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COA S TAL SAFE T Y BRIE F SURFING AND WATE RCR AF T S U R F L I FE S AV I N G AU S T R A L I A


W AT E R C R A F T S N A P S H O T 2 0 0 4 -17

ANALYSIS On average, at least eight people drown per year as a result of using non-powered watercraft. It’s the fourth highest number of drowning deaths for an individual activity.

RANK

8 100

4

4 38

FATALITIES

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE PER 100,000 POPULATION

TYPE OF CRAFT

16 4

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

25–44

MEN AGED 8%

Australian residents; surfers, body boarders & kayakers

3% 3% 5%

55–64

MEN AGED 51%

51%

13%

21

17

AVERAGE DEATHS PER YEAR

th

0.03

0

Australian Residents; surfers Other Surf ski Canoe Kite surfing Kayak Body Board Surf Board

SURF BOARD 17%

MALE

PARTICIPATION • 1.8 million surfers

• 1 million frequent surfers (at least once per month)

• 0.9 million frequent paddlers (at least once per month) 0.06

WATERCRAFT DROWNING DEATHS TREND

Rate per 100,000 pop. Total drowning deaths

0.06

0.05 0.04 0.04

0.87

0.04 0.03

0.07 0.05

0.02

0.02

0.05 0.04

7

5

8

3

3

5

7

13

14

5

9

11

10

2006-07

2007-08

2008-09

2009-10

2010-11

2011-12

2012-13

2013-14

2014-15

2015-16

2016-17

0.03

2005-06

0.01

0.02

2004-05

0.01

95%

1

• 1.5 million watercraft users

0.03

44

AVERAGE AGE

51% SURFING

CONTRIBUTING FACTORS

55% MEDICAL INJURY (OF KNOWN CASES)

19% RIP CURRENTS

Reference: SLSA National Coastal Safety Report 2017

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – SURFING SURFING && WATERCR WATERCRAFT AFT


W AT E R C R A F T I N A U S T R A L I A

Watercraft activity is using an item of non-powered recreational equipment in the water. Examples include surfboards, body boards, kayaks, surf skis, stand up paddleboards, wind surfers and kite surfers. Approximately 12% of the Australian adult population participate in surfing and 10% participate in other watercraft activities1. Both activities are even more popular in New South Wales, with 14% surfing and 12% using watercraft1. There have been 100 surfing and watercraft-related coastal drowning deaths in the past 13 years (2004–17), and is the fourth highest number of fatalities for an individual activity2. During this period, more than half of all watercraft-related drowning deaths occurred when surfing or body boarding (n=68), with 53% of these occurring in New South Wales2. Factors that are known to have contributed to these fatalities include a medical issue or injury (55%), drugs (20%) and rip currents (19%)2. Males are the primary victims in watercraft and surfing incidents, representing 95% of drownings between 2004-2017. Several programs have been run by Surf Life Saving (SLS) and other water safety partners in recent years to address the prevalence of watercraft and surfing incidents. For example, Paddle Safe, an education campaign in Tasmania, promotes safe paddling for aquatic users, supervisors, teachers and the general community. In Queensland, there has been a program for surfers to learn resuscitation and essential lifesaving skills; Surfers Saving Lives aims to reduce drowning deaths in blackspot locations and increase safety across the surfing community. Furthermore, Surf Life Saving Australia has partnered with University of NSW to research bystander rescues, where 28% of surfers say they have performed a rescue while participating in the activity.

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – SURFING & WATERCR AFT


L O C AT I O N WATERCRAFT FATALITIES 2004-2017 DARWIN

2

2

0 21 17

4

2 3 3

4

2

3

BRISBANE

1

8

2 2

2 4

4

3

38

PERTH

2 4 2

3 2

2 2 2

ADELAIDE

SYDNEY

2 2

0

1,000km

MELBOURNE

5

SCAL E

2 2

Reference: SLSA National Coastal Safety Report 2017

2

3 6 94 43

2 2

Indicates number of watercraft fatalities

CANBERRA

22

16

3

24 33

4 3

2004-2017

4

HOBART

WATERCRAFT DROWNING DEATHS BY LOCATION (n=100)

2 3 3

4%

4%

17%

WATERCRAFT BLACKSPOTS 38%

16%

38% NSW 21%

NSW QLD VIC WA SA TAS

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

QLD

VIC

CITY OF GOLD COAST (10) SUNSHINE COAST COUNCIL (5)

MORNINGTON PENINSULA (6)

NSW

WA

BYRON SHIRE (5)

SHIRE OF AUGUSTA – MARGARET RIVER (4)

CITY OF COFFS HARBOUR (5)

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – SURFING & WATERCR AFT

3

2

2


C A U S A L A N A LY S I S 2 0 0 4 -17

WHERE

WHEN

WHO

51%

37% LIVED MORE THAN 50KM FROM DROWNING LOCATION

AFTERNOON (12-6PM)

SURFERS

NSW

38%

MARCH - MAY

57% MORE THAN 1KM FROM A LIFESAVING SERVICE Most watercraft cannot be used between the flags at a patrolled location, but can be used adjacent to that area.

WHY

BODY BOARDERS

55%

13%

MEDICAL ISSUE OR INJURY

KAYAKERS

Reference: SLSA National Coastal Safety Report 2017

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C A U S A L A N A LY S I S 2 0 0 4 -17

WHO

95% MALE

33%

44

37%

AGED 25 - 39

AVERAGE AGE OF DECEASED

AGED 45 - 64

DROWNING LOCATION

REGION OF RESIDENCE

5%

11%

1% 2%

10%

82%

2%

87%

82%

Beach Offshore Bay Rock/Cliff Marina/Jetty

BEACH

AUSTRALIA

87% Australia International Unknown

51%

CRAFT TYPE

SURFING

8% 3% 3%

17%

5%

51%

13%

SURF BOARD 17%

51%

BODY BOARDING

Surf Board Body Board Kayak Kite surfing Canoe Surf ski Other

13% KAYAKING Reference: National Coastal Safety Report 2017

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – SURFING & WATERCR AFT


C A U S A L A N A LY S I S 2 0 0 4 -17

AGE

13 12

12

11 10

2004-2017

WATERCRAFT DROWNING DEATHS BY AGE (n=100)

8 7 6 5 4

4

3 2

2 1

0

0

0-4

5-9

0 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84

85+

TIME 13 12

2004-2017

WATERCRAFT DROWNING DEATHS BY TIME (n=91*)

9 7

7

6 5

4

6

5 3 2

MONTH

10 - 11pm

9 - 10pm

1 8 - 9pm

7 - 8pm

6 - 7pm

4 - 5pm

5 - 6pm

3 - 4pm

2 - 3pm

1 - 2pm

12 - 1pm

11 - 12pm

10 - 11am

9 - 10am

8 - 9am

7 - 8am

5 - 6am

6 - 7am

4 - 5am

3 - 4am

1 - 2am

2 - 3am

1

11 - 12pm

1 12 - 1am

*Of known times. This is under reporting nighttime deaths. They are usually not recorded until the morning and happen without witnesses. Time would be recorded as 'unknown' and as such not included in the analysis. 10% of cases happened at unknown times.

9

14 12 11

11

2004-2017 9

WATERCRAFT DROWNING DEATHS BY MONTH (n=100)

8

8 7 6

6

6

2

July

August

September October November December

January

February

March

April

May

June

Reference: National Coastal Safety Report 2017

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P A R T I C I P AT I O N P R O F I L E SURFING

Surfers account for over half (51%) of watercraft drowning deaths between 2004-17 and 98% of these were male individuals. More than half (53%) of these incidents occurred in NSW and medical conditions or injuries were known to contribute to at least 53% of drownings. With 12% of the Australian population participating in surfing, Surf Life Saving Australia wants to know how their safety can be improved and fatalities reduced. The National Coastal Safety Survey1 provides an insight into the surfing participation profile.

PARTICIPATION BY STATE Percentage of state populations who participate in surfing

1.8 million Surfers

8%

(12% population)

12%

1 million

10%

Frequent surfers

8%

(at least once a month)

14%

204 hours

9%

Per frequent surfer (per year on average)

5% NATIONAL PARTICIPATION 2014-2017

2014-2017

NATIONAL PARTICIPATION IN SURFING BY GENDER

NATIONAL PARTICIPATION IN SURFING BY AGE GROUP

Female

Male

50+

Total

35-49

25-34

16-24

5%

8%

10%

17%

15%

18%

12%

Reference: National Coastal Safety Survey 2014-17 (average)

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P A R T I C I P AT I O N P R O F I L E SURFING

2014-2017

SWIMMING ABILITY IN THE OCEAN OF SURFERS 4%

16%

16%

20%

34% AVERAGE

32%

34%

SURFERS ARE WEAK SWIMMERS OR CAN’T SWIM IN THE OCEAN

Unable to Swim Weak Average Competent Highy Competent

49%

66%

SURFERS ALWAYS CHECK SURF/WEATHER CONDITIONS

SURFERS DON’T ALWAYS SURF IN CONDITIONS THAT ARE APPROPRIATE TO THEIR SKILL LEVEL

2014-2017

SAFETY PRACTICES OF SURFERS Can’t say 1%

1% 1%

11%

1%

12%

23% 37%

Never

Sometimes

Most of the time

2% 5%

1% 8%

20%

20%

27%

26%

3%

Always 1%

2%

20%

16% 22%

38% 29%

65%

49%

47%

45%

39%

32%

Use safety equipment such as leg ropes, safe fins, helmets or buoyancy aids

Check surf conditions with a lifesaver, lifeguard or authoritative source

Follow the advice of the local lifesaver or lifeguard when you are on a patrolled beach

Avoid surfing under the influence of alcohol / drugs

Go surfing with at least one other person

Surf in conditions that are appropriate for your skill level

Reference: National Coastal Safety Survey 2014-17 (average)

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – SURFING & WATERCR AFT


P A R T I C I P AT I O N P R O F I L E W AT E R C R A F T

PARTICIPATION BY STATE Percentage of state populations who participate in watercraft activities

1.5 million Watercraft users

8%

650,000

9% 9%

Frequent paddlers (at least once a month)

8% 12%

190 hours

9%

Per frequent paddler (per year on average)

11%

NATIONAL PARTICIPATION 2014-2017

2014-2017

NATIONAL PARTICIPATION IN WATERCRAFT ACTIVITIES BY GENDER

NATIONAL PARTICIPATION IN WATERCRAFT ACTIVITIES BY AGE GROUP

Male

Female

50+

Total

35-49

25-34

16-24

4% 12% 9% 8% 14% 10% 16%

Reference: National Coastal Safety Survey 2014-17 (average)

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – SURFING & WATERCR AFT


P A R T I C I P AT I O N P R O F I L E W AT E R C R A F T

2014-2017

SWIMMING ABILITY IN THE OCEAN OF WATERCRAFT USERS

24%

6% 17% 18%

WATERCRAFT USERS ARE WEAK SWIMMERS OR CAN’T SWIM IN THE OCEAN

34% 24%

AVERAGE

Unable to Swim Weak Average Competent Highy Competent

34%

28%

41%

ALWAYS CHECK CONDITIONS WITH AN AUTHORITATIVE SOURCE

ALWAYS WEAR A LIFEJACKET OR BUOYANCY AID

2014-2017

SAFETY PRACTICES OF WATERCRAFT USERS

Can’t say 5%

7%

Never

Sometimes

2% 11%

28%

16% 21%

Most of the time

3% 5%

8%

23%

19%

7%

Always 3% 5% 14%

2% 3%

14% 18%

22%

24% 18%

25%

27%

22%

23%

26%

27%

28%

41%

42%

46%

56%

64%

Carry necessary safety equipment including EPIRBs, radios or flares

Check conditions with a lifesaver, lifeguard or authoritative source

Wear a lifejacket or buoyancy aid

Use your watercraft with at least one other person

Follow the advice of the local lifesaver or lifeguard when you are on a patrolled beach

Follow all relevant laws and regulations applicable to watercraft

Avoid using your watercraft under the influence of alcohol / drugs

Reference: National Coastal Safety Survey 2014-17 (average)

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HAZARD PERCEPTION

2014-2017

HAZARD PERCEPTION OF THE COAST – SURFERS & WATERCRAFT USERS 46%

44%

Surfers Watercraft Users

23%

21% 17%

14%

9%

9%

9%

7% 1%

Extremely hazardous

Very hazardous

Somewhat hazardous

Not very hazardous

Not at all hazardous

1%

Can't say

2015-2017

HAZARD PERCEPTION OF SURFING – FREQUENT VS OCCASIONAL SURFERS 49% Frequent Occassional

39%

OF FREQUENT SURFERS BELIEVE SURFING IS VERY OR EXTREMELY HAZARDOUS

28% 23% 17%

(COMPARED TO 16% OF OCCASIONAL PARTICIPANTS)

14% 10%

33%

10% 6% 2%

Extremely hazardous

1% Very hazardous

Somewhat hazardous

Not very hazardous

Not at all hazardous

2%

Can't say

2015-2017

HAZARD PERCEPTION OF WATERCRAFT ACTIVITIES – FREQUENT VS OCCASIONAL PADDLERS

Frequent Occassional

49% 37%

OF FREQUENT PADDLERS BELIEVE WATERCRAFT ARE VERY OR EXTREMELY HAZARDOUS

36% 25%

(COMPARED TO 9% OF OCCASIONAL PARTICIPANTS)

16%

15% 3% Extremely hazardous

6%

Very hazardous

4% Somewhat hazardous

Not very hazardous

31%

5% 1%

Not at all hazardous

0%

Can't say

Reference: National Coastal Safety Survey 2014-17 (average) & 2015-17 (average)

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IN THE NEWS

EMERGENCY SERVICES SCRAMBLED TO RESCUE... AS HE LOST HIS BOARD AND ATTEMPTED TO CLIMB ONTO ROCKS, BEFORE A WAVE KNOCKED HIM UNCONSCIOUS. Tweed Daily News, 24 October 2017

2017

2016

Body boarding and surfing incidents were reported in the media multiple times with injuries and medical conditions contributing to the drowning deaths of participants. In addition, dangerous and challenging surf conditions were common among these incidents. These factors were reported to make it particularly difficult to retrieve and revive these victims. An incident involving a young body boarder received significant attention due to it being the third drowning incident at the same location.

Surfers were prominent in the news with several attempting to enter the water during dangerous conditions, and ending up in trouble. A kayaking incident also gained significant attention due to drowning despite the use of a lifejacket. Witnesses continued to report hazardous surf conditions as a contributing factor in multiple watercraft-related drowning deaths.

2015 IT’S A REMINDER TO ALL WATERCRAFT USERS THAT IT’S VERY IMPORTANT TO CHECK THE WEATHER BEFORE YOU GO OUT AND TO MAKE SURE THAT IT’S SUITABLE FOR YOUR LEVEL OF EXPERIENCE AND THE CRAFT THAT YOU ARE OPERATING,’ HE SAID. ABC News, 1 December 2011

There was minimal coverage of coastal watercraft-related incidents during 2015, which may be due to the high number of swimming drowning deaths that were recorded. The most prevalent watercraftrelated coastal drowning deaths were surfers, with weather conditions contributing to participants getting into trouble and drowning.

Surfers who suffered medical conditions while in the water, such as heart attacks, made up the largest proportion of watercraftrelated drowning incidents in 2014. Many of the surfers who suffered the attacks in the water were alone or had to be rescued by members of the public or lifeguards/ lifesavers on the beach. The use of paddle craft, including kayaks, was also linked to multiple drowning deaths, especially when venturing out alone. Fatalities involved both tourists and locals.

2012

2013 Watercraft-related coastal drowning deaths involved both local and tourist surfers. A high proportion of these people were found unconscious in the water by other beach goers or friends, and could not be resuscitated. Despite many of the surfers who drowned being experienced in the water, rip currents proved deadly to some who surfed alone.

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

2014

13

The most common watercraft-related activity associated with coastal drowning deaths were surfing and body boarding. Of the watercraft-related incidents, many occurred when weather conditions were reported as poor and with heavy swells, and at beaches that were not patrolled by a lifeguard or lifesaving service.

COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – SURFING & WATERCR AFT


K E Y TA R G E T S

WHO ARE THEY?

RISK BEHAVIOUR

POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR3,4

• 25-39 year-old males • Surfers/body boarders • Australian residents

• More likely to be overconfident and take inappropriate risks

• More likely to have strong swimming ability • More likely to be familiar with the location • More likely to surf with friends

• 35-49 year-old males • Paddlecraft users • Australian residents

• Less likely to believe they’re at risk • More likely to paddle alone • More likely to over estimate their abilities

• More likely to have strong swimming ability • More likely to be familiar with the Australian coastal conditions and hazards

• 50+ year old males • Surfers/body boarders • Australian residents

• Less likely to have strong swimming ability • More likely to have health issues • More likely to surf alone

• More likely to be familiar with Australian coastal conditions and hazards • More likely to be more cautious and acknowledge limitations

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B E H AVI OU R A L FR A M E WO RK FOR SURFERS Desired Behaviour Change 1. Know your ability and limitations 2. Always check conditions before getting in the water 3. Surf with others, regardless of your confidence or experience

CORE BEHAVIOUR

FACTORS

CAPABILITY (Knowledge and skills) Psychological

Physical

Almost half (48%) report always surfing or body boarding in conditions appropriate for their skill level.

Few (15%) say they surf or body board in conditions that scare them.

MOTIVATION (Brain processes that energise and direct behaviour) Reflective

Automatic OPPORTUNITY (Factors outside the individual) Physical Social

KEY SOURCES OF BEHAVIOUR3 • Confidence in ability is influenced by previous surfing or body boarding experience (i.e. number of years and range of conditions) • Negative experiences are a reminder of the limitations of their abilities • Beginner surfers seem realistic about the limitations of their abilities • Many acknowledge that anyone can misread the surf or make mistakes, and that surf conditions can change quickly • Reasonable knowledge about rip identification and escape strategies • Higher frequency participation leads to greater exposure to and experience within the ocean environment • Some end up surfing when physically tired or under the influence of alcohol, affecting their physical ability • Desire to relax, escape, be alone and have fun makes it harder for ‘safety’ messaging to cut though. Yet surfers seem reasonably aware of the risk involved and alert to the waves/conditions • Some prefer surfing with friends, or (at least) surfing where others are nearby. Yet this greater sense of security can also lead to greater risk taking. Further, most are very keen to avoid crowded spots (for safety and/or enjoyment reasons) • Older surfers report exercising greater caution compared with younger surfers (or compared with their own behaviour when they were younger) • Acknowledge risk of injury more than risk of drowning • Motivated to check surf and/or weather conditions beforehand, at least some of the time • Dangerous surf conditions are not a strong deterrent for a minority of surfers (especially at a local, familiar beach) • For many, the presence of lifeguards is not a key influencing factor on whether or where to surf • Most believe that they do surf or body board within their ability either all or most of the time • Some (especially surfers) believe it’s important to push the limits of their ability • More likely to push themselves in good conditions, and at familiar locations • Safety-related behaviour is somewhat habitual, subconscious • Hard to avoid challenging surf conditions entirely, given that it is somewhat subjective and things can change quickly • Some end up surfing in low light conditions (i.e. visibility is affected) • Most surfers admit to taking more risks among friends (either to show off or because they feel safer in company)

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B E H AVI OU R A L FR A M E WO RK F O R W AT E R C R A F T U S E R S Desired Behaviour Change 1. Always wear a lifejacket when paddling 2. Always check conditions and weather before and while paddling 3. Carry necessary emergency equipment when on the water 4. Know your ability and the abilities of others CORE BEHAVIOUR

Experienced open-water paddlers: • perceive risk but are prepared and equipped • more likely to check/ observe conditions in detail • more likely to paddle in riskier spots and conditions • more likely to go by themselves

Experienced inshore paddlers: • more likely to check / observe conditions for comfort • less concentration on safety as they are inside (seen as less risky) • paddle to their ability

Lifejackets are often only used to mitigate tricky conditions / situations

FACTORS

CAPABILITY (Knowledge and skills) Phychological

Physical

MOTIVATION (Brain processes that energise and direct behaviour) Reflective

Automatic

OPPORTUNITY (Factors outside the individual) Social

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

KEY SOURCES OF BEHAVIOUR4 • Many believe they are experienced and cautious & believe that this minimises their risk • Past experience suggests they won’t get into trouble • They believe they have the ability to avoid problems • Experience leads to overconfidence in rough or tricky conditions • Belief they could swim or float to survive • Lack of consideration of lifejackets outside of tricky situations

• Perceptions of experience are greater for self than others

• Desire for relaxation and (for some) solitude or exhilaration, works against safety messaging • Safety considerations do influence when and where they go • Safety behaviour is limited by attitudes (I’m experienced; I play it safe) • Overconfidence in ability to manage risk • Lifejackets seen as impractical and counter to some drivers of enjoyment (relaxation, etc.) • Confusion about legal status of lifejackets

• Some haven’t given lifejackets much thought • Lack of thought about possibility of ‘going in’

• Don’t see many others wearing lifejackets • Some norms work against lifejacket use – they are for the inexperienced, for children or don’t see them being worn

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – SURFING & WATERCR AFT


HOW TO REACH SURFERS & W AT E R C R A F T U S E R S

74%

44%

Seek information online

From Surf Life Saving

2014-2017 AUTHORITIES THAT SURFERS & PADDLERS TURN TO FOR COASTAL SAFETY INFORMATION Surfers

54%

Watercraft Users

51%

52%

48% 44% 45% 38% 39%

38% 35% 32% 29% 25% 26% 22% 22% 17%

24% 23%

18% 18% 15%

12% 11%

10% 7%

rd s ua Lif eg

B et ure eo au ro o log f y Co as tg ua rd s M

Aq

itim

ea

ge

nc y ua t or ic c ga lu nis b at or ion M ar or ine ga re nis scu at e ion W ea th er zo Su ne rf Lif eS su life av rf sa ing life ve / sa rs/ ve rs Co as ta lw at ch

cil co un al Lo c

M ar

afe hs

ne

Be ac

Ca n

ell

r Ot he

t

4%

Sw

2%

't s ay Sc ub co a div m in pa g ny

1% 2%

2014-2017 MEDIA WHERE SURFERS & PADDLERS USUALLY SEEK COASTAL SAFETY INFORMATION 72%

76%

Surfers Watercraft Users

30% 17% 2%

3%

Other

6%

7%

Regular email newsletter

8%

8%

None/ Can't say

9%

18%

19%

27%

23% 16%

16%

7%

Magazine

Using an app on smartphone or tablet

Newspaper

Radio

TV

Online

Reference: National Coastal Safety Survey 2014-17 (average)

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – SURFING & WATERCR AFT


C O M M U N I C AT I O N S P L A N SURFERS

TARGET AUDIENCES

DESIRED BEHAVIOUR CHANGE

• Australian men. • Surfers/ body boarders.

Always surf in conditions that are appropriate to your ability.

What Behaviour Do We Want to Change?

Surfing in conditions beyond ability

Why?

On average, 4 people drown each year while surfing or body boarding.

Who’s Behaviour are We Trying to Change?

Australian men aged 25-39 years and men aged over 50.

Potential Barriers to Change

Over confidence. They don’t believe they are at risk.

Who is the Active Voice? And Why?

Other experienced surfers. They are more engaged with targeted surf messaging.

Tone of Voice

Relevant. Personal.

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – SURFING & WATERCR AFT


C O M M U N I C AT I O N S P L A N W AT E R C R A F T

TARGET AUDIENCES

DESIRED BEHAVIOUR CHANGE

• Australian men. • Watercraft users.

Always wear a lifejacket when paddling on water.

What Behaviour Do We Want to Change?

Paddling in watercraft without a lifejacket

Why?

On average, 4 paddlers lose their life each year. Most victims were not wearing lifejackets.

Who’s Behaviour are We Trying to Change?

Australian men, aged 35-49 years

Potential Barriers to Change

Lifejacket wearing is not considered normal. They don’t believe they’re at risk.

Who is the Active Voice? And Why?

The wife or partner, because they are key influencers.

Tone of Voice

Aspirational and personal.

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – SURFING & WATERCR AFT


REFERENCES

Surf Life Saving Australia National Coastal Safety Report 2017 The Surf Life Saving Australia National Coastal Safety Report (NCSR) is published annually and contains information on Australian community behaviours and attitudes to the coast; SLS capability and membership capacity; rescues and emergency response; and coastal drowning deaths. The 2017 NCSR represents the statistics from the period of 1 July 2016 to 30 June 2017. Trend analyses from 2004-17 are also included. All care is taken to ensure the statistical information included within this report is correct. However, pending the outcome of ongoing coronial investigations and as SLS state/territory entities update their operational information, this data may be amended. Surf Life Saving Australia National Coastal Safety Surveys The annual Surf Life Saving Australia National Coastal Safety Surveys collect Information about community swimming ability, behaviours and attitudes to coastal safety. The survey is conducted by Newspoll Market Research and Omnipoll and is run online over a four-day period each April among a national sample of approximately 1,400 respondents aged 16 to 69. The study is carried out in compliance with ISO 20252 - Market, Social and Opinion Research. To reflect the population distribution, results were post-weighted (on age, gender, geographic strata and education) and projected to Australian Bureau of Statistics data. Ipsos Social Research Institute Research Reports 2016 The Ipsos Social Research Institute Surfing and Watercraft Research Report 2016 is comprised of two research reports which both involved two distinct methodological phases: qualitative and quantitative components. Both phases covered similar topic areas,

with the qualitative findings helping to shape the subsequent questionnaire used in the quantitative component. The quantitative competent for the Surfing and Body Boarding Research Report was carried out in November 2015. This component comprised an online survey of n=410 surfers and body boarders (including n=174 for the surfers sample, and n=236 for the body boarders sample), followed by comprehensive analysis of the data. This subsection outlines the quantitative methodology used in this project. The quantitative phase for the Boating and Watercraft Research Report was carried out in February 2016. This component comprised a national online survey of n=337 male and female watercraft users, aged 18 years or more. They had to have used watercraft in coastal areas within the last 12 months.

© 2018 Surf Life Saving Australia This publication is copyright. Except as expressly provided in the Copyright Act 1968 and the Copyright Amendment Act 2006, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval systems or transmitted by any means (including electronic, mechanical, microcopying, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without prior permission from Surf Life Saving Australia. For enquiries concerning reproduction, contact SLSA on: phone 02 9215 8000; email: info@slsa.asn.au Every attempt has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright, but in some cases this may not have been possible. Surf Life Saving Australia apologises for any accidental infringements and would welcome any information to redress the situation.

References Ipsos Social Research Institute (2016) Boating and Watercraft Research Report 2016. Ipsos: Sydney Ipsos Social Research Institute (2016) Surfing and Body Boarding Research Report 2016 Report 2016. Ipsos: Sydney

Acknowledgements Surf Life Saving Australia wishes to thank Frederic Anne (Omnipoll) and Anika Martin (Graphic Design) for their contribution to this report.

Surf Life Saving Australia (2017) National Coastal Safety Report. SLSA: Sydney. Surf Life Saving Australia National Coastal Safety Survey (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017). Newspoll Online Omnibus 2014 and 2015, and an Omnipoll online panel in 2016 and 2017. Page References 1.

SLSA National Coastal Safety Survey 2014–17 (average)

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SLSA National Coastal Safety Report 2017

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Ipsos Social Research Institute Surfing and Body Boarding Research Report 2016

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Ipsos Social Research Institute Boating and Watercraft Research Report 2016

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Suggested Citation Ryan, A., Rijksen, E., Stone, K., Daw, S., (2018) Coastal Safety Brief: Surfing and Watercraft. Surf Life Saving Australia: Sydney.

COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – SURFING & WATERCR AFT

Profile for SLSA

Coastal Safety Brief - Surfing and Watercraft  

Coastal Safety Brief - Surfing and Watercraft