Skillings Mining Review December 2021

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2021 DECEMBER IN REVIEW

110/09 110/12

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MINERS’ PLANS PUT TO TEST Maine legislators passed one of the most stringent mining regulations in the country just four years ago, making it extremely difficult - and in some cases impossible - to open new mines.

10

The U.K. options its 1st new coal mine in decades even as it calls to phase out coal

20

China’s Coal Shortfall Has Eased Since Beijing Intervened


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MINING FINANCE

34 Fossil Fuels Increase Revenue Prospects But Increase Budget Volatility

SURFACE MINING

05 Kamoa-Kakula Forms New Daily Production Record of 729 Tonnes of Copper

20 China’s Coal Shortfall Has Eased SAFETY

12 Grand Jury had A Report In Criminal Investigation Of Tennessee Valley Authority Coal Ash Disaster

SPECIAL FOCUS

Since Beijing Intervened

21 ‘We’re need miners’: Wellmore Coal Company in a job fair in Downtown

22 Newfields Mining and Unavco Seeking Grant Extension to expand their Missoula Operations

08 The U.K. options its 1st new coal mine in decades even as it calls to phase out coal

25 Some People Are Definitely Optimistic About A Proposed Coal Mine In The United Kingdom, But Others Are Terrified

THE LEAD

28 Miners’ Plans are Put to the Test by a Strict State Statute

UNDERGROUND MINING

06 Impossible Mining Reveals Its Plans for the World's First Sustainable and Responsible Deep-Sea Mining Technology

14 Politicians promise renewable energy opportunities for ex-fossil-fuel workers, but it's not that simple: A new beginning!

16 Striking Alabama Mine Employees Were Arrested After 7 Months Outside Blackrock's Headquarters In New York City

18 New Job Opportunities In Australia Are Worth Their Weight In Gold

36 Bunker Hill Mining Corp Files For An Updated PEA Technical Report Provides An Update On The Mine Restart Project

STATISTICS

46 October 2021 crude steel production 47 crude steel production December 2020 www.skillings.net | 3


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Kamoa-Kakula Forms New Daily Production Record of 729 Tonnes of Copper Robert Friedland and Yufeng "Miles" Liu, Co-Chairs of Ivanhoe Mines (TSX: IVN) (OTCQX: IVPAF) in Kolwezi, Democratic Republic of Congo.

or 200,000 tonnes per year. In October, the average copper grade in floated concentrate was 51.5 percent.

L

Since October 20, 2021, a net 62,974 tonnes of copper in concentrate has been produced for distribution to the Lualaba Copper Smelter at Kolwezi or foreign markets.

ast month, Sun stated that the 3.8 million-tonne-per-annum (Mtpa) concentrator plant at Kamoa-Kakula had met or surpassed all design parameters and was now steady-state operation. The plant's operating performance is being improved through optimization efforts. In October, 323,368 tonnes of ore were processed at an average feed grade of 5.89 percent copper, above the 316,667 tonnes monthly design run rate.

In the ending 10 days of the month of October, the mine produced an average of 611 tonnes of copper in concentrate each day. A fresh daily production record of 729 tonnes of copper in concentrate was set on October 25. In the reporting month ending October 20, Kamoa Copper produced a record 16,211 tonnes of copper in concentrate (filtered product), approaching the Phase 1 target output of 16,666 tonnes per month,

In October, copper flotation recoveries averaged 85.1 percent. Depending on the ore input grade, the Phase 1 steadystate-design copper recovery is around 86 percent.

www.skillings.net | 5


UNDERGROUND MINING

Impossible Mining Reveals Its Plans for the World's First Sustainable and Responsible Deep-Sea Mining Technology

T

he Statement's purpose is to encourage industry innovation, investment, and collaboration in order to bring Responsible Metals to the EV market in the near future. Impossible Mining Inc is a public benefit corporation that is creating an autonomous robotics collecting system for responsible deep-sea mining and a carbon-neutral, non-toxic metals refining system to supply battery metals to the EV market. In fact, it has been into this research and effort for a very long time now, always looking for avenues to expand this option. "Impossible Mining plans to harvest polymetallic nodules from the deep-sea floor using 21st-century technology, robotics, computer vision, autonomy, and artificial intelligence in a way that preserves the seafloor habitat and does not cause widespread impacts or habitat destruction," said Oliver Gunasekara, CEO and Co-Founder of Impossible Mining. Impossible Mining is guiding its engineering and technological development to assure it can offer Responsible Metals to the EV market, based on the concerns of the 617 marine science and policy experts who have signed the seabed mining science statement. Dr. Sandra Brooke, one of the signatories to the declaration, is in favor of a new strategy to this nascent industry: "As a deep-sea ecologist, I am disgusted by current deep-sea mining approaches, which employ the antiquated technique of massive ecological annihilation." I wholeheartedly support the development of cutting-edge technology that will allow for long-term mineral extraction. It's not just ethical stewardship, but it's also a question of survival."

Impossible Mining has joined BetterEV.org., the Statement for a Future of Sustainable and Responsible Electric Vehicles, joining it as a founding supporter. 6 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021

"The deep-sea mining business should not be given permission to mimic the repercussions of terrestrial mining," stated Renee Grogan, Impossible Mining's Chief Sustainability Officer, and Co-Founder. "The bar should be set higher for an industry that has just begun." Rather than prohibiting deep-sea mining, we should challenge the industry to redesign it in a way that does not cause substantial harm. Impossible Mining aspires to accomplish this."


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SPECIAL FOCUS

The U.K. options its 1st new coal mine in decades even as it calls to phase out coal Glasgow, Scottish Republican Prime Minister Boris Johnson

launched the Glasgow Climate Summit in November by warning world leaders that failing to take the required steps to keep global temperatures below 1.5 degrees Celsius would result in catastrophic climate change.

O

n that doomsday clock, it's one minute to midnight, and we need to act now. If we don't take

climate change seriously now, it will be too late for our children tomorrow," Johnson made the announcement. He

8 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021

emphasized the importance of countries cooperating, "We can eliminate the usage of coal-fired power stations," he said, emphasizing the importance of saving trees and lowering dangerous gas emissions. We can do it in the underdeveloped world by 2040, and in the developed world by 2030," he stated. It was one of the


BoJo 'Cautiously Optimistic' About Deal on 1.5C Warming Limit, But Warns There's 'a Long Way to Go' - 03.11.2021, Sputnik International. AP Photo / Alberto Pezzali

local planning authorities." That is not the case. Last year, officials in Cumbria, a county in the northwest of England, largely approved the mine, but the British government launched an investigation when environmentalists expressed concern. Officials in the United Kingdom are likely to make a final decision in 2022.

Officials in the area desire the mine. Mike Starkie who is the mayor of the Borough of Copeland, delivered a message that would be unthinkable in Glasgow right now at a hearing on the mining plan in September. He said, "Give us our mine." "Give us our future." Starkie claims that his community is in severe need of jobs and that one coal mine will have little impact on the planet's future. He emphasized that five countries — China, the United States, India, Russia, and Japan — account for approximately 60% of global carbon emissions. The

United Kingdom generates only 1%, which British environmentalists applaud. "That's where the difficulty is," Starkie explained. "We need to concentrate on areas where we can achieve significant gains rather than little incremental increases that hardly register on the scale." The mining proposal, according to John Ashton, who served as the British government's special representative for climate change from 2006 to 2012, could smear the United Kingdom's credibility, particularly in Glasgow, where Johnson is attempting to take the lead, and in the future. "If the mine is built, we will be saying to the world, judge us by our words and ignore our actions," Ashton told the hearing. West Cumbria Mining, the mining business, claims that the new mine would not increase world CO2 emissions. The corporation claims that because the mine,

more passionate opening remarks of the summit. However, Johnson forgot to add that the United Kingdom is examining plans to establish a new coal mine, the country's first in decades while hosting the United Nations climate meeting. Burning fossil fuels like coal produce the greenhouse gas pollution that is now warming the globe. Climate experts warn that the great majority of carbon-based fuels, including 90% of worldwide coal reserves, must remain in the ground if global temperatures are not to rise more than 1.5 degrees Celsius (2.7 degrees Fahrenheit) above preindustrial levels. "I'm not in favor of more coal," Johnson said when asked about the project. "But it's not a choice for me, it's a decision for

Cumbria coal mine- BBC News

www.skillings.net | 9


SPECIAL FOCUS

which would generate coking coal for steel production, is so near to European markets and will be so cost-effective, it will drive out-competing American miners and limit coal production in the United States. The project in West Cumbria would become "the first net-zero coking coal mine," according to Alexander Greaves, a lawyer for the company. However, Simon Nicholas, an Australian energy finance specialist who testified for environmental groups before the hearing, believes that the American mines will continue to run in order to supply China's expanding demand. The company's reasoning, he said, was "simply wrong" and "a little on the desperate side."

However, the community is split. A contradiction exists between the necessity for global collaboration to reduce emissions and the economic costs that such efforts may impose on impoverished areas. The mine, which will be around 300 miles northwest of London, is expected to produce 500 wellpaying jobs in West Cumbria, which is in desperate need of them. The Cumbria Chamber of Commerce's Suzanne Caldwell believes the community is divided. Caldwell stated, "Some folks are quite supportive." "Some people are utterly opposed to each other, while many people in the middle are truly conflicted." It's easy to understand why locals in Whitehaven, a town on the Cumbrian coast that would profit the most from the mining employment, are sympathetic. All the signs of an economically suffering English neighborhood may be seen along one street. There's a gambling machine parlor, a gold-buying shop, an ancient bandstand

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with peeling paint, and some businesses that have been vacant for so long that it's impossible to determine what type of business used to be there. Nathan Ryan, a 30-year-old groundworker, is keen for the mine to reopen. "It's not right that average folks like me are still working ordinary jobs," Ryan adds, alluding to low-wage manual labor and service occupations. Ryan, who makes as little as $250 a week, has seen friend after friend leave this Irish Sea town of 23,000 people. He believes he may earn significantly more in the new mine and has already applied. "I believe there would be jobs for everyone if that coal mine were to operate," he continues. Environmentalists such as Jill Perry, secretary for the local Green Party, are on the other side of the discussion in West Cumbria. Before the final mine closed in 1986, the region had been home to coal mining for generations. According to

10 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021

Perry, the area has never really recovered from the loss, nor has it outgrown its industrial past. "People like to go back in time," she comments as we walk through a muddy valley speckled with sheep. The coal business plans to move the coal out via rail from this location. "They see their history as something that can be resurrected."

Flooding is becoming more common as a result of climate change. However, Perry claims that this is unrealistic, pointing out that the local mining museum shuttered five years ago due to financial difficulties. West Cumbria, she believes, is an example of why combating climate change can be so tricky all over the world. "People acknowledge the severity of climate change, but they believe that


what needs to be done should be done by everyone else," she says. "It's really difficult to persuade people that local action is critical on a global scale." In aout last 15 years, the area has been hit by three catastrophic floods, which scientists fear are being exacerbated by climate change and will only get worse. John McGibbon is the managing director of PaR Systems, a company that maintains robots and cranes for the nuclear power industry, which is the best source of decent jobs in this town. When more than

12 inches of rain fell in only 24 hours in 2009, he was working at a seal and gasket factory. The river widened from roughly 30 feet to over 200 feet. The factory was flooded with water. "I remember paddling in the water up to my waist in the middle of the night, folks helping out with diggers and stuff to try and block us in," McGibbon said, "but it was just a scene of destruction." Despite the fact that the flood caused more than $15 million in damage, McGibbon says he still supports the new mine since West

Cumbria has so much poverty and so little good work. He does admit, though, that the government exploring a new coal mine while the prime minister is convening a global climate summit just 130 miles away is problematic. "It appears absurd," McGibbon says. "It should have been authorized or shelved a long time ago. It reflects poorly on our entire country."

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SAFETY

Grand Jury had A Report In Criminal Investigation Of Tennessee Valley Authority Coal Ash Disaster P rosecutors moved forward with a criminal investigation into

the Tennessee Valley Authority and a contractor connected with the deadly Kingston coal ash dump in 2008 and the cleaning that followed.

A

ccording to Attorney General Russell Johnson of the 9th Judicial District, the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation presented a report before a Roane County grand jury in mid-November. Since the environmental tragedy at the TVA's Kingston Fossil Plant in Harriman over a decade ago, the TBI investigation is piece to the first significant criminal case against the TVA, the nation's largest public utility, and Jacobs Engineering. A federal judge rejected a lawsuit filed by Roane County officials against TVA and Jacobs Engineering in October 2020. The grand jury hearing was initially been reported by the Roane County News. TVA spokesperson Scott Brooks commented in a statement that the company "remains dedicated to cooperate with all federal and state authorities as we have from the ash spill in 2008." According to Brooks, the TVA did not answer any more questions about Johnson's probe or the scheduled grand jury

hearing. Johnson also declined to answer questions regarding the planned grand jury session, citing professional ethics. "As prosecutors, we are barred from discussing or encouraging others to discuss situations that may or may not end in a criminal prosecution before a charge or indictment has been filed. We are also barred from creating or participating in pre-trial publicity even after a charge or indictment has been filed (if any) " as stated in an email by Johnson. Once sludge containing the waste exploded through the barriers holding the ash in containment ponds at the Kingston plant in December 2008, more than 7 million cubic tons of coal ash — the poisonous waste that results from the process of burning coal to generate electricity — flowed all over without any restrictions. Jacobs was then recruited by the TVA to clean up the spill. The TVA acknowledged responsibility for the accident and was recognized by the EPA in 2015 for

12 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021

its efforts to reuse the site. During the cleanup, however, Jacobs Engineering staff complained about not having enough protective gear and breathing in coal ash that was moving around the site. They claimed that it costed them a lot in terms of health as the paraphernalia was not as required. After the incident, TVA and Jacobs Engineering declared that the coal ash posed no severe threat, but a 2017 Knox News investigation discovered that the toxic waste contains radioactive elements that are actually damaging to people. And such damage is irreversible, it has given them lifelong impairments, that too very dangerous ones. According to a federal lawsuit brought by workers and their families, at least 47 disaster relief workers have perished and 400 more have been affected as a result of coal ash exposure. The case is still in progress and needs much more investigation to be decided justfully. "Jacobs did not cause the spill or any worker injuries, and the charges are unfounded," Jacobs Engineering said to Knox News. In February 2020, a Roane County grand jury heard witness evidence and ordered the TBI investigation after learning more about the leak and cleaning. The grand jury was tasked with investigating Johnson's recommendation and proposal. The TBI was ordered to look into problems related to the clean up worker safety (including) alteration of air monitor results, other environmental passes and readings related to the coal ash, not in a position to inform, protect, and provide safety measures for clean up workers in a grand jury report from February 2020.


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UNDERGROUND MINING

coal-fired generating is likely to face a similar reduction, and many in the energy business believe oil and natural gas jobs will be next to go. The loss of what has proven to be a vital economic lifeline for many communities in the United States has prompted the Biden administration and many other politicians to promise a "just transition," in which millions of new energy and infrastructure jobs will more than compensate for any jobs lost in the fossil fuel industries.

Politicians promise renewable energy opportunities for exfossil-fuel workers, but it's not that simple: A new beginning! Renewable energy jobs don't always allure— or simply aren't available — to employees displaced by the closure of coal mines and power facilities. While much has been made about the economic toll of the loss of coal and fossil jobs, including layoffs and cities falling into disrepair, according to experts, this does not convey the full cost.

T

he true cost, they claim, is the disintegration of families as children move across the country in search of work. They explain, "Because

when you split up a town, you're breaking up families." Between 1985 and 2020, about 130,000 coal miners in the United States lost their employment. By 2025,

14 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021

The United Mine Workers of America has stamped these goals too, pushing for financial incentives for renewable energy firms that hire former coal miners. According to an expert O'Leary, who is a senior researcher at the Ohio River Valley Institute focusing on energy and economic development, such assurances give energy workers false optimism. While new employment will undoubtedly be produced in the expanding renewable energy business, O'Leary and other experts in the area warn that these roles will not, on the whole, be filled by former fossil fuel workers. Attempting to compel a workforce transformation that isn't feasible will merely perpetuate the boom-bust cycle. Instead, they argue, policymakers and business leaders should concentrate on bolstering communities and assisting individuals in choosing a new vocation from as many possibilities as feasible. MISALIGNMENT OF JOBS

According to Suzanne Tegen, assistant director of Colorado State University's Center for the New Energy Economy, coal mining and power plant operations are far from unskilled labor. Although many professions do not require more than high school graduation, workers quickly


acquire a wide range of in-demand abilities, such as problem-solving and team building. When something breaks down, there's no time to stop by the hardware store or bring in a professional, so coal workers know how to operate heavy machinery and make successful repairs on the go. According to Tegen, their talents are easily transferable to a range of industries, including environmental cleanup and heavy construction. However, according to Tegen, just because a coal miner might be able to acquire a job constructing or

maintaining wind turbines doesn't imply they will. "That's not a good idea," she stated emphatically. "We saw a lot of [policymakers] go to coal areas and say, "Why don't you just put wind turbines?" a few years ago, and there are a lot of issues with that. We're talking about human people here. What if someone told you that all you have to do is do this other job that you've always hated?" While the skillsets may appear to be similar, Tegen explained that the job done in

According to an expert O'Leary, who is a senior researcher at the Ohio River Valley Institute focusing on energy and economic development, such assurances give energy workers false optimism.

renewable energy is significantly different from that done in a coal mine or a power plant. Miners, she explained, work with the same close-knit group every day. Because of the difficult circumstances, they learn to rely on one another and form strong ties. Solar and wind technicians, on the contrary, are more likely to work alone or in small groups. "The cultural component is often overlooked," Tegen remarked. Just because they use the same talents doesn't mean they're doing the same job. There is also a considerable pay disparity between occupations in renewable and fossil energy. As per a 2018 survey from the University of Massachusetts Amherst, renewable energy workers earn an average of $82,000, compared to $114,000 in the oil and gas business and $96,000 in coal. Because solar workers and others are frequently contractors or employed through temp agencies, they don't always have access to retirement or health benefits, according to Lara Skinner, director of Cornell University's Worker Institute's Labor Leading on Climate Initiative. "That's a significant deal - there won't be a smooth transition since the pay, health, and retirement benefits aren't there," she explained. Even if you believe that fossil fuel employees are willing to embrace lower-paying, isolating positions, Skinner points out that this does not guarantee acquiring them. According to Skinner, coal, nuclear, and even gas power plants are much more labor demanding, employing 300-1,000 individuals per plant. Solar and wind farms require only a few experts to maintain once they are built. "I've even heard of solar farms that now have cleaning robots to maximize performance," Skinn says. www.skillings.net | 15


UNDERGROUND MINING

Striking Alabama Mine Employees Were Arrested After 7 Months Outside Blackrock's Headquarters In New York City In November, a group of Alabama mineworkers who had been

on strike for almost seven months now was arrested outside the New York City headquarters of BlackRock, the world's largest investment management firm where they were protesting at that time.

D

uring a rally outside BlackRock, the main stakeholder in Warrior Met Coal, the $1.2 billion company that manages several coal mines in Alabama, six members of the United Mine Workers of America were arrested. Since April of this year, about 1,000 Warrior Met Coal miners have been on strike against the firm after a contract proposal was rejected by union members. They were adamant despite repeated and varied proposals and all efforts to stop the strike by the officials. The strike has shut down one of the business's two Alabama mines and restricted operations at the other, costing the company almost $7 million in the most recent quarter. Using managerial personnel and strikebreakers, the corporation has maintained partial operations at one of its mines. According to the union, both coal mines are the deepest in North America. "These miners have had enough," Cecil Roberts, president of the United Mine Workers of America, who was arrested at the march, stated. "We're not demanding for anything out of the normal. We have no desire to be millionaires or anything of the sort. They essentially want to return to their previous position of five years ago." The demonstration drew a large number of

workers from Alabama's picket lines. "I'm on strike for my family and my brothers and sisters who work in the mines," says the striker. According to reporters, third-generation coal miner Brian Kelly, who was also detained in November, said,

Using managerial personnel and strikebreakers, the corporation has maintained partial operations at one of its mines. According to the union, both coal mines are the deepest in North America.

"We go down there, it's a risky profession, put your life on the line." "We love our jobs, but we don't get any respect, and we don't get any time off - we get Thanksgiving off, Christmas Eve off, and Christmas off as far as holidays go, but the rest of the holidays we have to work while our family celebrate," Kelly said. Warrior Met Coal spokesperson D'Andre Wright said the union's requests for the corporation to make up for lost revenue from their prior

16 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021

contract in 2016 are ridiculous. "No official of Warrior Met Coal ever intimated to the union in any way during the 2016 collective bargaining agreement that specific terms of any previous contract under which they had worked would be reinstated in future contracts," Wright told the press. "In a very unpredictable coal market, our goals have always been keeping people employed and working safely with long-term careers, as well as preserving the company's financial stability." It's the latest round of worker discontent in the United States, as blue-collar workers reconsider their position in the economy as businesses recover from the COVID19 outbreak. The United Auto Workers have been on strike at John Deere for about a month, demanding a larger chunk of the profits out of the corporation, which has posted record profits in previous quarters. A total of 1,400 Kellogg employees are on strike over salary and benefits, as well as alleged threats by the business to shift manufacturing elsewhere. In August, workers at Nabisco plants in five states went on strike to protest intentions by the company's parent, Mondelez International, to shift some employment to Mexico, among other things. More than 600 workers at a Frito-Lay facility in Topeka, Kansas, walked off the job earlier this summer, with one striking worker saying that staff was required to continue working even if someone died on the job.


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UNDERGROUND MINING

Gold's windfall has slid under the radar with the nation's focus on energy resources and even agricultural expansion. Australia has recently assumed the world's largest gold producer, a position it is projected to hold for at least the next few years.

D

espite a minor drop in production to 157 tonnes in the first half of this year, the country's gold mine production is forecast to reach 396 tonnes in 2023 because of a strong pipeline of projects. Last year, Australia reclaimed the throne from China, which it had held since 2007. Gold mining's comeback promises hundreds of new jobs for regional Australia. According to ABS data, Australia's gold industry already supports over 30,000 highly-skilled, well-paid jobs, mainly in regional and isolated locations, with an average income of roughly $140,000.

New Job Opportunities In Australia Are Worth Their Weight In Gold 18 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021

Gold export revenues are expected to reach $29 billion in 2021-22, then drop to $27 billion in 2022-23 as gold prices recover alongside the global economy. The Mount Morgan gold mine near Rockhampton, Queensland, formerly the world's largest gold mine, has dropped under the list, but the Ravenswood gold mine, 90 kilometers southwest of Townsville, is climbing. The Teetulpa Goldfield, near Yunta in the Flinders Ranges, is still South Australia's


best gold producer. In 2020-21, the top five mines accounted for over a third of total gold mine production in Australia and an equal number of jobs in turn.

governments looking for new sources of employment. For Australian gold producers, a labor and skills crisis has emerged in the last year.

Gold prices soared as a financial haven during the epidemic and have remained strong due to gold's ongoing attractiveness as a jewelry item.

Victoria's gold mining industry is growing, with output at levels not seen since 1906. The effect has been particularly striking at Stawell, a small town in western Victoria.

The gold rushes in Victoria in Bendigo and Ballarat were the wealthiest places in the world for many decades in the end 1800s, and they were the catalyst for Australia's transformation from a penal settlement to a resource-rich nation. Gold's recent comeback is not going unnoticed by

In 2016, the town's underground mine closed, but it reopened in 2018 with new owners. There are now around 300 individuals employed there. Victoria's annual gold production increased by about 40% to nearly

800,000 ounces in 2019-20, the most significant yearly total since 1906. "Stawell Gold Mine's revival has been amazing," said Victorian Resource Minister Jaala Pulford, "and that implies hundreds of employment for local workers and considerable flow-on benefits for businesses across the Wimmera and beyond." "Gold mining in the region has a bright future ahead of it, with the next phase of exploration set to begin soon, enhancing the chances of finding even more gold and even more jobs."

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SURFACE MINING

China’s Coal Shortfall Has Eased Since Beijing Intervened According to a Commonwealth Bank of Australia research, the number of Chinese provinces

experiencing serious power shortages reduced to two in mid-October, down from 18 at the start of the month. "Around almost the same time period, the number of coal power plants with dangerously low coal inventories (less than 7 days) has fallen by 90%," the experts stated.

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hinese officials have authorized additional coal output and imports while cracking down on price speculation. On October 28, 2021, giant machines unload coal from a train at the Shanghai Cooperation Group (Lianyungang) Worldwide Logistics Park station in Jiangsu Province, east China. INTRODUCTION

The Commonwealth Bank of Australia gave in a statement that China's coal scarcity is reducing as a result of new government initiatives in this regard so as to better the situation. According to the survey, the number of Chinese provinces experiencing serious power shortages decreased to two in mid-October, given a contrasting 18 at the start of the month of November. According to the bank, this is based on a figure of 10% shortage in supply versus demand. "Around the same time frame, the number of coal power plants with dangerously low coal inventories (less than even 7 days) has fallen down by 90%," the experts stated. In September, China's coal scarcity was at a high, going even higher, prompting local officials to declare power restrictions for several enterprises which were not at all good for the Chinese economy

and reputation. As a result, industrial output fell, forcing numerous economists to lower their GDP growth predictions. In September and October, the official Purchasing Managers' Index, which measures industrial activity, slipped into the contraction zone. The third-quarter GDP came in lower than predicted, prompting many institutions to lower their full-year growth predictions. However, in the weeks since, Chinese officials have taken steps to alleviate the coal shortfall, including tackling coal futures trading and enabling increased coal output. Despite the pressure to fulfill carbon-reduction objectives — which the national economic planning office flagged 20 regions for failing to reach in August — this is the case. CHINESE GOVERNMENT STEPS IN, IN AN EFFORT TO HELP

State Administration of Coal Mine Safety predicted that national coal production would likely increase by 600 tons per day in the fourth quarter, bringing total production to 55 million tons. China also purchased coal to make up for the deficit. Imports of fossil fuel increased by 76 percent in September compared to the same month the previous year. Thermal coal imports, the principal fuel for energy generation, have increased, especially from Russia and Indonesia. KEEPING SPECULATION ABOUT COAL PRICES TO A MINIMUM

From December 2020 to October 19, the price of thermal coal futures on the Zhengzhou Commodity Exchange roughly tripled. Thermal coal prices have dropped by more than half since then, according to Wind Information, after reaching a record spike of 1,982 yuan ($310) per metric ton.

Because of the urgency of the power outage, authorities have decided to take a different strategy to coal development in order to maintain the energy supply.

Since the government decides on the MRP of electricity in China, electricity providers have faced operational challenges as a result of rising coal prices.

According to a CNBC translation of the Mandarin-language statements made in mid-October by the People's Bank of China, financial institutions should not "blindly" cut off financing for coal projects. Around almost the same duration, China's

China's national economic planner announced in mid-October that it would allow the market to play a bigger role in determining electricity pricing and that it would crack down on coal price speculation in the coming weeks.

20 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021


‘We’re need miners’: Wellmore Coal Company in a job fair in Downtown On November 4th, the Wellmore Coal Company sponsored a job fair at the Hampton Inn in

downtown Pikeville. The employment fair's primary and sole purpose was to fill many positions in the company's ever-expanding businesses in Pike and Buchannan counties in Kentucky and Virginia, which are now lying vacant or have insufficient staff.

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e're searching for young and old people who want to be coal miners but have never worked in the mines," said Gary Prater, Wellmore Coal Company's Director of Human Resources. "They're 'inexperienced green hats,' as we call them, who want to enter into this field." This made it clear that the job fair was open to freshers as well.

operators, blasters, and everything in between, along with total amateurs who will train as per need and aptitude.

The coal industry has had its ups and downs in recent years, but it has long been a part of the region's economy. "Coal-related jobs are quite vital in our community." "Our economy is and has always been reliant on coal," said Prater. "You know, our tax base is entirely dependent on coal, so the more employment we can create, the better for our communities." Covid-19 has affected the industry as well. In particular, when it comes to training new personnel, it has become extremely important, and there has been a significant backlog in recent years. "There has been a scarcity of coal miners being taught," Prater remarked. "It's true that the industry has had its ups and downs in recent years, but the pandemic has slowed everything down." Because of the increase of Wellmore Coal Company's operations, more local workers are required to meet the economy's demands. This will benefit both the employees looking for a job and the organization to locate suitable resources. "Right now, we're searching for coal miners to populate these new enterprises and operations," Prater explained. "Hopefully, we'll be able to find enough in our area because we have the best coal miners in the area." Prater went on to say that the company is employing trained, experienced miners for employment in underground, surface, heavy equipment www.skillings.net | 21


INDUSTRY INSIDER

Newfields Mining and Unavco Seeking Grant Extension to expand their Missoula Operations Missoula County agreed to extend two grants to assist two

"Covid caused delays in job creation for both Newfields and UNAVCO last year," Wagener added. "They both have solid hiring plans through October and want to fill all of the positions they've been given."

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Newfields specializes in civil and geotechnical engineering and provides engineering and consulting services to the mining industry. It also offers transportation and alternative energy-related services, as well as brownfield cleanup.

Missoula businesses in creating new employment and a third award to reimburse one of the businesses for the jobs it has already produced so far. ompanies that generate new employment that pay a particular wage are reimbursed through the Montana Department of Commerce's job development awards, which are administered locally by Missoula County and the Missoula Economic Partnership.

Both Newfields Mining LLC and UNAVCO, according to Leidy Wagener of the Missoula Economic Partnership, have requested for an extension, requesting more time to produce the employment required by the grant. The prolongation will last until October 2022.

22 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021


graduate degrees or technical skills. It has 233 members from academic institutions across the world.

Newfields was looking for a Missoula-based engineer earlier this year, with a salary range of $55,000 to $80,000 per year. The company has created two jobs in the area and is requesting a $15,000 reimbursement from the Big Sky Economic Development Trust Fund and its job creation award.

pany's behalf for 27 new employments at the time.

UNAVCO also announced intentions to create a Missoula office in September, with the goal of collaborating with the Montana University System. Missoula County had given MEP permission to submit a job-creation grant on the com-

Missoula's experienced workforce, according to organization president Rebecca Bendick, makes it a perfect location for the company to flourish. The organization now employs roughly 90 employees, the majority of whom have

UNAVCO, in collaboration with other federal agencies and business partners, manages the national Earth Science geodetic factory, which is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and NASA.

Bendick remarked last year that "Missoula has a ready and competent technically skilled workforce here that we'd want to recruit and incorporate into our geodetic staff." "Missoula also provides an amazing quality of life and, frankly, affordability to my scientific and technical team that Boulder does not."

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SPECIAL FOCUS

Image: National Coal Mining Museum for England

24 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021


Some People Are Definitely Optimistic About A Proposed Coal Mine In The United Kingdom, But Others Are Terrified Most people perceive beauty in the mix of hills, lakes, and sea that make up England's northwest region. However, a local miner, Dave Cradduck sees aspirations that have been shattered. The 74-year-former old's workplace in the form of a coal mine has long since shuttered. Thousands of people were employed at the chemical plant, which is now defunct. The nuclear power facility is shutting down, and that has brought a very big frown of apprehension on his wrinkled skin.

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evertheless, a proposed new coal mine that may provide hundreds of jobs, according to Cradduck, is a signal that "at least someone is interested in the area" and a chance "for individuals who have mining in their blood."

horrified by the so proposed mine. They claim it sends a dreadful message as the UK welcomes world leaders, activists, diplomats, and scientists to Glasgow, Scotland, for the United Nations Climate Change Conference, which was running early November.

It is a chance for himself and his clan who do not know what else to do. Environmentalists, on the other hand, are

Many scientists and environmentalists see the two-week COP26 summit as a final chance to hammer out carbon-cut-

ting commitments that will keep global warming under control and at bay for the time being. "The UK positions itself as a strong and stepping stone leader, but it's developing a coal mine, which is the most polluting thing you can do," commented Rebecca Willis, a Lancaster University professor of energy and climate governance. "It conveys a word to the rest of the world www.skillings.net | 25


SPECIAL FOCUS

credits to the Gold Standard Foundation. Curved modern structures merge in with the surrounding hills, according to the plans. While constructing a new coal mine may appear to be a bad idea at first glance, the Cumbria County project seeks to be distinct in design, according to Alexander Greaves, a lawyer representing the mining business.

West Cumbria Mining wants to invest $218 million for a coal mine in Whitehaven, a coastal town in northwest England.Credit...Mary Turner for The New York Times

that the United Kingdom isn't taking this seriously." The proposed deep mine represents a conundrum for the British government, which wants to generate all of the nation's electricity via renewable sources by the end of 2035 and achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050, no matter what.

The project is depicted by the firm as a "new type of mine," distinct from the filthy, deadly behemoths whose brick and steel skeletons dot the landscape of the region. West Cumbria Mining claims to be the world's first net-zero coal mine, with all carbon emissions lowered or offset by

However, Conservative Prime Minister Boris Johnson has promised to build new factories, roads, railways, and other infrastructure in England's neglected north, which environmentalists believe is at odds with the government's green strategy and at odd with what the nation needs at the moment. Both the viewpoints are quite contrasting and though a delightful news for some miners, a horrendous to the others. West Cumbria Mining plans to extract coking coal — a variety used to create steel rather than for fuel — from beneath the Irish Sea in order to build Britain's first deep coal mine in three decades. It intends to process the coal at a decommissioned chemical facility in Whitehaven, around 550 kilometers northwest of London. 26 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021

"Showing that these mines can be built by law...to capture greenhouse gas emissions and compel any remaining damage to be offset...is true environmental leadership," he said. ENVIRONMENTALISTS RIDICULE THE PLAN

"It's blindingly evident that the quickest way to reduce these carbon emissions and make fundamental reforms — which we need to achieve in the next 10 years — is to cease opening any new coal mines," Maggie Mason, a local mining opponent, said. "The same may be said for oil and gas wells."


In this region of England, nature and industry have long battled for dominance. Whitehaven is situated on the edge of the Lake District National Park, which inspired William Wordsworth and Beatrix Potter with its beauty. In the past, the area was also home to factories and mines that provided hard, nasty work. The UK government is still contemplating new fossil-fuel projects, despite the rising expense of imported natural gas and the slow progress of plans for new nuclear facilities. Shell and Siccar Point Energy aim to recover 170 million barrels of oil from the Cambo oilfield in the North Atlantic, west

Coal from the proposed mine in Whitehaven would be used for steel production. Credit...Mary Turner for The New York Times

The proposed deep mine represents a conundrum for the British government, which wants to generate all of the nation's electricity via renewable sources by the end of 2035 and achieve net-zero carbon emissions by 2050, no matter what. of the Shetland Islands. Environmentalists are attempting to persuade the British government to put an end to the drilling. Johnson's administration is hesitant to intervene, claiming that "sources like Cambo" will continue to be needed to supply Britain's energy demands as it transitions to a low-carbon economy. "We need to convert our present oil and gas sector to a decarbonized platform," Business Secretary Kwasi Kwarteng said in the House of Commons last month, accusing Cambo opponents of wishing for "a complete eclipse" of the oil and gas sector, with "250,000 jobs evaporating overnight." The mine was authorised by the local government in West Cumbria a year ago.

Mike Starkie, the area's Conservative mayor, says it will be "transformational."Under immense pressure from opponents and its own environmental commitments, the British government intervened in March and appointed a planning inspector to investigate. Around the end of the year, the inspector says he'll make a recommendation. The UK government will then make a final decision after COP26 is over as it is a very strategic event in the nation's position and reputation on a worldwide scale. Local mine proponents feel they are the very important silent majority but still fear that environmental campaigners will drown them out. It is for this reason that some protested at the site earlier this month, waving placards that read "Part of the solution, not the problem" and "Cumbria coke is the real deal." "It's been oversimplified in the press that it's jobs vs. climate," said John Greasley, who helps run a pro-mine Facebook page. "Of course, the climate is always going to win." But it's more complicated than that." www.skillings.net | 27


THE LEAD

Miners’ Plans are Put to the Test by a Strict State Statute

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iners seek authorization from state and federal officials around the country to harvest a variety of minerals, typically in places with vulnerable ecosystems or near Indigenous people. These firms say that more copper, lithium, nickel, and other metals must be extracted from the earth for local manufacturers to be less reliant on countries like China, which could cut off mineral supply to American firms in the case of a geopolitical confrontation. The Biden administration has made securing the mineral supply chain a top concern as well. Maine, on the other hand, might be resistant to these pitches. A 2017 bill set strict environmental criteria for prospective mines, including mandatory dry tailings dams and set-aside reclamation funding.

28 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021


Maine legislators passed one of the most stringent mining regulations in the country just four years ago, making it extremely difficult — and in some cases impossible — to open new mines. However, with a Canadian business vying to explore minerals critical to clean technologies, the energy transition may put that dedication to the test.

www.skillings.net | 29


THE LEAD

It required a legislative override of then-Republican Gov. Paul LePage's veto. It also outrightly outlawed open-pit mining, a move prompted by the poisonous waste left behind after the Callahan open-pit copper mine located in Brooksville, Maine, closed in 1972. This might hinder Wolfden Resources Corp. of Ontario, which wants to establish a mine at Pickett Mountain, near the Katahdin Woods and Waters National Monument, to extract zinc, silver, and other minerals that are in good demand for renewable energy products like solar panels and lithium-ion batteries. Wolfden believes its mine will meet the state's stringent environmental stewardship criteria. However, other residents believe the project would be a dangerous pollution control experiment because the wastewater treatment process proposed by the corporation has never been used before. According to Jeanne Christie, head of the Maine Wilderness Guides Organization, "it's extremely disturbing for a project to be proposed up here." "It's causing a lot of concern." The contradiction between the demand for clean energy and the availability of the minerals needed to develop the technology required for its deployment in the United States is dividing local communities across the country. These conflicts were most recently on show in Minnesota, where Republican Rep. Pete Stauber lambasted the Biden administration in October for temporarily halting the development of a proposed copper-cobalt mine near the iconic Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness, citing mineral security concerns. The "vital minerals" argument has perhaps had more success in the western United

States, where communities have long had ties to the mining sector dating back to the Gold Rush. Despite rising opposition from environmental environmentalists and tribal organizations, the proposed Thacker Pass lithium mine in Nevada secured three critical state permits in October. In northern Maine, Wolfden's sales pitch

30 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021

has taken a new turn. After the state land use planning committee suggested that it would reject its proposal, the company withdrew its permit application in October. The move, according to Wolfden CEO Ron Little, allows the company's team to "come back with an application that should win approval." Despite this, Little claimed that after the application was withdrawn, the company received


new inquiries from investors who wanted to know if Maine was still open to mining. The finding of a significant deposit of lithium — another critical metal for sustainable energy — in Newry, Maine, was cited by the CEO as more proof that requests to mine the state aren't going away anytime soon. "Everyone uses metal, whether we're miners or campaigners," Little remarked. “It won't happen tomorrow, but mining in the state isn't dead." EXPERIMENTS GO TOPSY

Pickett Mountain's mineral potential has been recognized since the 1980s when Getty Oil controlled the area before selling it to Chevron Corp. In 2017, Wolfden purchased the property. Pickett Mountain is one of the "highest-grade polymetallic

prospects in North America," according to Wolfden's promotional materials, with zinc, lead, copper, silver, and gold potential.

The contradiction between the demand for clean energy and the availability of the minerals needed to develop the technology required for its deployment in the United States is dividing local communities across the country.

Wolfden claims to have created "one of the world's greenest mine designs." The company has suggested constructing an on-site water treatment facility that will purify all water utilized in the project to levels that would be as clean as groundwater "or better," according to the corporation. It might then be re-injected into the ground. "To begin with, we're not talking about hazardous substances," he explained. "All we have to do now is filter that water," says the narrator. We're going to get that water." Maine residents, on the other hand, are no strangers to the toxic problems that can arise when water is mixed with mine waste. Remaining metals and poisonous chemicals leaked into the earth after the abandoned Callahan mine was flooded in 1972. In 2002, the state's southernmost region was designated as a Superfund site. Environmentalists doubt the Wolfden wastewater plan's viability, pointing out that it has never been tried before. The corporation will have to discharge wastewater "that is practically free of pollutants" to meet the requirements of Maine's


THE LEAD

mining law and longtime waste disposal statutes, according to Nick Bennett, healthy waterways project director for the Natural Resources Council of Maine, in an interview. “We are aware of no hardrock mine in the world that can achieve that,” Bennett added. "It has never happened before." The mine would be located in Maine's North Woods, just north of the Penobscot River, one of New England's major rivers. The dismantling of dams along the river prompted more than a decade of restoration work by federal and state agencies, conservation groups, and surrounding Native American communities, which helped restore the ecosystem and help wildlife such as Atlantic salmon return. Mining above the Penobscot might halt that development, according to proponents. "Anything that affects the water quality in the watershed at a high level is harmful." If you know anything about fisheries, you know that mines are renowned for lowering the pH to the point where nothing can live,” Christie of Maine Wilderness Guides explained. “Experiments don't always go as planned. When you put something in the groundwater, it lasts a long time.”

are no Indigenous rights in the state of Maine, and so this really streamlines the permitting process."

The Maine Department of Environmental Protection would eventually require the corporation to obtain a permit.

Little stated that these words were taken out of context and that Indigenous communities in Canada had a more decisive say in the permitting process than states in the United States.

Because mining is not permitted in any of the commission's zoning subdistricts, the company will need a custom zoning district approval to proceed.

The proposed mine would also be close to tribal areas, such as Penobscot Nation sites, which regard these ecosystems as sacred to their way of life.

PROBLEMS WITH ZONING CHANGES

"There are no Indigenous rights in the state of Maine, and so this really streamlines the permitting process," Little told a conference audience in 2019.

Little claims Wolfden requires authorization to work on the site to explore the entire viability of the design to verify its water treatment plans would work.

Wolfden came under fire over the summer when the Natural Resources Council of Maine unearthed a video of Little telling an audience in 2019: "There

Because the mine will be on unorganized territory, zoning permissions from Maine's Land Use Planning Commission, or LUPC, would be required as a first step.

32 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021

And it is here that Wolfden has run into difficulties as a result of the new law. The commission must determine that the mine will have no undue adverse impact on existing uses and resources to create the custom zoning district. When Wolfden submitted its rezoning application, the commission requested an example of a similar water treatment facility to the proposed one to show that the design might work. According to


of concerns." Wolfden withdrew their application before the commission had a chance to make a formal determination. According to Beyer, by doing so, the corporation will be able to reapply without establishing a change in circumstances. Little said Wolfden is considering "when, how, and what" the company would "reapply for." "If we won rezoning authority, we'd spend the next two years developing a plant prototype to make sure it worked, and the project would never be completed if we couldn't prove it worked." "This is a show-stopper project," Little added. "We're not in the habit of polluting the environment," says the narrator.

A deteriorating tank sits on the site of the Callahan Mine in Brockville, Maine. It was an open pit copper and zinc mine.(AP Photo/Robert F. Bukaty)

LUPC Planning Manager Stacie Beyer, the commission needed evidence of no undue adverse impact to "make a positive conclusion" for a custom zoning district. Wolfden submitted a rezoning petition many times, but the commission was unable to complete its review. Staff finally advised the commission to deny Wolfden's request for a particular zoning district, citing roughly 60 "inconsistencies, inaccuracies, and omissions" covering a wide range of themes, according to Beyer. "There were so many," Beyer stated, "that I hesitate to list anything since it would give more weight to one topic over another." "I'm not positive on how to say it other than to say there were a number www.skillings.net | 33


THE LEAD MINING FINANCE

Fossil Fuels Increase Revenue Prospects But Increase Budget Volatility Just as lawmakers prepare for the forthcoming budget session in February, Wyoming's income outlook has increased by $845 million due to improving coal, oil, and natural gas markets. However, the state's revenue forecast for November contains some bad news.

A

ccording to state revenue forecasts, Wyoming's outsized reliance on fluctuating fossil fuel prices caused the huge swing from deficit projections during the 2020 pandemic shock to a more steady revenue forecast today. Beyond pandemic impacts, fossil fuel volatility will only worsen as coal loses its stabilizing state revenue influence to oil and natural gas. According to the Consensus Revenue Estimating Group's October report, "the current forecast relies primarily on the 34 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021


"As a result," Richards remarked, "our entire revenue portfolio is becoming more volatile rather than less variable." For the time being, Powder River Basin coal producers are taking advantage of a strengthening national economy, which is driving up demand for electricity in the United States, Wyoming's lone market. According to the Energy Information Administration, electrical demand has surged by 22% beyond 2020 levels so far this year. Long-term forecasts, on the other hand, continue to predict a continuously diminishing market for Wyoming coal. According to Richards, more than 65 percent of the increase in state revenue is "directly related to fossil fuels." He claims that only Alaska and North Dakota are more reliant on fossil fuels.

rise in oil and natural gas pricing, which results in larger [than coal] tax and royalty receipts." "However, it is reasonable to predict that volatility in the oil and natural gas markets will have a disproportionate influence on state income collections." Despite the current, temporary uptick in production and pricing, coal production is expected to continue its downward trend." According to CREG's October report, revenue for 2021 exceeded a January estimate of $248.1 million. In addition, the company increased its sales forecast for fiscal years 20222024 by $596.9 million. The entire sum predicted to come into the state's general fund and budget reserve accounts during that time are $845.1 million. The revenue forecast for K-12 schools, which is mostly based on property taxes levied on mineral extraction at the county level, has also improved by $368.3 million through 2024. National demand for oil, natural gas, and coal is recovering, according to Legislative Service Office Budget and Fiscal Manager Don Richards. Longer-term, though, coal will continue to play a smaller role in Wyoming's budget, implying that more extreme revenue swings would be the norm, he added. "Compared to oil and gas, coal was a fairly solid revenue stream," said Richards, who is also the co-chairman of the CREG. "The fluctuations of natural gas and oil prices is far more severe, and Wyoming is becoming increasingly reliant on oil and gas as coal production declines structurally."

SOLVING YOUR MOST COMPLEX CHALLENGES. With SEH, you are a true partner and collaborator.

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www.skillings.net | 35


SPECIAL FOCUS

Bunker Hill Mining Corp Files For An Updated PEA Technical Report PROVIDES AN UPDATE ON THE MINE RESTART PROJECT Bunker Hill Mining Corp. (the “Company”) (CSE: BNKR, OTCQB: BHLL) is happy to give out the filing of an amended independent Preliminary Economic Assessment ("PEA") for the resume or restart of the Bunker Hill Mine in Idaho's world-class Silver Valley region (Idaho, USA), as well as provide an update on the mine restart project. 36 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021


On September 20, 2021, an NI 43-101 compliant technical report for an updated PEA was issued. The updated PEA forecasts much higher financial returns than the previous PEA: $143 million NPV (+42 percent increase), 35 percent IRR, 2.6-year payback, $25 million annual average FCF (+28 percent increase) at $1.15 per pound of zinc, $0.90 per pound of lead, and $20 per ounce of silver, as improvement figures. The restart plan is on the way to being improved as engineering, design, test-work, and trade-off studies develop in support of the ongoing project finance process, with a construction decision expected by the end of Q1 2022. Infrastructure engineering, mine plan improvement, metallurgical test work, geotechnical evaluation, and preliminary process plant, paste, and tailings engineering are all critical workstreams included in this project.

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uilding on the work included in the updated PEA, and concomitant with our project finance process, we continue to progress engineering studies and mine planning enough to sustain a construction decision by the fall of the 1st quarter of 2022," said Sam Ash, CEO of Bunker Hill Mining. We are committed to a longterm restart of the mine and will provide regular updates on these workstreams in the coming months."

Bunker Hill Mining Corp., under the brand new Idaho-based flagship, plans to reopen and sustainably develop the Bunker Hill Mine as the first step in integrating a portfolio of North American preciousmetal assets with a concentration on silver. The Company's information can be found on its website as well as in the SEDAR and EDGAR databases.

A Technical Report Has Been Submitted The report, titled "Technical Report and Preliminary Economic Assessment For Underground Milling and Concentration of Lead, Silver, and Zinc at the Bunker Hill Mine," was written in accordance with National Instrument 43-101 – Standards of Disclosure for Mineral Projects and was dated November 3, 2021. ("NI 43-101"). Bunker Hill's September 20, 2021 news release (entitled "Bunker Hill Announces Updated PEA: 42 percent Increase in NPV to $143M, 29 percent Decrease in AISC, 41 percent Increase in FCF Over Extended 11 Year Mine Life") presents the www.skillings.net | 37


SPECIAL FOCUS

updated PEA's key findings, assumptions, and projections. The Company is glad to report that there are no substantial variations between the updated PEA and this news release in terms of critical results, assumptions, or estimates. The amended PEA can be found or easily accessed on the Company’s website and has also been updated on SEDAR under the Company's issuer profile as well.

Update On Restart Project The Company's top aim is to reopen the mine in a sustainable and gradual manner as the first step toward realizing the value of its mineral resource. To that purpose, it continues to develop its technical workstreams to a degree of detail adequate to permit a construction decision by the end of the first quarter of 2022, in tandem with its ongoing project finance process. Optimization of the mine design, completion of metallurgical and other test work to allow finalization of the process plant, paste and tailings engineering, geotechnical studies, and various other trade-off studies are all part of this. MineTech USA ("Minetech") is leading the engineering and optimization of the mine design and supporting infrastructure, which is a continuation of their work on the updated PEA. MineTech's efforts are presently focused on further optimizing production schedules, increasing stopping dimensions, and completing detailed engineering designs to aid the start of mining again, guided by a clearer understanding of the efficiencies obtained by the shift to the long-hole open stoping mining technique. Golder Associates Inc. has been hired to conduct extensive geotechnical analyses of the best and the most critical mine locations, with a particular and an extreme emphasis on improving stope 38 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021


ADVERTISING INDEX

Azcon ............................................ 45 Barr Engineering............................ 13 diameters/dimensions to boost mining productivity and efficiency much better than what it is now at present in 2021. Resource Development Inc. is doing metallurgical test work to finalize the ultimate process flow, and confirmation of metallurgical recoveries, with findings, is expected in the first quarter of 2022 by the latest.

and a registered engineer in Idaho. Mr. Scott E. Wilson, CPG, President of RDA, and being a consultant to the Company, is a stand-alone "qualified person" as stated by NI 43-101 and serves as the Company's qualified person. He has studied and approved the technical data that has been presented here.

CR Meyer....................................... 25 FloLevel Technologies.................. 17 Fryberger........................................ 13 General Equipment Supplies........ 05 Global Minerals Engineering........ 44 Golder Associates......................... 45

The renowned Paterson & Cooke have been hired to do extensive work on subterranean tailings deposition and geotechnical backfill, as well as paste plant design to make it fool-proof and energy and resource-efficient.

Halcor............................................ 15

Over the time of November 2021, complete engineering of the in-mine water treatment system was scheduled to reach 60 percent completion, and it did almost get the levels. Bunker Hill Mine will be able to completely comply with the Idaho Pollution Discharge Elimination System discharge limits thanks to this system.

Minnesota Power.......................... 21

Commercial discussions for the possible acquisition of a process plant are progressing, and the Company hopes to finish the transaction by the fall of December of 2021. Once a process plant is acquired, discussions with numerous parties shall be on the way to facilitate an Engineering, Procurement, and Construction Management draft to aid the completion of process plant construction. The Company is leaving no stone unturned to make this project a one of its kind.

Lake Superior Chapter ISEE.......... 45 Malton Electric Company............. 45 ME Elecmetal................................ 07 Mielke Electric Works................... 23 Naylor Pipe.................................... 48 Neo Solutions................................ 33 Northern Engine & Supply............. 45 Optiro............................................. 02

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SEH................................................ 43

golder.com

Qualified Team of Professionals In collaboration with RDA and Pro Solv Consulting, LLC, MineTech prepared the PEA's mine infrastructure, capital expenditures, and operating expenditures sections, as well as elements of the mine plan and operating schedules. Robert Todd, P.E. is a Principal of MineTech and an independent "qualified person" defined by NI 43-101. He is a registered engineer in Idaho, a consultant to the Company, www.skillings.net | 39


2021 ANNUAL INDEX OF SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW PERUSING THROUGH OUR 100+ ANNUAL INDEX WILL GIVE THE READER A GOOD RETROSPECTIVE OF 2020. NEW HEADINGS REFLECT TRENDS UNIQUE TO WHAT HAS BEEN AN EXTREMELY INTERESTING YEAR. THERE IS AN INCREASING EMPHASIS ON SUSTAINABILITY - CLEAN TECHNOLOGIES, WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT, RE-VEGETATION AND ADHERENCE TO LEGISLATION.

AMERICAS ARTICLE

MTH

P NO

ARTICLE

MTH

P NO

The Lake Carriers Association Praise Great Lakes Maritime sponsorship

FEB

17

Trump officials are rushing to mine in a desert area that is considered to be holy by native tribes

FEB

28

Iron ore price leaps into 2021

MAR

05

13

Komatsu’s new MC51 hard rock mining machine is all set to cut rock at Vale Garson by April

MAR

20

JAN

16

Copper price hits new high as covid cases sweep South America

MAR

27

Nominations for the 2021 Peter Munk and Eira Thomas Awards are Now Open

JAN

19

Could steel prices soon hit $1,000/ton in the new year?

MAR

34

DNR, Mesabi Metallics seek mineral lease changes

JAN

20

Quebec govt spares mining industry from new restrictions

MAR

40

Minnesota voters have demonstrated that clean water and the Boundary Waters is a critical issue

JAN

28

MAR

42

US coking coal relaxed amidst Biden Presidency

JAN

30

Alicanto Minerals Upper on Securing Tenure Covering Sweden’s Historic High-Grade Sala Silver Mine

U.S. investigators were told to take ‘no further action’ on Caterpillar, ex-client of Barr

JAN

38

In Colombia, three miners were killed in an illegal operation

APR

05

Solar-to-battery storage system planned for Grand Rapids

JAN

41

APR

08

Once booming, sand mines shuttered

JAN

42

Cross-border M&A transactions worth $1.01 billion in Q4 2020 for the Asia-Pacific metals & mining industry

Vale gets go-ahead for Serra Leste expansion

FEB

05

Polymet’s Air Permits Receives Mixed Opinion by Minnesota Supreme Court

APR

11

Stopping illegal mining in the Great Lakes area amidst the pandemic

FEB

10

Komatsu targets to be first in the market with hydrogen-powered mining vehicles

APR

20

2020 was a great year for iron ore mining

FEB

14

The Western United States is a national treasure

APR

30

Newmont overcomes Covid-19 challenges to complete Musselwhite gold mine work

JAN

Kerr Mines and Star Royalties reach an agreement over a £13.6 million streaming deal

JAN

Nova gains rights to loyalties on Antofagasta’s Twin Metals Plans

JAN

Bull Moves Analysts Just Upgraded these 3 Hot Stocks

40 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021

08 12


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EQUIPMENT ARTICLE

GLOBAL MTH

P NO

Innovative new jumbo and bolter utilize the common platform, an industry first

JAN

Rockwell Automation releases DCS for plant operations

JAN

14

Covid-19 hits drilling contractor’s bottom-line

JAN

27

Here Is How Robots Are Revolutionizing Mining

JAN

32

Oxbotica manages to garner the US $47 million for speed mine automation

FEB

Booyco win proximity detection order in the African nation of Namibia

FEB

Quebec miners are relieved amidst Covid lockdown exception

FEB

12

Blanket Mine will commission Central Shaft

FEB

Options remain for copper’s raging bull fire

ARTICLE

MTH P NO

China launches coal safety checks

JAN

05

Perth could become a mining finance center

JAN

08

Is there an opportunity to build back South Africa’s mining industry?

JAN

10

Mothballed NT iron ore mines reopen amid soaring demand for steel in China

JAN

22

Barrick does not want to get involved in PNG political tension

JAN

23

Hearst-area mining company has a strategy to contain the spread of Covid-19

JAN

24

The US, Norwegian investors pressure SBI over a loan to Adani mine in Australia

JAN

29

20

As more countries pledge zero emissions, coal finance evaporates

JAN

35

FEB

32

Minerals and metals demand recovery in 2021

JAN

36

Demand for minerals and metals is expected to increase in 2021

FEB

38

Rare earth mining can be done safely, says the researcher

JAN

37

American and Norway investors exert pressure on SBI due to a loan to Australia’s Adani Mine

In a down year, Alaska mining is a bright spot

FEB

18

FEB

42

Minerals and metals eye recovery in 2021

FEB

22

The rise of robotics in mining

MAR

06

Las Bambas blockades affect Peru copper shipments

FEB

24

Tata Communications expands enterprise business via cloud, IoT services’

MAR

08

Equatorial Guinea shows progress in gas development and mining exploration

FEB

25

Putting technology to work

MAR

10

The importance of partners in mining digital transformation

MAR

14

Geological Survey Of India Signs MoU With GTK, Finland In Fields Of Geology & Mineral Resources

FEB

26

Exclusive Winners in COVID-hit economy: Thai Women Gold Panners!

MAR

26

Rio iron ore industry is in a healthy state

FEB

35

Remote quarantine plan sparks mining worry

MAR

39

Mothballed NT iron ore mines reopen mid soaring demand for steel in China

FEB

40

Heavy equipment demand is increasing in the Middle East and Africa – Bidder activity on Ritchie Bros

APRL

06

Covid Impact: Coal India to diversify into non-coal mining areas in 2021

MAR

22

Laos’ Xaysomboun Province will have a Chinese company exploring iron mining

MAR

28

APRL

Authorities warn of brewing space mining war among US, China, and Russia

Flying the New Bar with Pumps: A New Level

MAR

41

APRL

Daily desilting of critical importance to mine ponds Mineworker COVID-19 death toll in South Africa Still Rising

MAR

44

Environmental Stewardship Distinguished Service Award Presented to R. David Williams

APR

18

Imports of iron ore from China will set a new high in 2020

APR

22

Trucks VC presents two fresh funds for transportation startups, early and late stage

JULY

Komatsu Vale Partnership Mining Breakthrough

OCT

42 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021

06

06 08

14 24

45

14


ARTICLE

MTH P NO

Important Preliminary Exploration Target Highlights Large Scale Potential and High Grade of Lake Throssell Sulphate of Potash Project

APR

38

INDUSTRY INSIDER ARTICLE

MTH P NO

Randy Reichert Joins Skeena Resources’ Board of Directors

NOV

24

GoviEx New Appointments: Endeavour Financial as its latest Financial Advisor: Team to Success!

NOV

37

Interagency Working Group: “Major Announcement” Would Be Made Soon

NOV

Caravel Minerals Goes for Advisory Announcement and Senior Executive Announcements

NOV

38

40

JOBS ARTICLE

MTH P NO

The mining industry could create 100,000 jobs this year

JUN

36

Miners in Ontario protected on the job

JUN

41

PROFESSIONALS ARTICLE

MTH P NO

The Decarbonizing Capability of Hydrogen-A Source to Reduce Emissions in Iron and Steel Production

MAY

30

ARTICLE Interview with Alan Mitchell Clegg. Independent Director of Resource Companies, South Africa

OCT

27

Interview with Sarah Mojuetan, Communications Volunteer, Women in Mining Uk

NOV

27

SPECIAL FOCUS ARTICLE

MTH P NO

Biden Administration Clean Energy Reforms & their impact on Mining Reforms Bills

JUN

32

A mining startup’s haste for underwater metals poses high risks

AUG

34

For women in mining, it’sUMS leading the way

SEP

18

Intelligent mining market likely to experience high demand

SEP

24

Introducing new tech to your company: 3 strategies

SEP

34

Orissa Mining’s iron ore site marked by MOBISCREEN MS EVO screening plants

SEP

38

Fear mount over Taliban revenge; Afghan Mining professional seeks refugee status in the U.S

SEP

40

Oz Minerals authorized $600 million investment

SEP

42

PRECIOUS-Gold shaken by Delta variant; attention on U.S. inflation

SEP

43

Want to Avoid Lithium Stock Crisis, but is there still time?

OCT

35

Mining & Society

NOV

10

PROFILES IN MINING ARTICLE

MTH P NO

STATISTICS

MTH P NO ARTICLE

Interview With Lara Smith: Founder, Managing Director, Core Consultants

MAY

26

Interview with Ludovic Donati, CDO at Erame

JUN

Interview with Mr. Bruce Cosgrove, B.Sc., M.Sc. (Solution Chemistry) from Simon Fraser University.

JUL

MTH P NO

November 2020 crude steel production

JAN

46

27

World steel announces steel Challenge-15 Finalists

JAN

46

28

crude steel production NOVEMBER 2020

JAN

47

Global crude steel output decreases by 0.9% in 2020

FEB

46

NOVEMBER 2020 crude steel production

FEB

47

MAR

46

Interview with Mr. Richard De Leon, Senior Mining Engineer Consultant Mining Plus -Melbourne, Australia

AUG

26

Interview with JIM FORD, founder of Waypoints Wyoming LLC

SEP

27

Global crude steel output decreases by 0.9% in 2020

www.skillings.net | 43


ARTICLE

MTH P NO

NOVEMBER 2020 crude steel production

MAR

46

Global crude steel output decreases by 0.9% in 2020

APR

46

December 2020 crude steel production

APR

46

March 2021 crude steel production

MAY

46

crude steel production December 2020

MAY

47

April 2021 crude steel production

JUN

46

crude steel production December 2020

JUN

47

April 2021 crude steel production

JUL

46

crude steel production December 2020

JUL

47

June 2021 crude steel production

AUG

46

crude steel production December 2020

AUG

47

June 2021 crude steel production

SEP

46

crude steel production December 2020

SEP

47

August 2021 crude steel production

OCT

46

crude steel production December 2020

OCT

47

September 2021 crude steel production

NOV

46

Crude steel production December 2020

NOV

47

SURFACE MINING ARTICLE

MTH P NO

A plan has been submitted to explore a stateowned nonferrous metals lease

MAY

05

Bill Gates-backed Heliogen assists in the powering of a massive mine

MAY

06

JDS Mining & Energy Inc. and the Elk Gold Project – an investigation

MAY

08

Report: For Maximizing North America EVs Built Canada is Mining Materials

MAY

20

Further in clean Energy: Virginia Coal-mining equipment Supplier

MAY

22

This extremely rare metal is outperforming all other products, including Bitcoin

MAY

44

1,100 miles west Alabama mine employees have announced their intention to strike

MAY

44

The ANM rescue team responds to a mine emergency in the municipality of Neira, Caldas

MAY

45

Inception of surface mining

JUN

20

44 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021

ARTICLE

MTH P NO

The mining project turns center of focus in Greenland vote

JUN

42

Robit Plc’s Financial Agreement Has Been Renewed

JUL

05

The World’s 15 Largest Mining Companies: Based on Market Capitalization

JUL

12

Geotechnical Engineering Market is Expected to Show 6.5% CAGR by 2027

JUL

22

For Chinese mining companies, Peru’s presidential frontrunner poses a risk

JUL

24

NSW Govt May Revisit Uranium Mining Ban

JUL

37

Accelerated Purpose: Mining Needs of the Hour

JUL

38

Coal mining capacity of more than 2 billion tones is about to come online

JUL

44

Can rising iron ore prices reverse Alien Metals’ share price decline?

AUG

05

India needs to double its iron ore mining capacity by 2030

AUG

06

Russia is considering measures to tap mining profits once the export tax is repealed

AUG

16

Mineral Technologies introduces a new modular plant line

AUG

19

Vietnam’s Hoa Phat acquires iron ore mine in Australia

AUG

22

South Africa’s Economy is being rescued by Mining

AUG

24

First-ever green iron ore produced by Fortescue

AUG

32

SEP

05

SEP

06

SEP

16

SEP

22

OCT

05

OCT

06

OCT

22

OCT

16

OCT

24

OCT

25

Metal prices support Philippine mining expansion The Boggabri coal mine, Australia: temporarily closed for Covid-19 Botswana Starts Work on its First Iron-Ore Mine Despite cash inflows, iron ore miners see different futures Bowen: Bring Around Burton Coal Mine Ampcontrol & PPK Mining Equipment ally to deliver EVs for subterranean coal Brazil experiences a mining boom: Iron Ore Plenty Automation Expertise Enricher for Mines Will Automation Help You Out from Not So Interesting Work Components? Trevali shows $111m for Rosh Pinah


ARTICLE

MTH P NO

How ‘Automation’ Made America Work Harder Central Bank Analysis: Australian Coal Mines: Verge of Becoming Stranded: 2030 Mercury Consumption Advisory List Expanded by Seven Oklahoma Lakes New Coal Plants Proposals Scuffled Since the Paris Arrangement Paper Drenched in Synthetic Cannabinoids Trafficked: Coal Township Jail

OCT

42

NOV

14

NOV

JUN

25

16

Iron ore production to grow 5.1% by 2025: Report

JUN

31

NOV

22

BluVein Can Charge Mine Electrification Space

JUN

38

NOV

45

Additional funding for rescue and safety efforts will lead to the saving of lives and improved workplace safety

JUN

41

Canada Refuses to Approve New Thermal Coal Mining Projects: environmental damage at the backdrop

JUL

06

Trimble adds World Sensing Geotechnical IoT Solutions to its Geospatial Automated Monitoring Portfolio

JUL

26

Niocorp Purchases Land, Significant for Nebraska Mine!

JUL

42

Turmoil raises questions on Latin America’s energy transition minerals mining

AUG

40

Twin Metals pledges BEV fleet for Minnesota polymetallic underground mine

SEP

37

Deep-sea mining: Does it threaten our environment, or can it save us?

SEP

44

Underground mining equipment market to gain momentum by 2017-2025

OCT

18

Zacks Points of Interest: Hess Corp, Occidental Petroleum, Marathon Oil, DT Midstream and PHX Minerals

NOV

18

$1M in Brookwood-Sago funds for mine safety teaching by U.S. Department of Labor: 13 miners to be schooled

NOV

42

MTH P NO

Mergers and Acquisition in Iron ore Mining: Royalty companies and explorers are on sale

MAY

Endowment of $19 Million by DOE: An initiatory move for the Production of Rare Earth Elements and Critical Minerals

JUN

Special Issue: North American Iron Ore Report

JUL

08

Bitcoin mining operation is destroying one of the Finger Lakes: Locals

AUG

08

Minexpo is back- Showcasing Giant Machines and Technology Progresses in the Mining Sector

SEP

Afghanistan faces some huge challenges to knock its mineral resource abundance

OCT

Although a new legislation sets deadlines for fossil fuel power facilities Illinois coal mining continues to be a major source of climate changing emissions

NOV

11

10

08 08

33

UNDERGROUND MINING ARTICLE

MTH P NO

Sierra Metals will invest USD28 million in an iron ore processing plant at the Bolivar Mine

THE LEAD ARTICLE

ARTICLE

MTH P NO

More valuable than gold and important for green energy production – what is it?

MAY

37

Pelangio Exploration discovers the latest development and Prepares to Drill at Ghana’s Dankran Project

MAY

38

Global Shipping Chaos: An Unforeseen situation

MAY

42

Norway’s Proposals for Deep-Sea Mining Have Been Slammed by Environmentalists

JUN

22

As Xinjiang miners come back online, Bitcoin hash rate rises

JUN

22

Adirondack Park, NY’s former mine becomes a major solar project

JUN

24

www.skillings.net | 45


STATISTICS

OCTOBER 2021 CRUDE STEEL PRODUCTION

W

orld crude steel production for the 64 countries reporting to the World Steel Association (worldsteel) was 144.4 million tonnes (Mt) in September 2021, an 8.9% decrease compared to September 2020. CRUDE STEEL PRODUCTION BY REGION

Africa produced 1.4 Mt in October 2021, up 24.1% on October 2020. Asia and Oceania produced 100.7 Mt, down 16.6%. The CIS produced 8.3 Mt, down 0.2%. The EU (27) produced 13.4 Mt, up 6.4%. Europe, Other produced 4.4 Mt, up 7.7%. The Middle East produced 3.2 Mt, down 12.7%. North America produced 10.2 Mt, up 16.9%. South America produced 4.0 Mt, up 12.1%. The 64 countries included in this table accounted for approximately 98% of total world crude steel production in 2020. Regions covered by the table: Africa, Asia and Oceania, CIS, European Union (27) Europe, Other, Middle East, North America, South America.

TOP 10 STEEL-PRODUCING COUNTRIES

China produced 71.6 Mt in October 2021, down 23.3% on October 2020. India produced 9.8 Mt, up 2.4%. Japan produced 8.2 Mt, up 14.3%. The United States produced 7.5 Mt, up 20.5%. Russia is estimated to have produced 6.1 Mt, down

Table 1. Crude steel production by region oct 2021 (mt)

% change sep 21/20

0.5%. South Korea produced 5.8 Mt, down 1.0%. Germany produced 3.7 Mt, up 7.0%. Turkey produced 3.5 Mt, up 8.0%. Brazil is estimated to have produced 3.2 Mt, up 10.4%. Iran is estimated to have produced 2.2 Mt, down 15.3%.

Table 2. Top 10 steel-producing countries

jan-sep 2021 (Mt)

% change jan-sep 21/20

oct 2021 (mt) china

71.6

india

9.8

japan

8.2

united states

7.5

% change oct 21/20 -23.3

-0.7

2.4

96.9

20.6

14.3

80.4

17.5

20.5

71.7

19.6

e 6.1

0.5

62.5

5.7

5.8

-1.0

58.7

5.9

3.7

7.0

33.6

15.1

8.0

33.3

14.2

10.4

30.3

19.1

22.4

-5.7

24.1

13.3

30.4

100.7

-16.6

1,166.1

3.0

8.3

-0.2

87.3

5.8

13.4

6.4

128.4

18.4

russia

europe, other

4.4

7.7

42.3

12.8

south korea

middle east

3.2

-12.7

33.0

-1.5

germany

north america

10.2

16.9

98.8

18.8

turkey

3.5

south america

4.0

12.1

38.1

22.6

brazil

e 3.2

145.7

-10.6

1,607.1

5.9

iran

e 2.2

-15.3

asia and oceania cis eu (27)

total 64 countries

% change jan-oct 21/20

877.1

1.4

africa

jan-oct 21 (mt)

The 64 countries included in this table accounted for approximately 98% of total world crude steel production in 2020. Regions and countries covered by the table: Africa: Egypt, Libya, South Africa. Asia and Oceania: Australia, China, India, Japan, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Korea, Taiwan (China), Vietnam. CIS: Belarus, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan. European Union (27). Europe, Other: Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia, Norway, Serbia, Turkey, United Kingdom. Middle East: Iran, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates. North America: Canada, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico, United States. South America: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela

46 | SKILLINGS MINING REVIEW December 2021


CRUDE STEEL PRODUCTION DECEMBER 2020. Source – World Steel Association COUNTRY

DEC 2020

DEC 2019

%CHANGE DEC-20/19

2020

% CHANGE

COUNTRY

DEC 2020

DEC 2019

%CHANGE DEC-20/19

2020

% CHANGE

Austria

530 e

521

1.7

6 665

-10.2

Mexico

1 550 e

1 361

13.9

16 854

-8.3

Belgium

359

505

-28.9

6 119

-21.1

United States

6 434

7 292

-11.8

72 690

-17.2

Bulgaria

40 e

43

-6.3

485

-14.3

Croatia

15 e

7

101.9

47

-32.0

North America

9 107

9 801

-7.1

101 119

-15.5

388

326

19.0

3 651

-21.4

2 886

2 462

17.2

30 971

-4.9

Argentina

Czech Republic

408

359

13.7

4 465

0.6

Finland

339

186

81.8

3 500

0.8

France

1 155

918

25.7

11 596

-19.8

Chile

105 e

109

-3.5

1 165

2.8

Germany

3 137

2 835

10.6

35 658

-10.0

Colombia

110 e

97

13.5

1 126

-15.5

94

17.0

1 430

5.9

Ecuador

50 e

50

0.5

477

-21.5

164

-44.8

1 513

-14.5

Paraguay

3 e

3

-4.4

22

-17.5

1 404

6.9

20 200

-12.9

Peru

105 e

91

15.8

671

-45.4

Uruguay

5 e

5

-7.2

47

-24.6

Venezuela

2 e

0

315.8

29

-43.6

3 654

3 143

16.3

38 158

-8.4

Egypt

994

574

73.0

8 229

13.4

Libya

73

63

16.2

495

-18.4

297

-1.5

3 877

-37.0

934

45.5

12 600

-10.1

2 224

19.6

29 030

13.4

85

186

-54.3

1 218

-52.4

Saudi Arabia

440

664

-33.8

7 775

-5.1

United Arab Emirates

280

297

-5.8

2 722

-18.2

3 465

3 371

2.8

40 745

2.7

China

91 252

84 692

7.7 1 052 999

5.2

India

9 796

9 383

4.4

99 570

-10.6

Japan

7 526

7 785

-3.3

83 194

-16.2

South Korea

5 952

5 880

1.2

67 121

-6.0

380 e

261

45.6

3 743

13.3

1 700 e

1 693

0.4

20 570

-6.3

Thailand

410 e

357

14.8

4 420

4.1

Vietnam

1 600 e

1 876

19 500

11.6

118 616

111927

6.0

1 351 117

1.6

473

449

5.4

5 490

0.0

59

57

3.8

586

-12.2

533

506

5.2

6 076

-1.4

Greece Hungary Italy

110 e 90 1 500 e

Luxembourg

113

97

17.3

1 886

-11.0

Netherlands

540

521

3.6

6 054

-9.1

Poland

680 e

642

5.9

7 890

-11.9

Slovenia

50 e

34

45.0

570

-8.5

Spain

891

765

16.4

10 934

-19.5

Sweden

410

376

8.9

4 409

-6.6

United Kingdom

710 e

550

29.0

7 185

-0.5

Other E.U. (28) (e)

680 e

642

6.0

8180

-12.1

10 665

10.2

138 786

-11.8

European Union (28) 11 757 Bosnia-Herzegovina

75

70

6.5

759

-5.2

Macedonia

33

24

35.9

180

-24.8

Norway

41

40

3.2

624

0.5

Serbia

119

158

-24.8

1 456

-24.6

Turkey

3 403

2 893

17.7

35 763

6.0

Other Europe

3 671

3 185

15.3

38 782

3.9

Byelorussia

200 e

225

-11.2

2 490

-5.0

Kazakhstan

355 e

374

-5.0

3 835

-7.2

45 e

35

28.2

465

18.7

Russia

6 110 e

6 159

-0.8

73 400

2.6

Ukraine

1 906

1 561

22.1

20 616

-1.1

84

-4.8

950

42.6

Moldova

Uzbekistan

80 e

C.I.S. (6)

8 696

8 438

3.1

101 756

1.5

Canada

1 070 e

1 092

-2.0

11 078

-14.1

20 e

22

-8.5

181

-21.4

El Salvador

8 e

8

-5.7

79

-22.5

Guatemala

25 e

26

-3.9

237

-22.6

Cuba

Brazil

South America

South Africa

292 e

Africa

1 359

Iran

2 660 e

Qatar

Middle East

Pakistan Taiwan, China

Asia Australia New Zealand Oceania

Total 64 countries (1) 160 858

151 969

5.8 1 829 140

-0.9

(1) - HADEED only. (2) - the 64 countries included in this table accounted for approximately 99% of total world crude steel production in 2019. e - estimated

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