcek University of Trencin (Slovakia - till 15 April 2010) Harghita County Council (Romania) West-Pannon Regional Development Company (Hungary) Technology Park Ljubljana Ltd. (Slovenia) Business Innovation Centre of Croatia BICRO Ltd (Croatia) INOVA NOVA, n.o., (Slovakia - as of 15 April 2010).

www.fidibe.eu Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata

117


SEE Area The SEE Area includes 16 countries. For 14 countries the eligible area is the whole territory of the country, namely for Albania, Austria, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Greece, Hungary, Serbia, Montenegro, Slovakia, Slovenia and Moldova. In 2 countries only certain regions are eligible: in Italy these eligible regions are: Lombardia, Bolzano/Bozen, Trento, Veneto, Friuli-Venezia-Giulia, Emilia Romagna, Umbria, Marche, Abruzzo, Molise, Puglia Basilicata, and in Ukraine: Cjermovestka Oblast, Ivano-Frankiviska Oblast, Zakarpatska Oblast and Odessa Oblast. http://www.southeast-europe.net/hu/

Target territories of FIDIBE Project

118 Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata


Iniziativa del ProFIDIBE realizzata project nell’ambito was selected getto Fidibe Programma di cooperazione within the European transnazionale SEE Southprogramme East Europe, SEE-South East ilEurope co-fifinalizzato a migliorare processo di integrazione territoriale, economica e sociale nanced by EUROPEAN UNION. dei Paesi coinvolti contribuendo alla comIt is a transnational cooperation petitività dell’area attraverso lo sviluppo di partnership transnazionali conprogramme that aimsed toazioni improve giunte su questionieconomic strategiche. Iland Progetto the territorial, soè co-finanziato dall’UNIONE EUROPEA.

cial integration process in the FIDIBE project was selected by within the participating Countries conEuropean programme SEE-South East tributing to the area competitiveEurope co-financed by EUROPEAN ness the development UNION.through It is a transnational cooperation programme that aims the terof transnational to improve partnerships ritorial, economic and social integration and joint actions on strategic isprocess in the participating Countries by sues. contributing to the area competitiveness through the development of transnational partnerships and joint actions on strategic issues.

www.fidibe.eu

La società, partner italiano del progetto FIDIBE, interamente partecipata dell’ente Regione Basilicata, opera a sostegno dello sviluppo, della ricerca e della competitività del territorio della regione Basilicata. The company, italian partner of FIDIBE project, in house of the Basilicata Region, works as a regional agency by fostering development, research and competitiveness in Basilicata.

www.fidibe.eu


Study of the innovative potential of Basilicata