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The Universe


Jan Lagerstrรถm

The Universe A sea of positrons and electrons, the building blocks of matter and the riddle of gravitation.


© 2016 Jan Lagerström Typesetting and cover design: BoD – Books on Demand Publisher: BoD – Books on Demand, Stockholm, Sweden Print: BoD – Books on Demand, Norderstedt, Germany ISBN: 978-91-7569-380-4


Contents Introduction

7

The Origin of the Universe

9

Quarks

15

Beta Decay

17

A star is born

19

Matter and Antimatter

21

Gamma Radiation

23

Cosmic background radiation

26

Gravitation

27

Forces of inertia

34

Black holes

35

Big bang

43

Dark Matter and Energy

44

The Propagation of Light in Space

46

The Speed of Light.

52

The Fusion and Fission Processes

53

The Orbits of the Planets

54

Conclusion

58


Introduction Many people are interested in the study of the Universe. Much of it is difficult to understand, such as what could have given rise to so much energy, constantly flowing out from all the stars in the Universe. Here on Earth we talk of the looming energy crisis, but out in the universe there is boundless energy. If we could access just a fraction of all that energy it would last us into eternity. We also know that energy can be changed into different forms, but not destroyed. We might ask ourselves how all the energy in the Universe was created. This has led me to the idea that all energy from the beginning is electric charge, consisting of equal amounts of positive and negative potential energy. This book attempts to give a simple overview of current theories about the Universe and which questions remain unanswered. The book also offers a new hypothesis about the smallest building blocks in the Universe. This hypothesis has been developed by the study of a large number of research reports, and the findings have led us to ask how gravitation, dark energy, dark matter and black holes, the process of fission and fusion and the expansion of the Universe may be seen with new eyes. The basis, a hypothesis to be presented here, is that in the beginning there was nothing, only a total vacuum. A lot has been written about the Universe and in particular about gravitation. Many people have their own hypotheses, but the riddle of gravitation has still not been solved in a convincing way.

7


THINK OUTSIDE THE BOX

THINK SIMPLY

8


The Origin of the Universe The most commonly accepted theory for the Universe creation is the Big-Bang theory, stating that the Universe has expanded from a dense singular point which contained all presently existing material and energy. This theory is often deemed by scientists as incomplete as it lacks an explanation of what created the initial, pre-creation, conditions. In terms of information systems, it is possible to present “nothing” as a system which consists of infinite information elements and infinite anti-information elements that coexist simultaneously and therefore cancel each other. Such “nothing system” results in no material, no energy, and as a matter of fact, a no physical existence of anything in terms of information. Information theorists Maya Lincoln and Avi Wasser at the University of Haifa, proposed this as a new theory a symmetrical system with infinite information and anti-information cancelling each other out. In his book The darkness at the end of the time (Original Swedish Mörkret vid tidens ände ) Professor Ulf Danielsson of Uppsala University also mentions that under quantum mechanic’s uncertainty principle nothing is completely at rest, there is constantly active motion even in a vacuum, particles are continually formed and cancelling each other out. It is reasonable to assume therefore that the entire Universe was originally a vacuum without any electrical charge “nothing”. In this book it is stated that space of the galaxies consists of a large cluster of electrons, so the assumption of a vacuum without electrical charge is a necessary condition for the hypothesis described below. 9


There are a number of new concepts that I will explain briefly before I get to my thoughts on the Universe. I start from the idea that everything originated from two elementary particles or fundamental particles, the kind of particle that cannot be split into smaller parts. These are electrons, which most people are familiar with and their antiparticles, positrons. These two types of particle have the same mass and size of charge, but different signs, plus and minus. In the CERN particle accelerator an electron-positron pair could be created if enough with energy is input. This energy is needed in order to overcome the strong electrical charge field, a large cluster of electrons, that assumes is present in the Universe. Schwinger, S. P. Gavrilov, D. M. Gitman and A.M. Chervyakov have shown that theoretically, in a vacuum and in a strong electrical and electromagnetic field a state of electrical instability exists. Electron positron pairs are created spontaneously. As the universe may be assumed to have originally been a vacuum without electrical charge which is an electrical instability, the whole universe would spontaneously be made of electron-positron pair production. These elementary particles, electrons and positrons annihilate (cancel out) each other and are recreated the whole time, particles that are constantly made and destroyed. No energy is required to make an electron-positron pair in a vacuum without electrical charge, the negative particle has the same amount of negative energy and mass as the mass and energy of the positive particle, a zero sum game. If there occur a disturbance in the pair production process the positrons or electrons accelerate, create spin and most of the electrical charge is transferred into kinetic energy. This unleashes a kind of chain reaction which means that parts of the Universe develop very quickly. If the quark spin made 10


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