Dressed To The Nines
Whatâ€™s The Meaning?
A Gallery Of Occupations
Behind The Camera
Capture The Moment
A Date With THIS Old Photograph
Ripped From The Headlines
The Healing Brush
A Dreadful Tale Year After Year
Torn From History
So What Do You Do For A Living
On The Cover Saved By Grace pg. 56
Wall Street Explodes
In Every Issue
From My Keyboard
Letter from the editor
Research On The Road
C.L. Hunt Jeweler & Photographer
The Last Picture Show
The graphic image on the back of a carte-de-visite or cabinet card
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from my keyboard fOOTNOTEMAVEN
Occupational Photographs Dear Readers: One of fM’s 0irst and favorite jobs was as the concierge for the Hotel Del Coronado on Coronado Island in San Diego. I was allowed to select my food from the hotel dining room menu, have all the free Cokes I could drink, hang out in the hotel’s museum and meet celebrities. I took care of the guest’s yachts, entertainment, money, and just about their every wish. I kept their secrets, laughed at their jokes and was often rewarded with a small gift at Christmas. I was far too young to truly appreciate what a wonderful job I had! You have no idea how many fantastic old photographs are in that museum and the hotel itself. Remember Some Like It Hot? So for this issue of Shades we look at occupational photographs; what they are and some tips for dating. In “Behind The Camera” and “The Last Picture Show” you’ll be introduced to photographers who had multiple occupations. You can decide for yourself if the occupations had anything in common. Shades was also contacted by a reader who was in the possession of some amazing photographs that she thought would make an interesting article. Interesting is probably an understatement for these photographs. And be warned; the content is graphic and not for the faint of heart. They are, however, history. The history of many occupations and how they were thrown together September 16, 1920. Maureen Taylor’s “To The Nines” makes its debut. Captured Moments introduces us to some of our readers’ digital heritage scrapbooking. And all your favorite columnists and columns are here to help you open up the paths to the past through occupational photographs..
contributors PENELOPE DREADFUL
Penelope Dreadful is the alter ego of Denise Levenick. Denise authors the blog, The Family Curator and gives us something “Dreadful” every month.
Vicki is the author of Creative Moments. She also authors the blog BeNotForgot.
Janine is the new author of The Healing Brush Column. She also owns Landailyn Research & Restoration and is an award winning restorationist.
Denise is the author of The Future of Memories Column. She also writes the blog Family Matters and experiments with her iPad
Sheri writes The Year Was . . . Column. She also authors the blog The Educated Genealogist.
Caroline is the new In2Genealogy Columnist. She is also the author of the Family Stories blog.
Maureen is author of the new “To The Nines” column. Well-known as the Photo Detective she has authored many books on family history and photography.
Craig authors the Appealing Subjects column. He also writes the blog Geneablogie.
Maven edits Shades Of The Departed The Magazine. She also writes the blog footnoteMaven and Shades of the Departed.
WE LEAVE A MESSAGE WITH OUR READERS AT THE EXCHANGE Via E-Mail - Re: The Overstuffed Baby Footnote Maven: You have made MY day! I was bowled over when my Grandmother Dorothy Grayâ€™s baby photo came on my monitor. God love the internet and people who love history. Your magazine is the second pleasurable find in this search. I am looking forward to delving into your past issues. You certainly have a wonderful niche publication for someone like me. I hope that it is a growing concern. My husband and I have been in the magazine biz for a long time and he is still the editor of Fairways and Greens Magazine (fgmagazine.com) owned by Madavor Publishing. I will look forward to reading more about preserving, sleuthing, researching and opening up the paths to the past in your future issues. Emelie Williams Via E-Mail - In2Genealogy Dear Ms. Pointer ... Just wanted to drop a note and thank you for your fascinating story about John Sigmund, the Texas wildcatter, in Shades magazine last year.
My grandfather invested at least $350 with Sigmund in the 1920s and our family's archives include 10 shares in the Aransas Live Oak Ridge Oil Company. Nothing came of the investment, but I have always been curious about it. From time to time, I've done internet searches. Until your article, I came up empty. Thanks to your research, I now know that Sigmund was a real oil man and Aransas Live Oak Ridge was a real oil company. It's not as much fun as finding a forgotten fortune, but I am glad my grandfather (a locomotive engineer for the Pennsylvania Railroad in Chicago) was dealing with a legitimate opportunity. My mother is still alive (aged 93) and I am looking forward to sharing your article with her. If you ever delve into the pickle factory in Wisconsin once owned by Ernst W. Schumacher (my mother's uncle), please do let me know! Thanks again for a very interesting story. Best regards, Loren Wassell
Emelie & Loren: Thank you for reading Shades. Everyone here is so pleased you found us & made a connection. We will continue to work to help our readers solve those old photo mysteries. -fM
TO THE NINES
what’s the meaning ? WHERE DO WE GO FROM HERE MAUREEN TAYLOR
There is a mysterious expression, “dressed to the nines” from which the title of this column derives. But what’s the meaning of that phrase? The Phrase Finder www.phrases.org.uk tackles the question and delivers an interesting answer. Is it because a tailor used nine yards to make a suit or a shirt? Maybe not. Is it associated with wealth since an abundance of fabric signi0ies economic status? Perhaps. The site editor’s found a citation in an 1837 New York Herald, “One evening a smart young mechanic, ‘dressed to the nines’, as Ben Bowline says, might have been seen wending his way along Broadway.“ The origins are murky, but it’s generally understood that the phrase “to the nines” refers to perfection in dress or 0lamboyant attire. The latter seems to be the case with the mechanic. In the nineteenth century, women seeking to be a paragon of contemporary fashion, “to the nines” could easily refer to Godey’s Lady’s Book. The phrase was in use when publisher Louis A. Godey launched his popular women’s magazine. Godey published the magazine from 1830-‐1878 with Mrs. Sarah Josepha Hale as editor from 1837-‐1877. By 1860 the magazine had over 150,000 subscribers who paid $3.00 annually for 12 monthly issues. In 1877 Godey sold the magazine to another publisher who continued printing it until 1898.
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Each issue explores a nineteenth century women’s world—fashion, family and fanciful crafts, 0iction and food. Colored fashion plates showed the latest styles available in speci0ic New York establishments. Black and white engravings often included instructions on how to make accessories. Included were directions for making decorative household items. Re0ined and educated women of that period had musical talents so each issue included sheet music. While most of the articles were written by men, editor Sarah Josepha Hale published three issues during her tenure that included articles penned only by women. Hale wrote Mary Had a Little Lamb.
There were competitors to
Below: Sarah Josepha Hale
Richard's Free Library, Newport, New Hampshire [LINK] item provenance: Sarah Josepha Hale Award [LINK) Wikipedia Commons
this magazine, but Godey’s set the American standard for all that followed. Women seeking fashion help could consult issues of this magazine and make their own out0its modeled after those shown. In this column I’ll explore trends and tips, ala Godey (and perhaps a few of their competitors). The colors worn by our ancestors aren’t visible in the muted tones of a carte des visite, but they are gorgeous in a hand-‐tinted Godey’s plate or imagined from a detailed description. Once you’ve seen these fashion plates, you’ll never
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look at a nineteenth century photo the same way.
Godey’s interpreted the high fashion of Paris for Americans with engravings labeled as such, “Godey’s Paris Fashions Americanized.” Here it’s a young woman in a pale blue dinner dress and a woman in a pink silk accessorized by a lace cape and a “Gipsy” hat trimmed with Clowers.
Finding the Civil War in Your Family Album Purchase The Book Here [LINK] Maureen A. Taylor Maureen Taylor, the Photo Detective, turns her attention to portraits and pictures taken in the Civil War era to help you find wartime stories in your family photo collection. These images, whether it's a man in uniform or a woman posing with her children, tell the story of your family's involvement in a critical period of history. If you're not sure if your photo dates from that timeframe, this book will help you determine when it was taken.
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A Reading Party Shades MAGAZINE | www.shadesofthedeparted.com 9
A Gallery of Occupational Photographs How do I know if I have an occupational photograph? -fM Occupational photographic images are some of the most interesting, collectible, and important to our family history. To be classi0ied as an occupational image, the photograph must depict people engaged in their trade accompanied by tools, products, or in a characteristic uniform. While a photograph may be identi0ied as picturing a doctor, unless it is accompanied by the little black bag it does not qualify as an occupational image. Darrah’s Cartes de Visite In Nineteenth Century Photography groups occupational images into seven categories: 1. Primitive industries practiced by native peoples which Darrah describes as agriculture, hunting, 0ishing, weaving, warfare, etc. 2. Tradesmen, such as butchers, carpenters, blacksmiths, potters, stone masons, shoemakers. 3. Organized industries, in which operations are performed in sequence: mining, factory workers, silk industry, iron and steel. 4. Merchants and vendors.
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Photo In The Collection Of footnoteMaven
5. Professional and highly skilled physicians, dentists, clergymen, lawyers, educators, surveyors, photographers, scientists. 6. Actors, entertainers, performers, musicians. 7. Service occupations, military, police, 0ireman, servants, waiters, teamsters, barbers, and many others. Not every occupation may 0it neatly into the above categories. I have also included the interiors of stores and factories as occupational images even if the photograph is not populated with people. For me, occupational images fall into the I’ll know one when I see one category.
Occupation: Saddlemaker Cabinet Card. Munson, Madison, S. Dakota, ca. John L. Munson Photography Studio, Madison, South Dakota 1878 -‐ 1918. 12 Shades MAGAZINE | Occupations 2011
Occupation: Tailor Cabinet Card No photographer information. Shades MAGAZINE | www.shadesofthedeparted.com 12
Courtesy of the Library of Congress Courtesy of the Library of Congress
Occupation: Chimney Sweep Cabinet Card. C.D. Fredricks & Co., 587 Broadway, [between 1860 and 1870]
Occupation: Sausage Maker Carte-‐de-‐visite. Joh. Larsson [date unknown]
Occupation: Peddler Cabinet Card. C.D. Fredricks & Co., 587 Broadway, [between 1860 and 1870] Shades MAGAZINE | www.shadesofthedeparted.com 13
This woman’s occupation is easily identi0ied. She holds in her hand a pair of scissors used to cut bandages. On her waist is the leather case to hold them. She wears a cap and uniform. But, sometimes a nurses’ uniform & that of a maids’ are dif0icult to distinguish. You can research a nurse and help identify her by her cap, pin, and or uniform. Most nursing schools had their own distinct cap and pin. Many hospitals where a nurse was employed had speci0ic uniforms. Photographs and information can be found in nursing school records and magazines such as Nursing World and The Trained Nurse.
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During my research, I thought I had hit on a way to distinguish a nurses’ uniform from a maids’ uniform. Nurses uniforms, I surmised, were white or stripped with a white pinafore or a cobbler’s apron. Maids uniforms were black or dark colored with white aprons. Both might be wearing a “mob cap.” A mob cap was a cap designed to completely cover the hair. That was until I discovered the photograph to the right. Anna Palmberg (a night nurse) wearing the earliest "mob" style of cap in 1888. She’s also wearing a black or dark uniform. Image courtesy of the Massachusetts General Hospital Nursing Alumnae Association.
As time went on, hairstyles and nurses’ caps changed. Rather than covering most of the hair, the newer, stylized caps were designed to perch on the back of the head. Hairstyles for women were becoming shorter, and the modern "bobbed" hairstyle didn't need to be tied up in a bun, so caps became smaller as well. In 1877, a nursing student probationer wrote that she and her fellow students wore "caps, or no caps, as they liked, and when worn, were of any description." Article from the “Medscape Nurses” website (http://www.medscape.com)“News” section.
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Below, stylish caps of the Virginia Hospital Training School for Nurses in 1901.
I believe this is a photograph of a maid. The inset shows what appears to be a Chatelaine attached to her waist and perhaps scissors in her hand. Originally, I thought the mob cap a bit frilly for a nurse, until I found the photograph to the right. Said to be from the French for "Lady of the House," a chatelaine is a set of implements worn at the waist. As the photograph was taken in Hereford, a cathedral city, civil parish and county town of Herefordshire, England, perhaps our U.K. readers can offer some suggestions as to whether this may be a maid.
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Firemen Both of these men wear the uniform of a 0ireman. The uniform can be recognized by the Maltese Cross (opposite), bugles/trumpets on their insignias and as trophies for a competition as seen below. The man to the left may be a battalion chief as he has two crossed bugles on his hat insignia. The man below may be a lieutenant as he has a single bugle crossed with a ladder on his hat and collar insignias.
The Bugle Often seen on 0ire0ighter chiefs’ patches, badges and coins, the bugle represents the early form of communication through which 0ire0ighters coordinated their efforts. The bugle often symbolizes the rank of a 0ire0ighter within a unit. For example, lieutenants have one bugle on their badge or patch, captains have two that are side-‐ by-‐side, battalion chiefs have two crossed bugles, division chiefs have three crossed bugles, assistant chiefs have four crossed bugles and the 0ire chief or commissioner has 0ive crossed bugles. Bugle trophies were often awarded in 0ire0ighting competitions. See opposite page.
The above bugle trophy was awarded to The Suffolk County Volunteer Fireman’s Association in 1889 for a competition among hook and ladder companies. Trucks to rim 300 yards, raise 25 foot ladder to building and 0ireman ascend. Time to be called when man grasps top round of ladder, and ladder against building. Trucks must carry at least four regulation ladders. The trophy was given for the purpose of stimulating healthy rivalry and enthusiastic endeavor among the 0iremen of Suffolk county, and was to become the property of the company winning it three consecutive times. The trumpet was of solid silver, beautifully ornamented and richly lined with gold.
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I found references to J.J. Payne, 106 Anlaby Road, Hull, as early as 1912 and as late as 1930. Unfortunately, I am not acquainted with the insignias and uniform of this photograph. Is there a whistle at the end of that chain? The helmet in the photograph above appears to be the same as photograph on preceding page. The uniform in the top photograph appears to also be the same, while the helmet is not. These comparison photographs are from the British Police Online Museum under Hull. This may be a Hull Police OfEicer. Perhaps our readers from Great Britain can give us a hand.
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This is my favorite occupational photograph. The below stairs occupants each hold the tools of their trade. See below.
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On the back of this photograph is written: “Only have the one picture so you can send back some time. Enside (sic) view of store we now have dishes on a table in front -‐ Entrance to grain shed at end of counter by the scales.”
All Photographs In The Collection of The Author Unless Otherwise Stated.
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occupation: barber WHAT IS THE APPEAL? CRAIG MANSON
OCCUPATION: BARBER A Pictorial History of the Practice of Barbarism A Pictorial History of the Practice of Barbary A Pictorial History of the Practice of Tonsory A Shave and a Haircut: A Photo History
This 1880 painting by Greek artist Nikoloas Gzyis is called "The Barber."
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The 0irst time I recall being in a barbershop, I was about seven years old. I went with my dad. The barber put a special seat in the barber chair so that I would sit up high enough. Then he cut my hair according to my dad's speci0ications. The haircut cost one dollar; and Dad said that I should give the man a dime as a tip. Obviously this was a long, long time ago! The tonsorial (Latin; tonsori, "to shave") art is much older than the photographic art. Evidence of the profession is found as much is 7000 years ago in some regions of the world. It is said that at one time, the professions of barber (Latin; barba, beard), surgeon, and dentist were a single occupation. Some scholars even say that barbers in some ancient societies performed marriages and other religious rites as well.
A "Cigarette Card" depicting the coat of arms of the Barber-Surgeons Company, London. Information about the Company is on the other side of the card depicted below. The New York Public Library says this about cigarette cards: "Cigarette or tobacco cards began in the mid-19th century as premiums, enclosed in product packaging. They were usually issued in numbered series of twenty-Mive, Mifty, or larger runs to be collected, spurring subsequent purchases of the same brand. Typically, these small cards feature illustrations on one side with related information and advertising text on the other. . . .The height of cigarette card popularity occurred in the early decades of the 20th century, when tobacco companies around the world issued card sets in an encyclopedic range of subjects. After a slump during the First World War, popularity resumed, with new emphasis on Milm stars, sports, and military topics. Plants, animals, and monuments of the world remained perennially favorite themes." "While most cards were produced by conventional offset or other economical commercial printing processes, a few series were issued as original gelatin silver photographs or printed
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on silk or linen fabric; others were created as puzzles or paper toy cut-outs. The appeal of contemporary cigarette cards fell by the 1950s, ceasing their production and distribution."--New York Public Library, Digital Gallery [http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/ nypldigital/explore/?col_id=161]
Since the dawn of the Age Of Photography in the 19th century, barbers, their customers, their tools, and their shops have been the subject of numerous photographs chronicling pop culture of the day. BARBERS IN AMERICANA Today in America, the barbershop remains a community center and communications hub of s o r t s i n s m a l l t o w n s a n d i n n e r u r b a n neighborhoods. Here are some views of American barbershops over the last century and a half.
Hagerstown, Maryland, 1937
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Hagerstown, Maryland, Stereoscopic view of barbershop in Great Falls, Stafford County, New Hampshire
This large barbershop was photographed in Indiana in 1920.
Left: A slow day at the shop in Key West, Florida
Right: Sandusky, Ohio, sole proprietor
Former delinquents learn a trade at the New York State Reformatory School barber school (circa 1921). Careful with those razors, boys!
What was the origin of the barber's" pole? In former times barbers served the public in the capacity of surgeons, and performed the act of bleeding, that being a favorite remedy with our ancestors. The pole represented the staff held by the person being bled, and the spiral stripes painted around it were typical of the two bandages used for twisting around the arm previous to the bleeding and after the operation had been performed.
Right: An empty shop in the "Mexican" section of San Antonio, Texas, 1939
Barbers get political in New York City, 1913. The speaker is Joseph James "Smilin' Joe" Ettor (1886-1948), a leading organizer for the Industrial
Workers of the World (IWW)
Below: Barbershop aboard a deluxe train (circa 1910-1920). There's a barber with a steady hand!
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Japanese-‐American women barbers outside the barbershop at Tule Lake internment camp, Newell, California (circa 1942).
BARBERS IN FOREIGN LANDS As has been noted barbering is an ancient profession and in some parts of the world it was practiced in an ancient way well into the 20th century.
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A Japanese barber and customer in a rare color stereograph from 1905.
This stereograph shows an Egyptian barber and his client sometime between 1910 and 1920
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Left: The Chinese have been barbering for thousands of years. This is one half of a stereograph produced in Peking (now Beijing) in 1902.
Right: This Chinese barber carries his shop with him. Peiping [now Beijing], 1931.
Left: Chinese barber and customer in Peking [now Beijing], 1919.
BARBERS IN DISASTERS Just because there's an earthquake doesn't mean a man can't be well groomed! Barbers show up at disasters just like the Red Cross.
Right: Man gets a shave in at temporary barbershop at Fort Mason, San Francisco, after 1906 earthquake
Below: This barber (painting sign on tent) is preparing to reopen in the midst of earthquake reconstruction, San Francisco, 1906
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The shaving goes on despite the flu epidemic in Chicago, 1918.
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BARBERS AT SEA Beards and sailors have traditionally gone together. But barbers are needed to keep them from getting too woolly during long voyages
Above: This 1905 cigarette card shows barbers on deck of a manof-war. This card was published by John Player and Sons in Great Britain.
Aboard the USS Brooklyn, sometime between 1896 and 1901
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BARBERS IN BATTLE
The typed caption tells the story of this stereograph
U.S.Army barber in Mexico on the Pancho Villa Expedition
Fort Sam Houston, Texas, 1911 Shades MAGAZINE | www.shadesofthedeparted.com 38
BARBERS IN THE OLD WEST What would a western television show or movie be without a barbershop scene?
Georgetown, Colorado, barbershop, sometime between 1870-1900.
Georgetown wasn't just another one-chair town. The competition, 1870-1900.
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"Lady Barbers" in Colorado (year unknown; prior to 1900)
Richardson, Texas Barbershop, circa 1921
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ARICAN-AMERICAN BARBERS African-‐Americans have been barbering as long as they have been in America. Their story is like that of other American barbers, but with a few sociological knots. There were slave barbers, who were trusted with sharp razors, despite the fears of some whites that slaves generally would be violent if left to their devices. Barbers were once the elite of the African-‐American business community. Consequently, they got caught up in the black and the white obsession with skin color. Many mulatto barbers refused to serve black customers, preferring whites. Many black barbers refused to join barber unions set up by other ethnic groups despite pressure to so, seeing it as a way to limit their opportunities. In some areas, black barbers were gradually squeezed out the unions, which then refused to let them join.
John J. Evans was a barber reputed to be "one of the richest colored men" in Michigan.
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Right: A black barbershop on U St. NW in Washington, DC, 1942 â€“ in the neighborhood where Duke Ellington grew up and Langston Hughes lived.
Left: A Negro barbershop in Atlanta â€“ no whites served. Below: A black barber in the fields, 1896.
Below: Saturday afternoon outside the barbershop in Union Point, Greene County, Georgia, 1941.
Alonzo Herndon (1858-‐1927), born into slavery, started his business life as a barber in Jonesboro, Georgia. He died the 0irst black millionaire in Atlanta history. After several months as a journeyman barber in Atlanta he owned several black barbershops including one called "A. F. Herndon's Tonsorial Palace." The Palace opened in 1902 and eventually became the most famous barbershop in the South. Although it had an all-‐black staff, Herndon's "Palace" served only whites. Herndon parlayed his barbershop fortune into an insurance company, the Atlanta Life Insurance Company which provided 0inancial security for blacks throughout the South. It became the largest black owned insurance company in US history.
Alonzo Herndon's home – now on the National Register of Historic Places.
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Headstone of Abraham Lincoln's personal barber – a black man named William H. Johnson. Johnson is buried in Arlington Cemetery.
Advertisement for Ben Howell's Cosmopolitan barbershop in Harlem, 1890s.
All the source documentation for this article may be found here.
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Shades of The Departed asked Craig Manson, “What was your favorite job?” The best job I ever had was working as a news reporter at a top 40 rock 'n roll station in Monterey California. I would spend the evening say from 6 to 9 or 10 at night covering the city Council, or the planning commission or some other event in the evening. Then I would go to the station, edit the tapes, and record "actualities." Then I did the news. We had what we called "20/20" news: 20 min. before each hour. I did the news 20 min. before each hour from midnight to 6 AM. Then I did the 6 AM morning sports show. The cool part was at the end of each segment getting to say, in my then cool California DJ voice, "Craig Manson. KMBY 20/20 news, the sound of news in the making!" and then cue the jock in the other studio, saying "Now much more music from Music Power KMBY!" Such fun! but once in a while I listen to those tapes these days and cringe at my inexperience! Craig
Behind the Camera
C. L. HUNT, Jeweler and Photographer in Franklin Falls, N.H. - fM C.L. Hunt was Clarence L. Hunt, who began his career as a jeweler at the age of thirty, in Franklin Falls, New Hampshire. It was not uncommon in the early days of photography for a photographer to have or have had several careers. The most common prior professions were that of artist, painters early photographers considered their work with the camera an art form and fashioned their subjects after famous paintings and techniques. Once photography became more common place, photographers often engaged in more than one occupation to take advantage of
Photo In The Collection Of footnoteMaven
in oil, crayonists and watercolorists. Most
e x p e n s i v e s t o r e f r o n t s . T h e r e i s documentation that some photographers were morticians, chemists and dentists (I have often thought the photographer's chair closely resembled that of a dentist's). LITTLE GIRL WEARING JEWELS 46 Shades MAGAZINE | Occupations 2011
Research has produced photographers who were jewelers as well as photographer's, but I had never owned a photographer's imprint that advertised this dual profession until now. Clarence L. Hunt started his business career as a jeweler, sometime around 1877, in Franklin Falls, New Hampshire. Franklin Falls was a small village, part of the larger Franklin, New Hampshire, whose population was 3600 people in 1877. The Falls did not have a photographer, the nearest being Charles Warren in Franklin. The Falls did have three jewelers; G. G. Fellows, W. F. Cushman, and C.L. Hunt. The 1894 New Hampshire Business Directory listed Franklin as a town of 4,085 people supporting two photographers, Hunt and S. L. Bowers. It is easy to see why Hunt would need to supplement his income. By 1882, Franklin’s population has dropped to 3,265 and no longer boasts a photographer. While the Falls is still without a photographer, it is now absent the jeweler W. F. Cushman. A call to the Franklin County Library and a request for a search of the Franklin Falls Directories for the years 1880 to 1910 produced the following information for Clarence L.
Photos Courtesy of One Man’s Treasure
Hunt's businesses in Franklin/Franklin Falls, New Hampshire.
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1881 – Business: Watch; Jewelry Business Address: Central St. Residence: High St.
1888-‐1889 – Business: Jewelry; Photographer Business Address: Central St. 1890 -‐ 1893 -‐ No directories in library. 1894-‐1895 -‐ Business: Photographer Business Address: Central St. Residence: 30 Thompson Park 1896 -‐ 1901 -‐ No directories in library. 1902 -‐ Business: Photographer Business Address: Blank Residence: 30 Thompson Park 1903 -‐ 1909 -‐ No directories in library. 1910 -‐ Business: Photographer Business Address: 22 Thompson Park Residence: 30 Thompson Park. The 1880 census lists C.L. Hunt as a jeweler living with his wife Lavinia in the Village of Franklin Falls. Lavinia works in a hosiery mill while her mother Abigail Campbell keeps house for the family. The 1900 and 1910 censuses list Hunt as a photographer only, as does the directory. The Library does not contain directories for the years between 1881 and 1888; and 1889 and 1894. There is no census information for 1890. As there were no photographers in Franklin Falls in 1882, Hunt’s career as a Jeweler Photographer must have commenced sometime in 1883 or later. That would place the date of this particular Cabinet Card sometime between 1883 and 1894, the last year Hunt was listed in the directory under the dual profession of Jeweler and Photographer, as on this card.
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Photos Courtesy of One Man’s Treasure
1882 -‐ 1887 -‐ No directories in library.
A Date With This Old Photograph Every photograph has within it a story about the life of the sitter, the photographer, and the time and place in which it was created. Photographs were made for a variety of reasons—as keepsakes of a loved one, mementos of an important life event, symbols of status, and for the photographer it was often a sales tool. Both boys and girls wore dresses as infants and toddlers during the period addressed here. For the most part the dresses worn by boys were plain in comparison to those of girls. (Please do not take this as a hard and fast rule. The Eirst time we do we will have misidentiEied the exception.) This is just one step in the identi0ication process. The difference can often be told in the hairstyle worn by the sitter. Boys wore their hair parted on one side or the other. Girls wore their hair parted in the middle and often with bangs. (Again, not a hard and fast rule.) Even though Victorian fathers had no problem with a son wearing a dress (convenient for changing diapers), I have yet to see jewelry such as this worn by a boy. I am assuming this sitter is more likely than not a girl. THE JEWELRY The necklace being worn by the little girl, after much research, appears to be from the period 1875 -‐ 1885. Caution - while the necklace may be from this time period it could have survived long
after. The necklace puts us in the correct time period for the photographer, but does not
narrow our span of years in dating this photograph. It may, however, lead us to another conclusion regarding the photograph. Little, if anything, was left to chance in a formal Victorian portrait photograph. (The Victorian Period revolves around the rule of Queen Victoria. She was crowned in 1837 and died in 1901. It was preceded by the Regency Period and was followed by the Edwardian Period.) Rites, celebrations and symbolism
were depicted in the photographs of the era. The prominent display of the necklace in this photograph may be a clue. Was this an advertisement used by Hunt for his Jewelry business as well as his Photographic Studio? Or was he just placating a petulant child? Photographers often used Carte de Visites as business cards and advertisements. I have CDVs and Cabinet Cards in my collection that were in fact advertisements. Hunt may have been doing just that with this card, as this little girl is wearing a beautiful piece of jewelry. Young women and children of this time period wore jewelry. However, our little girl looks a bit young for the large necklace she is wearing. Was the young girl the photographer Hunt's daughter? The answer is no. In the 1900 census Clarence and Vinnie have been married for twenty-‐three years and have had no children. Clarence was born in October of 1852 and Lavinia/Vinnie was born in June of 1846, making Clarence 47 and Lavinia 53 years old at this time. It is doubtful there would be any children born to this couple after 1910. And none born to them for the period of time we are attaching to this photograph, 1882 -‐ 1894. There were no neighbors with a young female child of the approximate age living near Hunt's home. Both Clarence and Lavinia had brothers and sisters. An in-‐depth analysis of the two families could produce a niece who sat for the portrait, but that is outside the scope of this article. We may never know. She may have been an extremely attractive child who came to the photographic studio for a portrait and Hunt convinced the family to allow him to use her for
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advertisement. He may have gone looking for an attractive young girl to use as an advertisement. The necklace may have been used to entertain a petulant child and not be an advertisement. Maybe it was just a portrait. Again, we may never know. What we do know is that this is a charming Carte de Visite portrait of a young girl wearing jewels and the perfect Date With An Old Photo. Sources: Books: Darrah, William C. Cartes de Visite in 19th Century Photography. Gettysburg: Darrah, 1981. Ettinger, Roseann. Popular Jewelry 1840 -‐ 1940. Schiffer. 2002. MacPhail, Anna. The Well Dressed Child. Atglen, Pennsylvania: Schiffer, 1999. McCulloch, Lou W. Card Photographs, A Guide To Their History and Value. Exton, Pennsylvania: Schiffer 1981. Mace, O. Henry. Collector's Guide To Early Photographs.Iola, Wisconsin: Krause, 1999. Severa, Joan. Dressed For The Photographer. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1995. Census: 1880 U.S. census, Merrimack County, New Hampshire, population schedule, Franklin Falls, p. 279, dwelling 201, family 263, Clarence L. Hunt (Head); digital images. Heritage Quest (http:// persi.heritagequestonline.com/ : retrieved 20 July 2008); citing NARA microailm publication T9, roll 766. 1910 U.S. census, Merrimack County, New Hampshire, population schedule, Franklin Falls, p. 139, dwelling 160, family 217, Clarence L. Hunt (Head); digital images. Heritage Quest (http:// persi.heritagequestonline.com/ : retrieved 20 July 2008); citing NARA microailm publication T624, roll 864. Photographs: Unknown Little Girl Wearing Jewels. Carte de Visite ca. 1882-‐1894. Privately held by the footnoteMaven, Preston, Washington. 2007
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Capture The Moment Heritage Scrapbooking Blessed Are The Children Of Scrapbookers For They Shall Inherit The Scrapbooks Anonymous With this issue of Shades we explore the beautiful digital heritage scrapbooking layouts of our readers. You're the one who Captured The Moment and Shades is the place to share that moment. Come here for inspiration!
Looking for some summer scrapbook reading? May we suggest Somerset digital studio Magazine. Great summer reading! Jessica Helfunds’ amazing SCRAPBOOKS (you can read about it here on Shades) and The Scrapbook in American Life by Tucker, Ott, and Buckler.
TEXAS CENTENNIAL Vicki Everhart BeNotForgot I N S P I R AT I O N : Seventy-five years ago today . . . on this d a t e i n Te x a s history . . . the 2nd day of March . . . in the year 1936 . . . celebrations are being held across the state in honor of the 100th anniversary of Texas Independence. My father whose ancestors had started would take up permanent residence in Texas sometime before 1940. in Texas ca. 1860. My Mom, the daughter of a long line of Texans on her father's side,
TECHNIQUE: The background image is a free blogger template, the Centennial banner is scanned from a 1936 Centennial newsletter in my private collection, the postage stamps were issued in 1936 (Centennial) and 1945 (statehood), the postcard caption for the lighted night scene says, “The lagoon and fountain at night, Texas Centennial Exposition, Dallas.” The back of the same card says, “The Lagoon and Fountain at Night, all artificially built, with its ever-changing colors and reflections, shows what can be accomplished by mere man with just a little effort.” Dallas Post Card Co., Dallas, Texas.
RIDING THE RAILS Cheri Hopkins Those Old Memories INSPIRATION: I have a proud heritage of Railroaders in my family and chose to do this page to honor them. TECHNIQUE: I do all of my scrap booking as digital designs and often put together in 3-D relief as this one is. I nearly always use my own designs, photos, and extractions. Most elements in this page are from scanned original items in my personal collection. My Dad's pocket watch, buttons and pins from his uniform, photos and personal ephemera were all used. ELEMENTS: The small inset element with the hat and watch is from the "Iron Horse" collection: Jean Daughtery Designs of Heritage Scrap. The background paper design is also from Heritage Scrap. SOFTWARE PROGRAM: I use Digital Image Pro, and Adobe Elements 8 for designing. 54 Shades MAGAZINE | Occupations 2011
GREAT GRANDMA EFFIE Cheri Hopkins Those Old Memories INSPIRATION: My Great Grandma, Effie, was the mother of 15 children, twelve living to adulthood and she was truly a strong and special lady who also left many Grandchildren with firsthand enduring memories of her love and strength. TECHNIQUE: I supplemented this dimensional scrap page with a 400 page family history descendant book and printed 69 copies to honor Effie Copsey Gardner. The scrapbook page was created with digitally scanned, embellished personal photos and documents. Fabric flowers, old buttons, lace and a frame were added then designed and framed as 3-D to hang on the wall. I then rescanned the completed project so it could be shared with family along with the book. SOFTWARE PROGRAM: Digital Image Pro and Adobe Elements 8 were used for designing my page.
a dreadful tale year after year SAVED BY GRACE BY PENELOPE DREADFUL
Family stories have a way of changing, growing more dramatic with each telling, like the game of Telephone we played as children. Bu this story never changes. It's always the same dreadful tale year after year. Mother was ill and Father was frantic. "Hush now children, let's play the Quiet Game and let Mother rest a bit, shall we?" Father pleaded, pretending everything was 0ine. But, we knew it wasn't. For one thing, after dinner games with Father were never quiet. They were always romping, boisterous adventures over and under furniture, in and out of the wood paneled rooms of our large old house, accompanied by much whooping and hollering until we ended the game in a tumbled scrum at Father's feet. This Quiet Game was something new entirely, and not at all amusing. Arthur, although only four, was the 0irst to suggest mutiny. "Don't wanna," he wailed. "don't wanna quiet. Play S'fari. Les play S'fari" But Father was not to be dissuaded. We sti0led our voices and pretended to enjoy being "as still as a statue" and "as quiet as a mouse." Poor Father, he was as bored as we were, and the evenings grew longer and more dull as Mother's illness lingered.
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One bright spring afternoon, Mother called me into her room. She was resting on the chaise and looked tired, but as beautiful as always. I didn't hesitate to wrap my arms around her neck. "Jack, dear," she said, "things are going to be a bit different for a bit longer." "Oh Mama, you are getting better, aren't you? Can we all play soon? "Soon enough, my darling. And then there may even be one more of us to play with. I have a surprise for you, Would you like to have a new little brother or sister? I thought about my answer, knowing my true feelings on the matter might not be well received. But a bigger surprise was yet to come. "Father has found someone to stay with us who can run and play games with you and Emma and Jamie, now that the doctor says I must rest so much of the time. She handed me a photograph and watched as I examined the image of a young woman. Carefully holding the card by the corners I looked closely at this "new playmate." "She's wearing glasses," I stated the obvious "Yes," Mother replied carefully, "she may have weak eyesight, but that doesn't mean she isn't kind or clever. "Well, yes," I admitted, "but can she play ball with them?" "If you mean, is a person wearing eyeglasses capable of throwing and catching a ball, I think you may be very pleasantly surprised by Miss Grace Monroe, cousin of none other than Nate Monroe. I grabbed Mother's hand and squeezed, "truly? truly? Any doubts in this new arrangement disappeared.
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"Yes, my dear. Miss Grace is now living with her aunt's family which includes one Nate the Great, 0irst-‐string pitcher for the Davenport Red Sox. Mother's sweet laugh was the 0irst I had heard in weeks, and gave me hope that things would get better in time. That day must have been the 0irst day of spring because everything was suddenly better. Miss Grace arrived with a large satchel and an even larger canvas bag of "equipment." As the evenings grew longer we resumed our loud games, out of doors, and Father was an enthusiastic participant once again. By the time the 0ire0lies came out, Mother was on the veranda with little Clara, cheering on all players. Grace became a steady member of the household. I didn't always have to push the pram when we went to the park, or play patty cake with the little ones. We could toss the ball with Grace while Mother sat with the babies. It was a shock when Father announced that Grace was going away. We had just celebrated Clara's 0irst birthday and I was starting school in the Fall. How could I manage without Grace. Father must have seen the dismay on my face because he was quick to explain, "Grace will be back, Jack, she is only taking a little trip." But why, I wailed, once again forgetting I was the oldest and should be setting an example to the little ones. " Jack, Jack," Father laughed, "Grace is going to have a wonderful adventure. Her aunt has invited her to travel with her to San Francisco. She will only be gone six weeks, and then she will be back with us once again. Just think Jack, of all the new stories and games Grace will have to share with you." "Not to mention how nice it will be for her to have a bit of a holiday from all of us," Mother added. "She certainly deserves it, after this year." It would be a very long dull time, I thought, miserably.
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The next few days were a 0lurry of dressmaking and packing as Mother helped Grace prepare for her Adventure. The day she was to leave 0inally arrived and we all stood in the front hall with Grace to say goodbye. I waited to be last, but the doorbell rang just as she reached out to hug me. We all turned to greet the newcomer, wary of anyone who would take "our Grace" away from us. A smiling young man stood on the porch. His attire was anything but conventional: grey 0lannel knickers and matching jersey marked with a bright red number. Grace looked at him and laughed. Turning to Father, she said with a smile, "Sir, may I introduce Nate Monroe, my rather casual cousin." "Pardon my uniform, sir, missus," he said promptly. "I have a game directly after we take Grace and Mother to the station."
Father clearly enjoyed the impromptu of Con
acquaintance and quickly offered a few
Father called me back. "Jack," he said excitedly after a short conversation with Mother. "Jack, what do you say we go watch Nate pitch that game this afternoon. Aunt Mary is coming to visit your mother and I think we men could slip away for a few hours." What began as a Dreadful Day turned into the best day of my six years.That night I fell asleep clutching a ragged ball after a kiss to the photo of my Grace that Mother left propped on my pillow. She was still taking care of me after all. 60 Shades MAGAZINE | Occupations 2011
waved goodbye. I turned to go upstairs when
players. Nate grabbed the bags and we all
y of L ibrary
comments about the current ball season and
Shades of The Departed asked Miss Penelope Dreadful, “What was your favorite job?”
It may be no surprise to know that Penny Dreadful's favorite job involved newspapers. “I will always remember the summer I turned seventeen and worked as a vacation substitute at our local daily. I had written features as a stringer throughout high school, but it was great fun to actually be in charge of a desk for one or two weeks when the editors went on vacation. I covered the city council meetings, society teas, and Rotary awards, and served as Sports Editor for two weeks. If things were slow I wrote ‘future’ obituaries for the 0iles -‐-‐ a job that has served me well for genealogy!” PennyD
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Great Grandma Is A Centerfold Lookin' through Shades Magazine Found something tucked there in-‐between My blood runs cold My memories have all been sold Great Grandma is a centerfold Great Grandma is a centerfold A part of me has just been ripped The ages from my mind are stripped That unnamed woman can't deny it footnoteMaven had to buy it!
Photo In The Collection Of footnoteMaven
My blood runs cold My memories have all been sold Great Grandma is a centerfold Great Grandma is a centerfold It's okay, we understand Not all heirlooms are in our hand We know that when this issue's gone Great Grandma’s centerfold lives on My blood runs cold My memories have all been sold Great Grandma is a centerfold Yes, Great Grandma is a centerfold
Miss July/August is an Occupational Photograph - Candy Maker, Confectioner? Cabinet card by William G. Entrekin, Manayunk, Philadelphia, PA. When I purchased this cabinet card the seller stated that the young woman was a candy maker. She is wearing a hat, apron, and sleeve covers. She holds a box with individually wrapped small packages. Unfortunately, to date, I have been unable to verify that this is an image of a candy maker, confectioner. Thank you again - Diana Ritchie (Random Relatives) this was a great idea!
64 Shades MAGAZINE | Occupations 2011
THE HEALING BRUSH
torn from history TORN FROM HISTORY BY JANINE SMITH
What’s your 0irst thought when you look at the damage on this photo? Is it “That looks like it would take waaay too long to 0ix, and more skills than I have”, or “That’s not that bad! I can do this”?
While you may initially think it’s too much to handle, the real answer is that you can do it, and I’m going to show you how it can be done! The 0irst thing we’re going to do is give this man his buttons back. To do this, we’ll borrow them from lower down on his jacket. By looking at the other side of his jacket, you can see he needs two buttons.
Choose and select the two buttons you want to use. (Fig. 1)
Using the Move tool and the arrow keys, move the buttons to the general area you want them. (Fig. 2) 66 Shades MAGAZINE | Occupations 2011
New York Gallery Williamsport, Pa.
Now use keyboard shortcut Ctrl (PC) or Cmd (Mac) + T to
transform. Line the bottom button up to the one below it. It doesn’t have to be perfect, just close. Cloth moves and often doesn’t line up perfectly. Since the missing buttons were toward the top of the jacket, and the topmost button looks a bit wider spaced than the ones below, I rotated the new buttons out ever so slightly. More often than not, when you borrow areas to composite into your image, the color, or the tone, will be off, even slightly. In this
instance, the borrowed area is darker than the area it’s moving to. To even things out a bit, go to Image > Adjustments > Levels. You can also, of course, use a Levels Adjustment layer, but for this one little area, I’m going to just eyeball it and work on the layer itself. Move the sliders until the composited piece looks close to the tone of the area beneath. (Fig. 3) Now we’ll turn the “new button” layer off by clicking the eyeball icon next to the layer, and work on the damaged area underneath. (We’ll be coming back to this layer in just a bit, so when I say we’re going to turn the New Button layer back on, this is it!) I’ll go over methods you can use if you have Photoshop CS5, and ones you can use with CS4, Elements, or whatever program you have. First, let’s go over the CS5 version, using the Content Aware feature. Select a part of the damaged area. This is a large area, and I’ve found it better to not try to do too big an area with Content Aware Fill. When you’ve made your selection, you can bring up Fill by either going to Edit > Fill, or using the Shift + F5 keyboard shortcut. Make sure that Content Aware is chosen in the Use option, and select OK. (Fig. 4)
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You may notice the 0ill isn’t perfect. In this case, a button got in where it shouldn’t be. (Fig. 5)
This, or rough edges, or whatever may happen, is easy to 0ix. Deselect using Ctrl or Cmd +D, and use your Patch tool to select little areas and drag them to clean areas to clean up! (Fig. 6)
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Continue to chip away at the damaged spot using content aware. I only went to a place that was close to where the jacket and sleeve meet. For this area, we’re going to borrow again. Select an area of an inner arm/chest combo, as shown below. (Fig. 7)
Put your selection on its own layer (Ctrl or Cmd + J). Select the Move Tool and move the selection to the damaged area, placing it in the correct general position. Use keyboard shortcut Ctrl, or Cmd, T to Transform the selection, rotating and moving it to its correct position. This, as with most areas you’re compositing, is something you have to gage with your eyes, taking into account the surrounding areas. Once you get the selection placed where you want it, stop and look at it. Then look at it some more. When you’re satis0ied, select enter to accept. (Fig. 8)
Use the eraser tool at 20% opacity to blend the new area. It may be necessary to borrow still more information to get the area right. For instance, I borrowed the armpit area, again, because I lost some of the detail when I bended the area in. (Fig. 9)
That Content Aware stuff is totally groovy, and all, but what if you’re using a pre-‐CS5 version of Photoshop, Photoshop Elements, or different photo editing software altogether? So, here’s what you do…
(Fig. 10) Using the Lasso Tool, make a selection, on the smallish side – don’t try to select the entire damaged area if it’s massive. (Fig. 10)
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Using the arrow keys, move the selection to a “clean” area to
borrow from. Keep the Lasso Tool active, please. If you switch to the Move Tool to do this, it will actually cut and move the area. You only want to move the selection, the marching ants, themselves, not the selected area. (Fig. 11) Once you have the marching ants moved to the new area you want to select, put the new selection on its own layer using Ctrl or Cmd + J. Now you can change to the Move
Tool, click on the selection and move it to the damaged area, or use your keyboard arrow keys. If you do use the arrow keys, remember if you also press Shift, the selection moves faster! Unless you have a very small damaged area that you selected all at once, you may 0ind you have a lot less new area than damaged space. You can always keep repeating the steps, above, or you can cheat a little. With the new area layer
selected, either go to the Edit menu and select Free Transform, or use keyboard shortcut Ctrl (or CMD on a Mac) + T. Go to the edge of the Transform box. When the double arrow,
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like the one in the example image (Fig. 12), comes up, pull the area out, to cover more of the damaged area. Be careful not to pull it so far that you begin to see distinct lines and areas that look “blown out” (Fig. 12 Previous Page). You can also rotate the transformation if there’s a pattern or anything that shows direction to make it align more with the surrounding area, such as creases or folds. (Fig. 13)
Use the Patch Tool to select small areas around the edge of the new area and pull them over to new areas to blend the edges. (Fig. 14) Keep repeating the whole process, if need be, until the entire damaged area is repaired.
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Now, back we go to the “new button” layer we hid earlier. Click the eyeball icon again to make it visible and we’ll blend it into the rest of the area. You can do this either by using the Eraser Tool at 20% Opacity and going around the edges to blend before you combine it with the layer beneath, or you can combine it now (Ctrl or Cmd +E) and use the Patch Tool to blend the edges. (Fig. 15)
I want to hide all the “new” areas for a minute, and go back to the original image. Part of photo restoration is examination, or analysis of the image, looking for things that may be just peeking out from the damaged areas. There looks like there was something in the original image that’s just visible. Since all the other gentlemen in the photo (save one) are wearing ribbons of some sort, it wouldn’t be out of line to add one here, also. (Fig. 16)
(Fig. 16) Shades MAGAZINE | www.shadesofthedeparted.com 75
Once again, we borrow the most likely looking candidate… (Fig. 17)
…and move it to the general area of the repair. (Fig. 18)
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Look again at the pre-‐repair area, taking note of the direction and placement of the remnant that’s showing under the damage. Using the Transform Tool (Ctrl or Cmd +T) move and rotate the replacement to the same basic position. (Fig. 19)
Using the Eraser Tool (20% Opacity), go around the edges of the new area, lightly, to blend. In cases like this, combing the layer with the one beneath and using the Patch Tool to blend won’t work; some of the new area covers a button. You need to “uncover” that while you blend. (Fig. 20)
Just because I’m the obsessive type, I want to make the new ribbon look a little different, and less like an exact clone of another. Chances are most people wouldn’t notice, but we’re not most people, are we? To make it look a bit different, make a selection, using the Lasso Tool, around the ribbon itself, under the medal. (Fig. 21)
Now either use keyboard shortcut Ctrl or Cmd +T, or go to Select > Transform Selection, and grab the bottom handles, pulling the selection down, just a bit. (Fig. 22)
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There will be some dark or sharp edges around the areas you just transformed, so use the Blur Tool, set to a fairly small size so only the sharp edges are blurred, to blend the areas. I also used the Patch Tool to make another spot disappear, to help it look less like a clone of another ribbon. (Fig. 23)
Now it looks like a unique ribbon that’s could have been part of the original photo! (Fig. 24)
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er own e h t as n, b is ratio o j o t y s da Re ithâ€™s ch & m r a S se e ne Res who n y Jani y n l a i ry mp anda e d co histo e of L y s anin l a i J b . m n s a xa tio ef a Te clud stora n e i dly r s o ot g ba ice h n v i r p r e th d s resto r wi h an e n c e i r t a s n fit kill olu rese npro her s os as a v o n d e e, a hon hot to escu ed p R g n is a o o t i m o s a s h d mi nP by ratio n whose e aged p m O o a as i t d niza phs such a a s r g e r g c o . oto tan sters ir ph ums a a c s r i p i d e c r ral en rese natu o d f n n a u es e fir s u o h
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on arly l u e g of th ar re r e e p b p sa em lumn sam o a c d s an neâ€™ Jani l.com e r r i . qu m. team TipS m n.co o y c l . i a a and Lynd at L d e h reac n be a c S he
Donâ€™t let a large area of damage deter you when it comes to photo restoration. Just take it slowly and work in small areas and before you know it, all will be made as new!
Ripped From The Headlines Of The Past September 16, 1920 Charles Frederick Schauwecker was a bookkeeper in the U.S. Assay Of0ice on Wall Street in New York City in 1920. He lived at 116 Sanford Street in East Orange, New Jersey, with his wife Edith and their two young daughters Beatrice and Margaret. He was the son of Charles Lewis Schauwecker, a New York City police of0icer with, according to the family, a shady past. Charles Lewis had been suspended from the force for taking bribes!* But in spite of his personal life, Charles Lewis raised his son Charles Frederick to be a surprisingly dedicated family man. It would be a family story like most others were it not for the discovery by his Great Granddaughter Susan Bjorklund of photographs. Photographs of a tragic time and place in the history of our country, September 16, 1920. Don’t be surprised if the date doesn’t ring a bell. But, before this article is 0inished you will remember this date and its images.
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All photographs Collection of Susan
CHARLES F. SCHAUWECKER Above: (Center) Opposite: (Left) Bookkeeper U.S. Assay Office Wall St. New York City
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Wall Street Explodes On September 16, 1920, just as the chimes
from the J.P. Morgan & Company Building
of Trinity Church were tolling the noon
when it exploded. It is believed Charles
hour, a bomb planted on a horse-‐drawn
Schauwecker was at his post in the Assay
wagon exploded into the lunchtime crowd
Of0ice at the time of the explosion, as a
at Wall and Broad, shattering windows
billion dollars in gold was being
throughout the 0inancial district, killing
transferred from the Treasury Department
thirty-‐eight people and wounding
next door and he was the bookkeeper.
After the explosion several men in the
What some eye witnesses called a delivery
Assay of0ice hurried to assist a screaming
wagon was parked about one and a half
woman who had been hurled against their
feet from the curb in front of the United
door. They stopped short when they
States Assay of0ice and across the street
realized she had no arms.
The walls of the Assay Of0ice and the Morgan Building showed scars where the slugs had struck. Window sills and cornices had been chipped by the missiles. All the windows in the Assay of0ice were shattered and the steel casements in which the panes were set were bent inward. But the damage was mainly to the outside of the building. On Wall and Broad’s northeast lot, George Washington took his oath of of0ice, the U.S. Congress met for the 0irst time, and the Bill of Rights became law before the government move to Washington, D.C. In 1889, on the centennial of Washington’s inauguration, a bronze statute of the President was erected. That statute stood marking the Sub-‐Treasury building. Washington escaped harm. Men, women and children lay bleeding or dead on the pavement directly outside the Assay Of0ice door. The victims were chance by-‐passers, men and women of the more ordinary walks of life, whose business, pleasure or fate had called them at that hour to that spot. Not a single pane of glass remained in the Morgan Building. Fragments of the glass dome above the main of0ice lay on the 0loor. One of the falling panes was believed to be responsible for the single death that occurred there. William Joyce, of the securities department of J.P. Morgan was killed. He was the son of Thomas W. Joyce, a thirty year employee of the company who was also badly hurt. Junius S.
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See Map Opposite Page
Above: Demolished Touring Car In front of J. P. Morgan & Co. Below: Wreck of Wagon & Dead Horse in front of Assay Office
See Map Opposite Page
Morgan, one of the partners was cut on the hand, treated, and released. In all, seventeen employees of the company were transported to the Hospital. None of the lists of injured contained the name Charles F. Schauwecker. None of the lists of dead indicated anyone from the Assay Of0ice. Could the employees of the Assay Of0ice have been so fortunate? Perhaps not. An indication that scores were hurt of whom no record was kept was credited to the medical staff of the Reserve Bank in the Equitable Building. Five nurses and two doctors on duty on the fourth 0loor dressed the wounds of more than thirty men and women who had been cut by broken window glass, the same damage sustained by the Assay of0ice. The wounded were mostly clerks and stenographers who had run out of their buildings into the street. No record of the names was kept. Acting on emergency orders, 0ifty United States soldiers -‐ Company M, 22nd Infantry stationed at Fort Jay, Governor's Island, where the explosion was heard, were at Broad and Wall streets within forty minutes of the explosion. Within another twenty minutes 0ifty more men arrived. They cleared the streets and set about protecting the Sub-‐Treasury where the transfer of a billion dollars had been taking place. In conjunction with the rescue and recovery was the investigation. The "Great Detective" William J. Burns of the Burns Detective Agency employed by J.P. Morgan worked the scene. He announced to reporters that the explosion unquestionably had been deliberately planned, and that warnings that radicals were about to initiate a new siege of terror had been sent out to his clients several days before the explosion. The theory was that the horse and wagon were driven to the curb at the dividing line between the Assay Of0ice, where $900,000,000 in gold bullion was stored, and the Sub-‐ Treasury, whose vaults held more than $1,000,000 and directly across from the $4,000,000 Morgan structure. The driver then abandoned the horse and wagon which contained the explosives which were then triggered by an alarm clock. Who was responsible?
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The Dead & Injured
Below: The body of William Joyce being removed from the Morgan Building.
Collection of Susan Bjorklund
Of0icials began the gruesome collection of torn, blood-‐soaked, partially burned clothing, shoes, and hats. Initials from hats were put on record for relatives of missing persons.
Those Who Lost Their Lives Joseph Arambarry, 29, clerk Margaret Helen Bishop, 21 secretary Carolyn M. Dickinson, 43, stenographer John A. Donohue, 38, accountant Margaret A. Drury, 29, stenographer Reginald Elsworthy, 23, clerk Worth Bagley Ellsworth, 20, student Bartholomew Flannery, 19, messanger Harold I. Gillis, 27, salesman Charles A. Hanrahan, 17, messanger Amelia Newton Huger, 23, Clerk William F. Hutchinson, 43, insurance clerk John Johnson, 58, porter William A. Joyce, 29, clerk Elmer Kehrer, 21, chauffeur Bernard J. Kennedy, 30, clerk Alexander Leith, 64, of0ice assistant Charles A. Lindroth, 25, bookkeeper Alfred G. Mayer, 23, clerk Colin Barr McClure, 24, banker Jerome H. McKean, 33, broker Franklin G. Miller, 21, salesman Charles Neville, 42, accountant 92 Shades MAGAZINE | Occupations 2011
Thomas Montgomery Osprey, 24, clerk Theodore Peck, 36, bond salesman William Ernst Peterson, 29, clerk Alfred G. Phipps, 28, broker Ludolph F. Portong, 29, teller Joseph Schmitt, 30, clerk Lewis K. Smith, 34, bond salesman Benjamin Soloway, 16, messenger Francis B. Stoba, 34, bank employee Edwin Sweet, 67, banker (retired) Irving Tannenwald, 38, grocery clerk John Weir, 27, salesman Robert Westbay, 16, messenger William West White, 63, promoter Mildred Zylander, 27, stenographer Beverly Gage, The Day Wall Street Exploded: A Story of America in its First Age of Terror. New York: Oxford University Press, 2009; pp. 160-161. This list does not agree with the first newspaper reports. The newspaper reports may have inaccuracies.
Collection of Susan Bjorklund
The pock marks and damage seen on the entrance to the Assay Of0ice (above) were caused by hundreds of jagged metal slugs that had been packed in the explosive as shrapnel. (Right)
Co y of
ood erw d n od/U
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George Washington was unharmed.
The Schulte cigar store (above) at 34 Wall Street was almost completely wrecked. The entire front was blown in, the counters smashed and the walls undermined. Employees ran from the store to help the injured by cutting burning clothing from their bodies. The cigar 0irm of H. Stearns & Co. (right), in the Mills Building was a total loss.
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Left: Chemists at the City Laboratories examine metal fragments from the explosion.
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Police and soldiers control crowds
In the beginning it wasn't obvious whether the explosion was an accident or an intentional act of terrorism. "Crews cleaned the damage up overnight, including physical evidence that today would be crucial to identifying the perpetrator. By the next morning Wall Street was back in business—broken windows draped in canvass, workers in bandages, but functioning none-‐the-‐less. Conspiracy theories abounded, but the New York Police and Fire Departments, the Bureau of Investigation, and the U.S. Secret Service were on the job. Each avidly pursued leads. The Bureau interviewed hundreds of people who had been around the area before, during, and after the attack, but developed little information of value. The few recollections of the driver and wagon were vague and virtually useless. The NYPD was able to reconstruct the bomb and its fuse mechanism, but there was much debate about the nature of the explosive, and all the potential components were commonly available. Based on bomb attacks over the previous decade, the Federal Bureau of Investigation initially suspected followers of the Italian Anarchist Luigi Galleani. But the case couldn't be proved, and the anarchist had 0led the country. Over the next three years, hot leads turned cold and promising trails turned into dead ends. In the end, the bombers were not identi0ied. The best evidence and analysis since that fateful day of September 16, 1920, suggests that the Bureau's initial thought was correct—that a small group of Italian Anarchists were to blame. But the mystery remains." FBI.gov - “A Byte Out Of History -‐ Wall Street Bombing.”
Thank you to Susan Bjorklund and her family for allowing Shades to use the press quality photographs of the Wall Street Bombing found in her Great Grandfather Charles L. Schauwecker’s possessions. Susan can be found blogging about her life and family history at Pinstripe.
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Saved By The Research In the course of researching the Wall Street Bombing of September 16, 1920, I also bumped into Susan Bjorklund‘s Great Grandfather Charles L. Schauwecker in the pages of history. The family knew that he had been suspended from the New York Police Department for taking bribes. I was very pleased to send them and you the complete story. Every family historian knows things aren’t always as they seem.
*Schauwecker Name Restored. Case of Charles L. Schauwecker.—The Appellate Division on July 13, 1903, ordered the reinstatement of Charles L. Schauwecker as sergeant in the police department. Schauwecker had been removed by Commissioner Greene on the charge that he had accepted gifts from among the pupils of the instruction school, of which he had charge. He was tried before Deputy Commissioner Davis, before whom he refused to answer certain questions. Davis charged him with insubordination and he was tried before Deputy Commissioner Piper, who found him guilty. He was again tried before Piper on the original charges, found guilty and dismissed. Judge O'Brien Cinds that there was no evidence to support the charges either of misconduct or insubordination and states that the manner in which Schauwecker was treated between Davis and Piper "does not tend to promote the spirit of fairness and impartiality that should characterize a court room." National Civil Service Reform League (U.S.). Good Government. National Civil Service League. Washington : National Civil Service League. 1903.
Charles L. was in charge of the New York Police Department’s School of Instruction. The bribe? Each of the students under his command gave a $1 for a present for his wife. It was apparently a time honored custom, but the Department had new people in command and they were cleaning house.
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research on the road A LOOK AT SOME iPAD RESEARCH TOOLS BY DENISE BARRETT OLSON
Where was the iPad when I spent most of my working life on the road? No, it doesn’t replace a desktop computer, but for most of the things I want to do while I’m traveling, the iPad is there for me. Thanks to its light weight and long battery life, I’m also 0inding it especially handy on research expeditions near and far. Here’s my research road kit and how I use it.
A view in the Ancestry app.
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HARDWARE I found a nice Belkin DVD bag [LINK] on sale a while back. Because it wasn’t an “iPad” accessory, it would have been a bargain even if it wasn’t on sale. And, since it was designed to carry a portable DVD player and assorted paraphernalia, it has room not only for my iPad but most of the stuff I use with it. In it is my power plug, camera connection kit, USB headset and ear plugs along with my camera’s battery charger and extra SD memory. I have a cover for my iPad that folds backward to serve as a stand. It’s fairly thin so I can stash the
A note page from theNotebooks app.
iPad in the bag, cover and all.
I keep a DC charger kit in my car. We use it mostly to listen to audio books on the iPod while we’re driving, but it comes in handy for recharging phones and iPads if necessary. I pack a travel plug strip -‐ also from Belkin -‐ in my suitcase. It has three outlets and two USB ports which come in quite handy for recharging phones, iPads and cameras when hotel electrical outlets are in short supply. Although I don’t own one [yet], a FlipPal scanner with extra SD cards and batteries will be an important addition to the kit in the future.
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SOFTWARE The Notebooks app is quickly becoming my most useful research tool. It holds sources, research logs, photos, scanned documents, links and notes all in one handy package. I’ve got the Notebooks bookmarklet set up in the iPad’s Mobile Safari browser so I can capture just about anything I 0ind online. Because of the limited memory on my iPad, I’ll want to get my photos [or scans once I’ve got
Export options on Photogene.
a FlipPal] moved to an online location for safe-‐keeping until I get home. I can use FlickStackr or Dropbox to upload to their respective services. Photogene serves my photo-‐ editing needs quite nicely and has tools for sending images to any number of online services and networks. Of course I have the Diigo app to keep all my research links organized and easily available. Google Maps -‐ which comes pre-‐installed on the iPad -‐ is great for providing directions and 0inding local resources. You can use the search feature to 0ind nearby libraries or the local historical society. I keep online passwords and important account information securely tucked away in the 1Password app. I use it to access sites requiring login while on the road -‐ especially when using public wi0i -‐ to reduce the chance of cyber theft.
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You know I’m going to be blogging while I’m on the road so I have BlogPress and WordPress to help me there. Both offer of0line writing so I can write even when I’m not connected. This can help pass the time on a long 0light -‐ and possibly have something productive to show for it. There are a number of handy apps for audio recording should an opportunity to capture an interview or good story present itself. I use Sound Note because it lets me take text notes while it’s recording the audio and keeps both in sync. I’ve found this app is quite handy when interviewing relatives because it doesn’t seem as intimidating as a recording device. When used in quiet locations the audio quality is quite acceptable. iPad 2 users can use the Garage Band app with an external microphone to capture high-‐quality interviews. I personally don’t carry my genealogy database on my iPad. Most of what I need is in Notebooks and I do have the Ancestry app giving me access to my online trees there. WeRelate is quickly becoming my preferred research work space and it’s easily accessible from the iPad. There are a growing number of genealogy databases offering an iOS version including Reunion, MacFamilyTree and Legacy Family Tree. In addition, you’ll 0ind several nice GEDCOM viewer apps if all you want is a copy of your database for reference while you’re researching.
SERVICES Dropbox and Flickr are indispensable services at all times, but especially on the road. I can have 0iles and photos readily available whenever I need them and they provide a safe haven for the photos and information I collect on my trip. I have a Dropbox eLibrary folder where I keep a digital version of Elizabeth Shown Mills’ Evidence Explained, any reference material relevant to the trip and some pleasure reading. My Notebooks app also synchs to Dropbox so that information is protected in case of disaster. We each have our own research style and techniques and fortunately there are thousands of apps addressing those needs. These suggestions will give you an idea of the many different ways the iPad can support your efforts. You’ll quickly 0ind it’s an impressive research assistant. Good hunting!
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Importing an image to the iPad using Dropbox.
A WeRelate family page as viewed on the iPad.
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Image courtesy of footnoteMaven
so what do you do for a living? RESEARCHING OLD OCCUPATIONS BY CAROLINE POINTER
He took out his handkerchief and wiped the sweat from his brow. Then brought it to his nose and inhaled. Lavender. Genevieve. He couldn’t wait to get home to her. Did she miss him like he missed her? And what about the girls? He couldn’t wait to see how big Ellen and Clayriece had grown. Would they recognize him? As the train rocked back and forth, Claiborne thought about this job that he’d chosen. Or had it chosen him? Sure. He’d done well for himself, working his way up to Chief Messenger for American Railway Express. He’d provided well for his family, but he sure missed them a whole lot. Not only was it getting harder and harder to leave them each time, but this job was getting more and more dangerous. Just last week, a train was held-up by gunpoint, and a messenger was shot in cold blood leaving a young widow and baby girl behind. But what else could he do? This was all he’d ever done. Going back home to Port Lavaca was not an option. No way was he going back there just so Père could tell him, “I told you so.” He also didn’t want to move Genevieve and the girls from San Antonio. Not when Genevieve just lost her mother, Annie, two short years ago. Annie. Claiborne snorted. 106 Shades MAGAZINE | Occupations 2011
He missed Annie. She’d deEinitely been a character with her Irish brogue and tin cup full of Irish whiskey. He even missed buttin’ heads with her. Annie liked to call it being a “managing woman.” Claiborne called it stubborn. As a mule. “Non,” he couldn’t take Genevieve away from her sisters. But he deEinitely was going to have to Eind something else to do for a living. Something that would allow him to be home for dinner every night with Genevieve and the girls. Something where his life wasn’t in danger every time he went to work.
My great-‐grandmother’s sister, Genevieve Lennon Vaughan, was married to Claiborne Leander Bouquet, and I have been fascinated with his occupation ever since I discovered it. It took me a little while to 0igure out what exactly a messenger was on the railway. In America, the occupation goes back to the age of stagecoaches. A railway messenger would ride alongside a teamster (or driver, the man driving the horses and/or mules), and was the security for shipments (gold, silver, money, etc.) Of course, the messengers were armed,
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giving birth to the term “riding shotgun.” Then with the advent of the railways, the occupation naturally carried over. Claiborne, the grandson of a French immigrant, had started out as a driver for an express wagon in 1910. Then he had been a railway messenger for American Railway Express, which was a company created in 1918 in response to the government shutting down the railway express monopolies, of which American Express had been the majority. Additionally, he worked for Wells Fargo for a while, and he was also a messenger over some shipments going into Mexico. As mentioned previously, it was not exactly easy to 0ind what a messenger was and what their job entailed. With creative Googling I was led to various websites and Google Books where I was able to 0ind the answers I had been looking for. Learning more about your ancestor’s occupation can give you a better sense of who they were and can lead to more documents that might have even more information on them. However, your search for your ancestor’s occupation should not be hard. Following are links to various websites online that have listings and de0initions of old occupations. At the end are some suggestions for when the occupation that you are looking for is not listed, and you are left to just Google.
WHERE TO LOOK FOR OLD OCCUPATIONS FamilyResearcher.co.uk [ LINK ] The Olive Tree Genealogy’s Obsolete Occupations [ LINK ] Occupations from Yesteryear by Jan Cortez [ LINK ] USGenWeb.org’s Occupation Chart [ LINK ] Occupations in Australia [ LINK ] Old Occupations and Trade Names and What They Mean [LINK ] Victorian Occupations transcribed from London’s 1891 census [ LINK ] Old Names for Occupations from FamilyTreeMagazine.com [LINK ] Old Occupations [ LINK ] Old Occupations [LINK ] Old Occupations in Scotland [LINK ] Old Occupations by Dan Burrows [LINK ] Old English Census Occupations [ LINK ] Glossary of Old Occupations [ LINK ]
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Cyndi’s List of Old Occupation Resources [ LINK ]
WHEN ALL YOU HAVE IS GOOGLE
As mentioned previously, I was not able to 0ind Claiborne’s occupation, railway messenger, on any old occupation lists. The closest occupation that I found was a messenger, a person who carried messages. So, then I Googled [ LINK ] “railway messenger,” and this was not very helpful either. So then I looked up his employers that I had found (American Railway Express and Wells Fargo), and this is how I was able to 0ind a more helpful explanation for h i s o c c u p a t i o n ,
especially on Wells Fargo’s
History site. Along
with an explanation of the
they termed “shotgun
Fargo’s website indicated
t h a t Wya t t a n d
Morgan Earp were both
m e s s e n g e r s i n
To m b s t o n e , A r i z o n a ,
which was very
helpful in understanding
C l a i b o r n e ’ s
occupation. Therefore, if
a n e m p l oye r i s
listed for your ancestor on
c e n s u s re c o rd s ,
World War I Draft Registration Cards, World War II Draft Registration Cards, border crossings, city directories, passenger lists, etc., then don’t forget to research the employer’s history. Another good place to look is in Google Books [ LINK ]. When I searched this database and library of books for “railway messenger” and “railway shotgun messenger”, I found many books on the subject, including some that I was able to read online. I also searched for “Wells Fargo history” and “American Railway Express history”, and was able to 0ind many resources for the history of the companies and the occupation.
TWO OTHER PLACES GOOD TO LOOK FOR OLD OCCUPATIONS: Heritage Quest [ LINK ] book database which is accessible online with a library card through your local participating library.
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Worldcat.org [ LINK ] – an online “card” catalog that includes library collections from around the world. Their site lists if a particular book is located near you and how close it is to you. They even have an app for smart phones, so it’s accessible everywhere you go. Finally, looking up your ancestors’ occupations can be fun, but it’s also helpful in understanding a little more about who they were, what their lives may have been like, and their place in history. You just have to take the time to look. Further, there is no doubt that Claiborne’s occupation had been dangerous, and I don’t know for sure what kind of relationship Genevieve and he had early on in their marriage. Additionally, he and Genevieve did divorce later, but I don’t know how much his choice in occupations played in the demise of their marriage, if at all. At some point, he moved back home to Port Lavaca, remarried, and at the time of his death in 1957, had been a constable. What I do know is that a railway shotgun messenger was a big part of American history and the expansion of the West, and Claiborne’s choice in this occupation left a very nice paper trail that zigzags throughout Texas and northern Mexico.
“1900 United States Federal Census.” Database and images. Ancestry.com. http:// search.ancestry.com/iexec?htx=View&r=an&dbid=7602&iid=004111992_00796&fn=Cleburn&ln= Bouquet&st=r&ssrc=&pid=43124307 : 2009. “1910 United States Federal Census.” Database and images. Ancestry.com. http:// search.ancestry.com/iexec?htx=View&r=an&dbid=7884&iid=4449977_00597&fn=C +L&ln=Bougnet&st=r&ssrc=&pid=27699003 : 2009. “1920 United States Federal Census.” Database and images. Ancestry.com. http:// search.ancestry.com/iexec?htx=View&r=an&dbid=6061&iid=4390950_01084&fn=Cleburn +L&ln=Bouquet&st=r&ssrc=&pid=105659279 : 2009. “1930 United States Federal Census.” Database and images. Ancestry.com. http:// search.ancestry.com/iexec?htx=View&r=an&dbid=6224&iid=TXT626_2297-‐ 0103&fn=Claybourne&ln=Bouquet&st=r&ssrc=&pid=65643786 : 2009. “American Express.” Online encyclopedia. Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia. http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Express : 2009. Benedict, Bertram. A History of the Great War, Volume 1. 1919. Digital Images. Bureau of National Literature. http://books.google.com/books?id=0FgLAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA369&dq=American+Railway +Express+history&hl=en&ei=bEOnTd3YFomE0QGvur35CA&sa=X&oi=book_
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A sad commentary on the dangerous nature of the job of railway workers is this advertisement for artiCicial limbs appearing in many railway magazines.
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result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false : 2011. “Border Crossings: From Mexico to U.S., 1895-‐1957.” Database and images. Ancestry.com. http:// search.ancestry.com/iexec?htx=View&r=an&dbid=1082&iid=A3379_7-‐5430&fn=C +L&ln=Bouquet&st=r&ssrc=pt_t1884615_p-‐764099558_kpidz0q3d-‐764099558z0q26pgz0q3d327 68z0q26pgPLz0q3dpid&pid=2479058 : 2009. “Texas Deaths 1890-‐1976.” Database and digital images. FamilySearch.org. https:// www.familysearch.org/search/image/show#uri=https%3A%2F%2Fapi.familysearch.org %2Frecords%2Fpal%3A%2FMM9.1.i%2Fdgs%3A004163648.004163648_01061 : 2011. “U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-‐1925.” Database and images. Ancestry.com. http:// search.ancestry.com/iexec?htx=View&r=an&dbid=1174&iid=USM1490_1401-‐0206&fn=Caiborne +Leander&ln=Bouquet&st=r&ssrc=pt_t1884615_p-‐764099558_kpidz0q3d-‐764099558z0q26pgz0q 3d32768z0q26pgPLz0q3dpid&pid=385657 : 2009. Wells Fargo Bank. Wells Fargo History. Website. http://www.wellsfargohistory.com/history/ history_brief.htm : 2009. “World War I Draft Registration Cards, 1917-‐1918.” Database and images. Ancestry.com. http:// search.ancestry.com/iexec?htx=View&r=an&dbid=6482&iid=TX-‐1983589-‐2864&fn=Claiborne +Leander&ln=Bouquet&st=r&ssrc=&pid=19486528 : 2009.
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Contribute To Shades ANCESTOR ARTIFACTS Great-Aunt Agatha’s treasures got you down? Are you confused about how to undo past preservation mistakes and best save your family heirlooms for the next generation? From photos stuck with hardened glue to funny-smelling movie film, from crocheted lace to crumbling newspapers, family historians are faced with a myriad of preservation problems. Caring for family treasures is a great responsibility, but it’s not hard when you are armed with Ancestor ArtiFacts. Shades of the Departed is delighted to announce a new column dedicated to helping you find answers for tough questions. Denise Levenick is our resident expert, but if she doesn’t know the answer, she’ll find an expert who does! Send your preservation, archiving, and restoration questions to firstname.lastname@example.org. Include your question, name, email, and the URL of your blog or web site if you have one. See below for submitting photographs. CAPTURED MOMENTS Do you have a beautiful digital heritage scrapbooking layout or artwork you'd like to share. Submit it to Captured Moments at Shades. We would like to feature the very best digital artwork from readers' submissions. You're the one who Captured The Moment. Show and Tell. Submissions are to be emailed to footnoteMaven@comcast.net with the words Captured Moments in the subject line. Please submit a brief paragraph telling us about your design, who is featured and why you were inspired. Include your name, email, and the URL of your blog or web site if you have one. This is not a how-to, but we would like to know the software photo editing program and products you used. Credit the commercial backgrounds, elements, brushes, frames, layouts, etc. you used; or yourself if they were your own creation. Also submit a high resolution image of your work. See below for submitting photographs.
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FEATURED ARTICLES Shades is always on the lookout for feature articles. Do you have an idea as it relates to old photographs? If so, we would love to hear from you. We are looking for authors for feature themed articles. Send your idea to footnoteMaven@comcast.net with the words "Shades Feature Article" in the subject line. Include your name, email, the url of your blog or website, and a short synopsis of your idea. Article length is flexible. Shades would also like a short bio of 50 words or less and a photograph of the author if your idea is selected. This will appear as â€œAbout the Authorâ€? at the end of each article. And don't forget, Shades is about old photographs. We encourage you to submit several for the article. Upcoming Shades issues will feature old photographs as they relate to Back To School (due by 1 August) and Toys (due by 1 October). See below for submitting photographs. SUBMITTING PHOTOGRAPHS When submitting photographs and digital artwork for publishing in Shades we ask that the image be 300 dpi and at least 8 inches wide for the scrapbooking layouts and digital art. Please send the image as a JPG or TIFF file. Please send the files via a free file transfer site such as yousendit.com or 4shared.com. Both have a free membership, require registration, and have limitations on file sizes. If you use yousendit.com, please register for the Lite account. Log in, choose Send File, browse your computer for the correct file, and attach. Yousendit will provide a secure link to your file. Cut and paste the link into your email, along with any other information that has been requested. (See categories above.)
We hope to see you in the pages of Shades The Magazine.
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Shades & School Days Next Issue
On Digital News Stands School Days & Photographs September/October 2011
THE LAST PICTURE SHOW
George H. Hedley Photographers in The New York Public Libraryâ€™s Photography Collection Lists George H. Hedley (American, active 1880s) 1886 Photo Gallery Listed 1887 Photo Gallery Listed 1897 Photograph Listed in the Underhill Society 1905? Moved to Buffalo to go into Real Estate Business Became A Bankrupt
George H. Hedley and his wife were very well-known naturalists and taxidermy artists; then photographers later in their careers. He was after all, an artist and a taxidermist. In 1888 it came to the attention of The Smithsonian Institute that the North American Buffalo was becoming extinct. A hunting party was sent into the field to find wild buffalo, if any were still living, and in case any were found to collect a number of specimens. It was resolved to collect between eighty and one hundred specimens of various kinds, twenty to thirty skins, an equal number of complete skeletons, and at least fifty skulls. On May 6, Mr. William Hornaday, the Chief Taxidermist of the National Museum, accompanied by A. H. Forney, assistant in the department of taxidermy, and George H. Hedley were sent to explore for buffalo in Montana. The result was a huge group of six choice specimens of both sexes and all ages, mounted with natural surroundings, and displayed in a superb mahogany case. June 24, 1886 the Medina, NY Tribune reported that Hedley brought home some views of the country, camp, life, etc. from his recent buffalo hunt in Montana which he showed at his photography gallery.