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contents

Features

Columns

Appealing Subjects

Copyright For Family Historians

pg. 12

The Year Was . . .

Wedding Inspiration In The Magazines

pg. 6

I Collect Wedding Photographs

pg. 30

Maureen Taylor

Is On Hiatus This Issue

The Future of Memories

pg.. 36

Behind The Camera

pg. 42

Captured Moments

pg. 50

Now Comes The Bride

pg. 56

In2Genealogy

pg. 76

The Long & The Short Of It

pg. 92

Penelope Dreadful

pg. 88

Wedding In Miniature

Wedding Memories

Everybody Loves A Wedding

The Ancestor Network Method

100 Years Too Dreadfully Early

The Healing Brush

Is On Hiatus This Issue

Saving Face

Wedding Dress Preservation

On The Cover Card Mounted Photograph See Article pg. 104

pg. 100

Photographing The Wedding Wedding Costume Wedding Trivia

Tom Thumb Weddings

pg. 104

In Every Issue

From My Keyboard

pg. 4

The Exchange

pg. 5

Letter from the editor Your comments

The Last Picture Show

The graphic image on the back of a carte-de-visite or cabinet card

Download The Magazine

Back Cover


from my keyboard fOOTNOTEMAVEN

THE WEDDINGS OF OLD ISSUE Saturday, July 31, 2010, Chelsea Clinton was married. There has been a tremendous amount of speculation as to the cost of the wedding of the former first daughter. Here at Shades, we were curious as to just what it will cost to photograph her wedding. According to celebrity and wedding photographers Jerritt Clark and Denis Leon, the cost of one main photojournalist and assistant, plus two second photojournalists, brings the cost to $20,000. Prewedding events (such as the rehearsal dinner) cost an additional $5,000, and any after-event purchases, such as enlargements or duplicates, are an additional $5,000. Photo albums are $2,000 each. Because no recording devices will be allowed in the venue, the Clintons will likely have additional photos taken as memorabilia for guests. NewYorkDailyNews.com I say, if you’ve got it, spend it. Our ancestors purchased what they could afford, whether it was the wedding costume or the wedding photograph, as you will see in this issue. When I started this project I purchased four wedding photographs, thinking I didn’t have enough photographic material. Then I started pulling photographs from my collection and realized I had more to share than I could have imagined. I’ll also admit I have enjoyed this trip down the aisle more than any other Shades issue I’ve done. No wonder Maureen Taylor collects photographs of brides. Join Shades as we explore the Weddings Of Old Issue.


contributors PENELOPE DREADFUL

VICKIE EVERHART

GEORGE GEDER

Penelope Dreadful is the alter ego of Denise Levenick. Denise authors the blog, The Family Curator and gives us something “Dreadful” every month.

Vicki is the author of Creative Moments. She also authors the blog BeNotForgot.

George is the author of The Healing Brush Column. He also authors the George Geder blog.

DENISE OLSON

SHERI FENLEY

CAROLINE POINTER

Denise is the author of The Future of Memories Column. She also writes the blog Family Matters and experiments with her iPad

Sheri writes The Year Was . . . Column. She also authors the blog The Educated Genealogist.

Caroline is the new In2Genealogy Columnist. She is also the author of the Family Stories blog.

REBECCA FENNING

CRAIG MANSON

FOOTNOTEMAVEN

Rebecca authors the Saving Face column. She also writes the blog A Sense of Face.

Craig authors the Appealing Subjects column. He also writes the blog Geneablogie.

Maven edits Shades Of The Departed The Magazine. She also writes the blog footnoteMaven and Shades of the Departed.


THE EXCHANGE

LEAVE A MESSAGE WITH THE EXCHANGE

The May 2010 issue of Shades of the Departed Magazine is a keeper!

Gini Webb Another remarkable issue of "Shades" fM! So grateful to you and your contributors. Thank you!

I really enjoyed every article in this month's Shades magazine. What a work of scholarship, beauty and art. I encourage all of my readers to read this magazine at your leisure (meaning, spend some time reading it - don't hurry through).

Billie C. Barb I just discovered your "Shades" and love it!

Thank you, footnoteMaven and columnists. Excellent work!

Hugs and love, Billie Randy Seaver - Genea-Musings And thank you Gini, Billie, & Randy for your continued support! fM & the Shadettes


Where Did The Brides Of Old Get Their Wedding Inspiration? Why, you’re looking at the best way; a magazine. Often when fashion is discussed in the pages of Shades, reference will be made to several of  the  famous  fashion  magazines  of  the  time.  One  of  those  magazines,  the  Delineator,  even  offered the bride the pattern for her gown. The history of these magazines and their bridal collections, done as fashion plates, make for  some very interesting reading.

AND NOW YOU KNOW:

A fashion plate was a "full-page picture in a popular magazine showing the prevailing or latest style of dress." The image was printed from a plate. By the 1920s this had come to mean a "well-dressed person.”

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Image courtesy of LOC.

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GODEY’S LADYʼS BOOK Begun  by  Louis  A.  Godey  in  June,  1830,  the  Lady’s  Book  was  not  the  Girst  nor  the  only  American magazine devoted to women (Graham's Magazine, Peterson's) , but it did become  the most popular. Each  issue  contained  poetry,  articles,  and  engravings  created  by  prominent  writers  and  other  artists  of  the  time.  One  of  those  prominent  writers  was  Edgar  Allen  Poe,  who  contributed anonymously.  Magazines and newspapers of the day copied heavily  from other  publications  of the time.  Godey decided to preserve his articles for his publication only through copyright. There 

8 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010

Image courtesy of LOC.

Magazine covers courtesy of the authors collection.

Godey’s sold for $2.00 per year in 1888, the equivalent of $47.15 today.


was  a  hue  and  cry,  but  Godey  was  defended  by  Poe  and soon  magazines  had  to  ask  for  permission to reprint articles.  Fashion plates,  such as  those pictured here,  gave the bride to be wonderful inspiration for  her  wedding day.  Most  of the bridal fashions  of the time originated in Paris.  In addition to  images and plates of fashions, and each month's description of the fashion plate, the Book  contained articles on dressmaking and dressing. On the eve of the Civil War the magazine’s subscription rate was estimated to be 150,000. It  was the  editorial  policy of the Lady's Book  to  virtually ignore the Civil War,  describing the  magazine as an "oasis" from the struggle. This policy apparently did the periodical no harm  and it continued to Glourish throughout the decade. Sarah  Josepha  Hale  (author  of  "Mary  Had  a Little Lamb") was  the magazine’s  editor  from  1837 until 1877.  Godey  sold the magazine in 1877, he died in 1878. The magazine ceased 

Images courtesy of the NYPL Digital Collection -

publication in 1898.

"Remember the Lady's Book is not a mere luxury; it is a necessity.” - Louis Godey Shades MAGAZINE | www.shadesofthedeparted.com 9


Images courtesy of the authors collection.

THE DELINEATOR In 1872 Ebenezer Butterick,  of the E. Butterick  & Company pattern manufacturers,   began  publishing the Delineator fashion magazine. Until that time, Butterick's unique contribution  to  the  world of  fashion was to  have  invented  the  tissue  paper  dress  pattern;  before that,  only the wealthy could afford to even consider fashion with regard to their own wardrobes.  Patterns  were  given  as  premiums  with  annual  subscriptions  and  discount  coupons  were  printed  in  the  magazine  for  certain  patterns  of  the  fashion  plates  contained  in  the  magazine.

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In  the  United  States,  women  had  casts  made  of  their  bodies  and  sent  to  dressmakers,  usually  found  abroad,  and  the  dressmaker  would  then send out  dolls  wearing  miniature  versions of their new designs. In  the late eighties  the  Delineator  expanded  to  eighty  pages  and  boasted  a  readership  of  200,000. Wedding fashion  plates,  magazine covers  and articles  about  brides  were very  popular.  In  October  1900,  the  Delineator  published  an  article  on  White  House  Brides  furnishing  a  picture of life and manners during the  different  administrations.  This was precipitated by  the fact  that  Miss Mabel McKinley,  the  President's  niece,  was  to  be married.  Although she  was not to  be married in the White House,  interest in former weddings in which the Chief  Executive participated was sparked.  The Delineator’s history abruptly ends in May 1937 when it was combined with the Hearst  Periodical, Pictorial Review.

BRIDES MAGAZINE/SO YOU’RE GOING TO BE MARRIED Brides Magazine was the first bridal magazine to ever be published? The magazine, So You're Going to Be Married, commenced publication in Autumn of 1934. It was published four times a year.

Image courtesy of Brides.com

In 1936, the magazine was renamed The Bride’s Magazine and "featured silver lamé wedding gowns, honeymoons in Havana, advice on dealing with housemaids, and a 'kitchen party' recipe for barbecued frankfurters." - Brides.com Today there are a flood of bridal magazines on the market.

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APPEALING SUBJECTS

copyright for family historians WHAT ABOUT THOSE WEDDING PICTURES? CRAIG MANSON

Everyone  loves  wedding  pictures (I  think)! Since the  beginning  of the  age of photography  175 years  ago  weddings  have been one  of the  most  frequent  subjects of the photographic  art.   Every family album has wedding photographs.   In natural disasters, many people try to  save  their  wedding  photographs  before  even  the  dog!   Planning  a  wedding  includes  hiring  a  photographer.      For  well  over a century, weddings have stocked the cupboards  of many a professional photographer. Photographing  weddings  is  a  lot  more  complex  than  "everybody  say  'Cheese!'"  The  best  professional  wedding photographers are considered practitioners of  a  high  art.    The  wedding  photographers  of  antiquity  (say,  before  the  mid‐1950's)  had  their  jobs  made  easier by the fact that not every Tom, Dick,  and Aunt  Jane their own cameras portable enough to bring to  a  wedding  and  compete  with  the  hired  professional.    Consider  also  that  the  time  and  expense  of  developing a  photograph  also  meant  that  not  every  guest  was  going  to  shoot  a  wedding. EDNA MARY MICHEAU ON HER WEDDING DAY, 1939 12 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


In  any  event,  fortunately,  for  family  historians  and  those  of  us  who  just  like  old  photographs,  old  wedding  photographs  have  been  preserved.    However  as  we  wedding  photographs,  an old bugaboo  raises  its  head:  copyright law.    May  we  publish old wedding  pictures or make other use of them? Modern wedding photographers  generally  retain copyright in their photographs. Why and  how  can  this  be?   Furthermore,  many  modern wedding  photographers require a  "models  release"  from  the  wedding  couple,  thus  clearing  the  way  for  the  photographer  to  fully  exercise  his  or  her  retained  rights  under  the  copyright.    Here's  a  sample  clause  from  a  wedding photography contract:  COPYRIGHTS: The photographs or prints produced by  PHOTOGRAPHER  are protected by U.S. Copyright Law (all rights  reserved) and may not be reproduced in any manner without  PHOTOGRAPHER’s explicit written permission.  a.  Prints provided to THE CLIENT(S) are the property of THE  CLIENT(S) for personal use and for the sole additional purposes of   limited reproduction for distribution to relatives and friends.  All  other printed photographs must be ordered through  PHOTOGRAPHER.  b.  THE CLIENT(S) must obtain written permission from, and  compensate PHOTOGRAPHER  prior to an event where THE  CLIENT(S), THE CLIENT’S friends or relatives publish or sell the  photographs for proGit.  MODEL RELEASE: THE CLIENT(S) hereby assign(s) and grant(s)  PHOTOGRAPHER  and its legal representatives the irrevocable and  unrestricted right to use and publish photographs of THE CLIENT(S)  or in which THE CLIENT(S) may be included, for editorial, trade,  advertising or any other purpose and in any manner and medium; to  alter the same without restriction; and to copyright the same. THE  CLIENT(S) hereby release(s) PHOTOGRAPHER  and its legal  representatives and assigns from all claims and liability relating to  said photographs. It is agreed that PHOTOGRAPHER  may display and  use the photographs taken for advertising, display, photographic  contests, public display such as in malls, photography books,  photography instructional books, store fronts, window displays, studio  display, television  advertising, magazine advertising and any other  purpose thought proper by PHOTOGRAPHER.

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(Technology‐saavy readers may be saying that this must be a pre‐Ditigal Age contract;  that's true‐‐there are a lot them out there!) So are we saying that a couple does not own their own wedding photographs? Yes.  In a sense . . . . in order  to fully understand this issue we'll have to go back to Kopyright  Kollege for a refresher course.

Copyright Law: the Basics Copyright law dates from  early 18th century  England.  In 1710, the parliament adopted a a  bill  known as "An Act for the Encouragement  of Learning,  by vesting the Copies of Printed  Books  in  the Authors  or  purchasers of such Copies,  during  the Times therein mentioned".   Also known as the Copyright Act 1710, and frequently referred to  as the "Statute of Anne,"  this  legislation  introduced the fundamentals  of  copyright  as we know  them today.   When  the  U.S.  Constitution  was  being  written  some  80  years  later,  a  constitutional  convention  adopted  the  essence  of  the  statute  of  Anne  by  empowering  Congress  "To  promote  the  Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors  the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries[.]"    The Girst Congress,  so  empowered, immediately adopted the Copyright Act of 1790, which mirrored the statute of  Anne, by granting a 14 year term of copyright, renewable for a second 14 year term.

STEVE FERRARO AND EDITH BURGE WERE MARRIED ABOUT THE TIME THAT CONGRESS WAS PASSING THE COPYRIGHT ACT OF 1909

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When photography came along in the  late  1830s,  no  immediate thought  was  given to  the  issue of copyright.  Later it was been believed by  some that a photograph could not be the  subject of copyright.  Congress  in 1865 extended copyright protection to photographs.  But  that was not the end of the matter.

Ladies and Gentlemen,�� Please Welcome, Once Again, Mr. Oscar Wilde! In  the  1880's,  famed  lithographer  Napoleon  Sarony  (1821‐1896)  began  making  photographic  portraits  of  the leading  men and  women of  the  American  theatre.  Without  Sarony's  permission,  a  company called Burrows‐Giles  Lithography  began  selling copies  of  one of Sarony's 1882 portraits of Oscar Wilde.  Never mind the fact that each copy, like the  original,  bore  the  legend,  "Copyright,  1882,  by  N.  Sarony."  Sarony  sued.  Burrow‐Giles  Lithography  Co.  v.  Sarony,  111  U.S.  53 (1884).  The  alleged infringer argued that  the 1865  act extending copyright protection to photographs was unconstitutional.  The basis for this  argument was that  the Constitution gave Congress  the power secure  "for  limited times to  authors  and  inventors  the  exclusive  rights  to  their  respective  writings  and  inventions."  Burrows‐Giles,  the  infringing  company,  asserted  that a  photograph was neither  a "writing" nor an  "invention,"  and  so  could  not  be  protected  by  copyright or patent. Indeed, the defendant argued,  a  photograph  could  not  possibly  be  a  writing,  it  merely  "being  a  reproduction,  on  paper,  of  the  exact  features  of  some  natural  object  or  of some  person,  .  .  .  of which  the  [photographer]  is  [not]  the author."

"Oscar Wilde, No. 18, by Napoleon Sarony. Where would copyright law be if Sarony hadn't  dressed Wilde?"

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The United  States  Supreme  Court reviewed  the  history  of the  copyright  laws,  noting  that  the Girst copyright act in 1790, referred only to maps, charts, and books.   In 1802, Congress  amended the act to include engravings, etchings and "historical prints or other prints." The  Court astutely observed that "[t]he only reason why photographs were not included in [the  copyright  act  of  1802]  is,  probably,  that  they  did  not  exist  .  .  .  ."  Probably.  The  Court  eventually  came  to  the  conclusion  that  the  Constitution  is  broad  enough  to  cover  an act  authorizing  copyright  of  photographs,  "so  far  as  they  are  representative  of  original  intellectual  conceptions  of  the  author."  Now  this  last  phrase  was  very  important  to  the  Court's collective 19th century mind. The Court hinted that  maybe not  every photograph could be the subject of copyright:  only  those  "in  which  there  is  novelty,  invention,  originality"  perhaps  might  be  properly  copyrighted. Thus, the Court found it important that Sarony had posed Oscar Wilde in front  of  the  camera,  "selecting  and  arranging  the  costume,  draperies  and  other  various  accessories  in  said  photograph,  arranging  the  subject  so  as  to  present  graceful  outlines,  arranging  and  disposing  the  light  and  shade,  suggesting  and  evoking  the  desired  expression . . . ." These facts, said the Court, showed the photographer to be an "author," that  is, "he to whom anything owes its origin;" and the photograph to be "an original work of art,  the  product  of  the  [photographer's]  intellectual  invention,"  and  therefore  eligible  for  copyright protection. The manner in which the photographer handled Wilde, according to the court's description   is  certainly  what  a  wedding  photographer  does.    But  still,  in  the  19th  century  way  of  thinking, there still might be some doubt that wedding photographs could be the subject of  copyright.    

A wedding is not "the product of a photographer's intellectual invention." Frankly, by that standard, not many things could be copyrighted in photographic form.

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The Essence of Copyright Protection: Basics

To  be  eligible  for  copyright  protection,  a  work  must  be an "original  work  of authorship."   Under current law,  the copyright attaches  as soon as the work has  been Gixed in a tangible  form. There presently virtually  no formalities  for a work  to  gain copyright.   The copyright  belongs to the author who created the work, with some exceptions. Some  of  the  exceptions  to  the  rule  that  the  copyright  belongs  to  the  author  have  long  existed in the law.   For example, a work of the United States government, that is, something  authored by ofGicers, employees, and agents of the government, is not eligible for copyright  protection by  anyone.  Government  works  are  in  the public  domain.    [This  applies  to  the  federal government only; state government works may or may not be subject to copyright‐‐ check the relevant state law].

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An author cannot claim copyright in a "work for hire."   A "work  for hire" is one created by  an employee  in course of his  or  her  employment.  The  employer and  not  the  employee is  considered the "author" for copyright purposes.   A wedding photographer is not generally  an employee  of the  couple,  but  instead  usually  is  an independent  contractor.      Thus,  the  photographer is the author of the wedding pictures. Of  course,  the  parties  could  agree  by  contract  that  the  copyright  would  be  held  by  the  wedding couple and not by the photographer.   Indeed,  this  happens sometimes.   However,  with the law on their side, photographers who  surrender their copyrights to clients usually  do so for a premium from the client. BUCHARD WEDDING, MATAMOROS, TEXAS

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Interestingly,  the copyright law in Australia makes the client and not the photographer, the  copyright owner if the work is for a private purpose, such as a wedding or a family portrait.   Until 1989, the  United Kingdom's law was that a copyright belonged to who commissioned  a work and not the original creator.  Now the UK rule is similar to that in the USA.

How Copyright Law Affects the Use of Wedding Photographs A  copyright  holder  has  exclusive  rights  to,  among  other  things,    reproduce  a  work;   distribute it; display it; transmit it; and to prepare derivative works based on it.   In the case  of wedding photographs, all of these rights belong to  the photographer,  unless that parties  agree otherwise.  Even if the photographer physically delivered all the negatives (and, these  days,  digital  media  and  copies)  to  the  client,  the  client  still  would  have  none  of  the  legal  rights  of  the  photographer  under  copyright  law. 

  The  client  couldn't  reproduce  the 

photographs  for  friends  and  relatives  and  couldn't distribute extant copies to them.  

[An historical aside: Back in the day, there were publications in most cities and towns that were called "newspapers." They were "printed" by a primitive process involving something called a "press." These ancient publications carried news from the previous day or even a few days earlier if the news came from a distant location. Anyway, these "newspapers" way back had a section called the "society page," where photographs of wellto-do brides were published. The photographs often came directly from the photographer and bore a credit line. Photographers' contracts frequently provided permission for this form of publication. The paper otherwise would be violating the photographer's copyright.].

AN EXAMPLE OF WEDDING PHOTOS IN A "NEWSPAPER"

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If a photograph is in the public domain, then it may freely used by anyone for any purpose.   A photograph enters the public domain when its copyright term expires, among other ways. Ascertaining whether an old wedding photograph is in the public domain can be a bit tricky.   That's  because many such photographs don't have dates or photographer's  name on them.   This fact is exacerbated by the convoluted path that copyright terms have taken. The original copyright act  in 1790 provided a 14 year term which could be renewed once  for another 14 years. The 1802 copyright act had the same terms It would seem rather easy  to date a photograph within 28 years.   The 1802 act was in effect when photography made  its popular debut in the 1830s. By 1909,  the term had become 28 years, renewable  for 28 years.   Then in 1976,  Congress  changed the  whole  scheme: copyrights would now  last through the life  of the  author plus  50 years.  In 1998, Congress extended that to  the life of the author plus 70 years  for works  created on or after January 1, 1978.  But  of course,  millions  perhaps  of old  wedding pictures  exist  which were  created  before  January 1,  1978.   Whether  they are  in the  public domain or not depends  on  when before  1978 they were registered or published under the 1909 Copyright Act.

Tlingit woman named Lucy Kininhook and Tsimshian man named Rev. Edward Marsden pose for their marriage ceremony, Alaska, ca. 1909.

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Recall  that  the  1909  Act  permitted an  initial  term  of 28  years,  renewable  for  another 28  years, for a total term of 56 years.   The work had to be published or registered and contain  a proper  copyright  notice.  By  1978 (the effective date of the  new  terms  in the 1976 Act),  works copyrighted in 1923 and earlier had run their 56 year course.   Thus, if a photograph  can be dated to a point earlier than December 31, 1923, it is in the public domain. . . .maybe. The  twist  is  that  if  a  work  created before 1978 had  not  been published or  registered by  January  1,  1978,  it  is  now  subject  to  copyright  under  the  1976  Act.  The  term  for  these  works is generally the life of the author plus 70 years, but at least until   December 31, 2047  if the work was published on or before December 31, 2002.  

The wedding of Cedelia Wrazen and Bronislaus Nowak, who are of Polish descent.May 1943. They apologized for the smallness of the wedding, blamed it on rationing of food, talked of how their parents' weddings had lasted for four days of feasting.

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It is important to understand what constitutes "publication" for  copyright law purposes. “Publication” is the distribution of copies or phonorecords  of a work to the public by sale or other transfer of owner‐ ship, or by rental, lease, or lending. The offering to distribute  copies or phonorecords to a group of persons for purposes of  further distribution, public performance, or public display  constitutes publication. A public performance or display of   a work does not of itself constitute publication. Here's an example: suppose the photograph below was taken in 1918. Suppose further that  the photographer, born in 1888,   kept  the photograph in a cabinet  in his  studio,  sharing it  with no one.  Wedding chapel. Yuma, Arizona. Many Californians elope to Yuma in order to avoid the California threeday law, which provides for a lapse of three days between application for license and the ceremony.

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On New  Years  Day 1972, the  photographer dies.  On the sixth anniversary of his death,  the  photograph becomes subject to copyright for a term of 70 years running from 1972, that is,  until the year 2042. However, under  the statute,  the term actually  will run until December  31, 2047.  So a 100 year old photograph could still be under copyright protection for almost  another third of a century. Now let's change the facts a bit.  In this scenario, the photographer re‐discovers his photo in  January  1972.  He  immediately  follows  the  provisions  of  the  1909  Act,  and  publish  the  photograph with the proper formalities. On  January 1,  1978, the photographer dies.   How  long until the photograph enters the public domain? 

Mud Bay or Oyster Bay Indians. Left to right: Olympia Jim, Henry Martin, Ed Smith from Chehalis, his bride, daughter of Jim Tobin, Annie Tobin, Mrs. Mary Jackson Jim.

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Under the 1909 Act which was in effect  in 1972,  the photographer's  heirs would have the  right to a 28 year term plus a 28 year renewal, so under that law, the photo would enter the  public domain in 2028.   But, under the 1976 law, or works which were copyright protected on January 1, 1978, the  renewal period was extended from 28 years to  47 years  for a total of 75 years.   The 1998  legislation extended that by another 20 years for a total of 95 years.  In this case, then, the  photograph would remain under  copyright  until  the year  2067.     The  photograph  would  then be almost 150 years old.   MY LATE COUSIN LORRINE NEAL AND HER LATE HUSBAND, LONNIE YOUNG

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As  noted earlier,  it can be difGicult  at times to get  accurate information about the creation  and  publication  dates  of  photographs.    Caution  is  advised  before  making  public  use  of  photographs whose origins are unknown. Why  all  the  recent  extensions  of  the  copyright  term  which the  Constitution  says  is  to  be  "limited?" One reason was to bring the United States into compliance with the provisions of  international treaties and the practices of our trade partners.   And then there's at least one  800‐lb. commercial gorilla in the copyright jungle. I'm not naming names but his initials are  M‐I‐C‐K‐ . . . well, you know who I'm talking about. . . .

WHEN IS A MOUSE A GORILLA? WHEN HE WANTS AN EXTENSION OF HIS INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS! Fair Use Fortunately,  for the  purposes of most  family  historians  and photophilists,  there  may be  a  way    to  avoid liability  for infringing the  copyright of ancient wedding photographs. There  are some limitations  on the  copyright holder's exclusive rights. One of these limitations is  "fair use."  Section 107 of the copyright law says that

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the fair use of a copyrighted work, including such use by reproduction in  copies or phonorecords or by any other means speciGied by that section, for  purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including  multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an  infringement of copyright.  The examples of "fair use" given in the statute are just that: examples, not an exclusive list.   The statute goes on to say that In determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case  is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include —  (1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is  of a commercial nature or is for nonproGit educational purposes; (2) the nature of the copyrighted work; (3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the  copyrighted work as a whole; and (4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the  copyrighted work. In  the  leading case  of Campbell  v.  Acuff­Rose  Music,  Inc.,  510  U.S.  569,  considered by  the  United  States  Supreme  Court  in  1994,  Justice  Souter  said:  "The  fair  use  doctrine  thus  “permits  [and requires] courts to avoid rigid application of the copyright statute when,  on  occasion, it would stiGle the very creativity which that law is designed to foster.”  Most  family  historians  and  lovers  of  old  photographs  desire  to  make  creative  use  of old  wedding photographs, if not an educational use. These  four  "fair  use"  factors  are  applied on  a  case‐by‐case  basis.  There  is    no  "fair  use"  arbiter  or  tribunal  other  than  a  federal  court.  In  the  Ginal  analysis,  only  judges  can  say  deGinitively what is and is not "fair use."   So  get  out  there  and  Gind  those  ancient  wedding  photographs,  scrapbook  them,  publish  them on  a blog or social networking site so we can share in them.    And  how  about  the  pictures  of  your  own  wedding?    Can  you  tell  if  they're  subject  to  a  copyright  held  by  someone  other  than  you  and  your  spouse?  How  about  your  parents'  wedding photographs?

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If you're planning a wedding,  will  you try to  negotiate a more favorable  copyright/model  release provision?  Everything is negotiable and there are many options.   This  has  been  a  refresher  on  copyright  issues  as  related  to  photographs.  If  it's  your  Mirst  exposure  to  these  issues,  feel  free  to  ask  questions.    This article  is for  educational  purposes  only  and  is  not  intended  to  constitute  legal  advice.  If  you  have  an  actual  legal  problem,  contact a lawyer licensed to practice in your jurisdiction. Photographic Credits: 1. Woxi Haury: Photographer Unknown Library of Congress found at: http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.award/wauaipn.image.952 Original held by Estelle Reel Collection Repository: Eastern Washington State Historical Society Digital ID: wauaipn.image 952 2. Buchard wedding Photographer: Runyon, Robert, 1881-1968 Library of Congress found at: http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.award/txuruny.09344 The Robert Runyon Photograph Collection, [image number 09344], courtesy of The Center for American History and General Libraries, University of Texas at Austin Robert Runyon Photograph Collection Repository:The Center for American History and General Libraries, University of Texas at Austin 3.Alaskan wedding Library of Congress found at:http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.award/wauaipn.image.1880 Original held by: Native American Collection no. 275 University of Washington Libraries Digital ID: wauaipn.image 1880 4. Buffalo NY Wedding Library of Congress Collins, Marjory, 1912-1985, photographer. United States. Office of War Information. Overseas Picture Division. Washington Division; 1944. CALL NUMBER: LC-USW3- 024953-D REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USW3-024953-D DLC (b&w film neg.) PART OF: Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection (Library of Congress) REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print

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6. Puget Sound Part of General Indian Collection no. 564 Repository: University of Washington Libraries Digital ID: wauaipn.image 1963 Reference number for image in collection no. 564: Ab-39 Reproduction Number: NA662 found at: http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.award/wauaipn.image.1963 7. Ferraro-Burge wedding Unidentified photographer Call Number: NV9-WS44-5 Digital ID: afc96ran 44947 found at: http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.afc/afc96ran.44947 8. Wedding chapel. Yuma, Arizona. Lee, Russell, 1903-1986, photographer. United States. Office of War Information. Overseas Picture Division. Washington Division; 1944. CALL NUMBER: LC-USF34- 072104-D REPRODUCTION NUMBER: LC-USF34-072104-D DLC (b&w film neg.) PART OF: Farm Security Administration - Office of War Information Photograph Collection (Library of Congress) REPOSITORY: Library of Congress Prints & Photographs Division Washington, DC 20540 found at: http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/fsa.8c24230 9. Edna Mary Micheau Photographer Unknown Part of the Micheau Family Collection Original held by Margarett Penny Manson, Carmichael, California 10. Lorrine Young Photographer Unknown Part of the Gines Family Collection Original held by Craig Manson, Carmichael, California 11. Oscar Wilde Photographer: Napoleon Sarony found at Wikimedia Commons, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Oscar_Wilde_by_Napoleon_Sarony_%281821-1896% 29_Number_18.jpeg 12. Edna & Alquinston Clipping from St Louis American (newspaper), St Louis, MO, 19 June 1939 Photographer unknown Original clipping held by Edna Micheau Penny, Sacramento, California

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There is something about a wedding photo that I find mesmerizing. Perhaps it’s because it captures a couple at a milestone of their life. It freeze-frames a hopefully happy moment. Maureen Taylor The Photo Detective

I Collect Wedding Photographs

I’ve  been  collecting  wedding  images  for  quite  a  while  and  am  always  on  the  look‐out  for  new  images.  My  dream  is  to  compile  a  book  of  wedding  images  and  history  that  covers  everything  from  Gloral  arrangements  to  cakes  and attire for all members of the wedding party.   I’m  busy  compiling  all  the  data  needed  to 

explain  the  photos.  It’s  a  frustrating  search  in  many  cases.  There  are  clues  in  wedding  photos  that defy  explanation.  The  details  are  often lost  in a  family history mystery.   One  of  the  most  misunderstood  wedding  images  is  a  woman in a dark colored dress with a veil.  A quick look at  eBay  reveals  many  “Victorian  brides  in  mourning.” This  simply isn’t true. Here’s a simple rundown of some basic  facts on wedding dress.  According  to  the  newspapers  of  the  time,  Queen  Victoria wore a lace robe and veil.  On her head was a  “wreath of orange Glowers and a small diamond pin,  by which the nuptial veil was fastened to her hair.2”  The Queen  set a new  standard for  Victorian brides  with  her  white  wedding  dress,  but  not  all  could  afford  a  dress  to  be  worn  a  single  time.  In  fact,  wedding  dress  colors  varied in the 19th century.   30 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010

Paintin g

 by Geo rge Ha y

ter 3


A  picture  of Rutherford B.  Hayes  and  his  wife  Lucy  Ware  Webb  on  their  wedding  day, December 30, 1852.  Only the caption  a n d  t h e  d a t e  o f  t h i s  c o p y  o f  a  daguerreotype  provide  information  that  this is a wedding related image.  Lucy Hayes wore a wedding gown but this  image doesn’t depict  it.  You can view  her  handmade  dress  on  the  Rutherford  B.  Hayes  Presidential  Library  [LINK]  website.    It’s  a  gorgeous  white  brocade  silk with an off‐white lining. 

During the  Civil  War,  women married in their  everyday  clothes.   Purple  was  a  popular choice to honor the deceased soldiers. 5


In  this  1860s  image,  the  presence  of  the  Gloral  spray  held  by  the  man  and  the  small  nosegays  pinned  to  their  bodices  suggest  it’s  a  wedding image6.    In 1876. Aunt Ella in her brown corded silk  dress  [LINK]  showed  that  she  was  a  very  fashionable  young woman. There were new brown dyes in the  late 19th  century. In 1890,  Sarah Elizabeth Gibson  Follett  married  William  Henry  Follett  wearing  a  cinnamon  brown  silk  dress  trimmed  with  Glowered silk. It cost $4.00. 7   When  a  friend’s  mother  married  during  World  War  II,  not  long  after  her  father  died,  instead  of  marrying  in  a  white  dress she chose  a  blueberry  colored suit.  My aunt married in a simple suit8. 

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Bridal dress colors vary with cultures [LINK]. For instance, a bride in a black dress could be  Scandinavian.    Watch  for  clues  in  the  style  of  dress  and  in the  veil.  This  woman’s  Gloral  arrangement could signify an ethnic tradition9. 

Unfortunately, there are a lot of misidentiGied brides on the web.  It’s important not to jump  to  conclusions  when you see a woman in a white dress,  the woman could be attired for  a  summer outing. It’s also important to remember that not all veils signify a wedding; it could  be a conGirmation photo. 

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I’m  desperately  seeking  more  wedding  images,  especially  early  images,  to  use  in  a  forthcoming  book  on  the  topic.  Got  one  to  share?  Please  email  me  at  mtaylor@taylorandstrong.com 

1 “Marriage of Queen Victoria, February 10, 1840,”  New‐Bedford Mercury, March 13, 1840, p. 1.  2 hDp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Victoria_Marriage01.jpg#file 3 Library of Congress 4 hDp://huntsville.about.com/od/weddings/a/weddingdresses.htm; Harper’s Bazaar 1867

5 CollecYon of the Author

May you grow old on one pillow. ~ Armenian Proverb

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THE FUTURE OF MEMORIES

wedding memories A CELEBRATION OF THE BEGINNING BY DENISE BARRETT OLSON

A wedding is a celebration of the beginning of a new family. As such it has a special place in  the hearts and souls of people worldwide. Both huge public  celebrations and small private  ones generate cherished memories. So, how do we save and protect those memories? My mother’s Girst wedding took place in a foreign country surrounded by strangers. It  was  World War II and her husband, an Army Air Corps pilot, was stationed in the Panama Canal  Zone.  She traveled alone to  Mexico City to  marry him. We have the photos and newspaper  clippings  of the  engagement  announcement,  the  telegram announcing  they  were  married  and the  letter  describing  the  mounds  of  red tape  that  had  to  be  surmounted  to  make  it  happen.  Less than two years later,  he was  killed in the PaciGic  leaving his  widow and baby  daughter  with only memories.  Decades later,  thanks to digitized newsreels, we have  a clip  that includes what could be my sister’s father.  Since we’ve only seen still  photos of him, it’s  hard  to  be  sure  but  the  man  in  the  Gilm  clip  has  dimples  just  like  those  his  daughter  is  supposed to have inherited from him.  Seldom  is  the  historical  impact of a wedding  considered in planning  the event,  but many  family historians  dream  of Ginding  even  the few snippets  we  have  from our mother’s  Girst  wedding.  Photos, invitations  or journal entries are treasures  to  later generations  trying to  learn more about their ancestors. 

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Thanks  to the wonders of technology,  today even the smallest wedding can be shared with  family  and  friends  around  the world  ‐  instantly.  One person with  an iPhone and  the  free  Ustream  [LINK]  app can  broadcast  the  wedding  live  to  anyone  with  a  web  browser  and  Internet  connection.  Camera  phones  and  digital  cameras  are  frequently  tucked  in  the  pockets  and  purses  of  wedding  guests  and  capture  even  more  of  the  special  moments  surrounding  the wedding  and  reception.  And,  online  platforms  for  social  networking and  photo/video sharing offer delightful ways to share those moments.

Type to enter text

[Photo credit: Jill & Kevinʼs Wedding Entrance Dance - YouTube video LINK ]

One  of  the  most  obvious  examples  is  this  now‐famous  wedding  dance.  No  one  in  that  wedding  party will  forget  that  wedding  any time  soon.  And,  almost  50 million of us  have  also  found  it  fascinating.  It  only  took  a  few  seconds  for  the  wedding  guests  to  catch  the  enthusiasm of the wedding party.  Even if you are planning a more traditional wedding, having both professional and amateur  photographers  and  videographers  documenting  everything  from  bridal  showers  and  the 

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rehearsal  dinner  to  the  reception send‐off  gives  you  the  raw  material  for  any  number  of  memory‐making projects.  While  social  networks such as  Facebook [LINK]  support video  uploads,  they  do  have  size  limits.  Platforms  devoted  to  video,  like  YouTube  [LINK]    and  Vimeo  [LINK],  support  the  quality  and  size  needed  to  display  a  high‐quality  version  of  both  your  video  clips  and  a  Ginished  wedding  documentary.  These  video  platforms  also  provide  the  functionality  to  embed  your  videos  at  Facebook,  your  blog  or  web  site  and  any  number  of  other  social  platforms. Once you’ve got family and friends organized to take the photos during the wedding events,  you’ll  need  a  place  to  collect  all  those photos.  If you already use a photo‐sharing  service,  check  to  see what  features  they have for  sharing  event  photos.  Flickr [LINK]  has a group  feature  allowing  members  to  share  their  pictures  with  a  selected  group  of  people.  Each  photographer uploads their photos to their personal  accounts and then shares them to the  group.  Groups  can  be  public  or  private  (where  only  members  can  add  or  view  group  photos)  or  any  number  of  levels  in between.  During  your  organizing  efforts,  it  might  be  handy  to  have  an  instruction  card  available  for  your  volunteers  with  link  and  group  information. [Photo credit: Screen shot of selected results from a Flickr search for “wedding cake”]

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While  we’re  talking  about  Flickr  groups,  you  might  want  to  check  some  of  the  existing  wedding  groups  already  there.  There  are  groups  of  professional  photographers,  cake  makers  and many  other  wedding services  that  are  a  treasure chest  of  great ideas.  These  images are just a few of the thousands found on Flickr in a search for wedding cakes. Every  photo‐sharing  service  offers  photo  book  printing.  Because  you  only  order  the  quantity you want,  you can choose to create custom albums for different  people. A special  keepsake book  for the  parents of the bridal couple is a  unique way to let them know how  much you care. You might also look at self‐publishing platforms like Blurb [LINK] and Lulu  [http://www.lulu.com] which offer more  size and binding  features and plenty of room for  journaling to include the information that will guarantee this book will become a treasured  heirloom for generations to come. Even  today’s  digital  scrapbooking  software  gives  you  the  ability  to  combine  journaling,  photos,  video,  audio  and  music  with  traditional  scrapbook  design  elements  to  create  a  multi‐media presentation that can be posted online, saved to a CD or even ripped to  a DVD  for viewing on your  television.  If you are  a scrapbooking enthusiast,  this  might be  a great  option. Adding audio and video to your usual scrapbook elements is surprisingly easy. It doesn’t matter if your wedding is large or small, traditional or uniquely yours. Just make  sure you take advantage of your technology toolbox to preserve and share that special day ‐  for yourself and for that family you’re beginning to build.

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Behind The Camera Photographing The Wedding

Of all the occasions celebrated in our family albums, those taken at the time of engagement and marriage are by far the most numerous, as evidenced by the many photographs displayed in this issue of Shades Magazine. From the engagement photograph to the anniversary photograph, early photographers had a great deal of custom and trade in this rite of passage. It is very difficult to distinguish between engagement and wedding portraits, as the studio setting and pose of those being photographed are very similar, with a few exceptions. Often engagement photographs were taken separately, the couple then exchanging the photographs. Wedding photographs that placed both the bride and groom in the frame often show familiarity between the two in the form of a touch, a hand resting on the arm or shoulder of the other. Engaged couples would not have been so publicly familiar.

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ABOVE Individual engagement photographs Photographer: Stevens Location: Chicago, Illinois Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION

BELOW Individual Portrait Bride & Groom Photographer: Otto C. Pasel Location: St. Paul, MN Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION

Date Not Researched

Date Not Researched

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ABOVE Individual Photograph of Bride

Photographer: G.D. Morse Location: San Francisco Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

ABOVE Individual Photograph of Groom Taken In Same Studio On Same Occasion as Wedding Vignette

Photographer: G. G. Oyloe Location: Ossian, IA Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

LEFT Vignette Bride & Groom Together

Photographer: G. G. Oyloe Location: Ossian, IA Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

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A Tip: I believe this is an engagement or wedding photograph. Why do I believe that? Many of the poses adopted in wedding and engagement portraits give prominence to the ring. When determining if you have an engagement or wedding photograph as opposed to an ordinary studio portrait, look for the intentional display of the woman's ring finger. Here, we have the display of the left hand and ring which is amplified by its reflection in the mirror. The ring is prominent in this portrait in two locations leading me to believe it is an engagement or wedding portrait. So always pay particular attention to the woman's hand in a photograph you suspect me be of a family engagement or wedding. ABOVE Engagement or Wedding Photograph Photographer: Montfort & Hill Location: Burlington, Iowa Cate-de-visite: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

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RIGHT Standing Bride - Sitting Groom Photographer: J.T. Wixson & Son Location: Escabana, Michigan Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

BELOW Sitting Bride - Standing Groom Photographer: Haugendorff Location: Milwaukee, Wisconsin Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

The pose of the seated groom and the standing bride with her hand on her husband’s shoulder has become the most familiar photographic representation of the engaged or married couple. However, it is worth noting that in many examples the woman is seated while the man stands beside her. (See left below.) This has more to do with the respective heights of those having their photograph taken than any comment on the politics of sexual struggles in the 19th century. “Photographers were concerned to get both heads into a relatively narrow field of focus. This meant bringing

them

closer

together

while

maintaining a balanced composition. If a tall man was seated, his head was brought into focus with that of the shorter woman beside him.” Audrey Linkman - Open University

46 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


Wedding  photographs  were  taken  in  the  studio,  as  having  the  photographer  attend  the event  incurred extra  expense.  You may  have a difGicult  time  determining  the exact  date  of  a  wedding  photograph,  as  the  wedding  party  may  have  gone  to  the  photographer’s directly from the church or  come  back  a  week  or  two  later  for  the  sitting. Those  whose  family  collections  that  contain  additional  portraits  of  the  bride,  bridesmaids,  wedding  party  and  relatives;   may indicate  a greater level  of afGluence  in  your family as all involved extra expense. LEFT

Bride & Bridesmaid Photographer: Warren Location: Boston, MA Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

RIGHT

Bride, Groom, Best Man & Bridesmaid Photographer: E.B. Core Location: Cincinnati, Ohio Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

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ABOVE

A Large Wedding Party Photographer: R. Czechowicz Location: Chicago, IL Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

RIGHT

Wedding Party Photographer: J. J. Mancini Location: Rhode Island Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION ca. 1910

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Wedding Anniversaries Wedding anniversaries were also often commemorated with a photograph. As in studio portraits taken for engagements and weddings the couple could be taken individually and/or together. Here we have the individual wedding portraits and the individual 25th wedding anniversary portraits combined into one carte-devisite. RIGHT 11 September 1881 11 September 1906 25th Wedding Anniversary ca. 1906 Photographer: Unknown Location: Unknown Carte-de-Visite: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION

LEFT Wedding Anniversary

Photographer: Arthur Holborn Location: Bristol Cabinet Card: Open University Creative Commons

ca. 1890s

Another  type  of  anniversary  photographic  portrait  portrayed  the  anniversary  couple  surrounded  by  their  adult  children.  A  clue  to  these  portraits  is  that  they  prominently  featured  the  anniversary  couple  and  regularly  excluded  sons  and  daughters‐in‐law,  as  above. Now go back and take a look at those family wedding and engagement photographs with an  educated eye. What can you Gind? Shades MAGAZINE | www.shadesofthedeparted.com 49


CAPTURED MOMENTS

everybody loves a wedding A MOMENT IN TIME FULL OF PROMISE, LOVE & OPTIMISM BY JASIA

And what's not to love? It's a happy occasion celebrated with family and friends. Commonly,  the event is captured in pictures... a moment in time full of promise, love, and optimism. For  the  family  historian,  it's  even  more  than  that.  Those  wedding  photos  mark  a  time  of  transition and a budding new branch on the family tree.  One great way to display wedding photos is to create a digital scrapbook page incorporating  multiple  generations  of  family  wedding  pics.  It's  lovely  to  show  a  family  line  over  time,  comparing  physical  resemblances,  bridal  gown  styles,  poses,  and  the  beginnings  of  new  branches of the family.  However,  it can be challenging  to  Gigure  out a way to pull  together  photos  from a broad span  of time  and  make them  look  like they  belong together.  Current  photos would likely be in color,  mid century photos may have been in black and white, and  earlier photos perhaps in sepia tone. How does one create an attractive page with that sort  of variety? There are a couple of ways to work this out. If you're good with photo editing software, you  can colorize  the black and white and sepia tone photos so they more closely resemble the  more current color ones.  Or,  you can turn your color photos  into  black and white or sepia  with just the touch of a button in most photo editing software. Once you have a similar look  to your photos, it's much easier to put together a coordinated digital scrapbook page. 

50 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


Starting with these three dissimilar family wedding photos from 1924, 1948, and 1972...

I created this digital scrapbook page using Photoshop Elements and Picasa. 

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"A Beautiful Wedding Day" by Laitha

52 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


Doesn't it look nicely coordinated? There are a few tricks involved in giving it that Ginished,  coordinated look. Here's how I did it... To begin with, I purchased a digi‐scrap kit that is very versatile. "A Beautiful Wedding Day"  by  Laitha,  has loads of elements and papers I  can use  again and again in various wedding  scrapbook pages.   I could have created all these papers  and elements  myself,  but hey,  why  reinvent the wheel? (See opposite page.) Next, using Picasa,  I opened each of the 3 wedding photos  and under the "Effects" pallet,  I  clicked on "sepia" so that they would all have the same monotone color range. Then I saved  the sepia copies. In Photoshop Elements, I selected the photos and deleted the frames to make them easier to  work with. Then I chose a background paper that had a bit of an aged look to it.

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I laid out my photos on the background paper and added the frames next. After that, it was  just a matter of choosing decorative elements to create the page just the way I liked it.  As a Ginishing touch, I put drop shadows on each of the elements. To give it a bit of an aged  patina I chose my  drop shadow color by sampling from one of the dark  areas of the sepia  photos. That gave the shadow a slight brown cast which brought an aged look to  the bright  white elements from the kit.  A kit element in its native colors...

With a brown drop shadow added...

54 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


Set against the aged background paper.

You could create a similar page using only two pictures or you could use more if you like. If  you've  got  5  generations  of  wedding  photos,  you  could really  create  a  true  masterpiece.  What a terriGic piece of art that would be! Creating a digital scrapbook page takes time but the results are worth it. You'll end up with  a piece of art for your wall or album that will showcase your family's history for all to learn  from and admire.  Happy Scrapping! Sources: The digi­scrap kit used was Laitha's "A Beautiful Wedding Day" [LINK] . It's available at  DigitalScrapbookPages.com [LINK] .

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Now Comes

The Bride


The Wedding Costume The  use  of  orange  blossoms  in  the  bride's  costume originated in ancient China where they  were emblems of purity, chastity and innocence.  There are few trees so proliGic as the orange; it is  one  of  the  rare  plants  that  blooms  and  bears  fruit at  the  same  time,  thus  becoming  symbolic  of fertility. 

The Bride's Veil: In ancient Greece the bridal veil was  yellow; in ancient Rome it was red and usually covered  the bride from head to foot.  It is  traditionally  considered bad luck for  the bride to  be  seen  by  the  groom  before  the  ceremony.  In  arranged marriages  the  couple rarely  saw  each  other  at  all.  Once  the  bride  and  groom  were  declared  husband and wife the  veil  was  lifted,  symbolizing the  presentation of the wife to her husband.

During  the  time  of  the  Crusades,  orange  blossoms  were  brought  from the  East  to  Spain,  then  to  France,  and  Ginally  to  England  in  the  early 1800's.  By then,  many  enchanting legends  had spread throughout the continent of maidens  entwining  fresh  orange  blossoms  into  a  bridal  wreath for their hair.  The  phrase  "to  gather  orange  blossoms"  took  the meaning " to seek a wife".

Brides  also  wore  orange  blossom wreaths  in the  hair  on top of the veil, this may  be the origin of the use  of  the tiara. LEFT A Bride and Her Bridesmaids, 1851, by Albert Sands Southworth and Josiah Johnson Hawes, Whole plate daguerreotype, Smithsonian American Art Museum

ABOVE Unidentified Bride

Photographer: Southworth & Hawes ca. 1850 Daguerrotype: George Eastman House


A Gallery of Veils The  girl  who is obliged  to consider  expense  very closely in  the  buying  of her trousseau  will  probably deny herself the  luxury of a  wedding­veil,  wearing  instead a becoming  bandeau  of  ribbon and orange­blossoms; but the girl with a little more money at her disposal and a desire  to conform to all the traditions in her wedding attire will be  likely to insist upon a veil of lace  or  tulle,  and  with  reason.  It  is  undeniably  lovely  and  there  is  something  of  poetry  in  its  cloudlike grace. Eleanor Chalmers ‐ The Delineator 1911

ABOVE Unknown Bride ABOVE Mary H. Towsend

Photographer: Sarony Location: New York City Cabinet Card: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION ca. April 28, 1871

58 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010

Photographer: Unknown Location: Unknown CDV: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION ca. April 25, 1871


LEFT Unknown Bride With Beautiful Orange Blossom Veil

Photographer: Unknown Location: Unknown CC: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION

RIGHT Unknown Bride Veil Removed & Displayed

Photographer: V. Georg & Co. Location: Chicago CDV: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched

There is something romantic in the gown and veil of the bride. . .There is poetry in dress, just as there is in a towering cathedral or in a well-molded statue. Shades MAGAZINE | www.shadesofthedeparted.com 59


A Gallery of Bridal Hats LEFT & BELOW Two lampshade bridal hats.

Photographer: Unknown Location: Unknown Card Mounted Photographs: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Dates Not Researched

My Grandmother - Lillian Salter Greene - In a rosebud bonnet, 1919.

60 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


The  White  Wedding  Gown: Mary,  Queen of Scots was  the Girst famous woman to  wear  a  white wedding gown.  Mary was marrying the Dauphin of France and the choice of a white  dress  was extremely troubling to  the French,  as white was the ofGicial color of mourning in  France.  1840 saw another royal Gigure married in a white wedding gown.  Queen Victoria selected a  white wedding gown for her marriage to  Albert of Saxe‐Colburg.  Queen Victoria's wedding  photographs  were  widely  publicized,  sparking  an  interest  in  the  white  wedding  dress  throughout England and beyond. The  white  wedding  dress  was  a  symbol  of  wealth,  as  the  dress  could  not  be  washed  or  reused  for  another  occasion.  This  demonstrated  that  the  bride's  family  could  afford  to  spend money on an extravagant dress.  Through  much of the early  20th  century,  only  a rich woman could afford to  wear  a  white  wedding dress.  Those  who  did  not  come  from  wealthy  families  wore  dresses  in various  colors,  lavender  being  one  of the  most  popular. Others  wore  white dresses  which were later  dyed another  color after the ceremony to be used for other occasions.

62 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


A Gallery of White Wedding Gowns Bridemaids usually consult the  bride as to their toilets, and each other as well, that there may  be  no unfortunate  combinations of color to mar the  effect  of the whole.  They usually dress in  colors, unless the bride choose some faint tint for her costume; then it is customary for them to  wear pure white, and sometimes the whole group are clad in spotless purity. Maude C. Cooke ‐  Social Etiquette, or: Manners and Customs of Polite Society ‐ 1896

OPPOSITE PAGE L-R Bride & Groom - Monkhouse - York - CDV Bride & Groom - Barker - Illinois - Cabinet Card AUTHOR’S COLLECTION African American Bride & Groom - S.B. Smith - Newville, PA -

CDV - ebay $375.00 [Link] Dates Not Researched

ABOVE L-R Two unidentified brides with similar taste. Left - Photographer: Morrison

Location: Chicago Right - Photographer: Barrows Location: Ft. Wayne, Ind. Cabinet Cards: AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Date Not Researched


TOP ROW Left - Photographer: Cook Location: Toronto Right - Photographer: Kemp Location: Scranton BOTTOM ROW Left Photographer:Kohler Location: Milwaukee Right - Photographer: Unable to read Location: Unknown AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Dates Not Researched

64 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


A Gallery of Dark Wedding Gowns

TOP ROW L-R Left - Photographer: Wm. Davis

Location: Mankato, MN - CDV Middle - Photographer: Flasskamper - CC

Location: Bielefeld Right - Photographer: Dahl Bros.

Card Mounted Photograph Location: Mayville, N.D. BOTTOM ROW L-R Uncle Will & Aunt Luhistu Left - Photographer: Kellogg

Location: Reedsburg, WI - CC Right - Photographer: Chesebro Location: Toledo, OH - CC All AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Dates Not Researched

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A Gallery of Wedding Gowns In Color

The colors of the wedding gowns in this Gallery could be lilac, silver grey, pale blue, pink or yellow.

Sometimes a recent bride wears her own wedding gown at a friend's wedding; but it is in better taste not to do so, nor in any other way to invite comparisons. The bride should be permitted to be the conspicuous figure at her own wedding. Etiquette 1889 66 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


OPPOSITE PAGE L-R Left - Photographer: Matousek

Location: Chicago Card Mounted Photograph Right - Photographer: Friend Smith - CC Location: Detroit THIS PAGE TOP ROW L-R Uncle Will & Aunt Luhistu Left - Photographer: Kellogg

Location: Reedsburg, WI - CC Right - Photographer: Chesebro Location: Toledo, OH - CC BOTTOM ROW Left - Photographer: Cramer Location: St. Louis, MO - CC All AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Dates Not Researched

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Married in Traveling  Dress:  Many brides were married in their traveling dress, complete  with bonnet. The groom was dressed in dark  clothes. This wedding did not require brides‐ maids or groomsmen, but did have ushers, while the groom has his "best man." This should  be of silk, or any of the Gine fabrics for walking dresses; should be of some neutral tint; and  bonnet  and  gloves  should  match  in  color.  It  may  be  more  elaborately  trimmed  than  an  ordinary traveling dress, but if the bride wishes to attract as little attention as possible, she  will  not  make herself conspicuous  by a too  showy  dress.  In private weddings  the bride is  sometimes  married  in  traveling  costume,  and  the  bridal  pair  at  once  set  out  upon  their  journey.

THIS PAGE While perhaps a bit ostentatious for traveling dress the bride has chosen the proper hat and gloves to set off on her honeymoon.

Photographer: N.M. Wonders Location: Pottsville, PA Card Mounted Photograph OPPOSITE PAGE L-R Left - Photographer: Unknown

Location: Unknown Card Mounted Photograph Right - Photographer: Boyd Location: Seattle Card Mounted Photograph All AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Dates Not Researched

68 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


A Gallery of Traveling Dress

Sometimes this dress is as elaborate as is at all consistent with good taste for traveling. . . More frequently, and more appropriately, the plain tailor-made suit, with gloves and hat in harmony, is made to do duty. In any case where the bride chooses to wear a traveling costume, even should the ceremony be performed in the evening, the groom will wear a morning costume. This consists of a dark frock coat, dark waistcoat and lighter trousers ; a stiff hat, a light scarf and gloves if desired. The gloves should be light but not evening tints; pale tan or gray being suitable. Shades MAGAZINE | www.shadesofthedeparted.com 69


A Gallery of Everyday Best The majority of Victorian and many Edwardian brides wore the best day-dress they could afford. So although these three images may appear to be nothing more than a studio portrait with conventional props and accessories, they are wedding photographs. Remember to look for flowers held by the bride and in the groom’s buttonhole providing supporting evidence of the occasion. And always look for the prominent display of the bride’s ring finger.

ABOVE L-R Photographer - Evans - Ithaca, NY - Cabinet Card John & Rose Brown - Cabinet Card AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Dates Not Researched

70 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


ABOVE Photographer - Hobert Bros. - Buffalo, NY - Cabinet Card Inset of defiantly displayed wedding ring. AUTHOR’S COLLECTION Dates Not Researched

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Memorializing a marriage?

When I purchased this tin type, the seller said they believed it was a photograph of a bride and groom signing their marriage license. This can not be confirmed. The photographer, the people in the photograph, and the location where they were photographed is all unknown. The absence of flowers on either the bride or the groom is suspicious, but not fatal to the determination. They have, however, gone to the extra expense of having the tin type colorized which would indicate this was an important occasion. But what occasion? While there is no evidence this is a wedding photograph, I would like to imagine that it is. 72 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


A most unique photograph of a bride!

Mennonite Bride ca. 1914 Thank you to Maureen Taylor, The Photo Detective, for identifying this young woman as Mennonite and to Marie Breneman of the Mennonite Information Center for identifying her as a ca. 1914 bride. If you have any information concerning the photographer’s mark shown above, please contact the footnoteMaven@comcast.net


Sources for the following articles: Wedding Inspiration Behind The Camera  Now Comes The Bride The  Long and The Short Of It Wedding In Miniature Books:  Anonymous. The Tom Thumb Wedding. Boston: Baker, 1898. Darrah, William C. Cartes de Visite in 19th Century Photography. Gettysburg: Darrah, 1981. Lansdell, Avril, Wedding Fashions, 1860-1980. Shire, 1986. Linkman, Audrey. The Victorians, Photographic Portraits. London: Tauris Parke Books,1993. MacPhail, Anna. The Well Dressed Child. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer, 1999. McCulloch, Lou W. Card Photographs, A Guide To Their History and Value. Exton, Pennsylvania: Schiffer 1981. Mace, O. Henry. Collector's Guide To Early Photographs.Iola, Wisconsin: Krause, 1999. Nickell, Joe. Camera Clues. Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 1994. Norfleet, Barbara. Wedding. Fireside, 1979. Russell-Revesz, Heather. Tying the Knot: The Book of Wedding Trivia. B&N, 2002. Severa, Joan. Dressed For The Photographer. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1995. Wallace, Carol. All Dressed In White. Penguin, 2004. Magazines: Godey’s The Delineator Bride Ceremony Real Simple Bride Martha Stewart Weddings Websites: theknot.com brides.com

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76 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


IN2GENEALOGY

the ancestor network method MAPPING MEMORIES BY CAROLINE POINTER

I

  n  his  book,  Writing  Life  Stories,  Bill  Roorback  with  the  help  of  Kristen  Keckler,  PhD 

demonstrate a technique in the second chapter for recalling childhood memories that they  term, “mapmaking.” Like the name suggests, it involves making a map, but not just any kind  of map. They suggest making a map of where you grew up in hopes of jarring any memories  that  would  lead  to  stories.  So,  I  tried  it.  And,  yes,  recalling  small  details  about  my  two  childhood neighborhoods  that  I  grew  up in  helped  to  jar  some  long‐forgotten childhood  stories.  Besides  reminding me of how  old I  am,  my  map  also  reminded me  of who  lived near us,  who I was related to  in those neighborhoods, and who were my and my family's friends.  It  made  me  remember  the  relationships  that  my  family  and  I  had  there,  and  made  me  remember how if someone later down the road wanted to know me, really know me, they'd  need to know these relationships, too. They'd need to know my personal network.  This method of looking at the relationships of ancestors in order to learn more about them  is  not new. It's  called “cluster research.” Not only looking at an ancestor's  collateral family  members,  but looking at the “cluster” of people that lived and had associations with direct  ancestors.  I love using this  method because, frankly speaking, this is where the stories are,  which is what I'm most interested in. The only problem I have with this method is the name  of it. I may use the word “cluster” every now and again, but I have never said, “Look  at my 

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cluster of friends  over there.” Nor  have I ever said, “Yesterday, I was watching through the  kitchen  window  my  cluster  of neighbors  who  were...” The word doesn't  work  for me,  nor  does it remind me of what  type of research I'm doing.  Therefore, I've come up with a new  and more descriptive term: The Ancestor Network Method.  Everyone  knows  what  a  network  is,  right?  Compliments  of  the  Online  Etymology  Dictionary, Table 1 shows information on the various meanings of the word, “network” and  its changes over time. 

So  in a nutshell,  today the word, “network,” means  an interconnected system of just about  anything,  including  people.  It's  also  used  online  in  conjuction  with  the  word,  “social” to  form the phrase,  “social network, “ which is individuals and groups of individuals  who are  interconnected  (like  a  net)  in  various  social  ways  online.  Though  the  use  of  the  word,  “network,”  wasn't  applied  to  people  (in  groups)  until  1947,  people  have  been  socially  networking  since  the  beginning  of  time.  I  guess,  if  one  didn't  work  with  nets  in  their  occupation,  the  analogy  was  lost  on  them,  but  once  it  was  used  in  1839  to  describe  transportation, the word seemed to take off from there.  Likewise,  our ancestors  networked,  too,  and taking a look  at  their personal  network  is an  important  part  of  the  genealogical  research  process.  Ask  yourself,  “Who  was  in  their  network?  Who  did  they  know?  Who  knew  them?  And  what  did  they  know?”  Diagram  1  illustrates  a  typical  ancestor's  network  in  general  terms.  Further,  each  person  in  your  ancestor's network had their own personal network, which leads to  more information and  more stories.  Don't  believe  me? Go  ahead.  Put  yourself in the middle of the diagram.  Now  look  around.  Did you have relatives?  Of course you  did. Did you ever buy  a piece of gum? 

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That was a transaction.  If you married, then you had a spouse who  brought – for better or  worse ‐ some in‐laws with him or her. Of course,  they'd be a part of your spouse's network.  See, there's another network.  Just in case you're at the library and you left your copy of The Ancestor Network Diagram at  home,  a great way to remember who  you're supposed to be looking for  in your  ancestor's  network lies in the word: A.N.C.E.S.T.O.R. 

“A” is for...Associations Who  were  your  ancestor's  friends? 

Group portrait of Freemasons of Anglo-Saxon Lodge, seated and standing, in ceremonial dress. LOC [LINK]

Were  they  just  friends,  or  were  they  more?  Did  they  share  their  secrets  with their friends? Not only looking at  who  your ancestor's  friends  were,  but  looking  at  the  type  of  organizations  your  ancestor  may  have  belonged  to  can  help  you  learn  more  about  your  ancestor.  What  kinds  of organizations  did  your  ancestor  belong  to?  Were  they  Free  Masons?  My  2nd  great‐ grandfather, Daniel Rook Vaughan was  a member of the Knights of Pythias, and the organization was able to provide me with when  he joined  their lodge,  which helped me to  narrow  down when he  moved  his  family  from  Eagle Pass, Texas to San Antonio, Texas. In addition, it educated me on just what the Knights  of Pythias is and what its function is. This information helped me to understand why Daniel  joined  in  the Girst place.  For  your  convenience,  a list  fraternal  organizations  can be  found  here [ LINK ]. 

“N” is for...Neighbors Sometimes  we like  our  neighbors.  And sometimes  we don't.  Did your  ancestor  know  and  like their  neighbors?  Did their neighbors  like them?  Did  their  in‐laws  live  next door?  Did 

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your ancestor sue their neighbor, or did their neighbor sue them? Did your ancestor end up  marrying their neighbor? Were they related to  them? While growing up, I always heard my  Gran,  my  aunt,  and  my  mom  talk  about  their  neighbors,  especially  Vyla  Clifton.  It  was  always,  “Vyla  Clifton” this  and “Vyla Clifton” that  (all  good things).  Well,  when I found my  Gran's  U.S.  Passport  Application,  I  found  attached to  it a letter  from Vyla Clifton vouching  for my Gran's identity. I went on to Gind her as a neighbor, just like I remembered my family  talking  about.  However,  it  w a s n ' t  u n t i l  I  s t a r t e d  Barn erection. Raising last half of gable end panel into place. Southeast Missouri Farms Project - LOC [LINK]

r e s e a r c h i n g  m y  G r a n ' s  mother's,  or  Alice  Vaughan's,  siblings  that  I  found  out  who  Vyla  was.  One  of  Alice's  sisters  was  named  Vyla.  I  then  found  that  Vyla  had  married  a  man  with  the  last  name,  “Sproul,”  and  then  she  married  a  man  with the  last  name  of  “Clifton.” 

Along with  having  a  penchant for marrying  (she  married  once  more,  which made Ginding  her death certiGicate a little challenging). Vyla Clifton wasn't just a neighbor. She was family.  Finding  her  helped to  add  another  part  to  my  family's  story,  but  it  also  helped to  Gind  a  naming pattern that was  crucial in taking the Vaughan line back  4 more generations than  what I already had and possibly more. All from a neighbor named Vyla Prudence (Vaughan)  Sproul Clifton Brandenberger. 

“C” is for...Church

  The  super  big  churches  of  today  are  a  relatively  new  concept.  I  go  to  a  smaller  church  myself, and everyone knows everyone else,  which can be trying at times, but I enjoy it.  It's  like a family, and that's exactly how our ancestor's churches were. Like a family. So it's not a  far‐fetched  idea  that  researching  some  other  members  of  your  ancestor's  church  might  yield  some  information  about  your  ancestor.  All  the  members  are  each  a  part  of  your  ancestor's  network  because  that's  one of the  places  (and sometimes  the only  place) they 

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Falls Church, Falls Church, Fairfax County, Virginia - LOC [LINK]

would socialize. Whatever families  lived in the same vicinity of your  ancestor  probably  went  to  the  same church.  I  know  it's  hard  for a  new  person to walk into  my  church  and  go  ungreeted.  In  fact,  it's  impossible.  Rest  assured, if your ancestor went to  church,  someone there knew them.  If  your  ancestor's  children  were  baptized,  or  if  anyone  married  in  the  church,  there  were  witnesses,  both  formal  and  informal. Who were they? More than likely, someone close to the family or family members.  I  have  been  pretty  successful  in  Ginding  lists  of  members  of  churches  in  county  history  books, which then have led me to church records. Reading those lists, though, is like reading  a family tree sometimes. They're all there – in‐laws, relatives, friends, etc. 

“E” is for...Education The main purpose of school is to educate. However, not all education is done in a traditional  manner.  Sometimes  education  occurs  between  classes  with friends.  Identifying  who  your  ancestor went  to  school with and who  their teacher was  can help to  uncover more details  about your ancestor's life. For example,  my husband has a 3rd great‐grandfather, George L.  Hackett,  whose  education  was  mentioned  in  a  township  and  county  history  of Blooming  Grove, Richland County, Ohio.  Below is an excerpt:  The  Mirst  school  in  the  township  was  opened  December,  1824,  in  the  cabin  erected  by  William  Guthrie  in  1816.  It  was  a  three­months  school,  and  was  taught by Robert Finney.  Mr. Guthrie  has occupied  this cabin about two years,  when  he  erected  a  better  one  in  the  same  yard,  and  thus  the  old  cabin  was  honored  by  becoming  the  Mirst  schoolhouse.  Those  who  attended  this  school  were  Nathan  S.  Guthrie,  now  a  resident  of  Shiloh;  Francis,  Eliza  and  Lydia  Guthrie;  George,  Betsy,  Margaret,  William,  Mary,  and  Drusilla  Hackett;  Washington,  David,  Sallie  and  Mariah  Long,  and  William  and  Thomas 

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Classroom scenes in Washington, D.C. public schools: general classroom scene, 1st Division ca. 1899 LOC [LINK]

Dickinson.  It  was  a  subscription  school,  the  teacher  receiving  $8  or  $10  per  month.  Mr.  Guthrie  says  that  he  [and]  his brothers and  sisters  attended  that  school  during  the  winter  in  their  bare  feet.  The  schoolhouse  being  in  their  [y]ard,  they  were  able  to  get  to  it,  often  through  the  deep  snow,  without  frosting their feet.  Besides the fact that it looks like the old story of “having to walk to school uphill both ways  in  a  blizzard,”  was  alive  and  well  in  the  1800's,  this  passage  helped  me  to  link  George  Hackett  of Blooming  Grove,  Ohio,  for  whom  I  did  not  have any  recorded parents  nor any  leads, to the other Hackett children in Blooming Grove, Ohio,  for whom I did have recorded  parents.  I had only been able to Gind William,  but none of their sisters, so this changed the  whole dynamic of my search, leading me to other resources. In addition, this passage led me  to future spouses and/or neighbors. I had found a part of George Hackett's network. 

“S” is for...Spouse Spouses are a huge part of your ancestor's personal network. Rarely did someone not know  their spouse, or their spouse's family. They were usually daughters or sons of neighbors and  friends.  Oftentimes in‐laws moved with them and/or they moved‐in with them.  Identifying  your  ancestor's  spouse's  personal  network  can lead to  many  clues  about  your  ancestor's  family. For example, in the George Hackett family mentioned previously, one of their sisters, 

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Photographer - Mathias Matousek - 1895-1900 Chicago, IL - Wedding Photograph -Collection of footnoteMaven

Margeret  Hackett,  married  another  George  Hackett  from  Pennsylvania,  for  whom I was  able  to  trace  his  parents.  There  has  always  been  a  theory  held  by  the  George  Hackett  of  Blooming  Grove,  Ohio  family  historian  that somehow  these  two Hackett's were related in some way. Now, this  is  not  proof,  but  it's  certainly  a  lead  to  explore,  and  also  it  has  put  me  in  good  graces  with  this  family historian, who happens to be my husband's  Girst cousin, once removed, a.k.a., Aunt Sally.  Another  reason  to  look  at  your  ancestor's  spouse's  network  is  migration.  Many  times  branches  of  families,  in‐laws  included,  moved  together.  So, if your ancestor's spouse's family left  more of a paper trail  to follow,  then this can be a  clue as to where your ancestor migrated from. In addition, the spouse's network can help to  Gind your ancestor's siblings who also wed into the same family as your ancestor's spouse's  family. The connections can be very big in your ancestor's spouse's network. 

“T” is for...Transactions

  Have you ever watched two kids trade toys? “If you give me that,  I'll give you this,” kind of  thing? It's  an illustration of a simple transaction,  but  it's a  transaction nonetheless.  Think  about  all of the transactions you complete in a day.  Now think about the transactions your  ancestor  completed  in  a  day,  a week,  and/or a month.  From  buying  children's  clothing to  trading  a load of oats  for their neighbor's spotted heifer (cow).  Oftentimes,  selling land to  kinfolk  and/or  neighbors.  They  were  all  transactions,  and  if  your  ancestor  was  like  my  husband's  great‐grandmother,  Pearl  (Williams)  Pointer,  then  they  wrote  it  down.  Pearl  wrote down detailed notes of all  of her transactions that occurred on the farm in Iowa for  every single year.  If she bought shoes for one of her children,  she wrote down what it cost,  where  she  bought  it,  and  who  it  was  for.  Every  sale on  the farm,  including sales  of hogs, 

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mules,  cows,  horses,  and  eggs,  was  written  down.  Every  time  she  bought  wire  for  the fences,  it  was  written  down.  There's  even  transactions  written  down for different parts of her buggy that needed  replacing.  No  matter  what  she  wrote  down  though,  she always  notated who  or  where  she  bought  it  from.  Those were  people  she  knew.  More  than  likely,  some  were  neighbors  and  relatives.  These  were  people  who  were  a  part of her personal network. 

“O” is for...Occupation

  “So,  what  do  you  do  for  a  living?”  Everyone has either  asked and/or been  asked  this  question.  Have  you  ever  thought  about your  co‐workers  or  your  boss?  How  do  you  know  them?  Perhaps  you're  friends  outside  of  work.  Perhaps  some  are  family.  You  may  even  work  for  your  father‐in‐law.  Identifying  your  ancestor's  occupation  and/or  occupations  can  help  to  identify those people who were in your ancestor's network. All people they knew to varying  degrees.  Think  about  it.  If  your  ancestor  was  the  only  blacksmith around,  everyone who  owned a horse in that town, knew the blacksmith. Did your ancestor own the local watering  hole?  Then he/she knew  quite  a  few  people.  And  if  that  same ancestor lived in the  same  town in Texas  that  my 2nd great‐grandmother,  Annie  (O'Brien)  Vaughan did,  then  he/she  probably  knew  Annie  since it's  rumored  in  my  family  that  she  visited  the  local  watering  hole every day and had her tin cup Gilled up at the back door with Irish whiskey.  And if this  is your ancestor, please contact me. I'd love to verify this story.  If your ancestor was in the military,  it  falls into this  category.  For some, it did turn into an  occupation.  Looking  at  who  your  ancestor  served with  and  under  can  be  very  revealing.  Many  siblings  and  cousins  can  be  found  if  they  served  together.  For  example,  in  my 

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Occupational portrait of a cooper, three-quarter length, with barrel and tools - LOC [LINK]

Blacketer  line,  there  were  around  30  Blacketer men who served on the Union side.  I  have veriGied that all  of them were  related  in  some  form  or  fashion  to  my  grandfather,  James  Wesley  Blacketer,  whose  father,  Harrrison  Blacketer  served  for  the  state  of  Missouri  alongside  his  brother  Samuel  and  his  father  Howell  Blacketer.  Granted,  Blacketer  is  a unique name and that made it  easier to identify, but you get my drift.  These  men  had  relationships,  making  them  all  members of the same network. 

“R” is for...Relations When I was  little,  my older sister,  Terri, used to wake me up by sitting on me  and tickling  me. I hated it, but I loved her. To show her the depth of my love, I annoyed her by following  her  everywhere she  went.  I  wanted to  be  with her  and to  be  like  her.  Well,  and  maybe  I  wanted  to  get  her back  for  the  tickling  just  a  little  bit.  My  sister  and  I  and the  love‐hate  relationship  we  had  growing  up  is  nothing  new.  Siblings  have  close  relationships  based  upon growing up together and experiencing the same things. To know an ancestor's sibling,  is to know a little something about your ancestor. Tracking your ancestor's siblings, cousins,  aunts,  uncles, nieces, and nephews is a worthwhile effort and can jump start your research  for a particular ancestor, who seemingly left no paper trail. You never know.  You might just  Gind out they hated to be tickled, too.  Likewise,  in researching  my grandfather,  Joseph Marshall (a.k.a.  “Big  Paw  Paw”),  I  learned  that he  was  a  bigger than  life  character  with a colorful  past.  I researched his  older sister  Jane,  and found that her husband,  Otto  Rosin, had a younger  sister  by  the name of Emma,  making her Big Paw  Paw's  sister‐in‐law. So, I researched Emma a little further, and I found  that she married Big Paw Paw in 1917. That's right.  My search led to, well, more relations,  and to  the fact  that  my grandmother wasn't Big Paw  Paw's Girst wife.  In  fact,  she may  not 

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have been his second or third wife,  either,  which was something my family  never knew. To  make a long story short, Big Paw Paw's marriage to Emma Rosin didn't have a very happy  ending.  They  divorced.  Apparently  the  rest  of  Big  Paw  Paw's  family  was  not  very  happy  about this, and Big Paw Paw became somewhat of an outcast with his family. So much so, he  changed  the  spelling  of  his  last  name  from  Marschall  to  Marshall,  unlike  the  rest  of  his  family. To add insult to injury,  since the family was Catholic,  he was excommunicated from  the church because of the divorce as well,  which is probably  the reason my dad grew up a  Methodist.  So  studying my  grandfather's  sister‐in‐law  led me to  marriage records,  church  records, divorce records, land records,  etc. for my grandfather. Oh, and it led me to the fact  that apparently quite a few women found living with Big Paw Paw very difGicult.  No matter what you call this method – the cluster method or the ancestor network method  – when using it, you are basically reconstructing your ancestor's personal network. You are  taking a look at where your ancestor went, what he/she did, and who he/she dealt with on  a regular basis.  So,  dust  off your  ancestor's  shoes,  put  them  on,  and lace  them up.  Walk  around in  them.  Look  around  with  your  ancestor's  eyes.  Now  think  about  the  people  in  your  ancestor's  network.  Who  were they?  How  did they know  your  ancestor?  What  did they  know  about  your ancestor? What stories could they tell about your ancestor?  ©2010 Caroline Pointer Sources/Credits: Roorbach, Bill and Keckler, Kristen. “Memory.” Writing Life Stories, 2nd Edition. Cincinnati: Writer's Digest Books, 2008. Pages 25-43. Harper, Douglas, compiler. Online Etymology Dictionary. 2001-2010. http://www.etymonline.com/ : 2010. Graham, A.A., compiler. History of Richland County, Ohio, It's Past and Present. Mansfield: A.A. Graham & Company, Publishers, 1880. Pointer, Pearl (Williams). “Day Book.” IA. Story County, Iowa, 1924-1941. Privately held by R.L. Pointer, Texas. 2010.

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Man polishing his shoes on a machine. ca. 1900 - NYPL Digital Collections [LINK]

So, dust off your ancestor's shoes, put them on, and lace them up. Walk around in them.

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Centerville Standard Published in Shades Of The Departed Since 2009.

100 Years Too Dreadfully Early

Ladies Are “Thrilled” by Arrival of New Photographer

Penelope Dreadful Intrepid Reporter

The widow of Harold K. Smythe has announced the sale of his photography studio to the well-known East Coast cameraman S.M. Early, and the ladies of our fair town are twirling their parasols with excitement. Mothers and daughters alike are delighted that Mr. Smythe’s studio will no longer stand dark and shuttered as it has for the past six months.

Although he has only been in our town a matter of weeks, cameraman S.M. Early has already set the trend for fashionable and clever photographs.

Readers of this newspaper may recall the freak accident in which Mr. Smythe was killed while attempting to photograph Col. Crandall’s prizewinning rooster in a “refined” setting. The rooster crowed, the plaster column crashed, the wooden partition crumpled, and a heavy brass urn crashed to the ground striking the poor photographer on the skull. Smythe was knocked senseless and never returned to consciousness.

Early promises to place examples of his recent work in the studio window where passersby are welcome to reflect on the photographic style which has become his mark.

Smythe had built a considerable reputation here for portraits and sensitive group sittings. Bridal couples and young ladies have felt the loss most severely and anxiously await the arrival of Mr. Early from the East.

Centerville Welcomes “Stylish and Clever” Photographer

“Why, he really has a most highly trained sense of style,” said Mrs. Stanford White on her way out the studio door. “He is bringing New York and Philadelphia to us.”

It appears that Mrs. White is not alone in her praise of the photographer’s abilities, for a steady stream of customers has kept the sidewalk busy in front of the studio address, and Early’s calendar is booked well into next month. Early specializes in bridal group portraits in innovative settings.

“Too Early” for THAT Kind of Thing in Centerville A near riot took place Wednesday morning on Main Street when Mr. S.M. Early pulled back the curtain

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Centerville Standard to display an exhibit of photographs in his studio window. Passers-by were seen to stop dead in their tracks, jaw dropped as they examined the pictures more closely. Young men, especially, crowded round the window with much shoulder-slapping and mugging. Shortly after the display opened two ladies arrived in a carriage to retrieve a photographic order but their way was forcibly blocked by the young men. “No, no, you shall not go,” they chanted, until the two women were forced to retreat to the other side of the street. It was only after the young men were invited inside by the photographer that order was restored to the streets. At about the same time, the photos were removed from the window leaving only a small placard which read, “Wish you were…” Mr. Early has achieved considerable notoriety as an avant garde photographer since he bought the business from our esteemed late townsman, Harold K. Smythe.

Too Much, Too Early for Centerville Mr. S.M. Early, Photographer, has closed the door of his studio on Main Street and vacated the premises without notice following the police raid of the business last week. Mr. Early came to this town only a few months ago after purchasing the studio business from the much beloved photographer, Harold K. Smythe. 90 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010

Promising to provide “new and interesting” photographic techniques, Mr. Early was much sought after by brides and their mothers, however, another hints of another kind of business soon became apparent. The first sign that something was amiss was noted by businessmen across the street who commented on the number of young men visiting the side door of the photographer’s establishment, often in groups of two or three. The young men entered, stayed briefly, and exited clutching a parcel under their coats. Most recently, in an attempt to interest clients in “creative” postures for bridal groups Mr. Early displayed a series of such images in the studio window. While some saw the photographs as humorous and clever, others were not amused. Unfortunately for Early, his venture into clever technique brought considerable attention to his establishment and as a result a warrant has been issued for his arrest on the suspicion of selling lewd and lascivious material. A public auction will be held Monday, June 21 to dispose of his goods and effects and to satisfy his creditors. No photographs will be displayed or sold.


Centerville Standard – 100 Years Ago Today In  a  strange  epilogue  to  a  story  begun  100  years  ago,  the  photographs  of  noted  photographer  S.M.  Early  have  been  located  in  metal  trunk.  Among  the  images  are  200  never‐before‐seen prints and nearly 4000 negatives. Early was  a young  photographer  with a  reputation  for  pushing  the  boundaries  of  propriety  when  he  came to Centerville from New York City in 1910. He  was  especially known  for  his  creative  use of props  and  settings,  especially  with  groups  such  as  collegians, ladies’ societies, and bridal parties. His career nearly came  to an end in the small  town  of  Centerville  after  several  complaints  by  d i s g r u n t l e d  m o t h e r s  p r o m p t e d  a  p o l i c e  investigation of the business. A late‐night police raid failed to Gind evidence of wrongdoing,  but Early packed up his camera equipment and relocated to a nearby state. Ironically,  the  scandal  cemented  Early’s  reputation  as  a  forward‐thinking  photographer  and he quickly found a market for a new kind of portrait bearing a not‐so‐subtle subtext. Early’s grandson, New York fashion photographer Zachariah Early, will mount an exhibit of  his grandfather’s work in the near future. Copyright 2010 Denise May Levenick

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WEDDING

Trivia

The Long & The Short Of It

92 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


The root of the word "wedding" literally means to gamble or wager! "TO TIE THE KNOT" The term, to "tie the knot," originated in Roman times. The bride wore a girdle tied in many  knots. The groom had the "duty" of untying those knots. WHY THE BRIDE STANDS TO THE GROOMS LEFT Brides of old were captured.  To ensure that family, friends, or perhaps another bridegroom  did not spirit the bride back home or to another wedding,  the groom placed her to his left  freeing his right hand or sword arm to defend against attack. LOOK OUT MEGAN SMOLENYAK  SMOLENYAK It is unlucky for a woman to marry a man  whose  surname  begins  with  the  same letter as  hers: To  change  the name  and  not  the  letter,  is  to  change  for  the  worst  and not  the better.  But  what  kind  of luck is it to acquire the same surname?  I’m sure Megan can tell us. SIBLINGS MARRY ON THE SAME DAY It is bad luck for siblings to be married in  the  same  year,  much  less  on  the  same  day.  Yet,  there  are  traditions  for  sisters  who  do  make  this  choice.  The  eldest  sister  walks  down  the  aisle  Girst  and  departs the church Girst. She is the Girst to  be given away by her father.  Just  not  sure  about  wearing  the  same  gown and veil  as  our sisters  to  the  right  have done.

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SEALED WITH A KISS One of the images of the traditional wedding Girmly etched  in our minds  is  that of the new  husband and wife  sealing  their vows with a kiss. The  wedding  kiss  dates  back  to  the  earliest  days  of  civilization  when  a  kiss  was  used  as  the  formal  seal  to  agreements  and  contracts.  Considered  legally  binding,  it  became  a  wedding  custom  to  seal  the  marriage  vows  at  the end of the ceremony with a kiss.  HIT ME WITH YOUR BEST SHOT Many  things  go  Glying  through  the  air  at  weddings:  rice  (for  fertility),  bouquets  (for  protection),  and  garters  (for  luck).  Throwing  rice  originated  from an  ancient Pagan tradition  of showering a happy couple with grain, rice, and nuts to wish  them a fruitful union. Pagans believed that the fertility of the  seeds would be transferred to the couple on whom they fell.  The  tossing  of  the  bridal  bouquet  and  the  garter  can  be  traced  to  England  and  the  belief  that  a  bride,  through  her  garments,  could pass  on  her  good  fortune.  In order  to  keep  from  getting  their  dresses  ripped  off  their  bodies,  brides  began  throwing  their  bouquets  and  garters  to  the  overly  zealous guests.  The throwing of an old shoe after a newly married couple on  their  departure  was  also  generally  accepted.  The  principal  bridesmaid threw  the  shoe,  the  other  bridesmaids  ran after  it, the belief being that the one who got it would be the Girst to  Wedding Shoes - Courtesy NYPL be married. She then threw the shoe among the gentlemen, as it was supposed that the one  who was hit would also be married before the others.

94 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


IT HAS A RING TO IT The Engagement  Ring:  In 860 A.D., Pope Nicholas  I pronounced that  an engagement ring  was a required statement of nuptial intent. He also insisted that engagement rings be made  of gold to signify the Ginancial sacriGice on the part of the prospective husband.  Engagement and  wedding  rings  are  worn on the  fourth Ginger of  the left  hand because it   was once thought that a vein in that Ginger led directly to the  heart. Diamonds set in gold or silver became popular as betrothal rings among wealthy  Venetians  toward the end of the Gifteenth century. In the symbolic language of jewels, a sapphire in a wedding ring means marital  happiness.  Aquamarine represents marital harmony and is said to ensure a long, happy marriage. A pearl  engagement ring is said to be bad luck because its shape echoes that of a tear. One  of  history's  earliest  and  smallest  engagement  ring  was  given  to  Princess  Mary,  daughter of Henry VIII. She was two years old at the time; her betrothed was the Dauphin of  France. Seventeen tons of gold are made into wedding rings each year in the United  States! Snake rings dotted with ruby eyes were popular wedding bands in  Victorian  England  ‐‐  the  coils  winding  into  a  circle  symbolized  eternity. This was the engagement ring worn by Queen Victoria. In  the  United  States,  Puritans  refused  to  wear  most  jewelry,  including  wedding  and  engagement  rings.  They  were  considered  ostentatious  and  frivolous.  “Instead,  a  betrothed  couple  would exchange  a  thimble  –  a  practical  item  a  young  woman  could  use  as  she  sewed  linens  and  clothing  for  her  dowry.  After the wedding, the thimble’s cup was often cut off  (symbolizing  that  her  dowry  was  complete),  and  the  rim  could be worn as a ring.” The  Wedding  Band:  The  circular  shape  of  the  wedding  ring has symbolized eternity (undying, unending love) since the  days of the early Egyptians. A  primitive bride wore a ring of hemp or rushes, which had to  be replaced often.  Durable iron was used by  the Romans  to  symbolize  the permanence  of  marriage. Shades MAGAZINE | www.shadesofthedeparted.com 95


HEAR YE! HEAR YE! In 1798, lithography was invented and it became possible to produce very sharp and distinctive inking without the need for engraving. Now, not only nobility and the rich could announce their nuptuals. This paved the way for the emergence of a genuine mass-market in wedding invitations and announcements. Wedding invitations were delivered by hand and on horseback, because of a highly unreliable postal system. A ‘double envelope’ was used to protect the invitation from damage en route to its recipient. The tradition remains today, even with a more dependable postal system.

If the wedding was private, it was the custom to send, soon afterward, marriage notices to friends. Maggie A. Zahm and Florentine G. Barker announce their marriage of Tuesday, February 8, 1870 on an announcement card accompanied by two calling cards attached with a bow. Notice that the bride’s calling card is smaller than the groom’s; proper etiquette for 1870.

96 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


OUR SUPERSTITIOUS ANCESTORS BRIDESMAIDS DRESSES The tradition of bridesmaids dressing  the same as each other  and in a similar style to  the  bride comes from the belief that evil spirits had a more difGicult time distinguishing which  one was the bride  and putting  a hex on her.  This,  of course,  left  some poor bridesmaid to  take the hex rap for the bride. BRIDAL PARTY In  Anglo‐Saxon  times,  the  groom  had  the  help  of  "bridesmen"  or  "brideknights"  to  help  him  capture  and/or  escort  his  bride.  Later they  would  make sure  that  the  bride  got  to  the  church  and  to  the  groom's  home  afterward.  The  women  who  accompanied and  assisted  the  bride  were  called  "bridesmaids"  or  "brideswomen.” A bride was carried over the threshold to prevent the  evil spirits of the groom’s home from touching her.

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WHEN TO BE MARRIED Marriages have the following results according to the day on which they are celebrated: Monday for wealth ;  Tuesday for health ;  Wednesday the best day of all;  Thursday for crosses ;  Friday for losses ;  Saturday no luck at all. Happy is the bride the sun shines on; but rain on the wedding day is good luck.

My Grandparents choose the “best day of all” for their wedding. Wednesday, 4 June 1919. My Grandmother should have been happy, as the sun was shining and the temperature was 91 degrees in New York City.

98 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue 2010


AND SO WE END WITH ­ SOMETHING OLD ­ SOMETHING NEW Something  Old  ­  Something  New  ‐  Something  Borrowed  ­  Something  Blue. . ..And a Silver Sixpence in Her Shoe!  Originating  in  the  Victorian  era  this  saying  and  it’s  instructions  signiGied  good luck. "Something  Old"  was  to  symbolize  the  connection  to  the  bride's  family  and   their past. Often this is represented by a  family heirloom  worn or  carried by  the  bride on her  wedding  day.  A  bride  may  choose  to  wear  a  family  member's  wedding  dress  to  honor  and  represent  an old object. "Something  New"  symbolized  good  fortune  and  success.  A  bride  could  choose to  say  her shoes  are new  or  use  her  wedding  gown  as  the  new  item.  Many brides choose to wear a new piece  of  jewelry.  This “Something New” could  then be handed down as the “Something  Old” upon the marriage of the bride’s children or a favored relative. "Something Borrowed" symbolized the love and support of the bride’s family and friends. A  borrowed object  could be a token from  friend,  such as  a lace handkerchief  or  a  beautiful  piece of jewelry,  to be used just for the day. “Something Blue" symbolized faithfulness and loyalty. A bride could choose a blue garter,   ribbon, or add blue Glowers to her bouquet. "A Silver Sixpence In Her Shoe," was a blessing for wealth. All photographs in the collection of the author - footnoteMaven. All ephemera in the collection of the author unless otherwise noted.


SAVING FACE

wedding dress preservation EVALUATING THE RESOURCES REBECCA FENNING

My grandmother still regrets the fact that a dry cleaner ruined her wedding dress, and I am  sure there are plenty of other women with the same regret.   In the past, tips about wedding  dress  preservation have not always been in the best interest of, well, preservation (such as  the  vacuum  packing  process  popular  in  the  1980s,  which  left  dresses  with  permanent  creases and other, more severe problems).  However, in the present internet world, it seems  pretty  simple to  Gind reliable,  accurate  information about preserving  wedding  gowns and  other textiles that comes from professionals and not just people with a service to sell. I don’t  actually know anything about textile preservation or conservation,  so  keep in mind  that the sources  and organizations I point to below are simply the result  of some internet  research – not any deep personal or  professional knowledge.   The amount  of information  out there is huge,  but I have tried to  Gind some information and resources  that come from  the world of degreed conservators and preservation professionals.   There are lots and lots  of  commercial  services  and  companies  that  offer  wedding  dress  and  textile  preservation  products,  and hopefully  some of these  more  scientiGic resources will help  you to  evaluate  those vendors’ claims and practices. When looking for advice and resources,  searching for professional organizations and non‐ proGits  who  support  the  work  of  conservators  is  helpful.    Searching  these  sites  for  only  information  about  wedding dresses is  sometimes limiting,  and  even when  it  is successful, 

100 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue


The end result of all this planning and care? Decades from now, your dress should look as beautiful as it did on your wedding day.


the  information  is  sometimes  written with the  layperson  in mind,  which may  mean  that  there is very little precise information and a lot of generalities.  

• The  Canadian  Conservation  Institute  [LINK]  has  a  helpful  page  about  caring  for  textiles,  complete  with  speciGics  about  how  to  store  clothing  and  even  how  to  kill  bug  infestations. 

• The  American Institute  for Conservation [LINK] has a similar resource page,  which  offers  fewer instructions for do‐it‐yourself work,  but  equally comprehensive background  information about the issues facing fabric and clothing.

• Conservation Online (or CoOL)[LINK] is afGiliated with the AIC and is a giant repository  for information  about  the conservation of pretty much  anything  that might  be part  of a  museum or library collection, including textiles.   • The website for  the  Regional Alliance  for  Preservation     [LINK],  on the  other hand,  links to professional conservators and organizations to contact for advice or for‐hire help. Searching  for  information  on  the  websites  of  institutions  with  signiGicant  collections  of  clothing and textiles is also quite helpful.   • The Victoria and Albert Museum in London has a huge collection of textiles, including  lots and lots  of historic clothing.   Their  textile resource pages are fantastic, and they  do  include a speciGic page on the preservation of wedding gowns and veils [LINK]  

• The  Smithsonian,  which  also  has  large  costume  collections,  runs  the  Museum  Conservation Institute,  whose website contains  a section on textiles,  including a page on  how  to  store  clothing  and fabrics  properly depending  on the  climate  in  which you live.  [LINK] This is obviously not a comprehensive list, but hopefully can serve as a starting point when  looking for information on wedding gown storage and preservation.   I know I will probably  be  revisiting  these  links  at  this  time  next  year,  when  my  own  wedding  is  over  and I  am  trying to Gigure out how in the heck to store my dress.

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Wed!ngs

in miniature


The entertainment may be given by any number of children from three to seven years of age. The more that take part, the surer and more complete the success will be. Forty or fifty should be secured at least, if at all possible. The minister should be a boy about twelve years of age with a clear, strong voice. Great care should be exercised in selecting the bride and groom. Both should be able to be heard distinctly, so that the ceremony may be as effective as possible. The tiniest little folks may with wonderful ease be trained to take the various parts in a . . .

Tom "umb Wed!ng Baker’s Entertainments For Children 1898

The New York City wedding of Charles Stratton and Livinia Warren was the launching pad  for the “wedding in miniature” also know as the “Tom Thumb Wedding.” Society  in  the  1800s  was  fascinated  by  Charles  Sherwood  Stratton, who was  discovered by the famed showman Phineas  Barnum  in  1842,  when  he  was  just  four  years  old,  stood  25  inches  tall  and  weighed  16  lbs.  Barnum  taught  the  child  to  sing, dance and carry himself onstage, all the while, billing him  as a European General.    Probably  Barnum's  most  successful  sideshow  performer,  Stratton  traveled  all  over  the  United  States  and  Europe,  meeting  many  heads  of  state,  including:  Abraham  Lincoln,  Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.    In  1863,  Stratton  married  Lavinia  Warren  Bump,  a  perfectly  proportioned woman who  stood 31 inches  tall.  Their wedding  was  one of  the  most  important  social  events  of  that  season in  New  York,  with  over  2,000  guest  attending  the  reception.    (See  Smithsonian description  next page.)

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Mr. and Mrs. General Tom Thumb On  February  10,  1863,  "The  Little  Queen  of  Beauty"  married  international  celebrity  "General  Tom  Thumb"  in  a  lavish  ceremony  at  New  York's  fashionable Grace Church.  The two  performers  enjoyed  a  true  romance  before  announcing  their  engagement,  which  Tom  Thumb's  employer,  P.  T.  Barnum  ,  promoted to  the hilt.   For  weeks  before  the  wedding,  crowds  of  20,000  or  more  paid  $3,000  a  day  to  see  the  bride‐to‐be  and  her  engagement  ring.  Barnum  received  15,000  requests  for  tickets  to  the  reception  (which  cost  $75  each).  On  the  wedding  day,  crowds  blocked  Broadway  for  hours,  and  newspapers  published  pages  of  detailed descriptions  of the  "Fairy  Wedding,"  the gifts  and the  guests, who included New York's most fashionable families.  Barnum  completed  the  wedding  party  with  best  man  "Commodore"  George Nutt  and  Minnie Bump,  Lavinia's  actual  sister,  and  for  years  the  group  toured  the  globe,  eventually  reaching  Japan,  China,  Australia,  and India.  Brady  made many  Throughout the twentieth century,  the wedding of Charles Stratton and Lavinia  Warren was  commemorated by  elementary  schools  and church Sunday school  classes  in  what  were  known  as  “Tom  Thumb  Weddings.”  The  events  were  mainly used as fund raisers. The  “Tom  Thumb  Weddings”  spread  throughout  the  country  by  word  of  mouth and through printed plays  produced by W.  H.  Baker.  In 1898,  the  “Tom  Thumb  Wedding”  became  a  part  of  the  series  of  Baker’s  Entertainments for Children. Baker's  instructions  state  that  the  cast  of  characters  should  include  "a  minister,  bride and groom,  maid of honor, groomsman, father  and mother,  bridesmaids,  ushers guests, and Glower‐girls. The costumes should be similar to  real wedding costumes.  They should be as elaborate as possible. They add largely to the successful effect, and are all  easily and inexpensively made.”

106 Shades MAGAZINE | Wedding Issue


Baker's vows for the Groom: I,  Tom  Thumb,  take  thee,  Jennie  June,  to  be my  lawful  partner from  this day forward, for better, but not  for  worse,  for  richer,  but  not  for  poorer,  so  long  as  your  cooking  does  not  give  me  the  dyspepsia,  and  my  mother‐in‐law  does  not  visit  oftener  than  once  a  quarter,  and then not to remain all night; so  long  as  all  bills  for  millinery  shall  be  paid  out  of  spending  money  furnished  by  your  beloved  father,  out  of gratitude for  not  having  you  l e f t  u p o n  h i s  h a n d s  i n  t h e  deplorable  station  of  a  helpless  spinster. And thereto I give thee my  word and honor. Sure enough.

Baker's vows for the Bride: I,  Jennie  June,  take thee,  Tom Thumb,  to  be  my  lawful  partner  from  this  day  forward,  for better,  but  not for worse,  for richer, but  not  for  poorer;  provided  that  you  do  not  smoke  or  drink;  provided  that  you  will  never  mention  how  your  mother  used  to  cook,  or  sew  buttons,  or  make  your  shirt  bosoms  shine;  provided  that  you  carry  up  coal three times  a day. . . And thereto  I give  thee my word and honor. Sure enough.

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Tom Thumb weddings even made it to the wild and wooly mining town of Wallace, Idaho, as  seen in Shades Wedding Cover photograph. In the  nineteenth  century,  Wallace,  Idaho,  was  a frontier  silver  mining  town in the Coeur  d'Alenes  mining  district.  Our  cover  photograph  of  a  Tom  Thumb  Wedding  was  taken  in  1898,  by  T.N.  Barnard,  the  premier  landscape  photographer  in  the  area.  (Thanks  to  the  University  of  Idaho  Library  for  their  assistance  in  dating  this  photograph  and  attributing  it  to  Bernard.)

In 1889 T.N. Barnard and his  wife moved to Wallace,  Idaho where he established his photo  studio.  The  studio  was  destroyed in  a  Gire  in  1890  with a  small  amount  of  his  negatives  surviving. Barnard made most of his living from his landscape photographs, which were for  sale to the general public and commissions for portraits. Ten  years  later  in  1898,  Nellie  Stockbridge  arrived  in  Wallace,  Idaho.  Stockbridge  was  a  dedicated  photographer  and  businesswoman.  Initially,  Stockbridge  worked  as  a  retoucher  for  Barnard  in  his  studio,  and  later  took  over  the  business  when  Barnard  became  mayor  of  Wallace. 

All photographs in the collection of the author.

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Ad - City of Providence Tax Book - 1862

The Imprint Or Logo - Backmark  of  "A.  E.  Alden's,  Providence,  RI,"  with  a  pen  cancelled  orange  two‐ cent  "U.S.  Internal  Revenue"  tax  stamp  afGixed  to  verso. From A.E. ALDEN’S Photographic Rooms, and Emporium og Fine Arts, Nos 59, 61, 63 and 65 Arcade, Providence, R.I. Negatives Preserved, Additional copies furnished if desired.

Augustus  E.  Alden  has  been  called  one  of  America’s  most  proliGic  photographers  during  the  carte‐de‐visite  period.  Alden operated photographic studios in (Springfield, Massachusetts) (Saratoga Springs, New York) (Troy, New York) (Providence, Pennsylvania) (New York, New York) (Pittsfield, Massachusetts). Alden was a descendant of the pilgrim John Alden. As you can see from the imprint to the right, the inventive Mr. Alden also set up shop in Barnum’s Museum. Augustus Alden married Ella A. Blake, 8 October 1859. They made their home in Providence with their three children, Martha, Lillie and John, and numerous employees. He died 6 November 1914.


Shades - The Wedding Issue