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COA S TAL SAFE T Y BRIE F – BOATING S U R F L I FE S AV I N G AU S T R A L I A


NBAT O AT I OINNAGL SONVAEPRSVHI O EW T 2 0 0 4 -17

ANALYSIS On average, at least 18 people drown per year as a result of boating. It’s the second highest number of deaths for an individual activity.

7

RANK

2nd 0.08

AVERAGE DEATHS PER YEAR

48

38 30

49

AVERAGE FATALITY RATE

18

41 27

PER 100,000 POPULATION

KEY DEMOGRAPHIC

LOCATION

MEN AGED

3% 11%

20%

FATALITIES

240 91%

45–75

Australian residents, Australian born

13%

20%

16%

20%

NSW & QLD 17%

NT TAS SA WA VIC QLD NSW

LIFEJACKET USE AT TIME OF INCIDENT

PARTICIPATION3 • 3.4 million boaters

MALE

• 0.9 million frequent boaters (at least once a month)

AVERAGE AGE

• Occasional boaters average 10 hours per year

51

• Frequent boaters average 140 hours per year

BOATING DROWNING DEATHS TREND

27%

0.10

62%

0.04

0.05

0.09

0.08

0.06

0.11

0.08 0.07

2009-10

2010-11

20

18

16

20

28

29 2016-17

18

2015-16

14

2014-15

11

2013-14

10

2012-13

22

2011-12

17

2008-09

No Yes Unknown

16

2007-08

11%

2006-07

20%

2005-06

No Lifejacket

0.08

2004-05

62%

0.07

0.08

0.11

Reference: SLSA National Coastal Safety Report 2017

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA SECTION SECTION ONE

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – BOATING SECTION NAME COMMUNIT Y AND CAPABILIT Y


B O AT I N G I N A U S T R A L I A

Boating is an extremely popular activity around the Australian coast and waterways. There are 3.4 million coastal boaters in Australia, of which 900,000 are frequent participants. An estimated 20% of Australians go boating each year with the majority living in the Northern Territory, Queensland, Western Australia and Tasmania. Behavioural research5 revealed that the most common reasons for boating are for fun and enjoyment (73%), relaxation (71%), being with friends and family (68%) and being outdoors or in the natural environment (65%). Furthermore, the most popular boating activities are reported as fishing (69%) and touring or cruising (58%). While many Australians enjoy recreating on the water, unfortuantely there are too many incidents that end in injury and death. There have been 240 coastal boating-related drowning deaths between 2004-2017, which is an average of 18 deaths per year1. Recreational boating is consistently the second highest coastal drowning activity nationally (following swimming & wading), however it is ranked first in both Tasmania and Northern Territory. Between 2004-17, 62% of coastal boating fatalities were known not to be wearing a lifejacket. However, this number could be much higher with 27% remaining unknown1. One of the recommended counter measures to boating-related fatalities is the use of lifejackets. Currently, legislation is state-based and varies according to each state. Surf Life Saving Australia collaborates with the Australian New Zealand Safe Boating Education Group (ANZSBEG) to develop educational interventions to increase the wear rate of lifejackets. Representing the key stakeholders in recreational boating safety across Australia and New Zealand, ANZSBEG is an excellent example of crossjurisdictional collaboration establishing consistency in educational key messages such as the International Lifejacket Principles initiative.

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – BOATING


L O C AT I O N BOATING FATALITIES 2004-2017 3

DARWIN 2

7 2 2

48 2

38

4

2

3

3

7

30

2

3

BRISBANE

2

4

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

ADELAIDE

3

2 2

3

Reference: SLSA National Coastal Safety Report 2017 0

3

SYDNEY

2

6 9

2

CANBERRA

MELBOURNE

5

4

2

3

3

5

1,000km

2

2

SCAL E

2

3

2

Indicates number of drowning deaths

2

41

2

2

2 2

3 2

2 4

3 4

3

3 2

27

2004-2017

HOBART

BOATING DROWNING DEATHS BY STATE (n=240)

9 2 2

3 2 3 3

3% 11%

20%

BOATING BLACKSPOTS 13%

20%

NSW&QLD 17%

5 2 2 8

3 2

2

2

16%

3

2

49

2

PERTH

3 7

4 4

2

20%

NT TAS SA WA VIC QLD NSW

SURF LIFE SAVING AUSTR ALIA

4

NSW

VIC

Sutherland Shire (7) Port Stephens (6) Shoalhaven (6)

Mornington Peninsula (5) Hobsons Bay (5)

QLD

WA

Redland City (8) Rockhampton Region (5)

Shire of Carnarvon (6)

COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – BOATING

9 2 4 4


C A U S A L A N A LY S I S 2 0 0 4 -17

2004-2017

BOATING DROWNING DEATHS BY AGE (n=240) 26 20

91% MALE

16

24

24

23

21

20 18

15

7 2

1

0-4

30 27 21

19

11 9

August September October November December January February March

17

8

14

11 8

9

8

8

8

7

5

5

4

3 1 10 - 11pm

8 - 9pm

3 - 4pm

2 - 3pm

1 - 2pm

12 - 1pm

10 - 11am

11 - 12pm

8 - 9am

9 - 10am

7 - 8am

6 - 7am

5 - 6am

1 4 - 5am

2

3

3 - 4am

2

2 - 3am

4

5

11 - 12pm

11

1 - 2am

2-5PM

June

This is under reporting nightime deaths. They are usually not recorded until the morning and happen without witnesses. Time would be recorded as ‘unknown’ and as such not included in the analysis. 27% of cases happened at unknown times.

12 - 1am

8-11AM

May

BOATING DROWNING DEATHS BY TIME (n=240)

15

19% 22%

April

2004–2017

17

Time

20

19

19

9 - 10pm

JUNE-JULY

23

22 20

7 - 8pm

24% 19%

85+

BOATING DROWNING DEATHS BY MONTH (n=240)

AGED 45-54 YEARS

DECEMBER-JANUARY

50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84

2004-2017

July

Month

10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

6 - 7pm

YEARS

AGED 60-69 YEARS

5-9

4 - 5pm

51

21% 20%

2

1

5 - 6pm

Average age of deceased

8

6

5

Reference: SLSA National Coastal Safety Report 2017

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – BOATING


C A U S A L A N A LY S I S 2 0 0 4 -17

WHY

23%

62%

AFFECTED BY ALCOHOL OR DRUGS

NOT WEARING A LIFEJACKET

MORE THAN 1KM TO A LIFESAVING SERVICE

WHERE BOATING OFFSHORE (MORE THAN 500M)

WHERE

WHEN

26%

BOATING BETWEEN 6PM–6AM

WHO

AUSTRALIAN RESIDENTS

LIVED MORE THAN 10KM FROM DROWNING LOCATION

Reference: SLSA National Coastal Safety Report 2017

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – BOATING


P A R T I C I P AT I O N P R O F I L E

3.4

142

FREQUENT COASTAL BOATERS

MILLION COASTAL BOATERS

(AT LEAST ONCE A MONTH)

BOATING HOURS PER FREQUENT BOATER PER YEAR

2014-2017 AGE OF BOATERS

ON AVERAGE 3.6 OCCASIONS PER MONTH AND 3.3 HOURS EACH TIME

25% 22% 19% 16%

1/4 16 - 24

25 - 34

35 - 49

50+

16-24 YEAR OLDS ARE BOATERS

2014-2017 SWIMMING ABILITY IN THE OCEAN OF BOATERS 36%

LESS THAN 20% OF PEOPLE OVER 35 GO BOATING 25% 22%

29%

10% 7% 1% Unable to Swim

Weak

Average

Competent

Highy Competent

Cant Say

BOATERS ARE WEAK SWIMMERS OR UNABLE TO SWIM IN THE OCEAN

2014-2017 NATIONAL PARTICIPATION IN COASTAL BOATING 23%

23%

22%

20%

20%

21%

18%

17%

16%

20% AUSTRALIANS PARTICIPATE IN BOATING ACTIVITIES

Total

Male

Female

NSW/ACT

VIC

QLD

SA/NT

WA

TAS Reference: SLSA National Coastal Safety Survey 2014-17 (Average)

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HAZARD PERCEPTION

2014-2017 HAZARD PERCEPTION OF THE COAST OF BOATERS Q. How hazardous do you believe the coast to be? (Including the ocean, surfzone and adjacent rocky coast) 46%

36%

24% 11%

12%

5%

46%

BOATERS BELIEVE THE COAST IS SOMEWHAT HAZARDOUS

1% Extremely hazardous

Very hazardous

Somewhat hazardous

Not very hazardous

Not at all hazardous

2015-2017 HAZARD PERCEPTION OF BOATING Q. How hazardous do you believe boating to be? 43% 34%

10%

10%

3%

1%

Extremely hazardous

43%

BOATERS BELIEVE THAT BOATING IS SOMEWHAT HAZARDOUS

Can't say

Very hazardous

Somewhat hazardous

Not very hazardous

Not at all hazardous

Can't say

2015-2017 HAZARD PERCEPTION OF FREQUENT VS OCCASIONAL BOATERS Q. How hazardous do you believe boating to be? Frequent

Occasional

46% 35%

32%

34%

17% 7%

8%

7%

10%

1% Extremely hazardous

Very hazardous

Somewhat hazardous Not very hazardous Not at all hazardous

1% 0% Can't say

Reference: SLSA National Coastal Safety Survey 2014-17 (Average)

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – BOATING


SAFET Y PR AC TICES

TWO THIRDS OF BOATERS (66%) HAVE UNDERTAKEN FORMAL BOATING SKILLS TRAINING, OR 92% AMONG SKIPPERS. AMONG BOATERS WHO HAD DONE SO, BOATING SAFETY COURSES (51%) WERE THE MOST COMMON, FOLLOWED BY PERSONAL WATERCRAFT LICENCE TRAINING (34%) AND SEA SURVIVAL SKILLS (33%)5.

48%

73%

ALWAYS WEAR A LIFEJACKET

ALWAYS CHECK THE WEATHER

2014-2017 SAFETY PRACTICES OF BOATERS Q. How often do you follow each of these practices when you go boating? Never

Can’t say

6%

6%

7%

14%

11% 17%

Sometimes

Most of the time

Always

6%

6%

9%

16%

15%

20%

5% 19%

20% 22%

80%

78%

73%

75%

74% 54% 48%

Use only registered and seaworthy vessels

Check weather conditions prior to leaving on your voyage

Carry necessary safety equipment

Avoid speeding on the water in regulated areas

Avoid boating/fishing under the influence of alcohol/drugs

Wear a lifejacket or buoyancy aid

Ensure all passengers wear a lifejacket or buoyancy aid

Reference: SLSA National Coastal Safety Survey 2014-17 (Average)

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IN THE NEWS

TWO MEN WHO DIED WHILE FISHING OFF TASMANIA’S NORTH EAST WERE UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF DRUGS AND ALCOHOL, POLICE HAVE SAID. ABC News, December 28, 2015.

2016-17 This year recorded the highest number of boating fatalities around the Australian coast for the past 13 years. Lifejackets not being worn and dangerous conditions remain prevalent in boating incidents. Old vessels not carrying appropriate emergency devices were also causal factors in boating fatalities.

2015-16 A combination of experienced and inexperienced boaters were involved in incidents during this period. Failure to use emergency equipment, such as EPIRBS, flares and lifejackets, as well as dressing inappropriately for conditions, continued to influence the number of boating fatalities.

2014-15 ANOTHER BOAT PASSING BY ALERTED AUTHORITIES AFTER SEEING THE BOAT UPTURNED AND A BODY FLOATING FACEDOWN.

Incidents that occurred across 2014-15 were again predominantly due to rough surf conditions that capsized boaters, many of whom were fishing at the time or were known to not be wearing lifejackets. Most incidents occurred during daylight hours.

2013-14 Incidents were largely due to waves capsizing boats, many containing fishers or people not wearing lifejackets. In a few cases, causation for the capsize were unknown, however items such as lifejackets were found floating in the vicinity of the craft and demonstrating that the boaters possessed safety equipment but were not using it.

WA Today, January 18, 2016.

2012-13 A POLICE SPOKESMAN SAID IT WAS BELIEVED NEITHER OF THE MEN WERE WEARING LIFEJACKETS WHEN THEY WERE THROWN OVERBOARD.

Unfortunately the bulk of incidents associated with boating in this timeframe were not of a known cause. Either boats were found floating without their occupants in them or people were located outside the vessel. It was observed by family members that at the time that the boaters went out, the ocean conditions were rough for activities such as fishing however they still departed alone.

2011-12 Many of the boating incidents that occurred across 2011-12 were due to rough water conditions including surf and waves that capsized many of the people who were out in both powered and unpowered boats. Most incidents occurred during daylight hours and many of the boaters who drowned were observed to have been in difficulty before they capsized or overturned.

Adelaide Now, Jan 28, 2013.

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – BOATING


B E H AVI OU R A L FR A M E WO RK FOR KEY AUDIENCES Desired Behaviour Change 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

CORE BEHAVIOUR

Experienced open water boaters: • Perceive risk but are prepared and equipped • More likely to check/ observe conditions in detail • More likely to boat in riskier spots and conditions • More likely to boat by themselves Experienced inshore boaters: • More likely to check/ observe conditions for comfort • Less concentration on safety as they are inshore (seen as less risky) • Boat to their ability

Always wear a lifejacket when boating Always check conditions and weather before and while boating Don’t go boating under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol Know your ability and the abilities of others Always carry emergency equipment

FACTORS

KEY SOURCES OF BEHAVIOUR5

CAPABILITY (Knowledge and skills) Psychological

• Many believe they are experienced and cautious. They believe that this minimises their risk • Past experience suggests they won’t get into trouble • They believe they have the ability to avoid problems • Experience leads to overconfidence in rough or tricky conditions (e.g. sandbar) • Belief they could swim or float to survive • Lack of consideration of lifejackets outside of tricky situations

CAPABILITY (Knowledge and skills) Physical

• Perceptions of experience are greater for self than others

MOTIVATION (Brain processes that energise and direct behaviour) Reflective

• Desire for relaxation and (for some) solitude or exhilaration, works against safety messaging • Safety considerations do influence when and where they boat • Safety behaviour is limited by attitudes (I’m experienced; I play it safe) • Overconfidence in ability to manage risk • Lifejackets seen as impractical and counter to some drivers of enjoyment (relaxation, etc.) • Confusion about legal status of lifejackets

MOTIVATION (Brain processes that energise and direct behaviour) Automatic

• Some haven’t given lifejackets much thought beyond making sure they are on board • Lack of thought about possibility of ‘going in’

OPPORTUNITY (Factors outside the individual) Social

• Don’t see many others wearing lifejackets • Some behavioural norms work against lifejacket use – they are for the inexperienced, for children or don’t see them being worn

Four in ten ‘always’ wear lifejackets when moving Lifejackets are often only used to mitigate tricky conditions/situations

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – BOATING


K E Y TA R G E T S

Target Segmentation • Men 45-75 years • Australian residents, Australian born • In small open power boats WHO ARE THEY?

RISK BEHAVIOUR

Over confident and experienced boaters

They are less likely to believe they’re at risk of getting into trouble and believe they have a stronger swimming ability. They are also more likely to be familiar with the area where they go boating

Emphasise that boating incidents involve all sorts of boaters, and that the unexpected can happen at any time to anyone

They are more likely to participate in boating alone and less likely to wear a lifejacket at all times. May also mix drinking/drugs and boating but believe they have a stronger swimming ability

Challenge existing beliefs about their capabilities and the dangers of boating while also giving them strategies to minimise the risks

More likely to have a weaker swimming ability and not wear a lifejacket because it is not a social norm

Tap into the boating mindset by using relatable language that promotes common sense and can help change boating norms

Self-exempting when it comes to mitigating risk

Everyone else

HOW DO WE TALK WITH THEM?5

Communication Barriers

POTENTIAL BARRIERS

COMMUNICATIONS APPROACH 5

Boaters can think that safety messages are spoiling their enjoyment

Some boaters believe that the wearing of a lifejacket at all times is limiting to their enjoyment. This frame of mind is contradictory to the aim of boating for relaxation. Therefore, safety messaging needs to remind participants that the range and availability of lifejackets and safety equipment have improved functionality and comfort

Confusion among boaters with regard to state lifejacket legislations

There is a reasonable level of support (or at least, acceptance) for legislation regarding lifejackets for boaters. However, changing social norms takes time, and some feel that things are moving in this direction. Yet there is likely to be continued strong resistance within some circles. Expectations regarding enforcement are likely to impact behaviour, and it’s clear that the diversity and complexity of laws across different states and territories causes confusion. Ideally, legislation would be consistent and simplified

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – BOATING


C O M M U N I C AT I O N S

Where boaters obtain safety information Online sources are the most popular method for obtaining coastal safety information2. Women are more likely to have obtained boating information from family (41% compared with 27% of men), whereas older boaters (50+ years) are more likely to have learned new information by reading signage at launch locations (26% compared with 11% of 18-34 year olds and 18% of 35-49 year olds)5.

77% SEEK INFORMATION ONLINE

2014-2017 PLACES WHERE BOATERS USUALLY SEEK COASTAL SAFETY INFORMATION 77%

INCREASE IN APPS 23%

22%

20%

DECREASE IN RADIO AND NEWSPAPER

14%

Online

Using an app on smartphone or tablet

TV

Radio

Newspaper

9%

6%

6%

4%

Magazine

Regular email newsletter

Other

None/ Can't say

2014-2017 AUTHORITIES THAT BOATERS TURN TO FOR COASTAL SAFETY INFORMATION

59%

59% 52%

48%

FROM THE BOM

39% 28%

27% 20%

18%

15% 7%

6% Ot he r

Sc ub co a div m in pa g ny

Sw ell ne t

Be ac hs afe

ou nc il ca lc Lo

,s ,s clu nor urfi b o kel ng, r o ling fis rg , d hin an iv g isa ing , tio n

if su lif e Sa rf l es vi ife ave ng sa rs , ve , rs W ea th er zo ne St ate m g ar ov itim e e a rnm ge en nc t y M a or rine ga re S nis sc bo wim ati ue ati mi on ng ng

ta lw atc h

Su rf L

as Co

eg ua rd s Lif

M Bu et re eo a ro u o log f y Co as tg ua rd

2%

3% ay

42%

Ca n't s

43%

48% FROM LIFEGUARDS

Reference: SLSA National Coastal Safety Survey 2014-17 (Average)

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – BOATING


H O W T O R E A C H B O AT E R S

What information are boaters searching for? Among those who have searched for boating information in the last 12 months, information about the weather or swell conditions (77%) and information about locations (60%) were most commonly searched for. Passengers are more likely to say they have searched about weather or swell conditions in regard to boating (81% compared with 71% of skippers). However, a much greater proportion of skippers are searching for a broader range of information, including5:

BOATING GEAR

SAFETY TIPS

60%

BOATING TECHNIQUES

47%

(compared with 48% of passengers)

44%

(compared with 23% of passengers)

(compared with 34% of passengers)

BOATING MAINTENANCE

40%

(compared with 21% of passengers)

How to Reach Boaters GENERAL

SAILING

• State/territory marine authorities

• Sail World – International Collective

• State/territory water police

• Afloat Magazine

• State/territory marine rescue organisations

• Australian Sailing – National Sporting organisiation

• Boat shows/conferences

• Sails Magazine – Sail racing magazine

• TV ads

• Offshore Yachting – Australia’s longest serving yachting magazine

• Radio

SAILING/BOATING SCHOOLS

WEATHER

• Australian Boating College

• www.bom.gov.au

• Yacht Master

• www.buoyweather.com

• Sea School Marine Training

• www.weatherzone.com.au

• Plus many more…

• www.marineweather.net.au

SUPPLIERS

• www.seabreeze.com.au

• Australian Boating Chandlery

WEBSITES/MAGAZINES

• Bias Boating Warehouse

• My Boating Life

• Whitworths

• Pacific Powerboat Magazine etc

• Boating Camping Fishing • Jetski Warehouse

POWERBOATS • Powerboat World (w ww.powerboat-world.com/australia)

ONLINE TRADING

• Australian Boat Mags (www.australianboatmags.com.au)

• www.boatsonline.com.au

• Trailer Boat (www.trailerboat.com.au)

• www.boatpoint.com.au

• Go Boating (www.goboating.com.au)

• http://yachthub.com

• Marine News (www.marinews.com/tbf.php)

• www.australiaboats.com.au

Reference: Ipsos Social Research Institute Boating Report 2016

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COASTAL SAFET Y BRIEF – BOATING


C O M M U N I C AT I O N S P L A N

TARGET AUDIENCES

DESIRED BEHAVIOUR CHANGE

• Men 45-75 years • Australian residents, Australian born

Always wear a lifejacket when boating in small open boats

What Behaviour Do We Want to Change?

Always wear a lifejacket when boating in small open boats.

Why?

On average 18 boaters lose their life each year. Most were not wearing a lifejacket.

Who’s Behaviour are We Trying to Change?

Men 45-75 years born in Australia.

Potential Barriers to Change

Lifejacket wearing is not considered normal. They don’t believe they’re at risk.

Who is the Active Voice? And Why?

The wife or girlfriend, because they are key influencers.

Tone of Voice

Aspirational.

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REFERENCES

Surf Life Saving Australia National Coastal Safety Report 2017 The Surf Life Saving Australia National Coastal Safety Report (NCSR) is published annually and contains information on Australian community behaviours and attitudes to the coast; SLS capability and membership capacity; rescues and emergency response; and coastal drowning deaths. The 2017 NCSR represents the statistics from the period of 1 July 2016 to 30 June 2017. Trend analyses from 2004-17 are also included. All care is taken to ensure the statistical information included within this report is correct. However, pending the outcome of ongoing coronial investigations and as SLS state/territory entities update their operational information, this data may be amended. Surf Life Saving Australia National Coastal Safety Surveys The annual Surf Life Saving Australia National Coastal Safety Surveys collect Information about community swimming ability, behaviours and attitudes to coastal safety. The survey is conducted by Newspoll Market Research and Omnipoll and is run online over a four-day period each April among a national sample of approximately 1,400 respondents aged 16 to 69. The study is carried out in compliance with ISO 20252 - Market, Social and Opinion Research. To reflect the population distribution, results were postweighted (on age, gender, geographic strata and education) and projected to Australian Bureau of Statistics data. Ipsos Social Research Institute Swimming and Wading Report 2016 The Ipsos Social Research Institute Boating and Watercraft Report 2016 was a result of research comprised of two distinct methodological phases: a qualitative research component, followed by a quantitative research component. Both phases covered similar topic areas: boating attitudes and behaviours, risk perceptions and safety

strategies, rip current identification and safety, information needs and sources, lifejacket use and legislation, and other interventions. The quantitative research phase was carried out in February 2016. This component comprised a national online survey of n=983 male and female boaters, aged 18 years or more who had been boating in the last 12 months. This was followed by comprehensive analysis of the data. Given the geographic spread of the Australian coastline, Ipsos SRI used a representative sample of Australian boaters, involving the application of non-interlocking quotas according to the following demographic characteristics: gender, age, state, and area. Weighting was then applied to the sample to ensure the representativeness of the data was maintained. Data illustrated in figures may not always add up to 100% due to rounding. References Ipsos Social Research Institute (2016) Boating Report 2016 . Ipsos: Sydney Surf Life Saving Australia (2017) National Coastal Safety Report 2017. SLSA: Sydney.

© 2018 Surf Life Saving Australia This publication is copyright. Except as expressly provided in the Copyright Act 1968 and the Copyright Amendment Act 2006, no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in any retrieval systems or transmitted by any means (including electronic, mechanical, microcopying, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without prior permission from Surf Life Saving Australia. For enquiries concerning reproduction, contact SLSA on: phone 02 9215 8000; email: info@slsa.asn.au Every attempt has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright, but in some cases this may not have been possible. Surf Life Saving Australia apologises for any accidental infringements and would welcome any information to redress the situation. Acknowledgements Surf Life Saving Australia wishes to thank Frederic Anne (Omnipoll) and Anika Martin (Graphic Design) for their contribution to this report.

Surf Life Saving Australia National Coastal Safety Survey (2014, 2015, 2016, 2017). Newspoll Online Omnibus April 2014 and 2015, and an Omnipoll online panel in 2016 and 2017. Page References 1.

SLSA National Coastal Safety Report 2017

2.

SLSA National Coastal Safety Survey 2017

3.

SLSA National Coastal Safety Survey 2015–17 (Average)

4.

SLSA National Coastal Safety Survey 2014–17 (Average)

5.

Ipsos Social Research Institute Boating Report 2016

Suggested Citation Ryan, A., Rijksen, E., Stone, K., Daw, S. (2018) Coastal Safety Brief: Boating. Surf Life Saving Australia: Sydney.

Data correct at 31 January 2018. Changes may occur at a later date.

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Profile for SLSA

Coastal Safety Brief - Boating  

Coastal Safety Brief - Boating