ENGELSKA 5 OUTLOOKS oN Eva Hallberg & Annika Backemyr Nyberg
ENGELSKA 5 – OUTLOOKS ON EVA HALLBERG & ANNIKA BACKEMYR NYBERG NA FÖRLAG
Utgiven av NA förlag AB, Lund www.naforlag.se © Eva Hallberg & Annika Backemyr Nyberg, NA förlag AB Produktion: NA Förlag AB Textbearbetning: Magnus Aspegren & Graham Tully Grafisk form & layout: Kolossal.se Fotografier från Matton och Johnér. ISBN: 978-91-981681-8-1 Tryck: Exakta, Malmö 2014
FÖRORD Välkomna till Outlooks on – ett heltäckande läro medel för Engelska 5! Boken är indelad i fem kapitel: • Learning • Learn How to Learn • Well-being • Time • Sex and Relations. I avsnittet Learn How To Learn fokuserar vi helt på hur du skaffar dig strategier för att lära dig på bästa sätt, alltså hur du blir bra på att lära dig mer engelska. Tipsen utgår självklart från kunskapskraven i GY-11. De övriga fyra kapitlen hoppas vi ska ge upphov till många viktiga debatter där engelska språket blir verktyget för att förmedla åsikter och insikter. Texterna, liksom de jämförande rösterna från Namibia, är avsedda att locka till diskussion och tankeaarbete. Världen sträcker sig utanför Sveriges gränser och en kurs i engelska bör uppmärksamma detta, tycker vi. Längst bak i boken finns Resources – där vi samlat matnyttiga listor, ämnesplanen och kunskapskraven för Engelska 5 – samt en alfabetisk ordlista. Alla texter inleds med Take-off. Syftet med Take-off är att på olika sätt introducera arbetet med det tema som texten behandlar och förhoppningvis väcka intresse för ämnet. De ord som finns med i den alfabetiska ordlistan är alla understrukna i de texter där de förekommer. Ord ska läras i sitt sammanhang. Ordövningarna i boken lyfter fram de olika sätt att lära sig nya ord som beskrivs i Learn How to Learn New Words. Traditionell gloslista går dock att få som PDF-fil för den som önskar.
Ibland hänvisar vi till Class File – med vilket menas en plats som ni skapat i klassen och alla har tillgång till, där texter kan publiceras, läsas och eventuellt kommenteras. I Take a Stand–övningarna ska du ta ställning till olika påståenden. Ni kan göra det på olika sätt: handuppräckning, ”heta stolen”, skriftligt eller i smågrupper. Vi som har gjort boken är båda, sedan flera år, lärare i engelska på gymnasiet och vi har använt uppgifter och idéer från vår egen dagliga verksamhet. Vi hoppas att vår bok ska inspirera, engagera, ja till och med provocera!
SYMBOLER SOM ANVÄNDS I BOKEN:
M Strategisymbol – hänvisar till Learn How to Learn och vill göra dig som elev medveten om hur du lär dig.
B Writing – skrivuppgift H Tool kit – är samlingsnamnet på olika språkverk tyg som är bra att ha när man arbetar med språk.
N Tick off – tar upp den grammatik som du bör lära dig under kursens gång.
I Take off – introducerar den aktuella texten JKL enskild-, par-, och gruppsymbol – talar för sig själva.
PAGE READING 14
With Foreign Eyes on a Swedish School
Formal / Informal Speaking
TOOL KIT Formal and informal English
Regular Verbs Tenses Be and Have
Upper Secondary School in Sweden 25
American High School
Battle Hymn of the Tiger Mother
Paragraphs Search and Tell Personal Narrative
Do – Does - Did
Prefixes and Suffixes
Adjectives or adverbs
Adjectives Phrasal Verbs What Teachers Really Want to Tell Parents
Retell two paragraphs
Discuss and compare features in the English-Speaking World
Learn how to learn:
Capital Letters Relative Pronouns
Capital Letters Relative Pronouns
LEARN HOW TO LEARN
Idioms & Expressions
New Words How to Read How to Talk How to Listen How to Write How to Proof-read How to Search
Search and discuss
Short story – Novel
Where - Were
Fiction – Nonfiction How to Write an Introduction
To the Boy Scouts
Irregular Plural At Risk of Poverty or Social Exclusion
Seven Facts about Sunburn
Ladder Down The Sky
Comparison of Adjectives
Rewrite from a different perspective
PAGE READING 156
Introduction: Time and Time again
Life Style Audit – compare and discuss
TOOL KIT Idioms
It is Time for Time Management Affirmations 164
Life As We Knew It
The Progressive Form
-ing after certain verbs and expressions
Informal Language Metaphor
Demonstrative Pronouns 181
Times Aren’t What They Were
Adverbs Direct and Reported Speech 189
The Passive Voice
The Headmaster 196
To a Poet a Thousand Years Hence I am Nobody – Who Are You
SEX AND RELATIONS
How a Man’s Smile Makes a Woman More Obedient and Submissive – Even If He is Being Sexist
News Around the World
From A Crooked Rib
Tell a Story
The Fault in Our Stars
Power to the Pure
She Cheated on her Boyfriend with a Woman
Are You Ready For Sex
Summary – Response
How to refer to sources and how to use reporting verbs
The Definitive Article Always Plural
Argue for or against
British and American English Reply from Agony Aunt
Discussion Essay or Argumentative Essay Article of My Choice – Lead a discussion – Discuss
Article of My Choice Summary – Response Article
RESOURCES AND USEFUL LISTS
PAGE CONTENT 272
Formal and informal English
A Personal Narrative
How to write a summary – response article
Write about Literature or films
Rules of direct speech
Prefixes and suffixes
Irregular plural – which might come in handy to learn by heart
List – the definitive article
List of irregular verbs that you need to know
Phrasal verbs – An alphabetical list
Verbs and certain expressions that are followed by – ing
“Live as if you were to die tomorrow. Learn as if you were to live forever” Mahatma Gandhi
“The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn and relearn” Alvin Tofler
I TAKE OFF Agree or disagree with the following statements. Share,
L How do you learn English? • What is your most efficient way of learning English?
compare and discuss in groups. Try supporting your view
• What is to be good at English?
using your own personal experiences.
• What type of language work is best done at home/at school?
• Statements: • I learn something every day
Share your answers in class.
• I am a fan of learning • Learning is important • Knowledge equals power • I learn through reading • I learn through listening • I learn through discussing • I learn through googling • I learn through writing • I learn by combining school knowledge with ”leisure time knowledge”
THREE VOICES English is the official language in at least 75 countries around the globe. It is spoken by 375 million people as a first language and by another 375 million as a second language. One country far away and very different from Sweden is Namibia. In Namibia, which became independent from South Africa in 1990, there are at least 12 different languages and it was very difficult for them to decide which language should be the official one after gaining independence. In the end it was decided that English would be the official language. In this course book you will meet Namibians your own age and they will give you their perspective on various issues, very often far removed from yours.
Ayesha Ayesha is 16 years old and lives in a rural settlement in Okandja Park, Windhoek, Namibia. Her house lacks electricity and sewage and is constructed from corrugated iron, which makes it extremely cold during winter and extremely hot during summer. Ayesha lives with her mother, who is unemployed, and her cousin, whose mother died from aids four years ago. Ayeshaâ€™s dream is to become a nurse, but the obstacles are great despite the fact that she has good results from school, which in itself is very unusual if you live under circumstances like hers. Her mother cannot afford to pay for her tertiary education.
LYVODIA Here you see Lyvodia, 18 years old, whose mother died five years ago. She now lives with her three sisters in a shack in Katatura, Windhoek. Katatura is a settlement where many poor people live. Lyvodiaâ€™s dream is to become a singer or music teacher. She sings in a choir ten hours a week and the rest of the time she looks after her sisterâ€™s two young children. They struggle to make ends meet and often they have to go to bed hungry.
GERSON This is Gerson, 17 years old. He also lives in Katatura together with his mother, his three brothers and sisters and his three cousins, whose own mother passed away due to AIDS. He wants to finish school but struggles hard because of lack of means to pay the fees, lack of electricity and because he lives a very long way from school. Every day he gets up at 5.30 and walks the seven kilometres to school in order to arrive before 7.00, which is the official starting time for schools in Namibia.
For every topic in this book you will hear the opinions of Ayesha, Lyvodia or Gerson from their perspective. They are exactly like young people in Sweden, except that life has not been so kind to them.
B ME AND MY ENGLISH Write a letter to your English teacher about yourself and your English. Tell about everything you think he/she needs to know. Be detailed and write about different aspects. You should try to include most of the items from the following list. About yourself: • Where you live • Your family • Your interests: music, sports, computers, leisure time etc. About your English: • If and when you speak English • English-speaking countries you have visited • How you feel about English, how confident you are • Reasons for learning good English • Your best ways of learning • Your strengths in English • What you need to practice more • Your expectations and misgivings about English 5 • What you personally want to achieve by studying English 5 • What you would like to do this year; ideas and suggestions Remember to follow the rules of letter writing. Start and end your letter in the proper way: Dear Mr./Mrs. XXXX, … … Kind regards, To learn more, see p. 273.
N FORMAL AND INFORMAL ENGLISH Formal English is used in books, articles, business letters, news reports etc. Informal English is used in everyday conversation and personal letters and e-mails.
LEARNING Gerson: “If you misbehave at school – maybe you are late, your uniform is not in order or you forget to bring a book – then the teachers punish you. There are different kinds of punishment, depending on what you have done. You might have to stay behind to clean a cer tain area of the school, you might get a warning letter, you might have to bring your parents for a talk and then you are suspended for a week. You can also be expelled. It is good that we have these consequences, because it means that most students behave in an appropriate way. Sometimes the lessons are very boring and seem extremely long. I think teachers should do some research before they teach. Sometimes they just read out loud from a book.” Ayesha: “School is very important to me. In one’s life, as they say, without education there is no future. It is a key to success. Just look around and see how many people are unemployed because they did not finish their education. In every lesson at school I try to pick up what is important and interesting and work on that. There are times when a lesson is boring and you feel sleepy, but that is just what happens to every student.”
K Retell the quotes from Gerson and Ayesha and give your personal comment about their content. What is the same and what is different compared to Sweden?
I TAKE OFF Most likely you are in a new school, with new friends and new teachers, ready to take on new challenges. Now you are to read about an American exchange student’s first impressions of her meeting with the Swedish equivalent of American high school. What differences do you think an American high school student might encounter when spending a year in Sweden? What impressions of the American school system do you get when watching so-called high school movies?
WITH FOREIGN EYES ON A SWEDISH SCHOOL BY SARAH OTTO I walked in on my first day at “Polhemskolan”. Big, basic buildings, rows of lockers lining the hallways, groups of friends meeting and chattering: it seemed just like a school back home. Then I went to my first class. The teacher came up and introduced herself by her first name. “So, should I call you Mrs. Annika?” I wondered. All the other kids filed in and sat at their desks. It was then that I realized I was the only one in the class with a backpack…awkward. (I would later find out I was the only one in the whole school.) Style is a much bigger factor in Swedish schools than American schools for sure. We got our schedules and I was immediately confused. Every single day was different: starting and ending at different times and different classes and number of classes. And when is lunch? There is so much free time here, students are trusted to take care of themselves and get to where they need to be on time. Breaks between classes can be anywhere from five minutes to two hours apart. You can choose any break you want to get lunch. Lunch here is also pretty different. Lunch is free for all students so everyone lines up with their plates and gets food. No one really complains about it, they just take what is served to them. Another difference is that lunch back home was like the social hour. Here, you sit with a group of people and have conversation but the main focus is the food.
It seems like students here can basically do anything they want. If they come late, they can just walk into class. If they need to leave early they just walk right out. If they need to answer a phone call they just step outside for a bit. And if the students misbehave, the teachers can’t really do much about it. Other than being reprimanded, there’s not too much else that can be done. There is no detention or staying after class. Grades here are handled so differently. There is rarely a “daily grade.” Swedish students have to depend on tests and papers for their final grade, which isn’t a number. All grades are just a letter and the teacher decides what you deserve based on whether or not you met the pre-determined guidelines. I think it’s much more difficult to get straight A’s here in Sweden. I think there are pros and cons for both school systems, the Swedish and the American. For instance, going to a class every day for a school year instead of twice a week allows for much more instruction time and learning. After four years of a foreign language in an American school, you can have much more understanding than four years of that language in a Swedish school. Having more classes a week allows students to explore more outlets and gain a more well-rounded education. If the systems were to switch, I don’t think either student body as a whole would be able to handle it. American students would take advantage of all these newfound freedoms and Swedish students would likely rebel against the formality and structure.
SHOW YOUR UNDERSTANDING 1. Sarah Otto mentions several differences between the two school systems. What are they? 2. Reading between the lines, describe in as much
N THE VERBS “BE” AND HAVE” IN ALL TENSES Lunch is free Lunch back home was like the social hour
detail as you can what it is like in an American
If the systems were to switch…
Swedish students have to rely on tests
3. Which of the differences between the systems surprise you? 4. What do you think would happen if the systems were to replace one another? 5. So far, what are the main differences you have
N REGULAR VERBS The upper secondary school consists of
noticed between your old secondary school and
your new upper secondary school?
Grades here are handled so differently.
When travelling around the world you are often asked about your country. As a Swede and an upper secondary student you are likely to meet people who are curious about the Swedish system. Here are some facts for you.
WHAT IS UPPER SECONDARY SCHOOL IN SWEDEN? The upper secondary school is a voluntary school and free of charge, which young people can choose to attend after completing compulsory school. The upper secondary school consists of national programmes, introductory programmes and pro grammes that differ from the national programme structure. There are a total of 18 national upper secondary programmes. Each programme lasts three years and consists of upper secondary school foundation subjects, programme specific subjects, orientations, programme specialisations and a diploma project. Each national upper secondary programme covers: • Nine upper secondary foundation subjects – English, history, physical education and health, mathematics, science studies, social studies, Swedish or Swedish as a second language and religion. In the Natural Science programme, sci ence studies are replaced by programme specific subjects, i.e. biology, physics and chemistry. In the Technology programme, science studies are replaced by programme specific subjects, i.e. physics and chemistry.
• A number of subjects specific to a given programme are chosen. • The different upper secondary programmes may be either vocational programmes or pro grammes in preparation for higher education. A vocational programme can also be taken as an upper secondary apprenticeship education. Skolverket
K You are in Torquay, attending a language course. You are participating in a student–teacher meeting where you have been asked to present the Swedish school system. Prepare and give your presentation. Make sure you use the appropriate vocabulary. The very same night at the welcome party you meet new friends from Europe and now it is time to tell them about the Swedish school system. Do it!
B Reflection: Were there any differences between your two presentations?
I TAKE OFF For you, as Swedish students, to fully understand the differences between the Swedish and the American school systems we asked Sarah Otto to share her knowledge of high school. Being in the middle of it herself, she gives a personal yet factual picture of school life in the US. What do you already know about: • The American grading system? • Extracurricular activities? • The prom? What else can you add about American high school?
High School BY Sarah Otto
Starting in 9th grade, at 14 years of age, you enter the American high school. Some refer to it as “the glory years” while to others it is 4 years of a living night mare, but regardless of how you view it, it is four years unlike any other four in your life. A compila tion of school work, social events, being with your friends and finding yourself, high school is a time of personal growth and discovery. The person who walks in on the first day of freshman year is usually quite a different person than the one who tosses their hat into the air after graduation. Of course, you mature by the time you are eighteen but you also have four years of experience that have shaped and moulded this new you. Some flourish and go on to live great lives, others fall down a spiral in high school and can’t ever seem to escape it.
American high school consists of grades 9–12, ages 14–18. Some schools have special buildings for the freshmen while others just throw them into the mix with the rest of the grades. Every day you have seven classes, in seven different classrooms, with seven different teachers. School starts at the same time for everyone and when the bell rings everyone reports to their respective first period. Class sizes vary depend ing on the size of the school, but an average class has around 25 students. On the first day you sit wherever you like, next to your friends if you happen to get that class together. Most teachers will assign you to a desk permanently after that. The “cool” teachers let you stay in the ones you chose yourselves. The desks are usually arranged in rows up and down the whole classroom. In science classes you usually sit two
and two at a lab table instead. The teacher will then lecture or give an assignment or test. You stay in that class until the bell rings and then everyone goes on to their second period. Different schools allow students different amounts of time to change classes. An average time would be about 5 minutes. Teachers always say that this is plenty of time to use the restroom, stop by your locker, get water from the fountains and make it to your next class on time. This is true, but when you want to stop and talk with your friends it’s sometimes difficult. The halls are always loud and full between classes. Usually people walk in groups. Boyfriends wait by their girlfriend’s class to walk her to her next. Big groups of girls go by gossiping about what happened that weekend or what’s happening this weekend. Guys walk in groups behind the girls to talk and check out the girls at the same time. Then you have those kids with the school-is-just-for-learning attitudes who are practically running down the hall even though there’s still three minutes to get to class. The rest of the day follows the same pattern. Go to class, wait for the bell and change classes. Everyone has to take the four main subjects: maths, English, history and science. Each year you advance a level in each subject so there’s a certain level of maths, English, etc. for each grade. The other three classes of the day are called electives and each student can choose any combination of these classes. Electives include everything from sports and woodwork shop to choir and child development. However, the school may have other requirements such as a certain number of physical education classes, fine arts classes, foreign language classes, speech and health. Most kids try to get these out of the way as soon as
possible so that in their junior and senior years they really do get to choose all three electives. In the middle of the day you get a break from going to class for lunch. At most schools, lunch break lasts 30 minutes and there is normally more than one sitting because the whole school can’t fit in the cafeteria at one time. The lunch you go to is dictated by whatever lunch your teacher has. So you usually sit with the kids that are in that certain class with you and you hope your friends get the same lunch so you can meet them. A good portion of the students bring their own lunch from home. Others stand in line to purchase food. The cafeteria usually makes several different foods you can choose from and then there are snacks you can purchase too. Some kids buy nice, balanced meals but most live off one slice of pizza and a Gatorade soft drink. The cafeteria is always loud but it’s not a problem because you’re just focusing on the conversations at your table. After the first week of school, your lunch spot for the rest of the year is pretty much decided. The tables aren’t assigned but people just tend to go to the same spot with the same people every day. After the 7th period bell marking the end of the day, the school explodes with activity. Athletes report to the fields, gyms and pool for their afternoon prac tices. The marching band makes their way out to the practice field lugging their instruments behind them. Clubs of all kinds have meetings for various causes. Teachers open up their classrooms for after-school tutorials. People run to catch the big yellow school buses and the parking lots clog up so it takes forever just to back out of your parking spot.
The level of classes you take dictates how much homework you have after school. As previously stated, there are four main courses everyone must take: English, maths, history and science. These classes can be taken at the regular or advanced levels. If you take the regular class itâ€™s perfectly fine for graduation. You get credit for the class if you have a passing average at the end of the year and have less homework throughout the year. If you choose to take the advanced class, it helps you achieve a higher GPA (grade point average). A high GPA improves your class rank, which is important for getting into colÂ lege. In advanced classes you have more homework, nearly everything is individual work, and the tests and material are at a higher level than the regular class. In your Junior and Senior years (grades 11 and 12) all core classes can be taken as AP (advanced placement) classes. AP is just like the advanced classes, except that at the end of the year you have the AP exam. You can score 1-5 on the exam. If you score a 3 or higher, you are awarded college credit as well as high school credit for the course. In addition to the core classes, you can also choose to take advanced and AP elective classes. You can take AP science, maths, and social study elective classes. Also, foreign languages can be taken at advanced level to boost your GPA or just provide yourself with a challenge. Grading in the U.S. is done using numbers 0-100 but grades are represented with letters. An A represents grades 100-90. B represents 89-80. C represents 79-70. If you receive less than a 70 it is an F and considered a failing grade. Every test, paper and assignment you turn in is graded individually. These grades go into your average for that term. Schools divide the year into two 18 week semesters. Each
semester is divided into three 6-week segments or two 9-week segments. At the end of each term you are given a progress report that lets you know your current grade in every class. At the end of 18 weeks, one semester, you are given your first report card. The grades you have received at that point in every class are final. Then, at the beginning of the next semester, all your grades start over. Again, at the end of each term you are given progress reports. At the end of the semester you take your final test. The grade you receive on the test accounts for 20 per cent of your final grade, while your average accounts for the other 80 per cent. The grades you receive at the end of each semester get averaged for your overall final grade. This number determines whether you passed or failed the class and this is the grade that will affect your GPA. Classes are either one full year or one semester. Core classes are always the whole year; electives vary on whether they are full-year or just one-semester classes. In order to graduate, you must receive 26 full credits. You receive 0.5 credits for a one-semester class and 1 credit for a full-year class. Credits will not be awarded if you fail the class or are absent from the class too many days. School dances, pep rallies, Friday night football games: these are all part of the high school expeÂ rience. Every school across US has Homecoming. This is a time where alumni are welcomed back to their high schools but it is very much a big deal for the current students. Every school has a Homecoming dance and a big Homecoming football game, but it is not uncommon to have any of the following: school festivals, parades, bonfires, dress-up days and pep rallies. Homecoming is a
week full of school spirit, concluded by the biggest football game of the season then a dance the next night. The level of formality of the dance depends on the school. In some places the Homecoming dance is very casual, while in others it’s a full-on dresses and limousine event. The main dance of your high school years is, of course, the prom. Some schools open the prom to both juniors and seniors, while others reserve it strictly for seniors. Either way, everyone goes all out for the prom. Limos, party buses, glitzy dresses, tuxedos, expensive din ners, a killer after-party; it’s all part of the experience. Pep rallies are events held in the gym to pump up the school spirit. Most kids are pretty excited just because classes finish early in order to make time for the rally. Cheerleaders and dance teams perform. Sports teams are recognized and the coaches try to convince the whole school to come out and support their team. Games are played and cheers are performed. The band plays the school song and then everyone is released, supposedly full of pep. Sports are a big deal at the school. It can be difficult to make the teams and you have practice or a game every single weekday and occasionally on Saturdays. Students love to go out and support the football team and basketball team, but sports such as swimming and golf don’t get as much love. Regardless of the number of fans, all the sports have district, regional and state tournaments, allowing students to excel and be seen by college recruiters. Sports scholarships are some students’ tickets to college, so high school sports are held in high regard in the U.S. It’s not uncommon to see athletes (especially the football team) parading down the halls in their jerseys on game day. Cheerleading is also a big American
stereotype. No, they don’t wear their uniforms to school every day. They’re at every game on the side lines, leading the fans in cheers and keeping the spirit up. In some schools the cheerleaders just stand on the side lines while at others all the cheerleaders do flips and stunts. There are competitions for the cheerleaders, just like all the other sports. In all the movies, there are always the “popular kids” and the “losers”. Well, Hollywood does a good job of exaggerating things. It’s more like there are a bunch of different “communities”. There is the popular com munity, the band community, the athlete community, the theatre community, the art community and so on. Yes, each community has its own rung on the social ladder but everyone is usually more concerned with their own community than worrying about the others. You know everyone in your community and every community has its own drama and social system. Popular guys don’t throw nerdy guys into dumpsters or things like that. Popular girls are too busy backstabbing other popular girls to worry about picking on theatre girls. So, while it is divided, every community enjoys what they’re doing in such a way that it makes high school better for everyone. Of course, there are interactions between people of different communities, sometimes they’re nice and other times they’re not, but that’s part of life not just high school. After your four long years, you finally reach the time for graduation. You order your cap and gown and get all dressed up. Your family comes to watch as your principal calls your name and you receive your diploma and walk across the stage and into your future. And everyone has a different future in front of them. Most will go off to college: some on full rides
to Ivy League universities and colleges, others down the road to community college. Some will go straight to work in the family business or with a trade. Some are heading off to represent their country in the military. But I think high school is a time everyone needs. A time to enjoy life before all of the realities of life come pouring down on you. At times it is a struggle, but one day when you’re looking at your kids and they want a story from your past, those four years is where you will find it.
K DISCUSS • What are the advantages and disadvantages of the American school system? • What are the advantages and drawbacks of the Swedish school system? • Would you like to be an American high school student? Why? Why not?
SHOW YOUR UNDERSTANDING 1. What subjects are compulsory? 2. What is meant by “electives”? 3. In what ways do school lunches in the US differ from Swedish ones? 4. Explain GPA. Why is it important? 5. What is a progress report? 6. Explain Homecoming. 7. What is a pep rally? 8. What role do sports play in the American system?
MORE WORDS IN LESS TIME! FACILITATE THE EXPANSION OF YOUR VOCABULARY! M Of course you want to learn and know how to use as many English words as possible and your goal is to be extremely efficient! Here you will be introduced to two ways of helping your brain to store and remember words: to learn words in word groups, to learn new words with the help of word formation. If you want more strategies go to p. 67.
WORD GROUPS The first method you are going to try out is: Learning words in (semantic) word groups. To assort words into word groups facilitates remembering them. Â Example: Word groups
The same words in a word mix
happy sad run
How would you choose to study and learn the words above? 1. Choose at least ten new, school related words from the text and write down your personal explanations. Learn the words. 2. Try finding one more possible word group (words that belong together) in the text about American high school. Write down the words and learn them.
WORD FORMATION. Another method of assorting words is through using word formation. By understanding the way words are created, you will be able to learn groups of words that are related instead of one word at a time. It will also be easier for you to guess the meaning of a word you have not encountered before. The best way to explain word formation is perhaps to use examples: In the text entitled American High School, the word growth is used. Can you think of any related words? Word formation is mostly used to create another part of speech. Growth is a noun. What is the corresponding verb? Adjective? Adverb?
K EXERCISE WORD FORMATION 1. The following words are taken from the first paragraphs of Sarah Ottoâ€™s text. Check them out in their context. Write down the sentences. What part of speech are they? Choose between noun, adjective, verb and adverb.
1st paragraph: view, growth, discovery, mature, experience, escape 2nd paragraph: assign 3rd paragraph: gossip 4th paragraph: requirement, foreign
2. For each of the words, try finding one more part of speech. Example: view – (in the text) verb; view – noun growth – (in the text) noun; grow – verb
View Growth Discovery Mature Experience Escape Assign Gossip Requirement Foreign
3. Choose four “word pairs” from the above. Write a sentence for each word in the word pair. Example: What videos do you prefer viewing on YouTube? / I prefer a room with a view when I stay at a hotel. Economic growth is important. / My friend has grown a beard.
SHOW YOUR VOCABULARY
PARAGRAPHING This text is, as you already know, written by an American
Use the words from the box to fill in the gaps. You may
high school student. Mind her paragraphing!
have to change them to make them fit.
in order to
K DISCUSS â€˘ What is paragraphing good for? Why is it important? â€˘ How many paragraphs are there in this text? Give each paragraph a suitable heading.
1. He lost his final 2.
. I drink a glass of sherry.
3. The rain was
4. If you want me to fix the roof I will need a 5. I worked all night
6. After school, my boy, you have to learn a proper 7. I was
by the poor conditions.
8. She saved her best
for the prom.
9. Your worries are no 10. The foreign minister 11. To come up with a solution was her biggest 12.
of mine. the threats. so far.
history there have been wars going on.
Do you remember what was written about Namibia in the introduction?
K Find out some important facts that might be useful when visiting the country.
L Share and compare your results.
M What type of facts did you choose? Why did you pick this specific information? What sources did you use?
To spend an exchange year abroad has become quite popular. Not only do we find exchange students in Sweden, Australia and the USA but also in more unheard of places. Some get the opportunity through various organisations, others are forced by circumstances.
Opposites The Namibian and Swedish School Systems
BY HERMAN HALLBERG
If you had asked me in spring 2011 where I would be spending the coming year I probably wouldn’t have answered Namibia. In fact, I wouldn’t even have been able to point it out on a map. So when my parents first told me that Namibia, a huge, desolate, distant country in the southern part of Africa, would be my home for the next year I came up with a myriad of reasons not to go. But on 15th August that’s exactly where I found myself, frightened, apprehensive and most surprisingly, in the southern part of Africa, cold. During my time in Namibia I studied at St. Paul’s college, a private catholic school with a reputation for being the very best in the country. Compared to my Swedish school, it was like night and day; where Swedish schools focus on questioning, discussing and creating independently thinking students St
Paul’s primary goal was to fill the learners’ heads with as much information as possible to ensure the best grades possible in the national end-of-year exams. This demanded a very effective learning environment and generally very strict teachers. A normal day would be as follows: Registration would start at 7:15 am and during registration all necessary notes would be handed to the students, as well as information concerning things like field trips or exams. After registration came the first lesson, the “constant”. The “constant” could be several things: assembly, in which the entire school would assemble and prizes and honorifics would be handed out by the principal; church service, in which all students would go to the school chapel to be fed their spiritual, Catholic sustenance; or a regular lesson.
After the “constant” the day’s other lessons would follow. Each lesson lasted 45 minutes and there were only two breaks: one from 09:30 to 10:00 and another from 11:30 to 11:45. All lessons and breaks were held at the same time for all grades, which allowed for plenty of interaction across age groups. There was no school lunch; instead, students could either bring their own food from home to eat during the breaks or, as most students opted to do, they could buy snacks at the tuck shop. These snacks consisted of crisps, deep fried sausages and other unhealthy foods and were generally washed down by soda. However, what I still haven’t brought up was the actual workload. The Namibian system simply demanded more of its students than its Swedish counterpart. Tests were scheduled twice a week, so-called cycle-tests, and added to those tests was a multitude of assignments such as essays, pages
and pages of maths and regular vocabulary tests for language classes. But the culmination of efforts to keep up with classes during the year came at the end of the last term: exams. Two weeks of school com pletely devoted to having hours upon hours of tests; tests that covered everything from the entire year on each subject. Half of your grade was based on your results in the exams and there was no opportunity for a second attempt, should you have been sick or otherwise unable to get to school. The pressure on the students was ridiculous. Of course, the students couldn’t live with all that pressure without having a bit of fun. Unlike in Sweden, where most socialising is done away from school, most students in Namibia have the majority of their in-week fun at after-school activities. These were activities organised by the school staff and could be anything from hockey and football to
French club and debating. These activities were not mandatory, but in my experience students who did not attend at least one were viewed as slightly lazy. The activities were also of pivotal importance for your future prospects of getting into a good university. The principal was fond of telling a story at assemblies about a student from St. Paul’s who had achieved top grades. His marks averaged above 90%, which is absurdly good, but still he was not accepted into his desired South African university. Why, you may ask? Because he used all his time to study for his good marks, he didn’t have any time left to attend even a single after-school activity. There were both positive and negative aspects to the Namibian school system. On the one hand, the sheer amount of facts blasted into my head was ridiculous. From complex biology to Shakespeare, the Namibian system moved at a pace far greater than that of its Swedish counterpart. After that single year in their system I found I had outpaced my Swedish peers in all subjects I had taken in Namibia. As I was only gone one year, I also retained the skills that the Swedish system looked for: questioning and reasoning.
have been a nightmare, as it was often truly your own responsibility to keep up. If you had trouble doing this, there was no way to save you from falling behind. In conclusion, I believe that the ideal system would be some sort of middle ground between the Namibian and Swedish systems. A system where the gifted students would be allowed to continue onwards and the slower students would be helped on their way. Maybe that system is unattainable. I do not know. But I do know this: my year in Namibia helped me greatly on my path to achieving a complete education.
L DISCUSS • The writer concludes that “the ideal would be some sort of middle ground between the two systems”. What are your views? • How would you react if your parents told you that you would have to move to a very distant country next term?
Despite these advantages, I could see the flaws in the Namibian system. I am a fairly intelligent student and I have never had to work extremely hard to achieve my desired grades. This meant that in Sweden I was basically left to myself by teachers, as they had to focus on getting the weaker students to pass rather than giving me more challenges. In Namibia it was often the other way around. The system was perfect for me as it gave me ample opportunities to truly test my mettle. However, for students who did not find everything so easy the Namibian system must
SHOW YOUR VOCABULARY Fill in the missing words: • There are (brister) in every system. • I am far behind my (jämnåriga) when it comes to French. • All after-school activities are (obligatoriska). • Maybe someone from the (personalen) can help you? • We have at least three (hemuppgifter) per day. • Despite the (fördelarna) I felt bored. • Every week (utflykter) are arranged. • (sammanfattningsvis) I prefer the Swedish system. • It was extremely difficult (jämfört med) my Swedish school. • All the teachers were (stränga). • They all (krävde) excellent results. • Namibia is a (väldigt) country. • The school had a good (rykte). • We want (oberoende) students. • You have to hand in the (nödvändiga) documents.
H LINKING WORDS Linking words and phrases are used to show
K What linking words can you find in the text Polar Opposites? There are 12 different linking words. Some are used more than once
relationships between ideas. They can be used to join two or more sentences or clauses (a clause
Use 10 of the linking words from the text in the gaps
is a group of words which contains a subject and
a verb) To add ideas you can use, for example, also, besides, as well as, in addition to. To contrast ideas despite, in spite of, while and whereas can be used. If you want to show a reason you might use as or since. A result can be shown by using because of or consequently. A useful list of linking words for English 5 is to be found on p. 279.
1. They excel at cricket rugby. 2. in the UK, the USA has cheap petrol. 3. The building was a fire hazard so it was closed down. 4. the fact that the company was doing badly they took on extra employees. 5. Blueberries are packed with vitamins C and E. they can protect your brain from environmental toxins. 6. I bought her some flowers she had been extremely helpful. 7. It was raining we eventually decided not to go to the beach. 8. She works hard. she doesn’t earn very much. 9. the best solution would be solar energy. 10. of bad weather the football match was postponed.